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Physics 451, 452, 725: Mathematical Methods
Russell Bloomer1
University of Virginia Note: There is no guarantee that these are correct, and they should not be copied

1

email: rbloomer@virginia.edu

Contents
1 451: Problem Set 2 1.1 Mathematical Methods 1.2 Mathematical Methods 1.3 Mathematical Methods 1.4 Mathematical Methods 1.5 Mathematical Methods 1.6 Mathematical Methods 1.7 Mathematical Methods 2 451: Problem Set 5 2.1 Problem 1. . . . . . . 2.2 Problem 2. . . . . . . 2.3 Problem 3. . .
Physics 451, 452, 725: Mathematical Methods
Russell Bloomer1
University of Virginia Note: There is no guarantee that these are correct, and they should not be copied

1

email: rbloomer@virginia.edu

Contents
1 451: Problem Set 2 1.1 Mathematical Methods 1.2 Mathematical Methods 1.3 Mathematical Methods 1.4 Mathematical Methods 1.5 Mathematical Methods 1.6 Mathematical Methods 1.7 Mathematical Methods 2 451: Problem Set 5 2.1 Problem 1. . . . . . . 2.2 Problem 2. . . . . . . 2.3 Problem 3. . .

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Physics 451, 452, 725: Mathematical Methods

Russell Bloomer
1
University of Virginia
Note: There is no guarantee that these are correct, and they should not be copied
1
email: rbloomer@virginia.edu
Contents
1 451: Problem Set 2 1
1.1 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 451: Problem Set 5 5
2.1 Problem 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Problem 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 Problem 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4 Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5 Problem5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3 451: Problem Set 6 9
3.1 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4 725: Problem Set 4 17
4.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5 725: Problem Set 5 21
5.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
i
6 725: Problem Set 6 25
6.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A Special Functions 29
ii
Chapter 1
451: Problem Set 2
1.1 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.6
Prove:
(A×B) · (A×B) = (AB)
2
−(A· B)
2
We know A×B from Eq. 1.36c and 1.38
1
:
A×B = (AyBz −AzBy)ˆ x + (AzBx −AxBz)ˆ y + (AxBy −AyBx)ˆ z
We also know A· B from Eq. 1.24
1
:
A· B = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz
This same equation can be used to find the magnitude of each of the vectors.
We will now examine the left side of this equation.
(A×B) · (A×B) = (AyBz −AzBy)
2
+ (AzBx −AxBz)
2
+ (AxBy −AyBx)
2
(A×B) · (A×B)
= A
2
y
B
2
z
+ AzB
2
y
−2AyBzAzBy + A
2
z
B
2
x
+
AxB
2
z
−2AzBxAxBz + A
2
x
B
2
y
+ AyB
2
x
−2AxByAyBx
(1.1)
Now that the left side has been examined, we can look at the right side of the equation.
(AB)
2
= A
2
B
2
= A
2
x
B
2
x
+ A
2
x
B
2
y
+ A
2
x
B
2
z
+ A
2
y
B
2
x
+ A
2
y
B
2
y
+
A
2
y
B
2
z
+ A
2
z
B
2
x
+ A
2
z
B
2
y
+ A
2
z
B
2
z
(1.2)
(A· B)
2
= A
2
x
B
2
x
+ A
2
y
B
2
y
+ A
2
z
B
2
z
+ 2AxBxAyBy + 2AxBxAzBz + 2AyByAzBz (1.3)
Now we combine Eq.2 −Eq.3 yields
A
2
x
B
2
y
+ A
2
x
B
2
z
+ A
2
y
B
2
x
+ A
2
y
B
2
z
+
A
2
z
B
2
x
+ A
2
z
B
2
y
−2AxBxAyBy −2AxBxAzBz −2AyByAzBz (1.4)
Eq.1 = Eq.4
1
Arfken and Weber
1
Arfken and Weber
1
1.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.10
Show that if a, b, c and d are in one plane, then (a ×b) ×(c ×d) = 0.
The cross product of a and b will be one of three cases, which are perpendicular up, down and 0. The same is true
for the vectors c and d. We can define vectors e = a ×b and f = c ×d. Since e and f are either up, down or 0, they
are either 0

or 180

to each other. By Eq. 1.44
2
, the cross product is 0, due to a sine function. In the case of 0,
the cross product is 0, because the 0 vector has no magnitude.
1.3 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.4.16
Find the magnetic induction B given the following information:
F = q(v ×B)
v = ˆ x,
F
q
= 2ˆ z −4ˆ y
v = ˆ y,
F
q
= 4ˆ x −ˆ z
v = ˆ z,
F
q
= ˆ y −2ˆ x
The induction can be found using two cross products from the given information.

ˆ x ˆ y ˆ z
1 0 0
Bx By Bz

= 2ˆ z −4ˆ y
From this matrix, we find By = 2 and Bz = 4.
Now we use the next relationship to find the last term.

ˆ x ˆ y ˆ z
0 1 0
Bx By Bz

= 4ˆ x −ˆ z
From this matrix, we find Bx = 1.
Combining these three yields B:
B = ˆ x + 2ˆ y + 4ˆ z
1.4 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.7
Show that:
a ×(b ×c) +b ×(c ×a) +c ×(a ×b) = 0
From the text, we know that:
a ×(b ×c) = b(a · c) −c(a · b)
We can infer the other two relationship will be the same. Make these substitutions, we find:
b(a · c) −c(a · b) +c(b · a) −a(b · c) +a(c · b) −b(c · a)
Because the dot product is associative:
b(a · c) −c(a · b) +c(a · b) −a(b · c) +a(b · c) −b(a · c) = 0
2
Arfken and Weber
2
1.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.8
For a vector A, which can be decomposed into a radial component Ar and tangential component At show that:
(a) Ar = ˆr(A· ˆr)
We know from the definition of the vector that Ar = A· ˆr and that the radial magnitude multiplied by the radial
unit vector will yield the radial vector.
Ar = (Ar)ˆr
(b) At = −ˆr ×(ˆr ×A)
ˆr ×A =

ˆr
ˆ
t ˆ n
1 0 0
Ar At 0

= At
ˆ n (1.5)
ˆr ×At
ˆ n =

ˆr
ˆ
t ˆ n
1 0 0
0 0 At

= At
ˆ
t = At (1.6)
1.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.9
Show that if (A), B and C are coplanar, then
A· B×C = 0
We know from the text that A· B×C = AxByCz −AxBzCy +AyBzCx −AyBxCz +AzByCx −AzBxCy. If the vectors
are coplanar then one of the components can be set to 0 under a transportation. If one of the components is 0 and
all the terms have one of each of the components, then the triple value is 0. Thus it is a necessary condition.
Lets assume A· B×C = 0, now show that it is coplanar.
One way to write the dot product is with a cosine, and one way to write the cross product is with a sine. Since we
know that it equals 0, then either sine or cosine or both terms are 0. If the cosine term is 0, then the cross product
is perpendicular to A, which would place it in the same plane as B and C. Thus they are coplanar. Now if the sine
term is 0, then (B) and C form a line. A third vector would then form a plane with that line. Thus it is sufficient
for this condition.
A· B×C = 0
1.7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.5.12
Show that:
(A×B) · (C×D) = (A· C)(B· D) −(A· D)(B· C)
First we will expand the left side.
(A×B) · (C×D)
= ((AyBz −AzBy)ˆ x + (AzBx −AxBz)ˆ y + (AxBy −AyBx)ˆ z)
·((CyDz −CzDy)ˆ x + (CzDx −CxDz)ˆ y + (CxDy −CyDx)ˆ z)
= (AyBz −AzBy)(CyDz −CzDy) + (AzBx −AxBz)(CzDx −CxDz) + (AxBy −AyBx)(CxDy −CyDx)
= AyBzCyDz −AyBzCzDy −AzByCyDz + AzByCzDy + AzBxCzDx −AzBxCxDz −AxBzCzDx
+AxBzCxDz + AxByCxDy −AxByCyDx −AyBxCxDy + AyBxCyDx
3
= (AxCx + AyCy + AzCz)(BxDx + ByDy + BzDz) −(AxDx + AyDy + AzDz)(BxCx + ByCy + BzCz)
= (A· C)(B· D) −(A· D)(B· C)
This is exactly the same as the right side of the equation.
4
Chapter 2
451: Problem Set 5
2.1 Problem 1.
Show that:
Tij = Aij + Sij + cδijT
k
k
Where Aij = −Aji,antisymmetric, and Sij = Sji,symmetric, and T
k
k
,trace.
We can represent the antisymmetric and symmetric parts with two matrices.
Aij =

0 A12 A13
−A12 0 A23
−A13 −A23 0

(2.1)
Sij =

0 S12 S13
S12 0 S23
S13 S23 0

(2.2)
Now combining any ij-term, one finds that as long as i = j then Tij = Aij +Sij. Now we have to find for when i = j.
So the last term must vanish when i¬j, we know that the Kronecker delta function has this behavior. This yields:
Tij = Aij + Sij + δij
Well this is not all of the value, because the delta function only has a value of one. There must be some constant to
yield the proper result. The scalar value must have the property:
n
¸
i,j=1
cδij = T
k
k
Now combine this last term to the previous value.
Tij = Aij + Sij + cδijT
k
k
So what is important to note is that on any average n-dimensional term c =
1
n
, but for an exact value there is a need
for an indency.
2.2 Problem 2.
a.
Show for the epsilon tensor that:
ε
ijk
ε
ilm
= δ
jl
δ
km
−δjmδ
kl
The definition for the Levi-Civita Symbol given in Arfken
ε
ijk
= ei · ej ×e
k
(2.3)
5
for a nonzero value textbfej ×e
k
must be in the ei direction. Because of this then
ε
ijk
ε
ilm
= (ei · ej ×e
k
) (ei · e
l
×em)
= (ej ×e
k
) · (e
l
×em)
From Arfken (pg 33)
(A×B) · (C ×D) = (A· C)(B · D) −(A· D)(B · C)
We apply this property to find
(ej ×e
k
) · (e
l
×em) = (ej · e
l
) (e
k
· em) −(ej · em) (e
k
· e
l
)
From definition Kronecker delta, eu · ev = δuv with this then
(ej · e
l
) (e
k
· em) −(ej · em) (e
k
· e
l
) = δ
jl
δ
km
−δjmδ
kl
b.
Evaluate: ε
ijk
ε
ijl
Using part a.
ε
ijk
ε
ijl
= δjjδ
kl
−δ
jl
δ
jk
Using inspection the last term is one when j=k=l, then the first term is also one therefore it is 0. Now sum over all
of the terms.
3
¸
j=1
3
¸
k=l=j=1
δjjδ
kl
−δ
jl
δ
jk
=
3
¸
k=l=1

kl
= 6
2.3 Problem 3.
Prove that
Ai;j −Aj;i =
∂Ai
∂x
j

∂Aj
∂x
i
By the definition of a covariant derivative
Ai;j =
∂Ai
∂x
j
−A
k
Γ
k
ij
(2.4)
With switching of the indencies
Aj;i =
∂Aj
∂x
i
−A
k
Γ
k
ji
From Arfken, we know that Γ
k
ji
= Γ
k
ij
.
Ai;j −Aj;i =
∂Ai
∂x
j
−A
k
Γ
k
ij

