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Renewable Energy Factbook 2009

Renewable Energy Factbook 2009

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Published 22nd. May 2009. Copyright 2009 Disclaimer and Legal Notices.

Every care has been taken in the preparation of this report to ensure that the information contained herein is accurate, factual and correct to the best of our knowledge, at the time of publishing. All opinions, suppositions, estimates and recommendations included in this report are solely the opinions of the authors unless otherwise stated. Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. accept no liability for any loss or damage or unforeseen consequential loss or damage arising from the use of the information contained within this document. The opinions, suppositions, estimates and recommendations within this report cannot be guaranteed, and readers use this information at their own risk. The information published in this document is subject to change without notice at any time, and Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. accept no liability or obligation to inform the reader of such changes. Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. do not promote or endorse any specific companies or products, the views and opinions we express in this report are wholly our own assessments, and independent from any external interest or influence. Many terms and phrases and trade names used in this document are proprietary and Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. recognises and acknowledges that all trademarks are copyright, belonging to their respective owners. Where possible, this document accords such terms and phrases and trade names to their respective owners. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document can be copied, shared, redistributed, transmitted, displayed in the public domain, stored or displayed on any internal or external company or private network or electronic retrieval system, nor reprinted, republished, reconstituted in any way without the express written permission of the publisher. Forwarding of this electronic document without the correct legal licence is theft. It’s unethical, immoral and against the law. If you have any questions about the legal licence conditions under which this report has been distributed, please contact Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. at keithw@cmsinfo.com. If you did not buy this report and a colleague or associate has sent it to you, do not assume you are legally entitled to read it: it is your responsibility to ensure you have the correct legal licence to read this document. Published by: Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd., P&A House, Chesham, Bucks. HP5 3HB, England. Telephone: UK +44 (0) 1494 771734 Fax: +44 (0) 01494 778994 Registered Office: 2a Altons House Office Park, Gatehouse Way, Aylesbury, HP19 3XU, UK Registered in England and Wales No. 3240740 VAT No. GB 685 4343 10

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Table of Contents 1. 2. Introduction – Renewable energies forge ahead – but from a low base History of renewable energy - Wind energy - Solar energy - Hydroelectric energy - Biomass energy - Tidal energy - Combined heat and power energy - Geothermal energy EU imposes green energy targets on its member governments EU framework research programme offers millions of euros to renewable energy companies Renewable energy means transport too Market Studies & Reports

3. 4.

5. 6.

© Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. 2009


2009 www.” And maybe. Germany’s federal environment minister Sigmar Gabriel was succinct in his praise for an initiative that really is a German baby: “Many countries have recognised the opportunities which renewable energies offer for climate protection. including its host nation.energy-market-research. economic growth and employment. but they my sign up eventually. According to article III of IRENA’s founding statute.org/ for its website). wave and ocean thermal energy.2%. the roster of signatory nations has since been swollen by India and Belarus. renewable energy means all forms of energy produced from renewable sources in a sustainable manner.” (See http://www. up from © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Its latest worldwide statistics issued in 2008 showed that looking at the global total primary energy supply . The agency will be the global platform for renewable energies. So there we have it: green energy in a nutshell. including tidal.1% in 1973). solar energy. which include: bioenergy. this January. cooling. Germany. solar. hydro power produced 2.6% of all energy (up from 0. providing. ocean energy. it is this organisation that should be consulted over what renewable energy actually is – given the rich diversity of its production methods. given that IRENA is renewable energy’s new global guardian. also transport. Spain. In 2006 geothermal. heating. said a communiqué: “…practical advice and support for both industrialised and developing countries.info . and wind energy. tidal.so not just electricity generation. France and Sweden.irena. IRENA will promote green energy. Launched in Bonn. whose expertise and supposed focus on conventional energy production was one reason behind the launch of IRENA. There’s also a lot of it about – and a lot more than before. Italy. it still has a huge amount of ground to cover until it really becomes a serious alternative to using conventional fuels. So the best source for this information is ironically the International Energy Agency (IEA). Britain and the United States have yet to become signatories. hydropower. with the support of 76 countries. The IEA has been around for years and releases regular and reliable energy statistics and it shows that although growth in green energy has been marked. wind and combined heat-and-power produced just 0. IRENA gives renewables an international voice and political impetus. of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Question is.1. how much? IRENA has not been around long enough to answer this question. Although not doubt it will in due course. Introduction – Renewable energies forge ahead – but from a low base MAYBE the best sign that renewable energies have hit the mainstream is that they now have their very own international organisation: the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). security of supply. At its birth. geothermal energy. everything – renewable energy is very small beer indeed.

The IEA knows this and last year released the results of a first comparative analysis of the performance of the various renewables promotion policies around the world. quoting the famous Spanish knight who tilted at windmills? Well. rose from 0. The USA’s President Barack Obama is backing investment into green energy publicly and in his American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 where – US$16. So what price renewable energy? There has been so much talk. “these 35 countries accounted for 80% of total global commercial renewable electricity generation. It is against this backdrop that the European Union (EU) ahead of Christmas gave itself a 2020 deadline to increase to 20% the proportion of renewable energy generated for its citizens regarding gross energy production.4%. albeit from a tiny base. 2009 www.5%. And the truth is that renewable energy has been growing. It noted that in 2005. while another environmental bugbear.8 billion – yes that much – has been earmarked for promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency. and the proportion of energy created by combustible renewables and waste actually fell from 10.2%.1% to 34. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.Brazil.energy-market-research. but the actual increase in its use actually seems so slight. 77% of commercial renewable heating/cooling (excluding the use of traditional biomass) and 98% of renewable transport fuel production. and also very unevenly: rich countries have been doing much more than poor countries – photovoltaic solar cells just are not a priority in Burkina Faso and Afghanistan. so many debates. Is this a Quixotic goal.5% and that is before we factor in the huge increase in actual power generated in these years). We all know that harnessing nature’s forces to produce energy without releasing the pollution involved in burning fossil fuels just has to be good idea. Russia. Meanwhile.6% in 1973 to 10. China and South Africa. India. although the proportion of energy coming from oil fell from 46. for a lot of the world. And that filthiest of fossil fuel sources coal and peat was actually used proportionally more in 2006 than 1973 (26% compared 24. given the sluggish growth of renewable energy worldwide. natural gas’ slice of the energy pie rose from 16% to 20.8% in 1973. Yet. renewables are barely a blip on the energy radar. it is not surprising there are skeptics.9% to 6. Coal – that Victorian-age fuel – is still way more important. renewable energy is still flavour of the month amongst public policy makers worldwide.1. This looked at 35 countries.” So.1% in 2006. including all (wealthy country) OECD members and the so-called BRICS key emerging market countries .info . so many policy papers. nuclear energy production.

