Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

THIRD EDITION INCORPORATING THE FIRST AND SECOND ADDENDA
Volume 1 Recommendations

Geneva 2008

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, Vol.1, Recommendations. – 3rd ed. 1. Potable water – standards. 2. Water – standards. 3. Water quality – standards. 4. Guidelines. I. World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 154761 1 (WEB version) (NLM classification: WA 675)

© World Health Organization 2008 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

Contents

Preface Acknowledgements Acronyms and abbreviations used in text 1. Introduction 1.1 General considerations and principles 1.1.1 Microbial aspects 1.1.2 Disinfection 1.1.3 Chemical aspects 1.1.4 Radiological aspects 1.1.5 Acceptability aspects 1.2 Roles and responsibilities in drinking-water safety management 1.2.1 Surveillance and quality control 1.2.2 Public health authorities 1.2.3 Local authorities 1.2.4 Water resource management 1.2.5 Drinking-water supply agencies 1.2.6 Community management 1.2.7 Water vendors 1.2.8 Individual consumers 1.2.9 Certification agencies 1.2.10 Plumbing 1.3 Supporting documentation to the Guidelines 2. The Guidelines: a framework for safe drinking-water 2.1 Framework for safe drinking-water: requirements 2.1.1 Health-based targets 2.1.2 System assessment and design 2.1.3 Operational monitoring 2.1.4 Management plans, documentation and communication 2.1.5 Surveillance of drinking-water quality
iii

xv xviii xx 1 1 3 5 6 7 7 8 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 22 22 24 25 26 27 28

2 Verification of chemical quality 4.1 Assessing microbial priorities 2.1 Determining system control measures 4.3 Verification 4.2 Collecting and evaluating available data 4.1 Role and purpose of health-based targets 3.3.3.2.1 New systems 4. community and household systems 4.7 Validation 4.3.1.2.1.1.2 Setting national standards Identifying priority drinking-water quality concerns 2.1 Laws.2 Selecting operational monitoring parameters 4.3.1.2.3 2.4 Non-piped.4 Piped distribution systems iv .3.2 2.3 Resource and source protection 4.3.2 Operational monitoring and maintaining control 4. community and household systems 4.1.4 Treatment 4. regulations and standards 2.2 Chemical water quality National drinking-water policy 2.2.3 Establishing operational and critical limits 4.1 System assessment and design 4. Water safety plans 4.2.2.4 Health outcome targets 3.3 Water sources 4.4 Guidelines for verification 2.3.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 2.3 Water quality targets 3.1.1.4.2.2 Assessing chemical priorities 29 29 30 31 31 32 34 35 35 37 37 39 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 48 51 52 53 56 59 61 64 67 67 68 68 68 70 71 71 72 73 73 74 3.3 Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) 4.3 General considerations in establishing health-based targets 3.1.1 Verification of microbial quality 4.1 Specified technology targets 3.4.2.5 Piped distribution systems 4.2 Performance targets 3.1 Assessment of risk in the framework for safe drinking-water 3.2 Reference level of risk 3. Health-based targets 3.2.6 Non-piped.8 Upgrade and improvement 4.2 Types of health-based targets 3.3.3.2.1 Microbial water quality 2.

