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Table of Contents 1. 2. Introduction – Renewable energies forge ahead – but from a low base History of renewable energy - Wind energy - Solar energy - Hydroelectric energy - Biomass energy - Tidal energy - Combined heat and power energy - Geothermal energy EU imposes green energy targets on its member governments EU framework research programme offers millions of euros to renewable energy companies Renewable energy means transport too Market Studies & Reports

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Although not doubt it will in due course. 2009 www. which include: bioenergy. heating. wind and combined heat-and-power produced just 0. Introduction – Renewable energies forge ahead – but from a low base MAYBE the best sign that renewable energies have hit the mainstream is that they now have their very own international organisation: the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). hydro power produced 2. everything – renewable energy is very small beer indeed. and wind energy. geothermal energy. it still has a huge amount of ground to cover until it really becomes a serious alternative to using conventional fuels. There’s also a lot of it about – and a lot more than before. said a communiqué: “…practical advice and support for both industrialised and developing for its website).” And maybe. At its not just electricity generation. security of supply. including tidal. The agency will be the global platform for renewable energies. it is this organisation that should be consulted over what renewable energy actually is – given the rich diversity of its production methods. Spain. solar energy. also transport. The IEA has been around for years and releases regular and reliable energy statistics and it shows that although growth in green energy has been marked. solar. So the best source for this information is ironically the International Energy Agency (IEA). IRENA will promote green energy. renewable energy means all forms of energy produced from renewable sources in a sustainable manner. According to article III of IRENA’s founding statute.irena. Germany.” (See . France and Sweden. Launched in Bonn. ocean energy.2%. hydropower. up from © Chiltern Magazine Services cooling. wave and ocean thermal energy. economic growth and employment. including its host nation. with the support of 76 countries. Germany’s federal environment minister Sigmar Gabriel was succinct in his praise for an initiative that really is a German baby: “Many countries have recognised the opportunities which renewable energies offer for climate protection. but they my sign up eventually.6% of all energy (up from 0. So there we have it: green energy in a nutshell. IRENA gives renewables an international voice and political impetus. how much? IRENA has not been around long enough to answer this question. providing. this January. given that IRENA is renewable energy’s new global guardian. tidal. whose expertise and supposed focus on conventional energy production was one reason behind the launch of IRENA. Its latest worldwide statistics issued in 2008 showed that looking at the global total primary energy supply . the roster of signatory nations has since been swollen by India and Belarus. In 2006 geothermal. Britain and the United States have yet to become signatories. Question is. of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Italy.1% in 1973).1.

2009 www. renewable energy is still flavour of the month amongst public policy makers worldwide. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. And the truth is that renewable energy has been growing. and the proportion of energy created by combustible renewables and waste actually fell from 10. so many debates.2%. for a lot of the world. while another environmental bugbear.1. rose from .Brazil. Meanwhile. Yet. it is not surprising there are skeptics.6% in 1973 to 10.4%. including all (wealthy country) OECD members and the so-called BRICS key emerging market countries .” So.8% in 1973. given the sluggish growth of renewable energy worldwide. And that filthiest of fossil fuel sources coal and peat was actually used proportionally more in 2006 than 1973 (26% compared 24.9% to 6. It is against this backdrop that the European Union (EU) ahead of Christmas gave itself a 2020 deadline to increase to 20% the proportion of renewable energy generated for its citizens regarding gross energy production. So what price renewable energy? There has been so much talk. Is this a Quixotic goal. albeit from a tiny base. The IEA knows this and last year released the results of a first comparative analysis of the performance of the various renewables promotion policies around the world. renewables are barely a blip on the energy radar. Coal – that Victorian-age fuel – is still way more important. natural gas’ slice of the energy pie rose from 16% to 20. quoting the famous Spanish knight who tilted at windmills? Well. We all know that harnessing nature’s forces to produce energy without releasing the pollution involved in burning fossil fuels just has to be good idea.1% to 34. “these 35 countries accounted for 80% of total global commercial renewable electricity generation.5% and that is before we factor in the huge increase in actual power generated in these years). and also very unevenly: rich countries have been doing much more than poor countries – photovoltaic solar cells just are not a priority in Burkina Faso and Afghanistan. although the proportion of energy coming from oil fell from China and South Africa. 77% of commercial renewable heating/cooling (excluding the use of traditional biomass) and 98% of renewable transport fuel production.1% in 2006. nuclear energy production. so many policy papers.5%. This looked at 35 countries. India. Russia. The USA’s President Barack Obama is backing investment into green energy publicly and in his American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 where – US$16. It noted that in 2005. but the actual increase in its use actually seems so slight.8 billion – yes that much – has been earmarked for promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Meanwhile rooftop solar heat collectors now provide hot water to nearly 50 million households worldwide. “This translates into 1. As for biomass and geothermal energy systems. said the report. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.But we have to start somewhere.” noted the report. Looking at the details. “So much has happened in the renewable energy sector during the past five years that the perceptions of some politicians and energy-sector analysts lag far behind the reality of where the renewables industry is today. to 240 gigawatts. with another estimated 2. it said the largest aspect of this renewable power capacity growth was wind power. Enter the optimists of the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) which issues annual reports on the progress of the green energy sector in collaboration with the Worldwatch Institute. which grew by more than 25% worldwide in 2007. Ethanol production in 2007 represented about 4% of the the fastest growing energy technology in the world (from a much lower base) was grid-connected solar photovoltaics. with existing solar hot water/heating capacity increasing by 19% in 2006 to reach 105 gigawatts-thermal globally. heating and other key energy issues).300 billion litres of petrol consumed globally. However. global wind generating capacity is estimated to have increased 28% while grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity rose 52%. with a 50% annual increase in cumulative installed capacity in both 2006 and .7GW.4% of global power generation. up 43% from 2005 (with 2008 figures expected to much higher still). said this survey. And the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) exceeded an estimated 53 billion litres in 2007. now accounting for 2. to an estimated 7. it said. policies.” noting that in 2007. chair of REN21. Large hydropower itself accounted for 15% of global power generation. Its latest study. It claimed the renewable energy sector has doubled electricity generating capacity since 2004. the Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (issued in 2008) painted an encouraging picture at least as far as the electricity generating sector is concerned (so excluding transport.7GW of stand-alone systems bringing global photovoltaic capacity to more than 10GW. This report said renewable energy in 2007 represented 5% of global power capacity and 3. 2009 www. to an estimated 95GW. more than 2 million groundsource heat pumps were used in 30 countries for heating and cooling of buildings in 2007.” said Mohamed El-Ashry. It hailed “rapidly expanding renewable energy markets.4 million jobs globally in the process.5 million homes with rooftop solar PV feeding into the grid worldwide. New renewable energy (not counting large hydropower) generated as much electric power worldwide in 2006 as one-quarter of the world’s nuclear power plants. it noted. and rural applications around the world. industries. with annual biodiesel production increasing by more than 50% in 2006.