more than 2 million groundsource heat pumps were used in 30 countries for heating and cooling of buildings in 2007.7GW. chair of REN21. Looking at the details. It hailed “rapidly expanding renewable energy markets. Ethanol production in 2007 represented about 4% of the 1. the fastest growing energy technology in the world (from a much lower base) was grid-connected solar photovoltaics. it said. with existing solar hot water/heating capacity increasing by 19% in 2006 to reach 105 gigawatts-thermal globally. policies.info . said this survey. “This translates into 1. with a 50% annual increase in cumulative installed capacity in both 2006 and 2007.300 billion litres of petrol consumed globally.” noted the report. to 240 gigawatts. And the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) exceeded an estimated 53 billion litres in 2007. However. up 43% from 2005 (with 2008 figures expected to much higher still). Enter the optimists of the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) which issues annual reports on the progress of the green energy sector in collaboration with the Worldwatch Institute. with annual biodiesel production increasing by more than 50% in 2006. the Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (issued in 2008) painted an encouraging picture at least as far as the electricity generating sector is concerned (so excluding transport. Meanwhile rooftop solar heat collectors now provide hot water to nearly 50 million households worldwide.4 million jobs globally in the process.4% of global power generation. with another estimated 2. This report said renewable energy in 2007 represented 5% of global power capacity and 3. which grew by more than 25% worldwide in 2007. “So much has happened in the renewable energy sector during the past five years that the perceptions of some politicians and energy-sector analysts lag far behind the reality of where the renewables industry is today. New renewable energy (not counting large hydropower) generated as much electric power worldwide in 2006 as one-quarter of the world’s nuclear power plants. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.7GW of stand-alone systems bringing global photovoltaic capacity to more than 10GW. As for biomass and geothermal energy systems. global wind generating capacity is estimated to have increased 28% while grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity rose 52%. to an estimated 95GW.” said Mohamed El-Ashry. 2009 www. and rural applications around the world. industries. now accounting for 2.But we have to start somewhere. it said the largest aspect of this renewable power capacity growth was wind power.” noting that in 2007. heating and other key energy issues). Large hydropower itself accounted for 15% of global power generation. to an estimated 7. It claimed the renewable energy sector has doubled electricity generating capacity since 2004. Its latest study. said the report.energy-market-research.5 million homes with rooftop solar PV feeding into the grid worldwide. it noted.

customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity. said IEA executive director Nobuo Tanaka.info . obstacles to grid access. “We encourage them to develop carefully designed policy frameworks. Setting a carbon price is not enough. Given that it will be these rich countries that will lead the way with green energy growth these IEA figures are important. and eventually to apply © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. and *Consideration of the impact of large-scale penetration of renewable energy technologies on the overall energy system. So these are impressive growth rates. *Introducing transitional targeted subsidies and tax breaks. lack of information and training. such as administrative hurdles. As a result. renewable energies really could save our bacon in a world facing seemingly inevitable global warming cased by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas production. and the tackling of social acceptance issues (such as opposing ugly windmills in a pretty environment). decreasing over time. Its comparative analysis report has claimed there are still significant barriers which hamper a swift expansion and increase the costs of accelerating renewables’ transition into the mainstream. transparent and stable policy frameworks and implemented in an integrated approach. renewable energy policies should be designed around a set of fundamental principles. If these were removed. If they are sustained over time. with regard to overall cost efficiency and system reliability. To foster a smooth and efficient transition of renewables towards mass market integration. poor electricity market design. Mr Tanaka concluded. “Governments need to take urgent action”. the IEA has tried to identify what has been holding up the growth of green energy. it “could allow the great potential of renewables to be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent”.energy-market-research. when releasing the study.” According to the IEA renewable energy promotion policies should include five key principles if they are to be effective: *Removing non-economic barriers. 2009 www. He continued: “Governments need to do more. especially in liberalised energy markets. They will create the economies of scale that will enable the renewable energy industry to finally spread around the world. to foster and monitor technological innovation and move renewable energy technologies quickly towards market competitiveness. renewable energy production rose in the OECD counties by 21. Its December 2008 electricity production bulletin showed that from January to December of that year. *The need for predictable and transparent administrative and legal support systems to attract investments from the private sector. inserted into predictable.1% (hydro by 4%).All this growth is also born out by the IEA.

*Offer capacity building including training and education to its members. and success-failure factors. the agency is charged with being “a centre of excellence for renewable energy technology…acting as a facilitator and catalyst. they could make a huge difference. *Stimulate and encourage research. and maybe this is where IRENA will help. integrated systems and equipment. best practices. spoken at IRENA’s launch.appropriate incentives such as a carbon price for more mature renewables. In its founding statute.info . providing experience for practical applications and policies. 2009 www. For if they become affordable and widely available. high energy prices. *Provide advice and assistance on sourcing finance for renewable energy. albeit in a sustainable way. offering support on all matters relating to renewable energy and helping countries to benefit from the efficient development and transfer of knowledge and technology. incentives.” This is all very ambitious stuff. This will be valuable work.energy-market-research. *Disseminate information and increase public awareness on the benefits and potential offered by renewable energy. *Provide relevant policy advice and assistance to its members…and stimulate international discussions on renewable energy policy. and. Moving a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies towards full market integration is one of the main elements needed to make the energy technology revolution happen. Increasing population. it may well be that its greatest impact will be in the poorest countries who have yet to avail themselves of these key technologies.” As such its experts will: *Analyse. investment mechanisms. *Improve pertinent knowledge and technology transfer and promote the development of local capacity and competence…including [the] necessary interconnections. including policy instruments. *Provide information about the development and deployment of national and international technical standards in relation to renewable energy. The IEA does indeed have a wide brief. IRENA will work exclusively on renewables though. “Renewable energy is one of the key solutions to the current challenges facing the global energy situation. depleted energy resources. and global warming demand that renewable sources of energy are rapidly developed…” And stressing that green energy really matters to the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. and given the uneven development of renewable energy thus far around the world. Take these words from Kenneth Konga. available technologies. Zambia’s energy and water development ministers. *Initiate discussion and ensure interaction with other governmental and nongovernmental organisations and networks. and is charged with helping all energy sectors thrive. monitor and…systematise current renewable energy practices.

for instance off Denmark.info . and banks of windturbines are being built offshore. certain green technologies became obsolete and the world became dependent on fossil fuels to power industries. As a result. in Cleveland. where the basic design of these renewable energy systems was developed to incorporate propeller–styled blades made with sails. pump water and cut wood at sawmills. The first windmills were thought to have originated in Iran (then Persia) between 500-900AD and were used primarily to grind wheat and other grains and also to pump water. countries worldwide are now looking for more environmentally friendly ways to provide their societies with energy. and of course that their supply is finite. The vertical-axis design used in these eastern civilizations was different from the horizontal-axis design recognised in the Western world. a sprawling sea of windmills can be seen just outside of Palm Springs.energy-market-research. he concluded: “The task of providing energy in my country is so huge that renewable energy is the most sustainable way through which this basic need can be provided to our people.poor. Wind energy Wind power was harnessed by many early civilisations. The concept caught on and depending on region where they were located. This system was developed and windmills were designed to provide rural communities with electricity. warm their homes and drive their cars. 2009 www. from the Babylonians to Chinese farmers. However. following the Industrial Revolution. These technologies have been given an © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. However. have played significant roles in the pre-industrialised world. Now. to complete daily tasks. Ohio. following an understanding that the pollution caused by fossil fuels could have significant environmental implications. Possibly the most famous traditional use of windmills are the iconic figures in Holland. ancient civilisations have channelled the power of renewable energy to complete daily tasks and help to further their economic and social development. solar and biomass.” 2. History of renewable energy THROUGHOUT history. The design of a high-energy producing windmill was refined and sophisticated by various countries. Germany and Denmark. what is believed to be the first a windmill being used to generate electricity was developed in 1888. the design of windmills would vary. including Russia. However. a variety of renewable energy sources. traditional renewable energy practices were unable to be met the enormous demand for energy by industries. From grinding grains to pumping water. which powered batteries in his cellar. California. early colonists used windmills to grind wheat into flour. such as wind. In the United States. then to power lines that carried electricity from the urban centers in the 1930s. Charles F Bush built ‘The Bush Machine’ with a multi-bladed rotor 17 meters in diameter.

