Survey and Enumeration of Orchids in Jajarkot District

A Report Submitted To

District Forest Office Jajarkot

Submitted By

Dipesh Pyakurel and Khilendra Gurung June, 2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to acknowledge Mr. Devendra Lal Karna, District Forest Officer Jajarkot, for his support for this study. We are thankful to Mr. Jiya Lal Yadav and Mr. Uttim Sahu Teli, Assistant Forest Officers, Mr. Lok Mani Sapkota, Megh Raj Paudel, Ashok Khatri; Rangers, Mr. Rishav Dev Khanal and other staffs of District Forest Office, Jajarkot for their coordination, facilitation and cooperation to carry out this work. We are also grateful to Mr. Prakash Shahi; Secretary Local Development Fund Board, Jajarkot, Mr. Uday Rana, Accountant LDFB and Suraj Niraula, Ranger LDFB for their suggestions. We would also like to thank Mr. Ganesh Bahadur Karki; Forest Guard, DFO Jajarkot for assisting us in field trip. Lastly, we would like to thank residents of 14 VDCs of Jajarkot who supported us during the field work.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Limitations of the Study CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Study Area 2.2 Material and Methods 2.2.1 Data Collection 2.2.2 Identification of Orchid Species 2.2.3 Identification of Orchid Hotspot 2.2.4 Identification of Host of Orchids 2.2.5 Stock Estimation of Valuable Orchids 2.2.5.1 Abundance 2.2.5.2 Current Stock of Valuable Orchids 2.3 Assessment of Threats 2.4 Organization of Interaction Program with Stakeholders CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Distribution of Orchids in Jajarkot 3.2 Habitat of Orchids 3.2.1 Host of Orchids 3.3 Orchid Hotspots in Jajarkot 7 12 12 17 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 1 2 2

3.4 Enumeration of Recorded Orchids of Jajarkot District 3.5 Current Stock of Valuable Orchids of Jajarkot District 3.6 Uses of Orchids 3.6.1 Medicinal Uses of Orchids 3.7 Assessment of Threat 3.7.1 Legal and Conservation Gaps 3.8 Conservation Strategies 3.8.1 Goals and strategic directions CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Conclusion 4.2 Recommendations

19 33 35 36 37 37 37 38

41 42

REFERENCES Lists of Tables Table 1: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of eastern cluster of Jajarkot District Table 2: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of western cluster of Jajarkot District Table 3: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of northern cluster of Jajarkot District Table 4: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of southern cluster of Jajarkot District Table 5: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of middle cluster of Jajarkot

43

7

8

9

10

District Table 6: Hosts of orchids in Jajarkot district Table 7: Locations of orchid hotspots in the surveyed VDCs of Jajarkot district Table 8: Abundance and current stock of valuable orchids of Jajarkot district Table 9: Traditional uses of orchids

11 12 17 34 36

Lists of Maps Map of Orchid surveyed VDCs of Jajarkot District Map of Orchid hotspots of Jajarkot District 3 18

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction Orchids (Nepali name: Sunakhari, Sungava, Jivanti) belonging to Orchidaceae family, are one of the largest families of flowering plants comprising of 363 species organized into 97 genera in Nepal (Rajbhandari and Bhattarai, 2001). Orchids are notably diversified in the moist tropics of both hemispheres in which majority are epiphytes in forests. Most of the temperate and almost all of the alpine genera are terrestrial, while some are lithophytes. The first systematic orchids’ collection in Nepal was done by Hamilton in 1802 followed by Wallich in 1820, mainly from Kathmandu valley (Rajbhandari, 1976) and their collections were studied by David Don in 1825-26. Hara et al. (1978), Banerji (1978) and Banerji and Pradhan (1984) have given list and descriptions of orchids of Nepal. Till then, several orchids new to Nepal have been reported by DuPuy and Cribb (1988), Cribb and Tang (1983), Wood (1986, 1989), Bajracharya et al. (1993), Bania et al. (1993), Pearce and Cribb (1996), Rajbhandari and Bhattarai (1995-96), Rajbhandari et al. (1997, 1998), Shakya and Bania (1998); Shakya and Chaudhary (1999), Shakya (2000), Rajbhandari and Bhattarai (2001), Milleville and Shrestha (2004), Pyakurel and Gurung (2008). Orchids are mostly perennial (or rarely annual), epiphytic, terrestrial or lithophytic herbs with root having multi-layered spongy tissue. They are capable of absorbing and storing considerable quantity of moisture. In terrestrial species, the roots are often swollen into tubers or stems from corms or rhizomes. Stems of epiphytic species are often thickened to form a pseudo-bulb with adventitious roots. Two types of growth habit are found in orchids: sympodial and monopodial. In sympodial plants the shoots are clustered together or spread out on a long rhizome and new shoots may arise from any part of the older shoots where there is an auxiliary bud. In monopodial plants the shoots have the potential for indefinite apical growth. Habitat loss, forest destruction and degradation and over exploitation has posed threats to the conservation of orchids in Nepal. Detailed studies to understand the conservation status of orchids of Nepal are still lacking. It is considered that many orchid species of Nepal are at the threatened stage now.
1

Owing to the geographical variations and climatic conditions of Jajarkot district, it is estimated that many species of orchids are distributed in the district. But, the enumeration of orchid species, their status, hotspot mapping and the species that are in trade has not been assessed in the district to till date. On the basis of this background, District Forest Office (DFO), Jajarkot and Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP) aimed to carry out the detail survey and enumeration of orchids in the district. Therefore, a team of two botanists conducted a study on 15 VDCs of Jajarkot district.

1.2 Objectives The present study aims to assess the distribution of orchids in different habitats and enumerate the orchid species of Jajarkot district. The specific objectives are as follows: 1. To identify the orchid hotspots in the selected VDCs of Jajarkot district 2. To enumerate the orchid species distributed in the selected VDCs 3. To estimate the current stock of valuable orchids in the selected VDCs 4. To assess the threat and formulate the conservation strategies of orchids in Jajarkot district

1.3 Limitations of the Study Many epiphytic orchids flower during September-October and terrestrial orchids flower during July-August. However, the field survey was conducted during MayJune. Thus few orchids without flower were not identified. Further, due to the limited time frame, 15 VDCs out of 30 were surveyed. Only three species of orchids were considered valuable in Jajarkot and therefore, the current stock was calculated for those three species only.

2

CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Study Area Altogether 15 VDCs were selected for the survey of Orchids in Jajarkot district on the basis of altitudinal variation, forest and vegetation types and in consultation with DFO. The study area is categorized into 5 clusters as follows: 1. Eastern cluster: Khagenkot, Ragda and Bhagawati VDCs 2. Western cluster: Garkhakot, Majhkot, Kortang and Dashera VDCs 3. Northern cluster: Ramidanda, Rokayagaun and Paink VDCs 4. Southern cluster: Sima and Bhur VDCs and 5. Middle cluster: Khalanga, Dhime, Talegaun VDCs

3

2.2 Material and Methods 2.2.1 Data Collection The primary data were collected using different tools like observation, measurement, interviews, consultation with key informants and other relevant PRA tools. DFO staffs, herbs traders, and Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) were the main key informants. Verbal open ended questions were asked for the interview and discussions. The secondary information was collected from orchid’s related publications, research papers, DFO documents and other relevant documents as per necessity. The secondary data were collected for the verification of primary data and additional information as well. 2.2.2 Identification of Orchid Species Observed orchids were identified visually on the basis of researchers’ knowledge and expertise. Unidentified species were collected and identified consulting with the reference literatures as Stainton and Polunin (1984); Stainton (1988); Rajbhandari and Bhattarai (2001); Milleville and Shrestha (2004) and Pyakurel and Gurung (2008). Enumerations of all available orchids were carried out according to Press et

al. (2000), Rajbhandari and Bhattarai (2001) and Pyakurel and Gurung (2008).
2.2.3 Identification of Orchid Hotspot Orchids sampling and observation were conducted in defined habitats. The identification of orchid’s hotspots was done systematically by observing abundance, habitat, forest types, moisture, altitude and aspects. GPS coordinates data were recorded to locate the hotspots of orchid in their specific habitats. 2.2.4 Identification of Host of Orchids The plant species where the orchid species grows were identified on the basis of researcher’s knowledge and consultation with relevant literatures.

