This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Ascorbic acid, which has the formula of C6H8O6, behaves as a vinylogous carboxylic acid, where in the double bond transmits electron pairs between the hydroxyl and the carbonyl. There are two resonance structures for the deprotonated form, differing in the position of the double bond. Watersoluble vitamins dissolve in water and the body cannot store them. Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine. Vitamin C is required for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is necessary to form collagen, an important protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for the healing of wounds, and for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.
Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of the damage caused by free radicals, which are byproducts that result when our bodies transform food into energy. The build up of these by-products over time is largely responsible for the aging process and can contribute to the development of various health
watermelon. because the body cannot store the vitamin. malnourished adults. Vitamin C toxicity is very rare. decreased ability to fight infection and possible weight gain because of slowed metabolism. Other excellent sources include papaya. swollen and painful joints. Foods that tend to be the highest sources of vitamin C include green peppers. . and cantaloupe. easy bruising. Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums). decreased wound-healing rate. which mainly affects older. Antioxidants also help reduce the damage to the body caused by toxic chemicals and pollutants such as cigarette smoke. rough. nosebleeds. weakened tooth enamel. and pineapples. anemia.conditions such as cancer. It is therefore important to include plenty of vitamin C-containing foods in our daily diet. winter squash. sweet and white potatoes.000 mg/day are not recommended because such high doses can lead to stomach upset and diarrhea. A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy. strawberries. tomatoes. All fruits and vegetables contain some amount of vitamin C. blueberries. Too little vitamin C can lead to signs and symptoms of deficiency. heart disease. cranberries. broccoli. nor does it store it. including dry and splitting hair. dry. scaly skin. However. cauliflower. mango. raspberries. amounts greater than 2. bleeding gums. red peppers. Brussels sprouts. citrus fruits and juices. and a host of inflammatory conditions like arthritis. cabbage. turnip greens and other leafy greens. The body does not manufacture vitamin C on its own.
Cooking of vegetables and fruits for longer periods of time (10-20 minutes) can result in a loss of over one half the total vitamin C content. and temperature. When fruits and vegetables are canned and then reheated. About 25% of the vitamin C in vegetables can be lost simply by blanching (boiling or steaming the food for a few minutes). The nitrogen atom in the centre of the molecule is the atom that accepts electrons.Vitamin C is highly sensitive to air. DCPIP is commonly used as a substitute for NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). water.6-dichlorophenolindophenol) is a blue chemical compound which is used as a redox dye. which forces bonds between carbons in the entire left ring to change. but DCPIP is colourless when reduced. only 1/3 of the original vitamin C content may be left. raw form is the best way to maximize vitamin C intake. Consumption of vitamin C-rich foods in their fresh. . This same degree of loss occurs in the freezing and unthawing of vegetables and fruits. Oxidised DCPIP is blue in colour. DCPIP solution (2. and it changes the double N-C bond to a single bond. The dye changes colour when it is reduced. This microscopic shift in the DCPIP structure causes the macroscopic change in colour. due to its chemical structure. It is part of the Hill reagents family. It is commonly used as a monitor of the light reactions in photosynthesis because it is an electron acceptor that is blue when oxidised and colourless when reduced. from dark blue to colourless.
be them the bottled or the fresh ones. The end point is a pink colour that persists for 10 seconds or more. thus it can be assumed that the concentration of H+ ions from the ascorbic acid in the fruit is higher. which is a good reducing agent. the higher is the Vitamin C content in the fruit. The smaller volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise the blue DCPIP solution. The smaller volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise the DCPIP solution means that the DCPIP solution is reduced at a faster rate.DCPIP can also be used as an indicator for Vitamin C. the blue dye. therefore this may explain why the Vitamin C content in citrus fruits is higher compared to others. . This experiment is carried out to study the Vitamin C content in various fruit juices. Higher Vitamin C content may be found in citrus fruits such as lemon and orange. is reduced to a colourless compound by ascorbic acid. there will not be any electrons available to reduce the DCPIPH and the solution will remain pink due to the DCPIPH. Citrus fruits are acidic. is present. If Vitamin C. which turns pink in acid conditions. DCPIP (blue) + H+ ----------> DCPIPH (pink) DCPIPH (pink) + VitC ----------> DCPIPH2 (colourless) C6H8O6 + C12H7NCl2O2 ----------> C6H6O6 + C12H9NCl2O2 When all the ascorbic acid in the solution has been used up in a titration.