which although groundbreaking.. 2009 www. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe. In the USA.energy-market-research. three US-based scientists Gerald Pearson. which was capable of generating a measurable electric current. leading eventually to the realisation of harnessing the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilisation. proved to be too expensive to power during a time where the price of coal was rapidly falling. The New York Times proclaimed that the discovery meant the “beginning of a new era.. As the technology has developed the price of solar photovoltaic cells has dropped and the market for PV energy sources is quickly developing at a rate of 30% per year. Daryl Chapin and Clavin Fuller developed the first silicon solar cell. Governments across the world now offer financial assistance for those interesting in installing solar cells. California’s wind turbines produce double the wind energy than any other US state. to the middle of the industrial revolution. Leading Countries in Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world. little progress was made in developing solar energy until 1953. the US government made massive investments into Pearson. Mouchout invented a steam engine powered entirely by the sun. By designing their homes to face the winter sun. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Then. Since then. who designed the first active solar motor. In 1861. they were able to use this passive solar design as a means to light and heat indoor spaces and cut down on the amount of wood burned for energy.Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so..info .(more) Solar energy Ancient Greece and Rome were the first civilisations to realise the true power of the sun as a source of energy. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source. development of solar energy dates back more than 100 years. As the 20th century came and went. an important benefit when the cost of removing pollutants from the environment is c. Chapin and Fuller’s energy cell in the hope of decreasing the global dependence on oil. but they were also made popular in the 1970s following oil shortages.additional boost by concerns about global warming. Then. Global Solar Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact. the sun’s rays have been channelled by various inventors including France’s Auguste Mouchout. Solar energy is pollution-free.. that a global push for solar energy was accepted as a reliable source of electricity.” But it was only until the 1970s and the Arab oil embargo.

such as ocean waves. patenting his design in 1880.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. tides and currents have played a key role in the development of renewable energy sources. These water turbines.energy-market-research.000 people were killed as a result of the collapse and another 145. the Pelton Wheel. Niagara Falls. The sheer force of water flowing downstream from a moderately-sized river can exceed several million horsepower and slice through mountain ranges or haul billions of tonnes of soil into the ocean. have become more than just a producer of renewable energy but tourist attractions. Some of the most famous examples of hydroelectricity in north America. Energy is created when the power produced through the gravitational force of falling or flowing water is channelled. and the Three Gorges dam in China are justly famous (and controversial).info . Now hydroenergy seems to be almost old fashioned. were unable to function properly in fast-moving creeks and waterfalls. As with wind energy. Lester Allan Pelton designed the free-jet water turbine. But critics of hydroelectricity are quick to point out the flaws and potential dangers of such feats of engineering.Hydroelectric energy Water is surprisingly powerful. Grand Coulee and Boulder Dam. Analyzing Hydropower Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. however. Looking into the future. And waterwheels have provided electricity for small rural farming communities by channelling the power of large rivers since the late 1800s. the Banqiao hydroelectric dam in China collapsed during Typhoon Nina – 26.000 deaths were caused because of disease and famine created by the disaster.. Nature’s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin. the oldest generators of hydropower were traditionally used to grind flour and grains for mills. water has met most of them or in some cases . In 1975. Water in motion. 2009 www. The father of hydroelectricity. which took the traditionally used waterwheel and modified it to a technology that could produce energy for the machinery and mills used during the north American gold rushes of the time.all. hydro power could become increasingly controversial because of their hydrological impact and the fact that greenhouse gases that are produced as a result of the decaying trees and other organic matter submerged under water during the creation of reservoirs.. The Egypt’s Aswan dam on the Nile.

Brazil had long used ethanol as a fuel for its automobile industry. such as wood and food production waste. bio-based alternatives s began to be a point of energy policy reform for many western countries. scientists are increasingly focusing on designs for converting bio-mass waste. And during the 1920s and 1930s. which refers to any form of plant or animal tissue that can be transformed into a source of energy. into useable feedstocks for electricity and heat generators. the quadricycle with ethanol. In the 1880s. Rudolf Diesel designed a diesel engine to run on peanut oil. the ethanol fuel industry closed down because of the import of low-cost petroleum fuels following the massive development of oil production. Henry Ford fueled one of his first automobiles. Also. includes materials like straw and manure. but are unlikely to return to their former levels. And the United States mandated the 1990 Clean Air Act.Biomass energy Biomass. Biomass fuels. Understanding Biofuels Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The topic of biofuels has drawn increased interest worldwide in the wake of steeply-climbing fossil fuel prices in 2005-2006. Biomass as a source of energy continued to become more and more obsolete with the adoption of electricity and natural gas as a way of heating homes and commercial buildings. an ethanol fuel derived from maize. more than 2. especially in the Middle East. The term. In late 2006/early 2007 prices began to subside. such as ethanol-blended gasoline. This has long been used. The law influenced the growth of ethanol production in the USA. The painful experience of national economies. for instance in Ireland. The European Union has also been increasingly promoting the use of biomass both for liquid fuels and also for electricity.000 service stations sold ‘gasohol’. 2009 www.info . primarily wood.. while the German inventor. as the 20th century drew to a close and countries became more concerned with the impact fossil fuels have on their environment. But following World War II. in parts of the country with exceptionally high levels of carbon monoxide. particularly ethanol.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.energy-market-research. was once the major source of power prior to the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s. which promoted the sale of oxygenated fuels. with its peat-fired power plants. However.. were expected to be the main source of fuel for motor vehicles in the United States. Various innovators and industries have used different forms of biomass to power a range of electricity generating designs.

for instance near Swansea. smaller barrages around the world. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.to provide electric and thermal energy to a facility at a more efficient rate than if electricity and thermal energy were being provided separately.. eastern Canada operates a 16-watt turbine. where it has since operated a bulb-type hydroelectric turbine.info .(more) Combined heat and power energy Combined heat and power (CHP) utilises a fuel source . which are difficult to build in saltwater environments. technologies and markets for the wave and tidal current stream sectors.renewable or fossil . however. These factors have slowed the innovation of tidal energy technologies and have forced many environmentally conscious energy producers. to look at alternative methods to produce power from renewable sources. Another commercial plant in Nova Scotia. There are other objections too: because of their sheer size. Proposals for tidal barrages have often proved controversial because as well as being expensive.An emerging industryThe wave and tidal sectors ar. the water would be released through an energy-conversion device. the first modern-era tidal power plant was built outside St Malo.energy-market-research. while changing intertidal zones and downstream tidal systems. when the first tidal energy plants were designed with a dam built across a tidal basin.. Once this was filled with water from the rising tide.when reciprocating steam engines powered the first electric generators. The World Wave and Tidal Market Report 2009-2013 Published by Douglas-Westwood in December 2008 A new renewable energy sector reportThe World Wave & Tidal Market Report is a new report focusing on the current and future prospects. they require massive structures. the industrialised world required much more energy then early tidal barrages were capable of producing and so the industries looked to fossil fuels as a power source. such as a waterwheel or a paddlewheel. twice a day. Benefits of this system include lower levels of emission than conventional heating systems. and there are other. in northern France. In 1965. The use of tidal power dates back to 900 AD according to some historians. Initially this system of heating was introduced in the 1880’s – a key time for renewable energy innovation . barrages can impede fish migration. UK.Tidal energy Tidal energy is a largely untapped source of renewable energy that depends solely on the moon’s gravitational pull on our seas. The energy was then used to grind grains into flour and would last for about two to three hours. oceans and estuaries. 2009 www. block navigation. in South Wales. As with most renewable energy sources.

