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Abaqus CAE User's Manual

Abaqus CAE User's Manual

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ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual

Version 6.4

ABAQUS/CAE

USER’S MANUAL

Version 6.4

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by ABAQUS, Inc. ABAQUS, Inc., assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with ABAQUS, Inc. ©ABAQUS, Inc., 2003. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. ABAQUS is a registered trademark of ABAQUS, Inc. The following are trademarks of ABAQUS, Inc.: ABAQUS/Aqua; ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit; ABAQUS/Foundation; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/Viewer; ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW; ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS; and the ABAQUS, Inc., logo. This release of ABAQUS may contain capabilities licensed under U.S. Patents 5,920,491 and 6,044,210. ABAQUS, Inc., may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from ABAQUS, Inc. ADAMS/Flex, ADAMS/View, MSC.ADAMS, and MSC.Patran are trademarks or registered trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Autodesk Inventor is a trademark and Autodesk Mechanical Desktop is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. CADKEY is a registered trademark of CADKEY Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes. Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. DIGITAL Visual FORTRAN is a trademark of Compaq. Elysium is a pending trademark of Elysium Co., Ltd. and Elysium Inc. FEMAP, I-DEAS, Parasolid, Solid Edge, and Unigraphics are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. FE-SAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. Hewlett-Packard, HP-GL, HP-GL/2, and HP-UX are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. IBM RS6000 is a trademark of IBM. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. MOLDFLOW, MOLDFLOW PLASTICS INSIGHT, and MPI are trademarks or registered trademarks of Moldflow Corporation and its worldwide subsidiaries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and in other countries. Silicon Graphics and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. SolidDesigner is a trademark of CoCreate Software Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries. Windows and Microsoft Visual C++ are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. This release of ABAQUS includes the gzip program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. This release of ABAQUS on Windows includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. You may freely distribute the gzip and diff programs and/or modify them under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA. This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplex-based code for linear and integer programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Python, copyright 1991–1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. This software is provided with Restricted Rights for procurements governed by DFARS Part 227.4. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause, DFARS 252.227–7013 (October 1988). All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.

ABAQUS, Inc.
ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847 Tel: +1 401 727 4200 Fax: +1 401 727 4208 E-mail: support@Abaqus.com http://www.abaqus.com ABAQUS Europe BV Gaetano Martinolaan 95 P. O. Box 1637 6201 BP Maastricht The Netherlands Tel: +31 43 356 6906 Fax: +31 43 356 6908 E-mail: info.europe@abaqus.com Sales, Support, and Services UNITED STATES ABAQUS Central, Inc. 1440 Innovation Place West Lafayette, IN 47906-1000 Tel: +1 765 497 1373 Fax: +1 765 497 4444 E-mail: support@AbaqusCentral.com ABAQUS Erie, Inc. 3601 Green Road, Suite 316 Beachwood, OH 44122 Tel: +1 216 378 1070 Fax: +1 216 378 1072 E-mail: support@AbaqusErie.com ABAQUS South, Inc. 3700 Forums Drive, Suite 101 Flower Mound, TX 75028 Tel: +1 214 513 1600 Fax: +1 214 513 1700 E-mail: support@AbaqusSouth.com ARGENTINA KB Engineering S. R. L. Florida 274 - Oficina 35 1005 Buenos Aires Argentina Tel: +54 11 4326 9176/7542 Fax: +54 11 4326 2424 E-mail: sanchezsarmiento@arnet.com.ar ABAQUS East, LLC 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 02886-0201 Tel: +1 401 739 3637 Fax: +1 401 739 3302 E-mail: support@AbaqusEast.com ABAQUS Great Lakes, Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 48170-2408 Tel: +1 734 451 0217 Fax: +1 734 451 0458 E-mail: support@AbaqusGreatLakes.com ABAQUS West, Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 94538-1611 Tel: +1 510 794 5891 Fax: +1 510 794 1194 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com AUSTRALIA Worley Advanced Analysis Level 17, 300 Flinders Street Melbourne, Vic 3000 Tel: +61 3 9280 2834 Fax: +61 3 9205 0573 E-mail: abaqus@worley.com.au

AUSTRIA ABAQUS Austria GmbH Zinckgasse 20-22/2/13 A-1150 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 929 16 25-0 Fax: +43 1 929 16 25-20 E-mail: support@abaqus.at CHINA ABAQUS China Beijing Representative Office Room 716, Tower B, COFCO Plaza No. 8, Jiangguomennei Dajie Dong Cheng District Beijing, 100005 P. R. China Tel: +86 01 85110566/85110567 Fax: +86 01 85110568 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.com.cn FRANCE ABAQUS France SAS 7 rue Jean Mermoz 78000 Versailles Tel: +33 01 39 24 15 40 Fax: +33 01 39 24 15 45 E-mail: support@abaqus.fr INDIA (Chennai) ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. 3M, Prince Arcade 22-A Cathedral Road Chennai, 600 086 Tel: +91 44 28114624 Fax: +91 44 28115087 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.co.in

BENELUX ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 52 58 424 Fax: +31 35 52 44 257 E-mail: support@abaqus.nl CZECH REPUBLIC Synerma s. r. o. Huntirov 58 468 22 Skuhrov Czech Republic Tel: +420 2 603 145 769 Fax: +420 2 603 181 944 E-mail: abaqus@synerma.cz

GERMANY (Aachen) ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Theaterstraße 30-32 D-52062 Aachen Tel: +49 241 474010 Fax: +49 241 4090963 E-mail: info@abaqus.de ITALY ABAQUS Italia s. r. l. Via Domodossola, 17 20145 Milano (MI) Tel: +39 02 39211211 Fax: +39 02 39211210 E-mail: info@abaqus.it

JAPAN (Tokyo) ABAQUS, Inc. 3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 5-24, Akasaka 9-chome, Minato-ku Tokyo, 107-0052 Tel: +81 3 5474 5817 Fax: +81 3 5474 5818 E-mail: tokyo@abaqus.jp KOREA ABAQUS Korea, Inc. Suite 306, Sambo Building 13-2 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku Seoul, 150-010 Tel: +82 2 785 6707 Fax: +82 2 785 6709 E-mail: info@abaqus.co.kr NEW ZEALAND Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. P. O. Box 56-316, Auckland Courier: Unit 2-5, 72 Dominion Road, Mt Eden, Auckland Tel: +64 9 623 1223 Fax: +64 9 623 1134 E-mail: hks-support@matrix.co.nz RUSSIA, BELARUS & UKRAINE TESIS Ltd. Office 701-703, 18, Unnatov Str. 127083 Moscow, Russia Tel: +7 095 212-44-22 Fax: +7 095 212-42-62 E-mail: info@tesis.com.ru

JAPAN (Osaka) ABAQUS, Inc. 9th Floor, Higobashi Watanabe Building 6-10, Edobori 1-chome, Nishi-ku Osaka, 550-0002 Tel: +81 6 4803 5020 Fax: +81 6 4803 5021 E-mail: osaka@abaqus.jp MALAYSIA Worley Advanced Analysis 13th Floor, Empire Tower City Square Centre 182 Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Tel: +60 3 2163 4275 Fax: +60 3 2163 0524 E-mail: abaqus@ranhill-worley.com.my POLAND BudSoft Sp. z o.o. 61-807 Poznan ´ Sw. Marcin 58/64 Tel: +48 61 8508 466 Fax: +48 61 8508 467 E-mail: budsoft@budsoft.com.pl SINGAPORE Worley Advanced Analysis 491B River Valley Road #09-01 Valley Point Singapore, 248373 Tel: +65 6735 8444 Fax: +65 6735 7444 E-mail: abaqus@worley.com.sg

SOUTH AFRICA Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. Unit 4, The Waverley Wyecroft Road Mowbray 7700 Tel: +27 21 448 7608 Fax: +27 21 448 7679 E-mail: feas@feas.co.za SWEDEN ABAQUS Scandinavia AB Pilgatan 8c SE-721 30 Västerås Tel: +46 21 12 64 10 Fax: +46 21 18 12 44 E-mail: femtech@femtech.se TURKEY A-Ztech Ltd. PERDEMSAC Business Center, Technology House 17 Gulbahar Str., Bayar Road Kozyatagi 34742 Istanbul Tel: +90 216 361 8850 Fax: +90 216 361 8851 E-mail: zeki.erman@a-ztech.com.tr

SPAIN Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. Velázquez, 94 E-28006 Madrid Tel: +34 91 209 1482 Fax: +34 91 575 1026 E-mail: abaqus@principia.es TAIWAN APIC 7F-2, No. 131 SungChiang Road Taipei, 10428 Tel: +886 02 25083066 Fax: +886 02 25077185 E-mail: apic@apic.com.tw UNITED KINGDOM (Cheshire) ABAQUS UK Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH Tel: +44 1 925 810166 Fax: +44 1 925 810178 E-mail: hotline@abaqus.co.uk

Sales Only UNITED STATES ABAQUS East, LLC, Mid-Atlantic Office 114 Zachary Court Forest Hill, MD 21050 Tel: +1 410 420 8587 Fax: +1 410 420 8908 E-mail: support@AbaqusEast.com ABAQUS West, Inc., Southern CA and AZ Office 1100 Irvine Boulevard #248 Tustin, CA 92780 Tel: +1 714 731 5895 Fax: +1 714 731 5895 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com FINLAND ABAQUS Finland Oy Tekniikantie 12 FIN-02150 Espoo Tel: +358 9 2517 2973 Fax: +358 9 2517 2200 E-mail: finland@femtech.se INDIA (Pune) ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. C-9, 3rd Floor Bramha Estate, Kondwa Road Pune-411040 Tel: +91 20 31037511 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.co.in ABAQUS South, Inc., Southeast Office 484 Broadstone Way Acworth, GA 30101 Tel: +1 770 795 0960 Fax: +1 770 795 7614 E-mail: support@AbaqusSouth.com ABAQUS West, Inc., Rocky Mountains Office 2894 Hughs Drive Erie, CO 80516 Tel: +1 303 664 5444 Fax: +1 303 664 5445 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com GERMANY (Munich) ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Sendlinger-Tor-Platz 8 D-80336 München Tel: +49 89 5999 1768 Fax: +49 89 5999 1767 E-mail: info@abaqus.de UNITED KINGDOM (Kent) ABAQUS UK Ltd. Great Hollanden Business Centre, Unit A Mill Lane, Underriver Nr. Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 OSQ Tel: +44 1 732 834930 Fax: +44 1 732 834720 E-mail: hotline@abaqus.co.uk

Preface

This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including technical engineering and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.
Support

ABAQUS, Inc., offers both technical engineering support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical engineering and systems support are provided through the nearest local support office. You can contact our offices by telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each office is listed in the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support is also available on the World Wide Web for your convenience. The ABAQUS Online Support System (AOSS) is accessible through the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page (www.abaqus.com). When contacting your local support office, please specify whether you would like technical engineering support (you have encountered problems performing an ABAQUS analysis or creating a model in ABAQUS) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing does not work correctly, or other hardware-related issues have arisen). The ABAQUS Online Support System has a knowledge database of ABAQUS Answers. The ABAQUS Answers are solutions to questions that we have had to answer or guidelines on how to use ABAQUS. We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to file a complaint about the service or products provided by ABAQUS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.
Technical engineering support

ABAQUS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to specific analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an analysis at the end. Please have the following information ready before calling the technical engineering support hotline, and include it in any written contacts: • Your site identifier, which can be obtained by typing abaqus whereami at your system prompt (or by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar in ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer). • The version of ABAQUS that are you using.

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– The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the data (.dat) file. – The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar. – The version numbers for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW and the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS are output to the screen.

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• The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS. • The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any. • Workarounds or tests that you have already tried.

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When calling for support about a specific problem, any available ABAQUS output files may be helpful in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you. The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description of the difficulties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which can be faxed or sent in the mail. Plots of the final results or the results near the point that the analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem. If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to supply the input data. The data can be attached to a support incident in the ABAQUS Online Support System. It may also be sent by means of e-mail, tape, disk, or ftp. Please check the ABAQUS Home Page (http://www.abaqus.com) for the media formats that are currently accepted. All support incidents are tracked in the ABAQUS Online Support System. This enables you (as well as the support engineer) to monitor the progress of a particular problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efficiently. To use the ABAQUS Online Support System, you need to register with the system. Visit the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page for instructions on how to register. If you are contacting us by means outside the AOSS to discuss an existing support problem and you know the incident number, please mention it so that we can consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer’s name or include it at the top of any e-mail correspondence.
Systems support

ABAQUS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of ABAQUS, including licensing difficulties, that are not covered by technical engineering support. You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. If you are able to complete the installation, please make sure that the product verification procedure was run successfully at the end of the installation procedure. Successful verification for licensed products would indicate that you can run these products on your computer; unsuccessful verification for licensed products indicates problems with the installation or licensing (or both). If you encounter problems with the installation, licensing, or verification, first review the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, consult the ABAQUS Answers database in the ABAQUS Online Support System for information about known installation problems. If this does not address your situation, please create an incident in the AOSS and describe your problem, including the output from abaqus info=support. If you call, mail, e-mail, or fax us about a problem (instead of using the AOSS), please provide the output from abaqus info=support. It is important that you provide as much information as possible about your problem: error messages from an aborted analysis, output from the abaqus info=support command, etc.
ABAQUS Web server

For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web at http://www.abaqus.com The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes:

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• Frequently asked questions • ABAQUS systems information and computer requirements • ABAQUS performance data • Error status reports • ABAQUS documentation price list • Training seminar schedule • Newsletters
Anonymous ftp site

For users connected to the Internet, ABAQUS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on the computer ftp.abaqus.com. Simply ftp to ftp.abaqus.com. Login as user anonymous, and type your e-mail address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.
Writing to technical support

Address of ABAQUS Headquarters: ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847, USA Attention: Technical Support Addresses for other offices and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.
Support for academic institutions

Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic institutions. Academic users can purchase technical support on an hourly basis. For more information, please see the ABAQUS Home Page or contact your local ABAQUS support office.
Training

All ABAQUS offices offer regularly scheduled public training classes. The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible. The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing results with ABAQUS/CAE. “Hands-on” workshops are complemented by lectures. Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer. We also provide training seminars at customer sites. On-site training seminars can be one or more days in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of

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material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise ABAQUS on their own computers. For a schedule of seminars, see the ABAQUS Home Page or call ABAQUS, Inc., or your local ABAQUS representative.
Documentation

The following documentation and publications are available from ABAQUS, unless otherwise specified, in printed form and through the ABAQUS online documentation. For more information on accessing the online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Modeling and Visualization • ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three

comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model generation, analysis, and results evaluation and visualization. ABAQUS/Viewer users should refer to the information on the Visualization module in this manual.
Analysis • ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements,

material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
Examples

It is the basic reference document for

• ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples

designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elastic-plastic pipe hitting a rigid wall; inelastic buckling collapse of a thin-walled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review them when embarking on a new class of problem.
• ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This online-only volume contains over 200 benchmark problems

and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simplified versions of real problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual.
Training • Getting Started with ABAQUS:

This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/CAE to create solid, shell, and framework models and ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to perform static, quasi-static, and dynamic stress analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS.

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• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard: Keywords Version: This online-only document is

designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Standard input file syntax for static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Standard keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.
• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit: Keywords Version: This online-only document is designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Explicit input file syntax for quasistatic and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Explicit keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.

• Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are

used in the technical seminars that ABAQUS, Inc., presents to help users improve their understanding and usage of ABAQUS (see the “Training” section above for more information about these seminars). While not intended as stand-alone tutorial material, they are sufficiently comprehensive that they can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the Documentation Price List.
Documentation Information • Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This online-only manual contains instructions for

viewing and searching the ABAQUS online documentation.
Reference • ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual: This volume contains a complete description of all the

input options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
• ABAQUS Theory Manual: This online-only volume contains detailed, precise discussions of all

theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood by users with an engineering background. • ABAQUS Verification Manual: This online-only volume contains more than 5000 basic test cases, providing verification of each individual program feature (procedures, output options, MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data files provide good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc. • Quality Assurance Plan: This document describes the QA procedures followed by ABAQUS. It is a controlled document, provided to customers who subscribe to either the Nuclear QA Program or the Quality Monitoring Service.
Update Information • ABAQUS Release Notes: This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available

in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line.
Programming • ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the

ABAQUS Scripting Interface. The manual describes how commands can be used to create and analyze

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ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the ABAQUS Scripting Interface or C++ as an application programming interface (API) to the output database.
• ABAQUS Scripting Reference Manual: This online-only manual provides a command reference

that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface.
• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the

ABAQUS GUI Toolkit. The manual describes the components and organization of the ABAQUS GUI. It also describes how you can customize the ABAQUS GUI to build a particular application.
• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit Reference Manual: This online-only manual provides a command reference

that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit.
Interfaces • ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS User’s Manual:

This document describes how to use the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS, which creates ABAQUS models of MSC.ADAMS components and converts the ABAQUS results into an MSC.ADAMS modal neutral file that can be used by the ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS. ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW, which creates a partial ABAQUS input file by translating results from a MOLDFLOW polymer processing simulation. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW.

• ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW User’s Manual: This document describes how to use the

Installation and Licensing • ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS

and how to configure the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users, is also provided in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

PART I 1. Using this manual

GETTING STARTED

Overview of this manual Typographical conventions Basic mouse actions
2. Tutorial basics

1.1 1.2 1.3

Starting ABAQUS/CAE Getting help
3. A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model

2.1 2.2

Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules Creating a part Creating a material Defining and assigning section properties Assembling the model Defining your analysis steps Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model Meshing the model Creating and submitting an analysis job Viewing the results of your analysis
4. A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

Overview Creating the first half of the hinge Assigning section properties to the hinge part Creating and modifying a second hinge piece Creating the pin Assembling the model Defining analysis steps Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions Defining contact between regions of the model Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly Meshing the assembly Creating and submitting a job Viewing the results of your analysis

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13

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3 viii . A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis Overview Which variables are in the output database? Reading the output database Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot Displaying and customizing a contour plot Animating a contour plot Displaying and customizing a symbol plot Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot Displaying and customizing an X–Y plot Operating on X–Y data Probing an X–Y plot Displaying results along a path 5. and toolboxes 6. The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE Overview of the main window What is a module? What is a toolset? Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE Getting help 7.3 7.10 5.1 6.2 6.4 5. Manipulating the view and controlling perspective 8. dialog boxes.9 5.5 5.CONTENTS 5.4 Understanding viewports 9.3 5.2 7.1 Understanding the view manipulation tools Customizing the view triad Controlling perspective 9.4 6.7 5.1 5.1 7.8 5.12 5.3 6. Managing viewports on the canvas 7.2 5.11 5.6 Using the prompt area during procedures Interacting with dialog boxes Understanding and using toolboxes Managing objects 8.5 6.1 9.13 PART II INTERACTING WITH ABAQUS/CAE 6. Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows.6 5.2 9.

2 10. The Part module Understanding the role of the Part module Entering and exiting the Part module Understanding feature-based modeling How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE? Copying a part Orphan mesh parts 15. and tolerance Controlling the import process Understanding the contents of an IGES file What can you import from a model? A logical approach to successful import 14. Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models.3 15.1 10.5 14.CONTENTS 10.6 ix . Importing and exporting geometry data and models 13.2 13. MODELS.4 Importing files into and exporting files from ABAQUS/CAE Valid parts.1 Understanding printing 12. Configuring graphics display options 10. precise parts. and files What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database? What is an ABAQUS/CAE model? Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model ABAQUS/CAE command files 14.3 Overview of graphics display options 12.4 14.5 15. model databases.6 PART IV CREATING AND ANALYZING A MODEL USING THE ABAQUS/CAE MODULES 15.4 15.3 14.3 13. Selecting objects within the viewport Understanding selection within viewports Selecting objects within the current viewport Using the selection options 11.1 15. AND FILES 13.2 14.1 13.1 PART III WORKING WITH ABAQUS/CAE MODEL DATABASES.1 14. Printing viewports 11.2 15.

diagnostic.1 16.13 15. part instances.16 15.3 17.4 18.3 16.6 17.8 15.8 Understanding the role of the Interaction module 19.1 17.2 18.6 18. revolving.3 18.1 18.7 15. and sweeping? What is lofting? Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module Understanding toolsets in the Part module Using the Part module toolbox 16. The Step module 17. and assemblies Creating the assembly Merging and cutting part instances Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module Using the Assembly module toolbox 18.15 15.CONTENTS Modeling rigid bodies and display bodies The reference point and point parts What types of features can you create? Using feature-based modeling effectively Capturing your design and analysis intent What is part locking? What are extruding.5 18.2 16.9 15. The Assembly module 16.10 15.2 17.4 17.1 x . The Property module 15.7 18.5 17.14 15.5 16.11 15.12 15.6 Understanding the role of the Assembly module Entering and exiting the Assembly module Understanding the relationship between parts.7 Understanding the role of the Step module Entering and exiting the Step module Understanding steps Understanding output requests Understanding restart. The Interaction module 18.4 16. and monitor output Understanding adaptive meshing How can I customize the ABAQUS analysis controls? Using the Step module toolbox 19.17 Entering and exiting the Property module Understanding properties Assigning properties to a part Understanding the Property module editors Using the Property module toolbox Tutorial: Using the Property module 17.

The Sketch module 22. The Mesh module 20.3 Understanding the role of the Sketch module 23.1 xi .6 21. The Job module 21.9 19. constraints.2 22.10 19.13 Understanding the role of the Job module Understanding analysis jobs Restarting an analysis 23.8 19.3 20.8 21.4 20.CONTENTS Entering and exiting the Interaction module Understanding interactions Understanding interaction properties Understanding constraints Understanding connectors Understanding connector properties Understanding Interaction module managers and editors Understanding symbols that represent interactions.7 21.5 21. The Load module 19.3 21.2 19.3 19.1 22.11 21.2 20.7 19.6 20.2 21.1 21.11 Understanding the role of the Load module Entering and exiting the Load module Managing prescribed conditions Creating and modifying prescribed conditions Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions Using the Load module toolbox Tutorial: Using the Load module 21.9 21.6 19.5 19. and connectors Using the Interaction module toolbox Tutorial: Using the Interaction module 20.12 21.10 21.7 Understanding the role of the Mesh module Entering and exiting the Mesh module Mesh module basics Understanding seeding Assigning ABAQUS element types Verifying and improving meshes Understanding mesh generation Structured meshing Free meshing Swept meshing Advanced meshing techniques Using the Mesh module toolbox Tutorial: Using the Mesh module 22.4 21.4 19.1 20.5 20.

1 28.5 27.2 27.4 23.1 26.6 24.7 Modeling connectors Using display bodies in your model Modeling gaskets Modeling skin reinforcements Using load cases Modeling bolt loads Submodeling 24. Plotting the undeformed shape 27.4 24. Visualization module basics VIEWING RESULTS Understanding the role of the Visualization module Entering and exiting the Visualization module Understanding plot modes and plot customization Understanding toolsets in the Visualization module Understanding Visualization module performance 26.3 27.1 24.5 24.2 24.3 24.3 25. Selecting model data and analysis results to plot 26.3 23. Viewing diagnostic output 25.6 23.2 Overview of results selection Selecting the results step and frame Selecting the field output to display Selecting result options Creating new field output Creating coordinate systems during postprocessing 28.2 xii . Modeling techniques 23.6 Understanding undeformed shape plotting Overview of undeformed plot options 28.2 25.1 25.CONTENTS Entering and exiting the Sketch module Overview of the Sketch module Basic Sketcher concepts Sketcher geometry Specifying precise geometry Modifying and copying objects 24.7 PART V 25.5 23.1 27.4 27.5 Overview of job diagnostics Generating diagnostic information 27.4 25.2 23.

1 xiii .2 Understanding symbol plotting Overview of symbol plot options 32. Calculating linearized stresses 35.2 Understanding X–Y plotting Specifying and saving X–Y data objects Producing an X–Y plot Operating on saved X–Y data objects Customizing X–Y plot axes Customizing X–Y curve appearance 34.3 33. Viewing results along a path 34.6 Understanding general queries Understanding probing 35.4 33.2 Understanding material orientation plotting Overview of material orientation plot options 33.CONTENTS 29. Plotting material orientations 31.1 31.1 33. Contouring analysis results 29. X–Y plotting 32.2 Understanding results along a path 36.2 33.1 Understanding stress linearization Stress linearization example 37. Plotting the deformed shape Understanding deformed shape plotting Overview of deformed plot options 30.1 36.5 33.2 Understanding contour plotting Overview of contour plot options 31.1 29.1 32.1 30. Animating plots 36. Querying and probing 33.2 Understanding animation 37. Plotting analysis results as symbols 30.1 34.

5 What can I do with the Edit Mesh toolset? 43.1 41.CONTENTS Producing and customizing an object-based animation Saving an animation file Controlling animation playback 38.5 39. Customizing plot display 38. translucency.1 xiv .2 Understanding the role of datum geometry Using the Datum toolset Why are datum coordinate systems so important? Understanding a datum as a feature An overview of datum creation techniques 43. Generating tabular data reports 37.1 38. and fill color Customizing element and surface edges Coloring individual elements Customizing model shape Customizing model labels Displaying element and surface normals Customizing the appearance of display bodies Controlling the display of model entities Customizing general model display 40.2 39.9 39. The Edit Mesh toolset 42.3 42.4 42.1 39.1 40.3 PART VI 41.2 42.4 Producing a tabular report Overview of tabular report options 39.1 42. The Amplitude toolset USING ABAQUS/CAE TOOLSETS Understanding the role of the Amplitude toolset Understanding the amplitude editors 42.2 40.2 37.2 Overview of plot display customization Customizing render style. Customizing viewport annotations 39.4 39.3 37.3 39.7 39.8 39.10 Customizing the legend Customizing the title block Customizing the state block 40.6 39. The Datum toolset 41.

2 45.1 47.1 45.2 Using the Repair toolset toolbox What is stitching? What does automatic repair do? The automated repair log file What do the manual repair tools provide? Combining the Query toolset with the Repair toolset 49.4 Understanding the role of the Query toolset 47.4 50.2 44.1 44.3 48.4 48.2 What is virtual topology? What can I do with the Virtual Topology toolset? What can I do with a part instance containing virtual topology? Why repair a part if I can use virtual topology? An approach to creating virtual topology 50. The Set and Surface toolsets 48. The Feature Manipulation toolset Using the Feature Manipulation toolset Managing features Tuning feature regeneration performance 45. The Virtual Topology toolset 49.2 50.6 Understanding the role of the Set and Surface toolsets Understanding sets and surfaces 50.1 48.1 50.3 45.1 49.3 50.2 48.5 48. The Partition toolset 44.1 What is a reference point? What is a reference point used for? 48. The Repair toolset 47.3 Understanding the role of partitions Using the Partition toolset Understanding partitions An overview of partitioning techniques 46.5 xv . The Query toolset 45. The Reference Point toolset 46.CONTENTS 44.

1 52.1 Symbols used to represent prescribed conditions Symbols used to represent interactions.1 B.1 51.3 51.4 51.2 B.8 51.7 51. Element and output variable support B.10 51. Overlaying multiple plots 52. constraints. constraints. Customizing geometry and mesh display Overview of geometry and mesh display options Choosing a render style Controlling edge visibility Controlling curve refinement Defining mesh feature edges Controlling datum display Controlling reference point display Customizing mesh display Controlling model lighting Controlling instance visibility Controlling the display of prescribed conditions. and connectors Symbols used in the Visualization module C. Using display groups to display subsets of your model 51.11 Understanding display groups Managing display groups 53. interactions. Keyword support Special graphical symbols 53. and connectors 52.CONTENTS PART VII CUSTOMIZING MODEL DISPLAY 51.5 51.9 51.3 xvi .6 51.2 51.2 Understanding how to overlay plots A. B.

The third tutorial demonstrates how you can use the Visualization module to display your results in a variety of formats and how you can customize the display. In the first tutorial you create a simple model. and generates an output database. where each module defines a logical aspect of the modeling process. you build the model from which ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that you submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit solver. monitoring. ABAQUS/CAE ABAQUS/CAE is a complete ABAQUS environment that provides a simple. you use the Visualization module of ABAQUS/CAE (also licensed separately as ABAQUS/Viewer) to read the output database and view the results of your analysis. sends information to ABAQUS/CAE to allow you to monitor the progress of the job. datum geometry. ABAQUS/Viewer is incorporated into ABAQUS/CAE as the Visualization module. defining material properties. Finally. analyze it. This part of the manual introduces you to the basics of creating and analyzing a model in ABAQUS/CAE and viewing the results of your analysis with the Visualization module (ABAQUS/Viewer) and is divided into the following sections: Using this manual This section outlines the contents of this manual. defining the geometry. ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules. consistent interface for creating. and then view the results. As you move from module to module. It also explains the typographical conventions used in the documentation and describes how common mouse and keyboard actions are indicated. and partitions work together and how you assemble part instances. . ABAQUS/Viewer ABAQUS/Viewer provides graphical display of ABAQUS finite element models and results. submitting. The second tutorial is more complex and illustrates how parts. and generating a mesh.Part I Getting started This manual is the main reference document for ABAQUS/CAE. The solver performs the analysis. sketches. Tutorials This section contains three tutorials that lead you through the modeling process. for example. Tutorial basics This section provides the information needed to get started working on any of the tutorials. including ABAQUS/Viewer. and evaluating results from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit simulations.

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” lists the ABAQUS output variables that are not supported by the Visualization module.2 • “Basic mouse actions. models. The ABAQUS/CAE user interface is very intuitive and allows you to begin working without a great deal of preparation. see “Getting help. a subset of ABAQUS/CAE that contains only the Visualization module). “Customizing model display. “Special graphical symbols. However. Detailed.” discusses each of the ABAQUS/CAE modules in detail. “Keyword support.” Section 6.” Section 1.” before using the product for the first time. “Viewing results. This chapter provides information about the contents of this manual and the typographical conventions used. “Viewing results”) • Part VII. Only the third tutorial applies if you are running ABAQUS/Viewer. The following topics are covered: • “Overview of this manual. The remainder of this manual is divided into the following parts: • Part II.” Section 1.” contains customization information Appendix A.” explains how to interpret the special graphical symbols used by ABAQUS/CAE. and files. except the Visualization module • Part V. you may find it useful to read through the tutorials contained in Part I.1 Overview of this manual This manual is a reference guide to using ABAQUS/CAE (including ABAQUS/Viewer. In general.” discusses the Visualization module (ABAQUS/Viewer) in detail • Part VI. any references to the Visualization module throughout the manual apply equally to ABAQUS/Viewer. “Using ABAQUS/CAE toolsets. 1–1 . “Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE.” Section 1.6.OVERVIEW OF THIS MANUAL Getting Started 1. “Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases. Appendix C. step-by-step instructions for using each of the ABAQUS/CAE functions are available only in the online version of this manual and as context-sensitive help.1 • “Typographical conventions. Using this manual The printed form of this manual serves as companion to an online version. “Element and output variable support.” contains information on the toolsets in all ABAQUS/CAE modules except the Visualization module (discussed in Part V.” provides tables that you can use to determine which ABAQUS/CAE module embodies the functionality of a particular ABAQUS keyword. Appendix B. “Getting started. as well as whether a particular keyword is supported. “Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules.” contains information on the various files created by and used with ABAQUS/CAE • Part IV.3 1. For information on displaying the online information.” contains general information on the user interface • Part III.

3 2 1 1 2 3 left-handed mouse right-handed mouse Figure 1–1 Mouse buttons.BASIC MOUSE ACTIONS 1. 1.35E10 • Labels of items on the screen: Views Toolbox • • • • Keyboard actions: [Shift] Keystroke combinations (two keys that must be pressed simultaneously): [Alt]+F Compound keyboard/mouse actions: [Shift]+Click Text indicating that the user has a choice: odb_file.3 Basic mouse actions Figure 1–1 shows the mouse button orientation for a left-handed and a right-handed 3-button mouse. 1–2 . Options plot mode • Menu selections and tabs within dialog boxes: View Graphics Options Hardware ! ! ! 1.2 Typographical conventions This manual adheres to a set of typographical conventions so that you can recognize actions and items. The following list illustrates each of the conventions: • Text you enter from the keyboard or that ABAQUS/CAE outputs: crankshaft_steel.

you can use ABAQUS/CAE with a 2-button mouse as follows: • The two mouse buttons are equivalent to mouse buttons 1 and 3 on a 3-button mouse.BASIC MOUSE ACTIONS Getting Started The following terms describe actions you perform using the mouse: Click Press and quickly release the mouse button. Tip: You are instructed to click mouse button 2 in procedures throughout this manual. the instruction “click” means that you should click mouse button 1. Unless otherwise specified. Drag Press and hold down mouse button 1 while moving the mouse. 2. Accordingly. 1–3 . • Pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously is equivalent to pressing mouse button 2 on a 3-button mouse. [Ctrl]+Click Press and hold the [Ctrl] key. and 3 as shown in Figure 1–1. and then release the [Ctrl] key. click mouse button 1. Make sure that you configure mouse button 2 (or the wheel button) to act as a middle button click. this manual refers to mouse buttons 1. and then release the [Shift] key. Select Point to an item and then click mouse button 1. However. [Shift]+Click Press and hold the [Shift] key. ABAQUS/CAE is designed for use with a 3-button mouse. Point Move the mouse until the cursor is over the desired item. click mouse button 1.

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The help window displays information about the item you selected. To obtain context-sensitive help: 1. Click any part of the main window except its frame. you should resize and move the ABAQUS/CAE window and your web browser so both are visible while you work through a tutorial. ! The cursor changes to a question mark.2 2.GETTING HELP Getting Started 2.1 Starting ABAQUS/CAE You may find it easier to follow the printed version of the tutorials.” Section 2.” 2. 3. To start ABAQUS/CAE and display the online version of these tutorials: 1. Scroll to the bottom of the help window. Tutorial basics The following topics provide the information you need to begin any of the tutorials: • “Starting ABAQUS/CAE. 2–1 . Note: You can follow the third tutorial if you are using ABAQUS/Viewer. your default web browser opens and displays the chapter “Getting Started with ABAQUS/CAE. The context-sensitive help system allows you to locate relevant information quickly and easily. This will reduce clutter on the screen and allow you to focus on the task at hand. 2. and follow the instructions below. If you do follow the tutorials online. type abaqus cae.” Section 2. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE. From the Start Session dialog box that appears. The main ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer window appears. select Help On Context. In addition. select Start Tutorial. 2. A help window appears in your browser window. type abaqus viewer to start ABAQUS/Viewer.2 Getting help You may want to read additional information about ABAQUS/CAE features at various points during the tutorials.1 • “Getting help. From the main menu bar.

• The book window provides an expandable table of contents for easy navigation throughout the book. underlined items appears. • You can search the manual for information. Click any item in the table of contents. 4. 6. 7. These items are links to the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual. Click any one of the items. the table of contents frame displays the number of hits next to each topic heading and all hits become highlighted in the text frame. • Each item that appears contains links to more information in the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual. A book window appears in your default web browser. a list of blue. The window is arranged into three frames as follows: • The ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual appears in a text frame on the right side of the window. 8. 5. In the search panel in the navigation frame. or you can search the entire ABAQUS documentation collection for information. Click Next Match or Previous Match in the navigation frame to move through the document from one hit to the next. The navigation frame also allows you to search the entire manual. Note the following key points: • Context-sensitive help is available for every item in the main window and in all dialog boxes. • The navigation frame at the top of the book window allows you to select another book from the entire ABAQUS documentation collection. You can enter a single word or a phrase in the search panel. • A table of contents is available on the left side of the window. see Using ABAQUS Online Documentation. 2–2 . Close the web browser windows. Click the book icons to expand and contract the table of contents. When the search is complete.GETTING HELP At the bottom of the window. and you can use the [*] character as a wildcard. type any word that appears in the text frame on the right and click Search. For detailed instructions on using the search capabilities of the online documentation. The manual is turned to the item that you selected. The text frame changes to reflect the item you selected.

A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model The following section leads you through the ABAQUS/CAE modeling process by visiting each of the modules and showing you the basic steps to create and analyze a simple model. You will then analyze the beam and plot the resulting stresses and displacements.” Section 3.7 • “Meshing the model. The following topics are covered: • “Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules. 0.” Section 3. To illustrate each of the steps.3 • “Defining and assigning section properties.” Section 3.10 3–1 .” Section 3.4 • “Assembling the model.9 • “Viewing the results of your analysis.” Section 3.6 • “Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model.” Section 3.A TUTORIAL: CREATING AND ANALYZING A SIMPLE MODEL Getting Started 3.” Section 3.2 • “Creating a material.5 MPa 20 mm 200 mm 25 mm Figure 3–1 A loaded cantilever beam. you will first create a model of a steel cantilever beam and load its top surface (see Figure 3–1).” Section 3.” Section 3.5 • “Defining your analysis steps.1 • “Creating a part. The entire tutorial takes approximately 90 minutes to complete.” Section 3.8 • “Creating and submitting an analysis job.

Assembly Assemble the model and create sets. The ABAQUS/CAE postprocessor is called the Visualization module and is also licensed as a separate product called ABAQUS/Viewer. As you move from module to module. you build the model from which ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that you submit to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit for analysis. where each module defines an aspect of the modeling process. Property Define the material properties and other section properties of the beam. For example. you will enter the following ABAQUS/CAE modules and perform the following tasks: Part Sketch a two-dimensional profile and create a part representing the cantilever beam. defining material properties. for example. You enter a module by selecting it from the Module list under the toolbar. 3–2 .1 Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules. defining the geometry. as shown in Figure 3–2. Figure 3–2 Selecting a module. For the cantilever beam tutorial. and generating a mesh.UNDERSTANDING ABAQUS/CAE MODULES 3. you use the Property module to define material and section properties and the Step module to choose an analysis procedure.

ABAQUS/CAE uses a model database to store your models. Visualization View the results of the analysis. you cannot assign section properties to geometry that has not yet been created. Mesh Mesh the beam. ! ! 3. 3–3 . You do this by sketching the two-dimensional profile of the beam (a rectangle) and extruding it. Load Apply loads and boundary conditions to the beam. you can save your model database to a disk by selecting File Save from the main menu bar. Although the Module list under the toolbar lists the modules in a logical sequence. certain obvious restrictions apply. to retrieve it from a disk.CREATING A PART Getting Started Step Configure the analysis procedure and output requests. you can move back and forth between modules at will. the Start Session dialog box allows you to create a new.2 Creating a part You use the Part module to create each of the parts you will analyze. deformable solid body. Job Create a job and submit it for analysis. in the online version of this manual. see “ABAQUS keyword browser table. You can create parts that are native to ABAQUS/CAE. You will start the cantilever beam tutorial by creating a three-dimensional. A completed model contains everything that ABAQUS/CAE needs to generate an input file and start the analysis. When you start ABAQUS/CAE. as shown in Figure 3–3. for example. To create the cantilever beam: 1. type abaqus cae. After you start ABAQUS/CAE. For a complete listing of which module generates a particular keyword. select File Open. Click the cancel button to cancel the current task. or you can import parts created by other applications either as a geometric representation or as a finite element mesh. ABAQUS/CAE often displays a short message in the prompt area indicating what it expects you to do next.1. Click the backup button to cancel the current step in the task and return to the previous step. However.” Section A. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE. empty model database in memory. ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create a part.

5. click mouse button 2 in the viewport or select a new tool.CREATING A PART backup prompt cancel Figure 3–3 Messages and instructions are displayed in the prompt area. type. Tip: Like all tools in ABAQUS/CAE. To finish using a Sketcher tool. 3–4 . the corresponding tool is highlighted in the module toolbox so that you can learn its location. Click Continue to exit the Create Part dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE also displays text in the prompt area near the bottom of the window to guide you through the procedure. When the Part module has finished loading. it displays the Part module toolbox in the left side of the ABAQUS/CAE main window. ! The Create Part dialog box appears. The following aspects of the Sketcher help you sketch the desired geometry: • The Sketcher grid helps you position the cursor and align objects in the viewport. From the main menu bar. select Start Tutorial. a small window appears that gives a brief description of the tool. Accept the default settings of a three-dimensional. but you cannot change its modeling space. type. You can edit and rename a part after you create it. Name the part Beam. or base feature. The toolbox contains a set of icons that allow expert users to bypass the menus in the main menu bar. to choose its modeling space. 2. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher whenever you create or edit a part. 6. 4. In the Approximate size text field. • Dashed lines indicate the X. You use the Create Part dialog box to name the part. 3. select Part Create to create a new part. The Sketcher contains a set of basic tools that allow you to sketch the two-dimensional profile of your part. deformable body and a solid. From the Start Session dialog box that appears. extruded base feature. and base feature. and to set the approximate size. type 300. click Part to enter the Part module. The Sketcher toolbox appears in the left side of the main window. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads. In the Module list located under the toolbar. as you select an item from the main menu bar. Each module displays its own set of tools in the module toolbox.and Y-axes of the sketch and intersect at the origin of the sketch. For many tools. if you simply position the cursor over a tool in the Sketcher toolbox for a short time. ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher. and the Sketcher grid appears in the viewport.

and Y-coordinates in the upper-left corner. Click mouse button 2 anywhere in the viewport to finish using the rectangle tool. Notice that as you move the cursor around the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected line in red. From the sketch. The rectangle drawing tool appears in the Sketcher toolbox with a white background indicating that you selected it. click the Delete tool. Move the cursor to the opposite corner (100. 3–5 . If you make a mistake while using the Sketcher. b. Figure 3–4 Sketch of the rectangle. sketch the rectangle using the following steps: a. you can delete lines in your sketch.CREATING A PART Getting Started • A triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the relationship between the sketch plane and the orientation of the part. In the viewport. • When you select a sketching tool. b. c. as explained in the following procedure: a. Click one corner of the rectangle at coordinates (−100. d. 9.and Y-coordinates of the cursor in the upper-left corner of the viewport. click a line to select it. To sketch the profile of the cantilever beam. Note: If you are a Windows user with a 2-button mouse. press both mouse buttons simultaneously whenever you are asked to press mouse button 2. c. 8. e. ABAQUS/CAE displays the X. −10) so that the rectangle is twenty grid squares long and two grid squares high as shown in Figure 3–4. . 10). Click mouse button 1 to create the rectangle. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to delete the selected line. From the Sketcher toolbox. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor’s X. 7. you need to select the rectangle drawing tool .

e. a. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to finish using the Delete tool. ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module. ABAQUS/CAE displays an isometric view of the new part. The Save Model Database As dialog box appears. Click OK to accept this value. 11. To help you orient the cantilever beam during the modeling process. From the main menu bar.CREATING A PART d. erase the default value of 30 and type a value of 25. The title bar of the ABAQUS/CAE window displays the path and name of the model database. as shown in Figure 3–5. In the Depth field. You do not need to include the file extension. 3–6 . Before you continue the tutorial. continue to click mouse button 2 in the viewport until it appears. save your model in a model database file. Y-. 10.cae to the file name. From the prompt area (near the bottom of the main window). Repeat steps b and c as often as necessary. ABAQUS/CAE displays a triad in the lower-left corner indicating the orientation of the X-. 12. select File Save. ! b. and click OK. Because you are creating an extruded part. and Z-axes. Optional parameters to modify the extrusion shape are also available. 2 3 1 Figure 3–5 Isometric view of the beam. click Done to exit the Sketcher. Note: If you don’t see the Done button in the prompt area.0. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box for you to select the depth. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field. ABAQUS/CAE automatically appends .

modeling space.CREATING A MATERIAL Getting Started You should always save your model database at regular intervals (for example. • ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create or edit a part. base feature. and approximate size.3 Creating a material You use the Property module to create a material and define its properties. for example. • Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate you have finished selecting items or using a tool. 3–7 . select Property to enter the Property module. Name the material Steel. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single linear elastic material with Young’s modulus of 209 2 103 MPa and Poisson’s ratio of 0. When you select a material option. 3. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. ! Figure 3–6 Submenus available under the Mechanical menu. Some of the menu items contain submenus. In the Module list located under the toolbar. To define a material: 1. When you create a part. Note the following key points: • You use the Part module to create parts. 2. select Material Create to create a new material. the appropriate data entry form appears below the menu. From the main menu bar. • Click and drag toolbox icons to reveal and select hidden icons. 3. You use the Sketcher to draw the two-dimensional profiles of parts. Figure 3–6 shows the options available under the Mechanical Elasticity menu item. ! The Edit Material dialog box appears.3. you name it and choose its type. each time you switch modules). Use the menu bar under the browser area of the material editor to reveal menus containing all the available material options.

To define the homogeneous solid section: 1. 5.3 for Poisson’s ratio in the respective fields. select Section Create. • You can use the Set toolset to create a homogeneous set containing the region and assign the section to the set. select Mechanical Elasticity Elastic. After you create the section. Type a value of 209. 3.4. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single homogeneous solid section that you will assign to the beam by selecting the beam from the viewport. The solid section will contain a reference to the material Steel that you just created. Note the following key point: • You can use the Property module to create a material and define its properties.DEFINING AND ASSIGNING SECTION PROPERTIES 4. ! ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form. it includes only a material reference and a plane stress/plane strain thickness.E3 for Young’s modulus and a value of 0. From the main menu bar. From the material editor’s menu bar.4 Defining and assigning section properties You define the section properties of a model by creating sections in the Property module. 6. 3–8 . Click OK to exit the material editor. Figure 3–7 Entering data values for the elastic material properties. ! The Create Section dialog box appears.1 Defining a homogeneous solid section A homogeneous solid section is the simplest section type that you can define. you can use one of the following two methods to assign the section to the part in the current viewport: • You can simply select the region from the part and assign the section to the selected region. Use [Tab] to move between cells. 3. as shown in Figure 3–7.

3–9 . and click OK. Click OK. Click anywhere on the beam to select the region to which the section will be applied. Accept the default selection of Steel for the Material associated with the section. accept Solid as the default category selection. 3. In the dialog box: a. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to accept the selected geometry. Accept the default value of 1 for the Plane stress/strain thickness. Accept the default selection of BeamSection as the section. Note the following key point: • When you assign a section to a region of a part. From the main menu bar. c. the region takes on the material properties associated with the section. Note the following key points: • You can use the Property module to create a section and define its category and type (solid and homogeneous. The Edit Section dialog box appears. b. d.4. 3. c. Click Continue. In the Type list. 3. accept Homogeneous as the default type selection. the material must be defined first. b.2 Assigning the section to the cantilever beam You use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section BeamSection to the beam. 4. Name the section BeamSection. respectively. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. select Assign Section. The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections. In the Create Section dialog box: a. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the entire beam. In the Category list. To assign the section to the cantilever beam: 1. • Since the section refers to the material. 2.DEFINING AND ASSIGNING SECTION PROPERTIES Getting Started 2. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the solid section to the beam and closes the Assign Section dialog box. in this case).

4. The assembly is composed of instances of parts positioned in a global coordinate system. Note the following key point: • A model contains only one assembly. Several other tools (pan . 6. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Although a model may contain many parts. select Beam and click OK. your selected center of rotation is retained for the current object and viewport. . Drag the mouse in the viewport to rotate the model and examine it from all sides. 5. From the main menu bar. In this example the single instance of the beam defines the assembly. A second triad in the viewport indicates the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system. Experiment with each of these tools until you are comfortable with them.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL 3. called the assembly. and auto-fit ) are also available in the toolbar to help you examine your model. it contains only one assembly. You use the Assembly module to define the geometry of the finished model.5 Assembling the model Each part that you create is oriented in its own coordinate system and is independent of the other parts in the model. click the rotate view manipulation tool. a circle appears. select Instance Create. 3. ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the cantilever beam and displays it using an isometric orientation. Click Use Default to return to the default (center of viewport) rotation method. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single instance of your cantilever beam. Click mouse button 2 to exit rotate mode. ! The Create Instance dialog box appears. When you move the mouse back into the viewport. You can also pick a center of rotation by clicking Select in the prompt area. 3–10 . zoom . magnify . click Assembly to enter the Assembly module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads. Use the context-sensitive help system to obtain any additional information you require about these tools. ABAQUS/CAE positions the instance so that the origin of the sketch that defined the rectangular profile of the beam overlays the origin of the assembly’s default coordinate system. In the toolbar near the top of the window. In the dialog box. 2. To assemble the model: 1. by creating instances of a part and then positioning the instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system.

6.6 Defining your analysis steps Now that you have created your part. but you must use the Step module to create analysis steps. select Static. The Create Step dialog box appears with a list of all the general procedures and a default step ! name of Step-1. in which you will apply a boundary condition that constrains one end of the cantilever beam. 3–11 . Click the Incrementation tab. click Step to enter the Step module. ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically. 5. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads. Note the following key points: • ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically. In the Description field. and accept the default time incrementation settings. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Click the Other tab to see its contents. Name the step Beamload. select Step Create to create a step. but you must use the Step module to create the analysis step yourself. static analysis step. 4. 3. To create a general. For the cantilever beam tutorial the analysis will consist of two steps: • An initial step. General procedures are those that can be used to analyze linear or nonlinear response. static analysis step: 1. The Basic tab is selected by default. 2. From the list of available general procedures in the Create Step dialog box. 3. 6. General if it is not already selected and click Continue. type Load the top of the beam. The Step module also allows you to request output for any steps in the analysis. you can accept the default values provided for the step.DEFINING YOUR ANALYSIS STEPS Getting Started 3. Click OK to create the step and to exit the Edit Step dialog box.1 Creating an analysis step You use the Step menu to create a general. • A general. static step. 8. The Edit Step dialog box appears with the default settings for a general. in which you will apply a pressure load to the top face of the beam. static step that follows the initial step of the analysis. you can move to the Step module to define your analysis steps. From the main menu bar. • You use the step editor to define each analysis step. 7.

3–12 . you can use the Field Output Requests Manager and the History Output Requests Manager to do the following: • • • • Select the region of the model for which ABAQUS will generate data.DEFINING YOUR ANALYSIS STEPS 3. that cell becomes highlighted. a text box lists all the variables that will be output. click Edit to view more detailed information about the output request.6. while a dark gray check mark on a light gray background indicates that only some variables will be output. select Output Field Output Requests Manager. This manager displays an alphabetical list of existing output requests along the left side of the dialog box. From the main menu bar. In the Output Variables region of the dialog box. A black check mark on a white background indicates that all variables will be output. Click the cell in the table labeled Created. • The output request status. Review the default output request that ABAQUS/CAE generates for the Static. Click the arrows next to each output variable category to see exactly which variables will be output. ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit writes the results of the analysis to the output database. ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step. See “Which variables are in the output database?. The field output editor appears. On the right side of the Field Output Requests Manager. The table formed by these two lists displays the status of each output request in each step. for more information on field and history output. and the following information related to the cell appears in the legend at the bottom of the manager: • The type of analysis procedure carried out in the step in that column. General step you created and named Beamload. For the cantilever beam tutorial. Select the section points of beams or shells for which ABAQUS will generate data. For each step you create. Select the variables that ABAQUS will write to the output database.” Section 5. The check boxes next to each category title allow you to see at a glance whether all variables in that category will be output. If you change an output request. you can always return to the default settings by clicking Preselected defaults above the text box. 3. ! ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output Requests Manager. you will simply examine the output requests and accept the default configuration. To examine your output requests: 1. 4. When you create a step. 2.2. The names of all the steps in the analysis appear along the top of the dialog box in the order of execution. Change the frequency at which ABAQUS will write data to the output database. • The list of output request variables.2 Requesting data output When you submit your job for analysis.

7 Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model Prescribed conditions. such as loads and boundary conditions. which means that you must specify the step or steps in which they become active. 3.7. 7. and Z-directions. Review the history output requests in a similar manner by selecting Output History Output Requests Manager from the main menu bar and then opening the history output editor. Cancel buttons appear in dialog boxes that allow you to make changes. Note: What is the difference between the Dismiss and Cancel buttons? Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain data that you cannot modify. Clicking the Dismiss button simply closes the Field Output Requests Manager. the boundary condition is applied during the initial step. Click Cancel to close the field output editor.APPLYING A BOUNDARY CONDITION AND A LOAD TO THE MODEL Getting Started Based on the selections shown at the bottom of the dialog box. since you do not wish to make any changes to the default choice. 5. you can use the Load module to define the following prescribed conditions: • A boundary condition that constrains one end of the cantilever beam in the X-. Conversely. as well as the frequency at which they are written and the regions and section points from which they are written. • You use the Field Output Requests Manager and the History Output Requests Manager to examine which categories of data will be output. the Field Output Requests Manager allows you to view output requests. Y-. are step-dependent. 3–13 . data will be generated at every default section point in the model and will be written to the output database after every increment during the analysis. ! ! Note the following key points: • When you create a step. the load is applied during the general analysis step. Clicking Cancel closes the dialog box without saving your changes. • A load that you apply to the top face of the beam. For example. • You invoke the field and history output editors from the Field Output Requests Manager and the History Output Requests Manager to select the variables that ABAQUS/CAE will write to the output database during the analysis.1 Applying a boundary condition to one end of the cantilever beam You use the BC menu to create a boundary condition that constrains the cantilever beam to be built-in at one end of the beam. Now that you have defined the steps in the analysis. 6. 3. Click Dismiss to close the Field Output Requests Manager. ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step. but you must use the field output editor to modify those requests.

ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. You will fix the face at the left end of the cantilever beam. By default. Y Z X 2 3 1 Highlighting Beam-1 Face 3 Figure 3–8 Selecting the region on which to apply a boundary condition. 4. 3. b. click Load to enter the Load module. In the Module list located under the toolbar. the desired face is shown in Figure 3–8. ! The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. 2. accept Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre as the default type selection. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. Name the boundary condition Fixed. d. c. From the list of steps. In the Category list. In the Types for Selected Step list. From the main menu bar. To select the face at the left end of the cantilever beam without changing your view of the beam. select BC Create.APPLYING A BOUNDARY CONDITION AND A LOAD TO THE MODEL To apply boundary conditions to one end of the cantilever beam: 1. when you click in a region that overlaps more than one face ABAQUS/CAE selects the face that is “closest” to the screen. Do the following: 3–14 . you need to turn off this default behavior and cycle through the valid selections. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load module loads. and click Continue. select Initial as the step in which the boundary condition will be activated. accept Mechanical as the default category selection.

Double-headed arrows represent a constraint that is applied to a rotational degree of freedom. are step-dependent objects. The selection options return to their default behavior.2 Applying a load to the top of the cantilever beam Now that you have fixed one end of the cantilever beam.7. Click over the desired face. and OK buttons in the prompt area. 7. Click OK to confirm your choice. In the dialog box: a. From the Options dialog box that appears. select BC Manager. in this model ABAQUS/CAE ignores the rotational constraints indicated by the double-headed arrows. From the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows at each corner and midpoint on the selected face to indicate the constrained degrees of freedom. toggle off the closest object tool c. Click Dismiss to close the Boundary Condition Manager. b. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Boundary Condition Manager. Single-headed arrows represent a constraint that is applied to a translational degree of freedom. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next. An ENCASTRE boundary condition constrains all six degrees of freedom. which means that you must specify the step or steps in which they become active. 5. click the selection options tool . From the main menu bar. static step you created using the Step module. 3–15 . d. • Managers are useful for reviewing and modifying the status of prescribed conditions in each step. b. Click Next and Previous until the desired face is highlighted.APPLYING A BOUNDARY CONDITION AND A LOAD TO THE MODEL Getting Started a. 8. 3. Toggle on ENCASTRE. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to indicate that you have finished selecting. Click OK to create the boundary condition and to close the dialog box. e. . The manager indicates that the boundary condition is Created (activated) in the initial step and is Propagated (continues to be active) in the general analysis step Beamload. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. however. Note the following key points: • Prescribed conditions. such as loads and boundary conditions. 6. Previous. The load is applied during the general. you can apply a distributed load to the top face of the beam.

2. Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 3–9 Selecting the region on which to apply a pressure load. select the top face of the beam as the surface to which the load will be applied. 4. Click mouse button 2 or click Done in the prompt area in the viewport to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. In the Types for Selected Step list. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. In the Create Load dialog box: a. select Beamload as the step in which the load will be applied. accept Mechanical as the default category selection.APPLYING A BOUNDARY CONDITION AND A LOAD TO THE MODEL To apply a load to the top of the cantilever beam: 1. select Pressure. c. In the viewport. The desired face is shown by the gridded face in Figure 3–9. d. ! The Create Load dialog box appears. The Edit Load dialog box appears. and click Continue. From the list of steps. select Load Create. 3. From the main menu bar. In the Category list. 3–16 . b. Name the load Pressure.

The default meshing technique assigned to the model is indicated by the color of the model when you enter the Mesh module.5 for the load. the Load Manager indicates the steps during which a load is applied. In the dialog box. Examine the Load Manager and note that the new load is “Created” (activated) in the general analysis step Beamload.MESHING THE MODEL Getting Started 5. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Click OK to create the load and to close the dialog box. Enter a magnitude of 0.8. 3. the element shape. 3. Note the following key points: • You use the Load module to create loads and to define where the load is applied to the assembly. 7. • Loads can be propagated across steps. 2.1 Assigning mesh controls In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the technique that ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will generate. From the main menu bar. 3–17 . Click Dismiss to close the Load Manager. select Mesh Controls. and the element type. ABAQUS/CAE displays downward-pointing arrows along the top face of the beam to indicate the load applied in the negative 2-direction. ABAQUS/CAE will use structured meshing to mesh your cantilever beam and displays the beam in green. b.8 Meshing the model You use the Mesh module to generate the finite element mesh. In the dialog box: a. ABAQUS/CAE uses a number of different meshing techniques. To assign the mesh controls: 1. ABAQUS/CAE colors the regions of your model to indicate which technique it will use to mesh that region. 6. You can choose the meshing technique that ABAQUS/CAE will use to create the mesh. 3. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Mesh module loads. if ABAQUS/CAE displays the model in orange. Accept the default Amplitude selection—ABAQUS will ramp up the load during the step. it cannot be meshed without assistance from you. accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection. c. ! The Mesh Controls dialog box appears. click Mesh to enter the Mesh module.

Note the following key points: • Although you can create a mesh at any point after creating the assembly. • Linear is the default Geometric Order. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box. • 3D Stress is the default Family of elements. In the lower portion of the dialog box. and tetrahedral on the Tet page—are shown. • The available element types depend on the geometry of your model. To assign an ABAQUS element type: 1. examine the element shape options. only three-dimensional solid element types— hexahedral on the Hex tabbed page. 5. and choose Incompatible modes from the list of Element Controls. A brief description of the default element selection is available at the bottom of each tabbed page. 3. accept the following default selections that control the elements that are available for selection: • Standard is the default Element Library selection. ABAQUS/CAE will use the structured meshing technique to create a mesh of hexahedral-shaped elements. not the mesh. Accept Structured as the default Technique selection. Click the Hex tab.2 Assigning an ABAQUS element type In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to assign a particular ABAQUS element type to the model. • You can assign the element type either before or after you create the mesh. ABAQUS/CAE will now associate C3D8I elements with the elements in the mesh. triangular prism on the Wedge page. Since the model is a three-dimensional solid. 2. you typically do it after configuring the rest of the model. A description of the element type C3D8I appears at the bottom of the dialog box.8. ! The Element Type dialog box appears. since items such as loads. 3. and steps depend on the underlying geometry.MESHING THE MODEL 4. From the main menu bar. 3–18 . select Mesh Element Type. Although you will assign the element type now. boundary conditions. 5. 4. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box. In the dialog box. you could also wait until after the mesh has been created.

and ABAQUS/CAE places the nodes of the mesh at the seeds whenever possible. To mesh the model: 1. 3. 4. From the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE applies the seeds to the part instance. This default element size is based on the size of the part instance. click Yes to confirm that you want to mesh the part instance. You can gain more control of the resulting mesh by seeding each edge of the part instance individually. and then you mesh the part instance. From the buttons in the prompt area. select Seed Instance to seed the part instance.0. erase the default element size of 20. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the seeding. ! ABAQUS/CAE meshes the part instance and displays the resulting mesh. and press [Enter] or click mouse button 2 in the viewport. For the cantilever beam tutorial the default seeding will generate a mesh with square hexahedral elements. 3–19 .MESHING THE MODEL Getting Started 3. You select the number of seeds based on the desired element size or on the number of elements that you want along an edge.3 Creating the mesh Basic meshing is a two-stage operation: first you seed the edges of the part instance.0. type a value of 10. ! The prompt area displays the default element size that ABAQUS/CAE will use to seed the part instance. Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 3–10 Seeding the mesh. select Mesh Instance to mesh the part instance. From the main menu bar. as shown in Figure 3–10. In the prompt area.8. 5. 2. as shown in Figure 3–11.