They will create the economies of scale that will enable the renewable energy industry to finally spread around the world.” According to the IEA renewable energy promotion policies should include five key principles if they are to be effective: *Removing non-economic barriers. If these were removed. As a result. *The need for predictable and transparent administrative and legal support systems to attract investments from the private sector. He continued: “Governments need to do more. and eventually to apply © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. To foster a smooth and efficient transition of renewables towards mass market integration.1% (hydro by 4%). especially in liberalised energy markets. 2009 www. and *Consideration of the impact of large-scale penetration of renewable energy technologies on the overall energy system. renewable energy production rose in the OECD counties by 21. it “could allow the great potential of renewables to be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent”. such as administrative hurdles.All this growth is also born out by the IEA. obstacles to grid access. the IEA has tried to identify what has been holding up the growth of green energy. transparent and stable policy frameworks and implemented in an integrated approach. lack of information and training. poor electricity market design. to foster and monitor technological innovation and move renewable energy technologies quickly towards market competitiveness. customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity. If they are sustained over time. said IEA executive director Nobuo Tanaka. “Governments need to take urgent action”. Its comparative analysis report has claimed there are still significant barriers which hamper a swift expansion and increase the costs of accelerating renewables’ transition into the mainstream. “We encourage them to develop carefully designed policy frameworks. Given that it will be these rich countries that will lead the way with green energy growth these IEA figures are important. and the tackling of social acceptance issues (such as opposing ugly windmills in a pretty environment). inserted into predictable. decreasing over time. Mr Tanaka . renewable energy policies should be designed around a set of fundamental principles. So these are impressive growth rates. Its December 2008 electricity production bulletin showed that from January to December of that *Introducing transitional targeted subsidies and tax breaks. renewable energies really could save our bacon in a world facing seemingly inevitable global warming cased by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas production. with regard to overall cost efficiency and system reliability. Setting a carbon price is not enough. when releasing the study.

In its founding statute. monitor and…systematise current renewable energy practices. and maybe this is where IRENA will help. Moving a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies towards full market integration is one of the main elements needed to make the energy technology revolution happen. *Improve pertinent knowledge and technology transfer and promote the development of local capacity and competence…including [the] necessary interconnections. . This will be valuable work. Take these words from Kenneth Konga.” This is all very ambitious depleted energy resources. *Provide relevant policy advice and assistance to its members…and stimulate international discussions on renewable energy policy. and is charged with helping all energy sectors thrive. IRENA will work exclusively on renewables though. integrated systems and equipment. best practices. investment mechanisms. including policy instruments. the agency is charged with being “a centre of excellence for renewable energy technology…acting as a facilitator and catalyst. albeit in a sustainable way. and given the uneven development of renewable energy thus far around the world. *Initiate discussion and ensure interaction with other governmental and nongovernmental organisations and networks. *Offer capacity building including training and education to its members. The IEA does indeed have a wide brief. *Stimulate and encourage research. providing experience for practical applications and policies. 2009 www. *Provide information about the development and deployment of national and international technical standards in relation to renewable energy. *Provide advice and assistance on sourcing finance for renewable energy. For if they become affordable and widely available. it may well be that its greatest impact will be in the poorest countries who have yet to avail themselves of these key technologies. and.appropriate incentives such as a carbon price for more mature renewables. spoken at IRENA’s launch. and global warming demand that renewable sources of energy are rapidly developed…” And stressing that green energy really matters to the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Zambia’s energy and water development ministers. they could make a huge difference. high energy prices.” As such its experts will: *Analyse. available technologies. offering support on all matters relating to renewable energy and helping countries to benefit from the efficient development and transfer of knowledge and technology. and success-failure factors. “Renewable energy is one of the key solutions to the current challenges facing the global energy situation. *Disseminate information and increase public awareness on the benefits and potential offered by renewable energy. Increasing population.

Charles F Bush built ‘The Bush Machine’ with a multi-bladed rotor 17 meters in diameter. countries worldwide are now looking for more environmentally friendly ways to provide their societies with energy. including Russia. following the Industrial Revolution. in Cleveland. As a result. ancient civilisations have channelled the power of renewable energy to complete daily tasks and help to further their economic and social development. traditional renewable energy practices were unable to be met the enormous demand for energy by industries. for instance off Denmark.” 2. However. Wind energy Wind power was harnessed by many early civilisations. However. Germany and Denmark. This system was developed and windmills were designed to provide rural communities with electricity. warm their homes and drive their cars. where the basic design of these renewable energy systems was developed to incorporate propeller–styled blades made with sails. the design of windmills would vary. such as wind. In the United States. From grinding grains to pumping water. he concluded: “The task of providing energy in my country is so huge that renewable energy is the most sustainable way through which this basic need can be provided to our people. However. which powered batteries in his and of course that their supply is finite. then to power lines that carried electricity from the urban centers in the 1930s. These technologies have been given an © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. The concept caught on and depending on region where they were located. solar and . The design of a high-energy producing windmill was refined and sophisticated by various countries. and banks of windturbines are being built offshore. History of renewable energy THROUGHOUT history. Now. to complete daily tasks. early colonists used windmills to grind wheat into flour.poor. have played significant roles in the pre-industrialised world. certain green technologies became obsolete and the world became dependent on fossil fuels to power industries. Possibly the most famous traditional use of windmills are the iconic figures in Holland. The vertical-axis design used in these eastern civilizations was different from the horizontal-axis design recognised in the Western world. The first windmills were thought to have originated in Iran (then Persia) between 500-900AD and were used primarily to grind wheat and other grains and also to pump water. a variety of renewable energy sources. a sprawling sea of windmills can be seen just outside of Palm Springs. from the Babylonians to Chinese farmers. following an understanding that the pollution caused by fossil fuels could have significant environmental implications. 2009 www. what is believed to be the first a windmill being used to generate electricity was developed in 1888. California. pump water and cut wood at sawmills. Ohio.

Chapin and Fuller’s energy cell in the hope of decreasing the global dependence on oil. 2009 www. In the USA. they were able to use this passive solar design as a means to light and heat indoor spaces and cut down on the amount of wood burned for energy. The New York Times proclaimed that the discovery meant the “beginning of a new era. the sun’s rays have been channelled by various inventors including France’s Auguste Mouchout. Then. who designed the first active solar . Global Solar Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe. Leading Countries in Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world..Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so. In 1861.additional boost by concerns about global warming. As the 20th century came and went. As the technology has developed the price of solar photovoltaic cells has dropped and the market for PV energy sources is quickly developing at a rate of 30% per year. little progress was made in developing solar energy until 1953. By designing their homes to face the winter sun. three US-based scientists Gerald Pearson. Then. that a global push for solar energy was accepted as a reliable source of electricity. the US government made massive investments into Pearson.” But it was only until the 1970s and the Arab oil embargo..(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change. Governments across the world now offer financial assistance for those interesting in installing solar cells. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source.. proved to be too expensive to power during a time where the price of coal was rapidly falling. which was capable of generating a measurable electric current.(more) Solar energy Ancient Greece and Rome were the first civilisations to realise the true power of the sun as a source of energy. an important benefit when the cost of removing pollutants from the environment is c. Daryl Chapin and Clavin Fuller developed the first silicon solar cell. development of solar energy dates back more than 100 years. to the middle of the industrial revolution. California’s wind turbines produce double the wind energy than any other US state. leading eventually to the realisation of harnessing the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilisation. which although Mouchout invented a steam engine powered entirely by the sun. Solar energy is pollution-free. but they were also made popular in the 1970s following oil shortages. Since then.