4

2.2.5 Stock Estimation of Valuable Orchids 2.2.5.1 Abundance Abundance of particular species is defined as the number of species “A” found in all plots to the total area of the plots per hectare. The calculation was done using the following formula as given by Zobel et al. (1987):

Abundance Pl/ha =

Total number of plant of any species × 10000 Total number of quadrat studied × area of quadrat

For orchid species, the following steps were carried out in the field to find out the abundance. Numbers of orchids in a plot were calculated with the help of following steps: 1. Number of patches of orchids will be counted for each host Average individual orchid was counted in each be counted in a patch 2.1.Number ofnumber of orchid (of each species) will patch 2. Total number of patches of "Species A" were counted in each quadrat

2.2.5.2 Current Stock of Valuable Orchids Valuable orchid species were collected from the study sites in patches. Number of individuals in each patch was counted. Fresh weight of bulb of each species was taken in the field with the help of balance. The bulb was then sun dried for about 15 days according to the nature of orchids and dry weight of each bulb was taken using digital balance. Finally total stock of valuable orchid species per hectare were calculated. The total stocks of the valuable orchids were estimated on the basis of the area covered by specific vegetation types of the studied VDCs as provided by DFO, Jajarkot. 2.3 Assessment of Threats The threats assessment of orchids was done by: 1. Observation and assessment of orchids habitat destruction 2. Assessment of awareness and knowledge on the importance of orchids among the FUGs and communities 3. Assessment of the orchids exploitation in the district
5

2.4 Organization of Interaction Program with Stakeholders A half day interaction program was organized at DFO hall for the dissemination of findings from the field study with concerned stakeholders. The input of the interaction was incorporated in this report.

6

CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Distribution of Orchids in Jajarkot Epiphytic orchids were recorded in between 600m (Sima VDC) to 2300m (Paink VDC) of Jajarkot district. Similarly, terrestrial orchids were distributed at the range of 2000m-3600m and lithophytic orchids were found in between the altitude of 900m3000m in the studied VDCs. Altogether 39 species of orchids were recorded and identified in the studied 15 VDCs of Jajarkot district in which 24 species were epiphytic, 11 species as terrestrial and 4 species as lithophytic. Similarly, 38 species were identified up to species level, and remaining one species was identified up to genetic level. List of orchids with color plate is given in Annex 1. The cluster wise lists of recorded orchids are given in Table 1-5.
Table 1: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of eastern cluster of Jajarkot district

S N 1

Name of VDCs Khagenkot

Recorded orchid species

Most abundant orchids

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata
7

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne cristata, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

2

Ragda

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis,

3

Bhagwati

Rhynchostylis retusa
Table 2: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of western cluster of Jajarkot district

S N 1

Name of VDCs Garkhakot

Recorded orchid species

Most abundant orchids

Brachycorythis obcordata, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Calanthe tricarinata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium iridioides, Cypripedium himalaicum, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium
8

Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata

2

Majhkot

Aerides multiflora, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne flaccida, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

3

Kortang

Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Kingidium taenialis, Vanda

bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata
4 Dashera

cristata

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

Aerides multiflora, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Kingidium taenialis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

Table 3: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of northern cluster of Jajarkot district

S N 1

Name of VDCs Ramidanda

Recorded orchid species

Most abundant orchids

Brachycorythis obcordata, Calanthe tricarinata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata Brachycorythis obcordata, Calanthe tricarinata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium longicornu, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Pleione hookeriana, Pleione
9

Calanthe tricarinata, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Vanda cristata

2

Rokayagaun

Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata

praecox, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata
3 Paink

Brachycorythis obcordata, Calanthe tricarinata, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cypripedium himalaicum, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Habenaria arietina, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Pleione hookeriana, Pleione praecox, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata

Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata

Table 4: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of southern cluster of Jajarkot district

S N 1

Name of VDCs Sima

Recorded orchid species

Most abundant orchids

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

Aerides multiflora, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Cleisostema racemiferum, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata

2

Bhur

10

Table 5: List of recorded orchids in the studied VDCs of middle cluster of Jajarkot district

S N 1

Name of VDCs Khalanga

Recorded orchid species

Most abundant orchids

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Brachycorythis obcordata, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Brachycorythis obcordata, Calanthe tricarinata, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Malaxis muscifera, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata Brachycorythis obcordata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Kingidium taenialis, Malaxis muscifera, Oberonia acaulis, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis, Vanda cristata
11

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Vanda cristata

2

Dhime

3

Talegaun

Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Vanda cristata

3.2 Habitat of Orchids The altitude range between 800-2,300m of the studied VDCs harbors the highest number of epiphytic orchid species in Jajarkot district. The forest and vegetation types comprise: Sal forest, Engelhardia - Rhododendron - Oak forest and Rhododendron – Lyonia – Myrica - Oak forest. Few terrestrial orchid species grow on meadows and underlying forest covers ranging from sub-tropical to sub-alpine regions in studied VDCs. The suitability of luxuriant growth of epiphytic orchids in the studied VDCs is due to the moisture rich mossy habitat as a result of high cloud formation. Typically, the mid altitudes benefit from a ‘cloud bath’ twice daily by the rising and falling cloud line. As a result of such a daily weather cycle in the mid-hills, the medium bark of trees or shrubs decompose so quickly into anaerobic sludge combined with lots of air movement and strong light seems to make orchids as sturdy and resilient. 3.2.1 Host of Orchids Most of the orchid species were found growing in Angeri (Lyonia ovalifolia), Banjh (Quercus leucotrichophora), Lali Gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Kaphal (Myrica

esculenta), Mauwa (Engelhardia spicata) and Utis (Alnus nepalensis) in sub-tropical and temperate regions. Similarly, Chiuri (Diploknema butyracea), Sal (Shorea robusta), Khirro (Sapium insigne) and Sindure (Mallotus philippensis) host majority
of orchid species in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the studied VDCs of Jajarkot district. The lists of hosts along with epiphytic, terrestrial and lithophytic orchids are presented in Table 6. Table 6: Hosts of orchids in Jajarkot district SN Hosts of orchids 1 Angeri (Lyonia Orchid species

ovalifolia)

Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum,
12

Gastrochilus calceolaris, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Vanda cristata
2 Asna (Terminalia

alata)
3 4 Bael (Aegle marmelos) Banjh (Quercus

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia sp, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne ovalis, Dendrobium aphyllum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Vanda cristata
13

leucotrichophora)

5

Bhalayo (Rhus wallichii)

6

Bot dhanyero (Lagerstroemia

parviflora)
7 Chiuri (Diploknema

butyracea)

8

Hade bayer (Ziziphus incurva)

9

Jamun (Syzygium cumini)

Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Dendrobium longicornu, Vanda cristata Cleisostema racemiferum, Dendrobium aphyllum,
14

10 11

Jhingane (Eurya

acuminata)
Kadam (Anthocephalus

chinensis)
12 Kaphal (Myrica

esculenta)

13

Kaulo (Persea odorattissima)

14

Khayer (Acacia catechu)

15

Khirro (Sapium insigne)

16 17 18

Khote salla (Pinus roxburghii) Kutmero (Litsea

monopetala)
Lakuri (Fraxinus

floribunda)
19 Lali gurans (Rhododendron

Kingidium taenialis, Vanda cristata Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium chryseum, Dendrobium densiflorum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Vanda cristata Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Epigeneium amplum, Gastrochilus calceolaris, Liparis viridiflora, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata Aerides odorata, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa,
15

arboreum)

20

Mauwa (Engelhardia spicata)

21

Mayel (Pyrus

pashia)

22 23

Nibharo (Ficus

auriculata)
Painyu (Prunus cerasoides) Pangar (Aesculus indica) Phalant (Quercus lanata)

24 25

Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata
26 27 Pipal (Ficus religiosa) Pipari