To create and submit an analysis job: 1. 3–20 . ! The Create Job dialog box appears with a list of the models in the model database.CREATING AND SUBMITTING AN ANALYSIS JOB Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 3–11 Note the following key points: Meshing the part instance. 3. select Job Create to create a job. The Edit Job dialog box appears. 4. • You select the number of seeds based on the element size or on the number of elements that you want along an edge.9 Creating and submitting an analysis job Now that you have configured your analysis. 2. 3. click Job to enter the Job module. From the main menu bar. Name the job Deform. • You use seeds to define the approximate position of nodes in your final mesh. you will move to the Job module to create a job that is associated with your model and to submit the job for analysis. In the Module list located under the toolbar. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads. Click Continue to create the job.

select Job Manager to start the Job Manager. ABAQUS/CAE names the output database Deform. When the job completes successfully. and the output has been written to the output database. 7. ABAQUS/CAE immediately displays a fast representation of the model that is similar to an undeformed shape plot. 3. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager. deformed. ! The Job Manager appears and displays a list of your jobs. and displays a representation of the model. type Cantilever beam tutorial. Because you named the job Deform when you created the job. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module. After you submit your job. opens Deform. the information in the Status column updates to indicate the job’s status. click Results. the model associated with each job. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module. In the Description field. The Status column for the cantilever beam tutorial shows one of the following: • Submitted while the analysis input file is being generated. Click the tabs to review the default settings in the job editor. you are ready to view the results of the analysis with the Visualization module. and the status of the job. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager. After you click Results in the Job module’s Job Manager. 3–21 . • Completed when the analysis is complete.odb. From the main menu bar. opens the output database created by the job. click Submit to submit your job for analysis. When you open an output database. In addition. 6.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS Getting Started 5. • Running while ABAQUS analyzes the model. 8.odb. and displays a fast plot of the model. • You use the Job Manager to submit jobs and to monitor the status of a job. ABAQUS/CAE reports the problem in the message area.10 Viewing the results of your analysis You use the Visualization module to read the output database that ABAQUS/CAE generated during the analysis and to view the results of the analysis. To view the results of your analysis: 1. Click OK to accept all the default job settings and to close the dialog box. as shown in Figure 3–12. 9. the type of analysis. and contour plot of the loaded cantilever beam. • Aborted if ABAQUS/CAE finds a problem with the input file or the analysis and aborts the analysis. For the tutorial you will also view an undeformed. Note the following key points: • You use the Job module to create jobs.

000 Fri Jul 25 Figure 3–12 The title block indicates the following: Fast plot of model.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS 2 3 Cantilever beam tutorial ODB: Deform. The state block indicates the following: • The step name and the step description. • The output database from which ABAQUS/CAE read the data. ABAQUS/CAE plots the last step and the last frame of your analysis. Load the top of the beam Increment 1: Step Time = 1. 3–22 .4-1 1 Step: Beamload. the deformed variable and the deformation scale factor. ! The model’s color changes to green to indicate that this is an undeformed shape plot. • When you are viewing a deformed plot. • The version of ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit that was used to generate the output database. • The job description. 2. • The date the output database was generated. • The increment within the step. select Plot Undeformed Shape to view an undeformed shape plot. not a fast plot.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6. Buttons that allow you to control which analysis results are plotted are available in the prompt area. From the main menu bar. By default. • The step time.

Click the Contour Options button at the bottom-right corner of the prompt area to change the appearance of the current plot.806e+01 Figure 3–13 Deformed shape plot of model. 4.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS Getting Started 3. The Contour Plot Options dialog box appears.000 Deformed Var: U Fri Jul 25 Deformation Scale Factor: +2. select Plot Deformed Shape to view a deformed shape plot. 2 3 Cantilever beam tutorial ODB: Deform. By default. as shown in Figure 3–13. or adjust the contour intervals. (To change general plot options. 5. Click the auto-fit tool ! so that the entire plot is rescaled to fit in the viewport. Load the top of the beam Increment 1: Step Time = 1. in this case. From the main menu bar. the default variable is the von Mises stress.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6. click the Primary Variable tab to choose which variable to display and to select the invariant or component of interest. such as turning the legend off or on.4-1 1 Step: Beamload. From the main menu bar. For a contour plot the default variable displayed depends on the analysis procedure. select Result Field Output to examine the variables that are available for display. 3–23 . select Plot Contours to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress. Click Cancel to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box. You can use this dialog box to. From the main menu bar. as shown in Figure 3–14. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box. the Mises invariant of the Stress components at integration points variable is selected. for example. ! 6.) ! 7. 8. change the deformation scale factor of the underlying model. select Viewport Viewport Annotation Options from the main menu bar. turn on node and element labeling.

000 Primary Var: S. The second tutorial introduces additional techniques to create and analyze a model. The third tutorial covers the capabilities of the Visualization module in more detail.806e+01 Figure 3–14 Contour plot of Mises stress.4-1 Fri Jul 25 11:13:00 Load the top 1 Step: Beamload. Click Cancel to close the Field Output dialog box.688e+01 +7. • You can control the appearance of the display in each mode. 3–24 .450e+01 +6.737e+01 +2. deformed. independent of other modes. Mises (Ave.1: Step Time =of the beam Increment 1.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS S.116e+02 +9. Note the following key points: • You use the Visualization module to read the output database generated by your analysis and to view the results.: 75%) +1. Mises Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +2.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6. and you can also select the increment being displayed.499e+01 +1. 9. You have now finished the first tutorial. • You can select the variable to display from the data in the output database.351e-01 2 3 Cantilever beam tutorial ODB: Deform. you will create and assemble multiple part instances and define contact.926e+01 +8.261e+01 +2.364e+02 +1.212e+01 +4. Crit.975e+01 +3.240e+02 +1. • You can display the results in several modes—undeformed.488e+02 +1. and contour. for example.

This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the techniques described in the first tutorial. loads. toolbox items. • It includes parts that you will draw using advanced sketching techniques.” Section 4. including the following: • Using the view manipulation tools to rotate and zoom an object in the viewport. The tutorial consists of the following sections: • “Creating the first half of the hinge. and partitions combine to define the features that make up individual parts. At the end of the tutorial you will view your analysis results. 4. • Using the mouse to select menu items. and items within the viewport.OVERVIEW Getting Started 4. You will also learn how you can modify a part by editing a feature and how modified parts are regenerated. you will apply section properties.6 • “Defining analysis steps. and boundary conditions to the model. A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model In the first tutorial (Chapter 3.1 Overview During the tutorial you will create an assembly composed of a hinge held together by a pin. You will learn how sketches. The assembled part instances and the final mesh are illustrated in Figure 4–1. “A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model”) you created and analyzed a very simple model composed of only one part.” Section 4.” Section 4.4 • “Creating the pin.8 4–1 . This tutorial illustrates how you position instances of these parts to create the assembly and how you define contact between surfaces of the assembly. you will also mesh the model.” Section 4. • Following the prompts in the prompt area.” Section 4.7 • “Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions.2 • “Assigning section properties to the hinge part. As in the first tutorial.3 • “Creating and modifying a second hinge piece. In this tutorial you will create and analyze a more complex model.” Section 4. configure the analysis. datum geometry.5 • “Assembling the model. The entire tutorial takes approximately three hours to complete. The model is more complex on two levels: • It consists of three different parts and three different part instances rather than just one. and run the analysis job.” Section 4.

extruded part and name it. you create the first part—half of the hinge.” Section 4. you create a solid. • A flange that extends from the cube. “Defining contact between regions of the model. ABAQUS/CAE models are composed of features.9 “Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly. since it is the first feature of the part. The flange also includes a large-diameter hole through which the pin is inserted.1 Creating the cube To create the cube (the base feature). 4–2 .12 “Viewing the results of your analysis.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Figure 4–1 • • • • • Model used in the hinge tutorial.” Section 4.10 “Meshing the assembly.13 4.” Section 4.2 Creating the first half of the hinge To start the tutorial.2.” Section 4. 4.11 “Creating and submitting a job. you create a part by combining features. three-dimensional.” Section 4. This portion of the hinge is composed of the following features: • A cube—the base feature. The desired cube is shown in Figure 4–2. You then sketch its profile and extrude the profile over a specified distance to produce the base feature of the first half of the hinge. • A small lubrication hole in one corner of the flange.

3.14 meters. in this example the Sketcher draws 20 grid lines on the sheet. deformable body • A solid extrusion base feature 4. Accept the following default settings: • A three-dimensional. For more information. therefore. type 0. 2.01 meters.2. and create a new model database. To create the cube: 1. For clarity. Click Continue to create the part. Start ABAQUS/CAE. In addition. and its overall length is 0. and the Part module toolbox appears on the left side of the main window.2 meters is a sufficiently large approximate size for the part. 0.2. You will be modeling the hinge using meters for the unit of length. Name the part Hinge-hole. From the main menu bar. resize your windows so that you can follow the tutorial and see the ABAQUS/CAE main window. ABAQUS/CAE uses the approximate size of the part to compute the default sheet size—0. ! The Create Part dialog box appears. (You probably see fewer than 20 grid lines because the sheet extends beyond your viewport. If you are viewing this tutorial online. many of the figures in this tutorial use the wireframe or hidden line render styles. The Sketcher starts and displays the toolbox on the left side of the main window. The text in the prompt area asks you to fill out the Create Part dialog. select Part Create to create a new part. and the distance between each grid line is 0.) 4–3 . In the Approximate size text field.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started 2 3 1 Figure 4–2 The base feature (a cube) is created first. Note: The default render style used throughout ABAQUS/CAE is Shaded. ABAQUS/CAE always displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through a procedure.” Section 51. see “Choosing a render style. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads.2 meters in this example.

Tip: Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport has the same effect as clicking the default button in the prompt area—Done in this instance. 7. you will find it difficult to assemble the model. and Zaxes. then move the cursor to (−0. 4–4 . ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of the viewport containing the Sketcher grid. 0). as shown in ! ! Figure 4–4. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. 2. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box. 8. From the Sketcher toolbox. Important: To complete this tutorial successfully. 4.and Y-axes of the sketch and the origin. a cube. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the rectangle tool.) ! Note the following key points: • The default spacing of the Sketcher grid depends on the value you enter in the Approximate size text field in the Create Part dialog box. Find the origin of the sketch at (0.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE 5.2 Adding the flange to the base feature You will now add a solid feature—the flange—to the base feature. Y-. While you are drawing. The triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the orientation of the X-. select Shape Solid Extrude. Select a face to define the sketching plane.2.02.02). While you are sketching. You select one face of the cube to define the sketch plane and extrude the sketched profile through half the depth of the cube. The cube and flange are shown in Figure 4–3. select the rectangle tool .02. it is important that you use the dimensions stated and do not deviate from the example. otherwise. type a Depth of 0. and click mouse button 1 to define the first corner of the rectangle. (The triad is sometimes turned off for clarity in the figures in this tutorial. Click mouse button 1 again at (0.04 and press [Enter]. • Dashed lines on the Sketcher grid indicate the X. To add the flange to the base feature: 1. In the dialog box. as shown in Figure 4–2. From the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of the viewport containing the Sketcher grid. −0. 0.02) to define the opposite corner. 6. You can turn off this triad by selecting Viewport Viewport Annotation Options from the main menu bar and toggling off the Show triad option. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays the base feature. Select the face at the front of the cube.

4. select the connected lines tool . 0. or delete 4–5 .02). From the Sketcher toolbox. Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher. Select this edge Figure 4–4 Select the gridded face to define the sketching plane.04. Draw the three sides of a rectangle. as shown in Figure 4–4. 0.02). 5. as shown in Figure 4–6. Tip: If you make a mistake while sketching.02. The four vertices should be at (0.04. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the sketch. The sketch of the flange that you will create is illustrated in Figure 4–5. (0.02. and (0. (0.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started 2 3 1 Figure 4–3 The flange is added to the base feature. use the Sketcher undo tools to correct your error. 3. The Sketcher starts and displays the outline of the base feature as reference geometry. −0.02). −0.02).

Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the connected lines tool.02). Note: You do not have to unselect the connected lines tool before you select the arc tool. Click at the center of the arc (0. 6. ABAQUS/CAE automatically unselects the previous tool when you select a new Sketcher tool. 7. select the center and two endpoints arc tool . Figure 4–6 First. 0). and click at the upper vertex (0. draw the rectangular portion of the flange. 4–6 .04. From the Sketcher toolbox.04.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Figure 4–5 Use the Sketcher to create the flange profile. 0.

ABAQUS/CAE places nodes wherever vertices appear along an edge. Select the circle to dimension. 0) to define the circle.04. ABAQUS/CAE draws the arc in a clockwise direction as you move the cursor away from the upper vertex. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the radius dimension tool. 0) results in a high-quality mesh.05. 12. 11. The radial dimension tool is a hidden icon. ABAQUS/CAE highlights valid selections when you move the cursor around the sketch. 13. Figure 4–7 Then add the curved portion of the flange. select the circle tool . click at (0. From the Sketcher toolbox. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. 4–7 . The resulting arc is shown in Figure 4–7. From the dimension tools in the Sketcher toolbox. Placing the vertex at (0. therefore. Position the dimension text and click mouse button 1 to accept the location. Move the cursor in a clockwise direction from the top vertex. You must click on the current dimension tool in the Sketcher toolbox to reveal all the dimension tools. Click at (0. and click the lower vertex.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started 8.05. 0) to locate the center of the circle. Note: When you mesh a part. the location of the vertex on the circumference of the circle influences the final mesh. 9. select the radial dimension tool . the circle and the arc are the only valid selections in the current sketch. although you cannot subsequently move the text after you have positioned it. 10. as shown in Figure 4–8. You can position dimension text at any convenient location in a sketch.

and an arrow indicating the extrusion direction. you must select a face on which to sketch the profile of the feature. Accept the default Type selection of Blind to indicate that you will provide the depth of the extrusion.02.2. ABAQUS/CAE displays the part composed of the cube and the flange. type an extrusion depth of 0. b. The default extrusion direction for a solid is always out of the solid. In the Depth field. ABAQUS/CAE displays the part in an isometric view showing the base extrusion.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Figure 4–8 Add a dimension label to the flange hole. Note the following key points: • You create parts by adding features to the base feature. For example. c. as shown in Figure 4–9. In the Edit Extrusion dialog box: a. ABAQUS/CAE also displays the Edit Extrusion dialog box. the base feature (the cube) and the second feature (the flange) are both defined by a sketch and an extrusion depth. 14. d. Click OK to create the solid extrusion. 4. You modify a part by modifying the parameters that define its features 4–8 . Use the auto-fit view manipulation tool to resize the figure to fit in the viewport. Click Flip to reverse the extrusion direction. your sketched profile. • When you add a feature. in this example the cube is the base feature and the flange is added to it. and each feature in turn is defined by a set of parameters.3 Modifying a feature Each part is defined by a set of features.

type a new radius of 0.01 m to 0. click Edit Section Sketch. 4. For the hinge example you will change the radius of the hole in the sketch of the flange from 0.012 and press [Enter]. showing each feature’s Name and the available options. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Feature Manager dialog box. In this example you have created two solid extrusion features: the base feature (the cube). From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox. In the text box in the prompt area. Solid extrude-2. 7. Solid extrude-1. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected feature in the viewport. 3. ABAQUS/CAE displays the sketch of the second feature. the twist or draft (if specified when the feature was created). and the feature editor disappears. ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. Select the radial dimension of the circle (0. To modify a feature: 1. For an extruded solid you can change the extrusion depth. Click Edit on the right side of the Feature Manager. 5.012 m. 4–9 . and the profile sketch.010). ABAQUS/CAE changes the radius of the circle in the sketch only. using the Feature Manager. From the Feature Manager. From the main menu bar.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started 2 3 1 Figure 4–9 Completed flange sketch showing the extrusion direction. 2. . and the flange. select the edit dimension value tool 6. select Feature Manager. select the flange (Solid extrude-2). From the feature editor.

The flange hole is enlarged to the new radius dimension. Note the following key points: • You can edit features by modifying the sketch of the feature or a parameter associated with the feature. Click OK to regenerate the flange with the modified radius and to exit the feature editor. Creating the hole in the desired location requires an appropriate datum plane on which to sketch the profile of the extruded cut. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool.4 Creating the sketch plane The flange includes a small hole used for lubrication. or if you want to revert to the unmodified feature and lose your changes. • Editing features can cause dependent features to fail during regeneration. ABAQUS/CAE again displays the feature editor. Figure 4–10 Isometric shaded view of the hinge with the lubrication hole. Click Dismiss to close the Feature Manager. such as an extrusion depth. Note: In some circumstances regenerating a feature causes dependent features to fail. • Dimensioning a sketch and modifying the dimensions allow you to refine a part. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. as shown in Figure 4–10. as shown in Figure 4–11. In such a case ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save your changes and suppress the features that failed to regenerate.2. 10.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE 8. 9. 4. 4–10 .

select Tools Datum. 3. There are three operations involved in creating the datum plane: • Creating a datum point on the circumference of the flange. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box. From the list of methods. the Create Datum dialog box closes before you create the datum. Note: What is the difference between the OK and Apply buttons? When you click OK. Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange through which the datum plane will pass. and ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the circle normal to the datum plane and normal to the flange to create the lubrication hole. You sketch a circle on the datum plane. the Create Datum dialog box remains open while you create the datum and is available for you to 4–11 . 2. which is tangent to the flange. When you click Apply. choose the Point datum type. and click Apply.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started Datum plane Datum axis Datum point 45° Figure 4–11 Two-dimensional view of the datum plane’s position with respect to the hinge piece. From the main menu bar. • Creating a datum plane through the datum point on the circumference and normal to the datum axis. select Enter parameter. • Creating a datum axis running between two datum points. From the Create Datum dialog box. To create the sketch plane: 1.

click Apply if you want to create several pieces of datum geometry before moving on to a new procedure. as shown in Figure 4–12. choose the Axis datum type. From the Create Datum dialog box. and press [Enter]. 6. Select the curved edge. ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge. Select the Point and normal method. You cannot change the direction of this arrow. and click Apply. From the Create Datum dialog box. 7. as shown in Figure 4–14. Select the datum point on the curved edge as the point through which the datum plane will pass. as shown in Figure 4–13. 9. In the text box in the prompt area. 4.75. 5. Select the point at the center of the hole (created when you sketched the hole’s profile) and the datum point on the curved edge. Select this edge 2 3 1 Figure 4–12 Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange. Create a datum axis that will define the normal to the datum plane. 10. Select the datum axis as the edge that will be normal to the datum plane.0 to 1. choose the Plane datum type. Note the direction of the arrow indicating an increasing edge parameter from 0. and click OK. enter a normalized edge parameter of 0. The final step is to create the datum plane normal to the datum axis. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the points that can be used to create the datum axis. ABAQUS/CAE creates the datum plane. Click OK if you want to create only a single datum. Select the 2 points method.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE create the next datum. 4–12 . ABAQUS/CAE displays a datum axis passing through the two points. 8.0.

you can use the Datum toolset to create one. and planes. Figure 4–14 Note the following key points: • If a suitable sketch plane does not exist. 2 3 1 Create a datum plane normal to the datum axis. axes.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started 2 3 1 Figure 4–13 Create a datum axis defined by two datum points. 4–13 . • The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points.

From the main menu bar. From the list of methods.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE • Click OK in a dialog box to perform the selected operation and to close the dialog box. as illustrated in Figure 4–15. 2. as shown in Figure 4–16. Enter a normalized edge parameter of 0. 5. Create a datum point along the second curved edge of the flange. To create the datum point at the center of the lubrication hole: 1. From the Create Datum dialog box. click Apply to leave the dialog box open while performing the selected operation. From the list of methods.75. ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge. and press [Enter]. and click OK. 7. you need to create a datum point on the flange that indicates the center of the hole. select Tools Datum. select Midway between 2 points.0 to 1.5 Sketching the lubrication hole The next operation creates the lubrication hole on the flange by extruding a circle from the datum plane that you just created. 4. 4.2. Select the second curved edge of the flange. 4–14 .0. First. 3. select Enter parameter. Note the direction of the arrow indicating an increasing edge parameter from 0. choose the Point datum type. datum point indicates the center of the lubrication hole Figure 4–15 A datum point indicates the center of the lubrication hole. Click Cancel to close the dialog box without performing an operation. and click Apply. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box. Select the datum point along the first curved edge. 6.

8. Select the datum point on the center of the flange to indicate the center of the circle. datums. As a result. the lubrication hole remains in the center. 5. if you change the thickness of the flange. –0. The Sketcher starts with the vertices. Select the datum point along the second curved edge.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started Select this edge 2 3 1 Figure 4–16 Select the second edge. To sketch the lubrication hole: 1. Use the reset view tool restore the original view.01). ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point halfway across the flange and closes the Create Datum dialog box. 3. Tip: If you are unsure of the relative orientation of the sketch plane and the part. and edges of the part projected onto the sketch plane as reference geometry. 4. 2. This exercise illustrates how you can use feature-based modeling to capture your design intent. 6.01. Move the cursor to (–0. and click mouse button 1. use the view manipulation tools to rotate and pan them. Click the boundary of the datum plane to select it as the plane on which to sketch. select Shape Cut Extrude. 4–15 . select the circle tool to . Select the top rear edge of the cube as the edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of ! ! the sketch. as shown in Figure 4–17. From the main menu bar. The datum point is a feature that ABAQUS/CAE defines to be midway between the datum points along the edges of the flange. From the Sketcher toolbox.

CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Select this edge Figure 4–17 Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher grid. From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox. and an arrow indicating the direction for the extruded cut. (Because you can select at most only one face. use the cycle views tool views (up to a maximum of eight) and to restore the original view. Select the radial dimension of the circle. ABAQUS/CAE displays the hinge in an isometric view showing the base part and flange. select the edit dimension value tool . 10. In the text field that appears in the prompt area. 12. 13. select Up to Face and click OK.) ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch from the datum plane to the hole in the flange. type a new radius of 0. 7. Create a dimension indicating the radius of the hole. 9. From the toolbar.003 m. From the Type menu in the Edit Cut Extrusion dialog box. and use the rotation tool to see how the part and its features are oriented. as illustrated in Figure 4–18. and press [Enter]. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool. 11. The radius of the circle is 0. as shown in Figure 4–19. select the shaded display tool if necessary.004 m and should be changed to 0. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher.) ! ! to step through the previous Tip: After you rotate the part. ABAQUS/CAE does not ask you to indicate that you have finished selecting. 8. ABAQUS/CAE also displays the Edit Cut Extrusion dialog box.003. The radius of the circle changes. your sketched hole profile. Select the cylindrical inner surface of the hole in the part to indicate the face to which to extrude. the datum geometry has been removed from the view in Figure 4–19 by selecting View Part Display Options Datum. (For clarity. 4–16 .

4–17 . Figure 4–19 Isometric view of the first hinge.CREATING THE FIRST HALF OF THE HINGE Getting Started Select this surface Figure 4–18 Select the face to which to extrude.

loads. 2. and click OK. materials. In the Module list located under the toolbar. 4. • Datum geometry that you create on a part can also be used by the Sketcher. select Material Create to create a new material. • You should save the model database at regular intervals. 4. ! 4–18 . The model database will contain any parts. You can then start a new ABAQUS/CAE session and open the saved model database by selecting Open Database from the Start Session dialog box. etc. You will use the Property module to perform all of these tasks.3.cae automatically to the file name. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field. To define the material: 1.1 Creating a material You will create a material named Steel that has a Young’s modulus of 209 GPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. You do not ! need to include the file extension.3 Assigning section properties to the hinge part The process of assigning section properties to a part is divided into three tasks: • Creating a material. and you will be able to continue the tutorial. From the main menu bar. The name of your model database appears in the main window title bar. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. • Creating a section that includes a reference to the material. The Edit Material dialog box appears. that you created. it is a good idea to save your model in a model database: appears. use the cycle view manipulation tool to restore the original view.3. a. ABAQUS/CAE appends . ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module. The Save Model Database As dialog box b. • Assigning the section to the part or to a region of the part. From the main menu bar. click Property to enter the Property module. If you find you need to interrupt this tutorial. Note the following key points: • If you rotate or pan the sketch. Now that you have created the first part of your model. you can save the model database at any time and exit ABAQUS/CAE.ASSIGNING SECTION PROPERTIES TO THE HINGE PART 14. select File Save.

b.ASSIGNING SECTION PROPERTIES TO THE HINGE PART Getting Started 3. accept Homogeneous as the default selection. Click OK to exit the material editor. 2. select Section Create.3. c. Name the section SolidSection. • Creating a material in the Property module is equivalent to entering keywords into an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file. Name the material Steel. In the Create Section dialog box: a. 3. To define the section: 1. 4–19 . you could click the arrow next to the Material text box to see a list of available materials and to select the material of your choice. 5. ! ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form. In the editor: a. you will create a section that includes a reference to the material Steel. 6.2 Defining a section Next. The section editor appears.E9 for Young’s modulus and a value of 0. 4. Note the following key points: • You enter material data into tables in the material editor to define the material properties of your model. b. select Mechanical Elasticity Elastic. 4. From the main menu bar. accept Solid as the default selection. and click Continue. Note the following key points: • You associate a section with materials that you have created. In the Type list.3 for Poisson’s ratio. ! The Create Section dialog box appears. If you had defined other materials. Accept Steel as the material selection. • You can choose from all materials that have been defined for the model. type a value of 209. Accept the default value for Plane stress/strain thickness. and click OK. In the respective fields in the Elastic data form. From the editor’s menu bar. In the Category list.

1 Copying the hinge First you will create an exact copy of the hinge piece. select Part Copy Hinge-hole. ! ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the regions of the part. 4. 3. You will create a copy of the first hinge piece and delete the features that form the lubrication hole. 4. ! ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Part Copy dialog box. and click OK.3 Assigning the section You will use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section SolidSection to the hinge part. To assign the section to the hinge part: 1. • You can choose from all solid sections that have been defined for the model. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting the regions to be assigned the section.4 Creating and modifying a second hinge piece The model contains a second hinge piece similar to the first except that the lubrication hole is not present. From the main menu. 4. Note the following key points: • By assigning a section to a region of a part. To copy the hinge: 1.4.CREATING AND MODIFYING A SECOND HINGE PIECE 4. and click OK. From the main menu bar. type Hinge-solid. 3. In the Assign Section dialog box. 2. 4–20 . accept the default selection of SolidSection. The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections. SolidSection is selected by default since there are no other sections currently defined. Return to the Part module. Drag a rectangle around the hinge piece to select the entire part. In the text box in the Part Copy dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the section to the part. 2.3. you associate a material with that region. select Assign Section.

From the main menu bar. 4. The copy of the hinge piece includes the section from the original hinge piece.CREATING AND MODIFYING A SECOND HINGE PIECE Getting Started ABAQUS/CAE creates a copy of the hinge piece and names the copy Hinge-solid. 3. as shown in Figure 4–20. select Feature Delete. Tip: You may need to use the zoom point. click Hinge-solid. 4. To modify the copy of the hinge: 1.4. 2. ABAQUS/CAE displays the retrieved part in the current viewport. as well as any sections that were assigned to it.2 Modifying the copy of the hinge Now you will create a solid hinge piece by deleting the features that form the lubrication hole. Look at the viewport title bar to see which part is being displayed. the copy contains all the features that defined the original part. Select the datum point on the edge of the flange. 4–21 . and magnify tools to locate the datum Select datum point Figure 4–20 Delete the datum point and its children. From the toolbar across the top of the main ABAQUS/CAE window. In the Part list located below the toolbar. Note the following key point: • When you copy a part. select the wireframe display ! tool so that you can see the features more clearly.

you can temporarily remove a feature by suppressing it using the Feature Manipulation toolset. and the lubrication hole. you must select the vertices at each end of the line to move. 0. revolved analytical rigid surface. From the buttons in the prompt area. and click Continue. To create the pin: 1. Accept the approximate size of 0. First you create the pin and assign the rigid body reference point.030).010. The feature being deleted is called the “parent” feature. −0. then you constrain the pin by applying constraints to this rigid body reference point. Because they were dependent on the datum point. 4.5.CREATING THE PIN 5. 4–22 .5 Creating the pin The final assembly consists of instances of the two hinge pieces that are free to rotate about a pin. click Yes to delete the datum point and all its children. 5.012. When you modify the dimension. revolved analytical rigid surface. Choose a three-dimensional body as before. 4. and change the distance to 0. When you delete a selected feature. the datum plane.” ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the features that it will delete if the parent feature is deleted. your sketch cannot cross this axis. Dimension the horizontal distance from the line to the axis. Important: You cannot recover deleted features. Note the following key point: • When you delete a feature from a part. ABAQUS/CAE asks whether you also want to delete any features that depend on the feature being deleted. ABAQUS/CAE also deletes any features that depend on the feature being deleted. (Use [Shift]+Click to select both vertices. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the datum point.1 Creating the pin You use the Part module to create the pin—a three-dimensional. but change the type to Analytical rigid and the base feature shape to Revolved shell. From the Sketcher toolbox. 4. Sketch a line to the right of the axis running from (0.) The sketch and the resulting shaded part are shown in Figure 4–21. 2. ! The Create Part dialog box appears. From the main menu bar. and its dependent features are called “children. Name the part Pin. 3.2. These dependent features are called children. select Part Create to create a new part. You will model the pin as a three-dimensional.030) to (0. ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the datum axis. however. select the connected lines tool . The Sketcher starts and displays the axis of revolution as a purple dashed line.010.

the axis of symmetry appears as a construction line. you can create a deformable part. select Tools Reference Point.CREATING THE PIN Getting Started Figure 4–21 Create the pin by revolving an analytical rigid surface about an axis. Your sketch cannot cross the axis of symmetry. or an analytical rigid surface. ! 4–23 . To assign the reference point: 1. a discrete rigid surface. analytical rigid surface. You cannot subsequently change the type of the part. the rigid body reference point can be placed anywhere in the viewport. You use the Load module to apply constraints to the reference point or to define its motion. • When you sketch the profile of an axisymmetric part. From the main menu bar. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool. Motion or constraints that you apply to the rigid body reference point are applied to the entire rigid surface.2 Assigning the rigid body reference point You need to assign a rigid body reference point to the pin. as shown in Figure 4–22. 4. ABAQUS/CAE displays the revolved. Note that silhouette edges appear in gray indicating the curved face of the pin. and click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher.5. You can either select the reference point from the part in the viewport. Because you will not assign mass or rotary inertia to the pin. For the tutorial you will select the reference point from the viewport. Note the following key points: • When you create a part. or you can enter its coordinates. 6.

Select one of the vertices on the circumference of the pin. A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part. • You can click the part to select the reference point. An instance maintains its association with the original part. ABAQUS/CAE positions it so that the origin of the sketch that defined the base feature overlays the origin of the assembly’s global coordinate system. 2. You can use this graphic to help you decide 4–24 . You can then position these part instances in a global coordinate system to create the assembly. for example. a rivet that is used repeatedly in a sheet metal assembly. If the geometry of a part changes. 4. ABAQUS/CAE automatically updates all instances of the part to reflect these changes. When you create the first part instance.6 Assembling the model You use the Assembly module to create instances of your parts.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL RP Figure 4–22 Create a rigid body reference point on the pin. the sketch plane is aligned with the X–Y plane of the global coordinate system. the Assembly module displays a graphic indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system. you must assign a rigid body reference point to it. The assembly can contain multiple instances of a single part. When you create a part instance. ABAQUS/CAE labels the vertex RP to indicate that the reference point has been assigned to it. You cannot edit the geometry of a part instance directly. In addition. an instance is not a copy of a part. or you can enter its coordinates. Note the following key points: • When you create a rigid surface.

click Apply. ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the hinge piece and displays a graphic indicating the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system. 4–25 . 4. • An instance of the pin—Pin.2 Creating an instance of the solid hinge piece You will now create an instance of the solid hinge piece. ABAQUS/CAE positions instances of the hinge piece so that the origin of the cube sketch is located at the origin of the global coordinate system and the X. From the main menu bar. you need to create the following instances: To create an instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole: 1. click Assembly to enter the Assembly module. 3. 4. 2.and Y-axes of the sketch of the base feature align with the origin and the X. you ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new instance along the X-axis. the base feature of the hinge piece is the original cube you created. the default position is based on the sketch of the base feature. First. • A graphic indicates the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system in the Assembly module.and Y-axes align. For the tutorial you will keep the hinge with the lubrication hole fixed and move the second hinge and the pin relative to it. To separate the solid hinge piece from the instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image of the selected part. ! The Create Instance dialog box appears containing a list of all the parts in the current model— the two hinge pieces and the pin in this example. For example. Note: The default position of a part instance is such that the origin and the X. ABAQUS/CAE names the instance Hingehole-1 to indicate that it is the first instance of a part called Hinge-hole.6.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Getting Started how to position a selected instance relative to the global coordinate system. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads.1 Creating instances of your parts • An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole—Hinge-hole. Note the following key points: • The assembly is created using instances of your parts.6. select Instance Create. In the dialog box. select Hinge-hole. • An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole removed—Hinge-solid. In the dialog box. In the Module list located under the toolbar.and Y-axes of the global coordinate system. • When you create a part instance. 4.

6. (For clarity the datum geometry has been removed from the shaded view in Figure 4–23 and subsequent figures by selecting View Assembly Display Options Datum.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL To create an instance of the solid hinge piece: 1. creates the new instance. and apply an offset to position them in the viewport. 2. and applies an offset along the X-axis that separates the two hinges. the Assembly module provides a set of tools that allow you to position a selected part instance by defining the relationship between selected faces 4–26 .) ! ! Figure 4–23 Create an instance of each hinge piece. select Hinge-solid and click OK. you can ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new instance along the X-axis so that it does not overlap any existing instances. From the Create Instance dialog box.3 Positioning the solid hinge piece In addition to the simple translate and rotate procedures. The auto-offset function prevents new part instances from overlapping existing instances. Note the following key point: • When you create an instance. as shown in Figure 4–23. From the Create Instance dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE closes the dialog box. toggle on Auto-offset from other instances. 4.

Coincident Point The movable instance moves until the two selected points are coincident. To position the solid hinge piece: 1. as a consequence. Parallel Edge The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are parallel. they have no knowledge of each other. ABAQUS/CAE stores position constraints as features of the assembly. Contact The movable instance moves in the direction of a selected vector until the two selected faces come within a specified distance of each other. Coaxial The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are coaxial. constrain the solid hinge piece so that the two flanges face each other. and choose one of the following position constraints: Parallel Face The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel. In this example you will move the solid hinge piece while the hinge piece with the lubrication hole will remain fixed. deleted. ! 2. From the movable part instance. select Constraint Face to Face. called the fixed part instance. and suppressed. From the main menu bar. Parallel CSYS The movable instance moves until the two selected datum coordinate systems are parallel.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Getting Started or edges. You will apply three types of position constraints to position the two hinge pieces correctly. and they can be edited. You can select a face (or an edge) of the instance to move. Face to Face The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel and a specified clearance from each other. a new position constraint may override a previous position constraint. called the movable part instance. translations and rotations are not stored and do not appear in the list of features. Edge to Edge The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are colinear or a specified distance from each other. and a face (or an edge) of the instance that remains fixed. 4–27 . select the face of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 4–24. In contrast. Although position constraints are stored as features. First.

4–28 . Select this face Figure 4–25 Select a face on the fixed instance. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the face on the movable part instance in red and the face on the fixed part instance in magenta.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Select this face Figure 4–24 Select a face on the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face. 3. From the fixed part instance. the movable instance will be positioned so that the arrows point in the same direction. You can change the direction of the arrow on the movable instance if necessary. select the face of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole shown in Figure 4–25.

(You may find it helpful ! to display the wireframe view of the two pieces. as measured along the normal to the selected face of the fixed part. Select the flange hole on the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. Figure 4–26 Position 1: Constrain the flange of the solid hinge piece to face the flange of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. Click OK when the arrow points downward. 7. as shown in Figure 4–26. as shown in Figure 4–27. and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the solid hinge piece so that the two selected faces are parallel to each other and 0. select Constraint Coaxial. The two pieces overlap because the position of the solid hinge piece is not fully determined by the position constraint you have applied. 6. From the prompt area. as shown in Figure 4–28.04) that will remain between the two parts. ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face. From the prompt area. click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. You will need to apply two more position constraints to obtain the desired position. 4–29 . ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two flange holes are coaxial.04 meters apart. click Flip to change the direction of the arrow on the movable part instance. Next. From the main menu bar.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Getting Started 4. Click OK when the arrows point toward each other. Select the flange hole on the solid hinge piece.) 8. align the two flange holes. 9. 5. In the text box that appears in the prompt area. type the clearance (0.

ASSEMBLING THE MODEL 2 3 1 Select this face Figure 4–27 Select a cylindrical face on the movable instance. Use the rotate tool Select a cylindrical face on the fixed instance. Notice that the two flanges are now overlapping. as shown in Figure 4–29. to look at the top view of the two pieces. 4–30 . 2 3 1 Select this face Figure 4–28 10.

From the main menu bar. select Constraint Edge to Edge. ! 12. 4–31 .ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Getting Started Figure 4–29 Position 2: Constrain the two flange holes to lie along the same axis. add a constraint to eliminate the overlap between the two flanges. Select the straight edge on the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 4–30. 11. Select this edge Figure 4–30 Select a straight edge on the movable instance. Finally.

! 4–32 . 14. • Constraint operations position one part instance relative to another.4 Creating and positioning an instance of the pin You will now create an instance of the pin and position it symmetrically in the flange holes using constraints and translation vectors. select Instance Create. ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL 13. as shown in Figure 4–31. You can determine the translation vector using the Query tool. as shown in Figure 4–32. ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two selected edges are colinear. Select the corresponding edge of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. you can select vertices from the assembly or you can enter the coordinates. 4.6. From the main menu bar. To position the pin: 1. To define the translation vector. and you can click OK to apply the constraint. The arrows are pointing in the same direction by default. Select this edge Figure 4–31 Select a straight edge on the fixed instance. Note the following key points: • You position part instances in the Assembly module using a sequence of constraint operations.

ASSEMBLING THE MODEL Getting Started Figure 4–32 Final position: Constrain an edge of each hinge piece to lie along the same line. toggle off Auto-offset from other instances and create an instance of the pin. and the direction of the arrows is not important. Use the Constraint Coaxial menu as you did when you aligned the two flange holes in the previous section. From the Create Instance dialog box. (You can select either of the flange holes as the cylindrical surface of the fixed instance. 4–33 .) ABAQUS/CAE will position the pin as shown in Figure 4–33. 3. Constrain the pin to lie along the same axis as the two flange holes. 2. ! RP Figure 4–33 Align the pin to be coaxial with the two flange holes.

5. In the text boxes in the prompt area.02 meters. From the main menu bar. select Tools Query. You need to determine the distance between the end of the pin and the hinge containing the lubrication hole. and click OK. To define one end of the vector.0 and an end point of 0. The Distance query allows you measure the X-. Select a point on the end of the pin. select a point on the circumference of the hole in the flange containing the lubrication hole.0. Click Yes to continue. Figure 4–34 Determining the position of the pin.ASSEMBLING THE MODEL 4. the two points to select are illustrated in Figure 4–34. 4–34 . Y-. To define the other end of the vector. Y-. 6. Select a point on the circumference of the flange hole. You want to position the pin symmetrically between the hinges. and click Done to indicate that you have finished ! selecting instances to move. and Z-components of the vector connecting two selected points. enter a start point for the translation vector of 0. b. 9. and Z-components of the vector in the message area. 2.0. select the vertex on the pin that is inside the hinge containing the lubrication hole.01 meters. a. 8. the Z-component of the distance is 0. Select Distance from the list of General Queries. so you will translate it 0. since translation in the Z-direction only will not break the position constraint. 7. 2 3 1 1. You will translate the pin along the Z-axis.0. Select the pin as the part instance to move.02. ! The Query dialog box appears. 10. From the main menu bar. select Instance Translate. ABAQUS/CAE displays the vector distance between the two selected points along with the X-. ABAQUS/CAE warns you that translating this part may break the coaxial position constraint that you have applied to it.

4–35 .DEFINING ANALYSIS STEPS Getting Started ABAQUS/CAE translates the pin a distance of 0. and interactions should be applied. Once the steps are created. RP Figure 4–35 Shaded view of the finished assembly. you can specify in which steps loads. When you create a step. click OK. 4. ABAQUS/CAE selects a default set of output variables corresponding to the analysis procedure and selects a default rate at which the variables are written to the output database.02 along the Z-axis and displays a temporary image of the new position of the pin. boundary conditions. In this tutorial you will edit the default output frequency for the first step and edit the list of default output variables for the second step. The finished assembly is shown in Figure 4–35. you must define the different steps in the analysis.7 Defining analysis steps Before you apply loads or boundary conditions to the model or define contact within the model. From the prompt area. Click either the cancel button ( procedure or the go back button ( 11. Note: If the position of a temporary image (colored red) is not correct. you can use the buttons in the prompt area to correct the problem. ) to cancel the ) to step back through the procedure.

select Step Manager. and click Continue. 6. Use the same technique to create a second general. The Create Step dialog box appears. From the main menu bar. • In the second general analysis step you modify two of the boundary conditions applied to the model and apply a pressure load to one of the hinge pieces. To create the analysis steps: 1. type Establish contact. Click the Incrementation tab.1.1 Creating the analysis steps The analysis that you perform on the hinge model will consist of an initial step and two general analysis steps: • In the initial step you apply boundary conditions to regions of the model and define contact between regions of the model. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Step Manager. click Create. 4. 9. 8. Click OK to create the step and to exit the editor. Enter Apply load in the description field and an initial increment size of 0. ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default. 5. Click Dismiss to close the manager. In the Description field. The initial step created by default is listed in this dialog box. but you must create the two analysis steps.1 for the initial increment size.7. 2. Type a value of 0. click Step to enter the Step module. The Load step appears in the Step Manager. Accept the default procedure type (Static.DEFINING ANALYSIS STEPS 4. • In the first general analysis step you allow contact to become established. 3. 4–36 . The Contact step appears in the Step Manager. General). In the Create Step dialog box: a. From the lower-left corner of the Step Manager. The step editor appears. Name the step Contact. b. In the Module list located under the toolbar. and delete the value of 1 that appears in the Initial text field. static step named Load. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads. 7.

History output is used to generate X–Y plots and data reports from your analysis results. for example. You use managers to display a list of the entities you have defined—steps in the above example—and to help you perform repeated operations.2 Requesting output You use field output requests to request output of variables that should be written at relatively low frequencies to the output database from the entire model or from a large portion of the model. From the main menu bar.DEFINING ANALYSIS STEPS Getting Started Note the following key points: • ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default. the displacement of a single node. When you create a history output request. Field output is used to generate deformed shape plots. • You create analysis steps yourself and use the step editor to control the time incrementation during the step. • Managers are available throughout ABAQUS/CAE. since it is not needed for postprocessing. select Output Field Output Requests Manager. contour plots. you must select the individual components of the variables that will be written to the output database. ! ! 4–37 . you will change the output frequency during the Contact step so that data are written to the output database once—at the last increment of the step. 4. and animations from your analysis results. general procedure to the output database after every increment of a step.7. You use history output requests to request output of variables that should be written to the output database at a high frequency from a small portion of the model. ABAQUS/CAE writes the default field output variables from a static. In addition. The default field output variables for the Contact and Load steps include the following: • • • • • • • • • • S (Stress components) PE (Plastic strain components) PEEQ (Equivalent plastic strain) PEMAG (Plastic strain magnitude) LE (Logarithmic strain components) U (Translations and rotations) RF (Reaction forces and moments) CF (Concentrated forces and moments) CSTRESS (Contact stresses) CDISP (Contact displacements) By default. ABAQUS/CAE writes every component of the variables to the output database at the selected frequency. In the following procedure you will delete the request for CDISP during the Load step. To edit an output request and to specify the output frequency during the Load step: 1.

9. From the Field Output Requests Manager.” Section 7. • Output will be generated at default section points. select the F-Output-1 output request in the Contact step and click Edit. Click the check box next to CDISP to deselect this variable for output. toggle on The last increment to generate output only during the last increment of the step. In addition ABAQUS/CAE propagated the output request into the Load step. Step-dependent managers display information concerning the history of each object listed in the manager. Click OK to modify the output request. 4. In contrast to a basic manager. 8. Near the bottom of the editor. The Edit Field Output Request editor appears for the Contact step. the types of objects that appear in step-dependent managers are those that you can create. • Output will be saved after every increment. You can edit this default. In the Field Output Requests Manager the status of the output request changes to Modified for the Load step. A list of the contact output variables available appears along with a description of each. click Dismiss to close the dialog box. click Edit. At the bottom of the Field Output Requests Manager. In this example ABAQUS/CAE named the default field output request that you created in the Contact step F-Output-1. 5. 4–38 . select the F-Output-1 output request in the Load step. From the Field Output Requests Manager. • ABAQUS/CAE creates a default output request when you create a step. The Step Manager is a basic manager. modify. 6.4. see “Managing objects. and deactivate in particular analysis steps. The Edit Field Output Request editor appears for the Load step. Click OK to modify the output request. For more information. 7. ABAQUS/CAE writes the results to the output database. and you can create new output requests. click the arrow to the left of Contact. From the buttons on the right side of the manager. Note the following key points: • During the analysis. From the list of output categories. The Edit Field Output Request editor also indicates the following: • Output will be generated for the whole model. The Field Output Requests Manager is different from the Step Manager that you used to create the steps. The check box next to Contact changes to light gray with a dark gray check mark to indicate that not all variables in this category will be output.DEFINING ANALYSIS STEPS The Field Output Requests Manager dialog box appears. The Field Output Requests Manager is a step-dependent manager. 2. 3.

Define loads and boundary conditions in the Load module.3 Selecting a degree of freedom to monitor You can define particular element or node sets that contain only selected portions of your model. Once you create a set. and click Continue. and you use the History Output Requests Manager to request output of history variables. To create a node set and monitor a particular degree of freedom: 1.DEFINING ANALYSIS STEPS Getting Started • You use the Field Output Requests Manager to request output of field variables to the output database. select Tools Set Create. 3. From the main menu bar. you can use it to perform the following tasks: • • • • Assign section properties in the Property module. The Create Set dialog box appears. 2.7. You will then be able to monitor the results for one degree of freedom at that node when you submit your job for analysis later in this tutorial. • Display results for specific regions of the model in the Visualization module. Request output to either the output database or the status file from specific regions of the model in the Step module. Create contact pairs with contact node sets and surfaces in the Interaction module. ! ! Select this vertex Figure 4–36 Monitor a degree of freedom on the solid hinge piece. Output to the status file is also reported back to the Job module in the form of a continuously updated X–Y plot. Name the node set Monitor. In this example you will define a node set consisting of a single node. 4–39 . Select the vertex of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 4–36. 4.

and click OK. ! The DOF Monitor dialog box appears. • Two surfaces named Inside-h and Inside-s that include the inside surfaces of the flanges that contact the pin. It is not always necessary to create your surfaces in advance. You will use the Surface toolset in the Interaction module to define the following surfaces: • A surface named Pin that includes the outside surface of the pin. • The progress of a job can be monitored through a particular degree of freedom. in this tutorial it is easier to define the surfaces separately and then refer to the names of those surfaces when you create the interactions. You will find it helpful to display only one part at a time while you select the surfaces to be defined. 4. Toggle on Monitor a degree of freedom throughout the analysis. Type 1 in the Degree of freedom text field. • Two surfaces named Flange-h and Flange-s that include the two flange faces that contact each other. click Interaction to enter the Interaction module.CREATING SURFACES TO USE IN CONTACT INTERACTIONS 4. if the model is simple or the surfaces easy to select. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Interaction module loads. However. 4. you can indicate the master and slave surfaces directly in the viewport as you create the interactions. 7.8 Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions Now you will use the Interaction module to define contact between regions of the model. From the main menu bar.1 Defining a surface on the pin In this section you will define the outside surface of the pin. Click Done to indicate that you have finished selecting the geometry for the set. To define a surface on the pin: 1. 5. 6. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Note the following key points: • Sets can be defined throughout the modeling process.8. select Output DOF Monitor. ABAQUS/CAE creates a node set with the name Monitor that contains the node at the vertex you selected. 2. 4–40 . The node set Monitor that you just created is selected in the Point region text field. The first step is to create the surfaces that you will include later in interactions.

In the viewport. Arrows appear in the viewport indicating the two sides of the hollow cylinder representing the pin. 5. as shown in Figure 4–37. select View Assembly Display Options. click Create. The Create Surface dialog box appears. Click the Instance tab. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate that you have finished selecting regions for the surface. select Tools Surface Manager. ! The Assembly Display Options dialog box appears. From the main menu bar. b. c. The outer surface contacts the two hinges and is the desired choice. Click in the Visible column next to Hinge-hole-1 and Hinge-solid-1. 4. The hinge pieces disappear from the view. RP Figure 4–37 Select the region to be defined as the surface Pin. 7. All the part instances are visible by default. From the lower-left corner of the Surface Manager. accept the default Type of Geometry. 4–41 .CREATING SURFACES TO USE IN CONTACT INTERACTIONS Getting Started a. In the dialog box. The part instances that you have created are listed with check marks in the Visible column. 6. and click Continue. and click Apply. ! ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Surface Manager. From the main menu bar. 3. select the pin. and the yellow arrow indicates the inner surface of the pin. name the surface Pin. The magenta arrow indicates the outer surface of the pin.

To define the surfaces on the hinge pieces: 1. From the Surface Manager. Change the visibility settings so that only Hinge-solid-1 is visible. 8. • When you create and name a surface.8. From the buttons in the prompt area. 4–42 . you must select which side of the surface is of interest. • When you create a surface on a shell-type structure. Use similar techniques to create a surface called Flange-s that contains the corresponding face of the solid hinge piece’s flange. such as defining contact. click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection.) 5. Create a surface called Inside-h that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. From the Assembly Display Options dialog box. 2. click Create. 6. In the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Flange-h and displays it in the Surface Manager. create a surface called Inside-s that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the solid hinge piece. as shown by the gridded face in Figure 4–38. 3. ABAQUS/CAE displays only the hinge piece with the lubrication hole in the viewport. change the visibility settings so that only Hinge-hole-1 is visible. Finally. accept the default Type of Geometry. (You may need to zoom in on the view to select this face.) 7. 4. as shown in Figure 4–39. click Magenta to choose the outer surface.2 Defining the surfaces on the hinge pieces In this section you will define the surfaces on the hinge pieces needed to define contact between the two hinge pieces and between the hinge pieces and the pin. select the face of the flange that contacts the other flange. Note the following key points: • Click the Instance tab in the Assembly Display Options dialog box to make part instances visible or invisible. On the instance with the lubrication hole. 4. The Create Surface dialog box appears. you can select the surface by name in subsequent operations. 9.CREATING SURFACES TO USE IN CONTACT INTERACTIONS 8. When you have selected the desired face. name the surface Flange-h. and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Pin and displays it in the Surface Manager. (You may need to rotate the view to see this face clearly.

Leave the Assembly Display Options dialog box open so that you can continue to display the part instances as you need them for the rest of the tutorial. 4–43 . 11. Note the following key point: • The surfaces you define are displayed in the Surface Manager. From the Surface Manager. click Dismiss to close the manager.CREATING SURFACES TO USE IN CONTACT INTERACTIONS Getting Started Figure 4–38 Select the region to be defined as the surface Flange-h. 10. Select this surface Figure 4–39 Select the region to be defined as the surface Inside-h.

b. Each interaction will refer to the interaction property that you just created. 4. Interaction properties are collections of information that help you to define certain types of interactions. From the dialog box’s menu bar. Click OK to save your settings and to close the Edit Contact Property dialog box.9. select Interaction Property Create. You will name this property NoFric and use it in all three of the interactions. Click Continue.DEFINING CONTACT BETWEEN REGIONS OF THE MODEL 4. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box: a.9 Defining contact between regions of the model Interactions are objects that you create to model mechanical relationships between surfaces that are in contact or closely spaced. From the main menu bar.1 Creating an interaction property In this procedure you will create a mechanical contact interaction property.9. Mere physical proximity of two surfaces on an assembly is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between the surfaces. • An interaction called Flanges that defines the contact between the two flanges. ! ! The Create Interaction Property dialog box appears. You will create a mechanical interaction property that describes the tangential and normal behavior between all surfaces as frictionless. To create the interaction property: 1. c. You will use the Interaction module to define the following interactions: • An interaction called HingePin-hole that defines the contact between the part instance Hinge-hole-1 and the pin. 2.2 Creating the interactions In this section you will create three mechanical surface-to-surface contact interactions. In the Type list. 4–44 . accept Contact as the default selection. ! 4. Each of these interactions requires a reference to an interaction property. select Mechanical Tangential Behavior and accept Frictionless for the friction formulation. The Edit Contact Property dialog box appears. • An interaction called HingePin-solid that defines the contact between the part instance Hinge-solid-1 and the pin. 3. Name the property NoFric. 4.

select Surface as the slave type. 6. 10. The Edit Interaction dialog box appears. select Interaction Manager. d. In the Types for Selected Step list. On the far right side of the prompt area. and click Continue. In the Region Selection dialog box. In the dialog box: a. 4–45 . select Pin as the master surface.DEFINING CONTACT BETWEEN REGIONS OF THE MODEL Getting Started To create the interactions: 1. b. c. accept the default selection of Surface-to-surface contact (Standard). In the dialog box: a. Accept the default Sliding formulation selection of Finite sliding. 7. From the Interaction Manager. Name the interaction HingePin-hole. click Dismiss to close the manager. and click Continue. b. Click Continue. you could click the arrow next to the Interaction property field to see the list of available properties and select the property of your choice. (If more properties were defined. 4. 11. Click OK to save the interaction and to close the dialog box. click the Surfaces button. Use Flange-h as the master surface. 9. 5. The Region Selection dialog box appears containing a list of the surfaces that you defined earlier. click Create. Select Initial from the list of steps. The Create Interaction dialog box appears. c. Use Pin as the master surface. From the buttons in the prompt area. Create a similar interaction called Flanges.) d. In the Region Selection dialog box. Inside-s as the slave surface. Accept NoFric as the interaction property. 8. From the main menu bar. Accept the default Slave Node Adjustment selection of Do not adjust slave nodes. and NoFric as the interaction property. The interaction that you created appears in the Interaction Manager. Use the same techniques explained in the previous steps to create a similar interaction called HingePin-solid. From the lower-left corner of the Interaction Manager. Flange-s as the slave surface. ! The Interaction Manager appears. 2. 3. select Inside-h as the slave surface. and NoFric as the interaction property.

You will use the Load module to apply the following boundary conditions and load to the hinge model: constrain this face 2 3 1 Figure 4–40 One end of the hinge is constrained. 4. • You must select a master surface and a slave surface when creating an interaction.10 Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly • A boundary condition called Fixed that constrains all degrees of freedom at the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. In this tutorial all interactions are associated with the initial step. You will modify this boundary condition in the second analysis step (the step in which the load is applied) so that degrees of freedom 1 and 5 are unconstrained. • You can select master and slave surfaces either by selecting previously created surfaces from a list or by selecting surfaces directly from the viewport. 4–46 . as shown in Figure 4–40. Figure 4–41 illustrates this boundary condition applied at the reference point.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY Note the following key points: • Interactions are step dependent. • A boundary condition called NoSlip that constrains all degrees of freedom of the pin while contact is established during the first analysis step. You will modify this boundary condition in the second analysis step so that degree of freedom 1 is unconstrained when the load is applied. • A boundary condition called Constrain that constrains all degrees of freedom of a point on the solid hinge piece during the first analysis step.

4.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started RP Figure 4–41 The pin is constrained.10. • A load called Pressure that you apply to the end of the solid hinge piece during the second analysis step. 4–47 . constrain this node 2 3 1 apply a negative pressure load to this face Figure 4–42 The second hinge is constrained and loaded. Figure 4–42 illustrates the constraint and the pressure load applied to the solid hinge.1 Constraining the hinge piece with the lubrication hole You will apply a boundary condition to the face at the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole to fix the hinge piece in place during the analysis.

However. The Region Selection dialog box closes. b. Click over the desired face. Select Displacement/Rotation as the type of boundary condition for the selected step. e. By default. 4. d.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY To constrain the hinge piece with the lubrication hole: 1. you can use the selection options to change this behavior. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load module loads. ! The Boundary Condition Manager dialog box appears. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Previous. and OK buttons in the prompt area. From the prompt area. . 2. 3. click Create. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. click the selection options tool . In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. a. In the Boundary Condition Manager. click Load to enter the Load module. Accept Initial from the list of steps. Click Next and Previous until the desired face is highlighted. 5. Name the boundary condition Fixed. The selection options return to the default setting of selecting only objects that are closest to the front of the screen. toggle off the closest object tool c. 6. 4–48 . ABAQUS/CAE selects only objects that are closest to the front of the screen. Click OK to confirm your choice. Select the gridded face shown in Figure 4–43 as the region where the boundary condition will be applied. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. f. select BC Manager. click Select in Viewport to select the object directly from the viewport. From the right side of the prompt area. From the Options dialog box that appears. c. Click Continue. e. d. b. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. and you cannot select the desired face unless you rotate the hinge. From the main menu bar. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection. The Region Selection dialog box appears.

Toggle on the buttons labeled U1. and 3-directions. boundary conditions are step-dependent and can change from one step to another.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started Figure 4–43 Apply a boundary condition to the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole. You do not need to constrain the rotational degrees of freedom of the hinge because solid elements (which have only translational degrees of freedom) will be used to mesh the hinge. • The boundary condition editor allows you to constrain selected degrees of freedom. Click OK to close the dialog box. b. 2-. and U3 to constrain the end of the hinge in the 1-. Note the following key points: • Like interactions. and arrows appear on the nodes of the face indicating the constrained degrees of freedom. The Boundary Condition Manager shows that the boundary condition remains active in all steps of the analysis. U2. • The selection options help to make selection of regions easier. Tip: You can suppress the display of boundary condition arrows in the same way that you suppress the visibility of part instances. 7. Click the BC tab in the Assembly Display Options dialog box to see the boundary condition display options. 4–49 . In the dialog box: a. The boundary condition that you just created appears in the Boundary Condition Manager.

In the dialog box: a. 3. In the Boundary Condition Manager. To fix the pin during this step. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. Click Continue.2 Constraining the pin In the first general step of the analysis you will establish contact between the two hinge pieces and between the hinge pieces and the pin. The new boundary condition appears in the Boundary Condition Manager. you must apply a boundary condition to the pin that constrains all its degrees of freedom. loads. 2. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. Click OK. Accept Initial in the Step text field.10.3 Modifying the boundary condition applied to the pin Objects that you can create and modify in certain steps—such as boundary conditions. you must apply constraints to the reference point. e. 4. To apply a boundary condition to the pin: 1. 4. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection. d. Select Displacement/Rotation as the type of boundary condition for the selected step. c.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY 4. b. Note the following key point: • To constrain a rigid surface. b. Name the boundary condition NoSlip. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. In this section you will use the boundary condition manager to modify the boundary condition NoSlip so that translation in the 1-direction and rotation about the 2-axis are unconstrained during the loading step.10. 4–50 . select the rigid body reference point on the pin as the region where the boundary condition will be applied. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. and interactions—have special managers that allow you to modify objects and change their status in different analysis steps. 5. In the viewport. click Create. Toggle on all the buttons to constrain all the degrees of freedom of the pin.