Analyzing Hydropower Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. In 1975. were unable to function properly in fast-moving creeks and waterfalls. which took the traditionally used waterwheel and modified it to a technology that could produce energy for the machinery and mills used during the north American gold rushes of the time. These water turbines. As with wind energy.000 deaths were caused because of disease and famine created by the disaster. Niagara Falls. Looking into the future. Grand Coulee and Boulder Dam. hydro power could become increasingly controversial because of their hydrological impact and the fact that greenhouse gases that are produced as a result of the decaying trees and other organic matter submerged under water during the creation of reservoirs. patenting his design in 1880. But critics of hydroelectricity are quick to point out the flaws and potential dangers of such feats of engineering. Water in motion. however.all. such as ocean waves. the oldest generators of hydropower were traditionally used to grind flour and grains for mills. water has met most of them or in some cases . and the Three Gorges dam in China are justly famous (and controversial). the Banqiao hydroelectric dam in China collapsed during Typhoon Nina – 26. The Egypt’s Aswan dam on the Nile. tides and currents have played a key role in the development of renewable energy sources. Nature’s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin..000 people were killed as a result of the collapse and another 145.. The father of . have become more than just a producer of renewable energy but tourist attractions. And waterwheels have provided electricity for small rural farming communities by channelling the power of large rivers since the late 1800s. Lester Allan Pelton designed the free-jet water turbine. Some of the most famous examples of hydroelectricity in north energy Water is surprisingly powerful. the Pelton Wheel. The sheer force of water flowing downstream from a moderately-sized river can exceed several million horsepower and slice through mountain ranges or haul billions of tonnes of soil into the ocean. Energy is created when the power produced through the gravitational force of falling or flowing water is channelled. Now hydroenergy seems to be almost old fashioned. 2009 www.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.

. Also. as the 20th century drew to a close and countries became more concerned with the impact fossil fuels have on their environment.Biomass energy Biomass. This has long been used.000 service stations sold ‘gasohol’. the quadricycle with ethanol. in parts of the country with exceptionally high levels of carbon monoxide. And during the 1920s and 1930s. Henry Ford fueled one of his first automobiles. the ethanol fuel industry closed down because of the import of low-cost petroleum fuels following the massive development of oil production. However. such as wood and food production waste. Rudolf Diesel designed a diesel engine to run on peanut oil. Biomass fuels. And the United States mandated the 1990 Clean Air Act. In late 2006/early 2007 prices began to subside. bio-based alternatives s began to be a point of energy policy reform for many western countries. while the German inventor. The European Union has also been increasingly promoting the use of biomass both for liquid fuels and also for electricity. for instance in . includes materials like straw and manure. especially in the Middle East.. Biomass as a source of energy continued to become more and more obsolete with the adoption of electricity and natural gas as a way of heating homes and commercial buildings. an ethanol fuel derived from maize. The law influenced the growth of ethanol production in the USA. into useable feedstocks for electricity and heat generators. Various innovators and industries have used different forms of biomass to power a range of electricity generating designs. which promoted the sale of oxygenated fuels. The painful experience of national economies. In the 1880s. But following World War II. particularly ethanol. more than 2. primarily wood. Brazil had long used ethanol as a fuel for its automobile industry. was once the major source of power prior to the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s. such as ethanol-blended gasoline. were expected to be the main source of fuel for motor vehicles in the United States.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. scientists are increasingly focusing on designs for converting bio-mass waste. which refers to any form of plant or animal tissue that can be transformed into a source of energy. The term. with its peat-fired power plants. Understanding Biofuels Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The topic of biofuels has drawn increased interest worldwide in the wake of steeply-climbing fossil fuel prices in 2005-2006. 2009 www. but are unlikely to return to their former

An emerging industryThe wave and tidal sectors ar. twice a day.. the water would be released through an energy-conversion device. Proposals for tidal barrages have often proved controversial because as well as being expensive. when the first tidal energy plants were designed with a dam built across a tidal basin. the industrialised world required much more energy then early tidal barrages were capable of producing and so the industries looked to fossil fuels as a power source. for instance near Swansea. UK. Another commercial plant in Nova Scotia. block navigation. These factors have slowed the innovation of tidal energy technologies and have forced many environmentally conscious energy producers. the first modern-era tidal power plant was built outside St Malo. As with most renewable energy sources. The World Wave and Tidal Market Report 2009-2013 Published by Douglas-Westwood in December 2008 A new renewable energy sector reportThe World Wave & Tidal Market Report is a new report focusing on the current and future however. they require massive structures. Once this was filled with water from the rising tide.(more) Combined heat and power energy Combined heat and power (CHP) utilises a fuel source .when reciprocating steam engines powered the first electric generators. There are other objections too: because of their sheer size. where it has since operated a bulb-type hydroelectric turbine. The use of tidal power dates back to 900 AD according to some historians. In 1965. Benefits of this system include lower levels of emission than conventional heating systems. Initially this system of heating was introduced in the 1880’s – a key time for renewable energy innovation .renewable or fossil .to provide electric and thermal energy to a facility at a more efficient rate than if electricity and thermal energy were being provided separately. such as a waterwheel or a paddlewheel. in South . which are difficult to build in saltwater environments. oceans and estuaries. 2009 www. The energy was then used to grind grains into flour and would last for about two to three hours. to look at alternative methods to produce power from renewable sources. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. and there are other.Tidal energy Tidal energy is a largely untapped source of renewable energy that depends solely on the moon’s gravitational pull on our seas. technologies and markets for the wave and tidal current stream sectors. smaller barrages around the world. while changing intertidal zones and downstream tidal systems. in northern France. barrages can impede fish migration. eastern Canada operates a 16-watt turbine.

healing and as a source of heat. there are 69 generating geothermal plants in 18 different sites across the USA and other parts of the world are increasingly developing geothermal energy technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. 2009 www. coal became readily available for the power sector and relatively cheap making it the choice for electricity generation. Geothermal power development has generally thus far only been popular where geological conditions make it cheaper and easier to use. However. the 1960s saw the development of geothermal electricity plants at The Geysers in Sonoma . Presently. CHP was widely popular during the later Industrial Revolution for specific industries. petroleum and petrochemical plants.000 years ago by the American Paleo-Indians. such as the production of pottery and sugar. Reykjavik. where a system provided energy to 200 homes and 40 downtown businesses. In Europe. California. most European Union countries. Today. Following the ‘energy crisis’ of the 1970s. who used hot springs for bathing. However. While a steam reciprocating engine was used to power wheels and crushing mills. the development of electricity production and geothermal heat pumps helped boost spa and resort markets in Europe and the United States. the United States found that by building larger plants capable of joint thermal and electric output. receive about 9% of their power from CHP generators. Geothermal energy Geothermal energy really does go way back. is powered by geothermal energy from the volcanic and seismic activity below this geological stripling of a country. in the American mountain west. it was not until 1892 that geothermal energy was developed to heat an actual district: in Boise.The waste steam produced by these inefficient machines was sent through pipes for space heating. The early 1900s saw the first geothermal electric power plant being invented in Italy by scientist Piero Ginori Conti who set up this groundbreaking equipment at the Larderello dry steam field. such as pulp and paper. Analyzing Geothermal Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. during the 20th century. the excess steam could be used to dry and heat the finished product. The first use of geothermal energy is an estimated 10. Today. In the United States. the capital of Iceland. as well as the United States. However. Idaho. And in the early 1800s. they could reduce the demand for it was still not until the 1980’s that the USA saw a rapid growth for CHP capacity in large industries. the Romans created bathhouses that relied solely on geothermal waters to fill their pools while at the same time heat their homes. as with other green energy systems.