Aerides multiflora, Coelogyne cristata, Dendrobium longicornu, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Dendrobium aphyllum, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Coelogyne ovalis, Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium iridioides, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium denudans, Dendrobium heterocarpum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Bulbophyllum viridiflorum, Epigeneium amplum, Oberonia sp, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Aerides multiflora, Aerides odorata, Coelogyne ovalis, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Oberonia acaulis, Oberonia sp, Rhynchostylis retusa, Vanda cristata Chiloschista usneoides, Cleisostema racemiferum, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Coelogyne flaccida, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium bicameratum, Dendrobium longicornu, Kingidium taenialis, Oberonia acaulis, Vanda cristata
16

28

Sal (Shorea robusta)

29 30

Simal (Bombax ceiba) Sindure (Mallotus philippensis) Siris (Albizzia julibrissin) Tooni (Toona ciliata)

31 32

33

Utis (Alnus nepalensis)

34

Terrestrial

Brachycorythis obcordata, Calanthe tricarinata, Cypripedium himalaicum, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Habenaria aitchisonii, Habenaria arietina, Habenaria intermedia, Herminium lanceum, Malaxis muscifera, Pleione hookeriana, Pleione praecox, Satyrium nepalense, Spiranthes sinensis Aerides multiflora, Coelogyne corymbosa, Coelogyne cristata, Rhynchostylis retusa

35

Lithophytic

3.3 Orchid Hotspots in Jajarkot Orchid habitat comprises of undisturbed Sal and mixed broadleaved forests with moisture content. Such type of habitat harbors varieties of orchids in quantity and in terms of biodiversity, it is known as "Orchid Hotspot". Orchid hotspot has been identified in forests of Khalanga, Rokayagaun, Paink, Talegaun, Garkhakot, Majhkot and Khagenkot VDCs of Jajarkot district. Orchid hotspot in the surveyed VDCs of Jajarkot district is shown in Map 2. Table 7: Locations of orchid hotspots in the surveyed VDCs of Jajarkot district SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name of VDCs Khalanga Khalanga Khalanga Rokayagaun Rokayagaun Paink Paink Paink Garkhakot Garkhakot Garkhakot Majhkot Khagenkot Locations of orchid hotspots 280 44’ 893” N; 820 10’ 881” E 28 45’ 880” N; 82 10’ 806” E 280 42’ 768” N; 820 14’ 984” E 28 56’ 419” N; 82 14’ 046” E 28 56’ 649” N; 82 13’ 455” E 28 54’ 452” N; 82 10’ 759” E 28 54’ 188” N; 82 10’ 211” E 28 55’ 532” N; 82 07’ 447” E 28 52’ 311” N; 82 01’ 222” E 280 50’ 191” N; 820 00’ 937” E 28 49’ 174” N; 82 00’ 347” E 280 48’ 397” N; 810 58’ 726” E 28 49’ 688” N; 82 22’ 920” E
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Altitude 1530m 1970m 770m 1800m 2150m 2150m 1900m 2300m 1690m 1800m 1950m 1430m 1000m

17

Map 2: Orchid hotspots in Jajarkot district
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3.4 Enumeration of Recorded Orchids of Jajarkot District Enumerations of the recorded orchids of the surveyed VDCs of Jajarkot district are as follows: 1. Aerides multiflora Roxb. Habitat and distribution: This species is found in Nepal, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. In Nepal it occurs as an epiphytic herb in the tropical and sub-tropical forests at 200-1100m. Diagnostic characters: Stem stout, 10-25cm long many leaved. Leaves 15-30cm long, 1.5-2cm broad, ligulate, distichous, deeply channelled and keeled, curved, 2lobed. Inflorescences 20-40cm long, many-flowered, densely set in semi-pendant cylindrical racemes; floral bracts 0.3cm long, 0.2cm broad, triangular, 1-nerved, dark-brown. Flowers waxy, pinkish-white, 1.5-3cm across. Sepals elliptic-oblong or orbicular, rounded. Petals oblong-spathulate, apex round. Lip magneta, clawed, geniculate, adnate to the base of the column, 3 -lobed, convex, margins recurved, basal half of the lip thick and with a retrorse tooth or callus pointing across the mouth of the rectangularly bent spur; apex of side lobes rounded; mid-lobe cordate or hastate-ovate, apex rounded, slightly convex above; spur pointing forwards, short, straight, compressed. Column beaked, with 2 rounded auricles on the foot. Flowering: May-July. 2. Aerides odorata Lour. Habitat and distribution: This species is found in Nepal, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Myanmar, South China, Indonesia and the Philippines. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the tropical and sub-tropical regions at 200-1200m. Diagnostic characters: Stem stout, dropping, branching, 10-30cm long. Leaves fleshy, incurved, 15-30cm long, 2-5cm broad, oblong-ligulate, roundly lobed at apex, pale green. Inflorescence pendulous, 15-30cm long, densely up to 30-flowered; peduncle and rachis stout; sticky when young; acute. Flowers white with pink spots; fragrant. Dorsal sepal oblong, obtuse, lateral sepals longer than the dorsal sepal, narrowly triangular-lanceolate. Petals narrowly oblong. Lip adnate to the short foot of the column, 3-lobed, almost enclosing the column; side lobes sub-quadrate, erect, margins entire or toothed; mid lobe short, incurved, oblong, acute, entire; disc with
19

small keels around the nectar and 2-curved appendages in the mouth; spur large, horn-like, incurved. Flowering time: May-July.

3. Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Sprengel Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India and Myanmar. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 600-2100m. Diagnostic characters: Rhizomes stout. Pseudo-bulbs globose or oblong, lightly grooved, single-leaved, 1.5-5cm long, 1.5-2.5cm broad. Leaves 10-20cm long, 24cm broad, oblong, tapering to each end, notched. Inflorescence scape about the length of the pseudo-bulb, stout, brown and clothed with many bracts of the same color bearing a dense flower at its apex, decurved, cylindric raceme; floral bract lanceolate, longer than the stalked ovary. Flowers densely imbricating, orange – yellow spotted and suffused with red-brown. Sepals unequal, the dorsal smaller, oblong. Petals about one- third the size of the sepals, fleshy, narrowly triangular with a few projecting bristle- like teeth on the edges. Lip pinkish, longer thn the petals, oblong, broad base with two short falcate side lobes, edges minutely ciliolate. Column orange, short with two, broad apical teeth and a short curved foot. Flowering time: October-December. 4. Bulbophyllum viridiflorum Habitat and distribution: Found in Nepal, India and Bhutan. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and west Nepal at 1100-2300m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs caespitose, crowded, ovoid, tapering much to the apex. Leaves 5-15cm long and 2-3cm broad, elliptic-oblong, sub-acute, tapering much to the channelled petiole. Inflorescence scape equalled or exceeding the leaf, decurved, with two sheathing bracts at the base and several scattered along the peduncle, flowers in umbels of 5-9 on long pedicels; floral bract ovate, acuminate, shorter than the pedicel. Flowers pale yellow spotted with purple, 1-2cm long. Dorsal sepal free at its base from the lateral pair, broadly ovate, apiculate, concave, vaulted over the column; lateral sepals free, twice as long as the dorsal, ovate from at broad base, sub-acute, upper margins incurved, apices divergent. Petals broadly elliptic, shortly apiculate, shorter than the dorsal sepal, spreading. Lip purple, deflexed from the middle, oblong with a very broad base, apex minutely
20

emarginate; under surface with a grooved keel. Column stout, with broad rectangular wings, apical teeth long, filiform, decurved; apex upturned. Flowering time: July-October. 5. Brachycorythis obcordata (Lindley) Summerhayes Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, northern India, Bhutan, China and Myanmar. It occurs as a terrestrial herb on open, rocky hillsides the tropical to subtropical regions at 900-2000 m. Diagnostic characters: Orchid about 20cm high, pseudo-bulbs small, globose. Leaves sessile, 2-4cm long, 0.8-1.8cm wide, oblong, sub-acute, base narrowed, clasping the stem. Flowers pale purple in color. Propagated by seeds or pseudobulbs. Flowering time: July-September. 6. Calanthe tricarinata Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, West China and Japan. It occurs as a terrestrial herb on the forest floor from the sub-tropical to subalpine regions at 1500-3200 m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs broadly ovoid, 1.5-2.5cm long. Pseudo stems 7.5-20cm long. Leaves 2 or 3, 20-35cm long, 5-7.5cm broad, oblanceolate, acute, much narrowed in the lower half, petiolate or sessile. Inflorescence from the developing pseudo-bulb, attached by the young leaves and arising from the axil of one of them, longer than the adult leaves, 30-50cm long, the peduncle longer than the laxly-flowered raceme, the rachis and stalked ovaries pubescent; floral bracts lanceolate, shorter than the slender pedicel of the ovary. Flowers 1-2cm across, externally green, edged with white; internally they are of a pale yellowish-green. Sepals and petals broadly lanceolate, spreading. Lip adnate to the whole length of the column broadly oblong, decurved, 3-lobed, base with a didymous puberulous callus, green, but the fleshy ridged callus on its upper surface and anther are purple, side lobes short, erect, broad and rounded; the mid lobe oblong, obtuse, edges much undulate and the upper surface with a large fleshy callus divided into three ridges. Flowering time: June-July.