4 Constraining the solid hinge piece In the first analysis step. That cell becomes highlighted. To modify a boundary condition: 1. 4–51 . The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. are enough to prevent rigid body motion of the solid piece. toggle off the buttons labeled U1 and UR2 so that the pin is allowed to translate in the 1-direction and rotate about the 2-axis. you will constrain a single node of the solid hinge piece in all directions. 3. In the second analysis step. you will remove the constraint in the 1-direction. in which contact is established. the status of the NoSlip boundary condition in the Load step changes to Modified. In the editor. in which the load is applied to the model. On the right side of the manager. Click OK to close the dialog box. Note the following key points: • By default. These constraints. click Edit to indicate that you want to edit the NoSlip boundary condition in the Load step. as shown in Figure 4–44.10. along with contact with the pin. Figure 4–44 Select boundary conditions to edit in the Boundary Condition Manager.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started Currently the Boundary Condition Manager displays the names of the two boundary conditions that you have created as well as their status in each step: both boundary conditions are Created in the initial step and Propagated through the following analysis steps. and ABAQUS/CAE displays a set of arrows on the model indicating where the boundary condition is applied and which degrees of freedom are constrained. 4. In the Boundary Condition Manager. 2. click the cell labeled Propagated that lies in the row labeled NoSlip and in the column labeled Load. ABAQUS/CAE propagates a boundary condition to all subsequent steps. In the Boundary Condition Manager. • You can use the Boundary Condition Manager to delete or modify a boundary condition within a step.

Create a displacement boundary condition in the Initial step. you apply a pressure load to the face at the end of the solid hinge. Constrain the vertex in the 1-. Apply the boundary condition to the vertex selected from the solid hinge piece. modify the boundary condition so that the hinge is unconstrained in the 1-direction.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY To constrain the solid hinge piece: 1. 2-. In the Create Load dialog box: 4–52 . and 3-directions. When you have finished creating boundary conditions. as shown in Figure 4–45. and call it Constrain. click Dismiss to close the Boundary Condition Manager. ! The Create Load dialog box appears. To apply a load to the solid hinge: 1. You apply the load in the 1-direction during the second analysis step. 5. select Load Create.5 Applying a load to the solid hinge Next. 2. 2. 3.10. In the Load step. 4. 4. From the main menu bar. Select this vertex Figure 4–45 Apply a boundary condition to a vertex of the solid hinge piece.

enter a magnitude of −1. Note the following key point: • You can create different types of loads. as shown by the gridded surface in Figure 4–46. 3. Name the load Pressure. The Edit Load dialog box appears. c. From the Types for Selected Step list. select Pressure. Arrows appear on the face indicating the applied load. and click OK.APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND LOADS TO THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started a. 4–53 . d. Click Continue. select the face at the end of the solid hinge piece as the surface to which the load will be applied. b. and you can select the region of the model to which a load is applied. Accept Load as the default selection in the Step text field. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. In the dialog box. 5. accept Mechanical as the default selection. In the viewport. 4. The arrows are pointing out of the face because you applied a negative pressure. From the Category list.E6 for the load. e. Figure 4–46 Apply a load to the solid hinge piece.

• Orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed using the default element shape assignment (hexahedral) and must be partitioned further. Meshing the assembly is divided into the following operations: 4. Assigning mesh attributes to the part instances. 4–54 . you can mesh any model by assigning tetrahedral elements to the model and using the free meshing technique.1 Deciding what needs to be partitioned When you enter the Mesh module. areas surrounding the hole in the flange and the lubrication hole must be partitioned. The partitioned hinges are shown in Figure 4–47. • Yellow indicates that a region can be meshed using sweep methods.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY 4. (Alternatively. ABAQUS/CAE color codes regions of the model according to the methods it will use to generate a mesh: • Green indicates that a region can be meshed using structured methods. Seeding the part instances.) For the tutorial ABAQUS/CAE indicates that the hinges need to be partitioned to be meshed using hexahedral-shaped elements.11.11 • • • • Meshing the assembly Making sure the assembly can be meshed and creating additional partitions where necessary. Meshing the assembly. Specifically. Figure 4–47 The partitioned hinges.

click the selection options tool area. • You will probably find the magnification tool • When necessary. and the tools in the Views toolbox to resize and reposition the model as necessary. ABAQUS/CAE also displays the pin in orange because it is an analytical rigid surface and cannot be meshed. 2. to cycle through the possible selections using the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt and the rotation tool especially useful. In the Module list located under the toolbar. click Mesh to enter the Mesh module. • Select View Assembly Display Options Instance to suppress the visibility of part instances and boundary condition or load symbols that you do not need to see in the viewport. the display option tools in the toolbar. which indicates that they need to be partitioned to be meshed using hexahedral elements. click the Iso tool in the Views toolbox to return the model to its original size and position in the viewport. 4–55 . ! ! To decide what needs to be partitioned: 1. (The Views toolbox appears when you select from the main menu bar.) and toggle off the closest object tool • From the prompt area. RP Figure 4–48 The unpartitioned model cannot be meshed. ABAQUS/CAE displays the two hinge pieces in orange. Use the Assembly Display Options dialog box to display all three part instances. as shown in Figure 4–48.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started Use the following techniques to help you select faces and vertices during the partitioning process: • Use a combination of the view manipulation tools.

Toggle off the closest object tool to make the desired face selectable. Select the solid hinge piece as the cell to partition and click Done to indicate you have finished selecting cells. it colors the flange of the solid hinge piece yellow to indicate that it can be meshed using a swept mesh. Again the cube turns green to indicate that it can be meshed using structured meshing. ABAQUS/CAE creates the partition. Figure 4–49 Select a face of the solid hinge piece to extend to create a partition. 7. Select the face to extend. but the flange containing the lubrication hole remains orange. From the main menu bar. Tip: If the partition is not located correctly. select Tools Partition to partition the two hinge pieces. Select the Extend face method. select Feature Delete from the main menu bar and select the partition to delete. as shown in Figure 4–50. and click Apply. Use a similar method to that described in the previous steps to create a partition between the ! cube and the flange of the other hinge piece. From the Create Partition dialog box.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY 3. as shown by the gridded face in Figure 4–49. From the prompt area. 4. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Partition dialog box. 4–56 . click Create Partition. 5. choose the Cell partition type. 8. ABAQUS/CAE colors the cube portion of the solid hinge piece green to indicate that it can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. 6. indicating that you need to perform additional partitioning to mesh this flange.

normal to the selected edge. • ABAQUS/CAE color codes the model to indicate how a region will be meshed. 2. Select the two flanges. and click Apply. The plane extends infinitely and partitions the selected cell anywhere there is an intersection. To partition the flanges: 1. From the Create Partition dialog box. 4–57 . normal to the selected edge. 4.2 Partitioning the flanges For ABAQUS/CAE to mesh the flange with the lubrication hole. • Select three non-colinear points. select the Define cutting plane method. Select the first flange and [Shift]+Click the second flange to append it to your selection.11. The cutting plane passes through each point. ABAQUS/CAE provides three methods for specifying the cutting plane: • Select a point and a normal. The cutting plane need not be defined in the cell being partitioned. Green indicates that a region can be meshed with structured methods.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started Figure 4–50 Note the following key points: Partition the solid hinge piece. The cutting plane passes through the selected point. Click Done to indicate you have finished selecting cells. • Select an edge and a point along the edge. it must be partitioned into the regions shown in Figure 4–51. • You can partition the parts of your model into regions to create a model that can be meshed. yellow indicates that a region can be meshed with sweep methods. The cutting plane passes through the selected point. and orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed.

select 3 points. 3. 4–58 . ABAQUS/CAE highlights points that you can select. as shown in Figure 4–52. 4. Select three points that cut the flanges in half with a vertical partition. From the buttons in the prompt area. Figure 4–52 Select three points to use in partitioning the flanges.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Figure 4–51 Shaded view of the partitioned flange.

8. points that define it need not be on the cells being partitioned. From the prompt area. as shown in Figure 4–53. Figure 4–53 Divide the flanges further with partitions. rotate. Note the following key point: • You use the Partition toolset to divide the model into regions that ABAQUS/CAE can mesh. Use the Define cutting plane method to create the desired partitions. Use the Define cutting plane method to partition the four regions in the flange containing the lubrication hole. you need to create a partition that cuts the resulting four regions in half horizontally. click Create Partition. click Done to indicate that you have finished partitioning cells. The plane extends infinitely and partitions the selected regions anywhere an intersection occurs. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired partitions. 9. for example. From the prompt area. and pan the model to obtain a more convenient view. Remember that since the cutting plane extends infinitely. as shown in Figure 4–54. ABAQUS/CAE colors the region containing the lubrication hole orange to indicate that it still cannot be meshed. 4–59 . From the Create Partition dialog box. you can select midpoints of edges around the cube to define the cutting plane through the four regions. The model with all the partitions is shown in Figure 4–55. 7. The coloring of the model indicates that it can now be meshed completely. 5.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started Tip: You may find it easier to select the desired points if you magnify. You have now partitioned each of the flanges into two regions. 6. click Cancel.

4–60 . Figure 4–55 The partitioned model.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Figure 4–54 Partition the flange containing the lubrication hole.

accept Standard as the Element Library selection. 7. and ABAQUS/CAE displays the Mesh Controls dialog box. and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. You cannot mesh an analytical rigid surface. In the dialog box. 2.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY Getting Started 4. Accept Structured as the meshing technique that ABAQUS/CAE will apply.11. neither can you seed it or assign an element type to it. and click Done to indicate your ! selection is complete. Click Done in the prompt area. To assign the mesh controls: 1. 4. 3. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box. Note the following key point: • You can select the meshing techniques that ABAQUS/CAE will apply to your model. Drag a square around the model to select the two hinge parts. which is an analytical rigid surface. 3. The two hinge pieces appear red in the viewport to indicate that you have selected them. select Mesh Controls. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure.11.3 Assigning mesh controls In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the techniques that ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will generate. 4–61 .4 Assigning the ABAQUS element type In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to examine the element types that are assigned to the model. To simplify the meshing procedure. In the dialog box. will not be selected in the following steps. To assign an ABAQUS element type: 1. accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection. you should use the Assembly Display Options to display only the two hinge pieces. 5. 6. 4. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the Element Type dialog box. From the main menu bar. select Mesh Element Type. 2. From the main menu bar. The pin. As a result you cannot apply mesh controls to an analytical rigid surface.

Click Done in the prompt area. 4–62 . To seed the part instances: 1. Click the Hex tab. 8. or you can bias seed distribution toward one end of an edge. Click Done in the prompt area. 6.MESHING THE ASSEMBLY 4. appears at the bottom of the dialog box. 2. ABAQUS/CAE will now associate C3D8R elements with the elements in the mesh. and click Done to indicate your selection is complete.6 Meshing the assembly In this section you will mesh the model. Accept 3D Stress as the default Family of elements. Accept Linear as the Geometric Order selection. C3D8R. 4. 4. 7. type an approximate global element size of 0. ! Seeds appear on all the edges. From the main menu bar. For the tutorial you will seed the entire assembly so that the hinge pieces have an average element size of 0. You can select seeding based on the number of elements to generate along an edge or on the average element size.11. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure. select Seed Instance.5 Seeding the part instances The next step of the meshing process is to seed each of the part instances. 5. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box. Note the following key point: • Seeds represent the approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh that you would like to generate.11. A description of the default element type. Note the following key point: • ABAQUS/CAE assigns a default ABAQUS element type to the model. 4. Seeds represent the approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh you would like to generate. and select Reduced Integration as the Element Controls method if it is not already selected. In the text box in the prompt area. you can accept the default element type or choose to assign other element types to different regions of the model. and press [Enter].004. 3.004. You are now ready to mesh the assembly.

From the main menu bar. and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. Final view of the meshed model. and click Continue. Name the job PullHinge. From the main menu bar. 2. The final mesh is illustrated in Figure 4–56. move to the Job module to create a job that is associated with your model and to submit the job for analysis. select Job Create to create the job. 4–63 . The cursor changes to an hourglass while ABAQUS/CAE meshes the assembly.12 Creating and submitting a job Now that you have configured your analysis. The Create Job dialog box appears. In the Module list located under the toolbar. ! The job editor appears. Select the two hinge pieces using the same techniques described in the mesh controls procedure. To create and submit an analysis job: 1. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads. 4.CREATING AND SUBMITTING A JOB Getting Started To mesh the assembly: 1. Figure 4–56 3. select Mesh Instance. ! ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the part instances to mesh. Click Done in the prompt area. click Job to enter the Job module. 2. 3.

4–64 . Note: You can also enter the Visualization module by clicking Visualization in the Module list located under the toolbar.13 Viewing the results of your analysis You will view the results of your analysis by drawing a contour plot of the deformed model. Note the following key points: • When you create and name a job.) You can follow the progression of the node’s displacement over time in the 1-direction as the analysis runs. and the status of the job. ABAQUS/CAE uses the same name for the input file it generates. Messages appear in the lower panel of the dialog box as the job progresses. the text in the Status field of the Job Manager changes to Completed. the model associated with ! each job. • Use the Job Manager to monitor the status of your job. the type of analysis. Click the Errors and Warnings tabs to check for problems in the analysis. click Results. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager. click Submit to submit your job for analysis. and review the default settings. all files associated with the analysis (for example. Once the analysis is underway. 4. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS 4. Consequently. When the job completes successfully. 5. In the Description field. 8. Select Job Manager to start the Job Manager. (You may need to scroll to the right to see it. the output database. Click the tabs to see the contents of the job editor. and the status file) use the same name. the message file. and displays a plot of the model. The job can take anywhere from 10 to 60 minutes. 6. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager. Click OK to accept all the default job settings. The Job Manager dialog box appears and displays a list of your jobs. type Hinge tutorial. A dialog box appears with the name of your job in the title bar and a status chart for the analysis. You can also view the progression of a degree of freedom over the course of an analysis that you have chosen to monitor before submitting the job. You will then use display groups to display one of the hinge pieces. an X–Y plot of the values of the degree of freedom that you selected to monitor earlier in the tutorial appears in a separate window in the viewport. 7. opens the output database created by the job. However. by displaying just a portion of the model you can view results that are not visible when you display the whole model. in this case ABAQUS/CAE requires you to open the output database explicitly using the File menu. Click the Monitor button on the right edge of the Job Manager to monitor the analysis as it runs. depending on your system. You are now ready to view the results of the analysis with the Visualization module.

2. select Tools Display Group Create. select Plot Contours. From the Deformation Scale Factor options. and click OK.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS Getting Started ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model when you enter the Visualization module. the pin) are displayed in white. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of von Mises stress superimposed on the deformed shape of the model at the end of the last increment of the loading step. do the following: a. b. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box. Apply load Increment 6: Step Time = 1. click the Shape tab. 4–65 . 3.13. In the Value text field. choose Uniform. From the main menu bar. click Remove. The deformation is exaggerated because of the default deformation scale factor that ABAQUS/CAE selects. From the main menu bar. To remove the white surfaces from the display. c.000 By default. select All surfaces. all surfaces with no results (in this case. type a value of 100. select Options Contour. To display a contour plot of the model: 1. A fast plot is a basic representation of the undeformed model that indicates that you have opened the desired output database. In the Selection Method options list. ! ! The Create Display Group dialog box appears. 4. The white surfaces disappear from the view. as indicated by the following text in the state block: Step: Load. d. To reduce the deformation scale factor. The fast plot mode does not display results and cannot be customized. b. From the main menu bar. In the Item options list. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box. as shown in Figure 4–57. do the following: a. d. From the Contour Plot Options dialog box that appears. c.1 Displaying and customizing a contour plot In this section you will display a contour plot of the model and adjust the deformation scale factor. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays the contour plot with a deformation scale factor of 100. select Surfaces.

4-1 Mon Jul 28 17:43:00 3 Step: Load.384e+07 +2. Crit. Click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box.951e+07 +1. 9. 5. 4.356e+06 +2.601e+07 +2. By default. Mises (Ave. Click Apply to see a contour plot of the stresses in the 1-direction. 4–66 . 6.521e+06 +4. select Mises and click Apply to display the von Mises stresses again.000e+02 Figure 4–57 Contour plot of von Mises stress with a reduced deformation scale factor. the contour plot displays the von Mises stresses in the model.686e+06 +6. select Max. 7.: 75%) +2.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS S.085e+07 +8. From the Invariant option list. You can view other variables by selecting Result Field Output. From the Invariant option list. You cannot customize a fast plot. Select any other variables of interest from the Field Output dialog box.168e+07 +1. Note where the pin appears to be exerting the most pressure against the insides of the flanges. Use the view manipulation tools to examine the deformed model. Apply load 1Increment 6: Step Time = 1. 8. ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model.518e+07 +1.191e+06 +2. ! The Field Output dialog box appears. Mises Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +1. Note the following key points: • When you first open an output database. and click Apply to see the maximum principal stresses on the model.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6.302e+07 +1. Principal. and select S11 from the list of Component options. Also note how the two flanges have twisted away from each other.735e+07 +1.000 Primary Var: S.644e+04 2 Hinge tutorial ODB: PullHinge.

521e+06 +4. 4–67 . select Part instances. Apply load Increment 6: Step Time = 1. click Replace.085e+07 +8.735e+07 +1. Crit.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6.644e+04 2 3 1 Hinge tutorial ODB: PullHinge.518e+07 +1. Select the Hinge-hole-1 part instance.13. you will be able to view results for the surface of the flange that contacts the other hinge. changing an option in one mode does not affect the appearance of the plot in the other modes.2 Using display groups You will now create a display group that includes only the element sets that make up the hinge piece that includes the lubrication hole.356e+06 +2. contour. 4. Mises Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +1.951e+07 +1. By removing all other element sets from the display. To create the display group: 1. symbol—you use the associated options to control the appearance of the plot in each mode. 3. 4.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS Getting Started • For all other plot modes—undeformed.4-1 Mon Jul 28 17:43:00 Step: Load. ! ! The Create Display Group dialog box appears. 2. From the main menu bar. S. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box.601e+07 +2.000 Primary Var: S. Mises (Ave.000e+02 Figure 4–58 Use display groups to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress in the hinge piece with the lubrication hole.686e+06 +6. In the Item options list.: 75%) +2. The contour plot of the entire model is replaced by a plot of only the selected hinge piece.384e+07 +2. select Tools Display Group Create. The right side of the dialog box displays all the part instances in the model. deformed.191e+06 +2.168e+07 +1.302e+07 +1. as shown in Figure 4–58. In general.

Use the view manipulation tools to view the hinge at different angles.” You have now completed the second tutorial and learned how to: • create and modify features. select Result Field Output and click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box that appears. Chapter 5. • use datum geometry to add features to a model. elements. or edges). 7. geometry (cells.VIEWING THE RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSIS 5. select CPRESS. From the top of the Primary Variable tabbed page. 4–68 . or surfaces. • A display group can be composed of any combination of selected part instances. faces. nodes. “A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis. • define contact interactions between regions of a model. From the list of variables that appears. You can now see results for surfaces on the hinge that were hidden by the solid hinge. Note the following key points: • You use display groups to display selected regions of your model. 6. • use position constraints to assemble a model composed of more than one part. and click Apply. • monitor the progress of an analysis job. see the third tutorial. ! ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of the contact pressures in the flange hole. To learn more about the capabilities of the Visualization module. and • use display groups to view results for individual parts of a model. 8. toggle on List only variables with results: and choose at surface nodes from the menu. From the main menu bar.

LE. 5. A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis This tutorial illustrates how you can use the Visualization module (also licensed separately as ABAQUS/Viewer) to display the results from your analysis in graphical form.919e-02 -5.584e-01 -8.049e-01 -4. The problem is modeled in two dimensions and is divided into three steps: 1.1.877e-01 -7.756e-01 -5. The gravity loading is ramped up over two seconds. 5–1 . allowing the foam to relax fully.929e-01 -2.: 75%) +1.636e-01 -3.342e-01 -4.OVERVIEW Getting Started 5.1 Overview During the tutorial you will display the output from Case 2 of the example problem.4 of the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual.222e-01 -1. The problem studies the behavior of a heavy metal punch impacting a soft elastomeric foam block.463e-01 -6. LE22 (Ave. The punch initially rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its own weight.291e-01 Figure 5–1 Contour plot showing deformation and strain. the resulting deformation and strain are shown in Figure 5–1. Crit. The analysis uses the *VISCO option to model the response of the foam block during the step.” Section 1. but the analysis continues for a total of five seconds.150e-02 -1. “Indentation of an elastomeric foam specimen with a hemispherical punch.170e-01 -6.

7 “Displaying and customizing a symbol plot.” Section 5.” Section 5. VARIABLE=PRESELECT *NODE OUTPUT 5–2 . SLAVE=ASURF.” Section 5.2 “Reading the output database. 3. depending on the output type. a set of options is included to control the data output during each step of the analysis.12 “Displaying results along a path.8 “Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot. and ABAQUS writes every component at the selected frequency.6 “Animating a contour plot. you select output for your entire model or a large region of your model.” Section 5.10 “Operating on X–Y data. Typically.9 “Displaying and customizing an X–Y plot. The response of the foam block is modeled using the *DYNAMIC option. The following input file fragment shows the options that control the field output variables in the elastomeric block example: *OUTPUT. The tutorial consists of the following sections: • • • • • • • • • • • • “Which variables are in the output database?. The punch is forced down with an impulsive load that varies according to a half sine wave over a period of one second.5 “Displaying and customizing a contour plot.11 “Probing an X–Y plot. The impulsive load is removed. FREQUENCY=10 *CONTACT OUTPUT. The viscoelastic foam damps out the vibrations. and the step runs for 10 seconds while the model returns to steady state.3 “Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot. ABAQUS/Standard writes this output to the Field Output or History Output portion of the output database. and the punch is allowed to move freely while the foam expands and contracts.” Section 5.2 Which variables are in the output database? In the first step of the elastomeric foam example.WHICH VARIABLES ARE IN THE OUTPUT DATABASE? 2. after every 10 increments and after the last increment of a step. FIELD.4 “Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot.” Section 5.” Section 5.” Section 5.” Section 5.13 5. Field Output The Field Output portion of the output database contains variables that should be output relatively infrequently during the analysis. in this case.” Section 5. Only the selected variables are written to the output database.” Section 5. the response of the foam block is modeled using the *DYNAMIC option. MASTER=BSURF.” Section 5. As with the second step.

5–3 . you typically select output from a small area of your model. S22 ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the punch’s rigid body reference node (contained in node set N9999) to the history portion of the output database after every increment: • the vertical displacement.E ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables to the Field Output portion of the output database after every 10 increments and at the end of each step: • the stress components of every integration point in the foam block. In addition. shear stress. To avoid generating large amounts of data. and • the default contact output variables (clearance. after every increment ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the element at the corner of the block to the history portion of the output database: • von Mises stress. and • the vertical acceleration. V2. History Output The History Output portion of the output database contains variables that may be output relatively frequently during the analysis. The following input file fragment shows the options that control the history output variables in the elastomeric block example: *OUTPUT. pressure. • the displacement of every node in the model. you must select the individual components of the variables that are written to the output database. • the logarithmic strain components of every integration point in the foam block (by default. ELSET=CORNER MISES. the logarithmic strain is written to the output database when the user requests strain for a geometrically nonlinear analysis). NSET=N9999 U2. such as a single element or a small region. The stress and strain variables are written for all the integration points in the element. ELSET=FOAM S. and • the stress in the 2-direction on the 2-plane. • the vertical velocity. E22. A2 *ELEMENT OUTPUT. and tangential motion) resulting from the contact between the punch and the foam block. • the logarithmic strain in the 2-direction on the 2-plane. In addition. as often as every increment. *ELEMENT OUTPUT. HISTORY. FREQUENCY=1 *NODE OUTPUT.WHICH VARIABLES ARE IN THE OUTPUT DATABASE? Getting Started U. History output is typically used for generating X–Y data plots.

The title block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following: • The description of the model (from the first line of the *HEADING option in the input file). ABAQUS/CAE starts the Visualization module and displays a fast plot of the model. start ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer by typing abaqus cae or abaqus viewer. select File Open from the main menu bar. 4. If you have not done so already.odb. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the output database to your local directory. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box. you must display the undeformed plot to customize the appearance of the model. as shown in Figure 5–2. To read the output database: 1.odb).READING THE OUTPUT DATABASE 5. 3.3 Reading the output database To start the tutorial. A fast plot is a basic representation of your undeformed model and is an indication that you have opened the desired output database. select Output Database (*. Note: If you are running ABAQUS/Viewer. The fast plot simply indicates that you have opened the desired output database. at the operating system prompt. select Open Database. select your local directory. Important: Do not confuse this fast plot with the undeformed shape plot. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box. open the output database that ABAQUS/Standard generated during the analysis of the example problem. Click OK. 5. select viewer_tutorial. ! The Open Database dialog box appears. From the Start Session dialog box that appears. you do not have to select the file filter. The fast plot mode does not display results and cannot be customized. only output database files are shown in the Open Database dialog box. to display element and node numbering. for example. 5–4 . The remainder of the dialog box changes to reflect the fact that you are now interested in files with the extension . 6. respectively. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=viewer_tutorial 2. 7. From the list of output database files that appears. While the fast plot displays the undeformed model.odb only. If you are already in an ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer session.

You cannot change the appearance of the model in fast mode. 5–5 . • The increment within the step.4-1 1 Step: Step-3.00 Figure 5–2 Fast representation. • The model is initially displayed using a fast mode. • The date the output database was last modified. • The step time. Note the following key points: • ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module automatically when you open an output database. Increment 272: Step Time = Mon Jul 28 10:13 Title block 10. • The name of the output database (from the name of the analysis job). The state block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following: • Which step is being displayed.odb ABAQUS/Standard 6.READING THE OUTPUT DATABASE Getting Started 2 3 State block DYNAMIC LOADING OF AN ELASTOMERIC. The orientation triad indicates the orientation of the model in the global coordinate system. VISCOELASTIC ODB: viewer_tutorial. • The product name (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) and version used to generate the output database. Remove load.

5. The plot mode and a set of buttons also appear in the prompt area.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN UNDEFORMED SHAPE PLOT • The title block displays information about the analysis that generated the output database. 5. Click the undeformed plot tool toolbox to select the undeformed mode.4. in the Visualization module The Visualization module enters the undeformed plot mode and displays the undeformed model at the end of the analysis—Step 3 and Step Time = 10. if rigid surfaces are introduced. but in some simulations the model changes during the analysis.00 in this example. ! Tip: You can select a plot mode from the main menu bar or from the Visualization module toolbox.1 Displaying an undeformed shape plot An undeformed plot for a general analysis step displays the initial shape of your model. for example. In this example the undeformed model does not change between frames. To display an undeformed shape plot: 1. select Plot Undeformed Shape. From the main menu bar.4 Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot You will now display the undeformed shape plot and use the plot options to request element numbering. • The state block contains information about the step and increment being displayed. First frame of step Next frame Previous frame Last frame of step Figure 5–3 Frame buttons in the prompt area. as shown in Figure 5–3. 5–6 . Each increment written to the output database is called a frame. In the elastomeric foam block example ABAQUS/Standard wrote the data to the field output portion of the output database after every 10 increments and after the last increment of a step.

clicking the next frame button takes you to the first frame of the next step. Click mouse button 2 to exit pan mode. The first frame and last frame buttons take you directly to the first or last frame of the current step but do not allow you to move between steps. Increment 0. Use the undeformed plot options to customize the appearance of all undeformed plots. contour. Note the following key points: • To perform many Visualization module functions. Use mouse button 2 to stop any view manipulation. to move the model above the state and title blocks as follows. and Step Time = 0. From the prompt area. 4. To move the model away from the state and title blocks. deformed. when you are at the last frame of the current step. From the toolbar. c. you can use either a menu item or a tool in the toolbox. click the pan tool to enter pan mode. clicking the previous frame button takes you to the last frame of the previous step. ABAQUS displays the undeformed model at the end of the second step—Step 2 and Step Time = 1. click in the viewport and drag the cursor upward. • You can use the buttons in the prompt area to display the state of the model in each frame of the analysis. The model moves along the same path as the cursor.4. 3. a.0000E+00. The next frame and previous frame buttons in the prompt area allow you to move between each frame of the analysis and can cross step boundaries as needed. etc. 5. Click the previous frame button.—provides a set of options that allow you to customize the appearance of the type of plot associated with that mode. which is one of several view manipulation tools available on the toolbar. customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions. 5–7 . • You can use the view manipulation tools in the toolbar to change the view of the model to a more convenient one. Use the pan tool. click the button on the far left to move to the first frame of the current step.2 Customizing an undeformed shape plot Each plot mode—undeformed. ABAQUS displays the undeformed model at the beginning of the third step—Step 3.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN UNDEFORMED SHAPE PLOT Getting Started 2. Conversely. When you are at the first frame of the current step. Regardless of the plot mode.000. This is the state of the model at the beginning of the step. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow: b.

it displays all edges—the perimeter edges and the edges of each element—as shown in Figure 5–4. and orientation triad. and select Plot Mode Options from the menu that appears. Click the Basic tab in the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box if it is not already selected. 2. ! ABAQUS displays a filled view of the model. Figure 5–4 Undeformed plot with filled view and exterior edges visible. In general. • Click the Plot Mode Options button at the far right of the prompt area. Choose the Filled render style. and orientation triad by selecting Viewport Viewport Annotation Options from the main menu bar. the figures illustrate the effect on the model of changing the plot mode and customizing the plot.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN UNDEFORMED SHAPE PLOT To customize an undeformed shape plot: 1. select Options Undeformed Shape. and click Apply. From the main menu bar. most of the figures in this tutorial do not include the title block. ABAQUS displays the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. state block. state block. ! Tip: The Visualization module provides the following three methods to access the customization options for the current plot while you are in any of the plot modes: • Select Options Plot Mode from the main menu bar. ! 5–8 . For clarity. • Click mouse button 3 in the viewport. Because the model is a two-dimensional model. You can toggle off and customize the title block.

When you click OK. 5–9 . Select the color Red for the element labels.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A DEFORMED SHAPE PLOT Getting Started 3. You will change the color of the element labels from cyan to red and display them. • Customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions. and displacement was selected as the default deformed variable. Click OK. Undeformed plot customization options apply only to undeformed plots. Each plot mode has options associated with it that you can use to control the appearance of the model in that mode. ABAQUS applies the change and closes the dialog box.1 Displaying a deformed shape plot Most procedures in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit write displacement to the output database by default and also select displacement for the nodal vector quantity to use as the default deformed variable. d. b. ABAQUS plots the nodal displacements by default. Note the following key points: • The Visualization module has different plot modes. ABAQUS applies the change and keeps the dialog box displayed. c. the state block. Toggle on Show element labels. In the elastomeric block example the user requested output of the displacements (U) for every node in the model after every 10 increments.5 Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot You can display a plot of your model showing the deformed shape during each frame of the analysis. and the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box closes. You can also use the plot options to customize the appearance of a deformed plot. Click Apply. 5. such as the title block. and the orientation triad. 5. ABAQUS displays the element numbering using cyan text. click the Labels tab and do the following: a. When ABAQUS reads the output database. it uses the default deformed variable to determine the shape of a deformed plot. The color of the element labels changes from cyan to red. By default. When you request a deformed shape plot of data from a force-displacement analysis. • You use the viewport annotation options to customize the appearance of items that appear in all plots. ABAQUS fills the model in green and displays element labels using cyan text.5. • When you click Apply in an options dialog box. From the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. but you can display any nodal vector field output variable that is available on the output database.

if the deformation is large. ! Tip: You can also plot the deformed model using the module toolbox. 5. The state block indicates the default deformed variable being plotted (U) and the deformation scale factor (1. ABAQUS selects a default deformation scale factor of 1. select Result Step/Frame. Note the following key points: • When you display a deformed plot.2 Customizing a deformed shape plot You can use the deformed plot options to customize the appearance of your deformed plot. 4. select Plot Deformed Shape. ABAQUS decreases the scale factor to fit the viewport optimally.000e+00).) To display a deformed shape plot: 1. From the main menu bar. The Step/Frame dialog box also displays the step time associated with an increment. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Step/Frame dialog box to view the deformed plot in different frames and in different steps. 5–10 . since in such cases the output database does not contain any variables that can be used to compute a deformed shape.00). The buttons in the prompt area allow you to move between frames of the analysis. Click Cancel to close the Step/Frame dialog box. 3.00 for large-displacement analyses. 5. as shown in Figure 5–5. c. ABAQUS selects a default variable to display from the field output portion of the output database. Display the deformed model after the last increment of the third step (Step 3 and Step Time = 10. for a perturbation analysis). ABAQUS cannot display a deformed plot. b. Use the Step/Frame dialog box to display the deformed model approximately halfway through the second step. Increment 0. heat transfer—do not write nodal vector quantities to the output database by default and do not select a variable as the default deformed variable. 2. Select Step 1. but you can also move directly to a selected step and increment using the following technique: a. From the main menu bar.5. and click Apply. ABAQUS increases the scale factor. Conversely. tool in the Visualization ABAQUS displays the deformed model in the same increment and step that it last displayed the undeformed model. • You can use the Step/Frame dialog box to select the step and frame to display.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A DEFORMED SHAPE PLOT (Some procedures—for example. Therefore. ! ABAQUS displays the Step/Frame dialog box. If the deformation is small (for example.

select Options Deformed Shape. ! Note: The button at the far right of the prompt area displays the options dialog box for the current plot mode—Deformed Shape Plot Options in this example. ABAQUS displays the Deformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. 5–11 . 3. To customize a deformed shape plot: 1. and toggle on Show node symbols. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected. To turn off the fill color and the element numbering of the undeformed plot. Click the Labels tab. 2. ! ABAQUS displays the customized deformed plot overlaid with the undeformed plot. as shown in Figure 5–6. 6. ABAQUS displays the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. From the main menu bar. click Defaults. and toggle on Superimpose undeformed plot. 5. Click OK to apply the default undeformed plot options and to close the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. 4. select Options Undeformed Shape from the main menu bar. ABAQUS displays the customized deformed plot. • You can use the Defaults button to restore the default plot options in each plot mode. You must use the main menu bar to display the undeformed plot options.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A DEFORMED SHAPE PLOT Getting Started Figure 5–5 Deformed plot of the model after the last increment of the third step. they are not carried over to other plot modes. From the buttons at the bottom of the Undeformed Shape Plot Options dialog box. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Deformed Plot Options dialog box. Note the following key points: • When you set options in one plot mode.

6 Displaying and customizing a contour plot You can display a contour plot of your model showing a variable such as stress. strain. To display a contour plot: 1. You can use the plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot. If you select a variable when you are not in a plot mode that can display that variable. ABAQUS reverts to the default plot options. ABAQUS selects a default variable to display. ABAQUS applies your customized settings to every contour plot displayed in the current viewport. including contour. which in turn depend on the analysis procedures and the requested output. The default variable selected depends on the variables available in the output database. From the main menu bar. You can choose to display any variable that is available in the field output portion of the output database. 5.6. a dialog box appears prompting you to switch to a valid plot mode. select Plot Contours.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A CONTOUR PLOT Figure 5–6 Customized deformed plot.1 Displaying a contour plot You will first display a contour plot of the default variable. In all plot modes. ! 5–12 . 5. or temperature. If you display a contour plot in a new viewport.

including contour. select Result Field Output. • You can display a contour plot of any variable stored in the field output portion of the output database. The contour plot in the current viewport changes to a plot of LE22. 4. as shown in Figure 5–7. select LE (logarithmic strain components at integration points). but you can display any variable that is available in the field output portion of the output database. From the Component field. 2. tool in the Visualization module The state block indicates that the variable plotted is S.2 Selecting the variable to plot ABAQUS selects a default variable to display in a contour plot.6. Note the following key point: • In all plot modes. ABAQUS updates the maximum and minimum values and computes the contour intervals in every frame. 5–13 . From the main menu bar. Note the following key points: • In all plot modes you use the Field Output dialog box to select the variable to display. ! ABAQUS displays the Field Output dialog box. ABAQUS selects a default variable to display. ABAQUS displays the results at the same step and frame that you used to display the deformed shape plot. From the Output Variable field. To select the variable to plot: 1. To see the complete description of the variable choices. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Step/Frame dialog box to view the contour plot in different frames and in different steps. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected. 5.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A CONTOUR PLOT Getting Started Tip: You can also display a contour plot using the toolbox. do the following: a. MISES. Note: The legend changes as you move between frames. 3. To select the 22-component of strain as the primary variable. b. the default variable chosen by ABAQUS. select the component LE22. Click OK to select LE22 as the primary variable and to close the Field Output dialog box. 2. increase the width of the Field Output dialog box by dragging the right or left edge. In all plot modes you use the Field Output dialog box to select the variable to display.

To customize a contour plot: 1.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A CONTOUR PLOT Figure 5–7 Contour plot of the model after the last increment of the third step. ABAQUS uses the values you supply in every contour plot displayed thereafter. regardless of the frame and which variable is being contoured. You can change the number of intervals. 5–14 . The legend indicates the calculated intervals and the color corresponding to each interval.3 Customizing a contour plot By default.6. ABAQUS updates the maximum and minimum values and computes new contour intervals for every frame. When you set the contour limits. and you can set the values corresponding to the maximum and minimum contour limits. 5.000). Display the contour plot at the end of the last increment of the second step (Step 2 and Step Time = 1. ABAQUS displays a contour plot using 12 equal intervals between the maximum and minimum value of the selected variable.

Figure 5–8 Customized contour plot. and drag the uniform contour intervals slider to 16. 5–15 . In the Max field. 4. The plot changes. In the Min field. toggle the Specify button and type a maximum contour limit of 0. b. ! ABAQUS displays the Contour Plot Options dialog box. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected.1. select Options Contour. 5. From the main menu bar.75.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A CONTOUR PLOT Getting Started 2. as shown in Figure 5–8. Click Apply to view the customized contour plot. 3. Click the Limits tab to access the contour limits options. a. toggle the Specify button and type a minimum of −0.

The minimum strain in the model is shown at the bottom of the contour legend. • By default. or material orientation (time history animation only) plot using one of the following: Time History Animation In a time history animation ABAQUS displays each frame of each step from the output database in sequence. areas undergoing compressive strains greater than 0. contour. symbol.7 Animating a contour plot You can animate a deformed. symbol. examine the Min and Max Auto-compute options. 5. respectively. and you can see the change in the deformation or the change in a contour or symbol plot variable while the analysis progresses. ABAQUS adds intervals to indicate any values that are greater than the maximum contour limit or less than the minimum contour limit and displays these values in light gray and dark gray. contour. you can control the following: • The speed of the animation • Whether the animation runs continuously or just once • Whether to display the animation status For the elastomeric foam example you will display a time history animation of a contour plot. Note the following key points: • You use the contour plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot.75 are shown in dark gray. In addition. You can select which steps and frames to include in a time history animation. Scale Factor Animation Scale factor animation takes the results from a selected step and frame and simply scales them to form frames of the animation. The animation uses the plot options from the relevant mode—deformed. Click OK to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box. ABAQUS uses light and dark gray contour bands to indicate values that are outside the limits shown in the legend. the plot legend displays 17 intervals. You can select a scale factor that varies between zero and one or between minus one and plus one. Scale factor animation is particularly useful for animating vibration modes computed by an eigenvalue analysis. ABAQUS animates the results of the analysis. 5–16 . You might use either of these colors to indicate elements that fall outside the design range for the selected variable. The animated contour plot displays the variable you selected from the Field Output dialog box (LE22). In effect. or material orientation. 7. 6.ANIMATING A CONTOUR PLOT Although you selected 16 contour intervals. Under the Limits tab. The minimum and maximum values of strain for the contour plot are shown next to the two Auto-compute options. In this example.

c. In the prompt area. Drag the frame rate slider to Fast. From the main menu bar. 5. The animation resumes. You can also customize the contour plot while the animation is running. To animate the contour plot: 1. ! ABAQUS displays the customized contour plot at the beginning of the analysis and steps through each frame. Because you increased the frame rate. for example. ! ABAQUS displays the Animation Options dialog box. Increment 0. the animation restarts at the beginning of the analysis (Step 1. 4. select Animate Time History. and Step Time = 0. ABAQUS steps through the animation at a faster rate. select Options Animation to view the animation options. Click the Player tab if it is not already selected. In the prompt area. 2. ABAQUS also displays the movie player controls on the left side of the prompt area: Previous image Last image Stop Play First image Next image You use these controls to start. a. when the animation reaches the end of the analysis. and step through the animation. the state block indicates the current step and increment throughout the animation. and do the following: a. 3. click the play button to continue the animation. stop. b. click the stop button to stop the animation. The animation stops at the current image. Choose Swing. it steps backward through each frame instead of jumping back to the beginning of the analysis. Because you chose Swing. Click OK. After the last increment of the last step. From the main menu bar.00). 5–17 . the contour intervals and element edge display. it uses the same options that you selected for the contour plot.ANIMATING A CONTOUR PLOT Getting Started In addition. Display the Contour Plot Options dialog box. 6.

select U (spatial displacement at nodes). • You can use the buttons in the prompt area to start. 2. This selection indicates that you want to plot the magnitudes of the displacement vectors. contour. the animation uses the respective plot options to control the appearance of the model. 4. and the direction of the arrow indicates its direction. or you can generate a scale factor animation based on a single increment of the results. or material orientation (time history animation only) plot. From the Invariant field. 7.8. select Magnitude if it is not already selected. select Result Field Output. 5.8 Displaying and customizing a symbol plot Symbol plots allow you to visualize the magnitude and direction of vector and tensor variables or the orientation of quaternion variables in the form of symbols (arrows or triads) superimposed on the model. From the main menu bar. The length of the arrow indicates the magnitude of the vector or tensor. Reduce the number of contour intervals to 10. Each symbol starts at the location in the model where the value was obtained. in this section you will create a symbol plot of displacement. 5–18 . stop.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A SYMBOL PLOT b. For example. click the stop button to stop the movie. To create a symbol plot of nodal displacement: 1. Note the following key points: • You can display a time history animation from the data in an output database. • You can use the Animation Options to control the speed and behavior of the animation. c. Click OK to apply your change and to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box.1 Displaying a vector symbol plot Before creating the symbol plot. The symbol plot displays arrows representing the magnitude and the direction of the displacement vector at each node. and symbols representing integration point quantities appear at integration points. • You can animate a deformed. you use the Field Output dialog box to specify the variable you want to plot. From the output variable Name list. and step through the animation. You can customize these plots while the animation is running. 5. 3. Click OK to select the field output variable and to close the Field Output dialog box. symbol. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected. ! ABAQUS displays the Field Output dialog box. When you have finished viewing the animation. symbols representing nodal quantities appear at nodes.

From the main menu bar. as shown in Figure 5–9. tool in the Visualization module Figure 5–9 Symbol plot of displacement. • A symbol plot shows the magnitude and direction of a particular vector or tensor variable or the orientation of a particular quaternion variable at a specified step and frame. ! Tip: You can also display a symbol plot using the toolbox. A symbol plot appears. including both nodal and element quantities. Note the following key points: • You can display symbol plots of any selected field output variable. 5. The arrows represent the total displacement at each node. On the Primary Variable page in the Field Output dialog box. you may not have selected the correct output variable. You can click the Defaults button in the Contour Plot Options dialog box to restore the default options. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the displacement. select Plot Symbols. By default. If your symbol plot is different from Figure 5–9. symbol 5–19 . select U and Magnitude and remember to click OK.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A SYMBOL PLOT Getting Started The contour plot in the current viewport displays the magnitude of the displacement vector but retains your customized settings for the contour limits. and the direction of the arrow represents the direction of the displacement.

DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A SYMBOL PLOT plots display the magnitudes for vector variables. and the 1-axis of the orientation for quaternion variables. In the Symbol Plot Options dialog box. Click the Color & Style tab. • The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector or tensor variable.8. click the Basic tab if it is not already selected.2 Customizing the symbol plot You will now customize your symbol plot by changing the visible edges and the arrow size and color. c. The customized symbol plot appears. all principal components for tensor variables. Figure 5–10 Customized symbol plot. Select Long as the maximum length of the vector. and choose Feature edges for the visible edges. b. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Symbol Plot Options dialog box. Click the Vector tab. select Options Symbol. Select Cyan for the vector color. 2. 3. From the main menu bar. and do the following: a. as shown in Figure 5–10. ! The Symbol Plot Options dialog box appears. 5–20 . 4. 5. the direction of the arrow represents the direction in which the vector or tensor variable is acting. To customize the symbol plot: 1.

5.9 Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot Material orientation plots allow you to visualize the material directions for each element in your model at a specified step and frame. Material orientation triads at element integration points indicate the material directions of each element in the model. 5–21 . material orientation plots are drawn on the deformed shape of the model. A material orientation plot appears.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A MATERIAL ORIENTATION PLOT Getting Started 5. Material orientation triads that indicate the material directions are displayed at the element integration points. By default. To display a material orientation plot: From the main menu bar. as shown in Figure 5–11.9. tool in the ! Figure 5–11 Material orientation plot.1 Displaying a material orientation plot The material orientation plot will be created at the step and frame of the analysis you specified previously. Tip: You can also display a material orientation plot using the Visualization module toolbox. In this section you will create a material orientation plot and customize its appearance. select Plot Material Orientations.

Figure 5–12 Customized material orientation plot. as shown in Figure 5–12.2 Customizing a material orientation plot You will now customize your material orientation plot by changing the color and length of the material orientation triad axes. b. Select Red for the 1-axis color. From the main menu bar. 5. Select Blue for the 2-axis color. with no averaging across elements. c. Material orientations are displayed on an element-by-element basis at the material integration points. 5–22 . select Options Material Orientation. The customized material orientation plot appears. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box. and do the following: a. Select Short for the length of the triad axes. To customize the material orientation plot: 1.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING A MATERIAL ORIENTATION PLOT Note the following key point: • A material orientation plot shows the material directions of elements in your model at a specified step and frame of your analysis. d. ! The Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box appears. Click the Triad tab.9. 2. 3. Click the Color & Style tab if it is not already selected.

do the following: a. either combined with other data or arithmetically manipulated. and a legend. The legend labels the X–Y plot U2 N: 1000 NSET PUNCH. 4. 2. 5. The Output Variables field contains a list of all the variables in the history portion of the output database. ! ABAQUS displays the History Output dialog box. if they are not already selected. To see the complete description of the variable choices. select Result History Output. major and minor tick marks. The History Output dialog box allows you to select where in the history data the X–Y plot should begin and end. axis titles.and Y-axes. For the tutorial you will display the vertical displacement of the rigid body reference node versus time. This is a default name provided by ABAQUS. Select the vertical motion of the rigid body reference node Spatial displacement: U2 at Node 1000 in NSET PUNCH if it is not already selected. 3. For the tutorial you can accept the default setting of Frames: Read all. To create an X–Y plot using data in all three steps. From the main menu bar. The Visualization module also allows you to display X–Y plots of the following: • Data read from an ASCII file.10. • Data entered at the keyboard. Drag the cursor over all three steps. in most cases the X-axis is assumed to be time. Default options selected by ABAQUS include default ranges for the X. if it is not already selected. • Existing data. 5–23 . To display an X–Y plot: 1.1 Displaying an X–Y plot You will now display an X–Y plot of displacement versus time. Click the Variables tab. the color of the line.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN X–Y PLOT Getting Started 5. click Plot. b. You can also choose the frequency at which to read the frames. increase the width of the History Output dialog box by dragging the right or left edge. Click the Steps/Frames tab. From the buttons across the bottom of the History Output dialog box. as shown in Figure 5–13. 5.10 Displaying and customizing an X–Y plot You can display X–Y plots of data written to the output database. ABAQUS displays an X–Y plot of displacement versus time.

X–Y plot customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions. • You can select the step from which to start and end an X–Y plot. Click the Scale tab. ABAQUS computes the range of the X.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN X–Y PLOT U2 N: 1000 NSET PUNCH Figure 5–13 X–Y plot of displacement versus time. and you can choose the frequency at which ABAQUS reads the frames from history data in the output database. Dismiss the History Output dialog box. Note the following key points: • You can display an X–Y plot of any variable stored in the output database. ABAQUS divides each axis into intervals and displays the appropriate major and minor tick marks. The XY Plot Options allow you to set the range of each axis and to customize the appearance of the X–Y plot. select Options XY Plot. As in all plot modes.and Y-axes from the minimum and maximum values found in the data read from the output database. 5–24 .2 Customizing an X–Y plot By default. To customize an X–Y plot: 1. ! ABAQUS displays the XY Plot Options dialog box. if it is not already selected. In most cases the X-axis is assumed to be time. 5. 2. 6.10. From the main menu bar.

To create a new viewport. Click Apply to view the customized X–Y plot and to keep the XY Plot Options dialog box active.DISPLAYING AND CUSTOMIZING AN X–Y PLOT Getting Started 3. U2 N: 1000 NSET PUNCH Figure 5–14 Customized X–Y plot of displacement. You will now display a second X–Y plot in a new viewport. 5. click OK to view the customized X–Y plot. select Viewport Create from the main menu bar. 5–25 . The same X–Y plot that you had in the first viewport appears in the new viewport. The axes of the X–Y plot change. 7. The line style should be solid. do the following. 6. 4. ! The new viewport appears. Request a decimal format with zero decimal places for the Y-axis labels. Type a Y-axis title of Displacement U2 (mm). (Click Apply as you work to check the effect of each setting. Request that major tick marks appear on the X-axis at four-second increments. Specify that the X-axis should extend from 20 (the X-axis maximum) to 0 (the X-axis minimum) and that the Y-axis should extend from 0 (the Y-axis maximum) to −200 (the Y-axis minimum). From the options in the XY Plot Options dialog box.) • • • • • Select Blue horizontal and vertical major grid lines. Request a minor tick mark every second along the X-axis and every 10 mm along the Y-axis. From the XY Plot Options dialog box. as shown in Figure 5–14.

11. The finished plot is shown in Figure 5–15. In this tutorial you will create a stress versus strain data object by combining a stress versus time data object with a strain versus time data object. V2 N: 1000 NSET PUNCH Figure 5–15 Customized X–Y plot of velocity. Label the Y-axis Velocity V2. 5.1 Creating the stress versus time and strain versus time data objects The first step in creating the stress-strain curve is to create the stress versus time and the strain versus time data objects from the history output. The data objects will contain data from only the first step 5–26 . 8. 5.11 Operating on X–Y data An X–Y data object is a collection of ordered pairs that ABAQUS stores in two columns—an X-column and a Y-column. and use a Y-axis range from 1000 to −1000. Then. Use the same X-axis range as before.” Section 8.OPERATING ON X–Y DATA The dark gray title bar on the new viewport indicates that it is the current viewport. You cannot select velocity during the first step because the first step was not a dynamic step. see “What is a viewport?. you will plot the stress-strain curve. Create a similar X–Y plot of vertical velocity (V2) versus time.1. ABAQUS/Standard computed velocity and acceleration only during the second and third steps.1. all work takes place in the current viewport. For more information. The Operate on XY Data dialog box allows you to create new X–Y data objects by performing operations on previously saved X–Y data objects.

Dismiss the History Output dialog box. click Create. Name this data object Stress. The History Output dialog box appears. d. do the following: a. 5. Now you are ready to combine the two data objects to create a stress versus strain data object. select ODB history output if it is not already selected and click Continue. select Tools XY Data Manager. The Save XY Data As dialog box appears. From the main menu bar. From the XY Data Manager. Use a similar technique to create a data object containing stress data (S22) from integration point 1 of element 1 during the first step of the analysis. Note the following key point: • You can create X–Y data objects using history data from selected steps. click Create. and click OK. 5–27 . A data object called Strain containing logarithmic strain data (LE22) from integration point 1 of element 1 during the first step of the analysis appears in the XY Data Manager. Click the Steps/Frames tab. b. In the History Output dialog box. Click the Variables tab. select Logarithmic strain components: LE22 at Element 1 Int Point 1. To create the X–Y data objects: 1. 6. 2. f. where the punch rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its own weight. Name the X–Y data Strain. In the Output Variables field.2 Combining the data objects In this section you will create a stress versus strain data object by combining the stress versus time and strain versus time data objects. 3. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears. e. 5.OPERATING ON X–Y DATA Getting Started of the analysis. ! ! The XY Data Manager dialog box appears. 4. Select Step 1. c.11. In the XY Data Manager. To combine the data objects: 1. Click Save As.

OPERATING ON X–Y DATA 2. • The Operators field on the right contains a list of all the possible operations you can perform on the data objects. select Operate on XY data and click Continue. 5. click combine(X. The new data object Stress/strain appears in the XY Data Manager. From the XY Data Manager. The dialog box contains the following lists: • The XY Data field on the left contains a list of existing X–Y data objects.11. Dismiss the Operate on XY Data dialog box.X). click Save As. combine( )appears in the expression text field at the top of the dialog box. 4. 5. An Operate on XY Data dialog box appears. drag the cursor across both the Strain and the Stress data objects to select both and click Add to Expression near the bottom of the dialog box. To restore the default plot options. 2. From the buttons along the bottom of the Operate on XY Data dialog box. Click the XY Plot Options button in the prompt area. Note the following key point: • You can use the Operate on XY Data dialog box to create new X–Y data objects based on operations on existing data objects. Click Apply. In the XY Plot Options dialog box that appears. 3. click Defaults. select Stress/strain and click Plot. b. 5–28 . 6. Your plot of stress versus strain will inherit the customized settings from your previous plot. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears. In this expression "Strain" will determine the X-values and "Stress" will determine the Y-values in the combined plot. enter the name Stress/strain and click OK. The expression combine("Strain". In the XY Data field. do the following: a. From the Operators field. From the Save XY Data As dialog box that appears. 7. To plot the stress-strain curve: 1. A plot of the stress-strain curve with default axis titles appears in the viewport.3 Plotting and customizing the stress-strain curve You will now use the Stress/strain data object that you just created to plot the stress-strain curve."Stress") appears in the expression text field. c.

The plot of stress versus strain appears. and type Strain for the X-axis title and Stress for the Y-axis title.12 Probing an X–Y plot You can use the Query toolset in the Visualization module to probe your model and X–Y plots. From the main menu bar. select Probe values from the Query dialog box. select Tools Query. 5. 5–29 . click the Titles tab in the XY Plot Options dialog box. Click OK to see your titles and to close the XY Plot Options dialog box. Because an X–Y plot is in the current viewport. 5. Dismiss the XY Data Manager. and click OK to enter probe mode. You can also write the resulting probe values to a file.and Y-values from your stress/strain plot and to write these values to a file. To change the axis titles. as shown in Figure 5–16.PROBING AN X–Y PLOT Getting Started 3. ! The Probe Values dialog box appears. In this tutorial you will use the probe capability to obtain X. To probe an X–Y plot: 1. 4. this dialog box will display X–Y curve data. Select Userspecified for both axis titles. Figure 5–16 X–Y plot of stress versus strain.

5. A dialog box appears to inform you that the Selected Probe Values table contains data. Click Yes to indicate that it is OK to continue. 5–30 . Click OK to write your data to the file. 4. 3.1 Creating a node list path A path is a line you define by specifying a series of points through the model. 5. This option allows you to select arbitrary points along the curve. click Cancel to exit probe mode. Click at various points along the curve. When the arrow at the cursor approaches the X–Y curve. In a node list path all of the specified points are nodal locations. 5. 7. Note the following key point: • You can use the Query toolset to probe a model or X–Y plot. At the top of the dialog box. the point being probed is highlighted and information about it.13 Displaying results along a path X–Y data can be generated for a specific path through your model. it is helpful to create a model plot with the node labels visible. click Write to File. The Report Probe Values dialog box appears. From the Probe Values dialog box. the data in the Selected Probe Values table are written to a file called abaqus.DISPLAYING RESULTS ALONG A PATH 2. To determine the node labels of interest. including the corresponding X–Y coordinates. Use the Contour Options to display the node labels. By default. 6. appears in the Probe Values table. In this tutorial you will specify a node list path along the top of the foam block and plot the displacement magnitude along this path. The options in this dialog box allow you to change the name of this file and the format of the data written to the file.13. You can write the values you obtain to a file. When you have finished selecting points. The points are added to the Selected Probe Values table. Click the tool to display a contour plot of the model. position the cursor over the X–Y curve. You create a node list path by entering node labels or node label ranges in a table. the data in the table will be deleted.rpt in your current directory. toggle on Interpolate between points. In the viewport. To create a node list path: 1.

select Tools Path Create.) Alternatively. Accept the default selections in the X Values portion of the dialog box. 2. ! ! The Create Path dialog box appears. Name the path Displacement.or Add After. The selected path is highlighted in the plot in the current viewport. the X-values are the specified points in the model. in the Edit Node List Path dialog box. select Path. 3. 5. and click Continue. You can generate an X–Y plot of the data pairs. The Edit Node List Path dialog box appears. and the Y-values are the analysis results at these points.. and click Continue. From the main menu bar. 3. In the Path Definition table.2 Displaying results along a node list path ABAQUS obtains analysis results for each of the points on the path you have defined and generates X–Y data pairs. type PART-1-1 in the Part Instance field and 1:601:40 in the Node Labels field and press [Enter]. In this case U is the field output variable that was selected last (when you generated the symbol plot). 5–31 . ! ! The XY Data from Path dialog box appears with the path that you created visible in the list of available paths. You have now finished the tutorial.DISPLAYING RESULTS ALONG A PATH Getting Started 2.13. you can pick the nodes for the node list directly from the viewport by clicking Add Before. Click Plot to generate an X–Y plot of U along the path. From the main menu bar. select Tools XY Data Create. 5. as shown in Figure 5–17. Click OK to create the path and to close the Edit Node List Path dialog box. 4.. (This input specifies a range of nodes from 1 to 601 at increments of 40. In the Create XY Data dialog box that appears.. The result that will be plotted is displayed in the Y Values portion of the dialog box.. To display displacement results along a node list path: 1. Accept the default selection of Node list as the path type.

5–32 .DISPLAYING RESULTS ALONG A PATH Figure 5–17 Path plot of U along the top of the foam block.

“The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE” • Chapter 7. “Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows. dialog boxes. The following topics are covered: • Chapter 6. “Selecting objects within the viewport” • Chapter 11. “Managing viewports on the canvas” • Chapter 9. “Configuring graphics display options” • Chapter 12. and toolboxes” • Chapter 8. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective” • Chapter 10.Part II Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE This part of the manual introduces you to the ABAQUS working environment. “Printing viewports” .