it was not until 1892 that geothermal energy was developed to heat an actual district: in Boise. However. as well as the United States. most European Union countries. healing and as a source of heat. Reykjavik. the excess steam could be used to dry and heat the finished product. is powered by geothermal energy from the volcanic and seismic activity below this geological stripling of a country. Idaho. such as pulp and paper. there are 69 generating geothermal plants in 18 different sites across the USA and other parts of the world are increasingly developing geothermal energy technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. they could reduce the demand for energy. it was still not until the 1980’s that the USA saw a rapid growth for CHP capacity in large industries. the Romans created bathhouses that relied solely on geothermal waters to fill their pools while at the same time heat their homes. In the United States. California.The waste steam produced by these inefficient machines was sent through pipes for space heating. And in the early 1800s. the 1960s saw the development of geothermal electricity plants at The Geysers in Sonoma County. CHP was widely popular during the later Industrial Revolution for specific industries. Today. The early 1900s saw the first geothermal electric power plant being invented in Italy by scientist Piero Ginori Conti who set up this groundbreaking equipment at the Larderello dry steam field. The first use of geothermal energy is an estimated 10.info . However. 2009 www. Geothermal energy Geothermal energy really does go way back. Presently. the capital of Iceland. petroleum and petrochemical plants. in the American mountain west. Today. where a system provided energy to 200 homes and 40 downtown businesses. Analyzing Geothermal Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. However. as with other green energy systems. the United States found that by building larger plants capable of joint thermal and electric output.energy-market-research. the development of electricity production and geothermal heat pumps helped boost spa and resort markets in Europe and the United States. who used hot springs for bathing. coal became readily available for the power sector and relatively cheap making it the choice for electricity generation. such as the production of pottery and sugar. While a steam reciprocating engine was used to power wheels and crushing mills.000 years ago by the American Paleo-Indians. Following the ‘energy crisis’ of the 1970s. during the 20th century. In Europe. Geothermal power development has generally thus far only been popular where geological conditions make it cheaper and easier to use. receive about 9% of their power from CHP generators.

and the Netherlands from 2.1% in Ireland. but can at least expect to exploit improving solar power technology.9% to 11%. and for Ireland 16%. and Cyprus (2. and transport energy consumption. and hence the expertise. Hydropower rich Latvia is committed to a 40% target – up from 32. And given that these countries are starting from low base.energy-market-research. EU imposes green energy targets on its member governments AS 2009 dawned. the European Parliament and EU ministers approved a new EU directive imposing mandatory national targets for the 27 member states regarding the portion of their gross final consumption of energy in 2020 coming from renewable sources. And Finland is planning to expand its hydro and bio-mass power © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. It is the national targets that have teeth. with its growth being sanctioned by ambitious legislation approved before Christmas. Across the EU. Environmentalists were disappointed that some notorious renewables laggards with comparatively strong economies (even as they sink into recession) .3% for Britain in 2005. the European Union’s (EU) renewable energy sector knew that it had truly entered the mainstream of EU electricity markets.such as Britain and Ireland . topped the commitment list – promising to increase its renewable energy consumption to 49%. growth might be that much more difficult than in those countries that already have decent-sized renewable energy sectors.4% to 14%. the capital and the infrastructure in place that they can build upon.have been granted targets below the pan-EU 20% goal. But this is not really the number that matters. Sweden.3. and which will be policed by the European Commission. expect an aggressive response from Brussels – politically and legally. this is just 15%. from an already high 39. which the EU assessed as being a miniscule 1. this is supposed to be an average of 20%. For the UK.2% 2005 renewable consumption to 13% in 2020).6%.info . and a barely more respectable 3. through the European Court of Justice (ECJ). tiny Luxembourg from 0.8% thanks to significant hydro and biomass usage. After more than a year of debates. Sun-drenched (but water parched) Malta (from zero to 14%). heating and cooling. taking into account electricity. So the devil really is in this detail. If governments falter or waver in their determination to increase the amount of renewable energy consumed in their national territories. in the crunchy numbers of the national targets.9% to 13%) will face similar issues. Other countries that will face similarly tough tasks will include the densely populated Low Countries: Belgium (told to increase its 2. At the other end of the scale that traditional European paragon of virtue. 2009 www. But energy players have pointed out these targets are set against the existing small size of renewable energy consumption in both countries.

heating and cooling services provided by utilities will depend on the share which national governments allocate to these sub-sectors in their expansion of renewable energy.8%). Speaking to the European Parliament ahead of its final vote on the law on December 17. which will henceforth be far more sustainable than in the past. That will allow new technologies to penetrate the market and not be marginal. Austria will be another major contributor to the EU’s 20% goal. joint projects with other member states. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. These include energy efficiency initiatives. Looking at the EU’s larger countries. the impact of cooperation between local. And Italy has a slightly less imposing target of 17% . they will change the face of EU energy production.production base to reach a 38% target. And wind power specialist Denmark has a 30% target. policies to develop existing (or mobilise new) biomass resources. Maybe the most important of these is the survival of the pledge in the legislation that “the share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport in 2020 is at least 10% of final consumption of energy in transport in that member state”.up from 10. France is similarly ambitious – a goal of 23% . How other considerations will shape member states’ achievement of their final target is spelt out in the legislation.5%. up from 28.3% renewables energy consumption share in 2005 – it also has significant potential biomass feedstocks. Regardless of the debates. 2009 www. regional and national authorities. heat and cooling growth will of depend on existing biofuel consumption. Germany has set itself an ambitious goal of deriving 18% of energy from renewable sources (up from 5. and involve much lower production of greenhouse gas. although it may still need to extend the life of its threatened nuclear plants to guarantee energy security of supply.energy-market-research. but its impact on green electricity. It is a key issue and it will inevitably stop governments focusing entirely on boosting renewable energy production by utilities.2% in 2005.” But of course how these translate into actual increases in green electricity. up from 17% in 2005.up from 5.3%. EU energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs said: “The binding nature of the target will mean measures and support schemes for member states using renewable energy will be predictable and long term.info . Complex statistical work will be required and although there will inevitably be flexibility involved in the way that governments respond. So these calculations will be complex and the next step will be the development of detailed national renewable energy action plans by national governments. the directive includes a wide range of detailed clauses that say what can be plugged into the necessary statistical equations and what cannot. We are proposing a profound change. if these numbers are achieved. with a 34% target – probably expanding its use of hydro sources which accounted for much of its 23. and others.

a directive was chosen as the form of EU legislation used – these laws always give member states effective leeway over implementation). where governments must “by 2015…where appropriate. And given the diversity of starting points in Europe regarding the climatic. We are looking for massive investments where it is cheaper. electricity and heating and cooling in 2020”.” Piebalgs added that cross-border cooperation in attempts to achieve these targets was especially important: “I should mention one investment by a Czech company in wind energy in Romania. The worst thing that could happen is that we hamper development of some particular technology. the legislation includes a binding commitment that insists governments ensure their grid systems “accommodate the further development of electricity production from renewable energy sources. these plans will contrast widely. This is what we are looking for. that today is more costly compared with wind technology. geographical and industrial status quo. for instance on building codes. of minimum levels of energy from renewable sources in new buildings and (renovated) buildings. for example. heating and cooling. namely the “national targets for the shares of energy from renewable sources in transport. especially given the technical immaturity of many relevant systems.” Indeed there is a pledge that transmission system operators “give priority” to renewable power generators “insofar as the secure operation of the national electricity system permits…” British north east England Liberal Democrat MEP Fiona Hall welcomed this. Mr Piebalgs said such diversity was no bad thing. For this reason. as well as third countries.which must be submitted to the European Commission by June 2010. These plans will include the detail that utilities will want to know. the directive offers legal certainty and the sweeping away of barriers to progress such as connection to the grid.” There are other more detailed commitments that will inform how member states respond. including interconnection between member states.” One area where the Commission will most certainly be looking for innovation will be ensuring renewable electricity producers have adequate connections to the grid. He declared: “We need to invest in a number of technologies at this stage. especially as regards the share of different technologies within increases in green electricity. solar energy. This will be based upon a template released by Brussels by June 2009. As a result.” And another clause says certification schemes (or equivalents) must be available by December 2012 for installers of small-scale biomass boilers and stoves.energy-market-research. telling the parliament: “For the renewable energy industry. 2009 www. But in his speech to MEPs. require the use. solar © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. but it does not necessarily mean that any technology should be excluded.info .