21

7. Chiloschista usneoides (D. Don) Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India and Bhutan. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical regions of central and western Nepal at 16001700m. Diagnostic characters: Roots densely tufted, tortuous. Stem and leaves absent. Inflorescence 7.5-15cm long raceme, many-flowered; peduncle brownish, bearing a few amplexicaul, ovate, acute, membranous, deciduous bracts. Flowers sub-sessile, white or greenish-yellow, 1.5cm across. Sepals spreading, oblong, obtuse. Petals broader, spreading. Lip gibbous with a long claw, side lobes oblong, obtuse; disc between the side lobes pubescent; mid-lobe truncate. Column short. Flowering time: February-April. 8. Coelogyne corymbosa Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and China. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 1500-2900m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs short, clustered, ovoid to sub-rhomboidal, 2.5-4.5cm long and 2-2.5cm broad, 2-leaved at the apex. Leaves 10-20cm long, 23.5cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, sub-erect, acute. Inflorescence racemose from the base of the pseudobulb, erect or deurved, 2-4 flowered, 7-20cm long. Scape covered in sheaths to first flower. Sheaths 1.5-2.5cm long, 1.5cm broad, ovate, acute. Flowers fragrant, 6-7cm across, white. Sepals lanceolate or elliptic, acute. Petals narrowly lanceolate, acute. Lip oblong, white with 4 large yellow eyes bordered with orange-red, 3-lobed, side lobes broad and blunt, erose; mid-lobe ovate to lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate and recurved, crenulated towards the base, disc with 3 lamellae. Column curved, slightly winged towards the apex, outside white, inside yellowish-brown. Flowering time: March-May. 9. Coelogyne cristata Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India and Bhutan. In Nepal it occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions at 14002500m.
22

Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs oblong or ovoid, closely spaced on rhizome, 5-8cm long, 1.5-4cm in diameter, 2-leaved at apex. Leaves sessile, 15-30cm long, 22.5cm broad, narrowly lanceolate, acute. Inflorescence racemose from the base of the pseudobulb, pendulous, 15-30cm long, 3-10 flowered; bracts 2.5-5cm long, persistent. Flowers white, 8-10cm across. Sepals narrowly elliptic-oblong, undulate, sub-acute. Petals similar to sepals acute. Lip oblong, 3-lobed with large rounded side lobes; mid-lobe broad, short, crenate with two broad, square, yellow lamellae on its upper surface; disc between the side lobes with four yellow fimbriate lamellae. Column long, apex hooded and crenate. Flowering time: February-April. 10. Coelogyne flaccida Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Myanmar, West China and Laos. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical regions of central and west Nepal at 900-1400m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs conical or ovoid-cylindric, up to 12cm long, 2.5cm broad, 2-leaved at apex. Leaves 10-18cm long, 2-3cm broad, linearlanceolate, acuminate; petiole 3.5-5cm long. Inflorescence racemose from the base of the pseudobulb, pendulous, up to 20cm long, 7-9 flowered, bracts obovate, acute, caduceus. Flowers 3-5cm across, white with yellow on middle of lip, striped red on side lobes and spotted red at base of mid-lobe. Sepals lanceolate, acute. Petals linear, acute, reflexed. Lip oblong, 3-lobed; side lobes long with acute apices; midlobe oblong, acute, reflexed; disc with three yellow flexuose ridges between the side lobes. Column white, broadly and erosely hooded at the apex. Flowering time: AprilJune. 11. Coelogyne ovalis Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and China. In Nepal it occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions at 13002100m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs ovoid to fusiform 3-8cm long, 1-1.5cm broad, borne somewhat distant on a creeping rhizome, 2-leaved at apex. Leaves 915cm long, 2.5-4cm broad, narrowly elliptic, acute to acuminate. Inflorescence racemose from between the pair of leaves on the apex of pseudobulb; 1-3 flowered, 12cm long, subtended at base by 3 sheaths; floral bracts coriaceous, ovate,
23

convolute, caducous. Flowers pale brown, 3.5-5cm across. Sepals ovate, acute, spreading. Petals linear, acute, spreading. Lip oblong, 3-lobed in middle, brown having blackish-brown markings and hairs; side lobes narrow, recurved; mid lobe broadly oblong, its edges and upper surface with stiff black hairs; disc with two crisped lamellae from base to apex. Column curved, broadly winged in its upper half of light color than the rest of the flower. Flowering time: September-December. 12. Cymbidium elegans Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India and Bhutan. It occurs as an epiphytic or as a terrestrial herb in the temperate zones of east, central and western Nepal at 2100-2500m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs short. Leaves narrowly linear, acuminate, slightly expanded and equitant at the base; 45-60cm long, 1.5-2cm broad. Inflorescence axillary, decurved, as long as the leaves; peduncled longer than the raceme, clothed to the apex by a few lanceolate acuminate convolute sheaths, 1015cm long; raceme densely flowered; floral bracts membranous, minute. Flowers pale lemon yellow with parallel brownish streaks, 3.5-4.5cm long and 1.5cm across. Sepals and petals sub-equal, erect, oblong, acute and slightly concave at the tips. Lip as long as the petals, narrowly oblong; the side lobes near the apex, incurved, rounded, white with many dark red streaks at base and spots towards margin; the disc between them with two parallel ridges united at the apex and with a large pubescent callus at the base; mid-lobe small, sub-orbicular, undulate, incurved. Column long, slender, slightly pubescent at the base in front, the apex slightly curved forwards. Flowering time: September-November. 13. Cymbidium iridioides D. Don Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar and China. It occurs as an epiphytic and as a lithophytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 1300-2400m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs 5-15cm long, 2-6cm in diameter, elongate bisidely flattened. Leaves up to 90cm long, 2-4cm broad, linear, acute. Inflorescence 45-80cm long, sub-erect to horizontal; peduncle stiff; floral bracts triangular. Flowers yellowish-green stained with irregular veins and spots of red or ginger-brown, with a narrow cream margin, up to 10cm across. Dorsal sepal narrowly obovate, acute,
24

concave, lateral sepals similar, slightly asymmetric and twisted forward giving the flower a half-open appearance. Petals ligulate, slightly curved, spreading. Lip 3lobed, fused to the column base for 4-5mm, yellowish, side-lobes dark red-veined, mid-lobe yellow at the base, marked with a broad sub-marginal band of confluent deep red spots and blotches; side-lobes triangular, slightly rounded at the apex, margin fringed with short hairs; mid-lobe ovate, strongly recurved, sparsely hairy except in the center where two or three lines of long hairs extend from the callus to beyond the center of the mid-lobe; margin erose and undulating, fringed with short hairs; callus ridges 2, short, reaching half way down the disc, dilated at the apex, tapering off rapidly below, covered in long hairs. Column winged, short hairs present ventrally near the base, callus ridges yellowish, spotted maroon in front. Flowering time: September-December. 14. Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and China. In Nepal it occurs as a terrestrial herb in the sub-alpine and alpine regions at 3000-4800m. Diagnostic characters: Stem 20-30cm high, clothed at the base by 3 or 4 unequal, lax, tubular, acute sheaths, 1-4cm long. Leaves 3-4, unequal, lowest the smallest, scattered, larger leaves 6-8.5cm long, 2.5-5cm broad, the lower leaf only 3.5-5cm long and less than 1.2cm broad, from oblong to broadly elliptic, acute, slightly narrowed to the sheathing base, puberulous. Floral bracts narrowly elliptic, acute, slightly concave, longer than the flower, many-nerved. Flower solitary, pinkish-brown, 6.5cm in diameter vertically and less than 5cm horizontally. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, acute, somewhat concave, the lateral pair slightly longer but only one third as wide. Petals spreading, narrowly oblong, sub-acute, longer than the dorsal sepal. Lip pendent, sub-cylindrically ventricose, many-nerved, brownish, having a strong tinge of purple; the mouth wide, crenate. Flowering time: JuneAugust. 15. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, Pakistan, North India, Bhutan and Southeast Tibet. It occurs as a terrestrial herb in moist places of east, central and western Nepal at 3000-4000m.