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the analysis input.1 Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE This section explains how to start and how to exit ABAQUS/CAE. You execute ABAQUS/CAE (or ABAQUS/Viewer) by running the abaqus execution procedure and specifying the cae (or viewer) parameter: abaqus cae or viewer [database=database-file] [replay=replay-file] [recover=journal-file] [startup=startup-file] [noGUI=noGUI-file] [noenvstartup] You can include the following options on the command line: database This option specifies the name of the model database file or output database file to open.4 “Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE.” Section 6.2 “What is a module?.STARTING AND EXITING ABAQUS/CAE 6. 6–1 . Consequently. before you run either product.” Section 6.3 “What is a toolset?. To specify a model database file. it is helpful to become familiar with the basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: • • • • • • “Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE. you should move to a directory where you have permission to create files.5 “Getting help.6 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 6. and the results of the analysis. To specify an output database file when running ABAQUS/CAE. The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Before you can begin creating and analyzing a model or interpreting analysis results. You can open either type of file in ABAQUS/CAE. In addition.odb file extension.” Section 6. include either the .” Section 6. you can omit the . This chapter introduces you to the user interface.” Section 6.1 “Overview of the main window.1 Starting ABAQUS/CAE (or ABAQUS/Viewer) When you create a model and analyze it. ABAQUS/CAE generates a set of files containing the definition of your model. 6. include the .” Section 6. ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer generate replay files that reflect all your interactions with the application.1. you can open only output database files in ABAQUS/Viewer.odb file extension in your file name. If you are running ABAQUS/Viewer.cae file extension or no file extension in your file name.

see “Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session. This option is useful for automating pre.or postanalysis processing tasks without the added expense of running a display.” Section 13. ! Open Database Use this option to open a previously saved model database or output database file (equivalent to choosing File Open from the main menu bar). or recover options.4. Commands in this file are run after any configuration commands that have been set in the environment file. replay. ! 6–2 .4.4.4. The commands in replay-file will execute immediately upon startup of ABAQUS/CAE. ABAQUS/CAE begins.STARTING AND EXITING ABAQUS/CAE replay This option specifies the name of the file from which ABAQUS/CAE commands are to be replayed. recover This option specifies the name of the file from which a model database is to be rebuilt. Choose one of the following session startup options: Create Model Database Use this option (not available if you are running ABAQUS/Viewer) to begin a new analysis (equivalent to choosing File New from the main menu bar).” Section 13.” Section 13.” Section 13.py file extension) to be run without the graphical user interface (GUI). For more information.3. it is not available if you are running ABAQUS/Viewer. see “Recreating a saved model database. the Start Session dialog box appears. If you do not include the database. Since no interface is provided. startup This option specifies the name of the file containing Python configuration commands to be run at application startup.jnl) will execute immediately upon startup of ABAQUS/CAE. The commands in journal-file (model_database_name.2.4. For more information. and “Recreating an unsaved model database. the scripts cannot include any user interaction. see “Creating and running your own scripts. ! Run Script Use this option to run a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands (equivalent to choosing File Run Script from the main menu bar).1. noGUI This option specifies the name of a file containing Python scripts (. ABAQUS/CAE runs the commands in the file and exits upon their completion. This option can be used in conjunction with the startup command to suppress all configuration commands except for those in the startup file. For more information. noenvstartup This option specifies that all configuration commands in the environment files should not be run at application startup.

2. The ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual opens in a separate window. For more information. the menus give access to all the functionality in the product.” Section 13. and the appearance of the window changes as you work through the modeling process.1. see “Components of the toolbar. However. For more information. The components are: Title bar The title bar indicates the version of ABAQUS/CAE you are running and the name of the current model database. ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save the changes before exiting the session. if any.3.” Section 6.2 Overview of the main window This section provides an overview of the main window and explains how to operate and manipulate the elements of the window during a session.2. ABAQUS/CAE saves your customization selections.2.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW Start Tutorial Use this option to begin an introductory tutorial from the online documentation (equivalent to choosing Help Getting Started from the main menu bar).” Section 6.2 Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session You can exit the ABAQUS/CAE session at any time by selecting File Exit from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE then closes the current model or output database and all windows and exits the session.2. only for the duration of the session. ! 6. 6. you can use this file to reproduce your operations. ! Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 6. Different menus appear in the menu bar depending on which module you selected from the context bar. see “Recreating an unsaved model database.1 Components of the main window You interact with ABAQUS/CAE through the main window. see “Components of the main menu bar. Figure 6–1 shows the components that appear in the main window. 6–3 .3. ABAQUS/CAE automatically creates a file called abaqus.rpy that records your operations during the session. For more information on reproducing operations and on recovering interrupted sessions. Menu bar The menu bar contains all the available menus. Toolbar The toolbar provides quick access to items that are also available in the menus.4. If you made any changes to the current model database.

the Module list in the context bar allows you to move between these modules. the context bar allows you to retrieve an existing part while creating the geometry of the model or to change the output database associated with the current viewport. where each module allows you to work on one aspect of your model. for example. 6–4 . see “The context bar. For more information.4.” Section 6.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW Title bar Menu bar Toolbar Context bar Toolbox area Canvas and drawing area Viewport Prompt area Message area or command line interface Figure 6–1 Context bar Components of the main window. Other items in the context bar are a function of the module you are working in. ABAQUS/CAE is divided into a set of modules.2.

. For more information. Message area ABAQUS/CAE prints status information and warnings in the message area. In the Visualization module a set of buttons is displayed in the prompt area that allow you to move between the steps and the frames of your analysis.” Prompt area The prompt area displays instructions for you to follow during a procedure. The toolbox allows quick access to many of the module functions that are also available from the menu bar. If you have recently used the command line interface. To resize the message area. ABAQUS/CAE changes the background color surrounding the message area icon to red. use the scroll bar on the right side.1. you must click in the bottom left corner of the main window to activate the message area. drag the top edge.” Section 7. to see information that has scrolled out of the message area.” The drawing area is the visible portion of the canvas. Canvas and drawing area The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post viewports. The interface includes primary (>>>) and secondary (. the toolbox area displays tools in the toolbox that are appropriate for that module. see Chapter 8. Note: If new messages are added while the command line interface is active. Viewport Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Viewports are windows on the canvas in which ABAQUS/CAE displays your model. “Managing viewports on the canvas. Click message area to the command line interface. The command line interface is hidden by default. “Managing viewports on the canvas. see Chapter 8. it asks you to select the geometry as you create a set.) prompts to indicate when you must indent commands to comply with Python syntax. For more information.. The message area is displayed by default. see “Using the prompt area during procedures. 6–5 . for example. see “Understanding and using toolboxes. Command line interface You can use the command line interface to type Python commands and evaluate mathematical expressions using the Python interpreter that is built into ABAQUS/CAE.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW Toolbox area When you enter a module. When you display the message area. For more information.” Section 7. but it uses the same space occupied by the command line interface. the background reverts to its normal color. for more information. but it uses the same space occupied by in the bottom left corner of the main window to switch from the the message area.3.

and exit ABAQUS/CAE. For more information.6.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW 6.” Section 13.7.2.3 Components of the toolbar The toolbar contains a convenient set of tools for managing your files and viewing your model. 6. see Chapter 8. rename. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective” • Chapter 11. manage macros. Model The items in the Model menu allow you to open. see “Getting help. print viewports. and save model databases.” Section 6. For more information. “Customizing plot display” • Chapter 51. run scripts. “Configuring graphics display options” • Chapter 39. File The items in the File menu allow you to create. “Managing viewports on the canvas. the menus listed below appear on the main menu bar. Viewport The items in the Viewport menu allow you to create or manipulate viewports and viewport annotations. and delete the models in the current model database. Some of the operations available in the view manipulation menu are also available in the toolbar. open.5. customize certain aspects of the appearance of your model or plots. The toolbar is shown in the following figure: 6–6 . and control display performance. For more information. open and close output databases. “Customizing geometry and mesh display” Help The items in the Help menu allow you to request context-sensitive help and to search or browse the documentation. see any of the following: • Chapter 9. Items in the toolbar are shortcuts to functions that are also available from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE displays additional menu options and provides access to toolsets depending on the current module in use. import and export files. For more information. For more information. in the online version of this manual. see “Managing models. see “Using the File menu.” Section 13.” View The items in the View menu allow you to manipulate views.2. copy.2 Components of the main menu bar When you start a session. in the online version of this manual.

and “Controlling perspective. and files. and save model databases. and to print viewports. models. a small box containing a description. “Printing viewports. For example. or zoom the model or plot using these tools.” Section 9. For example. 6–7 .2. hidden line. rotate. For more information. The tools are divided into the following groups: Database manipulation and printing Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE The database manipulation tools allow you to create. you can pan.” View and display options The view and display option tools allow you to customize the appearance of your model. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective.” View manipulation The view manipulation tools allow you to specify different views of the model or plot. open. to open output databases. For more information. or shaded render style will be used and whether perspective will be applied.” Section 39.” and Chapter 12.1. “Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases. see Part III.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW Database manipulation and printing Display groups View manipulation View and display options Query Help To obtain a short description of a tool. see Chapter 9. place the cursor over that tool for a moment.” will appear. or “tooltip. see “Choosing a render style. For more information.3. you can specify whether wireframe. filled (available in the Visualization module only).

” Help Use the context-sensitive help tool to display detailed information about any tool.3. see Chapter 52. The context bar also allows you to move between models in the model database or to change the output database associated with the current viewport. dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Part list in the context bar.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW Query Use the query tool to obtain information about the geometry and features of your model.” Section 6. For more information. and to perform stress linearization on your results.6.” Display groups The display group tools allow you to selectively plot one or more model or output database items. to probe model and X–Y plots for output data. For example.4 The context bar The context bar is located under the toolbar.) Note: ABAQUS/Viewer contains only the Visualization module.2. when you are in the Part module. Select module-specific items As you move between modules. The additional items in the context bar are a function of the module in which you are working. For more information. (For more information. see “Getting help. “Querying and probing. For more information. you can use it to retrieve a particular part. see Chapter 46. 6. you can create a display group that contains only the elements belonging to specified sets in your model. “Calculating linearized stresses.” Section 6. you can use it to do the following: Select the current module The Module list on the context bar allows you to move between modules. or option in ABAQUS/CAE.” and Chapter 36. ABAQUS/CAE displays additional items on the context bar that help you select the context of your current operations. “The Query toolset. 6–8 . menu.” Chapter 34. For example. see “What is a module?. The Part list contains every part in your model. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model.

and title block identify results you display using the Visualization module. 6.2.” Section 9. which is indicated by a dark gray title bar. The viewport title and the border around the viewport are called the viewport decorations. state block.2.5 Components of the viewport Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Figure 6–2 shows the components of the viewport in the Visualization module. see “Customizing the view triad. and view orientation triad are called the viewport annotations. “Customizing viewport annotations. if you have different parts displayed in different viewports.” 6–9 . state block. For more information. the context bar indicates the name of the part displayed in the current viewport. Legend Viewport title View orientation triad State block Title block Figure 6–2 Components of the viewport. see Chapter 40. For example. For more information. The legend. The legend. The view orientation triad is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of the model currently being displayed.OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN WINDOW The items displayed in the context bar always refer to the current viewport. title block.

Although the order of the modules follows a logical sequence.” Property Create section and material definitions and assign them to regions of parts. “The Part module. see Chapter 21. For more information. boundary conditions. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select any module at any time. and monitor analysis jobs. see Chapter 15.” 6–10 . see Chapter 18. The order of the modules in the menu corresponds to the logical sequence you follow to create a model. For more information. The order of the modules in the list corresponds to the order of the modules in the context bar’s Module list: Part Create individual parts by sketching or importing their geometry. and fields.” Assembly Create and assemble part instances. For more information. between regions of a model. the Mesh module contains only the tools needed to create finite element meshes. For more information.” Interaction Specify the interactions. In many circumstances you must follow this natural progression to complete a modeling task. you must create parts before you create an assembly. while the Job module contains only the tools used to create. Each module contains only those tools that are relevant to a specific portion of the modeling task. For more information. “The Load module.” Step Create and define the analysis steps and associated output requests. For more information. “The Interaction module.” Load Specify loads.WHAT IS A MODULE? 6.3 What is a module? ABAQUS/CAE is divided into functional units called modules. submit. The following list of the modules available within ABAQUS/CAE briefly describes the modeling tasks you can perform in each module. “The Assembly module. such as contact. For example. see Chapter 17. regardless of the state of your model. For more information.” Mesh Create a finite element mesh. see Chapter 16. see Chapter 20. “The Mesh module. “The Step module. see Chapter 19. edit. ABAQUS/Viewer is a subset of ABAQUS/CAE that contains only the Visualization module. You select a module from the Module list in the context bar. for example. “The Property module.

The contents of the main window change as you move between modules. and other prescribed variables. When you select a module from the Module list on the context bar. axes. a Tools menu appears in the main menu bar containing all of the toolsets relevant to that module. Load. For more information.6. For more information. For more information.” Modules can be classified by the objects that are displayed in the viewport. see Chapter 41. 6. Interaction. For more information.” Section 27. “The Datum toolset. in the online version of this manual. A toolset is a functional unit that allows you to perform a specific modeling task. and Job modules. Mesh.2.” 6–11 .” Section 39. • The Create Field Output toolset allows you to perform operations on the field output available in an output database. Parts are displayed when you are in the Part and Property modules.” Section 8. “The Sketch module. see Part V.2.WHAT IS A TOOLSET? Job Submit a job for analysis and monitor its progress.” Sketch Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Create two-dimensional sketches. see Chapter 22. For more information. see Chapter 23. planes. “The Job module. Selecting a module from the Module list on the context bar causes the context bar. the module associated with the viewport becomes the current module. and coordinate systems for a variety of modeling tasks.” Section 27. see “Coloring individual elements.” • The Color Code toolset allows you to customize the edge and fill color of individual elements. module toolbox. “The Amplitude toolset. see Chapter 42.” Visualization View analysis results. and menu bar to change to reflect the functionality of the current module. As you select a viewport and make it current. ABAQUS/CAE associates the current viewport with the module you select. The following toolsets are available in ABAQUS/CAE: • The Amplitude toolset allows you to define arbitrary time or frequency variations of load. • The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points. displacement.5. see “Creating new field output.4. You can have multiple viewports. • The Coordinate System toolset allows you to create local coordinate systems for use in postprocessing. and different viewports can be associated with different modules. see “Creating coordinate systems during postprocessing.4 What is a toolset? When you enter most modules. For more information. the assembly is displayed when you are in the Assembly. and output database results are displayed when you are in the Visualization module. For more information. “Viewing results. see “Selecting viewports. For more information. Step. For more information on moving between viewports.

“The Repair toolset. copy. “The Partition toolset. see Chapter 45. “The Feature Manipulation toolset. For more information. Most of the toolsets include manager menus and manager dialog boxes that allow you to edit. such as very small faces and edges. information. “The Virtual Topology toolset. For more information. when you mesh the part instance.” • The Reference Point toolset allows you to create reference points associated with a part or assembly. 6. you can use the Set toolset to create sets in the Assembly module and then apply boundary conditions to those sets in the Load module.” Sometimes the objects that you create with a toolset in one module are useful in other modules.” “select. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model. For more information.” • The Path toolset allows you to specify a path through your model along which you can obtain and view X–Y data. see Chapter 49. “The Reference Point toolset. “The Set and Surface toolsets. For more information.5 Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE Many of the procedures in the ABAQUS/CAE documentation involve using one or more of the three mouse buttons.” • The Virtual Topology toolset allows you to ignore details in a part instance.” • The Partition toolset allows you to divide a part or assembly into regions. For more information. to expand pull-down menus.” • The Repair toolset allows you to repair invalid and imprecise imported parts.” • The Query toolset allows you to obtain general information about your model and to probe model and X–Y plots for output data. For more information. see Chapter 44. For more information.” For more • The Set toolset and the Surface toolset allow you to define sets and surfaces from regions of a model. see Chapter 33. and delete the objects you create with the toolset. rename. see Chapter 46.USING THE MOUSE WITH ABAQUS/CAE • The Display Group toolset allows you to selectively plot one or more model or output database items. “X–Y plotting. see Chapter 48. For more information. see Chapter 50. see Chapter 35. For more information. For example. 6–12 . see Chapter 47.” • The Feature Manipulation toolset allows you to modify and manage the existing features in your model. “The Query toolset. see Chapter 52. and to select items from menus. The following list explains the importance of each mouse button when interacting with ABAQUS/CAE: Mouse button 1 You use mouse button 1 to select objects in the viewport.” • The XY Data toolset allows you to create and operate on X–Y data objects. “Viewing results along a path. The instructions “click.” and “drag” in the documentation refer to mouse button 1.

you select the nodes to include in the set. For example. clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport is equivalent to clicking the highlighted button in the prompt area. For example. • Using a tool: click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished with a view manipulation tool. (For additional information.) 6–13 . 6. the Visualization module displays the following menu: The mouse button 3 shortcut is available only when ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area. when you press mouse button 3 in a viewport that contains a contour plot. if you tried to select nodes from your model and ABAQUS/CAE displayed the following prompt.6 Getting help The ABAQUS/CAE online documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar. In addition. Clicking mouse button 2 indicates that your selection is complete and you are ready to create the set. clicking mouse button 2 would have the same effect as clicking OK: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Mouse button 3 Pressing and holding mouse button 3 in the viewport exposes a popup menu that contains shortcuts to any of the buttons on the prompt area.GETTING HELP Mouse button 2 Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport signifies that you have finished the current task. For example: • Selecting entities from the model: when you create a node set. refer to the online manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation. This section provides a brief description of the online documentation and explains how to use the Help menu to find information.

the help toolbar icon. The cursor changes to a question mark. If the feature is part of a menu. and you must be able to start Netscape by typing netscape at the UNIX prompt. From the right end of the toolbar. 2. a help window appears containing the section from the online documentation that is relevant to that item. that menu disappears. the help system uses your default web browser to display the online documentation. In most cases you can gain access to context-sensitive help by using the Help menu. Alternatively.1 Displaying context-sensitive help You can use the help tool in the toolbar to display detailed help on any icon. To see a “tooltip. Note: ABAQUS/CAE also provides brief “tooltips” that describe the function of tools in toolboxes and in the toolbar. • On a UNIX platform. When you click the help tool and then click an item in the ABAQUS/CAE window. or the [F1] key. do not release the mouse button. and click mouse button 1. A help window appears. To display help on an item in the main window or in a dialog box: 1. ! . A help window appears. Your path statement must include netscape. Click the feature in the ABAQUS/CAE window that you want help with. 6–14 .6. menu. If you selected a menu item without releasing the mouse button. 6. click the help tool Tip: You can also select Help On Context from the main menu bar. The window contains the appropriate online documentation and links to associated topics.GETTING HELP Note: • On a Windows platform. To display help using the [F1] key: 1.” position the cursor over a tool and leave it stationary for a short time. the help system uses Netscape to display the online documentation. Press [F1]. or dialog box that you use in ABAQUS/CAE. you can use the [F1] key to display help on a particular item. However. Note: On Sun platforms you may have to use the [Help] key to request context-sensitive help. you must use [F1] if you are seeking information about menu items or dialog boxes that do not allow access to the help tool. 2. The window contains the appropriate online documentation and links to associated topics. Position the cursor over the item about which you need help.

If you have not yet entered a module. grouped by category. ! The collection window appears in your web browser with a list of all the book titles in the online documentation collection. and the text frame (right frame). 2. For more information. Using hyperlinks Use hyperlinks to move from one part of a book to another or from one book to another book. 6. Searching Use the search panel located in the navigation frame to search for specific words or phrases. Navigate through the manual’s contents using any of the following techniques: Browsing Use the and arrows in the text frame to navigate sequentially through the text. 3.2 Browsing and searching the online manuals You can browse and search the entire online manual collection by selecting Help Search & Browse Manuals. the ! 6–15 . From the main menu bar. as shown in Figure 6–3. To view a particular manual. “Searching the online documentation. Click the book title of interest.3 Finding special sections of the online documentation The following Help menu items allow you to display sections of the online documentation that you may find useful: On Module Select Help On Module to display the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual opened to the beginning of the chapter that describes the current module. the manual will appear in a new browser window. The book window contains three frames: the navigation frame (top frame). You can also use the web browser functions to return to recently viewed pages.” of Using ABAQUS Online Documentation.) ! Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE To display and search an online manual: 1. A book window containing the manual that you selected opens in a new browser window. (For detailed information. see the online manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation. The collection window that appears contains a list of all the book titles in the online documentation collection. see Chapter 2. the table of contents frame (left frame).6. select Help Search & Browse Manuals. simply click the title of interest.6.GETTING HELP 6.

! 6–16 . In either case. You are free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual. This section also contains helpful tutorials. Getting Started ! Select Help Getting Started to display the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual opened to a section that provides basic information on how to work in the ABAQUS/CAE window. You are also free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual.GETTING HELP Figure 6–3 The book window. you are then free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual. On Help Select Help On Help to display the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual opened to the section that describes how to use the help system. manual will be opened to a description of the module concept.

! 6.4 Finding information about keywords • The purpose of each keyword. 6–17 . select Help Keyword Browser. • The ABAQUS/CAE module or toolset that contains the functionality associated with each keyword. For example. Latest Information (on the web) ! Select Help Latest Information (on the web) to open a web page on the ABAQUS web site that lists information that ABAQUS users will find useful. On License ! Select Help On License to determine product license information. You can also click the name of a module or toolset in the table to view related documentation in the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual.GETTING HELP Release Notes Select Help Release Notes to display the ABAQUS Release Notes. From the main menu bar. On Version Select Help On Version to determine which version of ABAQUS/CAE you are currently using. ABAQUS displays your site identification and the name of your license server along with your license number and the total number of licenses available from your site. for example. upgrade and systems information along with errors in the ABAQUS documentation. To display the keyword browser: ! 1. ! A table of ABAQUS keywords and their associated modules is displayed. ! ! Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Geometry Importing Guide (on the web) Select Help Geometry Importing Guide (on the web) to open a web page on the ABAQUS web site that contains a troubleshooting guide to geometry import. The keyword browser is a scrollable table that contains the following information: To view the keyword browser.6. Python and ACIS. select Help Keyword Browser from the main menu bar. you could use the keyword browser to verify that the *ELASTIC option allows you to specify elastic material properties and that the Property module is the ABAQUS/CAE module associated with this keyword. You can click a particular keyword in the table to display detailed information concerning the function of that keyword. The keyword browser also contains hyperlinks to relevant sections in the online documentation. for example. ABAQUS also displays the version numbers of third-party software that is used by ABAQUS/CAE. Release notes detail new features of the software and provide a list of updates and enhancements.

3. 6–18 . In the Keyword column. In the Module or Toolset column. click the module or toolset name of interest to view online documentation concerning that module or toolset.GETTING HELP 2. click the keyword of interest to view online documentation describing that keyword.

dialog boxes. 2.1 What is a procedure? Many tasks within ABAQUS/CAE are broken into step-by-step procedures. 7. and toolboxes This chapter explains how to interact with the various windows.1.1.” Section 7. creating an arc in the Sketcher is a three-step procedure: 1. 3. 7. Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows.3 • “Managing objects. and toolboxes that appear throughout the ABAQUS/CAE application. Pick the end point.4 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 7.” Section 7. ABAQUS/CAE displays each step of a procedure in the prompt area near the bottom of the main window so that you do not need to remember all the steps and their order. simply follow the directions that appear in the prompt area near the bottom of the main window.2 • “Understanding and using toolboxes. The following topics are covered: • “Using the prompt area during procedures.” Section 7.2 Following instructions and entering data in the prompt area To use a procedure. Pick the start point. as shown here: 7–1 .1 • “Interacting with dialog boxes.1 Using the prompt area during procedures This section explains how to make use of the procedural steps that ABAQUS/CAE displays in the prompt area.” Section 7.USING THE PROMPT AREA DURING PROCEDURES 7. Pick the center point for the arc. For example. dialog boxes.

Such options are represented by buttons in the prompt area. You can click Stop to interrupt and cancel the operation.2. in the above example the border is drawn around the X-Axis button. A Stop button appears in the prompt area during certain time-consuming operations. 7–2 . when creating a fillet using the Sketch module. simply begin typing. click it to abort the current step of the procedure and return to the previous one. For more information. • To change a portion of the default value. • To replace the default value.” Section 7. usually the text box will already contain a default value. press [Enter] or mouse button 2. (The Previous Step button appears dimmed during the first step of any procedure. • You cannot enter an expression in a text field in the prompt area. for example. • To commit any changes. then select Previous Step or Cancel Procedure from the menu that appears. the Datum toolset may ask you to choose a principal axis. and enter data into the text field as follows: • To accept the default value. Some procedures require you to choose from a number of options. you need not click the text field before typing. When textual or numeric data are required. as shown here: Click the appropriate button to select the desired option. then use the [Delete] key and the other keys on your keyboard to change the value. The arrow to the left of the Cancel button is the Previous Step button. such as part healing or meshing or the extraction of X–Y data from history for large models. For example. click this button to cancel the entire procedure at any time. ABAQUS/CAE displays a text field in the prompt area for you to fill in. The default value disappears as soon as you begin to type.) If you prefer. you must first specify the fillet radius. you can place the cursor over the canvas and press mouse button 3. as shown here: Position your cursor over the viewport. press either [Enter] or mouse button 2. first click the text field. To select the default option. click mouse button 2.USING THE PROMPT AREA DURING PROCEDURES The button marked X in the above figure is the Cancel button. Many procedures require textual or numeric data. see “Entering expressions.2. In some procedures a default option is indicated by a border around the corresponding button.

press and hold mouse button 3. while items below the line correspond to the Previous Step and Cancel buttons. first make sure that the cursor is in the current viewport.1.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES 7. To select an item from the menu.1 Using basic dialog box components The following types of components are present in dialog boxes throughout ABAQUS/CAE: 7–3 .2. For example. 7.2 Interacting with dialog boxes This section explains how to use the various dialog box components that appear within ABAQUS/CAE. click mouse button 2. • To accept any default option depicted by a highlighted button in the prompt area. hold down mouse button 3 while dragging the cursor to the desired item. 7. click mouse button 2.3 Using mouse shortcuts with procedures Mouse shortcuts are available for many of the actions that take place in the prompt area. • To commit the contents of any text field that appears in the prompt area. then release mouse button 3. • To reveal a menu containing options identical to those in the prompt area. given the following prompt: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE pressing mouse button 3 will reveal the following menu: Items above the horizontal line correspond to the option buttons on the right side of the prompt area. To use the shortcuts.

’‘’’.?/\>< In addition. • The name must not begin with a number. • The name can include spaces and most punctuation marks and special characters. you cannot use case to distinguish between objects such as parts and materials. • The name must not begin or end with an underscore or a space. or X–Y data. the name can begin with a number. you must enter its name in the text field shown below: If you are entering a floating point number. you should avoid any character that may have a reserved meaning on your platform. when you save a display group. In general. cos(2. • When you name a model. • When you name a model or a job. For example. Text fields are available whenever you need to name an object. for example. when you are specifying a name that will be external to ABAQUS/CAE. Additional restrictions apply to model names and to job names. set.2. However.” Section 7.2. For example. 7–4 . ABAQUS/Standard. The expression can be any valid Python expression. material. you cannot use the following characters: $&*~!()[]{}|. ABAQUS/CAE retains the case of any text you enter. If you create a material called STEEL in the Property module. and ABAQUS/Explicit all text is case insensitive. such as a file name. For more information.9*pi)). path. • The name must not contain a backslash. if you name a material STEEL in the Property module. you cannot create a second material called Steel. most text fields allow you to enter an expression.’‘’’.5/(4. within ABAQUS/CAE.. • The name must not contain a period or double quotes. the material will appear as STEEL in the material manager and the section editor. you cannot use the following characters: <space>$&*~!()[]{}|:.?/\>< • When you name a job.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Text fields Text fields are areas in dialog boxes in which you can enter information. a job name cannot begin with a dash -. such as a part. see “Entering expressions.. Object names must adhere to the following rules: • The name can have up to 38 characters.

Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Unlike other text fields.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Numeric fields Numeric fields are specialized text fields for integer input values. 7–5 . Numeric fields often have upper and lower limits. They have two opposing arrows directly to the right of the text area. If the value you enter exceeds the limits ABAQUS/CAE changes the entry to the closest acceptable value when you move to another field or try to apply the value. Radio buttons Radio buttons present a mutually exclusive choice. numeric fields do not accept text or special characters. and you can select the color of your choice from the list. a list of the possible choices that you can enter in the field appears. You can enter a numeric value into the text field. or you can use the arrows to cycle up and down through a list of fixed values. When an option is controlled by radio buttons. you can choose only one of the buttons at a time. Combo boxes Combo boxes are fields having an arrow directly to the right of the field. if you click the arrow to the right of the Color field shown below. For example. a list of all the possible colors you can enter in the field appears. If you click this arrow.

If the box is toggled on. the triad does not appear in the viewport. If the box is toggled off. they allow you to scroll through the visible contents of the list as well as any contents that are hidden. For example. as shown below. For example. as shown below. the triad appears in the viewport.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Check boxes You can toggle a check box to turn a particular option off or on. that check box appears gray with a darker gray check mark. An example of a slider is shown in the following figure: 7–6 . Sliders Sliders allow you to set the value of an option that has a continuous range of possible values. Scroll bars Scroll bars appear in lists whose contents are too big to display. a single Show line check box in the XY Curve Options dialog box individually controls the display of all X–Y curve lines in an X–Y plot. In some cases the option controlled by a check box can apply to more than one object. as shown below. If you have toggled Show line on for some curves and off for others. as shown below. the visibility of the triad in the current viewport depends on the status of the Show triad check box. Scrolling is often necessary when numerous items must be listed.

see the documentation for built-in functions (http://www.python. 7–7 . you can enter any expression that can be evaluated by Python’s built-in functions or by the Python math module. For more information.org/doc/current/lib/module-math.html) on the official Python home page. The expression is evaluated by the Python interpreter that is built into ABAQUS/CAE. only the values are available. As a result.html) and the math module (http://www. as shown in Figure 7–1.2 Entering expressions Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE If a field in a dialog box is expecting a floating point number or a complex number. you can enter an arithmetic expression. Figure 7–1 An expression in a text field.org/doc/current/lib/built-in-funcs. Variables like pi and functions like sin() are available because ABAQUS/CAE imports the Python math module when you start a session.2.python.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES 7. The arithmetic expression is replaced by its value. if you reopen a dialog that contained expressions.

” Section 6. • Python interprets e as the natural logarithm. In contrast. Python will perform integer division and round down any remainder. For more access the command line interface. Python interprets it as an exponent. When an object is unavailable.71828182846.2. for example. see “Components of the main window. Items are usually dimmed as a result of some other setting in the dialog box. As an alternative.2. if Show triad is not selected. it appears dimmed in the dialog box.71828182846 and e+2 equates to 4. Python interprets 2e+2 as 2 2 102 and equates it to 200.5 and 1/2.1 You can also test how ABAQUS/CAE interprets an expression by entering abaqus python at an operating system prompt and entering the expression at the Python prompt that appears. 7–8 . If you are unsure how Python will interpret your expression. 0123 is interpreted as 83. Python interprets 2e++11 as 2 2 100 + 11 and equates it to 13. 7./2 as 1.0. as 0. not a natural logarithm.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES To make sure that your expression is evaluated as expected. as shown below. ABAQUS/CAE will print the resulting interpreted value in the message area. Python interprets 3. you should be aware of the following: • If you enter numbers as integers. Python will interpret 3/2 as 1 and 1/2 as 0.5. click information. the triad customization options below it are not available and appear dimmed. To in the bottom left corner of the main window. e equates to 2. • Python interprets 2e+ as 2 2 100 and equates it to 2. you can enter the expression on the command line or at the Python prompt and paste the resulting value in the prompt line or dialog box.3 Using dimmed dialog box and toolbox components Some objects in dialog boxes and toolboxes are available only under certain circumstances. The prompt line and some dialog boxes do not allow you to enter an expression. For example. For example. although tooltips are not. For example. • Python interprets numbers with leading zeros as octal numbers. For example. Context-sensitive help is available even for dimmed options. • If the “e” character is preceded by a number. Similarly. you can enter the expression on the command line.

ABAQUS/CAE displays a dialog box asking if it is OK to overwrite the job files. For example. The following action buttons can appear in a dialog box: OK Click OK to commit the current contents of a dialog box and to close the dialog box. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE If you toggle off Show this warning next time. you can save the data and apply them by clicking OK.5 Understanding the OK. therefore. 7–9 .2. and Dismiss buttons When you are finished working with a dialog box. 7. you can click Defaults. you can specify how to proceed by using different action buttons. It does not apply your changes or close the dialog box. as shown below. If the dialog box is part of an intermediate step of a procedure. This button is useful if you make changes in a dialog box and would like to see the effects of these changes before closing the dialog box. Defaults. if you submit a job for analysis and job files with the same name already exist. For example.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES 7.2. Continue. This button affects only the information entered in the dialog box.4 Disabling warning dialog boxes Some dialog boxes can be disabled so that they will not appear again during the current ABAQUS/CAE session. Apply When you click Apply. if you enter data in a dialog box. Defaults If you want to revert back to the predefined default values after entering data or specifying preferences in a dialog box. Cancel. Apply. the dialog box will be disabled for the remainder of the current ABAQUS/CAE session. you can click Continue to move on to the next step. you must click Apply or OK. but the dialog box remains displayed. to see the effect of reverting to the default values. any changes you have made in the dialog box take effect.

[Esc] may be the only way to close a toolbox or dialog box. For example. click the close button in the upper right corner of the toolbox or dialog box. Dismiss Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain data that you cannot modify.2. see “Linux settings that affect ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer. Continue Dialog boxes that appear in the middle of a procedure contain Continue buttons. separated dialog boxes can exist within a single dialog box. the dialog box closes. In Figure 7–4 the Other dialog box contains two dialog boxes separated by tabs: Scaling and Translucency. In this case the tabs of the separated dialog boxes are aligned vertically but work the same way as tabs aligned horizontally. Figure 7–2 displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog boxes. not just the one you are currently viewing. When you click Dismiss. The action buttons in a dialog box apply to the whole set of dialog boxes. you indicate that you have finished entering data in the current dialog box and would like to move on to the next step of the procedure. If you click Cancel. not just those in the current dialog box. Alternatively. obscuring the other four dialog boxes. depending on your settings. To close a toolbox or a dialog box that does not have a Cancel or Dismiss button. some managers contain lists of objects that exist but no fields in which you can enter data or specify preferences.” Section 5. In some cases clicking Cancel returns you to the previous step in the procedure. click its labeled tab. some dialog boxes are separated by tabs. 7–10 .INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Cancel Click Cancel to close a dialog box without applying any of the changes that you made. the dialog box containing the color and edge attributes options comes forward. In addition. For example. clicking OK saves all changes that you have made in any of the dialog boxes. as shown in Figure 7–3. If the dialog box appears in the middle of a procedure.1. To view a particular dialog box. Dismiss buttons also appear in message dialog boxes. Likewise.6 Using dialog boxes separated by tabs For the sake of organization and convenience. clicking Cancel usually also cancels the procedure. you can close an active toolbox or dialog box by pressing [Esc].3 of the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide 7.If you click the Color & Style tab. Continue causes the dialog box to be closed and all data in it to be saved unless you click Cancel at some point later in the procedure. all of the unapplied changes you have made in the set of dialog boxes are canceled. When you click Continue. For more information. Only one dialog box is visible at a time. Note: On Linux platforms.

7–11 .INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Figure 7–2 Dialog boxes separated by tabs. Figure 7–3 Using tabs to display particular dialog boxes.

or you can read data in from a file. You can type data into a table using the keyboard. the XY Data toolset can produce plots of data that you enter in the dialog box shown in Figure 7–5. 7.2.7 Entering tabular data Some operations require the entry of tabular data. organized into rows and columns. Figure 7–5 X–Y data table. Data tables are composed of input boxes.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Figure 7–4 Dialog box containing additional dialog boxes. For example. 7–12 . or cells.

is an exception to this rule. the program beeps if you attempt to enter character data in a numeric field. you can add a blank row to the end of the table by clicking the cell in the last row and in the last column of the table and then pressing [Enter]. then select Read From File from the menu that appears. To enter data from a file. enter the name of the file to read. you can use a combination of the [Tab] key and the up and down arrow keys to move from cell to cell. Use [Tab] to move to the right and [Shift]+[Tab] to move to the left. Moving from cell to cell Use the [Enter] key to move from left to right between the cells in a row. Reading data from a file You can enter data by reading it in from an ASCII file. tabs. and type the required data. ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to enter character data in tables requiring numeric data. respectively. • Specify the row number and column number of the target cell in the Start reading values into table row and Start reading values into table column fields. Alternatively. ABAQUS sets these fields to the cell your cursor was over when you clicked mouse button 3. You can press [Enter] to commit the data in a particular cell.) Click OK. each space. press [Enter] to move the cursor to the first cell in the following row.) Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Adding new rows Use the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 to add a new row before or after an existing row. (By default. then select the item of your choice from the menu that appears: • Select Insert Row Before to add a blank row above the current row. When you have reached the end of the row.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES The following list describes techniques for entering and modifying tabular data: Entering data Click any cell. use the up and down arrows to move up and down. 7–13 . • Select Insert Row After to add a blank row below the current row. ABAQUS reads data values from the file into the table according to your specifications. (The letter E that denotes scientific notation. specify the following: • In the File text field. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box appears. click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the target cell. In addition. You can also simply click the cell of interest. Click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the row of interest. as in 12. or comma is considered a single field delimiter. or commas. tab.E6. Data fields within the file can be delimited by any combination of spaces. In this dialog box.

You can also resize the last column in some tables by horizontally enlarging the dialog box that contains the table. Sorting data Some data tables offer a sorting feature. • Choose Ascending or Descending sort order. move the cursor to the line that divides the headings of the columns you want to resize. a resize cursor will appear. After clicking the cell once. Click OK or Apply.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Changing data If a cell already contains data. and paste data from one location in a table to another. 7–14 . then click Sort. Use the [Backspace] key and the other keys on your keyboard to modify the data. hold the cursor over the table. click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the table. and in series of consecutive rows or columns. You can cut or copy data in single cells. the highlighted contents of the cell disappear and are replaced by whatever you type. and select Paste from the menu that appears. Once you have selected the cells of interest. In this dialog box.) To sort table data. click mouse button 3. copying. you can click a second time to remove the highlighting and position the cursor within the cell. select the target cell. in columns or parts of columns. drag the mouse over the cells containing the data that you want to cut or copy. as soon as you begin typing. If it is available. click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the selection. You can also use the [Backspace] or [Delete] keys to delete highlighted data in a cell. To expand or contract a column. Sort is listed in the menu that appears. clicking the cell highlights the data. Drag this cursor to the left or right to resize the two columns on either side of the dividing line. (To determine if sorting is available for a particular table. then click mouse button 3. choose the column by which to sort. First. in rows or parts of rows. choose the following: • In the Sort by text field. Expanding and contracting columns You can change the size of the columns in some tables. This cell becomes highlighted when you move the cursor outside the data table window or if you click mouse button 3. All of the selected cells will become highlighted except the cell that you selected first. Cutting. The Sort Table dialog box appears. and pasting data Use the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 to cut. ABAQUS sorts all rows according to data values in the specified column. To paste the data. then select either Cut or Copy from the menu that appears. copy.

see Chapter 33. Then. A similar dialog box is used to customize the font of the Visualization module labels and titles. • Click OK. you can use this dialog box to customize the font that appears in viewport annotations. such as those used in the orthotropic or anisotropic elasticity data input forms in the Property module. The row or rows disappear. ABAQUS/CAE retains saved X–Y data only for the duration of the session. ABAQUS reads the data values from the table into the X–Y data. select Visualization. The table data disappear. click mouse button 3 and select Delete Rows from the menu that appears. To create an X–Y data object. “X–Y plotting. Creating X–Y data from table data Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE While you are creating a material in the Property module. if the rows are numbered. In some cases scroll bars may not be available. increase the size of the dialog box to display more data. click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the table.8 Customizing fonts The Select Font dialog box allows you to customize the font of certain kinds of text. do the following: • Enter the name of the X–Y data to create. You can then use the Visualization module to plot the X–Y data and to visually check its validity. While holding the cursor over the table. do the following: • From the module list on the context bar. To view the X–Y data. ! ! For more information. • Specify the column number containing the X-values and the column number containing the Y-values. instead. click mouse button 3 and select Clear Table from the menu that appears. You cannot delete rows from tables that display matrices or tensors of fixed size.2. • From the main menu bar. while holding the cursor over the dialog box containing the table. 7.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Viewing data that extend beyond the edge of the dialog box Use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars to view portions of a table that are outside the boundaries of the dialog box. for example. Deleting rows of data Click any cell within the row you want to delete. select Tools XY Data Plot. In this dialog box. 7–15 . The Create XY Data dialog box appears. or select multiple cells in consecutive rows. ABAQUS/CAE automatically renumbers the remaining rows. and select the X–Y data from the pull-right menu.” Clearing the table You can delete all data from a table. you can use the data in a table to create X–Y data. then select Create XY Data from the menu that appears.

9 Using file selection dialog boxes File selection dialog boxes allow you to select files from lists that are filtered based on file type or location. 7. ABAQUS/CAE refreshes the dialog box to list only files that meet your criteria. To use a file selection dialog box. • The font size.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES The Select Font dialog box allows you to specify and preview the following: • Proportional or fixed fonts. The dialog box for selecting model databases or output databases is shown in Figure 7–6. From this list. in points.2. • Regular. bookmark new details home directory work list icons go up one directory show hidden files Figure 7–6 Selecting a model database or an output database. you select the file to open. bold. you first choose the type of file to open and then specify the directory to list. or italic font. The available options vary depending on which fonts are installed on your system. • The font family. 7–16 .

double-click the file name of interest from the list. Icons at the top of the dialog box allow you to change the displayed file format to one of the following (keyboard shortcuts are shown in parentheses): • A list ([Ctrl]+S). Therefore.2. you can double-click the directory name in the list to view directories within the current path or you can click the arrow next to the Directory field to access other paths that are available on your system. icons at the top of the dialog box allow you to do the following: Note: Keyboard shortcuts are shown in parentheses when available. you can enter the entire directory path and file name of interest directly in the File Name field and then click OK. therefore.odb) is the only type available in the File Filter field. Access the Work directory from which you started ABAQUS/CAE ([Ctrl]+W). Access your system default. Specifying the directory from which to select a file Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE By default.10 Selecting multiple items from lists and tables In some ABAQUS/CAE dialog boxes it is necessary to select an item from a list or a table before you can perform certain functions. • • • • • Go up one directory level ([Backspace]). Output Database (*. such as importing a part or printing to a file.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Note: In ABAQUS/Viewer you can open only output database files. For example. if you want to plot X–Y data. Selecting a file To select and open a file. Alternatively. For example. directory ([Ctrl]+H). which allow you to select the file extension of interest. Create a new directory ([Ctrl]+N). Similar file selection dialog boxes appear when you perform other File menu functions. You can also begin typing the file name. the cursor will reposition to the matching location in the file list. the File Filter selection in Figure 7–6 is Output Database (*. In addition. 7. Set or use Bookmarks to any directory on your system. only files with the extension . • A detailed list ([Ctrl]+L).odb appear in the list in the center of the dialog box. the Directory field shows the directory in which you started ABAQUS/CAE. The icon to the right of the others allows you to display or suppress “hidden” files. • Icons ([Ctrl]+B). you must first select 7–17 . or Home. If you want to view a list of files from a different directory. and the first file starting with the letters you typed will be selected.odb). Use the following techniques to select the file of your choice: Filtering the file list according to file type File selection dialog boxes contain File Filter fields.

Release the mouse button when all of the items of interest are selected. Figure 7–7 Single item selected. nonconsecutive items are selected in Figure 7–9. if you [Ctrl]+Click Displacement in the list shown in Figure 7–9. as shown in Figure 7–10. Canceling a selection You can [Ctrl]+Click previously selected items to remove them from your selection. To select a single item from a list. you can use the following techniques: Selecting consecutive items from a list or table Click the first item of interest from a list or row heading from a table and then. To select a single item from a table. drag the cursor over the remaining items. Some functions allow you to operate on more than one item. Selecting nonconsecutive items from a list or table Click the first item of interest from a list or row heading from a table and then [Ctrl]+Click any other items you want to select. that data object is no longer selected. shown in Figure 7–7. For example. For example. and then click Plot. click the table row heading. you need only click that item in the dialog box. All items between the first and the last are selected automatically. For example. while continuing to hold down mouse button 1.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES the data object of your choice from the list in the XY Data Manager. consecutive items are selected in Figure 7–8. you could select them both and then click Delete. 7–18 . if you wanted to delete the first two data objects in the manager shown in Figure 7–7. To select multiple items. Another way to select consecutive items is to click the first item of interest from a list or row heading from a table and then [Shift]+Click the last item of interest. For example.

these three functions become unavailable.INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Figure 7–8 Consecutive items selected. Certain functions in a dialog box may become unavailable when you select multiple items. Copy. When you select multiple data objects. For example. the Edit. 7–19 . Figure 7–9 Nonconsecutive items selected. and Rename functions in the Data Manager shown in Figure 7–10 are valid only for individual data objects.

INTERACTING WITH DIALOG BOXES Figure 7–10 Individual item removed from selection. The following actions have keyboard shortcuts: Context-sensitive help Press [F1] to display context-sensitive help concerning the currently selected object in the ABAQUS/CAE main window or dialog box. the letter [V] is underlined in the View menu in the main menu bar: Therefore.6.” Section 6. Menus You can display a particular menu by pressing the [Alt] key in combination with the underlined character in that menu’s name. Menu items Once the menu is displayed. For more information on using [F1] for contextsensitive help. For example. the letter [T] is underlined in Views Toolbox in the View menu: 7–20 .11 Using keyboard shortcuts You can use the keyboard instead of the mouse to perform most actions within the ABAQUS/CAE main window and dialog boxes.1. see “Displaying context-sensitive help. you can type [Alt]+V to display the View menu.2. you can select a particular menu item by continuing to press the [Alt] key and pressing the underlined character in that menu item’s name. For example. 7.

UNDERSTANDING AND USING TOOLBOXES Therefore. the Visualization module toolbox contains icons representing the tools used to generate different kinds of plots. For example. and you must select the appropriate menu item to display it (View Views Toolbox). place the cursor over that tool for a moment. All module toolboxes are available immediately to the left of the drawing area as soon as you enter the module. such as the Views toolbox. 7. 7–21 . you can type [Alt]+V to display the View menu and then. it appears in a separate dialog box. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 7. a small box containing a description. while the Views toolbox contains icons for view orientations you use to manipulate the appearance of ABAQUS/CAE models. all tool icons are immediately visible. To select tools whose icons are initially hidden: 1. Tooltips are not available for icons that appear dimmed.3 Understanding and using toolboxes This section explains how to use the toolbox windows to perform common functions within a module or toolset or on the canvas. To obtain a short description of a tool. the Views toolbox is useful if you want to compare several different views of a model. ! ! 7. however. conversely. Any icon that includes a small triangle in its lower right corner conceals a group of icons whose function is closely related to that of the visible icon. The view manipulation toolbox behaves differently. Toolboxes are convenient when you are performing many related operations in sequence. type [T] to select Views Toolbox. selecting View Cycle Views from the main menu may be more convenient than using the toolbox icons if you are reverting to a single previous view. use context-sensitive help instead. Click and hold any icon that includes a triangle in its lower right corner. to get information on those icons.3.2 Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons In some toolboxes. without releasing the [Alt] key.3. most toolboxes contain hidden icons to conserve space. For example. The Visualization module and Views toolboxes are shown in Figure 7–11. whereas menus are more convenient when you are performing only isolated operations.” will appear. or “tooltip.1 What is a toolbox? Toolboxes are collections of icons that provide quick access to commonly used ABAQUS/CAE functions.

Icons for all the tools that are closely related to the original icon appear. For example. 2. Figure 7–12 shows the top portion of the Part module toolbox with all of the icons revealed that are used for creating round or chamferred corners. 7–22 . and release the mouse button. Drag the cursor to the desired icon. The selected icon replaces the icon that was visible originally. Create Chamfer tool Figure 7–12 Part module toolbox with round and chamfer icons displayed.UNDERSTANDING AND USING TOOLBOXES Figure 7–11 The Visualization module and View manipulation toolboxes. and you can begin using the corresponding tool immediately.

examples of such objects include materials. The Job Manager is shown in Figure 7–14.1 What are basic managers? Basic managers consist of a list of objects and a series of buttons. Often. 7–23 . Every task you can perform with a manager can also be performed using the pull-down menus available from the main menu bar. or view output files for a given job. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 7. which is an example of a basic manager used in ABAQUS/CAE. for example. for example. steps. The list box on the left shows all the materials that you have defined within the context of the current model. Figure 7–13 shows the Material Manager. the Job Manager provides information about currently executing jobs and provides buttons that allow you to write input files. copy. Figure 7–13 The Material Manager.MANAGING OBJECTS 7. you use the buttons to perform tasks on the objects you select from the list or to add new objects to the list. you can use the Model Manager to manage the models contained in the current model database. in the Job module. parts. You use the buttons on the right to create new material definitions and to edit. This section describes basic and step-dependent managers and how you can use them in ABAQUS/CAE. the procedure is exactly the same as if you had clicked the corresponding button inside the manager dialog box. and delete existing material definitions. monitor the analysis. The Dismiss button is used to close the manager dialog box.4 Managing objects Managers are dialog boxes you use to manage all objects of a given type associated with the current model or session.4. Figure 7–15 shows the menu items that correspond to the Job Manager. rename. After you select a management operation from the main menu bar. submit jobs. and X–Y data objects. In addition. display groups. the manager provides more information about an object than just its name.

2 What are step-dependent managers? Like basic managers.4. 7–24 .MANAGING OBJECTS Figure 7–14 The Job Manager. Edit. when you need to browse through a long list of objects. the advantages of manager dialog boxes become apparent when you are performing several operations in sequence. 7. and Delete buttons that you can use to manipulate existing objects and to create new ones. or when you need quick access to the additional information that is displayed by some managers. step-dependent managers contain a list of all of the objects of a certain type that you have created. In general. as well as Create. Copy. The decision whether to use menus or dialog boxes is yours. Rename. menus are more convenient if you are performing isolated operations. Figure 7–15 Menu items that correspond to the Job Manager.

The names of all the steps in the analysis appear along the top of the dialog box in the order of execution. Step-dependent managers display how these objects propagate from one step to another during the course of an ABAQUS analysis. Figure 7–16 The Load Manager.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. the Load Manager is shown in Figure 7–16. in some cases. The table formed by these two lists displays the status of each load in each step.1.MANAGING OBJECTS However. the types of objects that appear in step-dependent managers are those that you can create and. see “Procedures: overview. see Chapter 18. Therefore. unlike basic managers. modify and deactivate in particular analysis steps.) The following step-dependent managers exist in ABAQUS/CAE: In the Load module: • Load Manager • Boundary Condition Manager • Field Manager In the Interaction module: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE • Interaction Manager In the Step module: • Field Output Requests Manager • History Output Requests Manager For example. “The Step module.”) 7–25 . (For information on creating and deleting steps.” Section 6. step-dependent managers contain additional information concerning the history of each object listed in the manager. This manager displays an alphabetical list of existing loads along the left side of the dialog box. (For information on steps and multiple-step analyses.

The buttons along the right side of the manager allow you to manipulate objects in the steps that you select.11. that object may or may not continue to be active in any of the following steps. When you create an object in a step. Note: The Activate and Deactivate buttons are not available in the Field Manager. an editor appears in which you could modify the load named Force in Step-1. and Deactivate—allow you to change the status of an object in a particular step.” Section 7. You can resize the columns of the table by dragging the dividers between the column headings to the right or left. The activity (or inactivity) of an object in any particular step is called its “status” in that step. and the following information related to the cell appears in the legend at the bottom of the manager: • The type of analysis procedure carried out in the step in that column. Figure 7–17 shows the status of a load in a series of general static analysis steps. You can also increase the size of the dialog box by dragging the sides of the box. The other buttons—Move Left. and “Editing step-dependent objects. 7–26 . Move Right. • Information about the step-dependent object in that row. Step 1 Load 1 Created Step 2 Propagated Step 3 Modified Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Inactive Step 6 Inactive Load 1 Time Figure 7–17 The analysis history of a load. that cell becomes highlighted.4. Activate.4.” Section 7.3 Understanding the status of an object in a step A model can contain a sequence of analysis steps. If the analysis includes many steps or many step-dependent objects. • The status of the step-dependent object in that step (the same information that appears in the cells of the table except in more detail in some cases). For more information. “Changing the status of an object in a step.5.4. increasing the size of the dialog box allows you to view more rows and columns without having to use the scroll bars. and. For example. if you click Edit in the Load Manager shown above. For example. in the online version of this manual. 7.MANAGING OBJECTS If you click one of the cells in the table.4.” Section 7.10. see “Modifying the history of a step-dependent object.

Inactive The object has been deactivated in this step or in a previous step.1. see “Terms describing object status. its status in Step 4 (as in Step 2) is Propagated and the value is constant. If the modified version of the load continues to be active in Step 4. Modified The definition of the object has been modified in this step. The load remains inactive in Step 6.4 Created Terms describing object status ABAQUS/CAE uses the following terms to describe the status of objects in particular steps: The object was created and becomes active in this step. You cannot deactivate fields. Propagated The object was created. If you edit the load in Step 3.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Since Step 1 is a general static step.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 6. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 7. modified.1.1. If you deactivate the load in Step 5. If the load continues to be active in Step 2.” Section 6. The point in the step at which an object resumes its initial value depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.4. its status in Step 2 is Propagated and its magnitude remains constant throughout that step. or computed in an earlier step of the analysis and continues to be active in this step. For more information.4.” Section 6. For detailed explanations of the terms used to describe object status. The point in the step at which a prescribed condition becomes active depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step.4. The point in the step at which a prescribed condition becomes inactive depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. It will remain deactivated in all subsequent steps until you reactivate it.MANAGING OBJECTS The load in this example is created in Step 1.” Section 7. 7–27 . You cannot deactivate an object in the step in which it was created. see “Prescribed conditions” in “Procedures: overview. The variation of a prescribed condition over the course of the step depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. For more information. see “Prescribed conditions” in “Procedures: overview. its status in Step 5 is Inactive and its magnitude ramps down to zero. For more information. its status in Step 3 becomes Modified and its magnitude ramps to the new value over the course of the step. an inactive status for a field means that the field has been reset to the value specified in the initial step. Computed The analysis products will compute the value of the object in this step. the status of the load in Step 1 is Created. therefore. the load’s magnitude is ramped up over the course of the step. see “Prescribed conditions” in “Procedures: overview.

For information on linear perturbation steps. Deactivated from base state Objects created in a previous general step are deactivated in this linear perturbation step.1. Move Right. Propagated from base state Objects created in a previous general step will be part of the base state for this procedure but can be modified or deactivated by the user. 7. Move Left. Step 1 Load1 Created Step 2 Propagated Step 3 Propagated Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Propagated 7–28 . Activate. The following list describes the rules for modifying the history of a step-dependent object: Changing the step in which an object becomes active You can change the step in which an object becomes active by moving the Created status to that step. or you can move the Created status to the following general step if its status in the following step is Propagated. The deactivated state applies only to the linear perturbation step and does not propagate to the remaining steps.MANAGING OBJECTS The following terms apply only in linear perturbation steps: Built into base state Any active object created in a preceding general analysis step will be part of the base state and cannot be changed during the linear perturbation step.5 Modifying the history of a step-dependent object You can modify the analysis history of an object by using the five buttons aligned along the right side of the step-dependent manager: Edit. see “Changing the status of an object in a step. You can move the Created status of an object to any previous general step. in the online version of this manual.) The use of these buttons may be restricted depending on the nature of each step and the status of the object in the steps. Step 1 Load1 Step 2 Created Step 3 Propagated Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Propagated If you moved the Created status to Step 1. and Deactivate. (For information on how to use these buttons. you could select the Created status of Load1 in the load manager table below.4. the table would change as shown below. For example.” Section 7.10.4.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 6. see “General and linear perturbation procedures.

Step 1 Load1 Deactivating an object Step 2 Created Step 3 Propagated Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Modified You can deactivate an object when its status is Propagated or Modified.MANAGING OBJECTS If you moved the Created status to Step 3.11. its Created status cannot be moved. For example. Step 1 Load1 Step 2 Created Step 3 Modified Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Propagated If you moved the Modified status to Step 5. the table would change as shown below. the object’s status in that step and in any following steps changes to Inactive. Moving the modifications of an object to another step Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE You can transfer the modifications of an object to another step by moving the object’s modified status to that step. you must select Reset to initial in the field editor (for example. the table would change as shown below. the object’s status in that step changes to Modified. Step 1 Load1 Step 2 Created Step 3 Propagated Step 4 Modified Step 5 Propagated If you moved the Modified status to Step 3. the table would change as shown below.” Section 20. WARNING: If you deactivate an object in a step in which its status is Modified. see “Defining temperature fields. the modifications to the object are lost. you could select the Modified status of Load1 in the load manager table below.2). You can move the Modified status of an object to the previous general step or to the following general step if the status of the object in those steps is Propagated. Modifying an object You can modify an object when its status is Propagated. If you later reactivate the object in that step. Note: You cannot deactivate fields using the Field Manager. Step 1 Load1 Step 2 Step 3 Created Step 4 Propagated Step 5 Propagated Note: If an object is created in a linear perturbation step. the original propagated version of the object becomes active in that step and in all subsequent steps. 7–29 .

the Activate button is available only in the step in which the object is first deactivated (for example. the object’s status in the linear perturbation step changes to Deactivated from base state. In these cases the object’s definition varies according to the analysis step.4.1. 7. see “General and linear perturbation procedures.” Section 18. 7–30 . If the status of the object is Created in the selected step: • Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and propagate through all subsequent steps in which the condition is active unless you modify the object again in a later step. the object’s status in the linear perturbation step changes to Propagated from base state. however.6 Understanding modified step-dependent objects When you edit an object in the step in which it was created. The following rules apply to linear perturbation steps: Deactivating a boundary condition whose status is Propagated from base state You can deactivate an object whose status is Propagated from base state.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Objects whose status is Built into base state The status Built into base state cannot be changed directly. Step 1 Load1 Created Step 2 Propagated Step 3 Inactive Step 4 Inactive Step 5 Inactive When you reactivate the load in the example above. its status in Step 3 and in all following steps changes to Propagated. For information on linear perturbation steps. Reactivating a boundary condition whose status is Deactivated from base state You can reactivate an object whose status is Deactivated from base state. The effects of editing a step-dependent object are summarized below. In some cases you can also edit an object in steps in which its status is Propagated or Modified. see “Propagation of output requests. The status Propagated from base state cannot be moved to other steps.MANAGING OBJECTS Reactivating an object You can reactivate an object that has Inactive status. Step 3 in the following table). For information on the propagating behavior of output requests from general and linear perturbation analysis steps. you change the definition of the object in all of the steps in which it is active.4. The status Propagated from base state cannot be moved to other steps.” Section 6.3.

skin Section assignment Interaction Load.” Section 7.4. Table 7–1 Objects that are commonly referred to by other objects. Table 7–1 lists objects that are commonly referred to by other objects. interaction 7–31 . if the status of the object in the following step was Propagated before modification. such as materials and amplitudes. To resolve the missing reference.MANAGING OBJECTS • The status of the object remains Created in the selected step and also remains unchanged in all subsequent steps. see “Understanding the status of an object in a step. its status in the following step remains Propagated after modification. although you can modify the magnitude of a load in any analysis step. the load applied over a sequence of general static analysis steps in Figure 7–17 has been modified in Step 3. This object Material Profile Section Interaction property Amplitude Can be referred to by these types of objects Section Section. that may be referred to by other objects.3. For example.) For example.” Section 7.4. boundary condition. For more information. If the status of the object is Propagated or Modified in the selected step: • Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and propagate through all subsequent steps in which the object is active. ABAQUS/CAE indicates in the editor which data have been modified. the modifications remain in effect in Step 4 even though the status in Steps 4 is Propagated. see “Understanding the status of an object in a step. • The status of the object becomes (or remains) Modified in this step and remains unchanged in all other steps.7 What happens when deleted objects are referred to? You should take care when deleting or renaming objects.4. if you delete or rename a material. The areas in an editor that specify this kind of restricted data are unavailable in all steps except the one in which the object was created. In some cases you cannot edit a particular aspect of an object’s definition because it must be consistent for the analysis to proceed correctly. you cannot modify the region to which the load is applied. you can edit the section and refer to a new material. For more information. For example. field.3. or you can create a new material with the same name as the deleted material. These indications disappear if you change the data in the editor back to their original values. the sections that refer to the material become inconsistent. (In other words. • When you modify the data in any editor other than the Interaction editor. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 7.

and. output request Connector Boundary condition. output request. ABAQUS/CAE suppresses the part instance in the assembly. connector boundary condition. adaptive mesh domain Load case. constraint Load Load Connector. beam section orientation. output request. material orientation. interaction. constraint. You can delete the instance from the assembly. connector. If you delete a part after you have instanced the part in the Assembly module. output request Load case Boundary condition. as a result. 7–32 . load. In addition. connector. constraint Constraint Part instance Load Boundary condition Datum coordinate system Datum plane Datum axis Datum point Part instance Part Parts and part instances behave slightly differently. material orientation. if you then create a new part that uses the same name. objects that refer to the part or datum refer to the new name. you can unsuppress the part instance to include it in the assembly. section assignment.MANAGING OBJECTS This object Connector Connector property Region (set or surface) Can be referred to by these types of objects Connector load. field. if you rename a part or a datum. DOF monitor. Alternatively. the reference does not become inconsistent.

position. see “Working with viewports.2 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 8. operate on the viewport that contains the cursor. When viewports are positioned outside the drawing area. For more information. The following topic is covered: • “Understanding viewports. you must first designate the desired viewport as current.1 Understanding viewports Viewports are areas on the canvas where you can display models or analysis results. You can create and manipulate viewports using the Viewport menu. You can easily create and delete viewports and control their size. The visible portion of the canvas is called the drawing area. click on the border or title bar.” Section 8. and appearance. Other operations interact with the current viewport or with all viewports on the canvas. The title bar reverts to dark gray when you select an ABAQUS/CAE tool or menu.2.UNDERSTANDING VIEWPORTS 8.1 What is a viewport? While the canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board. Figure 8–1 illustrates how you might use several viewports to view the results from your analysis. The selected viewport moves in front of other viewports on the canvas. You can have many viewports on the canvas. The current viewport To change the contents of a viewport.1. The view manipulation tools. viewports are simply display areas posted onto that screen on which you can display models or analysis results. A viewport is similar to other windows on your workstation in that it can be moved. and it can overlap other viewports on the canvas. Viewports are not part of a model and are not saved between sessions. the following section is available in the online version of this manual: • “Working with viewports.” Section 8. Managing viewports on the canvas The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post viewports. you can cascade or tile the viewports to bring them back into view. 8. 8–1 . minimized. such as zoom and rotate. you can imagine the canvas extending beyond the main window and your monitor.1 In addition. and you can increase its size by increasing the size of the main window. This chapter explains how to create and manipulate viewports. and the title bar color changes to blue.” Section 8. and maximized. You can position viewports anywhere on the canvas. To choose another viewport as the current viewport. and you can drag them outside the drawing area. resized. The current viewport is indicated by a dark gray title bar.