pilot projects and the grid. The MEPs have been inspired by the success of another separate EU treaty – albeit one they are not fond of – the Euratom treaty. said to his colleagues: “For me 20% is a minimum. For instance. which has been pushing for the establishment of a separate European Union treaty that would commit EU institutions to promoting the development of renewable energies. I am sure that by 20% we will have more green energy than 20%: because the costs of the technology are going to shrink. of course. Another innovative idea came last year from the green group of the European Parliament. and because all the economy will become built around renewable energy.erec.” And he added: “regarding electricity. Lutz Mez. photovoltaic energy. She said: “Creating a European renewables community in the mould of Euratom would provide vital support to research.html for full details. What could prevent us reaching 50% between 2025 and 2030?” This target has been exercising minds in the sector. said: “Europe had a coal and steel community for 50 years and its nuclear agency Euratom has existed for © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. This would use dedicated branches of existing institutions such as the European Commission to assist the development and operation of green energy production and transmission. as a special collaborative initiative. And finally. small hydropower. shallow geothermal systems and heat pumps. when the original European Economic Community was established. which guarantees separate budgets to assist the operation of nuclear power plants. working alongside the now defunct European Coal and Steel Community.info . such as bioenergy. See http://www. As Luxembourg green MEP Claude Termes.” Another co-author.photovoltaic and solar thermal systems. wind electricity and others. It includes detailed action plans covering renewable energy technologies. head of the environmental policy research centre at the Free University of Berlin. the coordinator of the parliament’s work (its rapporteur) on the directive. we have more than 15% green energy already and will have 35% in 2020.org/projects/ongoingprojects/restmac. The green group study suggests the creation of a European Community for Renewable Energies (ERENE). a key point about this legislation is that it deals with minimum targets. This 'Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap' was produced by the EU-funded RESTMAC project. especially through promoting technical innovation and economies of scale. It aims to create a sustainably growing green energy sector that will carry the EU’s renewables consumption far beyond its 20% goal.energy-market-research. an alliance of European renewable energy organisations last November launched a plan stating how the European Union could meet 20% of its energy needs with renewable energy sources by 2020. 2009 www. German former EU budget Commissioner and green politician Michaele Schreyer co-authored the report. It was set up in 1957. ocean power. solar thermal.

. More money is being made available by the bank during the current economic crisis to help kickstart the European economy.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. This includes the European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD).. The initiative could find support amongst the supports of another new green energy initiative.energy-market-research. Denmark and Portugal (wind-power) and China (solar heating). hydroelectricity/micro hydro. the forum is backing NASA Chief Scientist James Hansen’s call to limit the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to 350 ppm (parts per million).over half a century. And an International Energy Agency (IEA) report released in October 2008 claimed that the world must generate half its electricity supplies from renewable energy sources by 2050 to avoid the most serious climate change. and green energy infrastructure projects have been highlighted as priority financing items for this Luxembourg-based institution. This is tighter than Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) targets that would reduce CO2 concentrations to 400 ppm to limit the increase in global temperature to a maximum of 2 degrees centigrade over pre-industrial levels. It praised renewable programmes in Spain. by global interdependence discussion group the Tällberg Forum.iea. This is operationally independent of other EU bodies and raises money on international markets.aspx?id=337 for full details. of the World Bank. while also being bankrolled by member states and the EU.info . with a treaty or system of enhanced cooperation between member states. biomass and biofuels for transpo. 2009 www.org/w/bookshop/add. wind power. There is also an annual lending sub-target of Euro 600 million-800 million for renewable energy projects and a relative target that 50% of EIB lending to electricity generation projects be associated with renewable energy technologies. This money will be augmented by assistance from the International Finance Corporation (IFC). which recently lent the Bulgarian government Euro 198 million to develop a 156-megawatt wind farm. The other key financing institution here is the European Investment Bank (EIB). Because of its size and stability it not only has huge financial clout. An EBRD note said the loan would “help the country promote clean and sustainable energy and reduce its dependency on fossil fuels”. It is high time for renewables to be given the same status. Analyzing the European Renewable Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 Renewable energy technologies range from solar power. Taking its name from the Swedish village where it holds annual discussions. This proposal is being publicised by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and so could increase pressure on EU institutions and member states to further reduce climate change emissions.” Within EU-related development institutions financing will be made available for renewable energy projects. Germany. *See http://www.

They include: *Renewable electricity generation . and that of the world. *Hydrogen and fuel cells . for stationary as well as portable applications.like other applicants . 2009 www. cost efficiency and reliability.info . and if they can demonstrate they will use the research to create jobs and wealth with the EU.have to raise 50% of the funding of their projects from other sources. *Clean Coal Technologies .4.substantially improving power plant efficiency. safety. Green power sector players . driving down the cost of electricity production. they can enjoy control over the use of the findings.3 billion on energy studies (much earmarked for green energy) through its 'seventh framework programme'. A Commission report on FP7 energy research explained the thinking behind these priorities: "Europe's energy economy. *CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission power generation technologies reducing the environmental impact of fossil fuel use by capturing CO2. Another Euro 1. is currently on a path that is not sustainable and urgent action is needed. as far as commercial exploitation is concerned. In the two years of debates involving EU institutions that forged the framework programme (FP7). its largest ever research spending scheme.technologies to increase overall conversion efficiency. reliability and reducing costs through research. The focus of the research and demonstration actions in FP7 will be on accelerating the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. EU framework research programme offers millions of euros to renewable energy companies IN today's highly competitive power sector.8 billion will be spent on environmental research. So it can only be good news that the European Union (EU) will from this year until 2013 be spending Euro 2. MEPs and EU ministers laid down priority policy areas for energy research funding and many of these will be able to be exploited by ambitious renewable and alternative electricity sector organisations seeking public money.energy-market-research. reliability and quality of European electricity systems and networks. producing also secondary energy carriers (including hydrogen) and liquid or gaseous fuels. and *Smart energy networks .supporting EU fuel cell and hydrogen industries. it is inevitable that innovative projects developing new alternative power generating and transmission technology will land major grants.2 billion in total. especially in technology. Private companies and state-owned organisations can apply for money from these pots and given the amounts set aside for these topics. electricity companies and their suppliers are always looking for an edge over rivals. development and demonstration of cleaner coal and other solid fuel conversion technologies. including new technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. commanding budgets worth Euro 53.increasing the efficiency.

plus innovative manufacturing processes. *Building low cost. reliable and affordable feedstocks for photovoltaic electricity production. which will not follow any specific timetable.europa. third to have potential project partners. standards and certification for wind energy systems. its requested topics included: *Basic research for materials and processes regarding polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. http://cordis.europa. high efficiency solar power daily storage systems. To fulfill the demands of the first two demands.eu/dgs/research/tenders/index_en. *Developing dye-sensitised photovoltaic solar cells. This initial tranche included one call worth Euro 128 million. and http://cordis. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.html. there is money to be tapped. *Demonstration projects for large-scale wind farms and integrating wind power into the European power system. The Commission showed its intent for backing the green energy sector in its first call for proposals under FP7." So.development of cost-effective technologies for a more sustainable energy economy for Europe (and the rest of the world) and ensuring that European industry can compete successfully on the global stage.europa. and fourth to get the application right.cfm. Another call issued at the same time had Euro 109. and innovative concentrated solar power heat transfer concepts.energy-market-research. *Testing. Topics requested included: *Developing secure.info . issued regularly over the next seven years.html. and *Investigating poly-generation concepts for coal-fired power plants. and crystalline silicon photovoltaics.eu/news/calls_en. they include detailed instructions on how to apply for money. researchers should keep tabs on 'calls for proposals' made by the European Commission.3 million to spend on innovative energy research projects. to be followed by a series of smaller calls. binary thin-film photovoltaics. So watch the relevant Brussels websites http://ec. This was a large clump of requests. second to be aware of when money is being released. without doubt. The question: how to get it? For research teams in the renewable power sector. and *A feasibility study and development of a large scale zero emission fossil fuel power plant. two weeks before the programme was formally launched on January 1.eu/fp7/dc/index. *Creating novel solid biofuels for power generation and equipment for high efficiency medium-to-large scale biomass electricity generation. 2007. 2009 www. there are four considerations: first to have a relevant idea to develop.