3.2 Monitoring 6.1.3.1.2 Unforeseen events 4.2.1 Interaction with community and consumers 5.1 Urban areas in developing countries 5.1.4 Monitoring 6.4.2 Surveillance of community drinking-water supplies 5.1.4.3 Adequacy of supply 5.1.2 Adapting approaches to specific circumstances 5.1 Types of approaches 5.5 Verification for community-managed supplies 4.4.4.3.2 Emergencies and disasters 6.3 Microbial guidelines v .3.4 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] 4. Application of the Guidelines in specific circumstances 6.6 4.1 Predictable incidents (“deviations”) 4.7 Drinking-water quality in schools and day care centres 6.4.4 Continuity 5.6 Drinking-water quality in health care facilities 6.2.3 Surveillance of household treatment and storage systems 5.3 Emergencies [4.4 4.3.5 Preparing a monitoring plan 4.6 Supporting programmes Management of community and household water supplies Documentation and communication 74 75 76 77 77 78 80 80 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 88 88 89 90 90 91 92 92 93 95 96 96 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 105 106 107 5.4 Planning and implementation 5.1 Audit 5.2.2 Accessibility 5.1 Quantity (service level) 5.5.3 Management 6.2.1 Practical considerations 6.3 Affordability 5.5.4.6 Quality assurance and quality control Management procedures for piped distribution systems 4.5 Independent surveillance and supporting programmes 6.2 System assessment 6.2. Surveillance 5.2.2 Regional use of data 6.1 Large buildings 6.5 Reporting and communicating 5.CONTENTS 4.3.1.1.1 Health risk assessment 6.5 4.1.2 Direct assessment 5.1.

3 International standards for bottled drinking-water Food production and processing Aircraft and airports 6.5 Management 6.2 System risk assessment 6.6 6.3 Monitoring.11.5 Surveillance Temporary water supplies 6.7.5 Chemical and radiological guidelines 6.1 Planning and design 6.9.4 Verification 6.11.4 Management 6.8.2.11.9 6.2 Operational monitoring 6.4 Surveillance Rainwater harvesting 6.1 Microbial hazards associated with drinking-water vi .5. Microbial aspects 7.5.10.2 System risk assessment 6.3 6.11.4 6.8.5 6.10.2.7.8.1 Health risks 6.3 Operational monitoring 6.6 Surveillance Non-piped water supplies 108 108 109 109 111 113 113 114 114 115 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 117 118 119 119 120 120 120a 120b 120b 120b 120d 120d 120e 120e 120e 120e 120f 120g 120h 120h 120h 120h 121 121 7.8 6.2 System risk assessment 6.11.9. sanitary inspection and surveillance Vended water 6.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 6.8.7 6.1 Water quality and health risk 6.10 6.5.1 Health risks 6.3 Operational monitoring 6.3 Management 6.12 6.1 Safety of packaged drinking-water 6.2 Potential health benefits of bottled drinking-water 6.1 System risk assessment 6.11.7.8.7.6 Testing kits and laboratories Safe drinking-water for travellers Desalination systems Packaged drinking-water 6.7.3 Operational monitoring 6.2.11 6.10.4 Sanitary inspections and catchment mapping 6.4 Management 6.5 Surveillance Ships 6.2 Operation and maintenance 6.10.9.

4 Presenting the outcome of performance target development 7.2 Persistence and growth in water 7.1 Health-based targets applied to microbial hazards 7.2 Actions following an incident 121 124 125 126 126 126 131 133 133 134 135 136 137 141 142 143 144 144 144c via .GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 7.2.1 Boil water and water avoidance advisories 7.1.2.2.1 Occurrence 7.2 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.6.3 7.6 Health outcome targets Occurrence and treatment of pathogens 7.5 Issues in adapting risk-based performance target setting to national/local circumstances 7.2.2 Risk assessment approach 7.6.3.2.3.3 Household treatment Verification of microbial safety and quality Methods of detection of faecal indicator bacteria Identifying local actions in response to microbial water quality problems and emergencies 7.3 Public health aspects Health-based target setting 7.3 Risk-based performance target setting 7.2 Central treatment 7.3.1.1 Waterborne infections 7.2.1.