VARIABLES: Manipulated variable : Type of fruit juices Responding variable : Amount of vitamin C Fixed variable : Volume of DCPIP solution. 1% dichorophenolinphenol (DCPIP). lemon and lime juices. beakers. MATERIALS: 500mg vitamin C tablets.PROBLEM STATEMENT: Which type of fruit juice provides the most vitamin C? HYPOTHESIS: The smaller the volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution. the higher is the vitamin C content in the fruit juice. distilled water. spatula. Lemon juice has the highest content of vitamin C among the various fruit juices. mortar and pestle. freshly squeezed orange. . syringes. Concentration of standard solution APPARATUS: Test tubes.
0. 2.75%.125% ascorbic acid. 3.875% and 1% of ascorbic acid respectively. Ascorbic acid is added until the blue colour of DCPIP solution turned colourless. . 1 ¾ tablet and 2 tablets of vitamin C to produce 0.25%.25%. 0. 0. 3. The ascorbic acid is then titrated drop by drop into the test tube containing DCPIP solution.PROCEDURE: Preparation of standard solution 1. 1 tablet.125% of ascorbic acid is measured. 4. 7. Then. Steps 1-6 are repeated using ascorbic acid of concentration 0. A quarter of a vitamin C tablet is crushed into fine powder with mortar and pestle. 1ml of DCPIP solution is measured and placed into a test tube. 2.75%. 5.5%. 6. 0. The volume of 0. The experiment is repeated two times to get the average in order to increase accuracy. 0. Steps 1 and 2 are repeated by using ½ tablet. 8. Preparation of standard curve 1. 1ml of 0.125% ascorbic acid is measured using a syringe. The powder is dissolved in 100ml of distilled water to form 0.875% and 1%. 0.5%. A standard curve is plotted base on the result. 1 ½ tablet.
6. 8. 5.Testing the concentration of vitamin C in fruit juices 1. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated by replacing orange juice with freshly squeezed lemon juice and lime juice. The experiment using orange juice is repeated two more times to get the average in order to increase accuracy of result obtained. 9. The volume of orange juice needed to decolourised the DCPIP solution is recorded. Juice is continued being inserted into the test tube until DCPIP solution decolourise. 3. 1 ml of DCPIP solution is measured and placed into a test tube. 1ml of freshly squeezed orange juice is measured using a syringe. The concentration of each fruit juices are figured out by using the standard curve graph of vitamin C solution. The juice is then added into the test tube containing DCPIP solution. 7. . The data obtained is tabulated. 4. 2. Then.
14 1.00 1.21 1½ (750mg) 0.500 1.875 0.00 2.23 Concentration (%) 0.10 1.24 1.RESULTS: Volume of vitamin C needed to decolourise DCPIP solution (ml) Amount of vitamin C Tablets ¼ (125mg) 1st reading 3.00 1.00 2.02 2 (1000mg) 1.98 1.20 2nd reading 3. .13 1¾ (875mg) 0.20 1.98 0.250 2.00 1.00 1 (500mg) 0.125 ½ (250mg) 0.24 1.30 3rd reading 3.20 Average reading 3.00 Table 1 shows the data obtained for volume of vitamin C needed to decolourise DCPIP solution.00 2.20 1.750 1.00 1.00 1.
875 1.50 2.750 0.00 Volume of vitamin C (ml) 2.250 0.Graph of volum of vitam C against vitam C e in in concentration 3.50 3.00 1.125 0.50 0.500 0.00 0.000 Concentration of vitamin C (%) .00 0.50 1.