notably the development of biorefineries. Here. The Commission is planning to spend a lot of this money on biofuel research. with part of a pilot biorefinery being “demonstrated at industrial pilot plant scale”. Another major Euro 100 million call for proposals for energy research projects was issued last year." Indeed.energy-market-research. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. said a Commission note.” The money would fund demonstration project showing how such biorefineries work. a series of advisory groups are being established to help the Commission draw up its plans . clean coal technologies. and the Commission will set out its plans for these calls in annual work programmes. energy efficiency and savings. were requested for submission in grants applications. agriculture and biotechnology' section's calls for proposals. deadline for applying for Euro 4 million for joint projects with Brazil to develop second generation biofuels. As can be seen from the detail of these calls. especially those improving energy efficiency. a detailed guidance document says funded research would support the “development of advanced biorefineries for sustainable processing of biomass into building blocks for the production of bio-based chemicals. Biomass power and biofuel development projects could handily delve into the 'food. power and heat. and develop its role as a world leader in certain sectors. second generation biofuels.eu/research/fp7/advisory_en. however. and high efficiency poly-generation. with the Commission saying in a report that the FP7 places "greater emphasis" than its predecessors "on research that is relevant to the needs of European industry. which are deigned to promote work that is harder to undertake in one country only.The Commission followed this up with another call in 2008 for renewable energy researchers to apply for Euro 147 million of energy research grants under the FP7.see http://ec. with an April 29 deadline for applications. timings and implementation. Prior knowledge will allow power research groups to approach research teams from other EU countries to forge international alliances of research teams for applications.europa. to help it compete internationally. usually a key consideration for grant awards. the power sector is in the right place. all with millions of Euros to spend. with energy projects attracting serious framework programme funding. it helps applicants to have some idea of the likely topics of proposals. imaginative power researchers could seek to tap EU funds from other FP7 budgets. smart energy networks. providing details about the topics. 2009 www. could get money from the FP7 'information and communication technologies' budget. Importantly. Studies developing technology and good practice in renewable energy.html. There is also a May 5. In reality. This trend has continued. materials. 2009.info . for instance. could score grants here. And there is a special budget for nanotechnology: "new materials to improve energy conversion efficiency and more energy-efficient industrial processes". Projects using high tech IT to develop intelligent energy systems.

Innovative energy companies will be able to participate in these KICs and furthermore they will be able to create consortia with academics to secure funding for joint research projects managed by these KICs. Inspired by the success of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA. renewable energy companies will be happy that the EU Council of Ministers and the European Parliament agreed that the first KICs were likely to include communities dedicated to funding research into renewable energy or © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. researchers developing innovative renewable energy technology and solutions to deal with climate change should also benefit from another new EU research institution – the European Institute of Technology (EIT). to focus on “priority EU policies. having control over budgets: they will generate and allot research spending on priority topics as they see fit.‘knowledge and innovation communities’. 2009 www. In this regard.7 million budget over six years from January 2008. administering key work managed by groups called ‘knowledge and information communities’ or ‘KICs’.4 billion until 2013.energy-market-research. Its goal will be developing technologies with real potential for commercialisation. which focuses on basic studies. It will facilitate and enhance partnerships and cooperation between the worlds of business.” Barroso has been especially keen on the EIT. These autonomous groups of higher education institutions and companies are at the heart of the EIT. Crucially. and supported initially creating two or three EIT ‘communities’. In bricks and mortar terms. They also feared the EIT could become a competitor to existing universities. Welcoming the approval of the law.” It also has a draft future spending pot of Euro 2. Under the EIT law. research and higher education…helping to boost jobs and growth. such as renewable energy and climate change. each KIC must have at least three partner organisations established in at least two EU member states.Meanwhile. one of which must be a higher education institution and another a private company. its projects will involve innovative industrial players and businesses from across the EU: renewable energy companies most certainly should apply. The EU Council of Ministers backed giving the EIT a Euro 308. the EIT will manifest itself as a secretariat in Budapest. based on formal networks of expert researchers . Academics have criticised the EIT for diverting potential resources from other EU research initiatives. And his enthusiasm has overcome some doubters amongst academics concerned the new institution could just mean more bureaucracy. Hungary. the European version will be virtual. wasting EU research cash that could otherwise fund useful studies.info . European Commission president José Manuel Barroso said: “The EIT is set to become an important feature of Europe's innovation landscape. such as the European Research Council. under detailed rules that will be released later.

.eu/pdf/erc-draftwp-2007_en. industry structure and corporate developments. without doubt the EIT will spend a lot of money on energy research.eu/research/consultations/list_en.” So. They should be areas with ‘business relevance’ and an agenda between fundamental research and downstream applied research. This followed a European Commission policy paper (Communication) on the initiative saying the KICs’ strategic interdisciplinary subjects should “represent key technological challenges in a long term perspective.europa. the EU renewable energy industry is described and analysed in terms of statistics.energy-market-research.europa.europa. China. As ever with EU funding initiatives.html Keynote's European Renewable Energy Industry Market Research Report Published by Keynote in March 2008 In this Key Note Market Assessment report.html *http://erc.eu/eit *More seventh framework programme information: *http://ec. A Dutchman.climate change-related technologies.europa.eu/fp7/ *http://ec. such as climate change.. energy efficiency or the next generation of information and communication technologies (ICT).eu/research/fp7/understanding/index.” said a parliamentary amendment to the EIT’s founding regulation.eu/technology-platforms/home_en.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Martin Schuurmans as chairman of its governing board. particularly in new areas of enquiry which require a multidisciplinary approach.pdf *http://ec.html *http://cordis.html * http://ec.europa.eu/fp7/understand_en.eu/research/fp7/home_en. such as…green energy.html *http://cordis. it pays to monitor formal announcements – see http://ec. 2009 www. He is a physics professor at and a former executive vice president of Philips Research. especially alternative energy and climate change innovation.europa.cfm * http://cordis. which he co-founded and was its dean from 2006-7.eu/erc/index_en. The principal reason i.europa. Dr. “The EIT governing board should select KICs in areas that help the EU to face today's and tomorrow's challenges. he is currently chairman of the international advisory board to the Sino-Dutch Biomedical School of Information Engineering (BMIE) in Shenyang. where there is the potential to generate innovative solutions and commercial advantages with a major impact on Europe’s competitiveness.europa.info . The EIT has elected Prof. Renewable energy is a vital part of the EU's energy. for two main reasons.europa. sustainable mobility.