1 Approaches taken 8.3 Alternative approaches 8.5.4 Treatment 8.5.2.6.4 Other disinfection processes 8.6 Provisional guideline values 8.2.9 Ion exchange 8.5.2 Derivation of chemical guideline values 8.11 Other treatment processes 8.5.CONTENTS 8.8 Non-guideline chemicals 8.1 Trigger for action vii 145 145 147 148 149 152 154 154 155 156 156 156 156a 157 157 158 166 166 171 172 172 173 175 175 176 177 178 178 179 180a 184 184a 184a 185 187 188 190 192 196 196a .4.4.3 Ozonation 8.1 Treatment achievability 8.4.1 Naturally occurring chemicals 8.2.4.2.2.4.9 Mixtures 8.12 Disinfection by-products – process control measures 8.5 Guideline values for individual chemicals.2.6 Aeration 8.3.2 Chemicals from industrial sources and human dwellings 8.2 Analytical methods 8.2 Threshold chemicals 8.2 Chlorination 8.6 Identifying local actions in response to chemical water quality problems and emergencies 8. by source category 8.2.3 Chemicals from agricultural activities 8.4 Chemicals used in water treatment or from materials in contact with drinking-water 8.4 Non-threshold chemicals 8.2. Chemical aspects 8.4.1 Chemical hazards in drinking-water 8.7 Chemical coagulation 8.13 Treatment for corrosion control 8.4.10 Membrane processes 8.5.6 Cyanobacterial toxins 8.4.2.5.5 Data quality 8.4.3.14 Household treatment 8.8 Activated carbon adsorption 8.1 Analytical achievability 8.4.4.2.4.5 Pesticides used in water for public health purposes 8.3 Analytical aspects 8.4.7 Chemicals with effects on acceptability 8.5 Filtration 8.4.10 Guidance values for use in emergencies 8.

6.6.9 Mixtures 8.10 Water avoidance advisories 9.7 Consumer acceptability 8.6.6.2 Radiation-induced health effects through drinking-water 196a 196b 196b 196b 196e 196e 196e 196f 196f 197 198 200 200 viia .1 Sources and health effects of radiation exposure 9.8 Ensuring remedial action.6.6.6.2 8.4 8.6.CONTENTS 8.1.1 Radiation exposure through drinking-water 9.6 Determining appropriate action 8. preventing recurrence and updating the water safety plan 8.6.1.3 8. Radiological aspects 9.5 Investigating the situation Talking to the right people Informing the public Evaluating the significance to public health and individuals 8.

2 Aeromonas 11.1.6 Units of radioactivity and radiation dose Guidance levels for radionuclides in drinking-water Monitoring and assessment for dissolved radionuclides 9.5 Reporting of results 201 202 204 204 205 205 206 206 207 207 207a 207a 207a 208 209 209 210 211 211 213 219 220 221 222 222 224 225 226 228 229 229a 231 232 233 235 235b 237 10.4 9.1.9(a) Leptospira 11.1.3 Treatment of taste.1 Screening of drinking-water supplies 9.7 Helicobacter pylori 11.4.1.3 9.1.3 Bacillus 11.1.3 Remedial measures Radon 9.1 Radon in air and water 9.9 Legionella 11.1. odour and appearance problems 10.6 Escherichia coli pathogenic strains 11.5(a) Enterobacter sakazakii 11.5.1.3 Measuring radon 9.4.1.1.6.1.4.5 9.1.5 Campylobacter 11.5.6. odour and appearance 10. Acceptability aspects 10.10 Mycobacterium 11.2 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] 9.4 Sampling 9.5.5.2 Temperature 11.1.8 Klebsiella 11.2 Chemically derived contaminants 10.1.4 Treatment and control methods and technical achievability Sampling.2 Strategy for assessing drinking-water 9.1 Measuring gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations [9.4 Burkholderia pseudomallei 11.1 Acinetobacter 11.2 Risk 9.3 Guidance on radon in drinking-water supplies 9.6. Microbial fact sheets 11.2 9.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 9.1 Taste.6.6.1.1 Biologically derived contaminants 10.1.1 Bacterial pathogens 11.11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa viii . analysis and reporting 9.

1.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 11.1.15 Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Tsukamurella 239 240 242 243 viiia .13 11.12 11.1.14 11.1.