2 of the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide.2. For detailed instructions on working with viewports.3 8–2 . see “Common customizations on Windows platforms. see the following topics in the online version of this manual: • “Creating new viewports. All viewports are associated with a certain model and module.UNDERSTANDING VIEWPORTS Current viewport Figure 8–1 Working with multiple viewports.” Section 5.” Section 8. Note: On Windows platforms you can customize the colors used by ABAQUS/CAE.2.1 • “Selecting viewports.2. you can work in multiple modules simultaneously by designating a new viewport as current before entering a different module. that model becomes associated with the current viewport.1. You can create different viewports and associate each one with a different model. For more information. When you create a new model or open an existing model or output database.” Section 8. All work takes place within the current viewport.2 • “Moving viewports. so designating each viewport as current results in switching between the associated models. Similarly.” Section 8.

7 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 8–3 .2. or deleting a viewport.2. maximizing.” Section 8.5 • “Cascading viewports.” Section 8.” Section 8. restoring.4 • “Minimizing.UNDERSTANDING VIEWPORTS • “Resizing viewports.6 • “Tiling viewports.2.2.” Section 8.

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Rescale the view to fill the viewport. that is. You can manipulate this view using the pan.” Section 9.4. By default. that is. is positioned relative to a default Cartesian coordinate system.1. Your view of the assembly.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS 9. see “Using the view manipulation tools. using perspective gives a more realistic appearance for three-dimensional models. pan the view.3 For detailed instructions on how to use these tools.2 • “Controlling perspective. The perspective tools control whether ABAQUS/CAE displays your model with or without perspective. box zoom. and magnify objects within any viewport.” Section 9. as well as each of your parts. The view manipulation tools allow you to perform the following operations: • • • • • Move the view horizontally and vertically. Zoom in to a selected area of the view. The view manipulation tools allow you to position. For example.” Section 9. rotate.1 Understanding the view manipulation tools This section describes basic concepts you should understand before using the view manipulation tools.1 An overview of the view manipulation tools The position. in the online version of this manual. The following topics are covered: • “Understanding the view manipulation tools. 9–1 . all of which are located in the toolbar near the top of the main window. Magnify or reduce the view. and auto-fit tools on the toolbar. an isometric view is used when a module first displays a threedimensional part or an assembly. as well as define your own views. auto-fit the view. magnify. you might want to pan and zoom a contour plot to view an area of stress concentration.1 • “Customizing the view triad. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 9. orientation. You can also select custom views such as front and back. Rotate the view. orient.” Section 9. and the orientation of this default coordinate system within a viewport is indicated by the view triad. and zoom factor combine to define the “view” of an object in the viewport. Manipulating the view and controlling perspective This chapter describes the view manipulation tools and the perspective tools. 9.

or shaded) while you manipulate the view of an object.8. simply release the mouse button. In addition. do one of the following: • Click mouse button 2. You can use the view manipulation tools as many times as necessary to reach the desired view. • To pan the view. and hold down mouse button 3. To exit a view manipulation mode after using one of the preceding actions. • To magnify or reduce the view. When you select the pan tool mode. • Click any other view manipulation tool. You can control this behavior by setting the Drag mode in the Graphics Options dialog box. press [Ctrl]+[Alt]. you can access all of the view manipulation tools through the View menu on the main menu bar. Alternatively. The alternative mode displays the image as a simple wireframe while you manipulate the view and reverts to the original render style when you are finished.1. 9. you can enter three of the view manipulation modes by using a combination of keyboard and mouse actions. in the prompt area. By default. ABAQUS/CAE displays the image using the current render style (wireframe. as indicated by the 9–2 .1. you can apply predefined and user-defined views using the Views toolbox. If you prefer to use menus rather than the tools on the toolbar. respectively. and “Numerically specifying a view. and hold down mouse button 1.1. press [Ctrl]+[Alt]. and hold down mouse button 2. and you can numerically specify a precise view using the dialog box that appears when you select View Specify from the main menu bar. filled. and you can use the cycle view manipulation tool to cycle backward and forward through these views.” Section 9. Use the Views toolbox to apply a predefined or user-defined view or to save a user-defined view. and you can perform the view manipulation in any viewport. hidden line.” Section 9. You then manipulate the view in a particular viewport by moving the cursor to that viewport and dragging or clicking as necessary. regardless of what is being displayed. To exit a view manipulation mode. ABAQUS/CAE stores the eight most recent views from each viewport. • Click the cancel button • Click the view manipulation tool again. this mode allows faster manipulation of very large models in the shaded render style. Clicking a view manipulation tool puts you into the corresponding view manipulation mode. ABAQUS/CAE enters pan cursor.2 The pan view tool and the viewport in which to work.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS • • Cycle through previous views. ! • To rotate the view.9. For more information on custom and numerically specified views. press [Ctrl]+[Alt]. see “Custom views.

so that rotating the sphere causes your view of the model to rotate as well. Cursor motion is limited only by the physical bounds of your monitor. The angle of rotation is equal to the angle made by the rubberband line on the sphere’s surface. and the rotation axis is normal to this cutting plane. you can enter its coordinates directly or select a point from the viewport. display a different object. and panning will continue even if you move the cursor outside the viewport or window. The rubberband line represents the intersection of a cutting plane with the sphere’s surface. The circle that is drawn when you enter rotate mode represents the silhouette of an imaginary sphere that surrounds the object. and your view of the object simply rotates about an axis normal to the screen and passing through the center of the circle. If you need to abandon the rotation and return to a known orientation.1.” Section 9. the rubberband line represents the angle through which the object has rotated. see “Panning the view. ABAQUS/CAE enters rotate mode. and a rubberband line indicates the amount and the direction of rotation. as you would a trackball. To define the center of rotation. use or the cycle view tool . Otherwise. In the same way as it does for dragging inside the circle. it remains selected until you select a new center. You determine the axis of rotation as you move the cursor over the surface of the imaginary sphere. and a rubberband line indicates the amount of translation.” Section 9. 9. In this mode the cursor changes to two curved arrows.4.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS The position of your view of the model changes as you click and then drag the cursor.2. As you rotate your view of the model. or choose the default (center of viewport) rotation method. see “Rotating the view. in the online version of this manual. 9–3 . When you drag the mouse inside the circle. Your view of the model rotates as you drag the cursor. The initial location of the cursor is not important. When you drag outside the circle. in the online version of this manual. and a large circle appears in the viewport.3 The rotate view tool Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE When you select the rotate tool and the viewport in which to work.4.1. It is usually easier to obtain a desired rotation by performing a sequence of smaller rotations rather than one large one. the rubberband line is superimposed on the edge of the circle. Figure 9–1 illustrates the imaginary sphere and a rubberband line being dragged across its surface. For detailed instructions on using the pan tool. Your model is attached to the center of the sphere. either the predefined views in the Views toolbox For detailed instructions on using the rotate tool. so that dragging all the way across the circle produces a 180 rotation. ABAQUS/CAE will rotate the view about the center of the viewport. you might imagine that you are actually rotating the sphere. the view triad indicates the orientation of the global coordinate system. If you select a center of rotation. as long as you place it within the viewport.

your view of the model contracts. as indicated by the rubberband line. The magnify tool recognizes only the horizontal component of your dragging motion. For detailed instructions on using the magnify tool. in the online version of this manual. you may want to use the auto-fit tool to fit the viewport. and a rubberband line indicates the relative magnification.4 The magnify tool and the viewport in which to work. your view of the model expands within the viewport. You can also drag repeatedly to achieve the desired view. 9–4 . Similarly. The dragging action must start in the viewport. and a rubberband line indicates the relative reduction. When you drag the cursor to the right magnify mode.3. but you can continue to drag within the limits of your monitor.” Section 9. since this results in a smaller horizontal component of the cursor’s motion than dragging the same distance horizontally. when you drag the cursor to the left.4. as indicated by the magnify cursor while in magnify mode. Consequently. to rescale the view If you lose track of your position. ABAQUS/CAE enters When you select the magnify tool . 9. you can achieve finer control by dragging diagonally across the screen. see “Magnifying or reducing the view.1.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS rubber band curve θ axis of rotation cutting plane Rotation angle = θ Figure 9–1 The rotate tool.

2. in the online version of this manual.4. You use this option to control whether or not ABAQUS/CAE automatically rescales the view to fit the viewport as you rotate. ABAQUS/CAE enters box zoom mode. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 9. To cycle through previous views. the orientation does not change.” Section 9. see “Rotating the view. When you fit a view. After you cycle backward to the oldest available view. see “Zooming in to a selected area of the view.5 The box zoom tool When you select the box zoom tool and the viewport in which to work.4. The default is to cycle backward. click Backward or Forward in the prompt area. auto-fitting occurs as soon as you click the auto-fit tool. click.1. 9–5 .7 The cycle tool When you select the cycle tool and the viewport in which to work. select the auto-fit tool and then place the cursor over the viewport you want to rescale.” Section 9. For detailed instructions on using the auto-fit tool. You use this tool to select a rectangular area of your model. in the online version of this manual.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS 9. as indicated by a cursor in the form of a two-way arrow. You can cycle through the eight most recent views in each viewport.4. ! 9. as indicated by a rectangular cursor with a small arrow in one corner. continued clicking has no effect.1. click in the viewport whose view you want to change. ABAQUS/CAE enters cycle mode. and ABAQUS/CAE auto-fits the view. A separate option. The cursor changes. If you have only one viewport. For detailed instructions on using the cycle tool. in the online version of this manual.4.” Section 9.6. ABAQUS/CAE enlarges your view of the selected portion of your model to fill the viewport. Auto-fit after rotations.4. after you cycle forward to the most recent view. see “Rescaling the view to fit the viewport.5. see “Cycling through views.1. Similarly. is available when you select View Graphics Options from the main menu bar. If you have more than one viewport. continued clicking has no effect. as indicated by the view triad. To control the direction of cycling. For more information on using this option. For detailed instructions on using the box zoom tool.” Section 9.6 The auto-fit tool Use the auto-fit tool from the toolbar to quickly adjust your view of the model so that the model fills the viewport and is centered within it. in the online version of this manual.

Predefined views Predefined views are based on the six faces of an imaginary cube and an isometric view.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS 9. Saved views are not stored between sessions. zoom factor. Figure 9–2 illustrates the six predefined cube face views. You can choose whether or not all three of these components are saved using the Scale & Position options.8 Custom views When you select the view toolbox from the toolbar. and position. The view triad indicates the orientation of this imaginary cube within a viewport. The view consists of three components: orientation.) Custom views include seven predefined views (such as front and back) and up to four user-defined views.1. You can use click this saved view to restore the object in the viewport to a known orientation. and zoom factor of the model in the viewport. (A view is the combination of the position. as follows: 9–6 . ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox that allows you to apply a custom view to the model in the selected viewport. orientation. top left back front 2 right 3 1 bottom Figure 9–2 User-defined views Predefined views. and you can apply a saved view to other viewports. You can use the view manipulation tools to position your view of a model in a viewport and then in the Views toolbox to save the view as one of four user-defined views.

choose the Save current option. and position to each. and “Saving a user-defined view. but the zoom factor and position are adjusted to make the view fit the viewport.1).8. You must choose one of the following modes to apply the rotation: • Increment About Model Axes. 3 ) representing the angles through which your view of the model rotates about the screen or model 1-. 0 from the isometric view.4. 0 from the isometric view. 2 . 9–7 . respectively. in the online version of this manual.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS Auto-fit When you save a view after choosing this option. Save current When you save a view after choosing this option.4. When you choose Total Rotation From (0. ABAQUS/CAE first rotates the view to the default position (a view looking down the 3-axis with the 1. 0. the Y-axis is vertical.1). Specifying a view is useful if you want to reproduce a particular view between ABAQUS/CAE sessions or if numerically specifying a view is simpler and more convenient than applying a series of view manipulations. • Increment About Screen Axes. For detailed instructions on custom views. and the Z-axis is out of the screen.” Section 9. 0. 2-. ABAQUS/CAE simply applies the rotation to the current view. When you choose Increment About Model Axes. The screen X-axis is horizontal.and 2-axes in the plane of the screen) and then applies the desired rotation. • Total Rotation From (0. Select View Specify from the main menu bar to specify a view. zoom factor. You can use the following methods to specify your view: ! Rotation Angles Enter three angles (1 . Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 9. 3 ). ABAQUS/CAE simply applies the rotation to the current view. only the orientation is saved. the saved orientation is applied. Figure 9–4 shows the result of applying an incremental screen axes rotation of 90.0. and a positive angle represents a right-handed rotation about the axis.9 Numerically specifying a view You can bypass the view manipulation tools and specify a particular view numerically.7. zoom factor. Figure 9–5 shows the result of applying a total rotation of 90.1. When you apply a view saved with this option. the orientation. The origin of the screen axes is the center of the viewport. When you apply a view saved with this option. the zoom factor. Rotations are interpreted in the order (1 .” Section 9. and 3-axes. see “Applying custom views. 0. the saved orientation. When you choose Increment About Screen Axes. and the position are all saved.0. Figure 9–3 shows the result of applying an incremental model axes rotation of 90. and position are all applied to the object in the viewport. 0 from the isometric view. To compare different objects in different viewports by placing the viewports side-by-side and applying a known orientation. 2.

Viewpoint When you choose Viewpoint. 0. you enter three values representing the 1-. 9–8 . 0. ABAQUS/CAE constructs a vector from the origin of the model to the position that you specify and rotates your view of the model so that this vector points out of the screen. 1 (an isometric view) and a viewpoint of 1. 1. Figure 9–6 shows the result of applying a viewpoint of 1. and 3-position of an observer. 1 Figure 9–3 2 3 1 3 2 1 Figure 9–4 Specifying an incremental screen axes rotation angle.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS 2 3 1 2 3 Specifying an incremental model axes rotation angle. 2-.

you can also specify the Up vector. 1. 9–9 . −1. 0 and an up vector of 0.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 2 3 1 2 1 3 Figure 9–5 Specifying a total rotation angle. 0 to an isometric view. When you use the Viewpoint method to specify a view. ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model so that this vector points upward. The Up vector must not equal the Viewpoint vector. 2 3 1 2 3 1 Figure 9–6 Specifying a viewpoint. Figure 9–7 shows the result of applying an up vector of 0.

ABAQUS/CAE first fits the view to the viewport and then applies the desired Zoom factor. A positive first value moves your view of the model toward the right edge of the viewport.UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW MANIPULATION TOOLS 2 3 1 1 2 3 Figure 9–7 Specifying an Up vector. A value greater than 1 expands your view of the model in the viewport. Pan Enter values that ABAQUS/CAE uses to Pan your view of the model by a specified horizontal and vertical distance.25 contracts your view of the model to a quarter of its original size. A value between 0 and 1 contracts your view of the model in the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE applies the Zoom factor to the current view. and a positive second value moves your view of the model toward the top of the viewport. −0. When you choose Absolute. The value must be greater than zero. Zoom Enter a value representing a magnification factor. When you choose Relative. the first value represents horizontal motion and the second value represents vertical motion. You must choose one of the following methods to apply the zoom: • Absolute.1 in the Fraction of viewport to pan (X. The values that you enter correspond to fractions of the viewport dimensions. for example. ABAQUS/CAE moves the view relative to its current postion in the viewport. • Relative. if the viewport is 200 mm wide and 100 mm tall and you enter values of 0. a Zoom factor of 2 doubles the size of your view of the model. for example.5. For example. 9–10 .Y) field. ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model 100 mm toward the right and 10 mm down from its current position. a value of 0.

icon located in the toolbar or select View Perspective icon located in the toolbar or select View Parallel from ! ! Your changes apply only to the current viewport and are saved for the duration of the session. 2 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 3 1 You can use the Viewport Viewport Annotation Options menu item to request or suppress the display of the triad and to control the triad’s position and appearance.9. shown below. • To turn perspective on. a three-dimensional model on your screen appears more realistic when perspective is turned on.2 Customizing the view triad The view triad. 9–11 . labels. Alternatively. As you rotate your view of the model.” Section 9. is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of your view of the model currently being displayed. • To turn perspective off. and label font. select the the main menu bar.4. 9. ! 9. in the online version of this manual.3 Controlling perspective Perspective representation accurately depicts the spatial relationship of three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane. parallel lines in the model appear parallel when perspective is turned off. select the from the main menu bar. see the corresponding section in the online version of this manual. the triad changes to indicate the new orientation.CONTROLLING PERSPECTIVE For detailed instructions on numerically specifying a view. In other words. Perspective affects plots in all modules and is turned on by default. You can also control the triad’s color. see “Applying a specified view. For detailed instructions on customizing the view triad.

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For example.1 Understanding selection within viewports This section describes the objects that you can select in a viewport and explains what these objects represent. Therefore. Messages in the prompt area guide you through the steps of a procedure and indicate which types of objects are available for selection. 10–1 . Figure 10–1 shows these different object types. such as those listed below: • • • • • • • Creating sets and surfaces Partitioning a part instance Editing a feature Seeding a part instance for meshing Creating or editing a display group composed of elements or nodes Color coding elements in your model Creating a node list path through your model In most circumstances only objects that are appropriate for the current procedure are available for selection. In the course of various procedures you may need to select geometric objects (such as vertices.” Section 8. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 10. edges. faces. such as nodes. You can select objects in the viewport only during certain procedures.2. and cells.2. the first step in partitioning an edge is selecting the edge of interest. vertices. Selecting objects within the viewport This chapter explains how to select objects that appear within a viewport.2. or a vertex. and partitions) or discrete objects (such as nodes and elements) by picking them directly from the viewport. faces.1 • “Selecting objects within the current viewport. The following topics are covered: • “Understanding selection within viewports. a face.UNDERSTANDING SELECTION WITHIN VIEWPORTS 10. edges. you cannot select a cell. at this point in the procedure you can select only an edge.2 • “Using the selection options.” Section 10.” Section 7. datum geometry.1.” Section 10. Selecting viewports is discussed in “Selecting viewports.3 Selecting dialog box options is discussed in “Interacting with dialog boxes. cells. elements.” Section 10. 10.1 What objects can you select from the viewport? Selecting an object within the current viewport is one of the most common tasks you have to perform during the modeling process. You can select only objects that are part of the current display group.

The end surfaces of these parts are represented by the vertices on either side of the edge. when you are creating a set.2 Understanding the correspondence between geometric and physical objects When you select geometric objects in a viewport.” Section 10. To select a wire part. For example. see “Using the selection options.6. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through the available objects until the desired object is selected. it is important to understand what physical structure each object represents. faces.1. you can click the edge. Likewise. 10–2 . You may find it easier to use the selection filters to limit the type of object you can select. When you make a selection from the viewport.3.” Section 10. In some circumstances ABAQUS/CAE cannot determine which objects are appropriate for selection and does not limit your selection. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify the surface of interest. axisymmetric shells are also represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure 10–3).UNDERSTANDING SELECTION WITHIN VIEWPORTS Datum plane Vertex Node Edge Cell Face Element Partition Geometric entities Discrete entities Figure 10–1 Object types that you can select. you can select from cells.2. For more information. and. in the online version of this manual. The geometric objects that make up a model—cells. and vertices— can represent different physical structures depending on the space in which they are embedded. This ambiguity is described in “Cycling through valid selections. 10. faces. edges. beams and other wire parts are represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure 10–2). and the circumferential surface is represented by the line joining the vertices. if necessary. and vertices to include in the set and ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select any of these objects. edges. For example.

5. For example. For more information on modeling space.1. Axis of symmetry Axis of symmetry Edge Surface Vertex Edge Geometric model Figure 10–3 Physical part Selecting axisymmetric shells. if you want to apply a pressure load to a shell.” Section 15. see “Specifying a particular side or end of a region.” Section 49.UNDERSTANDING SELECTION WITHIN VIEWPORTS End 2 surface Edge Circumferential surface End 1 surface Geometric model Physical object Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Figure 10–2 Selecting wire parts. 10–3 .3. see “The relationship between parts and features. For more information on selecting surfaces.2.1. You can select the axisymmetric shell by clicking the edge in the viewport. and “Part modeling space.” Section 15. and. if necessary. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify either the inside surface or the outside surface of the shell. you must specify which side of the shell should receive the load.4. You must select either the inside or the outside surface if you are applying a prescribed condition or contact definition to the surface.

10. 10–4 . for information on datum points.1 Selecting and unselecting individual objects Selecting and unselecting objects in the current viewport are straightforward operations that use standard methods.” Section 10. see “Using the clicking the selection options tool selection options.2. and the newly selected object becomes highlighted. • To select a face.” Section 8. move the cursor to the object and [Shift]+Click. move the cursor to the object and click mouse button 1.4.2 Selecting objects within the current viewport This section describes techniques that you can use for selecting one or more objects in the current viewport. Once you select an object. Selected edges are highlighted. click the face while positioning the cursor away from any edge or vertex. see “The Sketcher cursors and preselection. For more information. (See “Understanding the role of datum geometry. click any of its faces. see “Selecting viewports. Selected faces are highlighted with a grid pattern. • To select a point.SELECTING OBJECTS WITHIN THE CURRENT VIEWPORT 10.2. (The grid pattern is unrelated to mesh element location. The point marker changes color when selected. any objects previously selected in the current viewport are unselected automatically. You will use the following three selection operations most frequently: Click to select an object To select a single object from the current viewport. If you are unable to select the desired objects. click the corresponding point marker.” Section 23. Vertices that you can select are marked by small. • To select an edge. click the edge while positioning the cursor away from any vertex.” Section 42.) Edge midpoints and arc centers that you can select are marked by small diamonds.) • To select a cell.1. Note: Some of the selection markers that appear when you are using the Sketch module are different from those described here. you can change the selection behavior by in the prompt area.3. For more information on selecting viewports.2.5. unfilled circles. Your original selection remains highlighted. and datum points are marked by small. filled circles. All edges of selected cells are highlighted. For information on selecting objects while using the Sketch module. [Shift]+Click to select additional objects To select an additional object.

2 Drag-selecting multiple objects Most prompts ask you to select just one object from the current viewport. for example. To unselect all objects. However. You can select multiple objects using the [Shift]+Click method described in “Selecting and unselecting individual objects. see “Combining selection techniques.2. You might find it useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of the drag-select region.2. Click at one corner of the rectangle and. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 10. You can also choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. and “Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region.3. click in an unused area of the viewport.2. Imagine a rectangle that encloses only the objects you want to select. To unselect all the objects.5. You can also choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. All the valid objects inside or crossing the rectangle are highlighted. An additional method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around those objects. 2. For more information. click in the prompt area.SELECTING OBJECTS WITHIN THE CURRENT VIEWPORT An alternative method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around the objects. You might find it useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of the drag-select region. For more information see “Drag-selecting multiple objects.4. 4. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting objects. drag until you have enclosed all the objects. To in the prompt area.3.” Section 10.5.” Section 10.3. For more information. To access the selection option tools.1. Detailed instructions for drag-selecting multiple objects: 1. For more information.2. see “Modifying access the selection option tools.4. 10–5 . some tasks allow you to select one or more objects. Tip: If you select multiple objects and then want to unselect one or more of them. Sometimes it is convenient to use a combination of the [Shift]+Click and drag-select selection techniques.4.” Section 10.” Section 10.” Section 10.” Section 10. the Set toolset allows you to select several objects of the same type and group them into sets. [Ctrl]+Click the objects you want to unselect.” Section 10.2. When you have finished selecting and unselecting items in the viewport. move the cursor to the object and [Ctrl]+Click. click an unused region of the current viewport. 3. [Ctrl]+Click to unselect objects To unselect an object. Release the mouse button. click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. and “Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region. see “Modifying the shape of the drag-select region. click the shape of the drag-select region. while continuing to press the mouse button.3.

element face. Figure 10–5 illustrates an exhaust manifold represented by an orphan mesh and the effect of the angle method after you select an element on the flange and an angle of 90. for example. when creating a surface from an orphan mesh. In the prompt area you enter an angle (from 0 to 90). ABAQUS/CAE provides the angle method for selecting multiple faces. edges. 10–6 . or nodes. For example. When you are performing a task that allows you to pick more than one face or edge from a native part or more than one element. 2. selecting individual faces or edges from a native part or selecting element faces or nodes from an imported orphan mesh can be time consuming and prone to error.3 Using the angle method to select multiple objects In complicated models. From the part or assembly you select a face. Figure 10–4 Choose the selection method from the field in the prompt area. or node from an imported orphan mesh. you must select the individual element faces that make up the surface and append them to your selection.SELECTING OBJECTS WITHIN THE CURRENT VIEWPORT 10. Figure 10–5 Enter an angle and select an element to select an entire surface. ABAQUS/CAE then selects every adjacent face until the angle between the faces is equal to or exceeds the angle that you entered. element face. as shown in Figure 10–4. The field allows you to choose between the two selection methods— individually and by angle. element faces. To speed up the selection process. you want to select a group of faces. The angle method is a two-step process: 1. If. edge. or node.2. elements. you first enter the appropriate angle and select one of the faces. ABAQUS/CAE displays a field in the prompt area.

3. Finally. elements.SELECTING OBJECTS WITHIN THE CURRENT VIEWPORT After you use the angle method. For more information. edges.2. or nodes to append them to your selection. You can then [Ctrl]+Click individual nodes to unselect them and [Shift]+Click additional nodes to add them to your selection. A combination of the three techniques is illustrated below: 1. or you can change the angle while you continue to append items. For example. 10. You can also [Ctrl]+Click on items to unselect them. you can continue to use the angle method and use [Shift]+Click to append faces. or nodes to your selection. 10–7 . see “Combining selection techniques. Then.” Section 10.4. In addition. elements. you use [Shift]+Click to add nodes to your set and then click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting. 2. you use [Ctrl]+Click to unselect individual nodes. you can click the individually button in the prompt area and [Shift]+Click on individual faces. edges. element faces.2. You can keep the same angle. First. element faces. you can drag-select a group of nodes while creating a node set using the Set toolset.4 Combining selection techniques Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE There are times when it is convenient to use a combination of the methods for selecting and unselecting objects. you use drag-select to select a group of nodes.

[Ctrl]+Click. you may not want the set to contain the vertices at each end of the edge. drag-select. and the dimensions of the model. In some circumstances you may want to exclude the entities of lower dimensionality from your selection. your selection includes all the entities of lower dimensionality that are associated with the object. Similarly. any valid objects of the 10–8 . and [Shift]+Click. your selection includes all the faces. Detailed instructions for excluding objects from your selection: 1. see Chapter 9. edges. click an unused part of the current viewport. your selection includes all the vertices associated with the edge. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the excluded objects in purple. [Ctrl]+Click an object to exclude it from your selection. You can adjust the view orientation at any point during the selection process. imagine a line that is perpendicular to the screen and that passes through the cursor and into the model. For example. if you select an edge to include in a set.2. if you select an edge. 10.SELECTING OBJECTS WITHIN THE CURRENT VIEWPORT You may find it useful to adjust the view orientation to make particular items in the viewport more accessible.2. if you select an edge that is positioned very close to another edge. any other valid objects of the same type that fall inside this square are also considered to be possible selections. 2. For example. When you click an object. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective. you can select a specific object in the viewport more precisely by zooming in on your model to increase the distance between objects. and vertices associated with the cell. It also remains constant when you zoom in and out on your model. Excluding entities of lower dimensionality from your selection may solve any problems that you encounter with overconstraints.6 Cycling through valid selections In some cases ABAQUS/CAE is unable to differentiate between the object you have selected and other nearby or related objects. For example. Therefore. the viewport size.5 Excluding objects from your selection When you select an object from the viewport. When you select an object. ABAQUS/CAE may consider both edges to be possible selections. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected objects in red. 10. This ambiguity can arise as follows: • Imagine a small square surrounding the cursor.” Tip: To unselect all the objects. Select all the objects using a combination of select. • If your model is three-dimensional. For information on the view manipulation tools. The size of the square is independent of the monitor size. if you select a cell.

ABAQUS/CAE considers only cells to be a valid selection.3. faces. ABAQUS/CAE considers cells. 10–9 . (You can also click mouse button 3 in the drawing area to reveal a menu of the options in the prompt area. click OK or click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. Figure 10–6 The selection options tool appears on the prompt line when you are prompted to make a selection from the viewport. For example. if you are creating a geometry set. as shown in Figure 10–6. ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area that allow you to cycle through all of the possible selections. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the cell to partition. (Rotating your model may remove some of the ambiguity. and vertices to be a valid selection and the potential for ambiguity is increased. each object becomes highlighted in turn. as shown here: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Use the Next and Previous buttons to cycle forward and backward through all of the objects in the viewport that are possible selections. Conversely. ABAQUS/CAE provides selection options tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to make the desired selection.1 Overview of the selection options When you are prompted to select an object from the viewport. When you make a selection. 10.) ABAQUS/CAE reduces the potential for ambiguity by filtering your selection against the current procedure whenever possible. The selection options tool prompted to make a selection from the viewport. When the object of your choice is highlighted.3 Using the selection options ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to select appears on the prompt line when you are objects from the viewport. edges. If your selection is ambiguous.) 10. if you are partitioning a cell.USING THE SELECTION OPTIONS same type that intersect this line are considered to be possible selections.

cells. and elements) from the current viewport. and nodes. datum axes. and element faces. . such as edges. you can limit your selection to only faces—vertices. such as faces. If the current viewport contains an ABAQUS/CAE part or part instance. such as vertices. Faces All planar objects. Figure 10–7 The selection options tools. Figure 10–7 shows the layout of the selection options tools. When you enter the next procedure.2 Filtering your selection based on the type of object To help you select the desired entities (vertices. 10–10 . datum planes. if you are creating a set that contains only surfaces. ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of filters that you can use to limit your selection based on the type of object. and element edges. Selection options remain in effect only during the current procedure. click the selection options tool to configure the selection options. Vertices All point objects. edges. the selection options revert to their default settings.3. datum points. nodes. edges.USING THE SELECTION OPTIONS From the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox When you click on the selection options tool and configures the contents based on the current procedure. and cells will not be selected. For example. faces. 10. Edges All edge objects. you can select one of the following filters: All All objects.

Interior and exterior objects Choose one of the following filters: • • Select objects located both outside and inside a part. if you are selecting elements from an orphan mesh in the current viewport (to assign an element type. Skins All skin reinforcements. If you toggle off this tool. This tool is selected by default. see “Cycling through valid selections. each object becomes highlighted in turn. such as cells and elements. edges.3. 10–11 .USING THE SELECTION OPTIONS Cells All volumes. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options The selection tools allow you to choose from which objects to select. 10. and you can select the following: Objects closest to the screen Toggle on this tool to select only the objects closest to the front of the screen. edges.6. For more information. This filter applies to vertices. and cells of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and to nodes and elements of an orphan mesh.3 Filtering your selection based on the position of the object .” Section 10. This tool is toggled on by default. You can select a skin from the viewport only after you select the skins filter.2. for example). faces. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through all of the possible selections. faces. When you click on the selection options tool toolbox. based on their positions in the viewport. Select only objects located on the outside of a part. ABAQUS/CAE selects from all elements. ABAQUS/CAE selects from all vertices. you can select one of the following filters: • • • • • All Zero-dimensional elements One-dimensional elements Two-dimensional elements Three-dimensional elements Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE By default. Use the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt area to cycle forward and backward through all of the objects in the viewport that are possible selections. By default. and cells. Similarly.

Click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished entering vertices. and drag the cursor to the second vertex. This tool is selected by default. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox. and drag the cursor to the second corner.5 Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region . and drag the cursor to a point on the circumference. and you can choose one of The selection tools allow you to change the shape of the drag-select region. Inside and crossing Select only the objects that fall inside or cross the drag-select region. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox. Crossing Select only the objects that cross the drag-select region. Circle Click to indicate the center of the circle. 10. and you The selection tools allow you to choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. When you click on the selection options tool the following: Rectangle Click to indicate one corner of the rectangle. When you click on the selection options tool can choose one of the following: Inside Select only the objects that fall inside the drag-select region. Polygon Click to indicate one vertex of the polygon. You then continue to click on each vertex of the polygon. 10–12 . There is no limit to the number of vertices in the polygon.4 Modifying the shape of the drag-select region . 10.USING THE SELECTION OPTIONS • Select only objects located on the inside of a part. This tool is selected by default.3.3.

With isolines turned off. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox. You can turn off the display of these isolines to enhance the display speed for large models. ABAQUS/CAE highlights only the edges of the selected faces. This Toggle off the Show Isolines on Selected Faces tool tool is toggled on by default. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 10.3. In addition. ABAQUS/CAE highlights all internal and external edges of each face.6 Modifying the appearance of selected faces When you select multiple faces from the viewport.USING THE SELECTION OPTIONS Outside and crossing Select only the objects that fall outside or cross the drag-select region. to turn off the display of isolines. When you click on the selection options tool . 10–13 . grid lines (called isolines) are drawn on each selected face. Outside Select only the objects that fall outside the drag-select region.

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modify the environment file (abaqus_v6. Note: Recommended settings for recently introduced graphics adapters are available from the support and services area of the ABAQUS Home Page (www. see the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. see “Getting help.OVERVIEW OF GRAPHICS DISPLAY OPTIONS 11. The appearance is related to the render style and can be set to Fast (wireframe) or As is. Auto-fit adjusts your view of the model so that the model fills the viewport and is centered within it.6 Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 11.” Section 11. select View Graphics Options.” Section 11. Configuring graphics display options This chapter explains how you can configure the graphics display options in ABAQUS/CAE.4 “Controlling drag mode. Automatically fitting the image to the viewport is equivalent to clicking the auto-fit tool in the toolbar. • Choose the viewport background color. To specify graphics display options: From the main menu bar. ABAQUS detects the graphics hardware installed on your system and sets the graphics options accordingly. You can also use the Graphics Options dialog box to do the following: • Choose the appearance of your model during rotation.” Section 11.” Section 11.1 In addition.3 “Choosing a highlight method.1 Overview of graphics display options When you start a session. To use the customized settings each time you start an ABAQUS/CAE session. Your selected color will be applied to all viewports in the current session of ABAQUS/CAE. or zoom view manipulations.” Section 11.6.abaqus.2 “Using display lists. For additional information on the environment file.env). If your graphics hardware is not supported by ABAQUS/CAE or if you wish to override the default graphics options. ! 11–1 . pan. The following topic is covered: • “Overview of graphics display options. (For information on displaying the online documentation. ABAQUS/CAE applies the settings to all viewports and saves the settings for the duration of the session. you can use the Graphics Options dialog box to tune display performance.” Section 6.” Section 11. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual. The orientation remains fixed.com).) • • • • • “Using double buffering. • Choose whether ABAQUS/CAE will auto-fit the image to the current viewport after you rotate the view. as indicated by the view triad.5 “Choosing a background color.

and highlight method. 11–2 . display lists. • Enable or disable the automatic fitting of your view to the viewport after rotations. • Choose the background color of the viewports. • Choose the display mode while you drag objects in the viewport.OVERVIEW OF GRAPHICS DISPLAY OPTIONS The Graphics Options dialog box appears with the following options: • Tune performance using options for double buffering.

as well as the color. Tag Image File Format (TIFF). see “Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images. • ABAQUS/CAE creates a bitmap representation of your image when you print a hidden line or shaded render style plot.1 For detailed instructions on printing. The following list describes these file formats: PostScript PostScript is the recognized standard for desktop publishing. ABAQUS/CAE generates either a compressed bitmap representation or a vector representation of your image. or Portable Network Graphics (PNG) file. The following topic is covered: • “Understanding printing.” Section 12. The Visualization module also creates a bitmap representation 12–1 . see the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. This section describes basic concepts you should understand before sending output to a printer or to a file. according to the following convention: • In general.” Section 12. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 12. Additional options allow you to select the appearance of viewports in the resulting image.1 Understanding printing ABAQUS/CAE allows you to take a snapshot of one or more viewports and their contents and to send the image either directly to a printer or to a file for later use. You can print an image directly to a PostScript printer. or you can save the same image in a PostScript file. PostScript is actually a programming language whose instructions and data are usually stored in an ASCII format that can be transferred easily between operating systems. When you select the PostScript format. resolution.UNDERSTANDING PRINTING 12. 12. The Visualization module creates a vector representation of your image when you print an X–Y plot. Printing viewports This chapter describes how you send an image of selected viewports either directly to a printer or to a file.1 Printed image formats ABAQUS/CAE allows you to print images directly to a PostScript printer or to save the image in a PostScript (PS). For additional information on configuring printers. and size of the image. in the online version of this manual. a wireframe undeformed or deformed plot. ABAQUS/CAE creates a vector representation of your image when you print wireframe render style plots. Encapsulated PostScript (EPS).1. or a wireframe symbol plot having wireframe arrowheads. to include in a presentation. embed in a printed report. or display in an HTML document.2. for example.

2 PostScript image size and layout When you print a snapshot of selected viewports directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a PostScript file. Since contour plots are considered filled plots. EPS files are identical to PostScript files except for some information that describes the size and positioning of the image. As a result. ABAQUS/CAE calculates the size of your image by scaling the selected viewports so that the overall object size fits within the available page size without changing the 12–2 . the size and layout of the image is determined by the available page size. Encapsulated PostScript Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a variation of PostScript that describes a single graphic designed to be included in a larger document without modification. the above discussion about vector and bitmap representations of your image applies equally to the EPS format. The TIFF format supports both color and greyscale. and the aspect ratio of the viewports: Available page size The available page size is calculated from the total page size and the margin information that you supply. Aspect ratio The aspect ratio is the ratio between the overall width and the overall height of the viewports that you select for printing.UNDERSTANDING PRINTING of your image when you print a filled render style plot or a symbol plot having filled arrowheads. The use of PNG files has been popularized by the World Wide Web. A PNG file consists of color information and a compressed bitmap representation of the image. 12. the orientation. they also generate a bitmap representation of your image. Orientation The orientation of your page can be either portrait or landscape. as illustrated by the sample dimensions shown in Figure 12–1. PNG Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an industry standard for storing bitmap images. at most. the resolution of the device on which the image is to be printed or displayed. For efficiency when producing bitmap images. and PNG images are displayed by most popular web browsers running on a variety of operating systems.1. Most word processing and graphics applications support the inclusion of EPS files. TIFF Tag Image File Format (TIFF) is a well-established bitmap image format that is recognized by many software applications. you should minimize the size of your image and limit the resolution of the image to.

5" paper size margin size available page size .. see “Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file.5..5" 0. For detailed instructions. aspect ratio of the objects.5" 11" 0.1.3 EPS. as shown in Figure 12–2. TIFF. You can control the aspect ratio by manipulating the viewports on the canvas.2. . You cannot directly specify the size of your PostScript image. ABAQUS/CAE determines the size of the image based on the size you specify and the overall aspect ratio of the viewports. 7" 10" Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE Figure 12–1 The available page size.UNDERSTANDING PRINTING 1" 8. available image printed image printed page size using portrait using landscape orientation orientation Figure 12–2 Scaling the objects to maintain the aspect ratio. or PNGformat file.” Section 12. in the online version of this manual. 12. and PNG image size When you print a snapshot of selected viewports to an Encapsulated PostScript (EPS).. however. TIFF. you can control the aspect ratio by manipulating the viewports on the canvas before printing them. 12–3 .5" 0. .

in the online version of this manual. you can use the Resolution field in the corresponding options dialog box to specify the resolution of the image you save or print. You specify only one dimension. the resulting file can consume a large amount of disk space. ABAQUS/CAE computes the other dimension to maintain the aspect ratio of the viewports.1. At higher resolution. you specify the width or height in screen pixels. PNG Options. The maximum image size allowed is 1280 2 1024 pixels. Vector representation images are resolution independent. such as scaling and rotation.4 Hardcopy image quality When you print a snapshot of selected viewports directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a PostScript or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file. Scaling and rotation may distort a bitmap image. ABAQUS/CAE creates either a vector or bitmap representation of the image (for more information. or TIFF Options) you can choose one of the following methods to specify the size of the printed image: • Use the size of the image on the screen. you should select the lowest resolution that still produces an acceptable image. more data are required to define the image. For bitmap representation PostScript and EPS images. the printed image will have a resolution of only 300 dpi. before you print a bitmap representation of your image. Bitmap representation image quality may also be affected by changes you make to the image with external software after the image has been created. When you are creating a TIFF. Scaling and rotation do not distort or diminish the quality of vector representation images.” Section 12.) This method is the default.2. For detailed instructions.1. you should adjust the viewports on your canvas to match the dimensions and orientation that will appear in the final application. (ABAQUS/CAE indicates the current image size in the options dialog box. When you are creating an EPS-format file. 12–4 .7. increasing the number of pixels increases the image size. You may want to save a lower resolution image while you produce draft copies of your work and switch to a higher resolution for the finished version. 12. see “Printed image formats. Consequently. The resolution of your printer sets an upper limit on the printed image resolution. For example. images appear to be smoother and less jagged.1). see “Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file.2. you specify the width or height in either inches or millimeters.6. • Set the width or height.” Section 12. and “Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files.or a PNG-format file. if you save an image at a resolution of 600 dots per inch (dpi) and print it on a printer that has a resolution of 300 dpi. so their quality depends only on the resolution of your printer.UNDERSTANDING PRINTING In the options dialog box (EPS Options.” Section 12. Although a higher resolution image has higher quality. In general. A lower resolution image will normally print and display faster.

if you are using a Windows system.1. such as word processors. In addition. it may be unacceptable when printed. you can use [Ctrl]+C to copy the image in the current viewport to the system clipboard and [Ctrl]+V to paste it into another application.5 Importing ABAQUS/CAE images into other software products Many popular software applications. Windows stores the image in the clipboard in a bitmap (.UNDERSTANDING PRINTING 12. Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE 12–5 . and most of these applications allow you to preview the imported image.bmp) format at the resolution of the screen. If you expect to print an image. you should save it in PostScript or Encapsulated PostScript format. Although the image quality will be satisfactory when viewed online. allow you to import files containing graphic images generated by ABAQUS/CAE.

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Part III Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases. “Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models. model databases. and files” • Chapter 14. and how you work with these models and files. models. This part describes ABAQUS/CAE models and model databases. The following topics are covered: • Chapter 13. “Importing and exporting geometry data and models” . the files created by the modeling process. and files Almost every modeling operation you perform while working in an ABAQUS/CAE module contributes to the definition of a model in a model database.

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and files A finished model contains all the data that ABAQUS/CAE needs to create and submit the analysis to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit.WHAT IS AN ABAQUS/CAE MODEL DATABASE? 13. ABAQUS/CAE maintains a record of all the operations that changed the model database.5 • “Managing model and output databases.” Section 13.2 • “Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model. When you first start ABAQUS/CAE. and Files 13.) You can have multiple model databases stored on your workstation or network. For more information on recreating the model database.” Section 13. The following topics are covered: • “What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?.” Section 13.” Section 13.” Section 13. model databases. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Using the File menu.” Section 22. while you work on your model.4 In addition. you can always replay the operations that replicate its current state. but ABAQUS/CAE can work on only one of them at any time.9 Models.cae) stores models and analysis jobs. The model database in use is known as the current model database. they must be stored in one model database.3 • “ABAQUS/CAE command files. Although you may not have saved the model database. the Start Session dialog box allows you to either create a new. if you plan to work on multiple models simultaneously. there is no timer-based automatic saving. see “Recreating an unsaved model ! ! 13–1 . Databases. You save the contents by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar.6 • “Managing models.2. empty model database or to open an existing model database. for example.1 • “What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?.1 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database? A model database (file extension . (For more information on analysis jobs.7 • “Controlling the input file generated by ABAQUS/CAE.” Section 13. However.” Section 13. Models are stored in a model database. ABAQUS/CAE never saves the model database unless you perform an explicit save operation.” Section 13. Anything you create or define in ABAQUS/CAE is stored in this model database. as shown in Figure 13–1. A model database can contain more than one model. ABAQUS/CAE displays the name of the current model database across the top of the main window.” Section 13.8 • “Managing macros. Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models. see “Understanding analysis jobs. This chapter discusses models and model databases and describes the various files that ABAQUS/CAE generates and reads.

6.WHAT IS AN ABAQUS/CAE MODEL? Figure 13–1 ABAQUS/CAE displays the model database name and the model name. ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save the changes before it closes the current model database. If you open or create another model database after you have made changes to the current one.” Section 13. see “Managing model and output databases. ABAQUS/CAE is backward compatible and can open model databases created by previous versions of ABAQUS/CAE.1 What does an ABAQUS/CAE model contain? An ABAQUS/CAE model contains the following kinds of objects: • parts • materials and sections • • • • assembly sets and surfaces steps loads. or you can create a new model database by selecting File New.” Section 13.4. you can open an existing model database by selecting File Open from the main menu bar. and fields 13–2 . boundary conditions. in the online version of this manual.2. For detailed instructions on creating and saving model databases.3. database. 13. After you begin an ABAQUS/CAE session. ! ! 13.2 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model? This section describes an ABAQUS/CAE model.

” Section 13.3.WHAT IS AN ABAQUS/CAE MODEL? • interactions and their properties • meshes A model database can contain any number of models so that you can keep all models related to a single problem in one database. the Job module reports an error. in the online version of this manual. see “Manipulating models within a model database.3. the current viewport in Figure 13–1 is displaying the high-speed model.) You can open multiple models from the model database at the same time.” Section 22.7.1. see “Monitoring the progress of an analysis job. Select Model Edit Keywords model name from the main menu bar to start the Keywords Editor.” Section 13. You can create a copy of a model within a model database. and “Configuring restart output requests. see “Restarting an analysis. in addition.1. The viewport title bar (if visible) displays the name of the model associated with the viewport.1. You use the Model Manager or the Model menu items from the main menu bar to create and manage your models. you must specify the density of the materials so that the mass and inertia properties of the model can be calculated. and Files • Sketches • Parts (part sets are also copied) • Materials • Sections • Amplitudes However. (For more information. ABAQUS/CAE checks that your model is complete when you submit it for analysis. you cannot copy a model from one model database to another.2. you can copy the following objects between models: Models.cae).” Section 13. ABAQUS/CAE continues the analysis from a selected step. and there is only one current model. if you request a dynamic analysis. (You can review the keywords supported by ABAQUS/CAE by selecting Help Keyword Browser from the main menu bar. Databases. The model associated with the current viewport is called the current model. When you submit the model for analysis. ! ! ! 13–3 . In some modules ABAQUS/CAE does not support functionality from ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit that you may want to include in the analysis.” Section 22.6. For more information. For example.12.” Section 18. and you can work on different models in different viewports. You use the Model list located under the toolbar to switch to a different model in the current model database. Figure 13–1 shows two viewports displaying two different models (high-speed and low-speed) in the same model database (crankshaft.) You can specify that a model uses information from a previous analysis. see “What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?. You may be able to add such functionality by using the Keywords Editor to edit the ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit keywords associated with a model. for more information. For detailed instructions.7. If you did not provide a material density in the Property module. and “Copying objects between models.

” Section 22. – The name of the step from which ABAQUS/CAE will restart the analysis.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. If you have many similar models in a model database.” Section 7. ABAQUS/CAE generates the following file: The replay file (abaqus.2 What are the model attributes? The model attributes describe characteristics of a model and are stored with a model in the model database.UNDERSTANDING THE FILES GENERATED BY CREATING AND ANALYZING A MODEL 13.” Section 24. You can enter values for the absolute zero temperature and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The description that you enter is stored with the model attributes.1.rpy) The replay file contains ABAQUS/CAE commands that record almost every modeling operation you perform during a session. the description is not written to the input file or to the output database. You can specify the following: – The name of the job from which ABAQUS/CAE will read the restart information. Select Model Edit Attributes model name from the main menu bar to edit the attributes of the selected model. • The physical constants for the model. in the online version of this manual. and “Restarting an analysis. see “Editing model attributes. you can use the model description to distinguish between the models.” Section 13.4. see “Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session.7.3 Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model When you start a session and begin defining your model. • Restart information that will start the analysis using data from a previous analysis.3. see “Submodeling. For more information.4.7.1. ! ! 13. • Submodel information that will be used to drive submodel boundary conditions in the model. These values are needed to specify surface emissivity and radiation conditions in heat transfer analyses. 13–4 . For more information. The following list describes the attributes of an ABAQUS/CAE model: • The description of the model. You can specify the following: – The job from which the global solution will be used to drive the submodel boundary conditions.2. – The increment or the interval of the step from which ABAQUS/CAE will restart the analysis. For more information.” Section 13. see “Restarting an analysis. – Whether a shell global model will be used to drive a solid submodel. For more information.

4. the analysis creates an output database called FrictionLoad.2. In addition.jnl) The journal file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the model database that was saved to disk. An output database is associated with the job you submit from the Job module. You use the Step module’s output request managers to choose which variables are written to the output database during the analysis and at what rate. Databases.UNDERSTANDING THE FILES GENERATED BY CREATING AND ANALYZING A MODEL When you select File Save from the main menu bar and save the model database. For more information. When you continue to work on your model. You can also import a part from an output database as an orphan mesh. ABAQUS/CAE continues to record your actions in the replay file. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module and allows you to view a graphical representation of the contents. see “Basic steps for analyzing a model.4. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create a set of files. For more information. Output database files (job_name. You can save X–Y data objects to an output database file if you open the file with write permission. see “File extensions used by ABAQUS. see “What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 13. For more information.2. ABAQUS/CAE saves the following file: The recover file (model_database_ name. The journal file (model_database_ name. 13–5 .inp) Models. otherwise.odb. for example.rec) The recover file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the version of the model database in memory. The model database recovery file contains only the commands that changed the model database since you last saved it.6. see “Recreating a saved model database. for a complete list of these files. if you named your job FrictionLoad.” Section 13. see “Recreating an unsaved model database. When you submit a job for analysis.” Section 3.3. you cannot modify the contents of the output database once it has been created.1.” Section 22.cae) ! The model database file contains models and analysis jobs.1. The following list describes some of the files that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create and their relationship to ABAQUS/CAE: Input files (job_name. For more information. When you open an output database.odb) Output database files contain the results from your analysis. ABAQUS/CAE saves the following files: The model database file (model_database_ name. and Files ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that is read by ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit when you submit a job for analysis.” Section 13.

lck) is written whenever an output database file is opened with write access.UNDERSTANDING THE FILES GENERATED BY CREATING AND ANALYZING A MODEL The output database lock file (job_name.” Section 18. you use the Step module to request that the value of a single degree of freedom at a single node be output to the status file.12.1. see “Monitoring the progress of an analysis job. It is deleted automatically when the output database file is closed or when the analysis that creates it ends. By default. see “Submodeling. in the online version of this manual. the restart information you supply in the Step module controls the data written to the state file (job_name. including when an analysis is running and writing output to an output database file. The data file (job_name. A submodel analysis can read the global model results from either an output database or a results file. for more information. You use the Step module to specify which analysis steps should write restart information and how often.5.2.” Section 7. For more information. and status files while analyzing a job can be monitored by the Job module.5.7.” Section 18.” Section 22. For more information.sta) contains information about the progress of the analysis. see “Degree of freedom monitor requests. you cannot use ABAQUS/CAE to exert any additional control over the contents of the data file. You can control the diagnostic information that is output to the message file using the Step module. ABAQUS/CAE automatically requests that the default printed output for the current analysis procedure be generated at the end of each step. such as postprocessing programs.sta) The status file (job_name. message.abq). Note: The errors and warnings that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit write to the data.3. 13–6 .” Section 24.msg) The message file contains diagnostic or informative messages about the progress of the solution. For more information. see “Configuring restart output requests.dat) The data file contains printed output from the analysis input file processor. If you are using ABAQUS/Explicit. The status file (job_name.fil) The results file contains selected results from the analysis in a format that can be read by other applications. For more information. an analysis from ABAQUS/CAE does not create a results file. as well as printed output of selected results written during the analysis. In addition. see “Diagnostic printing. The restart file (job_name.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. The lock file prevents you from having simultaneous write permission to the output database from multiple sources.2. and “Submodeling. The message file (job_name.6.” Section 18.lck) The lock file (job_name. The results file (job_name.res) The restart file is used to continue an analysis that stopped before it was complete.

13. the file name with the lowest number indicates the oldest replay file. It is recommended that you run a replay file from the ABAQUS execution procedure.ods) contains a “session step” in which field output variables that you create (by operating on either fields or frames) are saved. the result may be different if the replay file generates an error. This file is deleted automatically when the original output database file (from which the field output originates) is closed or when the ABAQUS/CAE session ends. From the ABAQUS execution procedure To run a replay file from the ABAQUS execution procedure. ABAQUS/CAE stops executing the replay file and displays an error message in the command area. it is created when you start a session. such as creating a new viewport.rpy. The replay file also includes canvas operations.” Section 27.rpy) in the form of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands. The four older versions have a number appended to the end of the file name. As a result. however. During an ABAQUS/CAE session To run a replay file during a session. ABAQUS/CAE retains the five most recent versions of the replay file.rpy. select File Run Script from the main menu bar.5. ABAQUS/CAE generates the following file: The scratch output database file (job_name. Databases.4 ABAQUS/CAE command files This section describes the command files that you can use to reproduce your work and to customize ABAQUS/CAE. You can execute the commands in a replay file when you start ABAQUS/CAE or during a session.4. If executing the replay file generates an error. Executing the replay file is equivalent to replaying the original sequence of operations including any redundant procedures and any mistakes and subsequent corrections that you made.ABAQUS/CAE COMMAND FILES When you open an output database file in the Visualization module and create new field output variables (see “Creating new field output. ! 13–7 . and the file name with the highest number indicates the second most recent replay file. type abaqus cae (or abaqus viewer) replay= replay_file_name.1 Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session Models.ods) The scratch output database file (job_name. If the replay file generates an error. for more information). The most recent version of the replay file is called abaqus. and Files Almost every operation that you perform in ABAQUS/CAE is recorded automatically in the replay file (abaqus. 13. ABAQUS/CAE always attempts to execute every command in the replay file. ABAQUS/CAE ignores the error and continues to the next command in the replay file.

or viewing results in the Visualization module.rec. you should also copy the associated model database journal file. creating a viewport. The model database journal file contains only the commands that change the saved model database.jnl. ABAQUS/CAE saves a model database recovery file (model_database_name. As you continue to work on your model. The model database journal file is updated only when you perform an explicit save of the model database using File Save or File Save As. it detects the presence of a model database recovery file called abaqus.ABAQUS/CAE COMMAND FILES 13. for example. you will not be able to recreate the model database. sending an image to a printer. 13–8 . If you have not yet saved the current model database.) The recover option executes the commands in the specified model database journal file. for example. (Type abaqus cae recover=model_database_name. ABAQUS/CAE also saves a model database journal file (model_database_name. Otherwise.rec. The model database journal file differs from the replay file in that it does not contain every operation performed during a session. You usually use the recovery file to recreate a model database that was lost due to a catastrophic interruption of your ABAQUS/CAE session. you can recreate it by starting ABAQUS/CAE with the recover option. ABAQUS/CAE creates a model database recovery file called abaqus. When you restart ABAQUS/CAE.cae. The model database recovery file contains only the commands that changed the model database since you last saved it. ! ! ! ! 13.rec) containing ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands that will recreate the version of the model database in memory. If you restart ABAQUS/CAE after a catastrophic interruption of your session. As you continue to work on your model. ABAQUS/CAE copies the model database recovery file to a new model database journal file and deletes the recovery file. as a result of a loss of power to your computer. for example. Should the saved model database become corrupted.4.4. When you perform the save operation. commands that create or edit a part. ABAQUS/CAE creates a new model database recovery file called model_database_name. or modify the mesh. ABAQUS/CAE does not detect the presence of the model database recovery file until you open the model database called model_database_name. The model database recovery file is similar to the model database journal file in that it contains only the commands that change the contents of the model database.rec and asks if you want to recreate the model database before continuing. rotating the model. The recovery behavior is similar after you save the model database. If you copy the model database to a different location. ABAQUS/CAE then asks if you wish to restore the model database before continuing. the model database in memory will differ from the most recently saved model database. Operations that do not change the model database are not saved in the journal file.jnl) containing the ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands that will recreate the model database.3 Recreating an unsaved model database After you save the model database and continue to work on your model. change the time incrementation of an analysis step.2 Recreating a saved model database When you save a model database (by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar).