But energy players have pointed out these targets are set against the existing small size of renewable energy consumption in both countries. At the other end of the scale that traditional European paragon of virtue. expect an aggressive response from Brussels – politically and legally.9% to 11%. tiny Luxembourg from 0. And Finland is planning to expand its hydro and bio-mass power © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. and Cyprus (2. this is supposed to be an average of 20%. this is just 15%. Sweden. from an already high 39. and for Ireland 16%. through the European Court of Justice (ECJ). in the crunchy numbers of the national targets. But this is not really the number that matters.1% in Ireland. If governments falter or waver in their determination to increase the amount of renewable energy consumed in their national territories. the capital and the infrastructure in place that they can build upon. and the Netherlands from 2. So the devil really is in this detail. but can at least expect to exploit improving solar power . with its growth being sanctioned by ambitious legislation approved before Christmas. the European Union’s (EU) renewable energy sector knew that it had truly entered the mainstream of EU electricity markets. and a barely more respectable 3. and transport energy consumption. It is the national targets that have teeth. taking into account electricity.3% for Britain in 2005. and which will be policed by the European Commission. 2009 www. the European Parliament and EU ministers approved a new EU directive imposing mandatory national targets for the 27 member states regarding the portion of their gross final consumption of energy in 2020 coming from renewable sources. Hydropower rich Latvia is committed to a 40% target – up from 32. Across the EU. growth might be that much more difficult than in those countries that already have decent-sized renewable energy sectors. Sun-drenched (but water parched) Malta (from zero to 14%). and hence the expertise. For the UK.have been granted targets below the pan-EU 20% to 14%. heating and cooling.8% thanks to significant hydro and biomass usage. topped the commitment list – promising to increase its renewable energy consumption to 49%. And given that these countries are starting from low base.3.9% to 13%) will face similar issues.2% 2005 renewable consumption to 13% in 2020). Environmentalists were disappointed that some notorious renewables laggards with comparatively strong economies (even as they sink into recession) . After more than a year of debates. which the EU assessed as being a miniscule 1. Other countries that will face similarly tough tasks will include the densely populated Low Countries: Belgium (told to increase its 2. EU imposes green energy targets on its member governments AS 2009 dawned.6%.such as Britain and Ireland .

which will henceforth be far more sustainable than in the and others. and involve much lower production of greenhouse gas. Complex statistical work will be required and although there will inevitably be flexibility involved in the way that governments respond. if these numbers are achieved.production base to reach a 38% target.3%. regional and national authorities. with a 34% target – probably expanding its use of hydro sources which accounted for much of its 23. Speaking to the European Parliament ahead of its final vote on the law on December 17. It is a key issue and it will inevitably stop governments focusing entirely on boosting renewable energy production by utilities. the directive includes a wide range of detailed clauses that say what can be plugged into the necessary statistical equations and what cannot. We are proposing a profound change. up from 28.up from 5. That will allow new technologies to penetrate the market and not be marginal. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. joint projects with other member states. although it may still need to extend the life of its threatened nuclear plants to guarantee energy security of supply. they will change the face of EU energy production. Austria will be another major contributor to the EU’s 20% goal. heating and cooling services provided by utilities will depend on the share which national governments allocate to these sub-sectors in their expansion of renewable energy.up from 10. policies to develop existing (or mobilise new) biomass resources. Regardless of the debates. How other considerations will shape member states’ achievement of their final target is spelt out in the . Maybe the most important of these is the survival of the pledge in the legislation that “the share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport in 2020 is at least 10% of final consumption of energy in transport in that member state”.” But of course how these translate into actual increases in green electricity.5%. 2009 www. up from 17% in 2005.2% in 2005. Germany has set itself an ambitious goal of deriving 18% of energy from renewable sources (up from 5. And wind power specialist Denmark has a 30% target. the impact of cooperation between local. France is similarly ambitious – a goal of 23% . but its impact on green electricity. And Italy has a slightly less imposing target of 17% .3% renewables energy consumption share in 2005 – it also has significant potential biomass feedstocks. Looking at the EU’s larger countries. These include energy efficiency initiatives. EU energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs said: “The binding nature of the target will mean measures and support schemes for member states using renewable energy will be predictable and long term. So these calculations will be complex and the next step will be the development of detailed national renewable energy action plans by national governments.8%). heat and cooling growth will of depend on existing biofuel consumption.

But in his speech to MEPs. especially as regards the share of different technologies within increases in green .” One area where the Commission will most certainly be looking for innovation will be ensuring renewable electricity producers have adequate connections to the grid. that today is more costly compared with wind technology. but it does not necessarily mean that any technology should be excluded. a directive was chosen as the form of EU legislation used – these laws always give member states effective leeway over implementation). These plans will include the detail that utilities will want to know. where governments must “by 2015…where appropriate. especially given the technical immaturity of many relevant systems. 2009 www. solar © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Mr Piebalgs said such diversity was no bad And given the diversity of starting points in Europe regarding the climatic.which must be submitted to the European Commission by June 2010. This will be based upon a template released by Brussels by June 2009. We are looking for massive investments where it is cheaper. for instance on building codes. namely the “national targets for the shares of energy from renewable sources in transport. solar energy. of minimum levels of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and (renovated) buildings. electricity and heating and cooling in 2020”. geographical and industrial status quo. for example. telling the parliament: “For the renewable energy industry.” Piebalgs added that cross-border cooperation in attempts to achieve these targets was especially important: “I should mention one investment by a Czech company in wind energy in Romania. the directive offers legal certainty and the sweeping away of barriers to progress such as connection to the grid. He declared: “We need to invest in a number of technologies at this stage.” There are other more detailed commitments that will inform how member states respond. including interconnection between member states. heating and cooling. This is what we are looking for.” Indeed there is a pledge that transmission system operators “give priority” to renewable power generators “insofar as the secure operation of the national electricity system permits…” British north east England Liberal Democrat MEP Fiona Hall welcomed this. as well as third countries. the legislation includes a binding commitment that insists governments ensure their grid systems “accommodate the further development of electricity production from renewable energy sources. For this reason. these plans will contrast widely. As a result. require the use.” And another clause says certification schemes (or equivalents) must be available by December 2012 for installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves. The worst thing that could happen is that we hamper development of some particular technology.