25

Diagnostic characters: Orchid about 45cm high, roots tuberous, slightly flattened and divided into 3 or 5 fingers like lobes. Leaves oblanceolate, base sheathing. Flowers purple, narrowly lanceolate. Flowering and fruiting: June.-July (fl.), AugustSeptember (fr.) Status: Commercially threatened; Government protected (ban for collection, use, sale, distribution, transportation and export). 16. Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) G.E.C. Fischer Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar and Southeast Asia. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of east, central and western Nepal at 200-1500m. Diagnostic characters: Stems slender, pendulous, leafy, 30cm to 1m long. Leaves deciduous, 5-12cm long 2-3cm broad, linear, acute. Inflorescences abbreviated 1-3 flowered at each node, borne on old stems; peduncles springing from the slightly swollen nodes of the leafless stems; floral bracts oblong, acute. Flowers white or Rose color, 4-5cm in diameter, fragrant. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, acute. Petals broadly oblong, acute, wider than the sepals. Lip tubular at base, shortly clawed, as long as broad, cream or pale yellow, purple-veined, sub-orbicular, convolute, 3lobed, pubescent above, margins erose, almost ciliate, apex rounded; callus at base of lip, 3-ridged. Column broad at the apex, foot tapering, flat in its upper part, white. Flowering time: April-June. 17. Dendrobium bicameratum Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal and India. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of central and western Nepal at 1400-2400m. Diagnostic characters: Stems fusiform, elongate, 7.5-40cm long and 0.5-1.2cm thick at the thickest part. Leaves 3.5-7.5cm long and 2-2.5cm broad, elliptic to lanceolate, the apex acute and obliquely and minutely bifid. Inflorescence with densely clustered flowers on a short rachis and forming a capitate lateral or subterminal raceme; floral bracts sheathing the shortly-stalked ovary. Flowers yellow marked with red, 1cm across. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate-oblong; lateral pair triangular, all concave and sub-acute. Petals broadly elliptic, obtuse, as long as the
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sepals. Lip small, fleshy, concave, broadly triangular and 3-lobed, the side lobes triangular, acute, erect; the mid-lobe short, truncate; disc fleshy, smooth; column short, with two large oblong nectar-secreting cells. Flowering time: July-August. 18. Dendrobium chryseum Rolfe Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal and India. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of central and western Nepal at 1200-2100m. Diagnostic characters: Stems scarcely clavate, the leafy stems smooth, leafless vertically ridged, 45-75cm long. Leaves coriaceous, 7-12cm long, 2-3.5cm broad, narrowly oblong, the apex blunt, slightly notched. Inflorescence from the leafless stems of the previous year; peduncle 5-7.5cm long, erect, bearing several tubular membranous oblong sheaths; raceme two or three times as long as the peduncle, horizontal, bearing from four to six rather distant flowers; floral bracts membranous, oblong, sub-acute, shorter than the slender pedicelled ovary. Flowers yellow, 57.5cm in diameter. Sepals oblong, sub-acute. Petals broadly ovate, sub-acute. Lip narrowed and convolute in its lower part, the anterior part extended, concave, orbicular, its margins sub-fimbriate near the base, undulate near the apex, having a large purple blotch near its centre and its edges being of a paler yellow than the rest of the flower; the upper surface tomentose. Column and foot short, the later with a nectar near the base. Flowering time: April-June. 19. Dendrobium denudans D. Don Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal and India. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of central and western Nepal at 1000-2200m. Diagnostic characters: Stems terete, sub-erect, many-leaved, the lower leaves sometimes early deciduous, 15-25cm long. Leaves 5-10cm long, 1-2.5cm broad, narrowly oblong, acute, sometimes obliquely notched, not narrowed to the sheathing base. Inflorescence leaf-opposed racemes, slender, decurved, longer than the leaves, many flowered; floral bracts minute. Flowers 1.5-2cm long, white. Sepals sub-equal, not wide spreading, linear, acuminate, falcate. Petals similar to the sepals, but smaller. Lip with a band of radiating red lines round its crisped or serrate edges, much shorter than sepals, decurved from the base, the lower part sub27

quadrate with two long narrow laciniate side lobes; the mid-lobes strongly recurved, serrate, crisped; the disc with an obscurely 3-lined smooth surface with a triangular apex ending at the mid-lobe. Column long, the margin of the clinandrium denticulate; foot or the column red, curved, concave, hispid near its extremity. Flowering time: April-September. 20. Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. ex Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indonesia and Philippines. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the subtropical region of central and western Nepal at 1000-1400m. Diagnostic characters: Stems erect, ribbed, sheathing, 20-45cm long. Leaves 7.512cm long, 1.5-2.5cm broad, narrowly oblong, sub-acute. Inflorescence 1-3 flowered, on a very short peduncle from the leafless stems; floral bracts broad, obtuse, convolute, much shorter than the stalked ovary. Flowers white often tinged with green, 5-6cm across. Sepals sub-equal, the dorsal oblong, sub-acute; the lateral pair lanceolate. Lip yellow or white, with a yellow disc and many purple radiating lines, longer than the lateral sepals, acute, decurved, the edges undulate, the sides of the base somewhat convolute, the disc pubescent. Column short, broad above the foot, tapering, excavated and with a raised line down the center; mentum short, conical, obtuse. Flowering time: April-May. 21. Dendrobium longicornu Wall. ex Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, China and Myanmar. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of Nepal at 1300-2900m. Diagnostic characters: Stems tufted, minutely sulcate, 15-30cm long, somewhat zigzag, with coarse deciduous black hairs on the sheaths. Leaves deciduous, 4-7cm long, 0.5-1.5cm broad, linear, obliquely acute. Inflorescences borne on leafy stems, 1-3 flowered, sub-apical; floral bracts ovate, acute, hairy, concave, 1cm long. Flowers waxy, white, 4-5cm long, fragrant. Dorsal sepal ovate, acute; lateral sepals ovate-triangular. Petals lanceolate or ovate, acute. Lip white streaked orange and edged yellow, 3-lobed, rhombic, with a broad ridge running along its centre from the base to the apex, dividing near the apex into 3 or 4 short branches, side lobes rounded, boldly nerved and with broad erose apices, the mid-lobe small, sub28