! Models. The abaqusMacros.py files. toolboxes. For more information on commands. (Type abaqus cae recover=model_database_name. journal. and recovery files and in ABAQUS/CAE scripts that you create. Commands are stored as ASCII text in the replay. and Files Note: You should use the recover option from the ABAQUS/CAE execution procedure to run a journal file and recreate a saved model database. ! 13. select File Run Script from the main menu bar. such as printing the current viewport or applying a predefined view. and replaying the macro reproduces the sequence of interactions. Macros are stored in a file called abaqusMacros. in the following order: • The site directory of the ABAQUS installation. If a macro uses the same name in more than one abaqusMacros. For more information on ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands. you might write a script that defines the material properties of a commonly used material or one that produces a contour plot of a particular variable shown in a particular view orientation.4 Creating and running your own scripts Almost every operation that you perform during an ABAQUS/CAE session can be duplicated by a script (script_name.py file. You can use a macro to automate tasks that you find yourself performing repeatedly. see the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. 13–9 . • Your home directory. Conversely. running a script from within ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to performing the corresponding operations using the menus. You can create scripts that duplicate operations you perform routinely during a session.py file can exist in more than one of these directories.py. and you can use Python to enhance the scripts generated by ABAQUS/CAE. As a result. The Macro Manager contains a list of the existing macros that ABAQUS/CAE detected in all of the abaqusMacros. ABAQUS/CAE searches three directories for abaqusMacros. Each command corresponds to an interaction with ABAQUS/CAE.4. ABAQUS/CAE uses the last macro encountered.) Selecting File Run Script to run a journal file may result in an incomplete model database.ABAQUS/CAE COMMAND FILES 13. for example. and dialog boxes that ABAQUS/CAE provides.py) containing a set of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands.py.4. Databases.jnl.5 Creating and running a macro The Macro Manager allows you to record a sequence of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands in a macro file while you interact with ABAQUS/CAE. • The current working directory. ABAQUS/CAE commands are written in the Python scripting language. and select the script to run from the Run Script dialog box. see the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. you can use a standard text editor to edit the contents of the files. To run a script.

” Section 22.” Section 13. ! 13.7.9. Examples of commands that configure how you want a job to run on a remote host computer are given in “Submitting a job remotely.ABAQUS/CAE COMMAND FILES To create. see “Managing macros. In addition. select File Macro Manager from the main menu bar.env) to specify parameters that control ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.2.4. delete. or run a macro. you can use the environment file to specify a set of commands that are executed when you start an ABAQUS/CAE session. For more information.6 Customizing your ABAQUS/CAE environment You use the ABAQUS environment file (abaqus_v6. 13–10 . in the online version of this manual.

abaqus.” Section 14. For more information. you can import and export a sketch from an ACIS file. and you can export parts or the assembly in ACIS format. precise parts.1 Importing files into and exporting files from ABAQUS/CAE Importing a part into ABAQUS/CAE from a third-party CAD system is not always a straightforward process.7.sat) ACIS is a library of solid modeling functions developed by Spatial.8 • “Exporting geometry data.” Section 14.6 In addition. In addition. Databases.com).” Section 14. You can import ACIS-format parts.9 Models. see “Importing parts from an ACIS-format file. 14. In addition. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Importing sketches and parts.7 • “Importing a model.” Section 14.5 • “A logical approach to successful import.” Section 14.1 What kinds of files can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE? ABAQUS/CAE reads and writes geometry data stored in the following formats: ACIS (file_name.2 • “Controlling the import process. “Importing 14–1 .1.” Section 14.” Section 14. and most CAD products can generate ACIS-format parts. The troubleshooting guide provides information on the recommended settings in ABAQUS/CAE and CAD systems for importing geometry data along with some frequently asked import questions.” Section 14.” Section 14. Importing and exporting geometry data and models This section describes the files that can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE. and tolerance.3. Your chances of successfully importing a part will be increased if you understand what you are importing and the limitations of representing the geometry of a part in a file.4 • “What can you import from a model?.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE 14. The following topics are covered: • “Importing files into and exporting files from ABAQUS/CAE.1 • “Valid parts.3 • “Understanding the contents of an IGES file. and Files 14.” Section 14. a troubleshooting guide to geometry import is provided in the technical support area of the ABAQUS Home Page (www.

” Section 14. Solid Edge. For more information. see “Importing a part from an IGES-format file. file_name. file_name.Patran.1.” Section 14.5. see “Importing a part from a CATIA V4-format file. A variety of CAD products can generate Parasolidformat parts.9. you cannot export parts from ABAQUS/CAE in Parasolid format. You cannot export parts from ABAQUS/CAE in Elysium Neutral File format.” Section 14.x_t. file_name. and “Exporting geometry data. Pro/ENGINEER Elysium Neutral File (file_name. In addition.4. For more information. see “Importing a part from a Parasolid-format file.xmt_bin) Parasolid is a library of solid modeling functions developed by Unigraphics Solutions and marketed by EDS. however.” Section 14. CATIA V5 Elysium Neutral File (file_name.igs) The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a neutral data format designed for graphics exchange between computer-aided design (CAD) systems.7.7.7. For more information. see “Importing a part from an 14–2 . The IGES-format allows for many interpretations.” Section 14.5.enf_abq) ABAQUS provides a translator plug-in for Pro/ENGINEER that will generate a geometry file using the Elysium Neutral File format. or file_name. in the online version of this manual. in the online version of this manual. however. and MSC.9.” Section 14.enf_abq) ABAQUS provides a translator plug-in for I-DEAS that will generate a geometry file using the Elysium Neutral File format. and you can export parts in IGES format.7. in the online version of this manual. IGES (file_name. You can import Parasolid-format parts. SolidWorks. in the online version of this manual.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE sketches. You cannot export parts from ABAQUS/CAE in Elysium Neutral File format.6. in the online version of this manual. such as Unigraphics.catdata.x_b.” Section 14. see “Importing a part from an Elysium Neutral file.” Section 14. in the online version of this manual. FEMAP.1. CATIA V4 (file_name.enf_abq) A translator plug-in is available for CATIA V5 that will generate a geometry file using the Elysium Neutral File format. Parasolid (file_name. “Importing sketches.xmt_txt. see “Importing a part from an Elysium Neutral file. For more information.model. I-DEAS Elysium Neutral File (file_name. it is recommended that you try to use another format. For more information. and “Exporting geometry data.7. you cannot export parts from ABAQUS/CAE in CATIA format. You can import IGES-format parts. For more information.exp) CATIA is a CAD/CAM/CAE software package marketed by IBM and Dassault Systèmes.7.” Section 14. or file_name. you can import and export a sketch from an IGES file.8. Thus.7. and most of the parts that you import into ABAQUS/CAE using IGES-format will need to be repaired before you can use them. if possible. You can import CATIA-format parts.

7. For more information. and you can export parts in VDA-FS format. text. The STEP AP203 standard is designed to provide a computer-interpretable representation of a mechanical product throughout its life cycle.” Section 14. Thus. ABAQUS/CAE supports only a limited number of AutoCAD entities. independent of any particular system. and you can export parts in STEP format.7.dxf) Models. such as dimensions.1.7. elements.” Section 14.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE Elysium Neutral file. in the online version of this manual.vda) The Verband der Automobilindustrie Flachën Schnittstelle (VDA-FS) surface data format is a geometry standard developed by the German automotive industry. however.9.” Section 14. and colors. surfaces. VDA-FS (file_name.9. you can import and export a sketch from a STEP file. if possible. see “Importing a part from a STEP-format file. You can import a part from an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. in the online version of this manual. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as a collection of nodes.5. STEP-format parts are similar to IGES-format parts in that most of the parts that you import into ABAQUS/CAE using STEP-format will need to be repaired before you can use them. see “Importing a part from a VDA-FS-format file. Both VDA-FS and IGES files contain a mathematical representation of the part in an ASCII format. is not stored in a VDA-FS file. and “Exporting geometry data. Additional information covered by the IGES standard. it is recommended that you try to use another format. For more information and details on the AutoCAD entities supported by ABAQUS/CAE.” Section 14.odb) An output database contains the data generated during an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis.9. AutoCAD (file_name. it is recommended that you try to use another format. and Files Two-dimensional profiles stored in AutoCAD (. in the online version of this manual.7.stp) The STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP ISO 10303–1) is designed as a high-level replacement for IGES that attempts to overcome some of the shortcomings of IGES. Databases. You can import STEP-format parts. STEP (file_name. see “Importing sketches. You can use the Edit Mesh toolset in the Part module to edit the original mesh definition. if possible. and sets. VDA-FS format parts are similar to IGES-format parts in that most of the parts that you import into ABAQUS/CAE using VDA-FS format will need to be repaired before you can use them. You can import VDA-FS-format parts. and you should use this format only if no other formats are available. and you can use the Mesh ! 14–3 . However. You cannot export parts from ABAQUS/CAE in Elysium Neutral File format. in the online version of this manual. Select Part Verify Mesh from the main menu bar to verify the quality of the orphan mesh.” Section 14. and “Exporting geometry data. Output database (output_database_ name. For more information.10. Thus.dxf) files can be imported as stand-alone sketches. In addition. the VDA-FS standard concentrates on geometry information.” Section 14.

Inc. You can also import a model from an output database. The plug-in is available for the following products: • CATIA V5 • I-DEAS • Pro/ENGINEER 14–4 . a limited set of ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit keywords is supported. and. If you import an orphan mesh from an output database when the current viewport already contains an orphan mesh. • Replace the mesh of the current orphan mesh part with the imported orphan mesh. You can import input files into ABAQUS/CAE. to import files into ABAQUS/CAE that were created by the following CAD software: • CATIA V4 • CAD software that creates Parasolid-format files.2. SolidWorks. as described in “Importing a model from an ABAQUS/Standard or an ABAQUS/Explicit input file. see the Geometry Import page on the ABAQUS web site. such as Unigraphics. and sets from the imported orphan mesh are imported into the current part. For more information.1. For more information on creating and submitting jobs. ABAQUS provides a translator plug-in from Elysium that will generate a geometry file using the Elysium Neutral File format. however. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file when you submit a job for analysis. ABAQUS/CAE translates the keywords and data lines in the imported input file into a new model. and “Assigning ABAQUS element types.” Section 43. The model that is imported will contain the nodes and elements defined in the output database along with the sets..Patran For information about the versions of the CAD software supported by the direct translators from Elysium. see “Basic steps for analyzing a model. Solid Edge. contact your local ABAQUS sales office. and beam profiles.” Section 14.5. For information about obtaining licenses for the Elysium direct translator. In addition. All current sets are deleted. see “Importing a model from an output database.1. the part will maintain all set-based assignments. “Editing an orphan mesh part in the Part module. section definitions.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE module to change the element type assigned to the mesh. and MSC.” Section 21.1. materials. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to do either of the following: • Create a new part from the imported orphan mesh.5.” Section 22. surfaces. The name of the current part does not change.2.5.2 How do I get more information about the Elysium products? You can use a direct translator from Elysium. you can import a part into ABAQUS/CAE using the Elysium Neutral File format. FEMAP.2.” Section 14. 14. For more information. see “Importing parts.” Section 14.2.7.1. if the set names in the imported database are the same as the current set names. in the online version of this manual.

see Chapter 50. to exchange geometric information between a CAD system and ABAQUS/CAE is not a guarantee of success. see the Geometry Import page on the ABAQUS web site. I-DEAS. it converts the entities defined by the standard into its internal representation—ACIS. Examples of small features include: • Fillets • Chamfers • Holes Simplifying a solid part will increase your chances of successfully importing it into ABAQUS/CAE. you can use the Virtual Topology toolset in the Mesh module to remove small details from the part instance before you generate the mesh. see the technical support area of the ABAQUS Home Page (www.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE For information about obtaining the translator plug-ins and for information about the versions of CATIA V5. resulting in a 14–5 . Databases.” Models.1.abaqus. such as IGES and VDA-FS. The fine mesh will influence the mesh in adjacent regions and may dominate the time taken to perform the analysis. when ABAQUS/CAE imports the file.com). Finally. If you are not interested in analyzing the feature. Removing small features may solve precision errors in the imported part. Although the exporting CAD system is not aware of the requirements of ABAQUS/CAE. In many cases there is more than one way to define a geometric entity. In addition.1. you should use the CAD system to remove the detail from the part before you import the part into ABAQUS/CAE. and Pro/ENGINEER supported by the plug-ins. setting the correct export options will increase your chance of success. Similarly. “The Virtual Topology toolset. For more information. 14. A small feature in the imported part will result in a fine mesh in the area of the detail. For more information on the recommended export options. and Files 14.3 Know what you want as an end product Many of the problems associated with importing a complex solid part into ABAQUS/CAE can be alleviated if you recognize what you want as an end product: a finite element mesh of the parts to be analyzed using ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. ACIS recognizes only some of the entities defined in the IGES and VDA-FS standards and also expects a certain level of smoothness or continuity in the trimmed surfaces. You must decide the level of detail that will produce meaningful results from the analysis. you may experience problems because CAD systems interpret the industry standards differently.4 Vendors interpret the standards differently Using an accepted industry standard. When a CAD system exports a part. you should consider the type of mesh required by the analysis. the system maps its proprietary representation of the part into an array of entities available from the standard. If you plan to mesh the part with triangular or tetrahedral elements or with quadrilateral elements generated by the advancing front algorithm.

the techniques used to represent a solid body have also evolved. a part. and you cannot mesh the solid. you may find that you have to perform some additional steps to obtain a satisfactory result. you need to understand how solids are represented by solid modelers. 14. the trim curves form a closed loop on the surface 14–6 . Later versions introduced three-dimensionality in the form of isometric views and perspective views. trim curve surface geometry trim surface Figure 14–1 A trimmed surface. when you import a solid. you cannot calculate the volume of the solid. To understand what the steps accomplish and why you need to perform them. or an assembly into the current model. vendors violate the standard.5 How do solid modelers represent a solid? ABAQUS/CAE provides tools that allow you to import a sketch. Trimmed surface Later systems introduced the concept of trimmed surfaces. Each new generation of modelers incorporates more knowledge about the construction of the body and relies less on the sheer volume of data points to describe a solid. A trimmed surface is defined by a combination of surface geometry and trim curves. the process is usually straightforward. as shown in Figure 14–1. A wireframe model defines an object by its edges and vertices. Wireframe The original CAD systems used two-dimensional wireframes to replicate traditional mechanical drawings. The surface geometry is a general expression for the surface.1. In a wireframe a solid body is represented by a set of curves that define the edges of the body. especially when creating trimmed surfaces. When you import a sketch or a planar part or assembly. As modeling systems have evolved during the last 30 years. the system has no information about the surfaces between the edges. In more extreme cases.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE particular “flavor” of the file format. For example. as a result the wireframe representation of a solid has limited use. however. However.

When two trimmed surfaces intersect. There is no information to indicate that a group of trimmed surfaces comprise a solid. a cylinder can be defined from three trimmed surfaces as shown in Figure 14–2. when more complex curves intersect. see “What is stitching?. Each surface includes a set of edges that define the boundary of the surface. For more information. The flat trimmed surface at the top of the cylinder contains trim curve A1 . You can use the Repair toolset to stitch gaps. For example. Databases. 14–7 . cylindrical.IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE geometry and defines the boundary of the surface. Most of the problems that can occur during import arise from the translation of a trimmed surface from the original file into a form recognized by ABAQUS/CAE. a gap is created and the solid is considered invalid. The cylindrical trimmed surface is bounded by two trim curves—A2 and B2 . the definition of the resulting edge is duplicated by each surface. The edges of the solid are well defined when the intersecting surfaces are planar. A solid is defined as a set of trimmed surfaces that form an enclosed volume. Both the IGES and VDA-FS standards use trimmed surfaces. The flat trimmed surface at the base of the cylinder contains trim curve B1 . and Files trimmed surfaces B1 Figure 14–2 Three trimmed surfaces define a cylinder.2. However. The accuracy of the approximation depends on the order of the polynomial expression. the resulting edge must be described by a polynomial expression that approximates the intersection of the two faces. Figure 14–3 illustrates a gap between trimmed surfaces.” Section 48. A1 A2 trimmed surfaces intersect to form an enclosed volume B2 Models. If an edge does not lie on either surface. or spherical. A surface can also have multiple internal trim curve surfaces.

IMPORTING FILES INTO AND EXPORTING FILES FROM ABAQUS/CAE A1 gap A2 When trimmed surfaces intersect. B2 B1 Figure 14–3 B-rep A gap between trimmed surfaces. Figure 14–4 illustrates the cylinder defined as a B-rep solid. A1 = A 2 A B-rep solid knows that A 1 = A2 and B1 = B2 . A gap results when surfaces do not intersect. Unlike a solid represented by only trimmed surfaces. For the B-rep solid to be recreated correctly. and ACIS uses the concept of B-reps. B1 = B 2 Figure 14–4 A B-rep solid. a B-rep solid includes additional information about the faces.” or “B-rep. In a B-rep solid one trimmed surface defines the shared edge and the second edge refers to that definition. A B-rep solid is similar to a solid defined by a set of trimmed surfaces. the definition of the edges is duplicated in the intersecting surfaces. however. edges. a B-rep solid does not duplicate edges that are shared between two surfaces. More recently. ABAQUS/CAE uses ACIS to store geometric entities.” to define a solid object. and vertices that are generated when the surfaces intersect to form the solid. 14–8 . The edge definition is shared between the two surfaces. solid modelers have introduced the concept of a “boundary representation.

other operations may fail on parts with imprecise geometry. Imprecise A valid part can be either precise or imprecise. ABAQUS/CAE tries to create a connected shell part. 14. Databases. and quadrilateral elements using the advancing front algorithm. If you cannot work with the imprecise part and you cannot make the part precise. the part may not be reconstructed correctly. For example. and Files When you import a solid part. adding geometry features. If the part is imported successfully. 14. the part is considered valid and precise. However. ABAQUS/CAE tries to create a closed solid part.4. If you import an IGES or STEP file containing two or more trimmed surfaces that are close enough to be stitched together into a B-rep solid. tetrahedral elements. see “Using the Query toolset in the Part module. and tolerance A part that you import into ABAQUS/CAE must be valid if you wish to analyze the part with ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. ABAQUS/CAE groups the surfaces together as a single solid entity. the part is considered to be invalid. precise parts. You should try to work with an imprecise part. For more information.” Section 15. However. The IGES and STEP standards include the concept of B-reps. and partitioning. However. the geometry repair tools may not be able to make the part precise and using the tools may be time consuming. the part is considered imprecise. although IGES calls them Manifold Solid B-rep Objects or MSBOs.1 What is a valid and precise part? Models. you should return to the CAD application that generated the original file and increase the precision. The following sections describe valid and precise parts and how ABAQUS/CAE uses imprecise modeling and tolerance to construct an imported part. you can use the geometry repair tools to try and make the part precise.16. for example. Similarly. The VDA-FS standard does not include the concept of B-rep solids. AND TOLERANCE it must be possible to duplicate the trim curve defined by the first surface along the geometry of the second surface. In some cases ACIS will stitch adjacent edges to create the B-rep solid.2 Valid parts. if the part contains many complex surfaces.2. The terms “imprecise” and “invalid” are described in more detail below. if the precision of the original part is less than the precision used by ABAQUS/CAE. VDA-FS uses only trimmed surfaces to define a solid. when you import a shell part. Invalid If the errors are so large that ABAQUS/CAE cannot recreate a closed volume from the imported part. and the part is considered invalid. If ABAQUS/CAE cannot proceed. large gaps between edges cause a part to 14–9 . You can use the Query toolset’s geometry diagnostic tools to highlight regions of an imported part that have geometry precision and validity errors. PRECISE PARTS. other meshing functions. If ABAQUS/CAE must use a looser tolerance in some areas to recreate a closed volume from the imported part. Parts with imprecise geometry can be meshed with triangles.VALID PARTS.

where the diameter of the tube is equal to the local precision. the import may fail because ABAQUS/CAE cannot reconstruct the solid from the trimmed surfaces and B-rep information. A display body is included in the model for display purposes only. an imprecise edge can be thought of as an edge surrounded by an imaginary tube. For trimmed surfaces the tolerance defines the maximum allowable deviation between an edge and the surface bounded by the edge. Moreover. The only way that you can use an invalid part in ABAQUS/CAE is to apply a display body constraint to the part in the Interaction module. as shown in Figure 14–7. If the tolerance of the original file is considerably looser than the tolerance of ABAQUS/CAE. AND TOLERANCE be invalid. ABAQUS/CAE uses ACIS to represent a part or the assembly. and you should return to the CAD application that generated the original file and attempt to fix the geometry.VALID PARTS. ACIS assumes that any point inside the imaginary sphere is coincident with the vertex. As a result. this can be a lengthy operation that increases the complexity of the imported part. The accuracy of the polynomial defining an edge of a trimmed surface depends on the tolerance of the CAD system. the healing process is designed to improve the part’s accuracy. PRECISE PARTS. the tolerance of the original file and the tolerance of ABAQUS/CAE must match within an acceptable limit. If possible. Similarly. ACIS uses a precision of 10−6 to define a geometric entity. In general. you should return to the CAD application that generated the original file and increase the precision. When you heal a part. During the healing process ACIS also uses tolerance to determine if a trim curve is positioned on the underlying surface geometry. as shown in Figure 14–5.2. 14. you can use the automated geometry repair tool to try to make it valid.2. To successfully import a solid defined by trimmed surfaces or B-reps. 14–10 . as shown in Figure 14–6. You can use the Query toolset in the Part module to highlight regions of an imported part that have geometry precision and validity errors. If you apply a display body constraint. ABAQUS/CAE tries to change neighboring entities so that their geometry matches exactly. For more information. When you heal a part. After you import a part into ABAQUS/CAE. Similarly. ACIS assumes that any point inside the imaginary tube is lying on the edge. Converting to a precise representation usually results in precise geometry. converting to a precise representation is likely to fail.2 How are precision and tolerance related? Precision and tolerance are important considerations for successfully importing a part into ABAQUS/CAE. points on edges that are far away from an underlying surface cause a part to be invalid. you do not have to mesh the instance and can continue to analyze your model.” Section 24. However. if the part contains many complex surfaces. a part that cannot be made valid cannot be used by ABAQUS/CAE. subsequent processing and analysis of the part may be slower. If the part is invalid. where the diameter of the sphere is equal to the local precision. see “Using display bodies in your model. An imprecise vertex can be thought of as a vertex surrounded by an imaginary sphere.

and Files calculated edge tolerant edge Figure 14–6 An imaginary tube defines an imprecise edge. surface geometry trim curve edge tolerance cylinder Figure 14–7 Tolerance determines if a trim curve lies on the underlying surface.VALID PARTS. 14–11 . AND TOLERANCE tolerance sphere Figure 14–5 An imaginary sphere defines an imprecise vertex. Databases. tolerance tube Models. PRECISE PARTS.

you can click Entity List on the IGES Options tabbed page to examine the type of entities found in the file. However. if you are importing an IGES-format file. Repair Options For most of the file formats supported. In most cases you should accept the setting selected by ABAQUS/CAE. as described in this section.” Section 48. shell. In addition. you can try importing the part again with a different topology selected.CONTROLLING THE IMPORT PROCESS 14.3. Part Filter The following file formats can include several parts in a single file: • ACIS • CATIA V4 • Elysium Neutral File 14–12 .” for more information. ABAQUS/CAE provides the following additional options when you are importing an ACIS-. “The Repair toolset. ABAQUS/CAE scans the contents of the file and displays a dialog box with a Name-Repair tabbed page that allows you to control the following: Name The name of the part.3. IGES-. or wire—based on the entities that it finds in the file. or a VDA-FS-format file: • Convert to analytical representation • Stitch gaps • Convert to precise representation For more information. This section describes the options that are available to you. see Chapter 48. 14. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to control how it interprets the contents of the file. see “What does automatic repair do?. ABAQUS/CAE automatically repairs the part during the import process. However. you can import a part and repair the part during the import process. When you import a part. if the topology of the resulting part is not as expected. Alternatively.3 Controlling the import process When you import a part from a file generated by a third-party CAD system.1 Repairing a part during import You can import a part and subsequently use the Repair toolset in the Part module to apply any repair operations that might be required to make the part usable by ABAQUS/CAE. Topology ABAQUS/CAE selects the topology—solid.

In some cases when you import a solid part into ABAQUS/CAE. The additional geometry will influence your mesh unduly.2. and you should use the Repair toolset to remove the redundant edges and vertices. you can toggle on Import part number and enter the number of a single part to import from the file. or three-dimensional.or three-dimensional. see Chapter 50. • If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar. see “Part modeling space. You can then create a new analytical rigid part and copy the imported sketch into the Sketcher toolset. it sets the modeling space to three-dimensional. For more information.3.2 What are the part attributes? Models.1. see “Part types. “The Virtual Topology toolset. you can import the geometry of the analytical rigid part into a sketch.” Section 15. In addition.4. Databases. for more information. you can use the Status field in the Part Manager to determine if any of the parts are invalid or imprecise. 14–13 . For more information. Although you cannot define an imported part to be an analytical rigid part. Toggle on Discrete rigid to import a discrete rigid part.” 14.” Section 15. You can also use virtual topology in the Mesh module to combine small faces and edges and to ignore unnecessary vertices and edges. resulting in unnecessary complexity.4. and Files A part has the following attributes: Modeling Space When you import a part. ABAQUS/CAE scans the file and tries to determine the modeling space of the part being imported as follows: • If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional. you can choose whether the modeling space is two. Alternatively. the geometry of the part contains additional edges and vertices that serve no purpose. If you choose axisymmetric. the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of revolution. ABAQUS/CAE indicates if any of the parts have validity or precision problems. two-dimensional. you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric. The additional geometry splits faces into additional faces and edges into additional edges. and you can add a twist degree of freedom.CONTROLLING THE IMPORT PROCESS • Parasolid • STEP ABAQUS/CAE imports all of the parts in the file by default. • If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis. Type ABAQUS/CAE always assumes that the part type is deformable.

3. you can read the scale factor. When you import a part from an IGES file into ABAQUS/CAE. alternatively. By default.” Section 14. However. 14. You can do the following: • Enter a scale factor that ABAQUS/CAE will apply to all of the coordinates in the file.” Section 15. ABAQUS/CAE uses either the Always use parametric data option or the Always use 3D data option to 14–14 . For a detailed description of how to import and export from IGES-format files. see “Importing a part from an IGES-format file. Any offset from the origin will be scaled accordingly.1 What are the IGES options in ABAQUS/CAE? When you import a part from an IGES-format file.4.” Section 14. if the part is very large. you can force ABAQUS/CAE to always use either real space or parameter space. the rotation matrix. This is the default option. ABAQUS/CAE also determines the optimum settings for the IGES options that will allow the import procedure to successfully import the part. see “Copying a part.3 Scaling a part during the import process When you import a part. When this option is selected. • If you are importing a part from an ACIS file. you can choose to maintain the dimensions stored in the file.5. The IGES options allow you to control the following: Trim Curve Preference An IGES file can contain curves defined using real space.7. This section describes the IGES format and the options that are available to you when importing and exporting IGES files. ABAQUS/CAE uses the information stored in the IGES file to decide how the trim curve is defined.4 Understanding the contents of an IGES file The IGES neutral file format is an international standard that allows you to transfer geometric data between ABAQUS/CAE and other CAD applications. and the translation matrix from the file. and “Exporting geometry data.6. If you encounter problems during the import. or you can change the scale of the part during the import process. ABAQUS/CAE speeds up the import procedure by relying on default IGES options settings. You can also change the scale of a part while copying it to a new part. the surface and the trim curves are converted into an internal representation of the part. you may want to modify these default settings. • As per IGES file. 14. ABAQUS/CAE scans the file and determines the approximate size of the part.UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENTS OF AN IGES FILE 14. in the online version of this manual. You can use IGES-format files to import and export sketches and parts. parameter space. If the part is a reasonable size. For more information.9. or both.

the CAD package that created the file must include the MSBO in the export procedure. ABAQUS/CAE scans the file and the Create Part from IGES File dialog box displays a list of the levels that were found in the IGES file. If a level contains something other than geometry. The Always use 3D data option should allow trim curves to stay with their underlying surface. Each of the data points has its own three-dimensional geometrical point. if a level does contain geometry. For example. As a result.UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENTS OF AN IGES FILE decide how the trim curve is defined. I-DEAS and CATIA allow for the MSBO entity. ABAQUS/CAE ignores any levels that you enter that are not present in the IGES file. MSBO Models. • Always use 3D data. text annotations. ABAQUS/CAE sets the MSBO option automatically after scanning an IGES-format file and finding the entity. If you select the Always use 3D data option. notes. the trim curve may not lie on the surface when ABAQUS/CAE tries to reconstruct the part. if the IGES file contains only one level. ABAQUS/CAE ignores the level during the import. For an IGES file to contain an MSBO entity. If the underlying surface has too many sharp deflections that cannot be accurately defined parametrically. 14–15 . Databases. This produces a trimming error and may result in gaps between edges. as a result the trim curve must be re-evaluated each time the surface is moved. such as dimensions. construction lines. however. v). dimensions. Levels CAD applications can store entities in an IGES-format file in a sequence of levels (also referred to as layers). Like all B-rep solids. ABAQUS/CAE evaluates the surface corresponding to the data point and generates three-dimensional coordinates for the point. This option computes the trim curve from the three-dimensional coordinates in space—the part’s coordinate system—together with an indication that the trim curve lies on the parametric surface. different levels can contain geometry. This option computes the trim curve parametrically using the surface on which the curve is lying. When you import a part from an IGES-format file. • Always use parametric data. this is not guaranteed. SolidWorks does not. The trim curve can move only along the surface. the Level field is not available. the MSBO entity indicates the overall topology of a solid entity by referencing all the trimmed surfaces that define the solid. and Files A Manifold Solid B-rep Object (MSBO. or a legend. entity type 186) is an IGES term for a B-rep solid. You must import at least one level. the import will take longer to complete. Information in the IGES file determines which of the two options is used. you can delete the level from the list in the dialog box and ABAQUS/CAE will not import the level. However. Each of the data points on the trim curve is located by a surface parameter (u.

The following information is written to the IGES log file: • The global header information.UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENTS OF AN IGES FILE 14. an arc. such as a comment. It also includes information about the author of the file and the date when the file was written.7. ABAQUS/CAE scans the contents of the file before displaying the Create Part from IGES File dialog box. and units. You can control only the following options: – MSBO – Read trim curves • A conversion log. Entity List An entity can be a geometric entity.4. The IGES entity list displays a list of each type of entity found in the file. a circular arc is entity number 100.” Section 14. You can then use buttons on the IGES Options tabbed page to view the following: IGES Header The IGES header information includes details about the application that wrote the IGES file. see “IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch. such as a point. • Errors. ABAQUS/CAE overwrites the abaqus_read_iges. in the online version of this manual.7. The IGES log file contains information about the entities that were translated along with any problems that were encountered. • IGES read options. The list includes the IGES entity number. 14–16 .log in the directory from which you started the session. Alternatively.3 What is in the IGES log file? When you import a part from an IGES log file. For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE. a description of the entity.4. and the number found in the file. 14. resolution.2 What is an IGES entity? When you import an IGES-format file. an entity can be separate from the geometry. ABAQUS/CAE creates a file called abaqus_read_iges. along with the scale. for example. or a line. • A summary of the IGES entities found. The options displayed are the options used by the ACIS geometry engine in ABAQUS/CAE during the import.log file after each IGES import. IGES allocates a number to each entity.

and beam profiles from an output database. if the Young’s modulus was imported from the *ELASTIC keyword. Models. In addition. 14. for example. for example. see “Importing a part from an IGES-format file. Keywords that are not supported are ignored during import. it may not contain any history data. ABAQUS/CAE writes the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. The input file does not have to be complete.WHAT CAN YOU IMPORT FROM A MODEL? 14.5. The following sections describe how you can import a model. and the data are written out in the appropriate tailored format or flavor. ABAQUS/CAE is able to interpret IGES-format files generated by most applications. You can choose one of the following flavors: • • • • • Standard MSBO AutoCAD SolidWorks JAMA (Japanese Automotive Manufacturer’s Association) By default. materials. node and element sets. Databases. and contact node sets • Adaptive mesh controls 14–17 . when you export a part or assembly to an IGES-format file. in the online version of this manual. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to specify the application that will be reading the file. however. you can import only parts.” Section 14.5 What can you import from a model? You can import a model from either an input file or an output database. You can import the complete model from an input file.6.1 Importing a model from an ABAQUS/Standard or an ABAQUS/Explicit input file You can use an ABAQUS input file to import a model into ABAQUS/CAE by selecting File Import Model from the main menu bar. section definitions. The following functionality can be imported into a model from an ABAQUS input file: ! ! • Nodes and elements • Surfaces.4 Exporting to an IGES file CAD applications store data in IGES-format files using their own interpretation of the IGES standard.4. ABAQUS/CAE exports data to an IGES file using a standard flavor. it will be available in the Property module. For a detailed description of how to import a model.7. and Files 14. ABAQUS keywords that are imported from the input file are incorporated into a new model.

not as a surface. For more information. however. when you import an input file that analyzes a submodel. an imported node-based surface appears in the Set manager and not in the Surface manager. As a result. When you analyze a submodel using ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. In contrast. ABAQUS/CAE generates an assembly set and two part sets—one containing the nodes or elements from the deformable part and one containing the nodes or elements from the rigid part. If the nodes or elements in a set appear on only a single part (deformable or rigid). a separate rigid part is created for each *SURFACE option that defines an analytical rigid surface. along with a corresponding part instance in the assembly. all of the deformable elements in the input file form a single deformable part in ABAQUS/CAE. and orientation definitions • Interactions and interaction properties • Loads and boundary conditions (in the global coordinate system) • Amplitudes • Procedures. the file name does not appear in the input file. if the input file was not written in terms of an assembly of part instances. section. ABAQUS/CAE imports a node-based surface as a set of nodes. as well as any ELSET or NSET parameters on other supported keywords.” Section 49. but you cannot add geometric features to it.2. a separate rigid part is created for each *RIGID BODY option that is encountered. As a result. An orphan mesh part consists of a single feature. The rigid body reference nodes are assigned according to the REF NODE parameter on the *RIGID BODY and *SURFACE options. each part instance composed of deformable elements in the input file appears as a deformable part in ABAQUS/CAE. see “How do part sets and assembly sets differ?. you can use the mesh edit tools to modify an orphan mesh. Similarly. and monitor variables See “Keyword support from the input file reader. if the nodes or elements in a set span both a deformable and a rigid part.WHAT CAN YOU IMPORT FROM A MODEL? • Material. Similarly. If the input file was written in terms of an assembly of part instances. an orphan mesh comprises node and element definitions and the type of element assigned. in the online version of this manual for a complete list of the keywords that are supported by the input file reader. However. you provide the name of the output database or results file containing the global solution in the ABAQUS execution procedure. You can import a model that contains a mixture of rigid and deformable parts. ABAQUS/CAE creates both a part set and an assembly set. Each part set contains only the nodes or elements from the imported set that appear on the particular part. However. you must specify the name of the output database or results file containing the global solution that will drive the submodel. Deformable and rigid parts created by the import capability are stored in the form of an orphan mesh. The import capability creates sets based on any *ELSET or *NSET keywords. Parts are imported from an input file in the form of an orphan mesh. ABAQUS/CAE creates an assembly set and multiple part sets.2. Select Model Edit Attributes Model Name and enter the name of the file containing the global solution on the Submodel tabbed page. output requests. The input file reader can import an ! ! 14–18 . The input file reader uses element definitions to create separate deformable parts and analytical and discrete rigid parts.2. an orphan mesh comprises node and element definitions and the type of element assigned.” Section A. Element-based surfaces can be imported. if these nodes or elements appear on separate parts.

However. IRS*. F3D4. and FLINK) Frame elements (FRAME*) Gap contact stress/displacement elements (GAPCYL. for detailed instructions on using the Keywords Editor. ITT*. you can use the Keywords Editor to include options that the input file reader does not support. and GAPUNI) Interface elements (INTER*. 14.5.8. ABAQUS does not write some material definitions to the 14–19 . ISP*. see “Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model. the assignment of a section to the appropriate element set is not imported. and contact node sets Materials and section definitions Beam profiles Although sections are imported.1. When you submit an input file for analysis. and Files You can use the Mesh module to change the element type assigned to an orphan mesh imported from an input file. F3D3. but their section properties are not yet supported: • Acoustic interface elements (ASI*) • Dashpot elements (DASHPOT*) • • • • • • • • • • • Distributing coupling elements (DCOUP*) Drag chain elements (DRAG*) Hydrostatic fluid and fluid link elements (F2D2. The following functionality can be imported into a model from an output database: ! ! • • • • Nodes and elements Surfaces. Similarly. the assignment of a beam profile to the appropriate beam section is not imported. GAPSPHER.” Section 13. node and element sets. Databases. and DINTER*) Joint elements (JOINT*) Line spring elements (LS*) Mass element (MASS) Rotary inertia element (ROTARYI) Spring elements (SPRING*) Models.2 Importing a model from an output database You can use an output database to import a model into ABAQUS/CAE by selecting File Import Model from the main menu bar. ISL*.WHAT CAN YOU IMPORT FROM A MODEL? orphan mesh containing most of the commonly used element types. FAX2. the input file reader cannot import an orphan mesh containing the following element types: • Tube support elements (ITS*) • User-defined elements (U*) The following element types can be imported. in the online version of this manual. In addition.

and its orientation reflects the orientation of the part instance in the output database. you should know what type of part you want to analyze with ABAQUS and what you expect from the analysis. If this occurs. the model imported into ABAQUS/CAE contains a part and a part instance corresponding to each part instance in the output database. In addition.” Section 14.6 A logical approach to successful import The following list describes the steps that you should follow if you experience problems importing a solid part into ABAQUS/CAE: Defeature the part Before you export a solid part from a CAD system. Modify the import options in ABAQUS/CAE If you are importing a part from an IGES file. these materials will be missing from the model. the orientation of the imported part may be different from the orientation of the part in the input file that created the output database. you can choose the following options: • Trim Curve Preference • Scale • MSBO You can also specify the levels in the IGES file from which to import. see “Know what you want as an end product. As a result. If the input file that created the output database was not structured using parts and assemblies. you can import the model from the input file instead of from the output database. 14. you may want to remove excessive detail that will influence the mesh and dominate the time taken to perform the analysis.1. For more information.” Section 14. 14–20 . see “What are the IGES options in ABAQUS/CAE?. As a result. For example. For more information on the effects of setting these options.1. ABAQUS/CAE writes the mesh definition to the output database as a single part and a single part instance. The nodes and elements that define a part instance in an output database have been translated and rotated to their position in the assembly.4. The resulting orphan mesh part that is imported into ABAQUS/CAE has the same name as the original part instance in the output database. ABAQUS/CAE imports a part from an output database by reading the nodes and elements that define each part instance in the assembly. As a result the output database cannot be imported. if you import the output database into ABAQUS/CAE. If the single part in the output database includes an analytical rigid surface. the assembly appears in ABAQUS/CAE along with each part instance. If the input file that created the output database was structured using parts and assemblies.A LOGICAL APPROACH TO SUCCESSFUL IMPORT output database. each part instance imported from the output database appears as a separate orphan mesh part in ABAQUS/CAE. As a result. the part that ABAQUS/CAE tries to import will contain an invalid combination of deformable parts and analytical rigid parts.3.

Try to repair the part manually If you use the automatic repair option but ABAQUS/CAE still indicates that a part is imprecise. • Turn on shaded render style with the underlying surface. You should manually delete the face or import the part again without using the Convert to precise representation automated repair option.log – abaqus_read_iges. a border around the part or a title block. Diagnose and locate problems If you are not sure why a part is still unusable by ABAQUS/CAE. • Look at the IGES Entity Filter list in the IGES Options dialog box for unsupported entities. you should check the export settings and regenerate the file. see “What does automatic repair do?. you can try the following: • Look at the diagnostic files: Models. If ABAQUS/CAE requires a precise part to proceed (for example. For more information. Entities in the file that are not related to the part definition will cause the import to fail. Ideally. Faces that cannot be meshed by ABAQUS/CAE are an indication of small faces or edges. the file describing the part may be invalid or contain illegal statements.5. • Try to mesh the part. see “What do the manual repair tools provide?. Databases. Try to reimport the part If the automatic and manual repair tools fail to produce a valid part.” Section 48. You should try to import the part back into the CAD system that created it. and Files – abaqus_repair_part. you should first try to repair the part automatically using the Repair toolset in the Part module. you can use the Repair toolset in the Part module to edit the part manually. for example.4.” Section 48. if you need to partition the part). If the part cannot be imported. you should not try to import a part into ABAQUS/CAE until you know that it can be imported back into the CAD system that generated the part.” Section 48.3. For more information. you may be able to continue working with an imprecise part. see “The automated repair log file. . 14–21 . A face will not shade correctly if it does not coincide • Grey or lighter unconnected lines on a face are silhouette lines indicating undulations in the surface that ABAQUS/CAE introduced while attempting to make the surface more precise.A LOGICAL APPROACH TO SUCCESSFUL IMPORT Try to repair the part automatically If you import the part and ABAQUS/CAE indicates that the part is invalid.log For more information.

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“The Property module” • • • • • • • • Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 17. The following topics are covered: • Chapter 15. 19. 24. “The Part module” • Chapter 16. 20. 18. 21. 23.Part IV Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules This part describes how to use the modules in ABAQUS/CAE to define a model’s geometry and other physical properties and then submit the model for analysis. 22. “The “The “The “The Assembly module” Step module” Interaction module” Load module” “The Mesh module” “The Job module” “The Sketch module” “Modeling techniques” .

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22 “Adding a wire feature.15 “Understanding toolsets in the Part module.” Section 15. modify.” Section 15.” Section 15.1 “Entering and exiting the Part module.THE PART MODULE 15.4 “Copying a part.8 “What types of features can you create?.9 “Using feature-based modeling effectively.” Section 15.24 “Using the Edit Feature dialog box.” Section 15. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: 15–1 .11 “What is part locking?.” Section 15.16 “Using the Part module toolbox.” Section 15. and sweeping?.2 “Understanding feature-based modeling.17 “Managing parts.” Section 15.” Section 15.” Section 15. revolving.” Section 15.10 “Capturing your design and analysis intent. “A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model.” Section 15.12 “What are extruding.25 “Using the Edit Loft dialog box.” Section 15.13 “What is lofting?.” Section 15.” Section 15.” Section 15.” Section 15. The following topics are covered: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Understanding the role of the Part module.” Section 15. You use the Part module to create each part.” contains examples of how you create.” Section 15.26 Part Module In addition.14 “Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module.7 “The reference point and point parts.3 “How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?.23 “Adding a cut feature.6 “Modeling rigid bodies and display bodies. and you use the Assembly module to assemble instances of the parts.18 “Using the Create Part dialog box.” Section 15.20 “Adding a solid feature.” Section 15.19 “Adding a feature to a part. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Part module to work with parts.” Section 15.5 “Orphan mesh parts. Chapter 4. The Part module Parts are the building blocks of an ABAQUS/CAE model.” Section 15. and manipulate parts.” Section 15.” Section 15.” Section 15.21 “Adding a shell feature.

resume. suppress. partitions. edit. a circular through cut is a feature. etc. Import the part mesh from an output database. Merge or cut part instances in the Assembly module. The Part module allows you to do the following: • Create deformable. • Use the Set toolset. A feature captures your design intent and contains geometry information as well as a set of rules that govern the behavior of the geometry. ABAQUS/CAE stores each part in the form of an ordered list of features.2 Entering and exiting the Part module You can enter the Part module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Part in the Module list located under the toolbar. These profiles can be extruded. or analytical rigid parts. and regenerate a part’s features. Shape. and rounds—that define the geometry of the part. and manage the parts in the current model.” Section 15. Import a meshed part from an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file. and ABAQUS/CAE stores the diameter of the cut along with the information that it should pass all the way through the part. 15. • Assign the reference point to a rigid part. shells. If you increase the size of the part. and Tools menus appear on the 15–2 . • Create the features—solids. Import the part from a file containing geometry stored in a third-party format. and manage the two-dimensional sketches that form the profile of a part’s features. and datum geometry. For example.” Section 15. hole diameter. The Part. revolved.ENTERING AND EXITING THE PART MODULE • “Blending edges. and the Datum toolset. wires. There are several ways to create a part in ABAQUS/CAE: A part created using the Part module tools is called a native part and has a feature-based representation. or they can be used directly to form a planar or axisymmetric part.27 • “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Part module.1 • • • • • • Understanding the role of the Part module Create the part using the tools available in the Part module. Feature. The parameters that define each feature— extruded depth. cuts. Create a meshed part in the Mesh module. You use the Part module to create. discrete rigid. These toolsets operate on the part in the current viewport and allow you to create sets. • Use the Sketcher to create. delete. The part tools also allow you to edit and manipulate the existing parts defined in the current model. ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the depth of the cut should increase so that it continues to pass through the part. edit. respectively.28 15. sweep path. • Use the Feature Manipulation toolset to edit. the Partition toolset.—combine to define the geometry of the part. or swept to create part geometry.

3. to regenerate the part if you modify it.3.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE stores each feature and uses this information to define the entire part. and to generate an instance of the part in the Assembly module. ! ! 15. you construct the remainder of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature. and the title bar of the current viewport displays the name of the current part. You can revisit the base feature and change its size or shape by using the Feature Manipulation toolset to modify either the section sketch or the extrusion distance. You need not take any specific action to save your parts before exiting the module. The following sequence illustrates how the three-dimensional part in Figure 15–1 would be constructed using each of the features available in ABAQUS/CAE: 1. as shown in Figure 15–2. The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature. If desired. Parts created in ABAQUS/CAE are constructed from an ordered list of features and the parameters that define the geometry of each feature. you can delete the base feature and sketch a new shape.” Section 15. see “Part instances. To exit the Part module. A stiffening web is added as a shell feature. the user sketched a two-dimensional profile and extruded it to form the base feature. if one exists. For more information on how parts are related to part instances. In this example the base feature is a U-shaped part. The sketch is the only modifiable parameter that defines the shell feature. 2. You select from the following shape features to build a part in the Part module: • • • • • Solids Shells Wires Cuts Blends Using the tools in the Part module. you create and edit all the features necessary to describe each of the parts in your model. 15.3 Understanding feature-based modeling This section describes the feature-based modeling approach that ABAQUS/CAE uses to define a part. as shown in Figure 15–3. they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. A feature is a meaningful piece of the design and provides the engineer with a convenient and natural way to build and modify a part. The user sketched a line on one of the internal faces and extruded the sketch to the opposite face.3. select any other module from the Module list.1 The relationship between parts and features A part created in ABAQUS/CAE has a feature-based representation. Part Module 15–3 . The sketch and the extrusion depth (a) are the modifiable parameters that define the base feature.

cut. shell. sketched profile Figure 15–3 A shell feature.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING Figure 15–1 Part constructed using solid. 15–4 . a Figure 15–2 The base feature. and blend features. wire.

The sketch and the depth of the slot are the modifiable parameters that define the blind cut feature. as shown in Figure 15–4.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING 3. and the profile was extruded into the clamp through a specified distance. 4. The user sketched a two-dimensional profile. The wire was created by connecting two points that the user selected. as shown in Figure 15–5. sketched profile Part Module Figure 15–5 A cut feature. Figure 15–4 Wire features. A blind cut is cut into the top of the clamp. Rods are added to the corners as wire features. they must be deleted and recreated if you need to change them. Wires created in this way have no modifiable parameters. 15–5 .

The edges of the cut are rounded. you construct the remainder of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature. the fillets would fail to regenerate after the modification.2 The base feature The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature. If the geometry of a new feature depends on an existing feature. in the part described above if you were to increase the depth of the cut so that it became a through cut. 15. For example. that is. The new feature is the child. ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the rounds. If you change the position or size of the cut. if you delete the cut. you start with a piece of billet stock (the base feature) and then you do the following: 15–6 . Figure 15–6 Round features. ABAQUS/CAE creates a parentchild relationship between the features.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING 5. ABAQUS/CAE offers you the following two choices: • Keep the changes to the parent feature but suppress the features that failed to regenerate. the edges remain rounded. Children of the suppressed features will also be suppressed. For example. and the feature it depends on is the parent. the modification may invalidate children of the parent feature. The radius is the modifiable parameter that defines the round feature. in the part described above the round feature is a child of the cut feature. as shown in Figure 15–6.3. If you modify a parent feature. Similarly. you would lose the fillets along its edges. For example. • Abort the modification of the parent feature and return to the state of the last successful regeneration. The user selected the edges to round and provided the radius of the round. This process of building an ABAQUS/CAE native part using the tools in the Part module follows a sequence of operations analogous to building a part in a machine shop.

a revolved cut. For more information on creating parts. When you create a new part. Sweep You sketch two shapes: a sweep path and a sweep profile. You do this by specifying two properties of the base feature: its shape and type.” Section 15. or point. Extrusion You sketch the feature profile and then extrude it through a specified distance.19. The type indicates which of the following methods will be used to generate the base feature: Planar You sketch the feature on a two-dimensional sketch plane. or a sketched wire). that is. Table 15–1 shows the base features that you can select based on the part’s modeling space and type. Table 15–1 Choosing the base feature. see “Using the Create Part dialog box. shell. Modeling Space Part Type Deformable Discrete rigid Three-dimensional Any Any (you must convert a 3-D solid discrete rigid part to a shell before you instance it) Extruded or revolved shell Two-dimensional or Axisymmetric Planar shell. or point Planar wire or point Part Module Analytical rigid Planar wire 15–7 . wire. Revolution You sketch the feature profile and then revolve it by a specified angle about an axis.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING • Attach additional pieces to the billet (apply a solid extrusion. The profile is then swept along the path to create the feature. Coordinates You enter the coordinates of a single point in the prompt area. in the online version of this manual. • Cut away the billet (apply an extruded cut. The shape indicates the basic topology of the feature. Before you create a part and choose the shape and the type of the base feature. planar wire. you should know the sequence you will use to construct the desired part. Choosing the correct type and shape of the base feature is important. you must describe the base feature. whether it is a solid. or round or chamfer an edge). a revolved shell. or a circular hole.

and a wheel. • Two instances of the axle.” Section 15. The Interaction module.19 15. • Four instances of the axle mount. However. The following example illustrates the relationship between parts and part instances. You cannot modify the features of a part instance directly. an orphan mesh part is created in the Mesh module or imported from an output database as the base feature of a new part.3. A part instance is a reference to the original part. 15–8 . You cannot modify this base feature. when you assemble the model using the Assembly module.” Section 15. but you can add additional features to it. You then position the instances relative to a common coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE automatically regenerates all instances of the modified part in the assembly. the Load module. • One instance of the handle. Similarly. • Four instances of the wheel.3 Part instances A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part. an axle. a handle. not the part itself. A child’s wagon is composed of five parts: a body. In the Part module you create each of the five parts shown in Figure 15–7: • One body • One axle • One axle mount • One handle • One wheel In the Assembly module you assemble instances of each part: • One instance of the body. When you modify a part. therefore. You can use the mesh editing tools to add and delete nodes and elements from an orphan mesh part. you work only with instances of the part. You create a part in the Part module and define its properties in the Property module.18 • “Using the Create Part dialog box. and the Mesh module also operate on the assembly and. as shown in Figure 15–8. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on creating and defining a new part and managing the parts in your model. on part instances. you can modify the part itself only within the Part module. an axle mount.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING A part imported from a file containing third-party format geometry consists of a single feature that you import into ABAQUS/CAE as the base feature of a new part. it is not a copy. thereby creating the model of the cart. The following topics are covered: • “Managing parts.

Part sets are transferred when you create a part instance from a part. you can assemble instances of deformable. see “Part types.2. suppose you want to reduce the diameter of the wheels. see “Understanding sets and surfaces. ABAQUS creates part instance sets that refer to any part sets that you previously created. Handle Figure 15–7 5. When you instance the part in the Assembly module. When you return to the Assembly module. For example. You return to the Part module and modify the diameter of the wheel by editing the original part. Figure 15–8 The model is assembled from instances of the parts. ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the part was modified and automatically regenerates the four instances of the wheel to reflect the change in the diameter. Wheel The original parts. For more information on the types of parts you can create in ABAQUS/CAE. For more information. In addition. Part Module 15–9 . You can create multiple instances of a single part. Axle 3. you might create a set from a region of a part and use the Property module to assign a section to that set. Axle Mount 4.” Section 15.” Section 49. Body 2. and discrete rigid parts when you are solving contact problems. you can select an eligible part instance set during a procedure by clicking the Set button and selecting the set from the Region Selection dialog box that appears.4. however.UNDERSTANDING FEATURE-BASED MODELING 1. You cannot access a part instance set from the Set Manager. ABAQUS provides read-only access to these part instance sets in assembly-related modules. analytical rigid. Now.2.

You model a two-dimensional planar part using two-dimensional solid continuum elements.4 How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE? This section describes the parts you can create in the Part module—deformable and rigid. You copy a part by selecting Part Copy part name from the main menu bar. cut. A three-dimensional part can contain any combination of solid. ! ! 15. You model a three-dimensional part using three-dimensional solid. If you copy the part and simplify the feature list. the new part will contain only one feature that defines the final version of the slot.3. round and chamfer features. you must specify the modeling space in which the part will reside. Z coordinate system.1 Part modeling space When you create a new part. 15. Axisymmetric ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X–Y plane with the Y-axis indicating the axis of revolution. and all cut features are defined as planar through cuts. If you reduce the feature list. A two-dimensional planar part can contain a combination of only planar shell and wire features. the original part contains features that define each variation of the slot. Thus. ABAQUS/CAE will regenerate the part faster if you subsequently modify it. you will no longer be able to modify any parameters of the part. beam. shell. or membrane elements.4. For example. however. An axisymmetric part can contain a combination of only planar shell and wire features. shell. you can reduce all the feature and parameter information to a simple definition.4 Simplifying a part’s feature list When you copy a part to a new part. as well as truss or beam elements. Y. if you created a slot and redimensioned the slot before arriving at the final design. Simplifying a part’s feature list is especially useful if you have spent a lot of time creating a part and have iterated many times over the design. Two-dimensional planar ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X–Y plane. You model an axisymmetric part using axisymmetric solid continuum elements or axisymmetric shell elements. truss. you can create a three-dimensional part using a topologically two-dimensional 15–10 . You can assign the following three types of modeling space: Three-dimensional ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X. and all cut features are defined as planar through cuts. Modeling space refers to the space in which the part is embedded rather than to the topology of the part itself. wire.HOW IS A PART DEFINED IN ABAQUS/CAE? 15.

a discrete rigid part is assumed to be rigid and is used in contact analyses to model bodies that cannot deform. two-dimensional. However. or electrical. The three possible types are: Deformable Any arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric. you can specify the part’s modeling space. • When you create an orphan mesh part in the Mesh module. By default.7. However. Part Module Discrete rigid A discrete rigid part is similar to a deformable part in that it can be any arbitrary shape. Analytical rigid An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid surface in a contact analysis. the load can be mechanical. thermal.6. and analytical rigid parts in the Assembly module. the shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary and must be formed from a set of sketched lines. you can export a part in ACIS format and then import it as a new ACIS part of a different type. You can assemble deformable bodies.2 Part types When you create a new part or import a part from a file containing geometry stored in a third-party format. in the online version of this manual.” Section 15. • When you import an orphan mesh part from an output database. You cannot change a part’s type after you have created it. 15–11 . Detailed instructions on how to specify modeling space when creating and importing a part can be found in “Choosing the modeling space of a new part. You cannot change an ABAQUS/CAE native part’s modeling space after you have created the part. and “Importing sketches and parts. ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling space of the new part from the element type. However.4. ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling space of the new part from the information stored in the output database. or three-dimensional part that you can create or import can be specified as a deformable part. ABAQUS/CAE uses the following methods to determine the modeling space of an imported part: • When you import a part from a file containing geometry stored in a third-party format.” Section 6.19. the modeling space of the orphan mesh part is the same as the modeling space of the original part. and parabolas. you must choose the part’s type.HOW IS A PART DEFINED IN ABAQUS/CAE? shell feature or a one-dimensional wire feature. see “Getting help. For instructions on using the online documentation. 15.2. discrete rigid parts.” Section 14. • When you import an orphan mesh part from an input file. provided that ABAQUS/CAE does not determine it must be three-dimensional. arcs. ABAQUS/CAE creates parts that are deformable. A deformable part represents a part that can deform under load.

You should set the approximate size of the part to match the largest dimension of the finished part. If you find that you need to specify an approximate size that is outside the suggested range. use the Sketch customization options to increase the sheet size.3. you must choose the part’s approximate size. ABAQUS/CAE determines the type of the new part from the element type. • When you import an orphan mesh from an input file. ACIS is an object-oriented toolkit designed for use as a geometry engine for modeling applications and is considered the industry standard for geometry modeling. see “Setting the approximate size of the new part. ABAQUS/CAE determines the type of the new part from the information stored in the output database. or you can do the following during the copy operation: Compress features ! ! ABAQUS/CAE reduces all the feature and parameter information to a simple definition of the part. see “Copying a part. However. see “Choosing the type of a new part. 15–12 . in the online version of this manual. you should specify an approximate size that is greater than 0. The size that you enter is used by ABAQUS/CAE to calculate the size of the Sketcher sheet and the spacing of its grid.3 Part size When you create a new part.19. such as a vertex or an edge. If you find subsequently that the part exceeds the size of the Sketcher sheet.18.COPYING A PART ABAQUS/CAE uses the following methods to determine the type of an imported part: • When you import a part from a file containing geometry stored in a third-party format. As a result. • When you create an orphan mesh part in the Mesh module.5. You cannot change a part’s approximate size after you have created it. in the online version of this manual. For more information. ABAQUS/CAE uses the ACIS geometry engine to represent a part. it is recommended that you specify an approximate size that is less than 100000 (105 ) units. 15. The ACIS format uses a tolerance of 10−6 to define a geometric entity.5 Copying a part Select Part Copy part name from the main menu bar to copy a part to a new part. the type of the orphan mesh part is the same as the type of the original part. You can create an identical copy of the original part.3.” Section 15.” Section 15. • When you import an orphan mesh from an output database. For detailed instructions on how to specify the approximate size of a part when creating it. 15.19. ABAQUS/CAE will regenerate the part faster if you subsequently modify it. As a result. you should consider adopting a different set of units. For detailed instructions on how to set the type of a part when creating it.4. you can copy the part to a new part and scale the part during the copy operation.” Section 15. in the online version of this manual. Similarly. you can specify the part’s type to be either deformable or discrete rigid.001 (10−3 ) units to allow for node and element dimensions that are within the ACIS tolerance.

you will no longer be able to modify any parameters of the part. you can copy the part to a new part and scale it to the correct dimensions in the process. and separate disconnected regions options operate on both native parts and orphan meshes. see “Importing sketches and parts. Y–Z.6 Orphan mesh parts An output database contains the data generated during an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. ABAQUS/CAE also compresses its features. If you select the Mirror part about option. The compress.” Section 15. For more information. or X–Z). If you choose to scale a part. ABAQUS/CAE will separate disconnected regions into separate parts. You can use the Part Manager to view the status of each imported part.4. repairing the part. In some cases you can produce a valid part by scaling the part down. ABAQUS/CAE assumes that all connected nodes belong to a single part and does not take element type into consideration. For more information. see “Importing a part from an output database. see “Simplifying a part’s feature list. If the scale of the imported part is incorrect. You can also scale an imported part during the import process. or you can copy an orphan mesh part. In effect. springs. Scale part by ABAQUS/CAE scales the new part by the scale factor that you enter.” Section 14. You can use scaling to correct imported parts. ABAQUS/CAE imports separate parts as a single part.” Section 14. and then scaling the part back to its original dimensions. in the online version of this manual.or VDA-FS-format part and select the Stitch edges repair option. in the online version of this manual. Separate disconnected regions into parts In some cases when you import an IGES. You can copy an orphan mesh part and separate it into disconnected parts based on nodal connectivity. ABAQUS/CAE ignores connectivity between axisymmetric solid elements with nonlinear.ORPHAN MESH PARTS however. elements. mirror. For more information. You can copy an ABAQUS native part.” Section 14.7. and joint). you can import a part into ABAQUS/CAE from an input file in the form of an orphan mesh. dashpots. asymmetric deformation (CAXA) and some line elements (connectors. If you toggle on the Separate disconnected regions into parts option and copy the imported part to a new part. in the online version of this manual. the mesh information has been orphaned from its parent geometry. You can import a part from an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. For more information.3. ABAQUS/CAE selects the Compress features option.” Section 14. You can also create an orphan 15–13 . For more information. surfaces.11. Part Module 15. see “Importing a model. see “Controlling the import process. scale. and sets with no associated geometry.7.8.3. In addition. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as a collection of nodes. gap. However. Mirror part about plane ABAQUS/CAE mirrors the part about the selected plane (X–Y.