the climate change risk posed by auto-based carbon emissions will be immense. with 80% of the growth in rapidly developing economies. Its goal is a global car fleet that runs on 50% less fuel by 2050. the International Transport Forum (ITF) and the FIA [Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile] Foundation. For the 2020 aim of a 20% improvement in emissions for all cars on the road. and global economic recovery.” Worthy goals indeed: and the four partners have drafted detailed blueprints on how this should be achieved. Renewable energy means transport too PROGRESS in renewable energy is often considered to be an issue of green electricity generation.” See © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. These are far from being tough to achieve. which while accepting “the car manufacturing industry is facing huge difficulties in the economic recession”. although it would be beneficial. with intermediate goals for 2020 and 2030. it stresses a wholesale move to plug-in hybrids. Indeed. the report suggests “incremental improvements and full hybridisation of most models of vehicles”. If this 2030 goal is met.energy-market-research. naturally. says the report. improved aftermarket service and better vehicle maintenance.” An early step planned for 2009 by the four partners will be developing a fuel economy information database for fleets and private motorists. the initiative thinks this can be achieved via improvements in new car fuel economy and additional measures such as eco-driving. this initiative looks beyond the current downturn and has released a report claiming: “The world’s car fleet is expected to triple by 2050. 2009 www. David Ward. FIA Foundation director general said the partners would push for tax incentives and conduct information campaigns to “help encourage consumer demand for more fuel efficient cars. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said: “We would urge the world's car and component makers to get on board to prove that they too are part of the solution. Far from predicting the gloomy collapse of car makers.5. the International Energy Agency (IEA). as the developing world gets richer and more mobile. but of course transport is a key potential consumer of renewable energy. Such is the concern of a '50 by 50' Global Fuel Economy Initiative launched in March by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). stresses the need to “find ways to reconcile legitimate aspirations for mobility. an ambitious reduction in CO2 from cars worldwide.effectively front loading necessary change in the first two decades of this plan. stabilising its greenhouse gas emissions. Given the preoccupation of the auto industry these trying days to merely survive past the next quarter. the natural replacement of old vehicles should fulfill the 2050 target . electric and fuel cell vehicles would not be required.” Should this come to pass. For a 30% average improvement in emissions from new cars by 2030.info . it is refreshing to learn of an international project dealing with the environmental effects of a road transport sector actually projected to grow and grow in the long term.

http://www. staged in Brussels last October. energy firms. parts manufacturers. especially those first generation fuels that are made from food commodities.pdf for full details. which not only require a lot of energy to produce. as will a national government ‘states representatives group’ and the annual general assembly. 2009 www. This project is designed to coordinate Europe’s auto makers.org/50by50/documents/50BY50_report. and water (which is its only real emission). the project will be led by a governing board. they consume important food sources and their combustion creates greenhouse gas emissions. Its European Union money will be drawn from the EU’s seventh framework programs which funds the bulk of Commission research initiatives. One key potential technology and one that has the year of the European Commission is the development of hydrogen fuel cells as a pollution-free renewable energy system for powering cars. heat. at regional.” He said it “provides us with the unique opportunity to implement our plans on a large European scale”.The fuel cell will produce electricity as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied. is ensuring the construction of hydrogen refuelling networks that are as comprehensive as those for petrol and diesel. with daily management and operations the responsibility of an executive director supported by a programme office in Brussels.fiafoundation. lorries. These fuel cells combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity. And this money is starting to be squeezed into the project.1 million being made available in the © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.energy-market-research. with Euro 28. vans and buses. The European Union (EU) is particularly keen on hydrogen fuel-cell technology and has launched a long-planned ‘Euro 1 billion’ budget joint technology initiative on fuel cells and hydrogen.info . adding: “To prepare the market for these strategic technologies… it is not only needed for the relevant industrial sectors to develop the supply chain but to ensure cooperation between research. In pure environmental terms this technology is greener than biofuels. The Commission has already released its first call for research proposals aimed at developing hydrogen fuel cell technology. so the key issue here – as well as producing hydrogen fuelled automobiles. EU institutions and governments in commercialising hydrogen fuel cell technologies between 2010 and 2020.” Looking at the organisational nitty gritty. EU research Commissioner Janez Potočnik was enthusiastic at the project’s formal launch at its ‘Stakeholders General Assembly’. industry and government. national and European level. And the whole process is supposed to be lubricated with liberal amounts of cash: witness the headline grabbing Euro 1 billion budget. A scientific committee will advise the board. He said: “This brings together the most significant players to put Europe ahead of the game in new energy technologies.

without getting anything concrete in return. 2009 www.europa. we don’t think European Commission’s commitment is matching the expectations and the magnitude of the opportunity offered by fuel cell and hydrogen technologies to address energy security and climate change issues.info . however.which represents fuel cell equipment manufacturers. crucially – Euro 1 billion is far from what is needed to make Europe the world leader in hydrogen fuel cell technologies.” And as well as the money not being good enough. It secured widespread support at the European Parliament. See http://cordis.9 million is earmarked for transport and refuelling infrastructure research. Euro 8. users.FP7DetailsCallPag e&call_id=172#infopack for details. FuelCellEurope . she noted that “hydrogen cars are © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. and industry is being asked to take a substantial financial burden to run the program office and administrative costs. energy companies and auto manufacturers . According to the European fuel cell and hydrogen association FuelCellEurope. however as we have explained regularly over the past two years. The initial aim. The deadline for submitting proposals for this cash is January 15. Its president Marcus Nurdin said the EU would actually only provide Euro 470 million of the budget.cfm?fuseaction=UserSite. Whatever happens with the technology initiative and its budget.” Noting that the sale of alternative fuelled vehicles in Britain had grown from just a few hundred in 2000 to over 16. 2009. and auto industry companies may most certainly apply. There has been criticism of the scheme. to ease the introduction of this technology across Europe and make sure it is not hampered by conflicting national standards. claimed Nurdin. whose spokesman on the issue (called its ‘rapporteur’ in parliamentary jargon) Arlene McCarthy. He added: “From an industry perspective we welcome this initiative. said: “At a time when petrol prices in Europe have doubled and with ever growing concern about the effects of climate change it is clear we need new hopes for future fuels. including demonstration projects of vehicles. “None of this is being achieved with the current European Commission proposal and attitude.4 billion of public and private resources” are actually needed for this job. fuel cell stacks and compressed hydrogen onboard storage.eu/fp7/dc/index. And also.is also unhappy with how the initiative will be run. a British Labour MEP.first tranche of funding announced earlier this month. this Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) – to give its ponderous full name – is actually less than generous.energy-market-research. with the rest being levered in from outside sources.000 last year. it claims. Of this.” fumed a very critical note from the association. In fact “Euro 7. was that it would be an industry-run program with minimal red tape. the European Union (EU) has developed an EU-wide technical standard for hydrogen vehicles.

The parliament and European Commission had been concerned that because hydrogen vehicles are not current included within the EU type-approval system for vehicle standards. Financed by Euro 2. adding: “This new law will boost the development of these vehicles while ensuring they are reliable and safe”. create safety risks and also considerably impede the spread of hydrogen technology in the EU. A parliamentary statement warned that each 27 EU member government might then draw up potentially contrasting standards: “This would lead to high costs for manufacturers. These technologies would also be developed to replace on-board electrical systems. 2009 www. © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. national governments may start approving vehicle designs on a piecemeal basis. helping make these compatible. He stressed that the ability to take off and land without breaking noise regulations in towns and cities would allow the use of airfields late at night. Also. And it is not just road transport that could benefit from hydrogen-fuel cell technology. including a commitment for member states and the European Commission to subsidise the development of hydrogen filling station networks. The fuel cell system will be installed in selected aircraft and then flight and performance tested. and should take two more years to develop. EU-funded researchers are developing what will be the first hydrogen fuel-cell operated airplane. the Environmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft will be created at Italy’s Polytechnic of Turin.info . who are considering their own hydrogen vehicle standards.” A European standard could also influence American and Asian regulators. Project coordinator and Professor of Airplane Design and Aerospace Structures from the Turin Polytechnic University said: “Hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies have now reached the point where they can be exploited to initiate a new era of propulsion systems for light aircraft and small commuter aircraft.only on the cusp of large scale production”. the parliament wanted the standard expanded to include motor-cycles and also to ensure that emergency rescue services are warned automatically through intelligent vehicle systems about the hydrogen power source of a vehicle involved in an accident. the statement added.” Mr Giulio said the advantages of using fuel cell engines and power systems would be low noise and low emissions. features vital for commuter aeroplanes that usually take off and land in urban areas. and hydrogen storage. The goal of the project is to build an intercity shuttle aircraft that uses fuel cell technology for the propulsion system.energy-market-research. Romeo Giulio.9 million from the EU. MEPs passed some amendments to the proposal.