1.1 Acanthamoeba 11.2.2.2.6.1 Dracunculus medinensis 11.8 Microsporidia 11.6 Coliphages 11.1.6.3.6.6.4 Intestinal enterococci 11.2 Alachlor 12.2.3.10 Toxoplasma gondii Helminth pathogens 11.5 Clostridium perfringens 11.17 Yersinia Viral pathogens 11.4 Enteroviruses 11.2 Fasciola spp.3.8 Enteric viruses 244 246 247 248 250 251 253 254 256 257 259 259 261 262 262b 264 265 267 268 270 272 274 275 276 278 279 279c 281 282 284 285 287 288 289 292 294 296 296 297 298 300 12.7 Isospora belli 11.9 Naegleria fowleri 11.6 Giardia intestinalis 11.6.3.2.2 Astroviruses 11.7 Bacteroides fragilis phages 11.6 Hepatitis E virus 11.3 Caliciviruses 11.4 11.6.6.2(a) Blastocystis 11.6.4.3 Heterotrophic plate counts 11.5 11.16 Vibrio 11.3.2 Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria 11.2 11.3 11.3.2 Balantidium coli 11.3 Cryptosporidium 11.1 Acrylamide 12. Chemical fact sheets 12.2(a) Free-living nematodes Toxic cyanobacteria Indicator and index organisms 11.3.5 Hepatitis A virus 11. 11.6 11.3.4.5 Entamoeba histolytica 11.2.4.3 Aldicarb 12.7 Rotaviruses and orthoreoviruses Protozoan pathogens 11.4 Cyclospora cayetanensis 11.3.1 Total coliform bacteria 11.3.CONENTS 11.1 Adenoviruses 11.4 Aldrin and dieldrin ix .3.2.

5 12.CONTENTS 12.6 Aluminium Ammonia 301 303 ixa .

2.2-dichlorobenzene.15 Bromate 12.35 2.31 Copper 12.8 Arsenic 12.4-dichlorophenol.2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) 12.38 Dialkyltins 12.3-dichlorobenzene.36 2.4-DB 12.11 Barium 12.6-trichlorophenol) 12.44 1.1-Dichloroethene 12.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 12.4.17(a) Carbaryl 12.10 Atrazine 12.18 Carbofuran 12.19 Carbon tetrachloride 12.28 Chlorotoluron 12.21 Chlordane 12.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.27 Chloropicrin 12.40 1.30 Chromium 12.9 Asbestos 12. 1.39 1.37 DDT and metabolites 12.24 Chlorite and chlorate 12.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) 12.23 Chlorine 12.12 Bentazone 12.34 Cyanogen chloride 12.43 1. 1.1-Dichloroethane 12.7 Antimony 12.46 1.33 Cyanide 12.42 Dichlorobenzenes (1.41 Dichloroacetic acid 12.22 Chloride 12.20 Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) 12.25 Chloroacetones 12.45 1.13 Benzene 12.16 Brominated acetic acids 12.2-Dichloroethene x 304 306 308 308 310 311 312 313 315 316 317 319 319a 320 321 323 324 325 326 329 329 331 332 333 334 335 337 339 340 340 342 343 345 346 347 349 350 352 353 354 355 .2-Dichloroethane 12.26 Chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol.32 Cyanazine 12.4-dichlorobenzene) 12.29 Chlorpyrifos 12. 2.17 Cadmium 12.14 Boron 12.4-D (2.