....7 Modeling rigid bodies and display bodies This section describes rigid bodies and display bodies. a part that you define as deformable can deform during contact with either a rigid part or another deformable part..MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES mesh part from the meshed assembly in the Mesh module. die blank mold Figure 15–9 Rigid and deformable parts. . For example. • Use the Edit Mesh toolset to edit the mesh definition. see “Editing an orphan mesh part in the Part module.... in the online version of this manual. In contrast to a part that you define as rigid.... see “Creating an orphan mesh part. you can specify that one or more of the parts is rigid.. and the die moves through a prescribed path during the stamping process. you cannot add geometric features to it.” Section 21. A rigid part represents a part that is so much stiffer than the rest of the model that its deformation can be considered negligible..” Section 21..7.1.. For more information. An orphan mesh part appears in the model’s list of parts.1.6. a model of a metal stamping process might use a deformable part to model the blank and rigid parts to model the mold and die. In this example the mold is constrained to have no motion. ... in the Mesh module you can change the element type assigned to an orphan mesh. ! 15. as shown in Figure 15–9... however. 15.. In addition.18. .. .1 Rigid parts When your model contains parts that contact each other.. see “Verifying your mesh. For more information. For more information. You can do the following with an orphan mesh part in the Part module: • Select Part Verify Mesh from the main menu to verify the quality of an orphan mesh.” Section 43. . rigid surface deformable body rigid surface .2. You control the motion of rigid parts by selecting a rigid body 15–14 ... ......

you can use all the Part module feature tools—solids.” Section 15.8.7. Therefore. cuts. Analytical rigid parts An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid part in a contact analysis. wires. you should use an analytical rigid part when describing a rigid part because it is computationally less expensive than a discrete rigid part. the motion of the rigid body is determined completely by the reference point. and “Using display bodies in your model. The shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary. see “The reference point. You can choose between two kinds of rigid parts: Discrete rigid parts A part that you declared to be a discrete rigid part can be any arbitrary three-dimensional. you must return to the Part module and convert the faces of the solid to shells. If you try to create an instance of a solid discrete rigid part in the Assembly module. or axisymmetric shape. During the analysis element-level calculations are not performed for rigid parts. Although some computational effort is required to update the motion of the rigid body and to assemble concentrated and distributed loads. it is recommended that you create deformable parts and use rigid body constraints and display bodies to simplify the analysis.” Section 24. Part Module revolved sketched profile Figure 15–10 A revolved analytical rigid part. For more information. shells. If possible.3.1. However.” Section 15.2. However. only discrete rigid parts containing shells and wires can be meshed with rigid elements in the Mesh module. For more information. see “What is the difference between a rigid part and a rigid body constraint?. and the profile must be smooth. two-dimensional. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message. Computational efficiency is the principal advantage of rigid parts over deformable parts. and blends—to create a discrete rigid part.MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES reference point and constraining or prescribing its motion. you cannot subsequently change a part’s type from rigid to deformable. As a result. 15–15 . as shown in Figure 15–10. You can use only the following methods to create an analytical rigid part: • You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and revolve the profile around an axis of symmetry to form a three-dimensional revolved analytical rigid part.

as shown in Figure 15–12. as shown in Figure 15–13. the Part module displays a three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part with a depth that you specify.MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES • You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and extrude the profile infinitely to form a three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part. • You can sketch the profile of a planar two-dimensional analytical rigid part. • You can sketch the profile of an axisymmetric two-dimensional analytical rigid part. Although ABAQUS/CAE considers that the extrusion extends to infinity. sketched profile extruded extruded Figure 15–11 An extruded analytical rigid part. as shown in Figure 15–11. 15–16 . Figure 15–12 A planar analytical rigid part.

you should create two adjacent arcs. You can then create a new analytical rigid part and copy the imported sketch into the Sketcher toolset. arcs.3. you can import the geometry of the analytical rigid part into a sketch. Arcs and fillets You use the Sketcher’s Arc and Fillet tools to sketch circular arcs or to fillet two lines.1. Any resulting arcs must subtend an angle less than 180.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Defining rigid bodies. A rigid part in ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to a rigid surface in an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. however.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Rigid elements.7.” Section 21. As an alternative.MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES axis of symmetry Figure 15–13 An axisymmetric analytical rigid part. Several tools are available in the Sketcher to help you construct each portion of the rigid part profile: Lines You use the Sketcher’s Line tool to sketch straight lines. if you want to construct an arc subtending an angle greater than 180.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Part Module 15.3. For more information. see the following: • “Defining analytical rigid surfaces.” Section 2. and parabolas. You can import a part from a file containing geometry stored in a third-party format and define it to be either a deformable or a discrete rigid part. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error 15–17 .1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Contact interaction analysis: overview. you cannot define an imported part to be an analytical rigid part.” Section 16.2 Sketching the profile of an analytical rigid part ABAQUS/CAE represents analytical rigid parts using profiles that are composed of a series of lines.” Section 2.

ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message if you create a spline using more than three points while sketching the profile of an analytical rigid part. In addition. arcs.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. where the three points are the start of the spline. You create a parabola by defining a three-point spline. in the online version of this manual.3.MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES message if you create an arc subtending an angle greater than 180 while sketching the profile of an analytical rigid surface. 15–18 . and parabolas. a point anywhere along the spline.8. and the end of the spline. see “Sketching splines. arcs. Only splines composed of exactly three points generate the parabolas required by the analytical rigid part definition. an arc. For more information on creating parabolas and maintaining tangency.9. or parabolas to eliminate any surface discontinuities (ABAQUS/CAE does not have an equivalent to the FILLET RADIUS parameter on the ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit *SURFACE option). the Part module tools cannot be used to add features when you return to the Part module from the Sketcher. You may want to apply a sequence of small lines. see “Defining analytical rigid surfaces. You can modify the part only by editing the original sketch. An analytical rigid part is defined completely by the two-dimensional profile of the base feature that you create with the Sketcher. however. consequently. You can construct an analytical rigid part from any combination of lines. and a fillet is illustrated in Figure 15–14. A sketch of an analytical rigid part that includes a line.” Section 23.” Section 2. consequently. the resulting profile must be a single connected (but not necessarily closed) curve. For more information on the rules governing analytical rigid surfaces. Splines You use the Sketcher’s Spline tool to sketch parabolas. the curve must be smooth to obtain a converged solution with ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Figure 15–14 A sketch of an analytical rigid part.

Rigid parts are associated with parts.3 What is the difference between a rigid part and a rigid body constraint? You can create a rigid part in the Part module by creating a part and declaring its type to be discrete or analytical rigid. You can then remove the constraint and run a full analysis with the part instance acting as a deformable body. For example. In contrast. to check that your basic model is correct. see “What is a valid and precise part?. You can apply a display body constraint to both deformable and rigid parts. You do not have to create a reference point for a part. in the online version of this manual. and the part is not included in the analysis. you might run a quick analysis with a rigid body constraint applied to the part instance. you can create a rigid body constraint in the Interaction module. if you do not create a reference point for a rigid part. In addition.7. you cannot create a rigid body reference point by associating an instance of the rigid part with a reference point created in the Assembly module. if you define a part to be deformable and apply a rigid body constraint to an instance of the part in the assembly. If you define a part to be rigid. and you can apply a display body constraint to both ABAQUS native parts and to orphan mesh parts. Motion or constraints that you apply to the reference point are then applied to the entire rigid part.” Section 14.14. For more information. however. Similarly. The relative positions of the regions that are part of the rigid body remain constant throughout the analysis. you cannot subsequently change the part type to be deformable.” Section 19. You can constrain the part instance to be fixed in space or you can constrain it to follow selected points. If you do not create a reference point in the Part module. you can associate the instance with a rigid body constraint and a reference point created in the Assembly module.4 What is a display body? A display body is a part instance that will be used for display only. the Visualization module displays the part along with the rest of your model. For detailed instructions on defining rigid body constraints and assigning a rigid body reference point. You create a display body by applying a display body constraint in the Interaction module.7. Rigid body constraints allow you to constrain the motion of regions of the assembly to the motion of a reference point. you can easily remove the constraint at a later time.MODELING RIGID BODIES AND DISPLAY BODIES 15. However. if you define a part to be rigid. if you define a part to be deformable. every instance of the part in the assembly is rigid.2. 15–19 . You can create a reference point and assign it to the rigid body reference point. However. For more information. Part Module 15. For example. rigid body constraints are associated with regions of the assembly. In contrast. you can select regions from a part instance and use a rigid body constraint to specify an isothermal rigid body for a fully coupled thermal-stress analysis. you can still include the part in your model as a display body. If ABAQUS/CAE reports that an imported part is invalid.1. you can use rigid body constraints to make only some of the instances rigid. even if the part type is discrete or analytical rigid. every instance of the part in the assembly must be included in a rigid body constraint.2. when you view the results of the analysis. see “Defining rigid body constraints. You do not have to mesh the part.

When you create the assembly. see “Controlling reference point display.THE REFERENCE POINT AND POINT PARTS see “Understanding constraints. two-dimensional.2. In addition.1. ABAQUS/CAE asks you if you want to delete the original point if you try to create a second point. For an example of a model that uses display body constraints. You can continue to add features to a point part.” Section 51. RP-2. A reference point on a part appears on all instances of the part in the assembly. You use the Interaction module to apply constraints to the reference point or the Load module to define the motion of the reference point using loads or boundary conditions. 15. for more information. If the part is a discrete or analytical rigid part. The assembly can include more than one reference point.1 The reference point You can use the Reference Point toolset to create a reference point that is associated with a part by selecting Tools Reference Point from the main menu bar. You can change the reference point label by selecting Rename from the Feature Manager. the reference point appears on each instance of the part.” Section 19. you can turn off the display of the reference point symbol and the reference point label.2 Point parts When you create a part. you can attach a display body to the point and use the display body to represent the original rigid part. You can add mass to a rigid point part by creating a point section with a point mass and assigning the section to the point part. In addition. 15–20 . or a point. A part can include only one reference point.8 The reference point and point parts This section describes how you can create a reference point that is associated with a part and how you can create a part containing just a single point that is also the reference point. see “Modeling connectors. Finally. or axisymmetric. you will use a point part to simplify your model by replacing a rigid part with a point part that has mass and inertia. 15.2. you can choose the shape of its base feature to be either a solid. More typically. If desired.” Section 24. see “Using display bodies in your model. For more information about the reference point. ! 15. If you select point.” Section 24. “The Reference Point toolset. such as datums and wires.5.7. The modeling space of a point part can be either three-dimensional. Motion or constraints that you apply to the reference point are then applied to the entire rigid part. RP-3.” ABAQUS/CAE displays the reference point at the desired location along with its label. you must specify the coordinates of the point and ABAQUS/CAE creates a part for which the base feature is a point at that location. see “Using display bodies in your model. a shell.8. the point is the reference point for the part. etc. and ABAQUS/CAE labels them RP-1. you use the reference point to indicate the rigid body reference point. see Chapter 47.8. a wire. The type of a point part can be either deformable or rigid. you can constrain the point part to your model using a connector such as JOIN or REVOLUTE.” Section 24. and ABAQUS/CAE labels it RP.

1 Solid features To create a solid feature.9. Once you have sketched the initial profile. ! extruded depth d sketched profile Figure 15–15 solid elements An extruded solid feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? 15. you can apply either draft or twist to the extrusion. 15. you extrude the profile through a specified distance (d). select Shape Solid from the main menu bar or select one of the solid tools in the Part module toolbox.9 What types of features can you create? After you select the type and shape of the part and sketch the two-dimensional profile of its base feature. you perform one of the following operations to create the feature: • To create an extruded solid feature. In addition. 15–21 . as shown in Figure 15–15. you add additional features or modify existing features to create the finished part. as shown in Figure 15–16. Part Module θ center of twist sketched profile Figure 15–16 sketched profile An extruded solid feature with draft and one with twist.

A construction line serves as the axis of revolution. ABAQUS/CAE determines the shape between the start and end sections using tangency constraints. no tangency constraints. A simple loft (with only two loft sections.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? You define the draft angle for an extrusion with draft or the center of twist and the pitch (the extrusion distance in which a 360 twist occurs) for an extrusion with twist. as shown in Figure 15–18. Select Shape Solid Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. Figure 15–18 In addition. Figure 15–19 shows a solid revolved 360 with pitch. ! ! 15–22 . Select Shape Solid Loft from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. construction line α sketched profile solid elements A revolved solid feature. intermediate sections. you revolve the profile through a specified angle ( ). Select Shape Solid Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. and a straight path) is shown in Figure 15–17. and a path curve. you transition the shape from the initial loft section to an end section of a different shape or orientation. • To create a revolved solid feature. • To create a solid loft feature. ! ! ! ! solid elements loft sections Figure 15–17 A solid loft feature. you can enter a pitch value (p) to translate the profile along the axis of revolution as it is revolved.

• To create a swept solid feature. Select Shape Solid Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. The following topics are covered: 15–23 . and Figure 15–20 illustrate how each feature might later be meshed. You cannot add a solid feature to a two-dimensional or axisymmetric part. see “Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile. ! ! sketched profile sketched sweep path solid elements Part Module Figure 15–20 A swept solid feature.8. For more information. You can mesh a solid feature using any of the three-dimensional. Figure 15–17.13.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? construction line p sketched profile Figure 15–19 A 360 revolved solid feature with pitch (p). as shown in Figure 15–20. solid continuum elements available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Figure 15–15.” Section 15. you sweep the profile along a specified path. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to add a solid feature to a three-dimensional solid part. You can use any of the solid tools to add a solid feature to a deformable or discrete part that you created in three-dimensional modeling space. Figure 15–18.

3 • “Adding a swept solid feature.” Section 15. To create a shell feature. sketched profile shell elements d extruded depth Figure 15–21 An extruded shell feature.2 • “Adding a revolved solid feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? • “Adding an extruded solid feature. 15–24 .” Section 15. you can apply either draft or twist to the extrusion. You create a shell feature by using the shell tools to do one of the following: ! • To create an extruded shell feature. as shown in Figure 15–21. you sketch a profile and extrude it through a specified distance (d).2 Shell features A shell feature is an idealization of a solid in which thickness is considered small compared to the width and depth.” Section 15.21. In addition. θ sketched profile sketched profile Figure 15–22 An extruded shell feature with draft and one with twist.4 15.21.21. select Shape Shell from the main menu bar or select one of the shell tools in the Part module toolbox.9. as shown in Figure 15–22.1 • “Adding a solid loft feature.21.” Section 15.

Select Shape Shell Sweep from the main menu bar to create this ! ! ! ! 15–25 . A simple loft (with only two loft sections. as shown in Figure 15–26. • To create a revolved shell feature. Figure 15–25 shows a revolved shell with pitch. Select Shape Shell Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. ! ! ! ! shell elements loft sections Figure 15–23 A shell loft feature. you sketch a profile and sweep it along a specified path. shell elements α sketched profile Part Module construction line Figure 15–24 A revolved shell feature. as shown in Figure 15–24. • To create a shell loft feature. no tangency constraints. and a straight path) is shown in Figure 15–23.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? You define the draft angle for an extrusion with draft or the center of twist and the pitch (the extrusion distance in which a 360 twist occurs) for an extrusion with twist. Select Shape Shell Loft from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. Select Shape Shell Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. intermediate sections. In addition. you transition the shape from the initial loft section to an end section of a different shape or orientation. you can enter a pitch value to translate the profile along the axis of revolution as it is revolved. and a path curve. • To create a swept shell feature. h would be equal to the pitch if the part was revolved a full 360. ABAQUS/CAE determines the shape between the start and end sections using tangency constraints. A construction line serves as the axis of revolution. The dimension h represents the translation of the sketched profile due to pitch. you sketch a profile and revolve it through a specified angle ( ).

the side of a cube). the shell feature is created only where it extends beyond the face. ! ! 15–26 . see “Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile. sketched sweep path shell elements sketched profile A swept shell feature. For more information. Select Shape Shell Planar from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. In this example the shell feature is a fin extending beyond the selected face of the cube. a shell feature cannot overlap a face.8.” Section 15. A sketch on a planar face of a cube and the resulting shell feature are shown in Figure 15–27.13. as shown in Figure 15–27.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? h sketched profile Figure 15–25 A revolved shell feature with pitch. you sketch the outline of the shell on a selected planar face or datum plane. Figure 15–26 type of feature. When you sketch on a planar face (for example. • To create a planar shell feature.

WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? sketched profiles shell elements 2 3 1 selected face Figure 15–27 A sketched shell feature. A shell-from-solid feature is shown in Figure 15–28. you convert the faces of a solid feature to shell features. Select Shape Shell From Solid from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. ! ! solid model Part Module ⇒ shell elements Figure 15–28 A shell-from-solid feature. hollow out a solid. 15–27 . • To create a shell-from-solid feature. in effect.

6 • “Adding a remove-face shell feature.22.” Section 16. For more information.” Section 16.” Section 15.22.3. however.” Section 15. when you are working on parts created in two-dimensional or axisymmetric modeling space. You use the Property module to create a section prescribing the desired thickness and to assign the section to the shell feature.22.3 • “Adding a swept shell feature. Select Shape Shell Remove Face from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. see “Defining sections. A remove-face shell feature is shown in Figure 15–29. and “Assigning properties to a part.” Section 15. Many of the figures illustrate how the shell features might later be meshed. a two-dimensional planar part. You can use any of the shell tools to add a shell feature to a part that you created in threedimensional modeling space.22.22.1 • “Adding a shell loft feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? • To create a remove-face shell feature. or an axisymmetric part.” Section 15.3.2.22.4 • “Adding a planar shell feature. You can mesh a shell feature using: • Two-dimensional or axisymmetric continuum elements (limited to planar shell features) • Three-dimensional shell elements • Membrane elements The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to add a shell feature to a three-dimensional solid part.22.7 15–28 .” Section 15. you remove selected faces from a solid and convert the remaining solid features to shell features. you can use only the planar shell tool to add a shell feature. The following topics are covered: • “Adding an extruded shell feature.2 • “Adding a revolved shell feature.5 • “Adding a shell-from-solid feature.” Section 15. ! ! shell elements Figure 15–29 A remove-face shell feature.” Section 15.

WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? 15. You can use the Merge wire with part geometry option to create only those wire segments that are unique from existing part geometry. however. the side of a cube). Select Shape Wire Spline from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. you can partition the face to simulate a wire extending over the face. To create a wire feature. or turn this option off to create all segments of the poly line wire.3 Wire features A wire is depicted as a line in ABAQUS/CAE and is used to idealize a solid in which both its thickness and depth are considered small compared to its length. as shown in Figure 15–32. Select Shape Wire Poly Line from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. You can use the ! ! 15–29 . When you sketch on a planar face (for example. • Connect any existing points in space with a spline curve.9. the wire feature is created only where it extends beyond the face. ! ! sketched profile elements Figure 15–30 A sketched wire feature. A sketched wire feature cannot overlap a face. ! ! Part Module elements Figure 15–31 A wire feature connecting three points. as shown in Figure 15–31. You create a wire feature in the Part module using the wire tools to do one of the following: ! • Sketch a wire on a selected planar face or datum plane to create a sketched wire feature. • Connect two or more points with straight lines. select Shape Wire from the main menu bar or select one of the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. Select Shape Wire Sketch from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. as shown in Figure 15–30.

” Section 15. Note: Although you can create a mesh of beam elements.2 • “Adding a spline wire feature.23.1 • “Adding a poly line wire feature.23. the current version of ABAQUS/CAE allows you to assign only the following sections to a wire: • Beam section • Truss section The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to add a wire feature to a three-dimensional solid part. The image on the left shows the full length of the spline wire. a two-dimensional planar part.The rectangular solid feature in Figure 15–32 is shown for reference.” Section 16.3.3. see “Defining sections.” Section 15. and “Assigning properties to a part.2. you can only modify the original sketch that defined that part.3 15–30 . You use the Property module to create a section that prescribes the desired cross-sectional geometry and to assign that section to the wire feature. The following topics are covered: • “Adding a sketched wire feature. You cannot add a wire feature to an analytical rigid part. truss. while the image on the right shows a spline wire connecting the same set of points using the Merge wire with part geometry option.” Section 15. or turn this option off to create all segments of the spline wire. or axisymmetric shell elements available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. You can use the wire tools to add a wire feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part.) You can model a wire feature using any of the beam.23. Merge wire with part geometry option to create only those wire segments that are unique from existing part geometry. or an axisymmetric part.” Section 16.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? Figure 15–32 A wire feature connecting several points of a solid feature. (For more information.

! Note: Most of the figures do not show a closed cut profile where it intersects with the part suface. you can apply either draft or twist to the extruded cut. as shown in Figure 15–33. The sketched profile of any cut must be closed. A cut can be a circular hole. intermediate sections. Select Shape Cut Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. Once you have sketched the initial profile. • To create a cut loft feature. These lines have been removed to show the shape of the cut feature. you transition the shape from the initial loft section to an end section of a different shape or orientation.9. or it can be any arbitrary shape. and path curves. In many cases the entire profile will affect the shape of the cut feature. select Shape Cut from the main menu bar or select one of the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. To create a cut feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? 15. ! ! ! ! 15–31 . you extrude the profile through a specified distance (d). as shown in Figure 15–34. as shown in Figure 15–35. even if it does not initially contact the surface being cut. You define the draft angle for an extruded cut with draft or the center of twist and the pitch (the extrusion distance in which a 360 twist occurs) for an extruded cut with twist. d sketched profile Part Module Figure 15–33 An extruded cut feature. you perform one of the following operations to create a cut feature: • To create an extruded cut. In addition. Select Shape Cut Loft from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.4 Cut features A cut is a feature that removes material from a part. ABAQUS/CAE determines the shape between the start and end sections using tangency constraints.

Figure 15–36 shows a revolved cut and a revolved cut with pitch.13. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes each of the profiles when you exit the Sketcher and creates a cut corresponding to each profile as shown in Figure 15–39. as shown in Figure 15–37. ! ! • To create a swept cut. • To create a revolved cut. you enter the diameter of a hole and the distance of its center from two selected edges.8. you can enter a pitch value to translate the profile along the axis of revolution as it is revolved and to create part details such as screw threads. as shown in Figure 15–38. you sweep the profile along a specified path. see “Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile. In addition. A construction line serves as the axis of revolution. or swept cut. Select Shape Cut Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. revolved.” Section 15. ! ! • To create a circular hole. you can sketch multiple profiles in a single sketch. Select Shape Cut Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. ! ! When you are sketching the profile of an extruded. you revolve the profile through a specified angle ( ). For more information.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? sketched profile Figure 15–34 Extruded cut features with draft and twist. 15–32 . Select Shape Cut Circular Hole from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. Figure 15–35 A cut loft feature.

diameter d1 Part Module d2 Figure 15–38 A circular hole feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? α construction line sketched profile sketched profile construction line Figure 15–36 A revolved cut and a revolved cut with pitch. sketched profile Figure 15–37 A swept cut feature. 15–33 .

24.1 • “Creating a loft cut.2 • “Creating a revolved cut. For example. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to add a cut feature to a three-dimensional solid part.” Section 15. the depth will change for all the cuts in the feature.5 Blend features A blend feature smooths an edge of a three-dimensional solid part. You cannot add a cut feature to an analytical rigid part.24. a two-dimensional planar part. ! ! 15–34 .3 • “Creating a swept cut. You create a blend feature in the Part module using the blend tools to do one of the following: ! • Smooth an edge with a circular blend of a specified radius. The sequence of cuts is stored as a single feature.4 • “Cutting a circular hole. as shown in Figure 15–40.24. or an axisymmetric part.24.9. Select Shape Blend Round/Fillet from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? Figure 15–39 Multiple profiles extruded from a single sketch.” Section 15.” Section 15. The following topics are covered: • “Creating an extruded cut. To create a blend feature.” Section 15. if you change the extrusion depth.5 15.24. select Shape Blend from the main menu bar or select one of the blend tools in the Part module toolbox. You can use the cut tools to add a cut feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part. and you can edit it only as a single feature.” Section 15. you can only modify the original sketch that defined that part.

You cannot add a blend feature to a two-dimensional or axisymmetric part. as shown in Figure 15–41. Select Shape Blend Chamfer from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. You can use the blend tools to blend edges of a deformable or discrete rigid part that you created in three-dimensional modeling space. you can blend its corners by editing the sketch of the part. ! ! Part Module Figure 15–41 A chamfer blend feature. • Bevel an edge with a chamfered blend of a specified length. however. 15–35 .WHAT TYPES OF FEATURES CAN YOU CREATE? Figure 15–40 A round/fillet blend feature.

You may find it cumbersome to edit or suppress individual items of geometry. if you apply a pressure load to a face and then return to the Part module to partition the face into two regions. and meshes. and. While sketching a feature.10 Using feature-based modeling effectively You can devise a more efficient approach to creating a part if you understand how ABAQUS/CAE uses feature-based modeling and how the rules that define a feature are applied. if you are sketching a circle. the cause of the failure to regenerate may be hard to determine. if you know that you will never change the final design.2 15. dependencies may cause feature regeneration to fail if you add more detail to the part.USING FEATURE-BASED MODELING EFFECTIVELY The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to blend edges of a three-dimensional part. a fillet. In addition. For example. The following techniques will help you create robust parts that can be easily modified: Plan a strategy Feature-based modeling provides flexibility. The simplest techniques may not provide the flexibility you need for modifying the features. such as sets. 15–36 .” Section 15. If you apply attributes to the assembly and then return to the Part module to modify the original part. you may be able to select reference geometry directly. Before you decide how to create a part. ABAQUS/CAE may not be able to determine where the attribute should be applied. but it can also add overhead to your model. Alternatively. You should try to finish creating all your parts before you apply attributes to the assembly. Alternatively.27. ABAQUS/CAE will apply the pressure to only one of the regions. you should always use underlying reference geometry to define the new feature’s location relative to existing features. you should consider the techniques that you will use to create the features that define the part. Although you could restore the extrusion subsequently by removing the cut feature. Use reference geometry When you are adding a feature to a part.” Section 15. For example. In general. you could effectively suppress the extrusion by removing it with a cut feature. you may be able to select a vertex from the reference geometry to define its center. or a hole. you should try to finish creating your parts in the Part module before you start creating part instances and positioning them in the assembly. such as an extrusion. you can suppress an extrusion using the suppress tool in the Feature Manipulation toolset. Alternatively. because the extrusion is no longer visible.27. The following topics are covered: • “Rounding edges. the resulting part contains additional feature-based information that can slow down regeneration.1 • “Chamfering edges. for example. If you decide that you might need to modify the part. you should always consider if you will ever need to modify the part in the future. you may not need the flexibility provided by feature-based modeling and can use the simplest and most convenient techniques to define the part. loads.

In contrast. Part Module Create solids where possible Solid features are more robust than shell features. Dimensions also add constraints to your sketches. and the part and assembly will regenerate accordingly. you should try to create solid features and convert the solids to shells when you have finished defining the shape. and planar features. cuts. You may find it hard to position a group of shell features and match up the edges precisely. 2. If you do not use reference geometry to position the sketch of a new feature and you subsequently modify the part. and sweeps. when you cut a slot.USING FEATURE-BASED MODELING EFFECTIVELY you may have to add a dimension between reference geometry and the new feature. extend its sketched profile above the surface you are cutting. if you subsequently want to add additional shell features to your shell part. Add your new solid features. sections of a solid can overlap and tolerance becomes less critical. if the new feature depends on an existing feature for positioning information. Use dimensions Dimensions add clarity to the sketches that define features and document your design intent for future reference. swept. 4. 3. 15–37 . Allowing for overlap makes your part robust. revolved. In addition. you should allow for overlap between an existing feature and a feature that fills a hole or cuts a hole. ABAQUS/CAE creates a parent-child relationship between the features. For example. Create the basic geometry of a part using extrusions. Delete the last solid-to-shell feature to convert the model back to a solid. A modeling scheme that is carefully ordered and follows the sequence below is less likely to run into unnecessary or ill-conditioned modeling problems: 1. 2. In addition. Allow for some overlap If possible. and the features are more likely to regenerate successfully. Pay attention to the order in which you create features A new feature of a part is aware of existing features. Add partitions only when the rest of the geometry is complete. as shown in Figure 15–42. Create a new solid-to-shell feature to convert the model back to a shell. Parent-child relationships and the order in which you created features play an important role in feature regeneration. Add extruded. If you are modeling a shell. Add round or fillet features. revolutions. Another advantage of using a solid is that you can use round and chamfer features to define the geometry. where the shell part was generated from a solid. the resulting changes to the feature can be unpredictable. you should do the following: 1. You can modify dimensions in the Sketcher. 3.

Sketch a base feature that includes the four holes. when you add a cut feature. If the cut feature represents a bolt hole. and add four separate cut features. you may wish to simplify it by suppressing features. Excessive detail. you can create a part with detailed features but suppress them prior to meshing the assembly. you can select either a through cut or a blind cut. such as fillets and small holes.CAPTURING YOUR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS INTENT The sketched profile of the slot extends beyond the face being cut. Design intent is the capability to make changes based on design considerations. 15–38 . if a model takes several days to analyze. detailed geometry. 15. Sketch a rectangular base feature. in turn. 2. the feature-based modeling approach used by ABAQUS/CAE allows you to capture both your design and analysis intent. As a consequence. consider the cover plate shown in Figure 15–43. Alternatively. 3. your final goal is usually a finite element analysis of a meshed representation of the part. For example. For an example of different feature-based design approaches based on design and analysis intent. Although ABAQUS/CAE allows you to create parts with complex. you should select a through cut. For example. dominate the time taken by ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to reach a solution. and add a single cut feature that cuts all four holes. you know that the hole must always pass completely through the part. can lead to regions with a very fine mesh that will. If the simplified model behaves as expected. and ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the hole remains through even when you change the thickness of the part.11 Capturing your design and analysis intent If used carefully. Sketch a rectangular base feature. you can unsuppress the features and resubmit a full analysis. Analysis intent is the capability to make changes based on analysis considerations. Figure 15–42 The sketched profile of a slot should extend beyond any surfaces that are cut. you could then submit an analysis that runs faster and checks your basic modeling assumptions. You could create the three-dimensional shell that models the plate in several ways: 1. The amount of detail you provide when you create a part in the Part module should be a reflection of your goals.

In addition. but your design intent and your analysis intent govern the best approach. such as when sharing a model with other ABAQUS users or when working on a model that contains many similar parts. you should create all four holes as a single cut feature. For example: • Do you want to create and analyze plates of varying sizes with different sized holes for different applications? If the diameter of all four holes is always identical. you should create four separate cut features. You can lock parts to prevent accidental changes. Part Module 15.12 What is part locking? Part locking is an ABAQUS/CAE function that prevents any changes to the features of a part. The Status field in the Part Manager indicates one of two conditions for any locked part: 15–39 . or suppressing features may make the assembly sweep meshable. Locked parts can be used in assemblies. However. and you can add or delete set and property definitions for locked parts. you could perform a series of analyses with the holes suppressed to determine the desired plate thickness. suppressing features may simplify the mesh that ABAQUS/CAE generates. Use Lock and Unlock in the Part Manager to lock or unlock any part in a model. but you must unlock parts before you can edit their features. If the analysis is straightforward and you do not need to analyze a simplified model. If you want to suppress all four holes in the example of the rectangular cover plate. you should create all four holes as a single cut feature. You could then unsuppress the holes and analyze the finished model. ABAQUS/CAE automatically locks all the parts in a model when it upgrades a database from an older version of ABAQUS.WHAT IS PART LOCKING? Figure 15–43 A model of a cover plate. if the diameter of individual holes might differ. However. In addition. if you want to suppress individual holes. • Do you want to suppress features before you finalize your design? For example. Either of the three approaches would generate the same part. you should sketch a base feature that includes the four holes. you should create four separate cut features.

ABAQUS/CAE regenerates that part and any assemblies that contain it. • A three-dimensional extruded shell feature. (For more information on imported parts. Locked A user locked the part by using Lock in the Part Manager.) 15. Unlocking a part that was locked by a user allows you to edit the features of the part. revolving. If you unlock a part that was locked by a database upgrade. 15. AND SWEEPING? Locked (Database upgrade) ABAQUS/CAE locked the part automatically while upgrading the model from a previous version of ABAQUS. see “Importing sketches and parts. unrelated. The sketch and the distance define the feature and can be edited using the Feature Manipulation toolset.13 What are extruding. Parts that are unlocked have an empty Status field unless it is used for other. and sweep a twodimensional sketch to create a three-dimensional part or feature. In this case unlocking the part does not require regeneration of the part or assemblies because no feature changes were possible while it was locked. You can recreate missing features on the unlocked version of the part and use it to replace the locked part throughout the model.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. the status of imported parts indicates whether they include imprecise or invalid geometry. any user can unlock and modify parts that were locked by another user. revolve. information. REVOLVING.7. • A three-dimensional extruded cut feature.1 Defining the extrusion distance You can sketch a two-dimensional profile and extrude it to create the following: • A three-dimensional extruded solid feature. For example. Note: Part locking is not a security feature. You can use this 15–40 . You must unlock a part if you plan on modifying it.” Section 14. If a part that you unlock fails to regenerate. in the online version of this manual. both the locked version and the unlocked version are retained. thus completing the upgrade faster than if all the parts were also regenerated. ABAQUS/CAE provides the following methods for defining the extrusion distance: Blind Specify the distance over which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. Locking the parts allows ABAQUS/CAE to regenerate only the assembly.13. and sweeping? The following sections describe the techniques you can use to extrude.

only the sketch can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane. and cut features. however. AND SWEEPING? method when creating extruded solid. you must create a new extruded cut feature. 15–41 .WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. shell. Figure 15–44 illustrates a blind extruded cut in a solid part. If you select this method to define the extrusion distance. REVOLVING. Select a single face to which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. Figure 15–46 illustrates a through all cut in a solid part. shell. Part Module extrude to this face Figure 15–45 Through All sketch plane A solid feature extruded up to a nonplanar face. it must completely contain the extruded section. sketch plane d Figure 15–44 Up to Face A blind extruded cut. This method is available only for extruded cut features. You can use this method when creating extruded solid. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch defining the profile of the cut completely though the part. and cut features. Figure 15–45 illustrates a sketch extruded to a nonplanar face. if you wish to extrude to a different face. If you select this method to define the extrusion distance. only the sketch can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. The selected face can be a nonplanar face.

When the direction is acceptable. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected feature in the viewport and the Edit Feature dialog box appears.2 Controlling the direction of an extruded feature When you add an extruded feature to a three-dimensional part. Editing the direction of an existing extruded feature When you select an extruded feature to edit. ABAQUS/CAE also displays the Edit Extrusion dialog box. a solid or shell feature is extruded outward such that material is added to the existing base feature. By default. however. 15.13. AND SWEEPING? sketch plane Figure 15–46 A through all extruded cut. You can control the direction of an extruded feature as follows: Choosing the direction while adding an extruded feature When you complete the sketch to add an extruded feature to an existing part. You cannot change the direction of extrusion when you are creating a new part because the part would be identical regardless of the direction. 15–42 . a cut feature is extruded inward such that material is removed from the existing base feature. ABAQUS/CAE does not display an arrow that indicates the direction of extrusion. The arrow in the viewport changes direction to show the new extrusion direction. You can control the direction of extrusion by clicking Flip in the Edit Extrusion dialog box. you can click Apply to view your changes. Conversely. You can reverse the direction of extrusion by toggling Flip extrude direction in the Edit Feature dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE chooses a default direction of extrusion from the sketched profile based on the type of feature you are creating. The sketched profile includes an arrow that indicates the extrusion direction. REVOLVING. click OK to end the editing process.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. ABAQUS/CAE displays the new sketched profile on the original part.

13. for basic information about all the available feature types and “Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features. The pitch defines the extrusion distance in which the profile would be twisted by 360.3 Including twist in an extrusion You can choose to include twist during the creation of an extrusion. for more information about revolved features. you can include pitch in a revolved solid.13. Part Module 15. Draft modifies an extrusion by adjusting the angle between the extruded surfaces and the original sketch plane. 15–43 .” Section 15. Twist can be used to create twisted cables. it is the point at which the axis used to twist the extrusion passes through the sketch plane. shell. center of twist. helical gears. Figure 15–47 illustrates a twisted extrusion. You can modify the extrusion profile. or cut feature. The center of twist is an isolated point in the sketched profile. Draft in an extrusion can also be used to create tapered parts. Draft can be used to accurately represent the small angle often applied to ease the removal of cast or molded parts from the tooling. so all extruded surfaces are perpendicular to the original profile. and cut features. If you want to create complex shapes in which the sketched profile is revolved rather than extruded. If external loops in a sketched profile are expanding. In a straight extrusion the draft angle is 0. See “What types of features can you create?.” Section 15. extrusion direction.4 Including draft in an extrusion You can choose to create an extrusion with draft. sketched profile center of twist Figure 15–47 A solid feature extruded with twist. such as screw threads or coil springs. REVOLVING. Twist modifies an extrusion by rotating the sketched profile about an axis parallel to the direction of extrusion.9.13. ABAQUS/CAE reverses the application of draft angle from internal to external features. internal ones are contracting. AND SWEEPING? 15. and pitch using the Feature Manipulation toolset. You can add twist during the creation of extruded solid. shell.5. and other complex shapes that can be formed by passing a constant cross-section through a sequence of parallel planes.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING.

and cut features. the application of draft made it smaller. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to include a twist degree of freedom in your model when you create an axisymmetric part.13. shell. the cut would look very different. sketched profile Figure 15–48 A cut feature extruded with draft. The top face of a trapezoid profile would immediately fall below the surface of the block instead of extending through the top surface.5 Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features When you create an axisymmetric part and when you add a revolved feature to a part. As the profile was extruded. The following rules apply to the sketch and to the construction line: Creating an axisymmetric part You can create axisymmetric parts that are defined by either a shell or a wire along with an axis of symmetry by selecting Part Create from the main menu bar. ! 15–44 . using the Feature Manipulation toolset. as shown. ABAQUS/CAE cannot mesh an extruded solid that includes draft with hexahedral elements unless you partition the solid into structured regions.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. along with the extrusion profile and direction. You can add draft during the creation of extruded solid. AND SWEEPING? this behavior is expected for draft and is required for part removal from tooling (all surfaces taper in the same direction). If the profile were a trapezoid whose top edge coincided with the edge of the block. ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line on the Y-axis of the sketch representing the axis of symmetry. You must sketch only to the right of the line. the sketch of the profile must include a construction line that defines the axis of rotation. REVOLVING. You can modify draft. Your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it. When you sketch the part’s base feature. 15. Note: The complete sketched profile for the cut in Figure 15–48 is a triangle. Figure 15–48 illustrates an extruded cut with draft in a solid part.

13. See “What types of features can you create?. when you add a revolved feature to an existing part. Creating revolved features You can create three-dimensional parts with a revolved solid or a revolved shell base feature by selecting Part Create from the main menu bar. the direction of translation for any revolved feature that you create in ABAQUS/CAE: 15–45 . you can control the direction of revolution. and you can choose whether to translate the profile along the axis of revolution by including pitch. if applicable. and cuts to three-dimensional solids and shells by selecting Shape Solid Revolve.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING.13. You can sketch to the right or to the left of the construction line. you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. and the same rules apply—you cannot delete this construction line. such as twisted cables or helical gears. Your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it. shells. When you create a new revolved part. for more information about extruded features. ABAQUS/CAE opens a dialog box to complete the definition of the revolved feature. The sketch of a revolved feature must contain a construction line representing the axis of revolution. and you must sketch only to the right of it. Part Module 15.” Section 15. ABAQUS/CAE creates a vertical construction line through the origin of the Sketcher grid. or Shape Cut Revolve from the main menu bar. If you include pitch in a revolved feature. you can add revolved solids. The descriptions that follow provide the details of controlling both the direction of revolution and. In contrast.” Section 15. or cut feature. you must sketch the construction line representing the axis of revolution. you can also control the direction of translation. Pitch allows the creation of parts such as coil springs and part details such as screw threads. REVOLVING. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the line that will represent the axis of revolution. When you exit the Sketcher. shell.9. Shape Shell Revolve. ABAQUS/CAE displays the original sketch and construction line when you add a feature.6 Controlling the direction of a revolved feature When you create a part with a revolved base feature or add a revolved feature to a three-dimensional part. You cannot select the datum axis directly. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! If you want to create complex shapes in which the sketched profile is extruded rather than revolved. for basic information about all the available feature types and “Defining the extrusion distance.1. You enter the angle through which the profile will be revolved and the direction of revolution. When you are sketching the construction line that represents the axis of revolution. If the completed sketch contains more than one construction line. AND SWEEPING? You can add only shell and wire features to an axisymmetric base feature. Similarly. You can also specify the direction of translation. You can use the datum axis to create concentric features. you can include twist in an extruded solid. If desired. The pitch value is the distance through which the profile would be translated during a rotation of 360. you can delete this construction line and redraw it at a new angle and position. you can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part if one exists.

If you select Include translation for the revolved feature. or you can choose to rotate the sketch normal to the helical path. the axis of revolution is also displayed. You can choose to keep the sketch parallel to the axis of revolution. The profile remains normal to the path throughout feature creation. Similar to the change for the direction of revolution. Toggle Flip pitch direction to reverse the direction of translation. You can reverse the direction of revolution by clicking Flip for Revolve direction in the dialog box. you can create coil springs or other features where the cross-section to the path is your sketched profile. Regardless of the pitch value. it rotates the sketched profile such that it is normal to the path of revolution at the starting point.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. 15. The 15–46 . the cross-section is both parallel to the axis of revolution and normal to the circular path at all times. Click Flip for Pitch direction in the dialog box to reverse the direction of translation. REVOLVING. In addition. the sketched profile is swept about a circular path described by the radius between the axis of revolution and the sketch. Click Apply to view your changes. If you are creating a part with a revolved base feature. ABAQUS/CAE displays the sketched profile including an arrow that indicates the direction of revolution. When you include pitch in a revolved feature. Click OK to accept the changes. toggle Flip revolve direction in the Edit Feature dialog box. To make your sketched profile normal to the helical path of the revolved feature with pitch.7 Controlling the cross-section of a revolved feature with pitch When you create a revolved feature without pitch. The arrow in the viewport changes direction to show the new direction of revolution. Using this option. rotate the view until you can discern the arrow direction that indicates the direction of revolution. AND SWEEPING? Choosing the direction while creating a revolved feature When you complete the sketch to create a revolved feature. the path of the sketch becomes helical instead of circular. you can edit the direction of translation. Click Apply to view your changes. the sketched profile remains parallel to the axis of revolution and the cross-section of the revolved feature will vary from the profile. If the revolved feature you are editing includes pitch.13. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected feature in the viewport and the Edit Feature dialog box appears. toggle on Sweep sketch normal to path in the Edit Revolution dialog box. If desired. a second arrow appears in the viewport to indicate the direction of translation along the axis of revolution. the cross-section will match the sketched profile. If you do not choose Sweep sketch normal to path. Editing the direction of an existing revolved part or feature When you select a revolved feature to edit. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Revolution dialog box. When ABAQUS/CAE creates the revolved feature. To reverse the direction of revolution. The cross-section of the revolved feature is the sketch. the corresponding arrow in the viewport changes direction to show the new translation direction.

REVOLVING. If the sweep path is closed. The sweeping tools are available only when you are working on a deformable or discrete part that you created in a three-dimensional modeling space. the closed sweep paths labeled “Bad” in Figure 15–51 are not allowed because the ends of the path meet at an angle. or cut feature. 15. shell.13. Shape Shell Sweep. unlike the sweep profile. You can create screw threads or other features where the cross-section parallel to the axis of revolution is your sketched profile. if there is no pitch. or Shape Cut Sweep from the main menu bar or select the equivalent tool from the Part module toolbox. a circular sketched profile creates a circular cross-section. However. you can toggle Move sketch normal to path in the Edit Feature dialog box. The sketches that define the sweep path and the sweep profile can both be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Figure 15–49 shows an example of a sweep path and a sweep profile. 15–47 . and then you sketch the sweep profile. If you increase the pitch. or cut feature. ! ! ! ! ! ! sweep path sweep profile Part Module Figure 15–49 An example of a sweep path and profile. shell.8 To Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile create a swept feature. For example. select Shape Solid Sweep. The sweep path can be any continuous path you can create with the Sketcher. Sweeping is a two-part operation: first you sketch the sweep path. the two ends of the path must meet tangentially. The feature created by sweeping the sweep profile along the above path is shown in Figure 15–50. The sweep profile must be closed when you are creating a swept solid or cut feature. the sweep path can be open or closed regardless of whether you are creating a swept solid. To change the cross-section behavior after the feature is created. For example. The beginning of the path is always perpendicular to the sweep profile. The profile is swept along the length of the path to form a three-dimensional solid. the cross-section will become increasingly elliptical.WHAT ARE EXTRUDING. AND SWEEPING? difference between the profile and the cross-section will increase as you increase the value of pitch. and the profile always remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length.

14 What is lofting? Lofting is a method that allows you to create complex three-dimensional features that cannot be created by extruding.” Section 15.4 15.” Section 15. For example.24.22.21. Bad Good Bad Good = start and end of sweep path are coincident Bad Good Figure 15–51 Invalid sweep paths. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using the Part module tools to add a swept feature to a three-dimensional part. you can use lofts to model an exhaust manifold 15–48 .WHAT IS LOFTING? Figure 15–50 The resulting swept feature. The following topics are covered: • “Adding a swept solid feature.4 • “Adding a swept shell feature. or sweeping.4 • “Creating a swept cut.” Section 15. revolving.

1 Defining the loft sections Loft sections represent the shape that the loft feature will have at a particular point along a loft path. You can define a loft path using the options on the Transition tabbed page of the Edit Loft dialog box. • Spline wire features. Moving a vertex or edge that is used in a loft section will change the shape of the section and the shape of the corresponding loft feature. At least two sections are required to create a loft feature.14. When you create a loft feature. The paths of a loft feature connect a point on the starting section to a point on the ending section. and loft tangencies prior to creating a loft feature and explains self-intersection. You can use individual edges from several features to define a single section. Any edges can be selected.WHAT IS LOFTING? that would be difficult to create by other means due to varying cross-sections. you can choose to modify the loft path or paths. You cannot modify loft sections directly. Then ABAQUS/CAE can create the path between sections automatically. In a solid or cut loft. Using the simplest means to define your loft sections will give you more control and will result in a more robust loft feature. shell. for example: • Edges that define extruded. or you can define one or more continuous paths connecting one point on each loft section to a corresponding point on the next section. the loft sections can either all be open or all be closed. • Edges that define planar wire or shell features. When you have defined the loft sections.14. You can define planar or nonplanar loft sections to create a loft feature. You first create sections that define the shape of the loft as it passes through an area in space. You can also choose from several tangency options to control the shape of the loft as it leaves the starting section or as it approaches the ending section. loft paths. the number of sections and their order within the loft cannot be changed. or cut loft features in ABAQUS/CAE. You create loft sections by picking from existing edges on the part in the current viewport. you can choose from the following methods to define a loft path: 15–49 . A loft feature transforms from a starting section shape and orientation to an ending shape and orientation. Once the loft is created. or swept features. In a shell loft. However. planar wires sketched on datum planes are one of the simplest means you can use to define the loft sections. each loft section must be a continuous closed loop with no branches. This section describes the options available for defining the loft sections. 15. You can create solid. Part Module 15. Once you create the loft feature.2 Defining a loft path Each loft feature that you create requires at least one loft path. If more than two loft sections are defined. you can use the Feature Manipulation toolset to edit features that created the edges used in the loft sections. each path also passes through a point on each intermediate section. revolved. You can create additional sections to control the shape of the loft between the starting and ending sections.

You must pick from existing line segments in the viewport to create paths connecting all of the loft sections. The loft feature is created by following the loft paths as they connect one loft section to the next.14. A loft feature with a single selected path behaves similarly to a swept feature except that the cross-section of the loft is constantly changing to match the position and shape of the next loft section along the path. This method also allows you to define multiple loft paths. as shown in Figure 15–53. If you choose Select path. Each path must be a smooth curve. you can select from existing edges to define a loft path. Loft tangency affects the angle at which the loft faces leave the first loft section 15–50 .3. ABAQUS/CAE creates a single smooth path that passes through the center of each loft section. 15. if you used Select path. If you select Specify tangencies. regardless of which path definition you chose. as shown in Figure 15–52. However. For more information on loft tangency.WHAT IS LOFTING? Specify tangencies Specify tangencies is the default loft path definition.3 Defining loft tangency If you accept the default Specify tangencies method for a loft. you can choose from several loft tangency options.14. Figure 15–52 Select path A loft feature with a path defined by ABAQUS/CAE. and it must connect the sections in the same order that they will be connected when the loft is created. you cannot edit the paths directly. see “Defining loft tangency. tool to Once the loft feature is created. you can edit the points that created each spline wire by using the Feature Manipulation toolset to edit the features that created the wire vertices. You can use the create the three-dimensional paths.” Section 15. You can apply tangency conditions that modify the shape of the loft near the starting and ending loft sections.

and approach the last section. you can set the start tangency to Normal and the end tangency to Radial.WHAT IS LOFTING? Figure 15–53 A loft feature with a single user-defined path. For example. and it is the only tangency setting that can be used with nonplanar sections. If you choose None. You can choose from the following options to define the loft tangency: None None is the default setting. You can set all of the loft tangency options except None independently for the starting and ending section. Part Module Figure 15–54 A loft feature with no tangency. None applies no conditions to the shape or direction of the loft. The edges of the loft feature will make a linear approach from the starting section to the second section and from the next-to-last section to the last section as shown in Figure 15–54. you must use it for both the start and the end tangency. diminishing in proportion to the distance from the start or end section. The shape of the loft feature between any intermediate sections is unaffected by the loft tangency. 15–51 . The effect of tangency settings is transient.

Similarly. 15–52 . the initial part of the lofted feature will be similar to a straight extrusion as shown in Figure 15–55. the initial part of the lofted feature will be similar to an extrusion with a draft angle approaching 90 as shown in Figure 15–56. Figure 15–55 Radial A loft feature with normal tangency at both ends. The Radial setting forces the faces created by the lofted edges to be at 0 to the first loft section as they are initially lofted toward the second section. Figure 15–56 A loft feature with radial tangency at the left end and normal tangency at the right end.WHAT IS LOFTING? Normal The Normal setting forces the faces created by the lofted edges to be at 90 to the first loft section as they are initially lofted toward the second section. Similarly. If you set Start Tangency to Normal. this setting forces the faces to be at 90 as they approach the last section of the loft feature. this setting forces the faces to be at 0 as they approach the last section of the loft feature. If you set Start Tangency to Radial. the faces initially radiate outward from the starting loft section or inward toward the ending loft section. Thus.

both applied with magnitudes of 25. and the severity of change between the loft sections.WHAT IS LOFTING? WARNING: If you attempt to create a loft feature with only two loft sections and a dissimilar number of vertices. the requirement to make a smooth transition from one loft section to the next may override some loft tangency effects. 15–53 . a Normal tangency setting corresponds to specifying an angle of 90 and a magnitude of 25% and a Radial tangency setting corresponds to specifying an angle of 0 and a magnitude of 25%. If you require greater control over the shape of the loft. Part Module 15. Figure 15–57 A loft feature with specified tangency at both ends.14. For reference. use the Select path method to define paths that the loft feature will follow exactly.4 Self-intersection checks Due to the complexity of features that you can create by lofting. setting both Start Tangency and End Tangency to Radial may cause the loft feature to fail. the initial part of the lofted feature will be similar to an extrusion with a draft angle of Angle degrees as shown in Figure 15–57. Depending on these conditions. A loft feature with self-intersections would be impractical as a manufactured part and would also be difficult or impossible to mesh and analyze. The angle of the loft faces at any point depends on the Angle and Magnitude % settings. You can define loft sections and paths such that the loft feature would intersect itself. If you set Start Tangency to Specify. Specify The Specify setting allows you to control both the Angle applied to the lofted edges and the Magnitude % that represents a relative distance through which the angle will affect the loft. the distance between consecutive loft sections. Figure 15–57 shows a Start Tangency angle of 45 (left) and an End Tangency angle of 135 (right). a set of tests is available to ensure that the geometry will be valid for analysis.

This section describes how these toolsets are used within the Part module. 15. the tests will significantly increase the time required to create the loft feature. you must choose the plane on which to sketch. ABAQUS/CAE tests for self-intersection while it is creating the loft feature. The time required to complete the tests varies with the complexity of the loft you are attempting to create. “The Datum toolset” • Chapter 44. refer to: • Chapter 42. ABAQUS/CAE automatically returns you to the Part module.15 Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module Sketches are two-dimensional profiles that form the geometry of the features defining an ABAQUS/CAE native part. For example. If you choose not to include the tests. “The Query toolset” • Chapter 47. You use the Sketcher to create these sketches. If you are adding a feature or modifying an existing feature. the Part module automatically enters the Sketcher and you operate on the sketch that forms the two-dimensional profile of the feature.” 15–54 . “The Reference Point toolset” • Chapter 48. “The Partition toolset” • Chapter 46.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE When you toggle on Perform self-intersection checks in the Feature Options dialog box. in the Part module you use them directly to define a planar part or a beam. if the shape of your loft varies greatly from section to section or if you have defined a complex loft path. ABAQUS/CAE displays a warning that there are invalid intersections and does not create the loft feature. add a feature to a part.3. “The Feature Manipulation toolset” • Chapter 45.4. “The Set and Surface toolsets” The Display Group toolset is discussed in Chapter 52. or you extrude.” Section 23. sweep. For more detailed information about each toolset.16 Understanding toolsets in the Part module The Part module provides a set of toolsets that allow you to add and modify the features that define a part. For a detailed description of how ABAQUS/CAE determines the orientation of the part relative to the sketch plane. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model. ABAQUS/CAE will create the loft feature regardless of whether the geometry is valid. or modify an existing feature. see “How ABAQUS/CAE orients your sketch. Whenever you need to create the base feature of a new part. or revolve them to form a three-dimensional or axisymmetric part. 15. “The Repair toolset” • Chapter 49. If there are any faces of the loft that intersect other faces. When you have finished sketching.

sketching the profile directly on a face results in a hole normal to the face. and any features you sketch on a datum plane will be projected onto the part. Examples of how you might use datum planes and axes in the Part module are given below. and the projected point can be selected. ! ! Datum plane You can sketch directly on datum planes. suppose you want to cut a hole straight through the three-dimensional triangular part shown in Figure 15–58. parallel to the X-axis. y x z Figure 15–59 A cut normal to the face. Projecting a sketch from a datum plane is useful if the part does not already contain a convenient sketch plane. A datum is a feature of a part and is regenerated along with the rest of the part. you create datum geometry using the Datum toolset. Datum points are projected onto the Sketch plane in the Sketcher. datum geometry is visible unless you toggle it off by selecting View Part Display Options Datum from the main menu bar. you cannot refer to datum axes or planes in the Sketcher.1 Using the Datum toolset in the Part module A datum can be thought of as reference geometry or a construction aid that helps you create a feature when the part does not contain the necessary geometry. 15–55 . For example. as shown in Figure 15–59. A datum created in the Part module appears with each instance of the part in the Assembly module and the Mesh module.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE 15. Part Module The part does not already have a face that is suitable for sketching the profile of the hole. Furthermore. y x z Figure 15–58 The desired cut feature. However.16.

15–56 . y x z Figure 15–62 The desired cut. perpendicular to the datum plane and parallel to the X-axis. y z x projected image of Face 2 Figure 15–61 A sketch on the datum plane. ABAQUS/CAE cuts the sketched hole through the part. as shown in Figure 15–60. first use the Datum toolset to create a datum plane on the Y–Z principal plane. Second. as shown in Figure 15–61. When you exit the Sketcher.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE To cut the desired hole. Face 2 datum plane y x z Figure 15–60 A datum plane. This cut is illustrated in Figure 15–62. sketch the profile of the cut on the new datum plane.

desired slot y x z Figure 15–63 The desired slot. suppose you want to cut a slot through the part as shown in Figure 15–63. as shown in Figure 15–65. For example. Sketching the slot is difficult because selecting either of the two straight edges of the part as the sketch’s vertical axis causes the sketch grid lines to align with the line you select.or Y-axis. first use the Datum toolset to create a datum axis along the Y-axis. Part Module datum axis y x z Figure 15–64 The datum axis. To make it easier to create the slot with the desired orientation. Creating a datum axis is useful when the part does not already contain the necessary axis. 15–57 . and its grid is aligned with the part’s X. You can then select the datum axis to control the orientation of the part on the Sketcher grid when adding or modifying a feature to a three-dimensional solid. as shown in Figure 15–64.and Y-axes. When you select the datum axis to appear vertical and on the right.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE Datum axis You can use the Datum toolset to create a datum axis. the Sketcher starts. not with the X.

if applicable. you can modify the sketch that forms the twodimensional profile or sweep path of a feature. 15–58 .16. Alternatively. Select Feature Regenerate when you are ready to regenerate the part. ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. such as extruded solids. cannot be meshed. sketched wires. You cannot suppress the base feature. you can select it from the viewport. Figure 15–65 15. and suppressing a parent feature will suppress all of its child features.2 • • • • Using the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module The following are considered to be features of a part: Geometric features. You can either modify the feature’s parameters directly or. it may be convenient to postpone regeneration until you make all your changes. and is not included in the analysis of the model. and rounded edges Repair operations Partitions Datum geometry When the Feature Manipulation toolset asks you to select a feature. ! Rename Rename a part. Suppress Suppressing a feature temporarily removes it from the definition of the part. Regenerate When you modify features in a complex part. revolved shells. Use the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module to do the following: Edit When you edit a feature. since regeneration can be time consuming. A suppressed feature is invisible. you can click the Feature Manager button on the right side of the prompt area and select the feature from the Feature Manager dialog box that appears.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE datum axis y z x The resulting sketch orientation.

16.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE Resume Resuming a feature restores a suppressed feature to the part.16. for example. or click the query tool Query toolset. Query When you query a part. ABAQUS/CAE displays information in the message area and writes the same information to the replay file (abaqus.6. For more information. You can choose to resume all features. ! in the toolbar to start the 15–59 . so that each instance of that part in the assembly will contain all the partitions created in the Part module. The region to which the attribute is assigned may change unexpectedly if the region is affected by the partition. you can apply a load over a region in the Load module. you should try to finish creating your parts in the Part module before you start creating part instances and apply sets. You can use the regions when working with the assembly in other modules. The partitions you create are features associated with the part.” Section 17. Delete Deleting a feature removes it from the part. and sets. loads. or a selected feature.3. see “Partitioning the assembly. In general. you can use the Partition toolset to partition a part into additional regions. If you do return to the Part module to create a partition. If you have created the assembly and applied attributes to it. resuming a parent feature restores all of its child features. If you do not want to associate the partitions with every instance of the part.3 Using the Partition toolset in the Part module Within the Part module. for example. partition the desired instance in the Assembly module instead. you should at least check that the regions in the assembly to which attributes are assigned are still valid. you can use the Property module to assign different sections to the resulting regions. Options The Feature Options dialog box allows you to tune the regeneration performance of the current model. and meshes to the assembly. Part Module 15. boundary conditions. you might use partitions to delineate regions of the part that are comprised of different materials. After you partition a part.4 Using the Query toolset in the Part module Select Tools Query from the main menu bar. such as loads. you should be careful if you subsequently decide to return to the Part module and partition one of the original parts. the set of features most recently suppressed. You cannot resume a deleted feature. 15.rpy) in the form of comments.