∂Aj
∂x
i
+ A
k
Γ
k
ji
=
∂Ai
∂x
j

∂Aj
∂x
i
+ A
k
Γ
k
ji
−A
k
Γ
k
ij
=
∂Ai
∂x
j

∂Aj
∂x
i
+ A
k
Γ
k
ji
−A
k
Γ
k
ji
=
∂Ai
∂x
j

∂Aj
∂x
i
+ 0
=
∂Ai
∂x
j

∂Aj
∂x
i
2.4 Problem 4.
Not required to do.
6
2.5 Problem5.
From the transformation properties of gij and the definition of the Christoffel Symbol Γ
i
jk
obtain the transformation
law for Γ
i
jk
given in class.
From Arfken (pg 154)
Γ
s
ij
=
1
2
g
ks

∂g
ik
∂x
j
+
∂g
jk
∂x
i

∂g
ij
∂x
k

(2.5)
so then
Γ
s
ij
=
1
2
g
ks

∂g

ik
∂x
j
+
∂g

jk
∂x
i

∂g

ij
∂x
k

We also know that
g

kl
= gij
∂x
i
∂x
k
∂x
j
∂x
l
(2.6)
g
kl
=
∂x
k
∂x
i
∂x
l
∂x
j
g
ij
(2.7)
let us examine on of part of the metric transformation and then we can use this to apply to the other parts.

∂x
k
g

ij
=

∂x
k

gpm
∂x
p
∂x
i
∂x
m
∂x
j

=
∂gpm
∂x
l
∂x
l
∂x
k
∂x
p
∂x
i
∂x
m
∂x
j
+ gpm

2
x
p
∂x
k
∂x
i
∂x
m
∂x
j
+ gpm

2
x
p
∂x
k
∂x
j
∂x
m
∂x
i
The other two parts of the metric transformation are just permutations of the pervious one. So

∂x
i
g

kj
+

∂x
j
g

ki


∂x
k
g

ik
=
∂x
l
∂x
k
∂x
p
∂x
i
∂x
m
∂x
j

∂g
ml
∂x
p
+
∂g
pl
∂x
m

∂gpm
∂x
l

+ 2gpm

2
x
p
∂x
i
∂x
j
∂x
m
∂x
k
With the definition of the Christoffel Symbol we find that
Γ
s
ij
=
∂x
∂s
x
p
∂x
l
∂x
i
∂x
m
∂x
j
Γ
p
lm
+
∂x
s
∂x
p

2
x
p
∂x
i
∂x
j
(2.8)
7
8
Chapter 3
451: Problem Set 6
3.1 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.4
a.
For
a + ib ↔

a b
−b a

Show that addition (i) and multiplication (ii) are valid
(i)
Let us define another matrix
c + id ↔

c d
−d c

Now add the two complex numbers and convert to matrix form.
a + ib + c + id = (a + c) + i(b + d) ↔

a + c b + d
−b −d b + c

Now add the two matrices directly.

a b
−b a

+

c d
−d c

=

a + c b + d
−b −d b + c

This does hold for addition.
(ii)
First for a real scalar
α(a + ib) = aα + ibα ↔

aα bα
−bα aα

Now the scalar directly to the matrix
α

a b
−b a

=

aα bα
−bα aα

Next for two matrices.

a b
−b a

c d
−d c

=

ac −bd ad + bc
−bc −ad −bd + ac

For two complex numbers multiplied
(a + ib)(c + id) = (ac −bd) + i(ad + cb) ↔

ac −bd ad + bc
−ad −bc ac −bd

The product for two matrices.
9
b.
Find the matrix for (a + ib)
−1
(a + ib)
−1

a b
−b a

−1
From equation 3.50 in Arfken.
a
(−1)
ij
=
Cji
|A|
(3.1)
So
Cji =

a −b
b a

|A| = a
2
+ b
2
(a + ib)
−1
=

a
a
2
+b
2
−b
a
2
+b
2
b
a
2
+b
2
a
a
2
+b
2

3.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.5
If A is an n ×n matrix, show that
det(−A) = (−1)
n
detA
Let us look at the case of when the matrix is multiplied by a real scalar,α
αA = α1nA
detαA = det(α1n)detA
The determinate of a diagonal matrix is just the multiplication of the diagonal terms. In this case all the diagonal
terms have a value of α.
det(α1n) =
n
¸
i=1
αi = α
n
Now substitute this term into the previous equation.
detαA = det(α1n)detA = α
n
detA
Then set α = −1
det(−A) = (−1)
n
detA
3.3 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.6
a.
Show that the square of the following matrix is 0
A =

ab b
2
−a
2
−ab

Then A
2

ab b
2
−a
2
−ab

ab b
2
−a
2
−ab

=

a
2
b
2
−a
2
b
2
ab
3
−ab
3
−a
3
b + a
3
b −a
2
b
2
+ a
2
b
2

= 0
b.
10
Show a numerical case for if C=A+B, in general det C = det A+det B
Let
A =

3 1
−9 −3

B =

2 1
−4 −2

Then
C =

5 2
−13 −5

Now for the determinants
detA = 0
detB = 0
detC = 1
Therefore, det C = det A+det B
3.4 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.15
a.
Show that [Mx, My] = iMz and so on.
Lets start with defining all the products of two M-matrices
MxMy =
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

= i

¸
1
2
0 −
1
2
0 0 0
1
2
0 −
1
2
¸

(3.2)
MyMx =
1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

= i

¸

1
2
0 −
1
2
0 0 0
1
2
0
1
2
¸

(3.3)
MxMz =
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

¸
1 0 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

= i

¸
0 0 0

i

2
0
i

2
0 0 0
¸

(3.4)
MzMx =

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

= i

¸
0 −
i

2
0
0 0 0
0
i

2
0
¸

(3.5)
MyMz =
1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

= i

¸
0 0 0
1

2
0 −
1

2
0 0 0
¸

(3.6)
MzMy =

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

= i

¸
0
1

2
0
0 0 0
0 −
1

2
0
¸

(3.7)
11
Now for the commutation relations
[Mx, My] = MxMy −MyMx = i

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

= iMz (3.8)
[My, Mx] = MyMx −MxMy = i

¸
−1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
¸

= −iMz (3.9)
[Mz, Mx] = MzMx −MzMx = i

¸
¸
0 −
i

2
0
i

2
0 −
i

2
0
i

2
0
¸

= iMy (3.10)
[Mx, Mz] = MxMz −MzMx = i

¸
¸
0
i

2
0

i

2
0
i

2
0 −
i

2
0
¸

= −iMy (3.11)
[My, Mz] = MyMz −MzMy = i

¸
¸
0
1

2
0
1

2
0
1

2
0
1

2
0
¸

= iMx (3.12)
[Mz, My] = MzMy −MyMz = i

¸
¸
0 −
1

2
0

1

2
0 −
1

2
0 −
1

2
0
¸

= −iMx (3.13)
This is equivalent as
[Mi, Mj] = iε
ijk
M
k

b.
Show that
M
2
≡ M
2
x
+M
2
y
+M
2
z
= 213
Examining term
M
2
x
=
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

=
1
2

¸
1 0 1
0 2 0
1 0 1
¸

(3.14)
M
2
y
=
1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

=
1
2

¸
1 0 −1
0 2 0
−1 0 1
¸

(3.15)
M
2
z
=

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

=

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
¸

(3.16)
Now combine these terms
1
2

¸
1 0 1
0 2 0
1 0 1
¸

+
1
2

¸
1 0 −1
0 2 0
−1 0 1
¸

+

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
¸

=

¸
2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
¸

= 2

¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸

= 213
c.
Show that

M
2
, Mi

= 0 (3.17)

Mz, L
+

= L
+
(3.18)

L
+
, L

= 2Mz (3.19)
12
where
L
+
≡ Mx + iMy
L

≡ Mx −iMy
Let’s begin with

M
2
, Mi

= 0. We know that M
2
= 213, so

M
2
, Mi

= 2 [13, Mi]
= 2 (13Mi −Mi13)
= 2 (Mi −Mi)
= 2 (0)
= 0
Now we have to find L
+
L
+
≡ Mx + iMy =
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