[2(2-methyl-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid]) 12.CONTENTS 12.67 Hardness 12.78 Malathion 12.74 Iron 12.71 Hydrogen sulfide 12.69 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 12.5-TP.50 1.77 Lindane 12.79 Manganese 12.4.47 Dichloromethane 12.59 Epichlorohydrin 12.54(a) 1.63 Fluoride 12.84 Methyl parathion xi 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 366 366a 367 368 369 370 372 373 374 375 377 379 380 382 383 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 394 396 397 399 401 402 403 404 .70 Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) 12.72 Inorganic tin 12.60 Ethylbenzene 12. bromochloroacetonitrile. 2.73 Iodine 12.4-DP) 12.48 1. dibromoacetonitrile.2-Dichloropropane (1.51 Dichlorprop (2.56 Edetic acid (EDTA) 12.49 1.61 Fenitrothion 12.62 Fenoprop (2.65 Glyphosate and AMPA 12.53 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 12.82 Mercury 12.64 Formaldehyde 12.52 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 12.57 Endosulfan 12.80 MCPA [4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid] 12.83 Methoxychlor 12.68 Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide 12.54 Dimethoate 12.2-DCP) 12.55 Diquat 12.4.3-Dichloropropene 12.66 Halogenated acetonitriles (dichloroacetonitrile.4-Dioxane 12.58 Endrin 12.81 Mecoprop (MCPP.75 Isoproturon 12.76 Lead 12.5-trichlorophenoxy propionic acid) 12.3-Dichloropropane 12. trichloroacetonitrile) 12.

GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.85 Metolachlor 405 405a xia .84(a) Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) 12.

95 Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) 12.86 Microcystin-LR 12.90 Monochloroacetic acid 12.4.5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 12.121 Trihalomethanes (bromoform.101 2-Phenylphenol and its sodium salt 12.100 pH 12.94 Nitrate and nitrite 12.118 1.113 Tetrachloroethene 12.4.99 Permethrin 12. chloroform) 12.1-Trichloroethane 12.102 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 12.5-T (2.108(a) Sodium dichloroisocyanurate 12.116 Trichloroacetic acid 12.93 Nickel 12.95(a) N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 12.114 Toluene 12.92 MX 12.103 Propanil 12.108 Sodium 12.117 Trichlorobenzenes (total) 12.87 Molinate 12. dibromochloromethane.110 Sulfate 12.105 Selenium 12.97 Pendimethalin 12.107 Simazine 12.120 Trifluralin 12.99(a) Petroleum products 12.123 Vinyl chloride xii 407 408 410 411 412 413 414 415 417 420 421 421b 422 424 425 426a 426b 427 428 430 431 432 434 435 436 437 437b 438 439 440 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 450 451 454 456 .119 Trichloroethene 12. bromodichloromethane.96 Parathion 12.106 Silver 12.98 Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 12.112 Terbuthylazine (TBA) 12.122 Uranium 12.91 Monochlorobenzene 12.89 Monochloramine 12.115 Total dissolved solids (TDS) 12.109 Styrene 12.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.1.88 Molybdenum 12.104 Pyriproxyfen 12.111 2.

126 Pesticides used for vector control in drinking-water sources and containers 12.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.1 Diflubenzuron 12.126.4 Pirimiphos-methyl 12.125 Zinc 12.2 Methoprene 12.5 Pyriproxyfen 458 459 460 460 460b 460c 460d 460e xiia .126.3 Novaluron 12.126.124 Xylenes 12.126.126.

CONTENTS Annex 1 Bibliography Annex 2 Contributors to the development of the third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality [Annex 3 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] Annex 4 Chemical summary tables Index 461 467 488 494 xiii .

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whether in rural or urban areas. it has been shown that investments in water supply and sanitation can yield a net economic benefit. since the reductions in adverse health effects and health care costs outweigh the costs of undertaking the interventions. and can be an effective part of poverty alleviation strategies. The importance of water. the UN General Assembly declared the period from 2005 to 2015 as the International Decade for Action. a basic human right and a component of effective policy for health protection. Argentina. “Water for Life. In some regions. held in Alma-Ata. This led to the publication of addenda to the second edition of the Guidelines. This is true for major water supply infrastructure investments through to water treatment in the home. the decision was made to pursue the further development of the Guidelines through a process of rolling revision. which launched the water supply and sanitation decade of 1981–1990.” Access to safe drinking-water is important as a health and development issue at a national. In 1983–1984 and in 1993–1997. in 1978. 1999 and 2002. They have also included water-oriented conferences such as the 1977 World Water Conference in Mar del Plata. xv A . and the preparation of expert reviews on key issues preparatory to the development of a third edition of the Guidelines. on chemical and microbial aspects.Preface ccess to safe drinking-water is essential to health. in 1998. the World Health Organization (WHO) published the first and second editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality in three volumes as successors to previous WHO International Standards. Kazakhstan (former Soviet Union). In 1995. These have included health-oriented conferences such as the International Conference on Primary Health Care. sanitation and hygiene for health and development has been reflected in the outcomes of a series of international policy forums. Most recently. regional and local level. as well as the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in 2000 and the outcome of the Johannesburg World Summit for Sustainable Development in 2002. the publication of a text on Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water. Experience has also shown that interventions in improving access to safe water favour the poor in particular.