erec. This 'Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap' was produced by the EU-funded RESTMAC . She said: “Creating a European renewables community in the mould of Euratom would provide vital support to research. Lutz Mez. German former EU budget Commissioner and green politician Michaele Schreyer co-authored the report. It aims to create a sustainably growing green energy sector that will carry the EU’s renewables consumption far beyond its 20% goal. And finally. such as bioenergy.” And he added: “regarding electricity. an alliance of European renewable energy organisations last November launched a plan stating how the European Union could meet 20% of its energy needs with renewable energy sources by 2020. It was set up in 1957. we have more than 15% green energy already and will have 35% in 2020. It includes detailed action plans covering renewable energy technologies. As Luxembourg green MEP Claude Termes. This would use dedicated branches of existing institutions such as the European Commission to assist the development and operation of green energy production and transmission. especially through promoting technical innovation and economies of scale. The MEPs have been inspired by the success of another separate EU treaty – albeit one they are not fond of – the Euratom treaty. of course. wind electricity and others. small hydropower. said: “Europe had a coal and steel community for 50 years and its nuclear agency Euratom has existed for © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. pilot projects and the grid. and because all the economy will become built around renewable energy. which has been pushing for the establishment of a separate European Union treaty that would commit EU institutions to promoting the development of renewable What could prevent us reaching 50% between 2025 and 2030?” This target has been exercising minds in the sector. ocean power. the coordinator of the parliament’s work (its rapporteur) on the” Another co-author. See http://www. 2009 www. a key point about this legislation is that it deals with minimum targets. I am sure that by 20% we will have more green energy than 20%: because the costs of the technology are going to shrink. shallow geothermal systems and heat pumps. solar thermal. said to his colleagues: “For me 20% is a minimum. photovoltaic energy. Another innovative idea came last year from the green group of the European Parliament. which guarantees separate budgets to assist the operation of nuclear power plants. as a special collaborative initiative. working alongside the now defunct European Coal and Steel Community. For instance. when the original European Economic Community was established. The green group study suggests the creation of a European Community for Renewable Energies (ERENE).html for full details.photovoltaic and solar thermal systems. head of the environmental policy research centre at the Free University of Berlin.

And an International Energy Agency (IEA) report released in October 2008 claimed that the world must generate half its electricity supplies from renewable energy sources by 2050 to avoid the most serious climate change. This proposal is being publicised by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and so could increase pressure on EU institutions and member states to further reduce climate change emissions.. which recently lent the Bulgarian government Euro 198 million to develop a 156-megawatt wind farm.. This is tighter than Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) targets that would reduce CO2 concentrations to 400 ppm to limit the increase in global temperature to a maximum of 2 degrees centigrade over pre-industrial levels. with a treaty or system of enhanced cooperation between member states. Denmark and Portugal (wind-power) and China (solar heating).energy-market-research.over half a century. while also being bankrolled by member states and the EU. Germany. biomass and biofuels for transpo.aspx?id=337 for full details. the forum is backing NASA Chief Scientist James Hansen’s call to limit the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to 350 ppm (parts per million). hydroelectricity/micro hydro. The initiative could find support amongst the supports of another new green energy initiative. More money is being made available by the bank during the current economic crisis to help kickstart the European economy.iea. by global interdependence discussion group the Tällberg Forum. of the World Bank. There is also an annual lending sub-target of Euro 600 million-800 million for renewable energy projects and a relative target that 50% of EIB lending to electricity generation projects be associated with renewable energy technologies.” Within EU-related development institutions financing will be made available for renewable energy projects. This money will be augmented by assistance from the International Finance Corporation (IFC). Because of its size and stability it not only has huge financial . The other key financing institution here is the European Investment Bank (EIB). *See http://www. This is operationally independent of other EU bodies and raises money on international markets. An EBRD note said the loan would “help the country promote clean and sustainable energy and reduce its dependency on fossil fuels”. Analyzing the European Renewable Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 Renewable energy technologies range from solar This includes the European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD). wind power. It praised renewable programmes in Spain. Taking its name from the Swedish village where it holds annual discussions.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. 2009 www. It is high time for renewables to be given the same status. and green energy infrastructure projects have been highlighted as priority financing items for this Luxembourg-based institution.

3 billion on energy studies (much earmarked for green energy) through its 'seventh framework programme'. So it can only be good news that the European Union (EU) will from this year until 2013 be spending Euro 2. In the two years of debates involving EU institutions that forged the framework programme (FP7). it is inevitable that innovative projects developing new alternative power generating and transmission technology will land major grants. electricity companies and their suppliers are always looking for an edge over rivals. *Hydrogen and fuel cells . 2009 www. and *Smart energy networks . They include: *Renewable electricity generation .have to raise 50% of the funding of their projects from other sources. A Commission report on FP7 energy research explained the thinking behind these priorities: "Europe's energy economy.4.8 billion will be spent on environmental research. reliability and quality of European electricity systems and networks. Green power sector players .substantially improving power plant efficiency. they can enjoy control over the use of the findings. safety. Another Euro 1. and that of the world. as far as commercial exploitation is concerned. producing also secondary energy carriers (including hydrogen) and liquid or gaseous fuels.technologies to increase overall conversion efficiency. especially in technology. EU framework research programme offers millions of euros to renewable energy companies IN today's highly competitive power sector. development and demonstration of cleaner coal and other solid fuel conversion technologies. is currently on a path that is not sustainable and urgent action is needed. cost efficiency and reliability. including new technology that reduces greenhouse gas EU fuel cell and hydrogen industries.increasing the other applicants . its largest ever research spending scheme. The focus of the research and demonstration actions in FP7 will be on accelerating the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. commanding budgets worth Euro 53. reliability and reducing costs through research. *CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission power generation technologies reducing the environmental impact of fossil fuel use by capturing CO2. for stationary as well as portable applications.2 billion in total. Private companies and state-owned organisations can apply for money from these pots and given the amounts set aside for these topics. and if they can demonstrate they will use the research to create jobs and wealth with the EU. *Clean Coal Technologies .info . driving down the cost of electricity production. MEPs and EU ministers laid down priority policy areas for energy research funding and many of these will be able to be exploited by ambitious renewable and alternative electricity sector organisations seeking public money.

eu/fp7/dc/index. The question: how to get it? For research teams in the renewable power sector. Topics requested included: *Developing secure.3 million to spend on innovative energy research projects. *Building low cost. and innovative concentrated solar power heat transfer concepts. they include detailed instructions on how to apply for money.europa.europa. third to have potential project partners. and fourth to get the application right. and crystalline silicon photovoltaics. and http://cordis. *Creating novel solid biofuels for power generation and equipment for high efficiency medium-to-large scale biomass electricity generation. To fulfill the demands of the first two demands. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. to be followed by a series of smaller calls.html. without doubt. and *A feasibility study and development of a large scale zero emission fossil fuel power plant. standards and certification for wind energy which will not follow any specific timetable. there is money to be tapped.europa. plus innovative manufacturing processes. Another call issued at the same time had Euro 109. 2009 and *Investigating poly-generation concepts for coal-fired power plants. second to be aware of when money is being released. high efficiency solar power daily storage systems. This initial tranche included one call worth Euro 128 million. issued regularly over the next seven years. two weeks before the programme was formally launched on January 1. researchers should keep tabs on 'calls for proposals' made by the European Commission.development of cost-effective technologies for a more sustainable energy economy for Europe (and the rest of the world) and ensuring that European industry can compete successfully on the global stage. its requested topics included: *Basic research for materials and processes regarding polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This was a large clump of requests. The Commission showed its intent for backing the green energy sector in its first call for proposals under FP7. 2007. there are four considerations: first to have a relevant idea to . reliable and affordable feedstocks for photovoltaic electricity production. *Demonstration projects for large-scale wind farms and integrating wind power into the European power system. binary thin-film photovoltaics. *Developing dye-sensitised photovoltaic solar cells.cfm. *Testing.html. http://cordis." So watch the relevant Brussels websites http://ec.