+
i

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸

+
1

2

¸
0 1 0
−1 0 1
0 −1 0
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸

Now

Mz, L
+

= L
+

Mz, L
+

= MzL
+
−L
+
, Mz
=

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸


1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
¸


1

2

¸
0 0 0
0 0 −2
0 0 0
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸

= L
+

Lastly for

L
+
, L

= 2Mz. We first need L

L

≡ Mx −iMy =
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸


i

2

¸
0 −i 0
i 0 −i
0 i 0
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
¸


1

2

¸
0 1 0
−1 0 1
0 −1 0
¸

=
1

2

¸
0 0 0
2 0 0
0 2 0
¸

13
Now for

L
+
, L

= 2Mz

L
+
, L

= L
+
L

−L

L
+
=
1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 0 0
2 0 0
0 2 0
¸


1

2

¸
0 0 0
2 0 0
0 2 0
¸

1

2

¸
0 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 0
¸

=
1
2

¸
4 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 0
¸


1
2

¸
0 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 4
¸

= 2

¸
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
¸

= 2Mz
3.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.24
If A and B are diagonal, show that A and B commute.
For two matrices to commute [A, B] = AB−BA = 0
If A and B are diagonal then they are must be of same dimension n
We can define
A =
n
¸
i,j=1
aijδij (3.20)
B =
n
¸
i,j=1
bijδij (3.21)
Let C = AB and D = BA
C =
n
¸
i,j
cij =
n
¸
i,j=1
n
¸
k=1
a
ik
b
kj
δ
ik
δ
kj
D =
n
¸
i,j
dij =
n
¸
i,j=1
n
¸
k=1
b
ik
a
kj
δ
ik
δ
kj
We can reduce this, because of the double δs
n
¸
i,j
cij =
n
¸
i,j=1
aiibjjδij
n
¸
i,j
dij =
n
¸
i,j=1
biiajjδij
n
¸
i,j
cijδij =
n
¸
i=1
aiibii
n
¸
i,j
dijδij =
n
¸
i=1
biiaii
So C and D are both diagonal matrices, also. Because each term of A and B are scalars, then aiibii = biiaii.
Therefore
C =
n
¸
i,j
cijδij =
n
¸
i=1
aiibii =
n
¸
i=1
biiaii =
n
¸
i,j
dijδij = D
C = AB = D = BA
Therefore
[A, B] = AB−BA = 0
14
3.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.33
Show that
detA
−1
= (detA)
−1
Let’s begin with the hint that we are given to use the product theorem of section 3.2 in Arfken, which is
det(AB) = detAdetB
so let A = A and B = A
−1
, then
detAA
−1
= detAdetA
−1
det(13) = detAdetA
−1
By the definition of determinate det(13) = 1, and that the determinate is a scalar value.
det(13) = detAdetA
−1
1 = detAdetA
−1
(detA)
−1
= detA
−1

3.7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.2.36
Find the inverse of
A =

¸
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 4
¸

(3.22)
We begin with

¸
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 4

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸

Now reorder the rows by inspection.

¸
1 1 4
3 2 1
2 2 1

0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
¸

Now cancel all but the diagonal terms.

¸
1 1 4
3 2 1
2 2 1

0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
¸

¸
1 1 4
0 −1 −11
0 0 −7

0 0 1
1 0 −3
0 1 −2
¸

¸
1 1 4
0 1 11
0 0 −7

0 0 1
−1 0 3
0 1 −2
¸

¸
1 0 −7
0 1 11
0 0 −7

1 0 −2
−1 0 3
0 1 −2
¸

¸
1 0 −7
0 1 11
0 0 1

1 0 −2
−1 0 3
0 −
1
7
2
7
¸

¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

1 −1 0
−1
11
7

1
7
0 −
1
7
2
7
¸

So
A
−1
=

¸
1 −1 0
−1
11
7

1
7
0 −
1
7
2
7
¸

(3.23)
15
Now let’s check that this is indeed the inverse.
AA
−1
=

¸
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 4
¸

¸
1 −1 0
−1
11
7

1
7
0 −
1
7
2
7
¸

=

¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸

AA
−1
=

¸
1 −1 0
−1
11
7

1
7
0 −
1
7
2
7
¸

¸
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 4
¸

=

¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸

So this is indeed the inverse.
16
Chapter 4
725: Problem Set 4
4.1 Problem 1
Use only known functions (and series) to improve the convergence of
¸

n=1
(−1)
n−1 z
n
n
so that the final series con-
verges absolutely at z = ±1. Where is the singularity and what happens to it?
This summation is equivalent to ln (1 + z) =
¸

n=1
(−1)
n−1 z
n
n
. If both sides is multiplied by (1 + a1z) to find
(1 + a1z) ln (1 + z) = (1 + a1z)

¸
n=1
(−1)
n−1
z
n
n
=

¸
n=1
(−1)
n−1
z
n
n
+ a1

¸
n=1
(−1)
n−1
z
n+1
n
Now making everything to the same power
(1 + a1z) ln (1 + z) =
z +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1
z
n
n
+ a1

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1
z
n
n −1
= z +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

1
n

a1
n −1

z
n
n
= z +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

n(1 −a1) −1
n(n −1)

z
n
Now set a1 = 1. So check when z = −1
(z = −1) +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

−1
n(n −1)

(z = −1)
n
=
−1 +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

−1
n(n −1)

(−1)
n
= −1 +

¸
n=2
(−1)
2n−1

−1
n(n −1)

= −1 +

¸
n=2
(−1)
2n−2

1
n(n −1)

Shifting the summation from n = 2 to n = 1, also (−1)
2n−2
= 1
(z = −1) +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

−1
n(n −1)

(z = −1)
n
n
= −1 +

¸
n=1
1
n(n + 1)
= −1 + 1 = 0
17
The summation is known to be 1.
1
This means the series converges absolutely at z = −1. Now for z = 1
(z = 1) +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

−1
n(n −1)

(z = 1)
n
= 1 +

¸
n=2
(−1)
n−1

−1
n(n −1)

(1)
n
Now the absolute value of the summation, because if this converges absolutely, so does the actual summation.
1 +

¸
n=2
1
n(n −1)
Shifting the summation from n = 2 to n = 1
1 +

¸
n=2
1
n(n −1)
= 1 +

¸
n=1
1
n(n + 1)
As earlier the summation is absolutely convergent. Therefore the function is absolutely convergent at z = 1. In the
original summation there was a singularity at z = −1. This is removed by multiplying by a function, which at −1
equals 0. This suppresses the singularity.
4.2 Problem 2
What is the threshold energy necessary to produce a ∆ at 1232 MeV in electron scattering according to e+p →e

+∆?
The energy squared in the center of mass frame for the system is
s = (me + mp)
2
The threshold energy is the energy of the electron, which in four space
Ee =
pe (pp + pe)

s
=
pe · pp + pe · pe

s
Because of the small size of electrons mass pe · pe = m
2
e
≈ 0. Also, pe · pp =
1
2

(m
e
+ m∆)
2

m
2
e
+ m
2
p

. Again,
all m
2
e
and m
2
e
terms are set to 0. The energy becomes
Ee ≈
m
2

+ 2m∆m
e
−m
2
p
2

s
=
m
2

+ 2m∆m
e
−m
2
p
2 (m∆ + m
e
)
Now inserting the values for the masses
Ee ≈
1232
2
+ 2(.511)(1232) −938.3
2
2(.511 + 938.3)
= 340.1MeV
4.3 Problem 3
Let A =

2
f
∂x
2
, B =

2
f
∂x∂y
, and C =

2
f
∂y
2
. We have a saddle point if B
2
−AC > 0. For f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) apply
the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and show that u and v do not have both a maximum or minimum in a finite region
on the complex plane.
For u(x, y)
A =

2
u
∂x
2
, B =

2
u
∂x∂y
, C =

2
u
∂y
2
1
Arfken and Weber. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 5
th
Ed. pg 316
18
Then B
2
−AC > 0 becomes


2
u
∂x∂y

2


2
u
∂x
2


2
u
∂y
2

> 0
Applying the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions
2

2
u
∂y
2
→−

2
v
∂x∂y
→−

2
u
∂x
2
Then B
2
−AC > 0 simplifies to


2
u
∂x∂y

2
+


2
u
∂x
2

2
> 0
This is always greater than 0, because u is a real value function. Therefore there are no maximum nor minimum for u.
For v(x, y)
A =

2
v
∂x
2
, B =

2
v
∂x∂y
, C =

2
v
∂y
2
Then B
2
−AC > 0 becomes


2
v
∂x∂y

2


2
v
∂x
2


2
v
∂y
2

> 0
Applying the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions

2
v
∂x
2
→−

2
u
∂x∂y
→−

2
v
∂y
2
Then B
2
−AC > 0 simplifies to


2
v
∂x∂y

2
+


2
v
∂y
2

2
> 0
This is always greater than 0, because v is a real value function, because the imaginary term comes from the i in
front of v. Therefore there are no maximum nor minimum for v.
4.4 Problem 4
Find the analytic function f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
a
For u = x
3
−3xy
From the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions
∂u
∂x
= 3x
2
−3y
2
=
∂v
∂y
From this, integrate with respect to y to find v

∂v =

3x
2
−3y
2

∂y →v = 3x
2
y −y
3
+ c

where c

is a constant of integration. So
w(x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) + ic

= x
3
−3xy
2
+ 3ix
2
y −iy
3
+ c
2
Arfken and Weber. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 5
th
Ed. pg 400
19
where c = ic

. Now in the form of f(z), where z is the form z = x + iy
w(x, y) = x
3
−3xy
2
+ 3ix
2
y −iy
3
+ c
= (x + iy)

x
2
+ 2ixy −y
2

+ c
= (x + iy) (x + iy)
2
+ c →f(z) = z
3
+ c
b
For v = e
−y
sin x
Beginning with the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions
∂v
∂y
= −e
−y
sin x =
∂u
∂x
Integrating this with respect to x to find u

∂u =

−e
y
sin x∂x →u = e
−y
cos x + k
where k is a constant of integration. So
w(x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
= e
−y
cos x + ie
−y
sin x + k
Now in the form of f(z)
w(x, y) = e
−y
cos x + ie
−y
sin x + k
= e
−y
(cos x + i sin x) + k
= e
−y
e
ix
+ k →e
i(x+iy)
+ k →f(z) = e
iz
+ k
20
Chapter 5
725: Problem Set 5
5.1 Problem 1
Starting with the Euler integral, analytically continue the Gamma function into the left-hand complex plane and
determine its poles with their residues.
The Euler integral is
Γ(z) =


0
e
−t
t
z−1
dt (5.1)
To extend into the the left hand side of the complex plane. Consider
Γ(z + 1) =


0
e
−t
t
z
dt
= −e
t
t
−z


0
+


0
e
−t
zt
z−1
dt = zΓ(z)
So consider z = −z
Γ(−z + 1) =


0
e
−t
t
−z
dt
= −e
t
t
−z


0
+


0
e
−t
(−z)t
−z−1
dt
= −zΓ(−z)
This can be continued indefinitely to the left. The poles can be found know that a 0 has to be in the denominator.
This occurs for z = 0, −1, −2, . . .. The value at these poles can be found from equation 6.47
f
(n)
(zo) =
n!
2πi

f(z)dz
(z −zo)
n+1
(5.2)
For the Gamma function from the Euler integral form, f(z) = e
−t
. The value of f
(n)
(0) = ±1 depending if n is even
or odd. This becomes f
(n)
(0) = (−1)
n
. Therefore the residues are
(−1)
n
n!
5.2 Problem 2
What kind of analytic functions are sin z, 1/ sin z and what are their singularities?
Let sin z = sin(x + iy). This can be expanded to
sin(x + iy) = sin xcos iy + cos xsin iy
= sin xcosh y + i cos xsinh y
21
At large values for y, the function approaches ∞, so the behavior at large z must be examined. So replace z =
1
w
, in
the summation representation
sin z =