including guideline values. These replace the corresponding parts of the previous Volume 2.GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY In 2000. The Guidelines are also accompanied by other publications explaining the scientific basis of their development and providing guidance on good practice in implementation. Since the second edition of WHO’s Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. a detailed plan of work was agreed upon for development of the third edition of the Guidelines. 1999 and 2002) and previous International Standards (1958. Rome. including minimum procedures and specific guideline values. This revised Volume 1 of the Guidelines is accompanied by a series of publications providing information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and by internationally peer-reviewed risk assessments for specific chemicals. Within WHO Headquarters.” the body that coordinates amongst the 24 UN agencies and programmes concerned with water issues. monitoring and assessment of drinking-water quality in community supplies. and how those requirements are intended to be used. 1963 and 1971). This volume of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality explains requirements to ensure drinking-water safety. This takes account of important developments in microbial risk assessment and its linkages to risk management. All six WHO Regional Offices participated in the process. Experience has also shown the value xvi . there have been a number of events that have highlighted the importance and furthered understanding of various aspects of drinking-water quality and health. These Guidelines supersede those in previous editions (1983–1984. and the Programme on Radiological Safety contributed to the section dealing with radiological aspects. Leading the process of the development of the third edition were the Programme on Water Sanitation and Health within Headquarters and the European Centre for Environment and Health. 1993–1997 and addenda in 1998. the Programme on Chemical Safety provided inputs on some chemical hazards. This edition of the Guidelines further develops concepts. It includes fact sheets on significant microbial and chemical hazards. The Guidelines are recognized as representing the position of the UN system on issues of drinking-water quality and health by “UN-Water. Volume 3 provides guidance on good practice in surveillance. Netherlands) and Dr Jamie Bartram (WHO). approaches and information in previous editions: • Experience has shown that microbial hazards continue to be the primary concern in both developing and developed countries. The development of this third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety. The development of this orientation and content was led over an extended period by Dr Arie Havelaar (RIVM. As with previous editions. within EURO. These are reflected in this third edition of the Guidelines. this work was shared between WHO Headquarters and the WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO). The volume also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines.

The Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality are kept up to date through a process of rolling revision. to assist in the development of national standards. policymakers and their advisors. These include fluoride. The Guidelines are accompanied by documentation describing approaches towards fulfilling requirements for microbial safety and providing guidance to good practice in ensuring that safety is achieved. The Guidelines are addressed primarily to water and health regulators. Interest in chemical hazards in drinkingwater was highlighted by recognition of the scale of arsenic exposure through drinking-water in Bangladesh and elsewhere. WHO is frequently approached for guidance on the application of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality to situations other than community supplies or managed utilities. published in 2008. lesser coverage where new information suggests a lesser priority. There has been increasing recognition that only a few key chemicals cause largescale health effects through drinking-water exposure. and the second addendum to the third edition. published in 2005. This version of the Guidelines integrates the third edition. This includes information on chemicals not considered previously.PREFACE • • • • • of a systematic approach towards securing microbial safety. with both the first addendum to the third edition. such as lead. Other chemicals. building on principles – such as the multiple-barrier approach and the importance of source protection – considered in previous editions. may also be significant under certain conditions. which was published in 2004. This revised edition includes information on application of the Guidelines to several specific circumstances and is accompanied by texts dealing with some of these in greater detail. Information on many chemicals has been revised. and this edition describes the principal characteristics of the different approaches. xvii . This edition includes discussion of the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in ensuring drinkingwater safety. This edition includes significantly expanded guidance on ensuring microbial safety of drinking-water. The Guidelines and associated documents are also used by many others as a source of information on water quality and health and on effective management approaches. and. The need for different tools and approaches in supporting safe management of large piped supplies versus small community supplies remains relevant. Experience has also shown the necessity of recognizing the important roles of many different stakeholders in ensuring drinking-water safety. revisions to take account of new scientific information. in some cases. The revised Guidelines and associated publications provide guidance on identifying local priorities and on management of the chemicals associated with large-scale effects. selenium and uranium. which leads to periodic release of documents that may add to or supersede information in this volume. arsenic and nitrate.