orbicular, fimbriate. Column short; mentum long, attenuate, keeled above, 2-3cm long. Flowering time: September-November. 22. Epigeneium amplum Lindley Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal and India. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 1300-2100m. Diagnostic characters: Rhizome pendulous, 0.5cm thick, woody, sheathed, bearing at distances of 10-12.5cm, ellipsoidal pseudo-bulbs which are 2.5-5cm long and half covered by large scarious sheaths. Leaves two, 10-15cm long, 3.5-5cm broad, oblong, acute, shortly petioled; petiole 1-2.5cm. Floral bracts at the base of the stalked ovary, large, loose, scarious. Flowers pale greenish-brown, profusely spotted and blotched with darker brown, 8-9cm across. Sepals lanceolate with broad bases, acuminate, the lateral pair slightly falcate. Petals linear, wide-spreading like sepals. Lip articulate, mobile, 3-lobed; side lobes short, rounded; mid-lobe rhomboid, sub-acute, entire, with three parallel mesial ridges and strong branching nerves, dark purple with bronze edges; the space between the side lobes with three lamellae, outer two having an erect tooth at their bases; the middle one shorter and toothless. Column straight; its foot at a right angle to itself, with thickened sides and a nectar-secreting depression just above the junction with the lip, spotted with purple. Flowering time: September-November. 23. Gastrochilus calceolaris (Smith) D. Don Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar and Malaysia. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions in Nepal at 900-2300m. Diagnostic characters: Stem short, pendulous. Leaves 10-25cm long, 1.5-2.5cm broad, narrowly oblong, apex unequally bifid, the base slightly narrowed and jointed to the short wide sheath. Racemes corymbosa, many-flowered, shorter than the leaves, peduncle with several short sheaths; floral bracts broad, blunt. Flowers 1.5cm across, crowded, pale green with large roundish brown markings. Sepals unequal, spreading, the dorsal oblong; the lateral pair oblong, falcate. Petals oblong, slightly shorter than the sepals. Lip adnate to the lower half of the column; the base forming a wide short sac, nearly parallel with and about half as long as the ovary,
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sac bright yellow with brownish red markings; side lobes absent, the mid lobe at right angle to the sac, semi-circular, white, except the smooth yellow speckled pad at its base, margin and the whole of its upper surface, except a triangular pad at the base, covered with white hair-like papillae. Column short, thick, reddish. Flowering time: February-March. 24. Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Swartz) J. Vuijk Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia and Japan. It occurs as a terrestrial herb from the sub-tropical to sub-alpine regions from east, central and western Nepal at 11003500m. Diagnostic characters: Stems 25-75cm high; tubers small, oblong. Stem clothed in its lower part with tubular acute sheaths. Leaves two or three, linear, acuminate, and not narrowed to the long sheath. Spike cylindrical, narrow, 6.5-25cm long, many flowered; stem the leaves short, usually bearing a linear acuminate bract; floral bracts linear, acuminate, shorter than the ovary. Flowers about 0.7cm long, crowded, green. Sepals sub-equal, oblong, obtuse, the dorsal connivent with the petals to form a hood over the column, the lateral pair spreading. Petals as long as the sepals, narrowly linear. Lip much longer than the sepals, deflexed from the base, oblong in general outline; the lower half minutely auriculate and with a small concavity at the base; the anterior half trifif at the apex, the mid-lobe short; the side lobes long, filiform, curved. Flowering time: July-September. 25. Kingidium taenialis (Lindley) P. F. Hunt Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and Myanmar. It occurs as an epiphytic herb or sometimes on the mossy rock in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 1500-2300m. Diagnostic characters: Roots numerous, long and flat, forming large tufts. Leaves few, pendulous, often solitary, sometimes absent, 7.5-12.5cm long, 1.5-2cm broad, narrowly elliptic, acute, tapering to the sessile base. Racemes longer than the leaves, pendulous, 6-8 flowered; floral bracts broadly triangular, minute. Flowers pale purple, 2cm across. Sepals unequal, blunt; the dorsal oblong, slightly oblanceolate; the lateral pair broader, elliptic, blunt. Petals obovate, blunt, shorter than the sepals. Lip adnate to the foot of the column, shorter than the petals, dark
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purple, dark purple; hypochile produced below into a stout sub-cylindric spur and sending upward two long narrow falcate backward pointing lobes; the epichile spathulate, entire, attached to the hypochile near its base, running parallel to it for part of its length and then curving forwards, its upper surface with a forked appendage. Column long, narrowly winged, dilated towards the foot. Flowering time: April-June. 26. Oberonia acaulis W. Griffith Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and West China. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east, central and western Nepal at 600-2100m. Diagnostic characters: Stems short, slightly tufted. Leaves 2-20cm long and 0.51.5cm broad, ensiform, acuminate, falcate, unequal in size. Inflorescence longer than the leaves, slender, decurved, densely-flowered with the flowers borne more or less in whorls; its peduncle terete, rather thickly clothed with slightly spreading linear bracts; the rachis of the raceme not thicker than the peduncle but several times as long; floral bract lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely erose. Flowers light brown, 0.2cm long, numerous, more or less whorled. Sepals ovate, entire. Petals oblong, entire, truncate, spreading on the ovary. Lip longer than the sepals and petals; side lobes broadly oblong, sub-crenulate, blunt, sub-divergent; mid-lobe large, deeply cleft into two broadly oblong blunt lobules separated from each other by a triangular blunt; the upper surface of the lip with a few irregularly scattered watery blisters ultimately changing into scales and also with a small shallow depression at the base just under the column. Flowering time: SeptemberDecember. 27. Pleione hookeriana (Lindley) B. S. Williams Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and China. It occurs as an epiphytic herb or terrestrial in the temperate and sub-alpine regions from east to western Nepal at 2200-3700m. Diagnostic characters: Pseudo-bulbs caespitose, oval, with a few lax sheaths, smooth, 2-2.5cm long. Leaf solitary, proceeding from the base of the adult pseudobulb, 5-6cm long and 1-2cm broad, narrowly elliptic, acute, tapering to the petiole; petiole 2-3cm long, enclosed in tubular imbricate sheaths. Peduncle enveloped in the
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same sheaths as the base of the undeveloped leaf; floral bracts about as long as the stalked ovary, broadly obovate, obtuse, convolute, persistent. Flowers solitary, 5cm across, white flushed with violet. Sepals spreading sub-equal in length, elliptic, blunt, the dorsal narrower than the lateral pair. Petals spreading, as long as the sepals, oblanceolate, obtuse. Lip white with a large spot of yellow with dull reddishmottings, cordate at the base, broad and entire in its posterior half, narrowed and minutely erose in its anterior, the apex retuse, the disc with 5-7 slender ciliate ridges from the base nearly to the apex. Column long, curved, broadly winged in its upper half. Flowering time: May-June. 28. Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Myanmar, Sri-Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and the Philippines. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of east to western Nepal at 300-1800m. Diagnostic characters: Stem stout, 10-20cm long, clothed in the sheaths of decayed leaves. Leaves curved, fleshy, 15-50cm long, 1.5-5cm broad, ligulate, deeply channelled, keeled, retuse at apex. Inflorescence pendulous, racemose, densely many-flowered, cylindric, 10-45cm long. Flowers white, spotted with pink or violet, 1-1.8cm across. Dorsal sepal oblong, acute; lateral sepals broadly ovate, obtuse. Petals elliptic, obtuse. Lip concave, adnate to the short foot of the column; entire at the apex, purple above, white at base; disc flat; spur saccate, longer than the limb of the lip, pale mauve. Column with an indistinct foot. Flowering time: MayJuly. 29. Satyrium nepalense D. Don Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Pakistan and Southwest China. It occurs as terrestrial herb in open grassy slopes of sub-tropical to sub-alpine regions of east to western Nepal at 1500-4000m. Diagnostic characters: Stem erect, 50-75cm long. Leaves narrow-elliptic with sheathing bases, 10-25cm. Flowers pink, fragrant, in a dense terminal spike and with reflexed bracts tinged pink and much longer than the flowers. Flowers 1-1.5cm across, in a spike 2.5-15cm long; lip erect projecting upwards, hood-shaped, curved and with two down projecting spurs; petals recurved, smaller than the spreading sepals. Flowering time: July-September.
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30. Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames /S. australis (R. Br.) Lindley Habitat and Distribution: Distributed in Nepal, Afghanistan, China, India, S E Asia and Australia. It is one of the widest ranging species ranging from tropics to alpine regions of Nepal at 100-4500m in open slopes and cultivated areas. Diagnostic characters: Leaves 4-5, linear-lanceolate, 2-6cm. Flowers very small, pink or sometimes white, arranged spirally in a slender but dense spikes 8-15cm long, and borne on a hairy stem. Flowers 3-4mm long, hooded and with spreading lateral sepals; lip oblong, the apical part with crisped margin and dilated recurved tip. Spur absent; flowering stem 15-45cm, leafy only near the base and with sheathing bracts above. Flowering time: April-August.