notably the development of biorefineries.europa. for And there is a special budget for nanotechnology: "new materials to improve energy conversion efficiency and more energy-efficient industrial processes". to help it compete internationally. and develop its role as a world leader in certain sectors. it helps applicants to have some idea of the likely topics of proposals. were requested for submission in grants applications. clean coal technologies. timings and implementation. deadline for applying for Euro 4 million for joint projects with Brazil to develop second generation biofuels. which are deigned to promote work that is harder to undertake in one country only. could get money from the FP7 'information and communication technologies' budget. a series of advisory groups are being established to help the Commission draw up its plans . There is also a May 5. with part of a pilot biorefinery being “demonstrated at industrial pilot plant scale”. Another major Euro 100 million call for proposals for energy research projects was issued last year. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. said a Commission note. power and . 2009 www. This trend has continued. The Commission is planning to spend a lot of this money on biofuel research.html." Indeed. As can be seen from the detail of these calls. however. Importantly. Prior knowledge will allow power research groups to approach research teams from other EU countries to forge international alliances of research teams for applications. agriculture and biotechnology' section's calls for proposals. usually a key consideration for grant awards. all with millions of Euros to spend. second generation biofuels.see http://ec. In reality. providing details about the topics. 2009. and high efficiency poly-generation. could score grants here. a detailed guidance document says funded research would support the “development of advanced biorefineries for sustainable processing of biomass into building blocks for the production of bio-based chemicals. materials. energy efficiency and savings.” The money would fund demonstration project showing how such biorefineries work. with energy projects attracting serious framework programme funding. Studies developing technology and good practice in renewable energy. the power sector is in the right place. Projects using high tech IT to develop intelligent energy systems.The Commission followed this up with another call in 2008 for renewable energy researchers to apply for Euro 147 million of energy research grants under the FP7. with the Commission saying in a report that the FP7 places "greater emphasis" than its predecessors "on research that is relevant to the needs of European industry. Biomass power and biofuel development projects could handily delve into the 'food. especially those improving energy efficiency. with an April 29 deadline for applications. smart energy and the Commission will set out its plans for these calls in annual work programmes. Here. imaginative power researchers could seek to tap EU funds from other FP7 budgets.

Its goal will be developing technologies with real potential for commercialisation. and supported initially creating two or three EIT ‘communities’. which focuses on basic studies. such as renewable energy and climate change. Welcoming the approval of the law. Crucially. In bricks and mortar terms. wasting EU research cash that could otherwise fund useful studies. Inspired by the success of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA. one of which must be a higher education institution and another a private company.Meanwhile. having control over budgets: they will generate and allot research spending on priority topics as they see fit. such as the European Research Council. Academics have criticised the EIT for diverting potential resources from other EU research initiatives. 2009 www.‘knowledge and innovation communities’. In this regard. . each KIC must have at least three partner organisations established in at least two EU member states. research and higher education…helping to boost jobs and growth. administering key work managed by groups called ‘knowledge and information communities’ or ‘KICs’. It will facilitate and enhance partnerships and cooperation between the worlds of business. And his enthusiasm has overcome some doubters amongst academics concerned the new institution could just mean more bureaucracy. They also feared the EIT could become a competitor to existing universities. researchers developing innovative renewable energy technology and solutions to deal with climate change should also benefit from another new EU research institution – the European Institute of Technology (EIT). European Commission president José Manuel Barroso said: “The EIT is set to become an important feature of Europe's innovation landscape. based on formal networks of expert researchers .energy-market-research. its projects will involve innovative industrial players and businesses from across the EU: renewable energy companies most certainly should apply. renewable energy companies will be happy that the EU Council of Ministers and the European Parliament agreed that the first KICs were likely to include communities dedicated to funding research into renewable energy or © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.” Barroso has been especially keen on the EIT. These autonomous groups of higher education institutions and companies are at the heart of the EIT. Innovative energy companies will be able to participate in these KICs and furthermore they will be able to create consortia with academics to secure funding for joint research projects managed by these KICs.4 billion until 2013. The EU Council of Ministers backed giving the EIT a Euro 308. the European version will be virtual.” It also has a draft future spending pot of Euro 2. to focus on “priority EU policies.7 million budget over six years from January 2008. the EIT will manifest itself as a secretariat in Budapest. Under the EIT law. under detailed rules that will be released later.

html *http://cordis. especially alternative energy and climate change *More seventh framework programme information: *http://ec. he is currently chairman of the international advisory board to the Sino-Dutch Biomedical School of Information Engineering (BMIE) in Shenyang.europa. such as…green energy.europa. 2009 “The EIT governing board should select KICs in areas that help the EU to face today's and tomorrow's challenges.html *http://cordis. He is a physics professor at and a former executive vice president of Philips Research. A Dutchman. Renewable energy is a vital part of the EU's energy.html * energy efficiency or the next generation of information and communication technologies (ICT).eu/research/consultations/list_en. China. the EU renewable energy industry is described and analysed in terms of . it pays to monitor formal announcements – see http://ec. The EIT has elected Prof. particularly in new areas of enquiry which require a multidisciplinary approach.” said a parliamentary amendment to the EIT’s founding regulation.” So. Martin Schuurmans as chairman of its governing industry structure and corporate developments. They should be areas with ‘business relevance’ and an agenda between fundamental research and downstream applied research. without doubt the EIT will spend a lot of money on energy research. As ever with EU funding Dr. where there is the potential to generate innovative solutions and commercial advantages with a major impact on Europe’s competitiveness. which he co-founded and was its dean from 2006-7.climate change-related technologies.cfm * http://cordis. This followed a European Commission policy paper (Communication) on the initiative saying the KICs’ strategic interdisciplinary subjects should “represent key technological challenges in a long term perspective.europa...europa.html Keynote's European Renewable Energy Industry Market Research Report Published by Keynote in March 2008 In this Key Note Market Assessment report.html * for two main reasons.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.pdf *http://ec.europa. The principal reason i. sustainable such as climate *http://ec.europa.europa.