90 4.00 Average reading 6.90 4.00 3.00 3.70 4.Volume of juices needed to decolourise DCPIP solution (ml) Type of juices Orange Lemon Lime 1st reading 6.00 Table 2 shows volume of various fruit juices needed to decolourise DCPIP solution.00 3rd reading 6.10 3. DISCUSSION: .00 2nd reading 6.03 3.83 4.
there were six different vitamin C concentrations. due to some error which is small range in the graph plotted. the smaller the amount needed to decolourise the blue DCPIP solution. 0. By using the data obtained. The standard curve graph is supposed to be the guideline for us to figure out the concentration in the fruit juices tested in this experiment. In this experiment.03ml which was orange followed by lime and smallest volume to decolourise DCPIP solution is lemon juice which was 3. The concentrations of these standard solutions or ascorbic acid are 0.500%. I can draw a standard a standard curve graph. We should have test .000%.83ml. Table 2 shows the concentration of vitamin C of different freshly squeezed juices based on volume needed to decolourise DCPIP solution.875% and 1.750%.250%. three readings were taken and average readings were calculated.000% concentration of vitamin C. 0.125% to 1. the value of vitamin C in fruit juices cannot be determined. lemon juice and lime juice. However. There were three types of fruit juices used in this experiment. Based on Table 1. which are orange juice. 0. 0. The trend of the graph was decreasing from 0.125%. The highest volume of juices needed was 6. This is the limitation that leaves us without any definite result. The higher its concentration.Data interpretations: Table 1 shows the vitamin C concentration and the volume of vitamin C needed to decolourise blue DCPIP solution. The amount of ascorbic acid used to decolourise blue DCPIP solution varied for each concentration.
on more standard solutions with lower concentrations so we will have bigger range to compare the value in the graph. Orange juice tested has the lowest vitamin C concentration among the fruit juices tested in this experiment. we know that lemon juice has the highest amount of vitamin C followed by lime juice. we still can determine which fruit juice has the highest amount of vitamin C although without any accurate figure or value of concentration. Limitations: . This is by comparing the volume of juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution. Nevertheless. By using comparison method.
a suspension formed and its colour slowly change to black. Therefore. we did not covered the beakers containing freshly squeezed fruit juice which results in vitamin C amount is further reduced because of oxidation. being careless. it is always better to prepare only a little amount of freshly squeezed juice just before each repeated experiment. When fruit juice is dropped into test tube containing DCPIP solution. were prepared earlier by the laboratory assistant and the fruits had been exposed to air for a long time before experiment is started. However. . the fruits used in this experiment. Furthermore. Next. Another limitation is the presence of fruit residues in juices. The air oxidized the fruits that already been cut into half therefore reduce the amount of vitamin C in fruits.There are several limitations during this experiment. The presence of air bubbles in syringe too can give less accurate reading for the volume of fruit juices that is needed to decolourise the DCPIP solution. repetitions of experiments are important so that we will have several readings and average volume can be calculated in order to obtain more accurate reading. some residues may have taken some space in syringe and this reduce the reliability of this experiment. Since we did not sieve the fruit juices. The presence of the suspension in DCPIP solution makes it harder to determine whether DCPIP solution has been completely decolourise.that is before they are squeezed.
During preparation of fresh fruit juices. the higher is the vitamin C content in the fruit juice.SAFETY PRECAUTION: 1. lemon juice has the highest content of vitamin C among the various fruit juices. it is advised to wear goggles during experiment to prevent any of the chemical or juices get contact with eyes. Thus. . The volume of lemon juice needed to decolourise blue DCPIP solution is the lowest. Do not consume any juices in experiment because they might be contaminated. The smaller the volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution. CONCLUSION: Every fruit has different concentration of vitamin C. 2. Although the chemical used in this experiment which is DCPIP solution is not dangerous. 3. cut the fruit carefully to avoid any accident happened.
wikipedia.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002404.org] 5. http://en.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=109 [whfoods.asp?ID=69 [3Dchem.org] 4.REFERENCES: 1.htm [medline plus] 2.whfoods.com] 3.nlm.com/genpage.nih.com/molecules. http://www.3dchem.org/wiki/Vitamin_C [wikipedia. Focus Super SPM Biology Reference book . http://www. http://www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.