6.. biomass. solar. and this is particularly true in China. as demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise. It includes detailed data on market size and segmentation.(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.(more) The impact of the economic downturn on the renewables sector : Datamonitor Published by Datamonitor in April 2009 IntroductionIn a period of economic decline and environmental regulation to source green energy by the EU Commission utilities are exposed to increasing pressure to mitigate costs as well as make the correct environmental choices either through M&A or through organi.(more) Analyzing the Asian Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in April 2009 Global demand for energy is increasing at a breathtaking pace. Market Studies & Reports Water Utilities: Extended Global Industry Guide : Datamonitor Published by Datamonitor in May 2009 Datamonitor's Water Utilities: Extended Global Industry Guide is an essential resource for top-level data and analysis covering the Water Utilities industry.(more) Indian Solar Energy Market Outlook 2012 Published by RNCOS in May 2009 Solar energy offers enormous potential for a tropical country like India where around 45% of households.. renewable... However... Ind. India and other rapidly developing economies. textual analysis of the key trends and competitive la. not all marke. 2009 www. such as wind..energy-market-research.. says a new research report �Indian Solar Energy Market Outlook 2012� from a leading research company RNCOS. Yet. and geothermal.info . mainly rural ones.(more) Analyzing Renewable Portfolio Standards in the US Published by Aruvian Research in April 2009 A renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a regulatory policy that requires the increased production of energy from renewable resources...(more) Best practice in harnessing large scale renewable technologies Published by Datamonitor in March 2009 IntroductionWith ever tightening environmental legislation and growing consumer interest in renewable energy. increasing numbers of utilities are adopting large scale renewable power technologies as core parts of their long-term generation strategies. do not have access to electricity.The RPS mechanism generally places an obligation on electricity supply companies to produc...

energy-market-research. The heavy .. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source.. The mounting ad. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change.(more) Biofuel Industry in the United States Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Biofuels are liquid. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 parts per million (ppm) to present levels of 375 ppm..(more) Analyzing the Landfill Gas Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 With the increasing global focus of energy conservation and stress on clean generation.5% of the global electricity consumption and the wind industry employs half a million people.To.(more) Understanding Biofuels Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The topic of biofuels has drawn increased interest worldwide in the wake of steeply-climbing fossil fuel prices in 2005-2006.. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable. 2009 www..Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Mexico Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 By the end of the year 2008. but are unlikely to return to their former levels. solid. Curre. The painful experience of national economies.. 120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide.(more) Leading Countries in Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world..(more) Looking at the Potential of Carbon Sequestration Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Zooming levels of CO2 from rapid industrialization have started to emerge now as more than just statistics on the environmental radar... In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007. Already today wind provides more than 1. or gaseous fuels derived from renewable biological © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. Landfill Gas has emerged as a source which is available backdoor...(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Austria Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise. In late 2006/early 2007 prices began to subside.Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so. is proven to be economical in cost perspective and is a growing energy resource in the modern world.info .. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe.

. Currently. Solar energy is pollution-free.energy-market-research.(more) Analyzing Geothermal Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The race for alternative energy sources has begun in the right earnest as communities and governments realize the unsustainable nature of present day energy production and consumption practices.(more) Global Solar Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact. an important benefit when the cost of removing © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. they can also be deployed to generate heat and electricity.Wind energy has emerged as the most attractive so... 2009 www.info ..(more) Analyzing Hydropower Energy Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. wind energy has already grown to be a mainstream energy source.(more) Looking at Small Hydropower in Europe Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The role of water as a multi-faceted necessity for humans cannot be more stressed upon since as many adaptive uses that were demanded of it by civilizations. mainly in the developed world and especially in Europe.. Nature�s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin. Biomass can be burned directly for thermal energy or converted to other high-value energy sources including ethanol.(more) Analyzing the Global Wind Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In many parts of the world.. ethanol fro. water has met most of them or in some cases .sources. water has met most of them or in some cases . biofuels can be applied to existing vehicles with little or no e.. hydrogen.all. an important event in this race has been the recognition and harnessing of .(more) Global Biofuels Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Although biofuels are mainly used to replace or supplement the traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. biodiesel. development of solar energy dates back more than 100 years.. or methane. This growth has long been driven by concerns about global climate change.... Being an alternative to fossils.. methanol. to the middle of the industrial revolution. Nature�s most wonderful resource never ceases to amaze imagin.all.

120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide.. By the end of the year 2008.. In April 2005 the value was 88 %.To.(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Finland Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Wind power in Finland was 143 MW with 118 turbines in December 2008. In the Pori area of. Mankind's traditional uses of wind. Wind power is the most popular energy resource among Finnish public: 90 % of Finns would want further investments in wind energy in September 2007..(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Canada Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 In the foreseeable future wind energy is expected to cover a large share of the electricity needs worldwide: Wind energy is practically inexhaustible as well as available almost everywhere and wind energy investment is a low-risk investment..energy-market-research. Renewable energy sources contribute approximately 29.5% of the . water. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable..(more) Analyzing the US Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 The rise of wind energy is no longer being looked upon as an alternate source of energy.(more) Renewable Electricity Capacity Forecasts © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd..info .(more) Investment in Renewable Technologies Worldwide Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 Renewable energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative or for all practical purposes can not be depleted..... 2009 www. Already today wind provides more than 1.. renewable forms of energy are becoming more costeffective and profitable. In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind.pollutants from the environment is c. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007.(more) Analyzing the European Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise.. In the forefront of this renewable revolution is harnessing the sustainable power of wind. and solar power a..To. The cost of electricity gene.3% of human energy use worldwide.(more) Analyzing the Wind Power Industry in Belgium Published by Aruvian Research in March 2009 As demand on finite petroleum reserves and the price of the fuels derived from them continues to rise..

2009 www. rain..The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact. By the end of the year 2008. Already today wind provides more than 1.(more) Global Solar Photovoltaics Industry � PEST Framework Analysis Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 The solar PV market has been booming over the last years and is forecasted to confirm this trend in the coming years. after 94 gigawatts by the end of 2007..(more) © Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd.info . which are naturally replenished. so it does not i....2% of primary energy supply and 16% of electrical generation.(more) The Hydropower Report Ed 2 2009 Published by ABS Energy Research in February 2009 Hydropower is the largest renewable source of electricity.310 GW in 2009. hydroelectricity/micro hydro.. 120 gigawatts of wind power capacity were installed worldwide.energy-market-research. development of solar energy dates ba. The HydroPower report contains a wealth of the latest available statistics of hydro power and hydro power plants.. not primary energy. wind power. By the end of 2007 the global cumulative capacity exceeded 9 GWp.This electricity m. tides and geothermal heat. biomass and biofuels for transpo.Published by ABS Energy Research in March 2009 This database contains tables of electricity generating capacity by renewable sources. The database refers to electricity generating capacity.. It accounts for 2..5% of the . Renewable energy technologies range from solar power. shown individually by resource and consolidated into the global total of 1.(more) Analyzing the North American Wind Power Industry Published by Aruvian Research in February 2009 The rise of wind energy is no longer being looked upon as an alternate source of energy. wind..(more) Analyzing the European Renewable Energy Industry Published by Aruvian Research in January 2009 Renewable energy effectively uses natural resources such as sunlight.

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