¸
n=0
(−1)
n
z
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
=

¸
n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!w
2n+1
So as z → ∞, w → 0 means there are “poles” at z = ∞. The problem is that the largest “poles” has power of ∞.
This means that sin z has an essential singularity at z = ∞
Now for
1
sin z
. This function has poles at z = ±nπ, where n is an integer. The pole expansion can be found using
the method form equation 7.15.
f(z) = f(0) +

¸
n=1
bn
¸
(z −an)
−1
+ a
−1
n
¸
(5.3)
For this f(z), the above expansion must include all negative n. For f(z), bn = 1/ cos z|z
O
. This means bn = ±1.
When n is even b2n = 1 and -1 for odd.
1
sin z
=
1
z
+

¸
n=1
(−1)
n

1
z −nπ
+
1

+

1
z + nπ
+
1
−nπ

=
1
z
+

¸
n=1
(−1)
n

1
z −nπ
+
1
z + nπ

This reduces to
1
sin z
=
1
z
+

¸
n=1
(−1)
n

1
z −nπ
+
1
z + nπ

=
1
z
+

¸
n=1
(−1)
n

2z
z
2
−(nπ)
2

5.3 Problem 3
Evaluate the series
¸

n=−∞
1
n
2
+2
−2
at least approximately and exactly if possible.
An approximation of the sum is with an integral.

¸
n=−∞
1
n
2
+ 2
−2


−∞
dx
x
2
+ 2
−2
This integral can be evaluated in the complex plane on the semi circle of the upper plane.


−∞
dx
x
2
+ 2
−2
=

dz
(z + 1/2i) (z −1/2i)
The only pole in the upper plane is zo = 1/2i. The integral becomes

dz
(z + 1/2i) (z −1/2i)
= 2πi
¸
f(z)

zo
= 2πi

1
1/2i + 1/2i

= 2π
This value is a good approximation of the real value, which is 2π coth π/2. The approximation is within 10% of the
actual.
22
5.4 Problem 4
Evaluate the integrals


0
dx
1 + 2x
2
+ x
4
,


0
dx
1 + 2x + 2x
2
+ x
3
(5.4)
For the first integral, the function is an even function it can be extended to the negative axis. So


0
dx
1 + 2x
2
+ x
4
=
1
2


−∞
dx
1 + 2x
2
+ x
4
So then map it in complex plane to find
1
2


−∞
dz
1 + 2z
2
+ z
4
Now factor into its roots
1
2


−∞
dz
1 + 2z
2
+ z
4
=
1
2


−∞
dz
(z −i)
2
(z + i)
2
There are roots of second power. Applying equation 6.46
1
for z = i, because the contour is only of the upper plane.
1
2


−∞
dz
(z −i)
2
(z + i)
2
=
2πi
2
¸
−2
(zo + i)
3

zo=i
¸
= πi
¸
1
4i

=
π
4

For the second integral, the use of natural logarithm as discussed in lecture will be applied. The integral can be
written as


0
dx
1 + 2x + 2x
2
+ x
3
=


0
dx
(x + 1)

x +
1+i

3
2

x +
1−i

3
2

From lecture

f(z) ln zdz = −


0
f(x)dxln xdx +


0
f(x)dxln (x + 2πi)dx = 2πi


0
f(x)dx
Or in terms of the real integral


0
f(x)dx =
1
2πi

f(z) ln zdz = −
¸
Res f(z)

z
i
ln zi
where zi are the poles. The poles are first order, so


0
dx
(x + 1)

x +
1+i

3
2

x +
1−i

3
2

=
1
2πi


0
ln zdz
(z + 1)

z +
1+i

3
2

z +
1−i

3
2

=
¸
Res f(z)

z
i
ln zi
=
ln (−1)

−1 +
1+i

3
2

−1 +
1−i

3
2
+
ln
−1−i

3
2

−1−i

3
2
+ 1

−1−i

3
2
+
1−i

3
2
+
ln
−1+i

3
2

−1+i

3
2
+
1+i

3
2

−1+i

3
2
+ 1

= −
π

3
9
+
π

3
9
+

3
+
π

3
9


3
=
π

3
9

1
Arfken and Weber 5
th
23
24
Chapter 6
725: Problem Set 6
6.1 Problem 1
Solve the ODE (1 + x
2
)y

+ (1 −x)
2
y(x) = xe
−x
with initial condition y(0) = 0
First solve the homogenous equation
(1 + x
2
)y

+ (1 −x)
2
y(x) = 0
Writing y

=
dy
dx
. Placing all the y’s on one side and the x’s the other
dy
y
= −
(1 −x)
2
1 + x
2
dx →

dy
y
= −

(1 −x)
2
1 + x
2
dx
−ln C1 + ln y = −x + ln 1 + x
2
→y = C1(1 + x
2
)e
−x
So the homogenous solution is
y
h
= C1(1 + x
2
)e
−x
(6.1)
Now solve for the particular solution with the guess y = Axe
−x
+ Be
−x
(1 + x
2
)y

+ (1 −x)
2
y = xe
−x
→(1 + x
2

(−Ax + A−B) e
−x
+ (1 −x)
2
(Ax + B) e
−x
= xe
−x
Since e
−x
appears in every term it can be cancelled. Now group everything in terms of powers of x
−Ax
3
+ Ax
3
= 0 → Nothing is learned
(A−B)x
2
−2Ax
2
+ Bx
2
= 0 →A = 0
−Ax + Ax −2Bx = x →B = −1/2
A−B + B = 0 → Nothing is learned
So the particular solution is
yp = −
1
2
e
−x
(6.2)
Finally solve for the boundary condition
y(0) = 0 →y
h
(0) + yp(0) = 0
y = C1(1 + x
2
)e
−x

1
2
e
−x
→C1(1 + 0
2
)e
−0

1
2
e
−0
= 0
C1 −
1
2
= 0 →C1 =
1
2
Then the solution is
y =
1
2
(1 + x
2
)e
−x

1
2
e
−x
→y =
1
2
x
2
e
−x

25
6.2 Problem 2
Solve the ODE y


5
6
y

+
9
25
y(x) = 0 with initial conditions y(1) = 0, y

(1) = 2.
Let’s guess that the solution has the form y = e
rx
, so the differential equation becomes
r
2
e
rx

5
6
re
rx
+
9
25
e
rx
= 0
r
2

5
6
r +
9
25
= 0
Solving for r
r =
5
12
±

25
144

9
25
=
5
12
±
i
60

671
So the solution as the form
y = C1e
(
5
12
+
i
60

671)x
+ C2e
(
5
12

i
60

671)x
For ease of calculation
ω1 =
5
12
+
i
60

671, ω2 =
5
12

i
60

671
Now solve for the boundary conditions.
y(1) = 0 →C1e
ω
1
+ C2e
ω
2
= 0 →C2 = −C1e
ω
1
−ω
2
Now the second condition
y

(1) = 2 →C1ω1e
ω
1
+ C2ω2e
ω
2
= 2
C1ω1e
ω
1
−C1e
ω
1
−ω
2
ω2e
ω
2
= 2
C1

ω1e
ω
1
−ω2e
ω
1
−ω
2

2

= 2
C1 =
2e
−ω
1
ω1 −ω2
Therefore
C2 = −C1e
ω
1
−ω
2
→C2 =
−2e
−ω
2
ω1 −ω2
The final solution is then
y =
2e
−ω
1
ω1 −ω2
e
ω
1
x

2e
ω
2
ω1 −ω2
e
ω
2
x
y =

−60ie

5
12

i

671
60
+

5
12
+
i

671
60

x

671
+
60ie

5
12
+
i

671
60
+

5
12

i

671
60

x

671

6.3 Problem 3
Solve (x
2
−2x +1)y

−4(x −1)y

−14y(x) = x
3
−3x
2
+3x −8 for the general solution. Then adjust it to the initial
condition y(0) = 9/20, y

(0) = 11/10
This differential equation can be written as
(x −1)
2
y

−4(x −1)y

−14y = (x −1)
3
−7
26
Define z ≡ (x −1), then differential becomes
z
2
y

−4zy

−14y = z
3
−7
The homogenous equation is just Euler differential equation with y = z
p
z
p
(p(p −1) −4p −14) = 0 →p
2
−5p −14 = 0
The solution for p is p = 7, −2. So the homogenous solution is then
y
h
= C1z
7
+ C2z
−2
(6.3)
The particular solution is of the form
y = Az
3
+ Bz
2
+ Cz + D
Now, because the second derivative is multiplied by z
2
and the first derivative is multiplied by z, all terms but the
constant and z
3
are zero, ie B = C = 0. So
6Az
3
−12Az
3
−14Az
3
−14D = z
3
−7
A =
−1
20
, D =
1
2
Therefore the particular solution is
yp =
−1
20
z
3
+
1
2
(6.4)
Finally for the constants with the boundary conditions y(−1) = 9/20 and y

(−1) = 11/10. For y(−1) = 9/20
−C1 + C2 + 1/20 + 1/2 = 9/20 →C2 = C1 −1/10
Now, y

(−1) = 11/10
7C1 + 2 (C1 −1/10) −3/20 = 11/10 →C1 = 29/180
Then
C2 = 29/180 −1/10 →C2 = 11/180
The solution becomes when z = x −1 is substituted back in
y =
29
180
(x −1)
7
+
11
180
(x −1)
−2

1
20
(x −1)
3
+
1
2
(6.5)
6.4 Problem 4
Determine the general solution of the ODE xy

= y(x)y

that depends on two integration constants. Find another
solution that cannot be obtained from the general solution. Explain.
The right hand side can be written as
yy

=
d
dx

1
2
y
2

Integrating both sides

xy

=

d
dx

1
2
y
2

xy

=
1
2
y
2
+ C

1
The left hand side can be done by partial integration with u = x, du = dx, v = y

and dv = y

, so

xy

= xy

y

dx = xy

−y + C

1
27
Combining the two constants in to one, then
xy

−y =
1
2
y
2
+ C1 →
dy
1
2
y
2
+ y + C1
=
dx
x
Integrating both sides

dy
1
2
y
2
+ y + C1
=

dx
x
2 tan
−1
¸
1 + y

−1 + 2C1


−1 + 2C1 = ln x + C2
Solving for y
tan
−1
¸
1 + y

−1 + 2C1

=

−1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2)
1 + y

−1 + 2C1
= tan

−1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2)

y = −1 +

−1 + 2C1 tan

−1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2)