with 80% of the growth in rapidly developing For the 2020 aim of a 20% improvement in emissions for all cars on the road. These are far from being tough to achieve. naturally. 2009 www. Its goal is a global car fleet that runs on 50% less fuel by 2050. with intermediate goals for 2020 and 2030.effectively front loading necessary change in the first two decades of this plan. FIA Foundation director general said the partners would push for tax incentives and conduct information campaigns to “help encourage consumer demand for more fuel efficient cars. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said: “We would urge the world's car and component makers to get on board to prove that they too are part of the solution. the climate change risk posed by auto-based carbon emissions will be immense. For a 30% average improvement in emissions from new cars by 2030. the report suggests “incremental improvements and full hybridisation of most models of vehicles”. and global economic recovery. stabilising its greenhouse gas emissions. although it would be beneficial.” Should this come to . Such is the concern of a '50 by 50' Global Fuel Economy Initiative launched in March by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). the natural replacement of old vehicles should fulfill the 2050 target . it is refreshing to learn of an international project dealing with the environmental effects of a road transport sector actually projected to grow and grow in the long term. the initiative thinks this can be achieved via improvements in new car fuel economy and additional measures such as eco-driving. Far from predicting the gloomy collapse of car makers. this initiative looks beyond the current downturn and has released a report claiming: “The world’s car fleet is expected to triple by 2050. If this 2030 goal is met.” See © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. the International Energy Agency (IEA). David Ward. improved aftermarket service and better vehicle maintenance. as the developing world gets richer and more mobile. which while accepting “the car manufacturing industry is facing huge difficulties in the economic recession”. stresses the need to “find ways to reconcile legitimate aspirations for mobility. electric and fuel cell vehicles would not be required. says the report. but of course transport is a key potential consumer of renewable energy.” An early step planned for 2009 by the four partners will be developing a fuel economy information database for fleets and private motorists. Renewable energy means transport too PROGRESS in renewable energy is often considered to be an issue of green electricity generation. Indeed.” Worthy goals indeed: and the four partners have drafted detailed blueprints on how this should be achieved. Given the preoccupation of the auto industry these trying days to merely survive past the next quarter. the International Transport Forum (ITF) and the FIA [Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile] Foundation. an ambitious reduction in CO2 from cars worldwide. it stresses a wholesale move to plug-in hybrids.

heat. He said: “This brings together the most significant players to put Europe ahead of the game in new energy technologies. Its European Union money will be drawn from the EU’s seventh framework programs which funds the bulk of Commission research initiatives.” He said it “provides us with the unique opportunity to implement our plans on a large European scale”. at regional. The Commission has already released its first call for research proposals aimed at developing hydrogen fuel cell with Euro 28. national and European level. The European Union (EU) is particularly keen on hydrogen fuel-cell technology and has launched a long-planned ‘Euro 1 billion’ budget joint technology initiative on fuel cells and hydrogen. This project is designed to coordinate Europe’s auto makers. and water (which is its only real emission). EU research Commissioner Janez Potočnik was enthusiastic at the project’s formal launch at its ‘Stakeholders General Assembly’. energy firms.The fuel cell will produce electricity as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied. as will a national government ‘states representatives group’ and the annual general assembly. And the whole process is supposed to be lubricated with liberal amounts of cash: witness the headline grabbing Euro 1 billion EU institutions and governments in commercialising hydrogen fuel cell technologies between 2010 and 2020. staged in Brussels last October. which not only require a lot of energy to produce. with daily management and operations the responsibility of an executive director supported by a programme office in Brussels. 2009 www. especially those first generation fuels that are made from food . they consume important food sources and their combustion creates greenhouse gas emissions. so the key issue here – as well as producing hydrogen fuelled automobiles. industry and government.http://www. lorries. One key potential technology and one that has the year of the European Commission is the development of hydrogen fuel cells as a pollution-free renewable energy system for powering cars. In pure environmental terms this technology is greener than biofuels.fiafoundation. vans and buses. the project will be led by a governing board.1 million being made available in the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. A scientific committee will advise the board. parts manufacturers. adding: “To prepare the market for these strategic technologies… it is not only needed for the relevant industrial sectors to develop the supply chain but to ensure cooperation between research.pdf for full details. is ensuring the construction of hydrogen refuelling networks that are as comprehensive as those for petrol and diesel. And this money is starting to be squeezed into the project. These fuel cells combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity.” Looking at the organisational nitty gritty.

a British Labour MEP. without getting anything concrete in return. He added: “From an industry perspective we welcome this initiative.which represents fuel cell equipment manufacturers. See http://cordis.” fumed a very critical note from the association.FP7DetailsCallPag e&call_id=172#infopack for details. The deadline for submitting proposals for this cash is January 15.europa. Of this.000 last year. energy companies and auto manufacturers . The initial aim. Its president Marcus Nurdin said the EU would actually only provide Euro 470 million of the budget.” And as well as the money not being good enough. and auto industry companies may most certainly apply. “None of this is being achieved with the current European Commission proposal and attitude. In fact “Euro 7.4 billion of public and private resources” are actually needed for this job. It secured widespread support at the European Parliament. There has been criticism of the scheme. and industry is being asked to take a substantial financial burden to run the program office and administrative costs. million is earmarked for transport and refuelling infrastructure research.” Noting that the sale of alternative fuelled vehicles in Britain had grown from just a few hundred in 2000 to over 16. users.cfm?fuseaction=UserSite. Whatever happens with the technology initiative and its budget. fuel cell stacks and compressed hydrogen onboard storage. claimed Nurdin. to ease the introduction of this technology across Europe and make sure it is not hampered by conflicting national standards. And also. 2009 www. she noted that “hydrogen cars are © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. crucially – Euro 1 billion is far from what is needed to make Europe the world leader in hydrogen fuel cell however as we have explained regularly over the past two years. the European Union (EU) has developed an EU-wide technical standard for hydrogen vehicles. it claims. including demonstration projects of . Euro 8. with the rest being levered in from outside sources. FuelCellEurope . 2009. this Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) – to give its ponderous full name – is actually less than generous. we don’t think European Commission’s commitment is matching the expectations and the magnitude of the opportunity offered by fuel cell and hydrogen technologies to address energy security and climate change also unhappy with how the initiative will be run.first tranche of funding announced earlier this month. said: “At a time when petrol prices in Europe have doubled and with ever growing concern about the effects of climate change it is clear we need new hopes for future fuels. According to the European fuel cell and hydrogen association FuelCellEurope. whose spokesman on the issue (called its ‘rapporteur’ in parliamentary jargon) Arlene McCarthy. was that it would be an industry-run program with minimal red tape.