Havelaar. Giddings. Risk assessment) Prof. Health Canada (Disinfectants and disinfection by-products) Prof. Hokkaido University. USA (Disinfectants and disinfection by-products) Dr P. Chorus. including those individuals listed in Annex 2. Germany (Resource and source protection) Dr J. Cunliffe. Magara. M. W. Sobsey. Howard. South Africa (Pathogen-specific information) Dr A. DfID. Boonyakarnkul. The Netherlands (Working Group coordinator. WRc-NSF. Thailand (Surveillance and control) Dr D. Toft. SA Department of Human Services. The work of the following Working Groups was crucial to the development of the third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Microbial aspects working group Ms T. United Kingdom (Monitoring and assessment) Mr P. Japan (Analytical achievability) Dr E. Jackson. Department of Health.Acknowledgements he preparation of the current edition of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality and supporting documentation covered a period of eight years and involved the participation of over 490 experts from 90 developing and developed countries. and formerly Loughborough University. EPA. RIVM. United Kingdom (Treatment achievability) xviii T . Cotruvo. USA (Materials and additives) Dr G. Y. are gratefully acknowledged. Bangladesh. Umweltbundesamt. University of North Carolina.K. Grabow. Fawell. USA (Risk management) Chemical aspects working group Mr J. United Kingdom (Organic and inorganic constituents) Ms M. University of Pretoria. Ohanian. Australia (Public health) Prof. Canada (Pesticides) Protection and control working group Dr I. The contributions of all who participated in the preparation and finalization of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The WHO coordinators were: —Dr J. Programme on Water Sanitation and Health. the Ministry of Health. Canada. Sweden. was responsible for the editing of the Guidelines. The preparation of these Guidelines would not have been possible without the generous support of the following. Bartram. on secondment from National Health and Medical Research Council. Ms Grazia Motturi and Ms Penny Ward provided secretarial and administrative support throughout the process and to individual meetings. Coordinator. Mr Hiroki Hashizume provided support to the work of the Chemical Aspects Working Group. Ms Marla Sheffer of Ottawa. WHO Headquarters. WHO Headquarters. the National Health and Medical Research Council. Ms Mary-Ann Lundby. Australia. Vickers acted as a liaison between the Working Groups and the International Programme on Chemical Safety. and formerly WHO European Centre for Environmental Health —Mr P. which is gratefully acknowledged: the Ministry of Health of Italy. and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Australia Ms C. Callan. xix . Labour and Welfare of Japan. the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. WHO Headquarters. Programme on Water Sanitation and Health.

Acronyms and abbreviations used in text AAS AD ADI AES AIDS AMPA ARfD BaP BDCM BMD bw CAC CAS cfu CICAD CSAF Ct DAEC DALY DBCM DBCP DBP DCA DCB DCP DDT DEHA atomic absorption spectrometry Alzheimer disease acceptable daily intake atomic emission spectrometry acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aminomethylphosphonic acid acute reference dose benzo[a]pyrene bromodichloromethane benchmark dose body weight Codex Alimentarius Commission Chemical Abstracts Service colony-forming unit Concise International Chemical Assessment Document chemical-specific adjustment factor product of disinfectant concentration and contact time diffusely adherent E.2-dibromo-3-chloropropane disinfection by-product dichloroacetic acid dichlorobenzene dichloropropane dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate xx . coli disability-adjusted life-year dibromochloromethane 1.

GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY DEHP DNA di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate deoxyribonucleic acid xxa .

coli enterotoxigenic E. coli enteroinvasive E.ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT EAAS EAEC EBCT EC ECD EDTA EHC EHEC EIEC ELISA EPEC ETEC EURO FAAS FAO FD FID FPD GAC GAE GC GL GV HACCP HAd HAstV HAV Hb HCB HCBD HCH HEV HIV HPC HPLC HRV HuCV HUS HWT electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry enteroaggregative E. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Environmental Health Criteria monograph enterohaemorrhagic E. coli enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay enteropathogenic E. coli empty bed contact time electron capture electron capture detector edetic acid. coli WHO Regional Office for Europe flame atomic absorption spectrometry Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations fluorescence detector flame ionization detector flame photodiode detector granular activated carbon granulomatous amoebic encephalitis gas chromatography guidance level (used for radionuclides in drinking-water) guideline value hazard analysis and critical control points human adenovirus human astrovirus hepatitis A virus haemoglobin hexachlorobenzene hexachlorobutadiene hexachlorocyclohexane hepatitis E virus human immunodeficiency virus heterotrophic plate count high-performance liquid chromatography human rotavirus human calicivirus haemolytic uraemic syndrome household water treatment xxi .

mecoprop methaemoglobin methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl mass spectrometry methyl tertiary-butyl ether 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone National Academy of Sciences (USA) N-nitrosodimethylamine no-observed-adverse-effect level no-observed-effect level nitrilotriacetic acid National Toxicology Program (USA) nephelometric turbidity unit presence/absence powdered activated carbon polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon primary amoebic meningoencephalitis pentachlorophenol polymerase chain reaction xxii .GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY IAEA IARC IC ICP ICRP IDC IPCS ISO JECFA JMPR Kow LC LI LOAEL LRV MCB MCPA MCPP metHb MMT MS MTBE MX NAS NDMA NOAEL NOEL NTA NTP NTU P/A PAC PAH PAM PCP PCR International Atomic Energy Agency International Agency for Research on Cancer ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma International Commission on Radiological Protection individual dose criterion International Programme on Chemical Safety International Organization for Standardization Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues octanol/water partition coefficient liquid chromatography Langelier Index lowest-observed-adverse-effect level log10 reduction value monochlorobenzene 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid 2(2-methyl-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid.

GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY PD PMTDI PPA PT PTDI photoionization detector provisional maximum tolerable daily intake protein phosphatase assay purge and trap provisional tolerable daily intake xxiia .

.ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT PTWI PVC QMRA RDL RIVM RNA SI SOP SPADNS TBA TCB TCU TD05 TDI TDS THM TID TPH UF UNICEF UNSCEAR USA US EPA UV UVPAD WHO WHOPES WQT WSP YLD YLL provisional tolerable weekly intake polyvinyl chloride quantitative microbial risk assessment reference dose level Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection) ribonucleic acid Système international d’unités (International System of Units) standard operating procedure sulfo phenyl azo dihydroxy naphthalene disulfonic acid terbuthylazine trichlorobenzene true colour unit tumorigenic dose05. i.e. the intake or exposure associated with a 5% excess incidence of tumours in experimental studies in animals tolerable daily intake total dissolved solids trihalomethane thermal ionization detector total petroleum hydrocarbons uncertainty factor United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation United States of America United States Environmental Protection Agency ultraviolet ultraviolet photodiode array detector World Health Organization World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme water quality target water safety plan years of healthy life lost in states of less than full health. years lived with a disability years of life lost by premature mortality xxiii .

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