AP Government & Politics – 2005-2006 Chapter 1 (The Study of American Government

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Part I. Multiple choice. Choose the best answer. 1. The two great questions about politics addressed by your text are [A] Who runs for office? and Who pays? [B] Who votes? and Why? [C] For how long? [D] Who governs? and To what ends? [E] Who is right? and Why? 2. The relationship between the two central questions addressed by your text “Who governs? and To what ends?” can best be described in what way? [A] They are two separate and distinct questions that should be addressed without reference to each other. [B] They are essentially two different versions of the same question. [C] They are questions which cannot be separated without considering the very nature of politics. [D] Who governs? deals with the purpose of politics; To what ends? deals with who holds political power. [E] They are two distinct questions, but each must be considered with the other in mind. 3. Today, the U.S. federal income tax takes an average of what percent of taxpayers’ income? [A] 10 [B] 21 [C] 15 [D] 45 [E] 43 4. The text argues that political power is inextricably bound with [A] an elitist attitude. [B] religious and moral values. [C] economic theories. [D] mass media power. [E] political purposes. 5. Power is best defined as the capacity to [A] respect your positions without fully believing them. [B] make and carry out decisions without regard to others. [C] persuade others to do what they do not want to do. [D] believe in others while motivating yourself. [E] get others to act in accordance with your intentions. 6. The president’s husband gets her to change her position on abortion. Is this an example of political power, according to your text’s definition? [A] No, because abortion is not mentioned in the Constitution. [B] Yes, because she’s gotten the president to act according to her intentions. [C] Yes, because the spouse of a president is a legitimate member of a political elite. [D] No, because the spouse of a president lacks the formal authority to exercise political power. [E] No, because the exercise of political power requires overt action.

[E] altruistic. The primary source of legitimate political authority in the United States is the [A] notion of civil rights. and the New Deal as examples of struggles over [A] who shall govern. [B] how power is accumulated. when.7. [C] will of the people. no government at any level would be considered legitimate if it were not in some sense [A] aristocratic. Constitution. the Civil War. [B] governmental office. [D] majority vote. The texts suggests that. [E] consensus. [E] who gets what. The author cites the early presidential administrations. .S. [D] considerably less. [D] elitist. [E] concept of civil liberty. political [D] economic. [D] when progress is possible. The text notes a tendency for issues that once were ________ to become ________. [E] slightly less. Compared with the 1950s. government’s involvement in the everyday lives of Americans in the 1990s is [A] considerably greater. in the United States. [B] slightly greater. [C] about the same. [A] private. 13. gradually 12. When did the U. [C] official ceremony. Constitution become a source of legitimate authority? [A] when it was written in Philadelphia [B] at the time of the American Revolution [C] only in recent years [D] after the Supreme Court’s decision in Marbury [E] after 1787. [C] democratic. 11. [D] Bill of Rights. secret 8. Formal authority refers to a right to exercise power that is derived from a(n) [A] popular consensus. [B] U. social [E] public. public [B] simple. 10. [C] what constitutes legitimate authority.S. 9. complicated [C] social. [B] humanitarian. and how.

[B] the “rule of the many. [D] Aristotle. [D] already waning. [C] Kierkegaard. [B] dialectical. The Greek city-state. [E] direct democracy. [C] inefficient. The arrangement by which individuals gain power through competition for the people’s vote is called [A] democratic centralism. 19. [D] the AFL-CIO. House of Representatives. [E] the Constitutional Convention. . At the time of the Constitutional Convention. [B] the Southeastern United States before the Civil War. 1 Test 3 14. [D] power. [E] Vladimir Lenin. 15. In recent times. [C] the New England town meeting. [C] minds. [E] votes. [C] close to unanimous. The term democracy was originally associated with [A] Thomas Jefferson. [E] held by an elite only. the view that a democratic government was desirable was [A] beyond debate. [B] Jesus Christ. [B] consciousness. Max Weber argued that the decision making of a dominant bureaucracy was more likely to be [A] indefensible. 18. 16. [D] participatory democracy. [B] slaves.S.Ch. [D] circular. Joseph Schumpeter defined democracy as the competitive struggle for people’s [A] hearts. Aristotle’s ideal of democracy has been most closely approximated by [A] the U. [C] those without property.” [C] representative democracy. [B] far from unanimous. [E] rational. 20. or polis extended the right to vote to everyone except [A] women. [E] All of these. [D] minors. 17.

[C] majoritarian politics.21. [B] the government frequently changes hands. [B] an enlightened public. [B] it serves special interests. [D] more campaign money comes from private sources. Democracy in the United States is distinguished from many European democracies by the fact that. The representative relies on a poll of her constituents to make a decision. [D] participatory politics.S. [B] the government frequently changes hands. [B] elitist politics. in the United States. The Framers of the U. [E] reciprocal politics. 24. 27. . [D] more campaign money comes from public sources. [E] A and C. [D] it does not adequately protect basic liberties. Under what circumstances would majoritarian politics normally not be effective? [A] when a political leader feels sharply constrained by what most people want [B] when an issue is sufficiently important to command the attention of most citizens [C] when an issue is sufficiently feasible so that what citizens want done can in fact be done [D] when an issue is too complicated or technical for most citizens to understand [E] All of these. [A] the government plays a more active role in elections. [E] more people participate in the electoral process. in the United States. constitution favored [A] Socialism [B] direct democracy [C] participatory democracy [D] Marxism [E] representative democracy 25. The key to the success of a representative democracy is [A] community control of policy formulation. [A] the government plays a more active role in elections. money to spend on a new school. [C] the direct participation of citizens in holding office. [C] many more offices are elective. [C] more people participate in the electoral process. Democracy in the United States is distinguished from many European democracies by the fact that. This is in keeping with the form of politics known as [A] pluralist politics. A city council representative faces an important vote on how much. [E] fewer offices are elective. [D] genuine competition for leadership. [C] it is unresponsive to majority opinion. if any. 26. 23. [E] the direct participation of citizens in making policy. 22. Critics of representative democracy have pointed out all of the following except [A] it responds too slowly.