9 million from the EU. Romeo © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Project coordinator and Professor of Airplane Design and Aerospace Structures from the Turin Polytechnic University said: “Hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies have now reached the point where they can be exploited to initiate a new era of propulsion systems for light aircraft and small commuter aircraft. 2009 www.” A European standard could also influence American and Asian regulators. and should take two more years to develop. adding: “This new law will boost the development of these vehicles while ensuring they are reliable and safe”. features vital for commuter aeroplanes that usually take off and land in urban areas. the statement added. national governments may start approving vehicle designs on a piecemeal basis. The parliament and European Commission had been concerned that because hydrogen vehicles are not current included within the EU type-approval system for vehicle . Financed by Euro 2. the parliament wanted the standard expanded to include motor-cycles and also to ensure that emergency rescue services are warned automatically through intelligent vehicle systems about the hydrogen power source of a vehicle involved in an accident. including a commitment for member states and the European Commission to subsidise the development of hydrogen filling station networks. and hydrogen storage. The fuel cell system will be installed in selected aircraft and then flight and performance tested. helping make these compatible. EU-funded researchers are developing what will be the first hydrogen fuel-cell operated airplane. And it is not just road transport that could benefit from hydrogen-fuel cell technology. A parliamentary statement warned that each 27 EU member government might then draw up potentially contrasting standards: “This would lead to high costs for manufacturers. the Environmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft will be created at Italy’s Polytechnic of Turin. Also. He stressed that the ability to take off and land without breaking noise regulations in towns and cities would allow the use of airfields late at night. create safety risks and also considerably impede the spread of hydrogen technology in the EU. These technologies would also be developed to replace on-board electrical systems. who are considering their own hydrogen vehicle standards. MEPs passed some amendments to the proposal. The goal of the project is to build an intercity shuttle aircraft that uses fuel cell technology for the propulsion system.only on the cusp of large scale production”.” Mr Giulio said the advantages of using fuel cell engines and power systems would be low noise and low emissions. .. However. Market Studies & Reports Water Utilities: Extended Global Industry Guide : Datamonitor Published by Datamonitor in May 2009 Datamonitor's Water Utilities: Extended Global Industry Guide is an essential resource for top-level data and analysis covering the Water Utilities industry.(more) Analyzing the Asian Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in April 2009 Global demand for energy is increasing at a breathtaking pace. and this is particularly true in China.. and geothermal.. renewable.. solar.(more) The impact of the economic downturn on the renewables sector : Datamonitor Published by Datamonitor in April 2009 IntroductionIn a period of economic decline and environmental regulation to source green energy by the EU Commission utilities are exposed to increasing pressure to mitigate costs as well as make the correct environmental choices either through M&A or through organi. Yet.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.(more) Best practice in harnessing large scale renewable technologies Published by Datamonitor in March 2009 IntroductionWith ever tightening environmental legislation and growing consumer interest in renewable energy. textual analysis of the key trends and competitive la.The RPS mechanism generally places an obligation on electricity supply companies to produc. do not have access to electricity... India and other rapidly developing economies. Ind.. increasing numbers of utilities are adopting large scale renewable power technologies as core parts of their long-term generation strategies. such as wind. 2009 www.. not all marke.. It includes detailed data on market size and segmentation.(more) Analyzing Renewable Portfolio Standards in the US Published by Aruvian Research in April 2009 A renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a regulatory policy that requires the increased production of energy from renewable resources. says a new research report �Indian Solar Energy Market Outlook 2012� from a leading research company RNCOS.(more) Indian Solar Energy Market Outlook 2012 Published by RNCOS in May 2009 Solar energy offers enormous potential for a tropical country like India where around 45% of households. as demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise. mainly rural ones.

Already today wind provides more than 1. The painful experience of national economies. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change...(more) Biofuel Industry in the United States Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Biofuels are liquid... The heavy Atmospheric levels of CO2 have risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 parts per million (ppm) to present levels of 375 ppm.. 120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide. or gaseous fuels derived from renewable biological © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.(more) Analyzing the Landfill Gas Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 With the increasing global focus of energy conservation and stress on clean generation.(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Austria Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise.Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so.. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source.. In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind.(more) Looking at the Potential of Carbon Sequestration Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Zooming levels of CO2 from rapid industrialization have started to emerge now as more than just statistics on the environmental radar. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007.(more) Understanding Biofuels Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The topic of biofuels has drawn increased interest worldwide in the wake of steeply-climbing fossil fuel prices in 2005-2006.. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe. The mounting ad. Landfill Gas has emerged as a source which is available . is proven to be economical in cost perspective and is a growing energy resource in the modern world. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable.Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Mexico Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 By the end of the year 2008... In late 2006/early 2007 prices began to subside. Curre. 2009 www.(more) Leading Countries in Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world. but are unlikely to return to their former levels.5% of the global electricity consumption and the wind industry employs half a million people.. solid.

an important benefit when the cost of removing © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd...all. biodiesel.(more) Global Solar Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact.all.. water has met most of them or in some cases .(more) Analyzing the Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world.. . Biomass can be burned directly for thermal energy or converted to other high-value energy sources including water has met most of them or in some cases . Nature�s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin.(more) Analyzing Hydropower Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source.(more) Looking at Small Hydropower in Europe Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. Solar energy is pollution-free. methanol.Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so. or methane. 2009 www. Nature�s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin.(more) Analyzing Geothermal Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The race for alternative energy sources has begun in the right earnest as communities and governments realize the unsustainable nature of present day energy production and consumption practices.. ethanol fro.. development of solar energy dates back more than 100 years.(more) Global Biofuels Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Although biofuels are mainly used to replace or supplement the traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels.sources.. Being an alternative to fossils.. biofuels can be applied to existing vehicles with little or no e. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe. to the middle of the industrial revolution. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change. hydrogen. they can also be deployed to generate heat and electricity.. an important event in this race has been the recognition and harnessing of ..

water. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable.pollutants from the environment is c. In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind. By the end of the year 2008. 2009 www. Already today wind provides more than 1. In April 2005 the value was 88 %.(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Canada Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In the foreseeable future wind energy is expected to cover a large share of the electricity needs worldwide: Wind energy is practically inexhaustible as well as available almost everywhere and wind energy investment is a low-risk investment..5% of the Analyzing the European Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise. and solar power a...(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Belgium Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise. Mankind's traditional uses of wind.. The cost of electricity gene. Wind power is the most popular energy resource among Finnish public: 90 % of Finns would want further investments in wind energy in September 2007.. Renewable energy sources contribute approximately 29. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007..To. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable.3% of human energy use worldwide.. 120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide.(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Finland Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Wind power in Finland was 143 MW with 118 turbines in December 2008.. In the Pori area .To.(more) Renewable Electricity Capacity Forecasts © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind...(more) Analyzing the US Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The rise of wind energy is no longer being looked upon as an alternate source of energy..(more) Investment in Renewable Technologies Worldwide Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Renewable energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative or for all practical purposes can not be depleted...

2% of primary energy supply and 16% of electrical generation. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007.The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact.. rain. hydroelectricity/micro hydro. development of solar energy dates ba. wind power. .(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd..This electricity m. not primary energy. shown individually by resource and consolidated into the global total of 1. The HydroPower report contains a wealth of the latest available statistics of hydro power and hydro power plants.. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power. The database refers to electricity generating capacity.(more) Analyzing the European Renewable Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 Renewable energy effectively uses natural resources such as sunlight.(more) The Hydropower Report Ed 2 2009 Published by ABS Energy Research in February 2009 Hydropower is the largest renewable source of electricity.(more) Analyzing the North American Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in February 2009 The rise of wind energy is no longer being looked upon as an alternate source of energy.. 2009 www. By the end of the year 2008.(more) Global Solar Photovoltaics Industry � PEST Framework Analysis Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 The solar PV market has been booming over the last years and is forecasted to confirm this trend in the coming years.310 GW in 2009. so it does not i. By the end of 2007 the global cumulative capacity exceeded 9 GWp.. which are naturally 120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide.Published by ABS Energy Research in March 2009 This database contains tables of electricity generating capacity by renewable sources... It accounts for 2. tides and geothermal heat. Already today wind provides more than 1. biomass and biofuels for transpo.5% of the .

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