The solution that depends on two constant is
y = −1 +

−1 + 2C1 tan

−1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2)

(6.6)
The third solution that cannot be obtained form the general solution is y = constant. This solution cause the
differential equation to become trivial, because y

= 0. Therefore, y

= 0. This is a solution because 0 times any
number is 0.
28
Appendix A
Special Functions
Hi
29
Index
Cauchy-Riemann Conditions, 18, 19
30

Contents
1 451: Problem Set 2 1.1 Mathematical Methods 1.2 Mathematical Methods 1.3 Mathematical Methods 1.4 Mathematical Methods 1.5 Mathematical Methods 1.6 Mathematical Methods 1.7 Mathematical Methods 2 451: Problem Set 5 2.1 Problem 1. . . . . . . 2.2 Problem 2. . . . . . . 2.3 Problem 3. . . . . . . 2.4 Problem 4. . . . . . . 2.5 Problem5. . . . . . . 3 451: Problem Set 6 3.1 Mathematical Methods 3.2 Mathematical Methods 3.3 Mathematical Methods 3.4 Mathematical Methods 3.5 Mathematical Methods 3.6 Mathematical Methods 3.7 Mathematical Methods 4 725: Problem Set 4 4.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . 4.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . 4.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . 4.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . 5 725: Problem Set 5 5.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . 5.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . 5.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . 5.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 7 9 9 10 10 11 14 15 15 17 17 18 18 19 21 21 21 22 23

for Physicists 1.4.6

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for Physicists 1.4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for Physicists 1.4.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . for Physicists 1.5.9 . for Physicists 1.5.12 .
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for Physicists 3.2.4 for Physicists 3.2.5 for Physicists 3.2.6 for Physicists 3.2.15 for Physicists 3.2.24 for Physicists 3.2.33 for Physicists 3.2.36

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6 725: Problem Set 6 6.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . 6.2 Problem 2 . . . . . . 6.3 Problem 3 . . . . . . 6.4 Problem 4 . . . . . . A Special Functions

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25 25 26 26 27 29

ii

4. we can look at the right side of the equation.4 1 Arfken 1 Arfken 2 (1.36c and 1.1) (1.1 = Eq. (A × B) · (A × B) = (Ay Bz − Az By )2 + (Az Bx − Ax Bz )2 + (Ax By − Ay Bx )2 (A × B) · (A × B) = A2 B2 + Az B2 − 2Ay Bz Az By + A2 B2 + y z y z x Ax B2 − 2Az Bx Ax Bz + A2 B2 + Ay B2 − 2Ax By Ay Bx z x y x Now that the left side has been examined. We will now examine the left side of this equation.6 (A × B) · (A × B) = (AB)2 − (A · B)2 We know A × B from Eq.3 yields A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + x y x z y x y z − 2Ax Bx Ay By − 2Ax Bx Az Bz − 2Ay By Az Bz Eq.2 − Eq.3) A2 B2 z x + A2 B2 z y (1.1 Prove : Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.241 : A · B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz This same equation can be used to find the magnitude of each of the vectors.Chapter 1 451: Problem Set 2 1.381 : A × B = (Ay Bz − Az By )ˆ + (Az Bx − Ax Bz )ˆ + (Ax By − Ay Bx )ˆ x y z We also know A · B from Eq. 1.2) (1. (AB)2 = A2 B2 = A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + x x x y x z y x y y A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 y z z x z y z z (A · B) = A2 B2 + A2 B2 + A2 B2 + 2Ax Bx Ay By + 2Ax Bx Az Bz + 2Ay By Az Bz x x y y z z Now we combine Eq. 1.4) and Weber and Weber 1 .

then (a × b) × (c × d) = 0.44 2 . We can define vectors e = a × b and f = c × d.5.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1. c and d are in one plane. The same is true for the vectors c and d. we find Bx = 1.4 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1. the cross product is 0.1. In the case of 0. Now we use the next relationship to find the last term. 1.7 Show that : a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 From the text. F = 2ˆ − 4ˆ z y q F = 4ˆ − z x ˆ q F ˆ = y − 2ˆ x q The induction can be found using two cross products from the given information. because the 0 vector has no magnitude. ˆ v = y.16 Find the magnetic induction B given the following information : F = q(v × B) ˆ v = x. Make these substitutions.4. we know that : a × (b × c) = b(a · c) − c(a · b) We can infer the other two relationship will be the same. By Eq. down and 0. b. ˆ v = z. we find: b(a · c) − c(a · b) + c(b · a) − a(b · c) + a(c · b) − b(c · a) Because the dot product is associative: b(a · c) − c(a · b) + c(a · b) − a(b · c) + a(b · c) − b(a · c) = 0 2 Arfken and Weber 2 . 1. they are either 0◦ or 180◦ to each other.4.3 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1. The cross product of a and b will be one of three cases. the cross product is 0. Since e and f are either up. ˆ x 0 Bx From this matrix. down or 0. due to a sine function.10 Show that if a. Combining these three yields B : ˆ B = x + 2ˆ + 4ˆ y z ˆ y 1 By ˆ z 0 Bz = 4ˆ − z x ˆ 1. we find By = 2 and Bz = 4. ˆ x 1 Bx ˆ y 0 By ˆ z 0 Bz = 2ˆ − 4ˆ z y From this matrix. which are perpendicular up.

now show that it is coplanar. Thus they are coplanar.8 For a vector A.5. then (B) and C form a line. Ar = (Ar )ˆ r (b) At = −ˆ × (ˆ × A) r r ˆ r 1 Ar ˆ r 1 0 ˆ t 0 0 ˆ t 0 At ˆ n 0 At ˆ n 0 0 ˆ×A = r ˆ = At n (1. and one way to write the cross product is with a sine. A third vector would then form a plane with that line.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.12 Show that : (A × B) · (C × D) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C) First we will expand the left side.1. then either sine or cosine or both terms are 0. A·B×C=0 1. Lets assume A · B × C = 0.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1.7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 1. which would place it in the same plane as B and C.5.5) ˆ × At n = ˆ r = Atˆ = At t (1. If the cosine term is 0.9 Show that if (A). B and C are coplanar. Now if the sine term is 0. (A × B) · (C × D) = ((Ay Bz − Az By )ˆ + (Az Bx − Ax Bz )ˆ + (Ax By − Ay Bx )ˆ) x y z ·((Cy Dz − Cz Dy )ˆ + (Cz Dx − Cx Dz )ˆ + (Cx Dy − Cy Dx )ˆ) x y z = (Ay Bz − Az By )(Cy Dz − Cz Dy ) + (Az Bx − Ax Bz )(Cz Dx − Cx Dz ) + (Ax By − Ay Bx )(Cx Dy − Cy Dx ) = Ay Bz Cy Dz − Ay Bz Cz Dy − Az By Cy Dz + Az By Cz Dy + Az Bx Cz Dx − Az Bx Cx Dz − Ax Bz Cz Dx +Ax Bz Cx Dz + Ax By Cx Dy − Ax By Cy Dx − Ay Bx Cx Dy + Ay Bx Cy Dx 3 . Thus it is a necessary condition.5. One way to write the dot product is with a cosine. Since we know that it equals 0. which can be decomposed into a radial component Ar and tangential component At show that : (a) Ar = ˆ(A · ˆ) r r We know from the definition of the vector that Ar = A · ˆ and that the radial magnitude multiplied by the radial r unit vector will yield the radial vector. If one of the components is 0 and all the terms have one of each of the components. then the triple value is 0.6) 1. If the vectors are coplanar then one of the components can be set to 0 under a transportation. then the cross product is perpendicular to A. Thus it is sufficient for this condition. then A·B×C=0 We know from the text that A · B × C = Ax By Cz − Ax Bz Cy + Ay Bz Cx − Ay Bx Cz + Az By Cx − Az Bx Cy .

4 .= (Ax Cx + Ay Cy + Az Cz )(Bx Dx + By Dy + Bz Dz ) − (Ax Dx + Ay Dy + Az Dz )(Bx Cx + By Cy + Bz Cz ) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C) This is exactly the same as the right side of the equation.

one finds that as long as i = j then Tij = Aij + Sij .trace. The scalar value must have the property : n k cδij = Tk i. Problem 2.1 Problem 1.j=1 Now combine this last term to the previous value. and Tk .3) 5 . 1 . n but for an exact value there is a need 2. Aij = 0 −A12 −A13 0 S12 S13 A12 0 −A23 S12 0 S23 S13 S23 0 A13 A23 0 (2.antisymmetric. k Tij = Aij + Sij + cδij Tk So what is important to note is that on any average n-dimensional term c = for an indency. So the last term must vanish when i¬j. and Sij = Sji .2) Now combining any ij-term. There must be some constant to yield the proper result.1) Sij = (2. Show for the epsilon tensor that : εijk εilm = δjl δkm − δjm δkl The definition for the Levi-Civita Symbol given in Arfken εijk = ei · ej × ek (2. we know that the Kronecker delta function has this behavior.Chapter 2 451: Problem Set 5 2. k Tij = Aij + Sij + cδij Tk Show that : k Where Aij = −Aji.2 a. We can represent the antisymmetric and symmetric parts with two matrices. This yields : Tij = Aij + Sij + δij Well this is not all of the value.symmetric. Now we have to find for when i = j. because the delta function only has a value of one.