31. Vanda cristata Lindley
Habitat and distribution: Distributed in Nepal, India, Bhutan and China. It occurs as an epiphytic herb in the sub-tropical and temperate regions of east to western parts of Nepal at 1200-2300m. Diagnostic characters: Stems 7.5-18cm long, stout, covered with old sheaths. Leaves numerous, 7.5-10cm long, 1-1.5cm broad, narrowly oblong, conduplicate, truncately and unequally bilobed at the apex, dilated towards the jointed sheathing base. Racemose equal to the leaves, axillary, 2-5 flowered; floral bracts 0.3-0.5cm long, broadly ovate, obtuse, membranous. Flowers pale green or yellowish, 3-5cm across. Sepals sub-equal, spreading; dorsal sepal oblong, obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, obtuse. Petals oblong, obtuse, slightly falcate, olive-green, narrower than the sepals. Lip greenish-white, blotched with dark purplish-brown, longer than the sepals, adnate to the base of the column; 3-lobed, the mid-lobe oblong with two divaricate oblong lobules and a horn like fleshy beak pointing downwards the apex, upper surface with dark purplish brown lines and six ridges. Spur widely infundibuliform, half as long as the stalked ovary, its mouth with triangular erect side lobes. Column short, white with no foot. Flowering time: March-May. 3.5 Current Stock of Valuable Orchids of Jajarkot District According to the collectors and traders of herbs in Jajarkot district, three species of orchids are in demand and therefore considered valuable compare to others species. The valuable species of orchids were identified as Dendrobium denudans,

Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium bicameratum.
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The abundance of Dendrobium aphyllum was found highest in Khagenkot VDC (1920/ha) with the current stock of 0.2928kg/ha followed by Khalanga VDC with the abundance of 1390/ha having current stock of 2.11975kg/ha and Paink VDC with abundance of 980/ha and current stock of 1.4945kg/ha (Table 8). Similarly, the abundance of Dendrobium bicameratum was found highest in Khalanga VDC (1000/ha) with the current stock of 1.525kg/ ha followed by Garkhakot VDC with the abundance of 900/ha having current stock of 1.3725kg/ha and Paink VDC with abundance of 760/ha and current stock of 1.159kg/ha (Table 8). Furthermore, the abundance of Dendrobium denudans was found highest in Khalanga VDC (440/ha) with the current stock of 0.671kg/ha followed by Paink VDC with the abundance of 260/ha having current stock of 0.3965kg/ha and Garkhakot VDC with abundance of 180/ha and current stock of 0.2745kg/ha (Table 8). Table 8: Abundance and current stock of valuable orchids of Jajarkot district
Area of Orchids Available Stock Forests (kg/ha) (ha) 0.2928 1.41825 0.2745 1.32675 1.3725 0.25925 0.8845 1.0675 0.793 0.86925 0.53375 0.61 0.427 1953 3646 3320 3320 3320 2053 2053 2053 1583 1583 672 672 2245 Estimated Distribution of Orchids (ha) 195.3 364.6 332 332 332 205.3 205.3 205.3 158.3 158.3 67.2 67.2 224.5 Total Stock of the Area (kg)** 57.18 517.09 91.13 440.48 455.67 53.22 181.59 219.16 125.53 137.60 35.87 40.99 95.86

Name of SN VDCs 1 Khagenkot 2 Ragda 3 Garkhakot 4 Garkhakot 5 Garkhakot 6 Majhkot 7 Majhkot 8 Majhkot 9 Kortang 10 Kortang 11 Dashera 12 Dashera 13 Ramidanda

Valuable Orchid Spp Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium denudans Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium denudans Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium

Orchid Orchid /Patch /ha 19 9 2 9 9 2 6 7 5 6 3 4 3 1920 930 180 870 900 170 580 700 520 570 350 400 280 34

14 Rokayagaun 15 Rokayagaun 16 Paink 17 Paink 18 Paink 19 Sima 20 Sima 21 Khalanga 22 Khalanga 23 Khalanga 24 Dhime 25 Dhime 26 Talegaun 27 Talegaun

aphyllum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium denudans Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium denudans Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum Dendrobium aphyllum Dendrobium bicameratum

7 7 3 10 7 6 4 4 14 10 5 4 9 7

720 650 260 980 760 650 410 440 1390 1000 540 370 940 730

1.098 0.99125 0.3965 1.4945 1.159 0.99125 0.62525 0.671 2.11975 1.525 0.8235 0.56425 1.4335 1.11325

5899 5899 4465 4465 4465 528 528 4230 4230 4230 4211 4211 1237 1237

589.9 589.9 446.5 446.5 446.5 52.8 52.8 423 423 423 421.1 421.1 123.7 123.7

647.71 584.74 177.04 667.29 517.49 52.34 33.01 283.83 896.65 645.07 346.77 237.61 177.32 137.71

** Of the total areas of mixed and broadleaved forests of the surveyed VDCs, it is estimated that only 10% of the total mixed and broadleaved forests areas host orchids. Based on that assumption, total stocks of identified valuable orchids were calculated. 3.6 Uses of Orchids Orchids are mostly used for ornamental purpose and some are used for medicinal purpose. Large numbers of native orchids of Nepal are beautiful and carry horticultural importance. The most beautiful orchid species of Nepal belong to the

Aerides, Ascocentrum, Arundina, Bulbophyllum, Calanthe, Coelogyne, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Epigeneium, Eria, Esmeralda, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pleione, Rhynchostylis, Thunia, Trudelia, Vanda and Vandopsis.
following genera: Species cultivated for ornamental purpose, include Aerides multiflora, Ascocentrum

ampullaceum, Bulbophyllum leopardinum, Calanthe masuca, C. plantaginea, C.
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tricarinata, Coelogyne cristata, Cymbidium elegans, C. iridioides, Dendrobium densiflorum, D. moschatum, D. nobile, Pleione praecox, Rhynchostylis retusa and Vanda tessellata. Some important medicinal orchids of Nepal are mentioned by Rajbhandari et al. (2000) and Manandhar (2002). They are Brachycorythis obcordata, Coelogyne flavida, Coelogyne stricta, Cymbidium aloifolium, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Eulophia nuda, Flickingeria macraei, Pholidota imbricata, Luisia zeylanica and Vanda tessellata. Highly exploited orchids for medicinal purpose are Flickingeria macraei found in tropical and sub-tropical regions and Dactylorhiza hatagirea found
in the sub-alpine and alpine regions (Bailes, 1985). 3.6.1 Medicinal Uses of Orchids Some species of orchids are used for the treatment of various ailments by the communities living in the remote parts as a primary health care. The traditional use practices of orchids are given in Table 9. Table 9: Traditional uses of orchids SN Orchid species 1 2 3 4 5 Medicinal uses Root is astringent, expectorant and is used as a tonic A paste of the pseudo-bulb is applied to the forehead to relieve headache Juice of the pseudo-bulb is applied to boils and also put in wounds on the hooves of animals A paste of pseudo-bulb is applied to forehead to treat headache. Juice is also taken for indigestion Root is expectorant, astringent, demulcent, and highly nutritious. Root powdered is spread over the wounds to control bleeding. Decoction of the root is given in cases of stomach trouble 6 7 8 9

Brachycorythis obcordata Coelogyne corymbosa Coelogyne cristata Coelogyne flaccida Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium longicornu Pleione humilis Rhynchostylis retusa

Pulp of pseudo-bulb is applied to boils and pimples Juice of the plant is used to relieve fever. Boiled root is fed to livestock suffering from cough Paste of the pseudo-bulb is applied to cuts and wounds Juice of the root is applied to cuts and wounds
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10 11

Satyrium nepalense Vanda cristata

Pseudo-bulbs are boiled and eaten. In some parts, the tender leaves are cooked as a vegetable A paste of the plant is applied to cuts and wounds. Similarly, paste of the root is applied to boils and also used for the treatment of dislocated bones