and Max Weber are cited in the text as theorists who attempted to explain the [A] fate of political institutions. [B] industrialists and capitalists. [D] capitalists and workers. C. [D] service to defense corporations. [B] the collective. [E] intelligentsia and bourgeoisie. [E] capitalists. Karl Marx.C. [D] a political elite. [E] imperialists. 1 Test 5 28. [E] exercise in bargaining and compromise. 32. Marxists refer to those who own the means of production as [A] bureaucrats. electorate. [D] the proletariat. Wright Mills.S. in modern society. [B] majoritarians. Marx’s view of government would dispose one to view an administration’s proposal of a large military budget as a(n) [A] search for national security. 31. [C] city dwellers and farmers. Marxists claim that. [C] ploy to appease the international community. [C] the bourgeoisie. [D] behavior of the U. The term participatory democracy applies most accurately to which of the following societies? [A] the Southeastern United States before the Civil War [B] modern China [C] Greece in the fourth century B. [C] centralists. [D] the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1990 [E] the United States since 1787 30. [B] threat to world peace. 34. 33. Marxists analyze society primarily through the lens of [A] pluralism [B] race [C] bureaucracy [D] class [E] institutions . 29. Those who possess a disproportionate share of political power are defined as [A] officeholders.Ch. the two major classes contending for power are the [A] government and proletariat. [C] dynamics of Western history. [B] fall of Western European capitalists. [E] behavior of political elites.

[B] top military officials [C] corporate leaders. [E] material dialecticalism as a starting point to politics. namely.35. Wright Mills. [C] the spread of socialist ideology. the [A] bureaucracy. Wright Mills would be most likely to agree on [A] the centrality of a constitution and laws. [D] Auguste Comte. . [B] Mills and Dahl. Karl Marx and C. 38. Max Weber argued that Karl Marx had neglected the most important institution in modern times. [C] the elitists and Max Weber. [D] The Power Elite. Wright Mills suggested the most important policies are set by [A] a handful of key political leaders. [B] The Proletarian Lament. [B] media. [C] C. C. [B] the existence of a small power elite. [D] the pluralists and the Marxists. That extragovernmental elites do not control politics could be agreed on by both [A] the Marxists and the elitists. [D] All of these. 40. [E] Bureaucracy and its Critics. Jr. [E] mass media. [D] No single elite has a monopoly on political resources. [E] Political elites are divided. [B] Max Weber. [C] Policies are the result of a complex pattern of shifting alliances. [C] military. [E] William F. 36. [D] university. Buckley. 37. [E] None of these. The pluralist view holds all of the following except [A] Political resources are not distributed equally. [B] Political elites do not respond to the interests of their followers. The founder of the elitist school in contemporary America was [A] Ralph Abernathy. [D] the diffusion of vital political resources. Wright Mills expresses his view of power and policy making in his work entitled [A] The Inner Circle. 39. 41. [C] The Owners of Production. [E] Max Weber and the pluralists. C.

[C] Marxists. [D] expansionist and imperialist tendencies. 47.Ch. 44. [D] acceptable if courts were policy makers. to infer the distribution of political power from studying the laws on the books would be [A] too ambitious an undertaking. According to your text. The decentralization of political resources would be emphasized by the [A] pluralists. [E] too simplistic an approach. [C] workable most of the time. [D] Marxists.S. [C] when economic circumstances are properly assessed. [B] structuralists. 1 Test 7 42. [C] political preferences can be predicted invariably by knowing an individual’s economic or organizational position. [E] on the basis of general ideological suppositions about modern society. The text cites the AFL-CIO’s civil rights position in the 1960s as an example of [A] an innocent bystander caught up in a battle between opposing forces. but not always. [E] self-interest is rarely an important factor in understanding political attitudes and behavior. [B] more reliably prospectively than retrospectively. [B] isolationists. [C] how economic interests lead directly to policy preferences. [D] only after watching them act on a variety of important issues. [E] structuralists. 45. . [E] the subtle ways in which obstructionism can be exercised in Washington. [B] economic self-interest may be important but is usually not the only guide to people’s actions. 48. 46. Regarding the role of self-interest in the positions that people take on important issues. [C] elitists. [E] inward and outward movements. [E] isolationists. [B] the best single approach. [B] an organization as a whole acting politically out of considerations broader than its members’ individual interests. involvement in foreign affairs alternates between [A] good and bad influences. it is safest to say that [A] organizational self-interest rather than economic self-interest is usually the best guide to people’s actions. Those who emphasize the role in politics of shifting coalitions of groups are referred to as [A] elitists. [D] pluralists. Your text argues that the history of U. [C] realism and idealism. The text asserts that judgments about institutions and interests can be made [A] only when one takes the time to accumulate sufficient sociological data. [D] the self-interest of individuals is usually a complete guide to their actions. 43. [D] the manner in which interest groups can impose their viewpoints on large majorities. [B] Yankee and cowboy leadership.

[C] the founding of the national government at the Constitutional Convention. The text concludes that the place to begin exploring how power is conducted in national politics is [A] the political parties. [E] the study of how children acquire their political attitudes. .49. [B] the current confrontation between Democrats and Republicans. [D] the dissection of case studies of recent policy decisions.

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