Now sum over all of the terms. ji ij ∂Ai ∂xj ∂Ai ∂xj ∂Ai ∂xj ∂Ai ∂xj ∂Ai ∂xj ∂Ai − Ak Γk ij ∂xj (2.j − Aj.4) ∂Aj − Ak Γk ji ∂xi Ai.j = With switching of the indencies Aj. 6 .i = = = = = − Ak Γk − ij − ∂Aj + Ak Γk ji ∂xi ∂Aj + Ak Γk − Ak Γk ji ij ∂xi ∂Aj − + Ak Γk − Ak Γk ji ji ∂xi ∂Aj − +0 ∂xi ∂Aj − ∂xi 2.for a nonzero value textbf ej × ek must be in the ei direction.3 Problem 3. then the first term is also one therefore it is 0. εijk εijl = δjj δkl − δjl δjk Using inspection the last term is one when j=k=l.i = From Arfken.j − Aj. ∂Ai ∂Aj − ∂xj ∂xi Prove that Ai.i = By the definition of a covariant derivative Ai. Evaluate : εijk εijl Using part a.4 Problem 4. Not required to do. we know that Γk = Γk . eu · ev = δuv with this then (ej · el ) (ek · em ) − (ej · em ) (ek · el ) = δjl δkm − δjm δkl b. Because of this then εijk εilm = (ei · ej × ek ) (ei · el × em ) = (ej × ek ) · (el × em ) From Arfken (pg 33) (A × B) · (C × D) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C) We apply this property to find (ej × ek ) · (el × em ) = (ej · el ) (ek · em ) − (ej · em ) (ek · el ) From definition Kronecker delta. 3 3 3 δjj δkl − δjl δjk = j=1 k=l=j=1 k=l=1 2δkl = 6 2.

So ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂xl ∂xp ∂xm g + g − g = i kj j ki k ik ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x k ∂x i ∂x j With the definition of the Christoffel Symbol we find that s Γij = ∂gml ∂gpl ∂gpm + − ∂xp ∂xm ∂xl + 2gpm ∂ 2 xp ∂xm ∂x i ∂x j ∂x k ∂x∂s ∂xl ∂xm p ∂x s ∂ 2 xp Γ + p ∂x i ∂x j lm x ∂xp ∂x i ∂x j (2. From the transformation properties of gij and the definition of the Christoffel Symbol Γi obtain the transformation jk law for Γi given in class.5) 1 ks g 2 ∂gjk ∂gij ∂gik + − ∂x j ∂x i ∂x k We also know that gkl = gij g kl ∂xi ∂xj ∂x k ∂x l ∂x k ∂x l ij = g ∂xi ∂xj (2.5 Problem5. jk From Arfken (pg 154) 1 ks g 2 ∂gjk ∂gij ∂gik + − ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk Γs = ij so then s Γij = (2.8) 7 .6) (2.2.7) let us examine on of part of the metric transformation and then we can use this to apply to the other parts. ∂ ∂ gij = ∂x k ∂x k = gpm ∂xp ∂xm ∂x i ∂x j ∂ 2 xp ∂xm ∂ 2 xp ∂xm ∂gpm ∂xl ∂xp ∂xm + gpm + gpm l ∂x k ∂x i ∂x j k ∂x i ∂x j ∂x ∂x ∂x k ∂x j ∂x i The other two parts of the metric transformation are just permutations of the pervious one.

8 .

a −b This does hold for addition. (ii) First for a real scalar α(a + ib) = aα + ibα ↔ Now the scalar directly to the matrix α Next for two matrices. For Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.1 a. a + ib + c + id = (a + c) + i(b + d) ↔ Now add the two matrices directly.2.4 a + ib ↔ Show that addition (i) and multiplication (ii) are valid (i) Let us define another matrix c + id ↔ a −b b a c −d d c Now add the two complex numbers and convert to matrix form. a −b For two complex numbers multiplied (a + ib)(c + id) = (ac − bd) + i(ad + cb) ↔ The product for two matrices.Chapter 3 451: Problem Set 6 3. ac − bd −ad − bc ad + bc ac − bd b a c −d d c = ac − bd −bc − ad ad + bc −bd + ac a −b b a = aα −bα bα aα aα −bα bα aα b a + c −d d c = a+c −b − d b+d b+c a+c −b − d b+d b+c 9 .

b2 −ab ab −a2 b2 −ab = a2 b2 − a2 b2 −a3 b + a3 b ab3 − ab3 −a2 b2 + a2 b2 =0 ab −a2 b2 −ab 10 . detαA = det(α1n )detA = αn detA Then set α = −1 det(−A) = (−1)n detA 3.50 in Arfken. Find the matrix for (a + ib)−1 (a + ib)−1 ↔ From equation 3.2 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.5 det(−A) = (−1)n detA If A is an n × n matrix. In this case all the diagonal terms have a value of α.b.2.3 a.α αA = α1n A detαA = det(α1n )detA The determinate of a diagonal matrix is just the multiplication of the diagonal terms. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.1) |A| = a2 + b2 (a + ib)−1 = a a2 +b2 b a2 +b2 3.2. n det(α1n ) = i=1 αi = αn Now substitute this term into the previous equation. aij So Cji = a b −b a −b a2 +b2 a a2 +b2 (−1) a −b b a −1 = Cji |A| (3. show that Let us look at the case of when the matrix is multiplied by a real scalar.6 Show that the square of the following matrix is 0 A= Then A2 ab −a2 b.

Show a numerical case for if C=A+B. det C = det A+det B 3.7) 11 . Lets start with defining all the products of two M-matrices  0 1  1 Mx My = √ 2 0  0 1 My Mx = √  i 2 0  0 1 Mx Mz = √  1 2 0 1 Mz Mx =  0 0  1  My Mz = √ 2 1 Mz My =  0 0   0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 −i 0 i 1 0 1 0 0 −1 −i 0 i 0 0 −1   0 1  1 √ 2 0  0 1 −i  √ 2 0  0 1 1  1 0 0   0 1 √  1 2 0    1 0 −1 0 −i 0 2 2 0  i 0 −i  = i  0 0 1 0 −1 0 i 0 2 2    1  0 1 0 −2 0 −1 2  1 0 1  = i 0 0 0  1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2    0 0 0 0 0 i i 0 1  = i  − √2 0 √2  1 0 0 0 0    i 0 − √2 0 1 0 0 0  0 1  = i 0 i √ 1 0 0 0 2     0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 −i   0 0 0  = i  √2 0 − √2  0 0 0 −1 0 0 0      1 √ 0 0 0 −i 0 2 1  √ i 0 −i  = i  0 0 0  1 2 0 i 0 0 − √2 0 (3.4) (3.15 Show that [Mx .6) (3.2. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.5) (3.3) (3. in general det C = det A+det B Let 3 −9 2 −4 1 −3 1 −2 A= B= Then 5 −13 2 −5 C= Now for the determinants detA = 0 detB = 0 detC = 1 Therefore.2) (3.4 a. My ] = iMz and so on.

8) (3. My ] = Mz My − My Mz = i  − √2  1 √ 0 − 2 0  This is equivalent as [Mi .9) (3.17) (3. Mj ] = iεijk Mk b.13) (3.15) (3. Show that M2 ≡ M2 + M2 + M2 = 213 x y z Examining term M2 x  0 1 1  1 0 = √ 2 0 1  0 −i 1 0 M2 = √  i y 2 0 i  1 0 0 0 M2 =  0 0 z 0 0 −1      1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1  1 0 2 0  1 √ 1 0 1 = 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0     1 0 0 0 −i 0 1  1 0 2 −i  √ i 0 −i  = 2 2 −1 0 0 0 i 0     1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 = 0 0 0  0 0 −1 0 0 1 (3.19) =L + L+ .11) (3.18) (3.12) (3.10) (3.Now for the commutation relations  1 0 0 0  = iMz [Mx . Mz ] = Mx Mz − Mz Mx = i  − √2 = −iMy 2  i 0 − √2 0   1 √ 0 0 2  1  1 √ 0 = iMx [My .14)  −1 0  1 (3. L− = 2Mz 12 . Mz ] = My Mz − Mz My = i  √2 2  1 √ 0 0 2   1 0 0 − √2  1 1 0 − √2  = −iMx [Mz . Mx ] = Mz Mx − Mz Mx = i  √2  i √ 0 0 2   i √ 0 0 2   i i √ 0 [Mx .16) Now combine these terms  1 1 0 2 1 0 2 0   1 1 1 0 + 0 2 1 −1  2 0 0  0 2 0 0 0 2    0 −1 1 0 0 2 0 + 0 0 0 = 0 1 0 0 1    1 0 0  = 2  0 1 0  = 213 0 0 1 c. Mi = 0 Mz . L + (3. Show that M2 . Mx ] = My Mx − Mx My = i  0 0 0 1   i 0 − √2 0  i i 0 − √2  = iMy [Mz . My ] = Mx My − My Mx = i  0 0 0 0 −1   −1 0 0 0 0  = −iMz [My .

L+ = Mz L+ − L+ . We first need L−  0 1  1 L ≡ Mx − iMy = √ 2 0  0 1 = √  1 2 0  0 1 = √  2 2 0 − 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 0  0 1 + 0  0 1 + 0  0 2  0   0 −i 0 i  √ i 0 −i  2 0 i 0   0 1 0 1  √ −1 0 1  2 0 −1 0 2 0 0  0 1 2  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  −1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 2  0 1 − 0  0 1 − 0  0 0  0   0 −i 0 i  √ i 0 −i  2 0 i 0   0 1 0 1  √ −1 0 1  2 0 −1 0 13 . Mz      1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1  1  0 √ 0 0 2 − √ 0 = 0 0 2 2 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0     0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 = √  0 0 0  − √  0 0 −2  2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0   0 2 0 1 = √  0 0 2  2 0 0 0 = L+ Lastly for L+ . We know that M2 = 213 . Mi ] = 2 (13 Mi − Mi 13 ) = 2 (Mi − Mi ) = 2 (0) =0 Now we have to find L+  0 1  1 L+ ≡ Mx + iMy = √ 2 0  0 1 = √  1 2 0  0 1 = √  0 2 0 Now Mz . Mi = 0. L− = 2Mz . Mi = 2 [13 . L+ = L+ Mz .where L+ ≡ Mx + iMy L− ≡ Mx − iMy Let’s begin with M2 . so M2 .

j i=1 bii aii So C and D are both diagonal matrices.j n i=1 n aii bii dij δij = i. Therefore n n n n C= i.j=1 bij δij (3.2.5 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3. L− = 2Mz L+ . also. Because each term of A and B are scalars. then aii bii = bii aii .20) B= i. B] = AB − BA = 0 14 .j dij δij = D C = AB = D = BA Therefore [A.j n i.j=1 n bii ajj δij cij δij = i.j n cij = i.j dij = i.j=1 n aii bjj δij dij = i. L− = L+ L− − L− L+      0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1  1  1  0 0 2 √ 2 0 0 − √ 2 = √ 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0     4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 =  0 4 0 −  0 4 0  2 2 0 0 0 0 0 4   1 0 0 0  = 2 0 0 0 0 −1 = 2Mz 0 0 2   0 0 1  0 √ 0 2 0 0 2 0 0  0 2  0 3. show that A and B commute.24 If A and B are diagonal.21) Let C = AB and D = BA n n n C= i.Now for L+ . because of the double δs n n cij = i.j=1 k=1 n n aik bkj δik δkj D= i. For two matrices to commute [A.j=1 n aij δij (3.j cij δij = i=1 aii bii = i=1 bii aii = i.j=1 k=1 bik akj δik δkj We can reduce this.j n i. B] = AB − BA = 0 If A and B are diagonal then they are must be of same dimension n We can define n A= i.