Source: Manandhar (2002) 3.7 Assessment of Threat Orchids are well known for their horticultural and ornamental values. The export of wild orchids from Nepal posed a continued threat to wild populations which have been reduced due to habitat destruction. In 2008, Nepal government permitted the export of wild orchids which were restricted before and now again banned for collection and export since 2009. During the permitted period, the over exploitation of wild orchids by local vendors for sale to the traders/exporters exerted serious threat to most of the sub-tropical and some temperate epiphytic species. Furthermore, the favourable orchid habitats are heavily encroached for the settlement, infrastructure development and cultivation. 3.7.1 Legal and Conservation Gaps The issues relating to sustainable use of orchids are: Lack of inventory of orchid species and their abundance and distribution. Slow process to protect and manage critical wildlife habitats. Difficulty in identifying orchids during non-flowering seasons. Lack of awareness by developers on orchid conservation. Habitat destruction. Inadequate monitoring and regulatory mechanisms. The cost of repatriation of illegal shipments. 3.8 Conservation Strategies Orchids fall under CITES-II category which is defined as species not yet threatened but which could become endangered, if trade is not controlled. Collection and trade of orchids does not fall under the jurisdiction of CITES or any existing legislation. However, it is envisaged that with the development and enactment of regulations
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under the Endangered Species (Protection, Conservation and Regulation of Trade) Act, illegal trade and uncontrolled harvesting of orchids will be addressed. 3.8.1 Goals and strategic directions

Goal 1: Conserve orchid species and their habitats a. In-situ conservation
Strategic directions include: Conduct orchid survey biannually. Establish habitat or species management areas (equivalent to IUCN category IV) where the ecosystems are healthy and a number of species present are threatened by proposed habitat alteration such as infrastructure development. Rehabilitate degraded orchid habitats and promote the recovery of endangered orchid species through the development and implementation of management or recovery plans. Develop legislation for the establishment of areas to facilitate conservation of orchids and other species especially in areas that are zoned for development such as road construction and buildings.

b. Ex-situ conservation
Strategic directions include: Develop and review guidelines for rescue centres regularly. Establish at least two rescue centres to house plants illegally exported. Establish and maintain a gene bank of endangered orchid species. Encourage the artificial propagation of orchid species from seeds and tissue culture by commercial growers such as the granting of tax exemptions for imported materials used in the artificial propagation of wild orchids from seeds. Develop and institute cooperative agreements between private landowners and the Government for the purposes of plant conservation and land restoration. Re-establish decimated orchid populations by cultivating and propagating in nurseries for re-introduction.
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Maintain and expand the orchid collection at the demonstration gardens.

Goal 2: Ensure sustainable use of orchids a. Regulatory framework
Strategic directions include: Complete amendments of the Wild Life Protection Act to incorporate the protection of endangered and endemic orchid species and establish quota restrictions on commercial species. A periodic review of the orchids on the protected list should be conducted for nomenclature changes, addition or deletion of species. Legislate the nursery inspection form under the domestic trade regulations of the Endangered Species Act. Develop a field collection policy to prevent the over-exploitation of wild orchids and incorporate into the domestic legislation. Develop a registration process for orchid’s nurseries. Develop regulations governing artificial propagation of wild species of the Trade in Endangered Species Act. Develop exemption certificates in accordance with the Endangered Species Act for persons trading in personal effects.

Goal 3: Promote and facilitate research and training Training and research
Strategic directions include: Develop and institute training programs for the identification of orchid species for DFO staffs, Customs Officers, Taxonomists, Protected Areas Rangers, Plant Quarantine Officers and other relevant persons involved in the issuing of permits and security at airports. Conduct and support research for artificial propagation of Nepal’s native orchid species.

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Goal 4: Public education and awareness
Strategic directions include: Develop and implement a public awareness program on the conservation of orchids and on the relevant resolutions of CITES. Educate developers, visitors and commercial exporters on conservation issues, CITES resolutions. Encourage individuals to purchase orchids from commercial growers, rather than collecting from the wild. Provide information on the method of processing plants for export to the electronic and print media, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Floriculture societies and libraries. Continue to erect posters at airports, hotels and wildlife attractions in order to promote public awareness. Develop and disseminate an Orchid Expertise List (these persons should be able to accurately identify orchid species, have working experience in the areas of Orchid conservation and/or bio-engineering). Continue to establish a photographic and herbarium collection of native orchid species. Emphasize on the printing of orchid species in the postage stamps.

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Conclusion Orchids are among the most beautiful ornamental plants and carry medicinal and horticultural importance as well. Jajarkot district is rich in orchid species resources with 39 species of both terrestrial and epiphytic orchids identified in the studied 15 VDCs of the district. Orchid habitat hotspots and host plants were identified within the community forests as well as government managed forests at the altitudes between 600-2300m in humid and moisture rich Sal and mixed broadleaved forests of the surveyed VDCs. The assessment of the current stocks of some valuable orchid species revealed that the abundance of Dendrobium aphyllum was found highest in Khagenkot VDC (1920/ha) with the current stock of 0.2928kg/ha followed by Khalanga VDC with the abundance of 1390/ha having current stock of 2.11975kg/ha and Paink VDC with abundance of 980/ha and current stock of 1.4945kg/ha. Similarly, the abundance of Dendrobium bicameratum was found highest in Khalanga VDC (1000/ha) with the current stock of 1.525kg/ha followed by Garkhakot VDC with the abundance of 900/ha having current stock of 1.3725kg/ha and Paink VDC with abundance of 760/ha and current stock of 1.159kg/ha. Furthermore, the abundance of Dendrobium denudans was found highest in Khalanga VDC (440/ha) with the current stock of 0.671kg/ha followed by Paink VDC with the abundance of 260/ha having current stock of 0.3965kg/ha and Garkhakot VDC with abundance of 180/ha and current stock of 0.2745kg/ha. Of the total mixed and broadleaved forest areas of the surveyed VDCs, it is assumed that only 10% of the total forests area host orchids. Based on that assumption, total stocks of orchids were calculated. The total stock of D. aphyllum was recorded highest in Khalanga VDC with 896.65kg followed by Paink VDC with the stock of 667.29kg and Rokayagaun VDC with total stock of 647.71kg. Similarly, D. bicameratum was recorded highest in Khalanga VDC with 645.07kg followed by Rokayagaun VDC with the stock of 584.74kg and Paink VDC with total stock of 517.49kg.
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And the total stock of D. denudans was recorded highest in Khalanga, Paink and Garkhakot with the total stock of 283.83kg, 177.04kg and 91.13kg respectively. However, due to the habitat loss, forest destruction, degradation and over exploitation of beautiful and medicinal orchids for trade has posed threats to the conservation of orchids in the district. Conservation has not been coherent with the need of orchids. Therefore, detailed assessment to understand the current stock and overall conservation status of orchids in the district needs to be conducted, which is still lacking. 4.2 Recommendations Orchid conservation awareness should be organized in every alternate year, so that the upcoming young generation should be made aware and educated about the importance of their forest ecosystem. Urgent need of plantation of suitable orchid host tree species and protection of the naturally growing saplings of these host species. Government should develop orchid hotspot areas as the eco-tourism promotion, so that the local stakeholders can earn some kind of revenue from the resources. Facilitate the local communities to propagate some viable species and market them appropriately in order to bridge their monetary gaps with the help of the aesthetic and other values of these beautiful orchids. Establish and maintain a gene bank of endangered species. Maintain and expand the orchid collection at the demonstration gardens. Develop a field collection policy to prevent the over-exploitation of wild orchids and Incorporate into the management plan of community forests as wells as government managed forests. Develop and institute training programs for the identification of orchid species for District Forest Office staff, and other relevant persons involved in the issuing of permits. Prepare posters or yearly calendar with the photographs and description of endangered species of orchid and distribute to community forests user groups and other conservation groups in order to promote public awareness.

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Systematic investigation of orchids should be undertaken for the complete indexing of the orchids and contributing to a Red Data Book regarding the threatened and endangered species. Orchid reserves in orchid hotspots should be established for the preservation and regeneration of orchids. The collection of wild species of orchids for commercialization should be banned and the rare and endangered species should be introduced in Botanic gardens. Systematic research on propagation technique such as tissue culture should be promoted for the commercially valuable orchids.

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