2.  1  3 2 1 2 2 4 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1  1 0  0 2 2 1 1 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0  1  2 2 1  1 1  4 (3.    1 1 4 0 0 1 1  3 2 1 1 0 0 → 0 0 2 2 1 0 1 0    0 0 1 1 1 4 1  0 1 11 −1 0 3 → 0 0 0 −7 0 1 −2 0    1 0 −7 1 0 −2 1  0 1 11 −1 0 3 → 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 −7 0 7 So A−1 1 =  −1 0  −1 −1 7 11 7 1 −1 0  1 −3  −2  1 0 −2 0 −7 1 11 −1 0 3  0 −7 0 1 −2  0 0 1 −1 0 1 0 −1 11 − 1  7 7 2 0 −1 0 1 7 7 4 −11 −7 0 1 0 0 0 1  0 −1  7 2 7 (3. and that the determinate is a scalar value.3.22) Now cancel all but the diagonal terms.2. then detAA−1 = detAdetA−1 det(13 ) = detAdetA−1 By the definition of determinate det(13 ) = 1.33 detA−1 = (detA)−1 Show that Let’s begin with the hint that we are given to use the product theorem of section 3.2 in Arfken. det(13 ) = detAdetA−1 1 = detAdetA−1 (detA) −1 = detA−1 3. which is det(AB) = detAdetB so let A = A and B = A−1 .23) 15 .7 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.36 Find the inverse of 3 A= 2 1 We begin with  3  2 1 Now reorder the rows by inspection.6 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 3.

  3 2 1 −1 AA =  2 2 1   1 1 4  1 −1 0 AA−1 =  −1 11 − 1 7 7 2 0 −1 7 7 So this is indeed the inverse.   1 −1 0 11 1  −1 −7 = 7 2 0 −1 7 7    3 2 1  2 2 1  =  1 1 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0  0 0  1  0 0  1 16 .Now let’s check that this is indeed the inverse.

also (−1)2n−2 = 1 ∞ (z = −1) + n=2 ∞ (−1)n−1 −1 n(n − 1) (z = −1)n n = −1 + n=1 1 = −1 + 1 = 0 n(n + 1) 17 . n If both sides is multiplied by (1 + a1 z) to find ∞ (1 + a1 z) ln (1 + z) = (1 + a1 z) n=1 ∞ ∞ (−1)n−1 zn n = n=1 (−1) n−1 zn z n+1 (−1)n−1 + a1 n n n=1 Now making everything to the same power (1 + a1 z) ln (1 + z) = ∞ ∞ z+ n=2 (−1)n−1 ∞ zn zn (−1)n−1 + a1 n n−1 n=2 1 a1 − n n−1 zn n zn =z+ n=2 ∞ (−1)n−1 (−1)n−1 n=2 =z+ Now set a1 = 1.Chapter 4 725: Problem Set 4 4. So check when z = −1 n (1 − a1 ) − 1 n(n − 1) ∞ (z = −1) + n=2 ∞ (−1)n−1 −1 n(n − 1) (z = −1)n = −1+ = −1 + (−1)n−1 n=2 ∞ −1 n(n − 1) (−1)n (−1)2n−1 n=2 ∞ −1 n(n − 1) 1 n(n − 1) = −1 + n=2 (−1)2n−2 Shifting the summation from n = 2 to n = 1.1 Problem 1 zn n Use only known functions (and series) to improve the convergence of ∞ (−1)n−1 n=1 verges absolutely at z = ±1. Where is the singularity and what happens to it? This summation is equivalent to ln (1 + z) = ∞ n=1 so that the final series con- (−1)n−1 zn .

∞ 1+ n=2 1 n(n − 1) Shifting the summation from n = 2 to n = 1 ∞ 1+ n=2 1 1 =1+ n(n − 1) n(n + 1) n=1 ∞ As earlier the summation is absolutely convergent.511 + 938. For u(x. This suppresses the singularity.3) 4.2 Problem 2 What is the threshold energy necessary to produce a ∆ at 1232 MeV in electron scattering according to e+p → e +∆? The energy squared in the center of mass frame for the system is s = (me + mp )2 The threshold energy is the energy of the electron. In the original summation there was a singularity at z = −1. y) A= 1 Arfken ∂2u .32 = 340.1MeV 2(. Therefore the function is absolutely convergent at z = 1. ∂x2 B= ∂2u . and C = ∂ f . The energy becomes e e Ee ≈ = Now inserting the values for the masses Ee ≈ m2 + 2m∆ me − m2 p ∆ √ 2 s m2 + 2m∆ me − m2 p ∆ 2 (m∆ + me ) (me + m∆ )2 − m2 + m2 . Now for z = 1 ∞ (z = 1) + n=2 ∞ (−1)n−1 (−1)n−1 −1 n(n − 1) (z = 1)n =1+ n=2 −1 n(n − 1) (1)n Now the absolute value of the summation. which at −1 equals 0. For f (z) = u(x.511)(1232) − 938.1 This means the series converges absolutely at z = −1. ∂x∂y C= ∂2u ∂y 2 and Weber.3 Problem 3 2 2 2 ∂ f Let A = ∂ f . pe · pp = e all m2 and m2 terms are set to 0. Again. We have a saddle point if B 2 − AC > 0. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 5th Ed. This is removed by multiplying by a function. pg 316 18 . e p 12322 + 2(. which in four space Ee = pe (pp + pe ) pe · pp + pe · pe √ √ = s s 1 2 Because of the small size of electrons mass pe · pe = m2 ≈ 0. y) + iv(x. B = ∂x∂y .The summation is known to be 1. because if this converges absolutely. 4. Also. y) apply ∂x2 ∂y 2 the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and show that u and v do not have both a maximum or minimum in a finite region on the complex plane. so does the actual summation.

because u is a real value function. y) A= Then B 2 − AC > 0 becomes ∂2v ∂x∂y Applying the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions ∂2v ∂2v ∂2u →− 2 →− 2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y Then B 2 − AC > 0 simplifies to ∂2v ∂x∂y 2 2 ∂2v . Therefore there are no maximum nor minimum for u. y) + iv(x. Therefore there are no maximum nor minimum for v.4 a Problem 4 Find the analytic function f (z) = u(x. Mathematical Methods for Physicists 5th Ed.Then B 2 − AC > 0 becomes ∂2u ∂x∂y Applying the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions2 ∂2u ∂2v ∂2u →− →− 2 2 ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x Then B 2 − AC > 0 simplifies to ∂2u ∂x∂y 2 2 − ∂2u ∂x2 ∂2u ∂y 2 >0 + ∂2u ∂x2 2 >0 This is always greater than 0. y) + ic = x3 − 3xy 2 + 3ix2 y − iy 3 + c 2 Arfken 3x2 − 3y 2 ∂y → v = 3x2 y − y 3 + c and Weber. y) + iv(x. ∂x∂y C= ∂2v ∂y 2 − ∂2v ∂x2 ∂2v ∂y 2 >0 + ∂2v ∂y 2 2 >0 This is always greater than 0. because v is a real value function. So w(x. y) = u(x. y) For u = x3 − 3xy From the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions ∂u ∂v = 3x2 − 3y 2 = ∂x ∂y From this. pg 400 19 . integrate with respect to y to find v ∂v = where c is a constant of integration. 4. For v(x. because the imaginary term comes from the i in front of v. ∂x2 B= ∂2v .

where c = ic . So w(x. y) = u(x. Now in the form of f (z). y) = e−y cos x + ie−y sin x + k Now in the form of f (z) w(x. y) = e−y cos x + ie−y sin x + k = e−y (cos x + i sin x) + k = e−y eix + k → ei(x+iy) + k → f (z) = eiz + k −ey sin x∂x → u = e−y cos x + k 20 . y) + iv(x. where z is the form z = x + iy w(x. y) = x3 − 3xy 2 + 3ix2 y − iy 3 + c = (x + iy) x2 + 2ixy − y 2 + c = (x + iy) (x + iy)2 + c → f (z) = z 3 + c b For v = e−y sin x Beginning with the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions ∂v ∂u = −e−y sin x = ∂y ∂x Integrating this with respect to x to find u ∂u = where k is a constant of integration.

2) For the Gamma function from the Euler integral form.47 f (n) (zo ) = n! 2πi f (z)dz (z − zo )n+1 (5. . Consider ∞ Γ(z + 1) = 0 e−t tz dt ∞ 0 ∞ = −et t−z So consider z = −z ∞ + 0 e−t ztz−1 dt = zΓ(z) Γ(−z + 1) = 0 e−t t−z dt ∞ 0 ∞ = −et t−z + 0 e−t (−z)t−z−1 dt = −zΓ(−z) This can be continued indefinitely to the left. Therefore the residues are (−1) n! 5.1) To extend into the the left hand side of the complex plane. −1.1 Problem 1 Starting with the Euler integral. analytically continue the Gamma function into the left-hand complex plane and determine its poles with their residues. f (z) = e−t . The value at these poles can be found from equation 6.2 Problem 2 What kind of analytic functions are sin z. −2. This occurs for z = 0. 1/ sin z and what are their singularities? Let sin z = sin(x + iy). The poles can be found know that a 0 has to be in the denominator. The Euler integral is ∞ Γ(z) = 0 e−t tz−1 dt (5.Chapter 5 725: Problem Set 5 5.. The value of f (n) (0) = ±1 depending if n is even n or odd. . This becomes f (n) (0) = (−1)n . . This can be expanded to sin(x + iy) = sin x cos iy + cos x sin iy = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y 21 .

1 1 = + sin z z ∞ (−1)n n=1 ∞ 1 1 + z − nπ nπ + 1 1 + z + nπ −nπ = This reduces to 1 + (−1)n z n=1 1 1 + z − nπ z + nπ 1 1 = + (−1)n sin z z n=1 = 1 + (−1)n z n=1 ∞ ∞ 1 1 + z − nπ z + nπ 2z − (nπ)2 z2 5.3 Problem 3 ∞ 1 n=−∞ n2 +2−2 Evaluate the series at least approximately and exactly if possible. bn = 1/ cos z|zO . ∞ −∞ dx = x2 + 2−2 dz (z + 1/2i) (z − 1/2i) The only pole in the upper plane is zo = 1/2i. the function approaches ∞. This means that sin z has an essential singularity at z = ∞ 1 Now for sin z . So replace z = the summation representation ∞ 1 . where n is an integer.At large values for y. ∞ n=−∞ n2 1 ≈ + 2−2 ∞ −∞ dx x2 + 2−2 This integral can be evaluated in the complex plane on the semi circle of the upper plane. w in sin z = n=0 (−1)n (−1)n z 2n+1 = (2n + 1)! (2n + 1)!w2n+1 n=0 ∞ So as z → ∞. which is 2π coth π/2. This means bn = ±1. An approximation of the sum is with an integral. The approximation is within 10% of the actual. so the behavior at large z must be examined. For f (z). The integral becomes dz = 2πi (z + 1/2i) (z − 1/2i) = 2πi f (z) zo 1 1/2i + 1/2i = 2π This value is a good approximation of the real value. The pole expansion can be found using the method form equation 7. The problem is that the largest “poles” has power of ∞. w → 0 means there are “poles” at z = ∞. This function has poles at z = ±nπ.15. When n is even b2n = 1 and -1 for odd.3) For this f (z). the above expansion must include all negative n. 22 . ∞ f (z) = f (0) + n=1 bn (z − an )−1 + a−1 n (5.

4 Problem 4 Evaluate the integrals ∞ 0 dx . the function is an even function it can be extended to the negative axis. so ∞ 0 dx (x + 1) x + √ 1+i 3 2 x+ ln zdz √ 1+i 3 2 √ 1−i 3 2 √ 1−i 3 2 = = = 1 2πi ∞ 0 (z + 1) z + zi z+ Res f (z) √ ln zi √ ln (−1) −1 + 1+i 3 −1 + 1−i 3 2 2 √ √ √ π 3 π 3 iπ π 3 iπ =− + + + − 9 9 3 9 3 √ π 3 = 9 1 Arfken + ln √ −1−i 3 2 +1 √ −1−i 3 2 √ −1−i 3 2 + √ 1−i 3 2 + ln √ −1+i 3 2 + √ −1+i 3 2 √ √ 1+i 3 −1+i 3 2 2 +1 and Weber 5th 23 . The integral can be written as ∞ dx 1 + 2x + 2x2 + x3 0 ∞ dx = √ √ 1+i 3 0 (x + 1) x + 2 x + 1−i 3 2 From lecture ∞ ∞ ∞ f (z) ln zdz = − 0 f (x)dx ln xdx + 0 f (x)dx ln (x + 2πi)dx = 2πi 0 f (x)dx Or in terms of the real integral ∞ f (x)dx = 0 1 2πi f (z) ln zdz = − Res f (z) zi ln zi where zi are the poles. 1 2 ∞ −∞ dz 2πi 2 = 2 (z − i) (z + i) 2 −2 (zo + i)3 zo =i = πi 1 π = 4i 4 For the second integral. The poles are first order.4) For the first integral. because the contour is only of the upper plane. Applying equation 6. 1 + 2x2 + x4 ∞ ∞ 0 dx 1 + 2x + 2x2 + x3 ∞ (5. the use of natural logarithm as discussed in lecture will be applied.5. So dx 1 = 1 + 2x2 + x4 2 1 2 Now factor into its roots 1 2 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ 0 −∞ dx 1 + 2x2 + x4 So then map it in complex plane to find dz 1 + 2z 2 + z 4 ∞ −∞ dz 1 = 1 + 2z 2 + z 4 2 dz (z − i)2 (z + i)2 There are roots of second power.461 for z = i.

24 .

Chapter 6 725: Problem Set 6 6. Now group everything in terms of powers of x −Ax3 + Ax3 = 0 → Nothing is learned (A − B)x2 − 2Ax2 + Bx2 = 0 → A = 0 −Ax + Ax − 2Bx = x → B = −1/2 A − B + B = 0 → Nothing is learned So the particular solution is 1 yp = − e−x 2 Finally solve for the boundary condition y(0) = 0 → yh (0) + yp (0) = 0 1 1 y = C1 (1 + x )e − e−x → C1 (1 + 02 )e−0 − e−0 = 0 2 2 1 1 C1 − = 0 → C1 = 2 2 2 −x (6.1) −x + Be (1 + x2 )y + (1 − x)2 y = xe−x → (1 + x2 )× (−Ax + A − B) e−x + (1 − x)2 (Ax + B) e−x = xe−x Since e−x appears in every term it can be cancelled. dx Placing all the y’s on one side and the x’s the other (1 − x)2 dy =− dx → y 1 + x2 dy =− y (1 − x)2 dx 1 + x2 − ln C1 + ln y = −x + ln 1 + x2 → y = C1 (1 + x2 )e−x So the homogenous solution is yh = C1 (1 + x2 )e−x Now solve for the particular solution with the guess y = Axe −x (6.2) Then the solution is y= 1 1 1 (1 + x2 )e−x − e−x → y = x2 e−x 2 2 2 25 .1 Problem 1 Solve the ODE (1 + x2 )y + (1 − x)2 y(x) = xe−x with initial condition y(0) = 0 First solve the homogenous equation (1 + x2 )y + (1 − x)2 y(x) = 0 Writing y = dy .

ω2 = 671 + − 12 60 12 60 2e−ω1 ω1 − ω2 −2e−ω2 ω1 − ω2 −60ie √ 671 671 671 5 5 − 12 + i 60 + 12 − i 60 x √ √ + 60ie √ 671 6. y (1) = 2. Then adjust it to the initial condition y(0) = 9/20. Let’s guess that the solution has the form y = erx . y(1) = 0 → C1 eω1 + C2 eω2 = 0 → C2 = −C1 eω1 −ω2 Now the second condition y (1) = 2 → C1 ω1 eω1 + C2 ω2 eω2 = 2 C1 ω1 eω1 − C1 eω1 −ω2 ω2 eω2 = 2 C1 ω1 eω1 − ω2 eω1 −ω2 +ω2 = 2 C1 = Therefore C2 = −C1 eω1 −ω2 → C2 = The final solution is then y= y= 2e−ω1 ω1 x 2eω2 ω2 x e − e ω1 − ω2 ω1 − ω2 671 671 5 5 − 12 − i 60 + 12 + i 60 x √ √ 5 5 i √ i √ 671.2 Problem 2 9 y(x) 25 5 Solve the ODE y − 6 y + = 0 with initial conditions y(1) = 0. y (0) = 11/10 This differential equation can be written as (x − 1)2 y − 4(x − 1)y − 14y = (x − 1)3 − 7 26 . so the differential equation becomes r2 erx − 5 rx 9 rx re + e =0 6 25 5 9 r2 − r + =0 6 25 Solving for r r= 25 9 5 ± − 12 144 25 5 i √ = ± 671 12 60 √ 671)x i 5 + C2 e( 12 − 60 So the solution as the form i 5 y = C1 e( 12 + 60 √ 671)x For ease of calculation ω1 = Now solve for the boundary conditions.3 Problem 3 Solve (x2 − 2x + 1)y − 4(x − 1)y − 14y(x) = x3 − 3x2 + 3x − 8 for the general solution.6.

Explain. For y(−1) = 9/20 −C1 + C2 + 1/20 + 1/2 = 9/20 → C2 = C1 − 1/10 Now.4) (6. then differential becomes z 2 y − 4zy − 14y = z 3 − 7 The homogenous equation is just Euler differential equation with y = z p z p (p(p − 1) − 4p − 14) = 0 → p2 − 5p − 14 = 0 The solution for p is p = 7. because the second derivative is multiplied by z 2 and the first derivative is multiplied by z. all terms but the constant and z 3 are zero. The right hand side can be written as yy = Integrating both sides xy = d dx 1 2 y 2 → xy = 1 2 y + C1 2 d dx 1 2 y 2 The left hand side can be done by partial integration with u = x.D = 20 2 Therefore the particular solution is yp = −1 3 1 z + 20 2 (6. so xy = xy − y dx = xy − y + C1 27 .5) 6. ie B = C = 0. −2. y (−1) = 11/10 7C1 + 2 (C1 − 1/10) − 3/20 = 11/10 → C1 = 29/180 Then C2 = 29/180 − 1/10 → C2 = 11/180 The solution becomes when z = x − 1 is substituted back in y= 11 1 1 29 (x − 1)7 + (x − 1)−2 − (x − 1)3 + 180 180 20 2 (6.4 Problem 4 Determine the general solution of the ODE xy = y(x)y that depends on two integration constants.3) Finally for the constants with the boundary conditions y(−1) = 9/20 and y (−1) = 11/10. So 6Az 3 − 12Az 3 − 14Az 3 − 14D = z 3 − 7 −1 1 A= .Define z ≡ (x − 1). So the homogenous solution is then yh = C1 z 7 + C2 z −2 The particular solution is of the form y = Az 3 + Bz 2 + Cz + D Now. v = y and dv = y . Find another solution that cannot be obtained from the general solution. du = dx.

Therefore. then xy − y = Integrating both sides 1 2 y 2 1 2 y + C1 → 2 1 2 y 2 dy dx = x + y + C1 dy = + y + C1 1+y 2 tan−1 √ −1 + 2C1 Solving for y dx x √ −1 + 2C1 = ln x + C2 1+y tan−1 √ = −1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2 ) −1 + 2C1 1+y √ = tan −1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2 ) −1 + 2C1 √ −1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2 ) y = −1 + −1 + 2C1 tan The solution that depends on two constant is y = −1 + √ −1 + 2C1 tan −1/2 + C1 (ln x + C2 ) (6. This is a solution because 0 times any number is 0.6) The third solution that cannot be obtained form the general solution is y = constant.Combining the two constants in to one. y = 0. This solution cause the differential equation to become trivial. 28 . because y = 0.

Appendix A Special Functions Hi 29 .

18.Index Cauchy-Riemann Conditions. 19 30 .

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