ABAQUS/CAE does not display any volume information if the part contains only shell and/or wire features. for more information. The Query toolset allows you to control the computation time by telling ABAQUS/CAE to stop the computation when the requested relative accuracy has been achieved. see “Obtaining general information about the model. and type in the message area along with the shape (solid.7. imprecise. Area properties ABAQUS/CAE displays the surface area and the centroid of selected faces of the part in the message area. you can turn off the display of the reference point symbol and the reference point label.” Section 46. ABAQUS/CAE may take a long time to compute the volume properties. “The Reference Point toolset. select Tools Reference Point to create a reference point on a part.2. For more information. shell and wire features are not taken into consideration.” Section 15. faces. 15–60 . For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries. The following queries are specific to the Part module: Part attributes ABAQUS/CAE displays the part name.” Section 15. If more than one face is selected. A part can include only one reference point. see “The reference point and point parts.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information. ABAQUS/CAE computes the volume using only the solid features of the part. or point) and the number of entities (cells.5 Using the Reference Point toolset in the Part module From the main menu bar.” Section 51. ABAQUS/CAE displays the total surface area of the selected faces. Geometry diagnostics ABAQUS/CAE highlights the regions of the part that have invalid. in the online version of this manual. and Chapter 47. edges.8.16.6 Using the Repair toolset in the Part module You use the Repair toolset to repair regions of a part that contain invalid or imprecise geometry. If desired. You can use the Feature Manipulation toolset to change the reference point label by selecting Feature Rename from the main menu bar. If the part is complex. ! ! 15.16.28. or small geometry. For more information. 15. shell.” ABAQUS/CAE displays the reference point at the desired location and labels it RP. and vertices). see “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Part module. see “Controlling reference point display. wire.2. Volume properties ABAQUS/CAE displays the volume and the centroid of the solid features of the part in the message area along with the moments of inertia about the global coordinate system. modeling space.

• Convert a shell to a solid. • Create new faces by automatically stitching any gaps between edges.7. Automated repair does not take into account the feature-based representation of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information.7. and you use the Set toolset to create and manage part sets.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE PART MODULE WARNING: You should use automated repair to edit only imported parts.” Part Module 15. in the online version of this manual. For more information. For more information. For more information. • Repair any invalid edges of an imported part by recomputing the data that define them. When ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select a region. Only part sets are visible in the Set Manager in the Part module.” Section 48.3. see “Stitching. For more information. “The Repair toolset. in the online version of this manual.1.16. • Repair the face normals of shell and solid imported parts. For more information. see “Understanding sets and surfaces. You can use part sets in the Part module to select regions that should be repaired by the Repair toolset. For more information. in the Property module you can assign sections to regions specified by part sets. in the online version of this manual.” Section 48. For more information. For more information.” Section 49. you can either select the region from the part in the current viewport.6.5. see “Removing redundant vertices or edges.7.” Section 48. in the online version of this manual. 15–61 .8. For more information. “The Query toolset. see “Automated repair.4. in the online version of this manual. in the online version of this manual.7.6. ABAQUS creates part instance sets that refer to any part sets that you previously created.7 Using the Set toolset in the Part module Sets created by selecting geometry from a part are called part sets. When you instance a part in the Assembly module.2.6. or you can select a named part set. see “Repairing invalid edges. see “Repairing face normals.2. The Repair toolset allows you to do the following: • Automatically convert the part to its analytical representation whenever possible and stitch the part. in the online version of this manual.” Section 48.” Section 48. • Create a new face by selecting one edge of the face. in the online version of this manual.” Section 48. see “Creating a new face.7.7.7. see “Removing faces.” Section 17. • Remove redundant vertices and edges. You can use the Query toolset to locate regions that need repairing.7. You can also stitch the resulting gap if the part is a solid consisting of a single cell. In addition. see “Creating a solid from a shell.7. see Chapter 48. • Remove selected faces. and “Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module.” Section 48.” Section 48. For more information.” and Chapter 46.

Figure 15–66 shows the hidden icons for all the part tools in the Part module toolbox.USING THE PART MODULE TOOLBOX 15. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using each of the tools in the Part module toolbox.17 Using the Part module toolbox You can access all the Part module tools through either the main menu bar or the Part module toolbox. Part manager Shell tools Cut tools Create part Solid tools Wire tools Round tools Figure 15–66 The Part module toolbox. 15–62 .

and tangents to parts.8 • “Assigning sections.10 16.” Section 16. Property Module ! ! 16–1 .” Section 16.” Section 16. • Define beam section profiles. orientations. Material.4. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Creating and editing materials. When you enter the Property module. and tangents to a part.” Section 16.3 • “Understanding the Property module editors.” Section 16. Skin.6 The tutorial at the end of this chapter will help you become familiar with techniques for creating materials and for creating and assigning sections. Assign. Feature. • Define a skin reinforcement.4 • “Using the Property module toolbox. Section. In addition.” Section 16.” Section 16. section.” Section 16.9 • “Using the Query toolset to obtain assignment information. orientations. A Part list appears under the toolbar that allows you to select the part to which you want to assign properties.” Section 16. • Define sections.7 • “Creating and editing sections.” Section 16. This chapter covers the following topics: • “Entering and exiting the Property module.” Section 24.1 • “Understanding properties. For information on defining skin reinforcements.2 • “Assigning properties to a part. You need not take any specific action to save your material. normals.5 • “Tutorial: Using the Property module. and other definitions before exiting the module. they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. The Property module You can use the Property module to perform the following tasks: • Define materials. normals. select another module from the Module list. see “Modeling skin reinforcements.1 Entering and exiting the Property module You can enter the Property module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Property in the Module list located under the toolbar. • Assign sections. and Tools menus appear in the main menu bar. Profile. To exit the Property module.ENTERING AND EXITING THE PROPERTY MODULE 16.

You can create the following types of profiles: Shape-based profiles Shape-based profiles define the specific shape and dimensions of the beam cross-section. Beam sections also refer to profiles that you have defined. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the properties of a material to a region of a part when you assign a section referring to that material to the region.UNDERSTANDING PROPERTIES 16.” Section 15.2. cross-section area and moments of inertia).2 Understanding properties You can specify the properties of a part or part region by creating a section and assigning it to the part. profiles. as described in “Understanding the Property module editors. you use the material editor to specify all the information that defines each material.1 Defining materials A material definition specifies the required behavior of a material and supplies all the property data relevant to that behavior. Referring to a shape-based profile in a beam section causes the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION or *BEAM SECTION option with the SECTION=shape name parameter to be added to the analysis input file. and data. The shape options are shown in Figure 16–1. and sections using the Property module editors. profiles. Rather than typing the material options. You create materials. and you supply the property data with each material option you include.” Section 16. When you define a beam section. you must then specify the height and width of the box as well as the thickness of the four walls. rebar in shell sections. You can create this type of profile by first selecting from a list of shape options and then specifying that particular shape’s dimensions. you must include a reference to a profile in the section definition.9 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. and section assignment. In most cases. sections refer to materials that you have defined. For detailed information on each profile shape. The materials you create using the Property module are analogous to those you create using the *MATERIAL option in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. This section of the manual explains materials. For example.4. you can refer to a single material in as many sections as necessary. 16–2 . 16.3.2. if you select a box shape. see “Beam cross-section library. You specify the required behavior by including a set of material options in the material definition. parameters.2 Defining profiles A profile specifies the properties of a beam section that are related to its cross-sectional shape and size (for example. ABAQUS uses the information provided by the shape-based profile to calculate the engineering properties of the section. sections. 16. Each material that you create has its own name and is independent of any particular section. You name these materials just as you use the NAME parameter in an analysis input file to assign a name.

UNDERSTANDING PROPERTIES Arbitrary Box Circular Hexagonal I L T Pipe Rectangular Figure 16–1 Available shape options. Beam sections must also refer to a profile name. if applicable.3. or two-dimensional solid. Each profile that you create has its own name and is independent of any particular beam section. you can refer to a single profile in as many beam sections as necessary. if the region is a deformable wire. see “Using the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option to define the section behavior. shell. a rigid region requires a section that describes its mass properties. Trapezoidal Generalized profiles Generalized profiles specify the engineering properties of the section directly.2. you must assign a section to that region that provides information about the region’s cross-sectional geometry. and.3 Defining sections Property Module A section contains information about the properties of a part or a region of a part. sectoral moment and warping constant.” Section 15. moments of inertia. Likewise. 16–3 . For example. You can create a generalized profile by specifying values for the area. Referring to a generalized profile in a beam section definition causes the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option with the SECTION=GENERAL parameter to be added to the analysis input file. Most sections must refer to a material name. For more information. torsional rigidity. The information required in the definition of a section depends on the type of region in question.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. 16.

) For more information. • Generalized plane strain sections.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 14.” Section 16. see “Choosing the element’s dimensionality.) For more information.” Section 13. and optional rebar layers. If the latter is chosen. options are provided to control the section integration and temperature variation through the thickness. You can use the Property module to create solid sections. three-dimensional. Shells model structures in which one dimension (the thickness) is significantly smaller than the other two dimensions and in which the stresses in the thickness direction are negligible.1. shell sections. You can define one or more layers of reinforcement (rebar) in shell sections. ABAQUS/CAE automatically assigns that section to each instance of the part.and 2-axes.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. In addition. You can assign a single section to as many different regions as necessary.” Section 16. you must also specify the section thickness.UNDERSTANDING PROPERTIES When you assign a section to a part.8. ABAQUS/CAE ignores the thickness information if it is not needed for the region type. part. beam sections. the elements that are created when you mesh those part instances will have the properties specified in that section.2. Composite shell sections consist of layers of materials. You can choose to provide the section property data before the analysis or to have ABAQUS calculate (integrate) the cross-sectional behavior from section integration points during the analysis. Sections are named and created independently of any particular region. As a result. in the online version of this manual. • Homogeneous shell sections. see “Choosing the section integration method. Homogeneous shell sections consist of a shell thickness. Shell sections Shell sections define the section properties of shell regions. (You have the option of specifying a plane stress or plane strain thickness even if the section will be assigned to a three-dimensional region. Homogeneous solid sections consist of a material name. see “Understanding rebar in shell sections.2. or assembly.1. a section Poisson’s ratio.4.6. you must 16–4 .8. see “Specifying thickness and wedge angles in a generalized plane strain section.8. and optional rebar layers. see “Solid (continuum) elements.” Section 16.” Section 15. section Poisson’s ratio. You can assign generalized plane strain sections only to two-dimensional planar regions. thickness. if the section will be used with a two-dimensional region. Solid sections Solid sections define the section properties of two-dimensional. material name. and other sections. • Homogeneous solid sections.) For more information. (For more information on integration.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. see “Shell elements. and “Specifying the number of section integration points in a homogeneous shell section.4. For each layer of material. Generalized plane strain sections consist of a material name. • Composite shell sections. and axisymmetric solid regions.” Section 16. For more information. and wedge angles about the global 1. in the online version of this manual. (For more information.

see “Defining material layers in a composite shell section.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 15. see “Defining profiles. For information about profiles.” Section 16.1. Surface sections consist of optional rebar layers. Beam sections consist of a material name. • Membrane sections. Beams represent structures in which the cross-section is assumed to be small compared to the length.” Section 15. rotary inertia. You can choose to provide the section property data before the analysis or to have ABAQUS calculate (integrate) the crosssectional behavior from section integration points during the analysis. 16–5 . • Beam sections. Beam sections Beams are used in two and three dimensions to model slender. see “Beam modeling: overview. Truss sections consist of a material name and cross-sectional area. Surface sections represent surfaces in space that have no inherent stiffness and behave like membrane elements with zero thickness.) For more information. are used in two and three dimensions to model slender. • Truss sections.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.8. section Poisson’s ratio.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. (For more information.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For more information. Additional information is required depending on whether you choose to calculate (integrate) the section stiffness either before or during analysis (see “Choosing the section integration method.2. • Point sections.” Section 16. and optional rebar layers. see “Surface elements. If the latter is chosen. membrane thickness. options are provided to control the section integration and temperature variation through the thickness. • Surface sections. see “Shell elements. and orientation. see “Membrane elements. you must assign a beam section orientation to all regions with beam sections. For more information.” Section 18.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. You can assign beam sections only to wire regions.” Section 16.3. damping. a section Poisson’s ratio. Point sections are used to assign properties to rigid body reference points. Property Module Other sections Other sections you can create include point sections and gasket sections. rod-like structures that provide axial strength but no bending stiffness. in the online version of this manual for more information). Point sections consist of mass. and heat capacitance. in the online version of this manual.2. Membrane sections consist of a material name.7.2. and a reference to a profile. like beams.2. Trusses. For more information on beam sections.8. For more information.UNDERSTANDING PROPERTIES specify a material name.” Section 15.2. see “Truss elements. Membranes represent thin surfaces in space that offer strength in the plane of the surface but have no bending stiffness. thickness.” Section 15. rod-like structures that provide axial strength and bending stiffness. In addition.

1.3 Assigning properties to a part Once you have created a section.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual – “Rotary inertia.2.” Section 16. For more information on rebar.9. and orientation of the rebar in each layer. For example. initial void.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For more information.” Section 12.” Section 16. Gaskets model thin sealing components that are positioned between structural components. and “Gasket elements. To define the orientation of each rebar layer. If you specify an orientation name.5. and “Assigning a rebar reference orientation. in the online version of this manual. You use the Assign menu to assign a rebar reference orientation to shell regions.” Section 2.” Section 16.4. see “Defining rebar layers. initial gasket thickness.” Section 16.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • Gasket sections.4 Understanding rebar in shell sections You can define one or more layers of reinforcement (rebar) in shell sections by specifying a unique layer name for each rebar layer.4. initial gap. see “Defining reinforcement. Gasket sections are used to provide pressure-closure behaviors for sealing components. see “Modeling gaskets.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual – “Material damping.ASSIGNING PROPERTIES TO A PART For more information. if you assign a truss section to a wire part in the Property module.1.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual – “Point capacitance.8.2.” Section 24. you can use the Assign menu in the Property module main menu bar to assign the following properties to a part: 16–6 . In the Visualization module ABAQUS/CAE treats rebar layers as section points for output purposes. you should assign a truss element type (and not a beam element type) to any instances of that part in the Mesh module. You also select the name of the material forming each rebar layer and specify the cross-sectional area per bar.” Section 18. In the Step module you must request output for rebar to include rebar output in the data that ABAQUS writes to the output database and to view plots of the rebar orientations in the Visualization module.2. 16. Gasket sections consist of a material name.” Section 16.3. WARNING: The type of section that you assign to a part must be consistent with the element type that you assign to instances of that part in the Mesh module. and you can create material orientation plots to show the rebar orientation. For more information.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. 16. and cross-sectional area. spacing. The angular orientation of a rebar layer is defined relative to the rebar reference orientation. you must supply the user subroutine ORIENT. see the following sections: – “Point masses. you can specify an orientation angle or an orientation name.

you should use care when interpreting section point output for shells. shell and membrane regions. The global coordinate system determines the default rebar reference orientation. If you assign a section to a region and then rename or delete the section. the local 2-direction will be reversed. However. and axisymmetric parts with wire regions. and you should use care when interpreting results. The shell/membrane normals affect the material orientation assigned to the region. The reversal of the material 2-direction has no effect on the analysis results. • Use the Set toolset to create a set consisting of regions of parts or elements of orphan mesh parts. • Select elements individually or using the angle method (to assign shell normals on an orphan mesh). You can assign a material orientation by selecting an existing datum coordinate system from the viewport. Material Orientation You can assign material orientations to shell and solid regions. Rebar Reference Orientation The angular orientation of a rebar layer is defined relative to the rebar reference orientation. your analysis job will fail and the problem will be reported by the Job module. You assign an orientation to a beam section by defining the approximate local 1-direction of the cross-section. The global coordinate system determines the default material orientation. You can assign rebar reference orientations to shell regions. If you reverse the tangent direction. Beam section orientations depend on the beam tangent directions. that section is no longer applied to the region. Tangent You can assign beam/truss tangent directions to orphan meshes and wire regions. Property Module 16–7 . in particular when you identify the beam section point locations. You can select the region to which to assign a property in the following ways: • Select the region directly in the viewport. the material 2-direction will be reversed. Beam Section Orientation You can assign beam section orientations to wire regions. You can assign a rebar reference orientation by selecting an existing datum coordinate system from the viewport and then selecting an axis on the datum coordinate system that approximates the direction of the shell normal. If you reverse the normal of a shell region. If a region of your model lacks section properties. Normal You can assign shell/membrane normal directions to orphan meshes.ASSIGNING PROPERTIES TO A PART Section You can assign the section to a region of a part. (The Set toolset is available from the Tools menu in the main menu bar.) You can then assign the property to the region or elements defined by the set.

9.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS However.1 Creating materials To create a material. see “Understanding the role of the Query toolset.6 16. This section provides information on each editor type. For example.9.9. profile.) Similarly. the properties defined in the new section are applied to the region automatically. ! ! 16–8 . change the name of the section back to its original name. • If you have renamed a section. the original names of renamed or deleted materials continue to be associated with sections that refer to those materials. you can use techniques similar to the ones listed above to restore sections.9. For detailed instructions on assigning properties to a model.” Section 16.” Section 16. you must enter data in the material editor.2 • “Assigning a material orientation. therefore. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Assigning a section. (You can use the Query toolset to determine the name of the section assigned to the region.3 • “Assigning a rebar reference orientation. if you refer to a material in a section definition and then rename or delete the material. when you create a material. you must use Material Rename to change the name of an existing material.4 • “Assigning shell/membrane normal directions.1 • “Assigning a beam orientation.9. The material editor is shown in Figure 16–2.” Section 16.1. the original names of renamed or deleted sections continue to be associated with the regions to which they have been assigned until you take one of the following actions: • Assign a different section to the region.” Section 16. the section becomes invalid.” Section 16.4. a shell section for a shell region).5 • “Assigning beam/truss tangent directions.” Section 16. 16. it cannot be renamed using the material editor. select Material Create from the main menu bar.9. Note: Once you have created a material.4 Understanding the Property module editors When you create or edit a material. for more information. you must enter data in the appropriate editor. • Create a new section that has the original section name and is the appropriate type for the region (for example. An Edit Material dialog box appears in which you can enter a name for the material and create or edit material properties. However.” Section 46. or section. properties defined in that section are no longer applied to regions to which the section is assigned.

UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Property Module Figure 16–2 The material editor. 16–9 .

UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS The material editor consists of the following: Material Options list A list of the options you have included in the material definition. Option menu A set of menus beneath the option list from which you select material options. For example. for example. Each of the options corresponds to a material option available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. which allows you to create and edit profiles. the I-shaped profile editor is shown in Figure 16–3.2.2. ! 16. *ELASTIC or *PLASTIC. or from the ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual. tabular data fields. from the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For example. Once you have finished entering this information. Option definition area The lower portion of the window in which the parameters. you can refer to that profile in a beam section definition. A help window will appear containing a relevant section from this manual. Note: You can display help on particular aspects of the editor that are not discussed here by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest.4.” Section 16. For more information on profiles. All profile editors display a diagram of the profile shape and text fields in which you can enter all of the data necessary to define the profile. select Profile Create from the main menu bar. a box-shaped profile named SupportBeam is selected in the beam section editor shown in Figure 16–4.3 Creating sections You can use the Property module to create the following types of sections: • Homogeneous solid sections • Generalized plane strain sections • Homogeneous shell sections 16–10 . ! 16. and suboptions associated with a selected option appear. see “Defining profiles. A Create Profile dialog box appears in which you can enter a name for the profile and select the profile type. The editor contains a diagram of the I-shaped profile and data fields in which you can enter each dimension. Each of the items available in the data area corresponds to a parameter or data item available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Once you have created a profile.2 Creating profiles To create a profile.4. click Continue in the Create Profile dialog box to display the profile editor.

Figure 16–4 • • • • • • • Composite shell sections Membrane sections Surface sections Beam sections Truss sections Point sections Gasket sections Specifying a profile name in the beam section editor. Property Module 16–11 .UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Figure 16–3 The I-shaped profile editor.

select Section Create from the main menu bar. A Create Section dialog box appears in which you can name the section and specify the type of section that you want to create. For example. ! Some editors contain different Options buttons along the bottom of the dialog box similar to the Integration option button shown in Figure 16–5. or from the ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual. a Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box appears. A help window will appear containing a relevant section from this manual. the homogeneous shell section editor is shown in Figure 16–5. from the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS To create a section. and a method for determining the temperature variation. Once you have specified a section name and type. If you click an option button. Note: You can display help on particular aspects of an editor that are not discussed here by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest. which allows you to create and edit sections. if you click Integration in the editor shown in Figure 16–5. ! Figure 16–5 The homogeneous shell section editor. as shown in Figure 16–6. The format of the section editor varies according to the type of section you are defining. 16–12 . a section Poisson’s ratio. click Continue in the Create Section dialog box to display the section editor. Most section editors ask for a material name. another dialog box appears in which you can enter data concerning that particular option. For example.

see Appendix A. (For information on which material options are available in ABAQUS/CAE.4. Property Module 16–13 .” Section 16. Note: To display context-sensitive help for items in option dialog boxes.” Section 16.7 • “Creating profiles.2 • “Selecting a method for defining the temperature variation through the section.” Section 16.” Section 16.3 • “Specifying thickness and wedge angles in a generalized plane strain section. and Other.8. you must select the item of interest and then press [F1].8.4 Selecting material options The material editor contains several menus that allow you to add most of the material options available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to a material definition.8 • “Specifying offsets for generalized beam sections.9 16. Thermal.” Section 16.5 • “Specifying the number of section integration points in a homogeneous shell section. For detailed instructions on using section editors.8.8. (The Help menu in the main menu bar is unavailable while the option dialog box is displayed.” Section 16. Figure 16–7 shows the elasticity options available under the Mechanical menu.” Section 16.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Figure 16–6 The Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box.” Section 16. “Keyword support.” in the online version of this manual.) Once you have entered all the data necessary to define the section.8.1 • “Choosing the section integration method.8.8.) The material editor menus reflect the division of all material options into four categories: General.” Section 16.6 • “Defining material layers in a composite shell section.8. Mechanical. you can click OK to close the section editor and to save the section. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Creating sections.4 • “Defining rebar layers.8.

16–14 . In addition. When you select an option. if you request a dynamic analysis. ABAQUS/CAE will report an error when you submit your analysis job. For example. if there are too many options to see at once. a scroll bar appears on the right side of the list. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to create the material. Options such as Elastic and Plastic are primary options and correspond to the keywords ELASTIC and *PLASTIC in an analysis input file. the list in Figure 16–8 reflects that the Elastic and Plastic options have been chosen. and the option becomes part of your material definition. the name of the option appears in the Material Options list at the top of the editor. The lists of options do not change to exclude options that are invalid for the type of analysis you are running. ABAQUS/CAE does not check that the data that you enter in the editor are valid or that your materials are appropriate for your analysis type. ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit requires that you specify the density of the materials used in the model so that it can calculate mass and inertia properties of the model. the option name appears in the list. you can select that option or suboption from the Material Options list and then click Delete. For example. Suboptions such as Fail Stress appear beneath * the corresponding primary option and are indented to indicate their subordinate position. Figure 16–8 The Material Options list. as well as the Fail Stress suboption of the Elastic option. the selected option list is initially blank. If you are creating a new material.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Figure 16–7 Elasticity options under the Mechanical menu. If you want to remove an option or suboption from a material definition. If you do not provide a material density in the material definition. however. As you select options.

as shown in Figure 16–9. Figure 16–10 The isotropic elasticity table. For detailed information on each option. For example.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS 16. A table containing fields for the remaining required material data appears beneath the parameter area. These parameters and data items correspond to the ones that would be required in an analogous ABAQUS input file. see “Entering tabular data. when you choose lamina elasticity rather than isotropic elasticity. The parameters are shown at the top of the option description area and the data items at the bottom. Alternatively.4.) Property Module 16–15 . you can plot the X–Y data in the Visualization module and visually check its validity. for example. Different fields become available depending upon how you have set the parameters. for example. You can enter data into the table using the keyboard. you can click mouse button 3 anywhere in the table to view a list of options for specifying tabular data. you choose to either accept or change the default parameter values.” Section 7. an option exists for automatically entering data from a file.2. Figure 16–9 The Type button. For example.7. Depending on your analysis requirements.5 Specifying material parameters and data When you select an option. you choose whether to use isotropic elasticity by using the Type button on the elasticity form. the table in Figure 16–11 appears. Figure 16–10 shows the table that appears when you choose isotropic elasticity. Another option exists for creating an X–Y data object from the data in the table. the option definition area changes to show all of the associated parameters and data items for the currently selected option.

7.” Section 16.” Section 16. in the online version of this manual. select Material Evaluate material name from the main menu bar. The information from the evaluation is saved in the material_name.” Section 16.4.1 “Browsing and modifying material options. For detailed instructions on evaluating hyperelastic material behavior.5 “Selecting and modifying suboptions.3 “Entering temperature-dependent data.dat file.) Once the standard tests are completed.6 Evaluating hyperelastic material behavior ABAQUS/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate option that allows you to view the behavior predicted by a hyperelastic material and to choose a suitable material formulation. The Evaluate Material dialog box appears in which you can specify how you want ABAQUS/CAE to perform the standard tests.7.” Section 10. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Visualization module and displays the test results in new viewports as X–Y plots.7.” Section 16.7. “X–Y plotting.7. see Chapter 33.7.7.2 “Entering strain-rate-dependent data. The Evaluate option is particularly useful in the following scenarios: ! ! 16–16 .7.” Section 16.” Section 16.6 “Displaying X–Y plots of hyperelastic material behavior. You can review the evaluation results and adjust the material definition as necessary.5 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • • • • • • • “Creating or editing a material. see “Displaying X–Y plots of hyperelastic material behavior. Alternatively.” Section 16. you can select the material of interest in the Material Manager and then click Evaluate. (For more information on X–Y plots.” Section 16.7. see “Hyperelasticity.4 “Specifying field variable dependence. To initiate the evaluation procedure.”) ABAQUS/CAE also displays an informational dialog box containing the stability limits for each strain energy potential that you evaluated. The Evaluate option prompts ABAQUS/CAE to perform one or more standard tests using an existing material.7 16. (For information on standard tests.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Figure 16–11 The lamina elasticity table. For detailed information on specific features in the material editor.

dat) file: • The coefficients calculated for the strain energy potential. it is important to verify that an acceptable correlation exists between the behavior predicted by the material definition and the experimental data. When the tests are complete. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Visualization module and displays X–Y plots of the test results and a dialog box containing the stability limits for each strain energy potential. the X–Y plot in Figure 16–12 shows the results of a planar test using the Ogden N=3 strain energy potential. The path to the data (. Each plot includes the experimental data and a curve for each evaluated strain energy potential. You can use the Evaluate option to perform one or more standard unit-element tests with the experimental data using the strain energy potential that you have specified in the material definition. ABAQUS uses the experimental data to calculate the coefficients necessary for the specified strain energy potential. • Any material instabilities that were detected during the tests. the following information is reported to the data (.UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTY MODULE EDITORS Comparing test data with the behavior predicted by a particular strain energy potential When you define a hyperelastic material using experimental data. However. Property Module 16–17 . Test_Data Test_Data OGDEN_N3 OGDEN_N3 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N1 POLY_N2 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N2 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N3 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N4 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N5 REDUCED_POLYNOMIAL_N6 Figure 16–12 Results of a planar test. For example.dat) file appears in the message area of the ABAQUS/CAE main window once the analysis has completed successfully. In addition. you also specify the strain energy potential that you want to apply to the data.

” in “Hyperelastic behavior. you can return to the Property module and adjust the test data and then evaluate the material again. 16–18 .5. see “Improving the accuracy and stability of the test data fit. Adjusting material data If you are unsatisfied with the fit between the test data and the behavior predicted by the material. Viewing behavior predicted by coefficients for a particular strain energy potential If you have acquired coefficients for a particular strain energy potential (either by evaluating one or more strain energy potentials. In some cases it may be possible to use this approach to optimize the coefficient values included in a material definition.” Section 10.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. or from another source). you must return to the material editor in the Property module and change the Strain energy potential selection from Unknown to the strain energy potential that you have chosen.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. When the tests are complete. you may want to verify that the behavior predicted by the strain energy potential acceptably matches your experimental data or meets other criteria. Figure 16–13 shows the icons for all the property tools in the Property module toolbox. For more information. Each plot includes a nominal stress–nominal strain curve for each strain energy potential tested as well as a curve showing the experimental data. You can visually compare the strain energy potential curves and the experimental data curve and select the strain energy potential that provides the best fit. 16. You can then use the Evaluate option to perform standard tests with the experimental data using multiple strain energy potentials.” in “Hyperelastic behavior. You can use the Evaluate option to plot a curve of the strain energy potential using the coefficients you have provided in the material definition. a curve for that data also appears in the plot. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Visualization module and displays an X–Y plot for each test and a dialog box containing the stability limits for each strain energy potential. If the material definition also includes experimental data. you can select Unknown from the Strain energy potential list in the material editor. For more information on the strain energy potentials available in ABAQUS see “Strain energy potentials. You can repeat this process until you are satisfied with the material behavior.” Section 10.5 Using the Property module toolbox You can access all the Property module tools through either the main menu bar or the Property module toolbox. Once you have determined which strain energy potential provides the best fit with the experimental data. as described above.5.USING THE PROPERTY MODULE TOOLBOX Evaluating multiple strain energy potentials If you are defining a hyperelastic material using experimental data and you are unsure which strain energy potential to specify.

Then. Stress (MPa) 300 200 E = 200 × 109 ν = 0. 16. as shown in Figure 16–14.6. In addition.TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE Create material Create section Assign section Create profile Material manager Section manager Assign properties Profile manager Figure 16–13 The Property module toolbox. a membrane section with rebar layers. 16–19 .6 Tutorial: Using the Property module This section contains a tutorial that will help you become familiar with the Property module. First.287 Property Module 0.0085 Strain Figure 16–14 An elastic-plastic material. 16. you will assign a rebar reference orientation and a beam section orientation. you will define a homogeneous solid section. and a beam section and assign each of these sections to a part.1 Defining a material using multiple options (isotropic. elastic-plastic) In this example you will define a material exhibiting linear elasticity and von Mises plasticity. you will create several different kinds of materials.

TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE To define an isotropic. In the Module list located under the toolbar. (Selecting a new option does not cause you to lose your elasticity data. Type a name of your choice in the Name text field. 8. ! The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. type values for yield stress and the corresponding plastic strain as shown in the first row of Figure 16–16.) ! ! The parameters and data corresponding to von Mises plasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus. 2. Note: The units for Young’s modulus must be consistent with the units used elsewhere in the model. 7. 16–20 . type Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio as shown in Figure 16–15. select Material Create. elastic-plastic material: 1. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window. 6. In the option definition area. Type the second yield stress and plastic strain values in the appropriate cells. From the main menu bar. Figure 16–15 Elastic properties. ! ! The parameters and data corresponding to isotropic elasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus. 4. select Mechanical Elasticity Elastic. 3. and the word Elastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. select Mechanical Plasticity Plastic. Use the [Tab] key to move from one data cell to the next. 9. Press [Enter] to add a blank row to the table. 5. as shown in Figure 16–16. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. Be sure to enter the second set of data points in ascending order of plastic strain. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window. In the option definition area. click Property. and the word Plastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window.

Type a name of your choice in the Name text field. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads.6. and the word Elastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. You can also add a row by pressing mouse button 3 over the table and selecting Insert Row After from the menu that appears.2 Defining a material with temperature-dependent properties In this example you will define a linear-elastic material whose properties depend on temperature. Property Module see “Entering tabular data. 2. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. 6.7. Toggle Use temperature-dependent data. 7.TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE Figure 16–16 Plastic properties. From the main menu bar.” Section 7. For more information. In the Module list located under the toolbar. Note: The yield stress is assumed to remain constant for plastic strains exceeding the last value given. 3. type values for Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio at the first temperature. Press [Enter] to add a blank row to the table. click Property. ! ! The parameters and data corresponding to isotropic elasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus. ! The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. 16. 4. To define an isotropic. as shown in Figure 16–17. 16–21 . select Material Create.2. linear-elastic material with temperature-dependent properties: 1. A temperature data field appears in the table. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window. In the table. Use the [Tab] key or the first mouse button to move from one cell to the next. 5. 10. select Mechanical Elasticity Elastic. You will enter values for Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio at several different temperatures ranging from 100C to 400C.

TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE Figure 16–17 Temperature-dependent data. You will use the Test Data Editor to provide uniaxial test data that ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit can later use to compute the polynomial coefficients. (To save time. Poisson’s ratio. and temperature in the appropriate cells. 8.) Figure 16–19 The completed data table.3 Defining a hyperelastic material In this example you will define a hyperelastic material based on the polynomial form of the strain energy potential. 10.6. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. as shown in Figure 16–18. 16. 9. Figure 16–18 Enter the second row of data. Type in a second Young’s modulus. Fill in each row as shown in Figure 16–19. you can skip this step. 16–22 . Continue adding rows after completing each row in the table.

and click OK to close the ASCII File Selection dialog box. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 10. 6. In the option definition area. select Material Create. ! ! The parameters and data corresponding to hyperelasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus. 5. Verify the row number and the column number in the Start reading values into table row and Start reading values into table column fields. 7. Click Select to display the ASCII File Selection dialog box. Type a name of your choice in the Name text field. are 1. 11. enter a value of 2. Click the arrow next to the Strain energy potential field. 3. ABAQUS/CAE sets these fields to the cell your cursor was over when you clicked mouse button 3). 12. Click Test Data in the upper right corner of the option definition area. You can edit the data using mouse button 3 if you wish. Select testdata. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box disappears. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box appears. and click OK to read your Property Module data into the table editor. ! The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window. 8. accept Test data as the Input source selection. Accept Long-term as the default Moduli time scale (for viscoelasticity) selection. and the word Hyperelastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. and the data in testdata. and select Uniaxial Test Data from the list that appears. 16–23 . Click mouse button 3 in the first cell of the table. select Mechanical Elasticity Hyperelastic. 9.txt from the list of ASCII files. In the Strain energy potential order field. respectively. 2. 13. In the Module list located under the toolbar. The Test Data Editor appears. and select Read from File from the list that appears. From the main menu bar. click Property.TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the file containing the uniaxial test data to your local directory. and select Polynomial from the list that appears. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=testdata.txt appear in the table editor. 4. (By default.txt To define a hyperelastic material: 1.

click Part-1 in the Part list located under the toolbar to display the part. ! The Create Section dialog box appears. ! The Open Database dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Section dialog box: a. From the main menu bar. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box. To open the model database: 1. and click OK. The Property module is loaded. 4. If this dialog box appears. Name the section Brick. 15. you should include data for at least three types of tests to ensure a stable material (see “Hyperelastic behavior. 3. Select clamp. If you have followed any of the other Property module tutorials. and the part in the model database appears in the viewport. you can click No.4 Creating and assigning a homogeneous solid section In this example you will open a model database that contains a part to which you will assign a homogeneous solid section. A homogeneous solid section definition includes only a material name and a plane stress/strain thickness. 5. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the clamp model. If you have not already entered the Property module.5. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. 16–24 . select your local directory. From the main menu bar. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory.cae) if it is not already selected. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box. select Section Create. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=clamp 2. To create and assign a homogeneous solid section: 1. select Model Database (*.TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE 14. If the part does not appear. 3. click Property. Note: When you are creating a hyperelastic material for an actual analysis. a dialog box will appear asking if you want to save the unnamed model database. 16.6. select File Open.cae from the list of model database files.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. for more details).” Section 10. Click OK to save your data and to exit the Test Data Editor. in the Module list located under the toolbar.

TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE

b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default selection. c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default selection and click Continue.

The solid section editor for homogeneous solids appears.
4. Click the arrow next to the Material text field to display the list of available materials. Select

Steel.
5. Accept the default Plane stress/strain thickness value, and click OK. 6. From the main menu bar, select Assign Section. 7. In the viewport, click the part to select the entire part. When the entire part is highlighted, click

!

mouse button 2. An Assign Section dialog box appears.
8. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of Brick and click OK.

The section named Brick that you just created is assigned to the clamp part.

16.6.5

Creating and assigning a membrane section with rebar layers

In this example you will open a model database that contains a shell part representing a rubber hose reinforced with two layers of steel rebar. You will create a membrane section that defines the material name, membrane thickness, section Poisson’s ratio, and rebar layers. The cross-sectional area per bar of the steel rebar is 10−6 , and the rebar spacing in the plane of the shell section is 0.002. The angular orientation of the rebar layers is measured relative to the rebar reference orientation, as shown in Figure 16–20. You will assign a rebar reference orientation by selecting a datum coordinate system (Membrane Orientation CSYS is defined in the model database) and then specifying an axis on the datum coordinate system that approximates the shell normal. Finally, you will assign the membrane section to the entire part.
To open the model database: 1. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory. Enter

the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=reinforced_hose
2. From the main menu bar, select File Open.

!

The Open Database dialog box appears.

Property Module

3. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, select Model Database (*.cae) if it is not already selected. 4. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select your local directory. 5. Select reinforced_hose.cae from the list of model database files, and click OK.

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Layer 2 o orientation angle = -30 n Rebar reference orientation
T

1

Z

R

2

3

1

Layer 1 o orientation angle = 30

2

Figure 16–20

Angular orientation of rebar layers in the reinforced hose.

If you have followed any of the other Property module tutorials, a dialog box will appear asking if you want to save the unnamed model database. If this dialog box appears, you can click No. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the reinforced hose model.
To assign a rebar reference orientation: 1. If you have not already entered the Property module, in the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property.

The Property module is loaded, and a shell part representing the reinforced hose to which you will assign the rebar reference orientation and membrane section appears in the viewport. If the part does not appear, click Reinforced_hose in the Part list located under the toolbar to display the part.
2. From the main menu bar, select Assign Rebar Reference Orientation and click the part in

the viewport to select the entire part to be assigned the local rebar reference orientation. Click mouse button 2.
3. From the prompt area, click Datum CSYS List to select a datum coordinate system by name to

!

define the rebar reference orientation.

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TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE

4. From the list in the Datum CSYS List dialog box that appears, select Membrane Orientation CSYS and click OK.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the local coordinate system specified for the part in the viewport.
5. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Axis-1 for the direction of the approximate shell

normal. ABAQUS/CAE displays the resulting rebar reference orientation in the viewport.
6. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the default value of 0.0 as the additional rotation. 7. Click OK in the prompt area to assign the rebar reference orientation. To create and assign a membrane section:

1. From the main menu bar, select Section Create.

!

The Create Section dialog box appears.
2. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section Hose. b. In the Category list, select Shell. c. In the Type list, select Membrane to create a membrane section, and click Continue.

The section editor for membranes appears.
3. Click the arrow next to the Material text field to display the list of available materials. Select

Rubber.
4. In the Membrane thickness text field, enter 0.005. 5. Accept Use analysis default as the default Section Poisson’s ratio selection. 6. Click Rebar Layers to display the Rebar Layers dialog box. 7. Accept Constant as the default Rebar spacing selection. 8. In the table, type Layer 1 for the name of the first rebar layer. Click in the Material column,

then click the arrow that appears to display the list of available materials, and select Steel as the material forming the first rebar layer. Type the remaining values as shown in Figure 16–21.

Property Module

Figure 16–21

Enter the first row of rebar layer data.

Use the [Tab] key or the first mouse button to move from one cell to the next.

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TUTORIAL: USING THE PROPERTY MODULE

9. Press [Enter] to add a blank row to the table. You can also add a row by pressing mouse button 3 over the table and selecting Insert Row After from the menu that appears. For more information,

see “Entering tabular data,” Section 7.2.7.
10. Enter the values for the second rebar layer, as shown in Figure 16–22.

Figure 16–22

The completed Rebar Layers data table.

11. Click OK to save your data and to exit the Rebar Layers dialog box. 12. Click OK to save your membrane definition and to exit the Edit Section dialog box. 13. From the main menu bar, select Assign Section and click the part in the viewport to select

the entire part to be assigned the section. Click mouse button 2. An Assign Section dialog box appears.
14. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of Hose and click OK.

!

The section named Hose that you just created (a rubber membrane section with two steel rebar layers) is assigned to the reinforced hose part.

16.6.6

Creating and assigning a beam section and orientation

In this example you will open a model database that contains a planar part to which you will assign a beam section and orientation. A beam section can be assigned only to a wire part or region. A beam section includes a profile reference, a material reference or information on beam material behavior, and a section Poisson’s ratio. You must assign an orientation to regions with beam sections.
To open the model database: 1. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory. Enter

the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=beam

2. From the main menu bar, select File Open.

!

The Open Database dialog box appears.
3. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, select Model Database (*.cae) if it is not already selected.

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4. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select your local directory. 5. Select beam.cae from the list of model database files, and click OK.

If you have followed any of the other Property module tutorials, a dialog box will appear asking if you want to save the unnamed model database. If this dialog box appears, you can click No. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the beam model.
To create and assign a beam section and orientation: 1. If you have not already entered the Property module, in the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property.

The Property module is loaded, and the part in the model database appears in the viewport. If the part does not appear, click Part-1 in the Part list located under the toolbar to display the part.
2. From the main menu bar, select Section Create.

!

The Create Section dialog box appears.
3. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section Beam. b. In the Category list, select Beam. c. In the Type list, accept Beam as the default selection and click Continue.

The beam section editor appears.
4. You need to create a beam profile that will be referenced by the beam section. From the main menu bar, select Profile Create.

!

The Create Profile dialog box appears.
5. Name the profile Beam, select Generalized from the Shape list, and click Continue.

The profile editor appears.
6. Enter the following data in the respective fields: Area = 20.41, I11 = I22 = 333.33, I12 = 0, and

J = 0. (The open section properties are necessary only for sections associated with open-section beam elements.)
7. Click OK to close the profile editor.

The Beam profile appears in the Profile name list in the beam section editor.
8. Click Linear Properties in the Behavior field in the beam section editor.

The Beam Linear Behavior dialog box appears.

Property Module

9. Enter a value of 30.E6 for the Young’s modulus, 0 for the shear modulus, and click OK. 10. Accept the default value of 0 in the Section Poisson’s ratio field of the beam section editor, and click OK to save your data and to dismiss the dialog box. 11. From the main menu bar, select Assign Section.

!

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12. In the viewport, drag a rectangle around the part to select the entire beam. When the entire part

is highlighted, click mouse button 2. An Assign Section dialog box appears.
13. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of Beam and click OK.

The section named Beam that you just created is assigned to the beam part.
14. You need to assign an orientation to the beam by defining the local 1-direction. From the main menu bar, select Assign Beam Section Orientation.

!

15. In the viewport, drag a rectangle around the part to select the entire beam again. When the entire

part is highlighted, click mouse button 2. Arrows indicating the tangent vectors of the beam appear along the part edges.
16. Accept the default selection for the

n1 -direction (0,0,−1) by clicking mouse button 2 again. (The n1-direction of a planar beam must be (0, 0, −1).) Triads indicating the beam orientation appear along the part edges.
Note: You can use the query tool to determine the orientation assigned to a particular beam section when you are in the Property module (see “Using the Query toolset to obtain assignment information,” Section 16.10, in the online version of this manual for more information).

17. Click OK in the prompt area to assign the beam orientation.

16.6.7

Summary of key points

The following list summarizes the key points demonstrated in this tutorial: • You can specify the properties of a material by selecting items from the menu bar in the material editor and then entering the necessary data in the option definition area of the editor. • You refer to preexisting materials when you create certain types of sections and rebar layers. • You can define rebar layers in membrane sections. • You use the Assign menu to assign a section to a part. • You use the Assign menu to assign a rebar reference orientation or a beam section orientation to a part.

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UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE ASSEMBLY MODULE

Assembly Module

17.

The Assembly module
You use the Assembly module to create and modify the assembly. The model contains only one assembly, which is composed of instances of parts from the model. Chapter 4, “A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model,” contains examples of how you use the Assembly module to create part instances and position them relative to each other in a global coordinate system. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Assembly module to create the assembly. The following topics are covered: • “Understanding the role of the Assembly module,” Section 17.1 • “Entering and exiting the Assembly module,” Section 17.2 • “Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies,” Section 17.3 • “Creating the assembly,” Section 17.4 • “Merging and cutting part instances,” Section 17.5 • “Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,” Section 17.6 • “Using the Assembly module toolbox,” Section 17.7 In addition, the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Working with part instances,” Section 17.8 • “Applying constraints to part instances,” Section 17.9 • “Using the Query toolset to query the assembly,” Section 17.10

17.1

Understanding the role of the Assembly module

When you create a part, it exists in its own coordinate system, independent of other parts in the model. In contrast, you use the Assembly module to create instances of your parts and to position the instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system, thus creating the assembly. You position part instances by sequentially applying position constraints that align selected faces, edges, or vertices or by applying simple translations and rotations. A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part; an instance is not a copy of a part. An instance maintains its association with the original part. If the geometry of a part changes, ABAQUS/CAE automatically updates all instances of the part to reflect these changes. You cannot edit the geometry of a part instance directly. A model can contain many parts, and a part can be instanced many times in the assembly; however, a model contains only one assembly. Loads, boundary conditions, fields, and meshes are all applied to the assembly. Even if your model consists of only a single part, you must still create an assembly that consists of just a single instance of that part.

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CREATING THE ASSEMBLY

17.2

Entering and exiting the Assembly module

You can enter the Assembly module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Assembly in the Module list located under the toolbar. The Instance, Constraint, Feature, and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar. To exit the Assembly module, select any other module from the Module list. You need not save your assembly before exiting the module; it will be saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar.

!

!

17.3

Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies

A model can contain many parts; however, it can contain only one assembly. The concept of parts, part instances, and the assembly is carried throughout the ABAQUS/CAE modeling process, as described in the following list: 1. You create a part in the Part module; each part is a distinct geometric entity that can be modified and manipulated independently of other parts. Parts exist in their own coordinate system and have no knowledge of other parts. 2. You define section properties in the Property module and also associate a material with a section. You use the Property module to assign these section properties to a part or to a selected region of a part. 3. You create instances of your parts in the Assembly module, and you position those instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system to form the assembly. An instance always maintains its association with the original part; although you cannot modify a part instance directly, you can modify the original part in the Part module. ABAQUS/CAE will then update any instances of that part when you return to the Assembly module. You can instance a part many times and assemble multiple instances of the same part. Each instance of the part is associated with the section properties assigned to the part in the Property module. 4. You use the Interaction, Load, and Mesh modules to complete the definition of the model by applying items such as loads, boundary conditions, and a mesh to the assembly. “Creating a part instance,” Section 17.8.2, in the online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on creating part instances. For instructions on using the online documentation, see “Getting help,” Section 6.6.

17.4

Creating the assembly

After you create a part instance, you apply a succession of position constraints and positioning operations to position it relative to other part instances in the global coordinate system. This section

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CREATING THE ASSEMBLY

Assembly Module

describes the tools that ABAQUS/CAE provides to position and constrain part instances. This section also describes how you can replace a part instance.

17.4.1

The position tools in the Assembly module

Each part exists in its own coordinate system in the Part module, and you use the Assembly module to position and orient instances of these parts relative to each other in a global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE provides the following tools for positioning part instances:
Auto-offset

When you create the first part instance in the Assembly module, ABAQUS/CAE displays a triad indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE positions the first part instance so that the origin of the part aligns with the origin of the global coordinate system and the axes are aligned. If you create additional part instances, ABAQUS/CAE continues to position the new instances such that their coordinate system aligns with the global coordinate system. Since this usually results in new part instances overlapping existing ones, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to apply an offset before it creates the instance. The offset is applied along the X-axis for three-dimensional and two-dimensional part instances and along the Y-axis for axisymmetric part instances. For detailed instructions, see “Creating a part instance,” Section 17.8.2, in the online version of this manual.
Basic positioning tools

ABAQUS/CAE provides the following basic methods for positioning part instances: • You can translate selected part instances along a vector. You specify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the start point and end point of the translation vector. For detailed instructions, see “Translating part instances,” Section 17.8.3, in the online version of this manual. • You can rotate selected part instances about an axis. You specify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the start point and end point of the axis of rotation and the angle of rotation. For detailed instructions, see “Rotating part instances,” Section 17.8.4, in the online version of this manual.
Position constraint tools

A position constraint defines a relationship between two part instances. Unlike a simple translation or rotation, you do not specify the position directly. Position constraints define a set of rules that must always be met by the part instances in the assembly; for example, a face that must be parallel to another face. Position constraints defined in the Assembly module define constraints only on the initial positions of instances, whereas constraints defined in the Interaction module define constraints on the analysis degrees of freedom. In the Assembly module constraints are stored as features of the assembly. If you modify a part or move a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE attempts to apply all

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CREATING THE ASSEMBLY

existing position constraints when it regenerates the assembly. Each of the position constraints is described in “How the position constraint methods differ,” Section 17.4.2. Creating the final assembly is an iterative process of creating part instances, applying position constraints, and applying translations and rotations. After each repositioning, ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image indicating the result of the operation. You can accept the new position, cancel the in the operation, or step back through the repositioning procedure by clicking the go back button prompt area. You can use the Query toolset to obtain the coordinates of a vertex and to measure the distance between selected vertices. This may help you determine the vector along which you need to translate part instances or the angle through which you need to rotate them. “Using the Query toolset to query the assembly,” Section 17.10, in the online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on how to obtain information about the assembly.

17.4.2

How the position constraint methods differ

A position constraint defines a relationship between two part instances—one that will move (the movable part instance) and one that will remain stationary (the fixed part instance). When you apply a position constraint, ABAQUS/CAE computes a position for the movable part instance that satisfies this relationship; you do not specify the position directly. You can apply the following position constraints to part instances in the Assembly module: • Parallel face (three-dimensional part instances only) • Face to face (three-dimensional part instances only) • Parallel edge (two-dimensional and three-dimensional part instances only) • Edge to edge • Coaxial (three-dimensional part instances only) • Coincident point • Parallel coordinate systems • Contact In general, applying a single position constraint is not sufficient to define the precise location of the movable part instance. You must apply several position constraints—usually three for a threedimensional assembly and two for a two-dimensional assembly—to position a part instance in the desired location. Part instances can overlap as a result of applying position constraints; ABAQUS/CAE does not prevent overclosure between edges, faces, or cells. Similarly, ABAQUS/CAE does not prevent you from overconstraining part instances or duplicating a constraint. After you apply a position constraint, ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area indicating the number of degrees of freedom still available. For example, if you apply a coincident point constraint, the message indicates that zero translational degrees of freedom and three rotational degrees of freedom remain.

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Assembly Module

The definition of a constraint feature includes all the faces and edges that you originally selected. If you subsequently modify a part or move a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE automatically recalculates the constraint based on your original selection of faces and edges. As a result, one or more part instances may move after the assembly is regenerated. For example, different edges may become parallel. For more information on features, see “Manipulating features in the Assembly module,” Section 17.6.2, and Chapter 44, “The Feature Manipulation toolset.” You can use datums to position part instances. When you are prompted to select a face, you can also select a datum plane. When you are prompted to select an edge, you can also select a datum axis or one of the axes of a datum coordinate system. When you select a datum from the fixed part instance, you can select a datum that was created in either the Part or Assembly module. In contrast, when you select the datum from the movable part instance, you can select a datum that was created only in the Part module. A datum created in the Part module is associated with an instance of the part and moves with the part instance. The following position constraints are provided by the Assembly module:
Parallel Face

A parallel face position constraint causes a selected face of the movable part instance to become parallel with a selected face of the fixed part instance. However, the position constraint does not specify the precise location of the movable part instance, and the distance between the parallel faces is arbitrary. To apply a parallel face position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: • Select the faces to be constrained to be parallel from the movable part instance and the fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 17–1.

Selected faces

Fixed part instance

Movable part instance

Figure 17–1

Select the faces to become parallel.

• ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows normal to the selected faces. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow normal to its selected

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face. Figure 17–2 illustrates the result of applying the position constraint and the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow.

Figure 17–2 The result of applying a parallel face position constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow normal to the selected face of the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance until the two selected faces are parallel and the arrows are pointing in the same direction. The faces you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be planar. The parallel face position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. For detailed instructions, see “Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces,” Section 17.9.2, in the online version of this manual.
Face to Face

A face-to-face position constraint is similar to a parallel face position constraint except that you define the clearance between the parallel faces. The clearance is measured between the two selected faces, positive along the normal to the fixed part instance. Other than this clearance, the

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Assembly Module

precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. Assuming that you selected the same two faces shown in Figure 17–1, the effect of applying a face-to-face constraint is shown in Figure 17–3. Figure 17–3 also illustrates the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow normal to its selected face.

d

d

Plan view

Plan view

Figure 17–3 The result of applying a face-to-face constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow normal to the selected face of the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance until the two selected faces are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. In addition, the movable part instance is translated to satisfy the clearance specified. The faces you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be planar. The face-to-face position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. For detailed instructions, see “Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces separated by a specified distance,” Section 17.9.3, in the online version of this manual.
Parallel Edge

A parallel edge position constraint causes a selected edge of the movable part instance to become parallel with a selected edge of the fixed part instance. However, the position constraint does not

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specify the precise location of the movable part instance, and the distance between the parallel edges is arbitrary. To apply a parallel edge position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: • Select the edges to be constrained to be parallel from the movable and fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 17–4.
Fixed part instance

Movable part instance

Selected edges

Figure 17–4

Select the edges to become parallel.

• ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the selected edges. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow along its selected edge. Figure 17–5 illustrates the result of applying the position constraint and the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow.

Figure 17–5 The result of applying a parallel edge constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow along the selected edge of the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance until the two selected edges are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction.

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Assembly Module

The edges you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be straight. You can select an edge from a part instance, or you can select a datum axis or one of the axes of a datum coordinate system. The parallel edge position constraint can be applied only to two-dimensional and three-dimensional part instances. It has no effect on axisymmetric part instances. For detailed instructions, see “Constraining two part instances with parallel edges,” Section 17.9.4, in the online version of this manual.
Edge to Edge

An edge-to-edge position constraint is similar to a parallel edge position constraint except that the clearance between the parallel edges is defined by the constraint. Assuming that you selected the same two edges shown in Figure 17–4, the effect of applying an edge-to edge position constraint to a two-dimensional assembly is shown in Figure 17–6. Figure 17–6 also illustrates the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow along its selected edge.

d

d

Figure 17–6 The result of applying an edge-to-edge constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow along the selected edge of the movable part instance. The modeling space of the assembly determines the behavior of ABAQUS/CAE after you apply an edge-to-edge position constraint. • If the assembly is three-dimensional, ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the edges are coincident. • If the assembly is two-dimensional, you can specify the clearance between the selected edges. The clearance is measured between the two selected edges, positive along the normal to the fixed part instance. Other than this behavior, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. The edge-to-edge position constraint can be applied to two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and

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axisymmetric part instances; however, axisymmetric part instances can move only parallel to the axis of revolution. For detailed instructions, see “Constraining two part instances with parallel edges separated by a specified distance,” Section 17.9.5, in the online version of this manual.
Coaxial

A coaxial position constraint causes a selected cylindrical or conical face of the movable part instance to become coaxial with a selected cylindrical or conical face of the fixed part instance. However, the coaxial position constraint does not constrain the precise location of the movable part instance. To apply a coaxial position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: • Select the cylindrical or conical faces to be constrained to be coaxial from the movable and fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 17–7.

Selected faces Axis of revolution

Axis of revolution

Movable part instance

Fixed part instance

Figure 17–7

Select the faces to become coaxial.

• ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the axis of revolution of the selected part instances. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow along its axis of revolution. Figure 17–8 illustrates the result of applying the coaxial position constraint. ABAQUS/CAE rotates and translates the movable part instance until the two selected faces are coaxial and the arrows are pointing in the same direction. The coaxial position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. For detailed instructions, see “Constraining two part instances with coaxial faces,” Section 17.9.6, in the online version of this manual.

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However. A coincident point constraint causes a selected point on the movable part instance to coincide with a selected point on the fixed part instance. the coincident point constraint does not constrain the orientation of the movable part instance. The orientation of the movable part instance does not change after the constraint is applied. Maintain relative positions using CVJOINT connector. Assemble instances using coincident points. as shown in Figure 17–9. 2.CREATING THE ASSEMBLY Assembly Module Figure 17–8 Coincident Point The effect of applying a coaxial constraint. 17–11 . Figure 17–9 The effect of applying a coincident point constraint. 1.

9. Coincident point Figure 17–10 The effect of applying parallel coordinate systems and coincident point constraints. and -axes). For detailed instructions. The coordinate systems can be either rectangular (X-. e b 2 Part b e b 3 e b 1 Parallel coordinate systems a e a 2 e 3 e a 1 Part a 2.” Section 17. 1. Y-. Maintain relative positions with TRANSLATOR connector.” Section 17. in the online version of this manual. -. cylindrical (R-. Figure 17–10 illustrates the effect of applying a parallel coordinate systems constraint and a concident point constraint to two part instances. or spherical (R-. see “Constraining two part instances with coincident points.9. the parallel coordinate systems constraint does not specify the precise location of the movable part instance. see “Constraining two part instances with parallel coordinate systems. and Z-axes).8. and Z-axes).” Section 17.4.4. Contact The contact position constraint is described in “Using contact to position a part instance.7. However.CREATING THE ASSEMBLY For detailed instructions. Parallel CSYS A parallel coordinate systems constraint causes the axes of a datum coordinate system on the movable part instance to become parallel with the axes of a datum coordinate system on the fixed part instance. in the online version of this manual. Assemble instances using coincident point and parallel CSYS. -. 17–12 .

For more information. Likewise. If that is the case. the translation vector must be parallel to the axis of revolution. see “Converting constraints. You may wish to set the curve refinement to a finer setting based on the curvature of faces or edges that you know will be coming into contact.4. However. in the online version of this manual.CREATING THE ASSEMBLY Assembly Module 17. when the contact position constraint is applied between axisymmetric part instances. Use the box zoom to view the faceting applied to curved faces or edges in the assembly.3 How conflicts can arise between position constraints In some situations a new position constraint may conflict with other position constraints that you applied earlier.4. for faster processing you should select as few faces or edges as possible. For detailed instructions. Alternatively. When creating a contact position constraint.8.4. 17–13 . The number of facets depends on the degree of curve refinement that you specified when creating the part in the Part module. Unlike other constraints. a translation or rotation constraint may conflict with position constraints that you applied earlier.4 Using contact to position a part instance A contact position constraint causes selected faces or edges to come into contact by translating the movable part instance along a selected vector. in the online version of this manual. you select faces to come into contact. When you are defining tool contact between curved faces or curved edges. a contact position constraint specifies the final location of the movable part instance and depends on the initial position of the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE offers the following options: ! • Cancel the translation or rotation.” Section 17. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message. you select edges to come into contact. ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved edge with a set of faceted edges. ABAQUS/CAE computes the contact position using this faceted representation.” Section 51. This type of constraint is available only for native or imported geometric part instances. You cannot restore position constraints that were removed. and you can either apply a different position constraint or use the Feature Manipulation toolset to modify the existing position constraints.6. Similarly. • Remove all existing position constraints without changing the position of the part instances and then apply the translation or rotation. When applying a contact position constraint between part instances in three-dimensional modeling space. Selecting multiple faces or edges is useful if you are not sure what part of the model will come in contact when the movable part instance moves along the selected vector. ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved face with a set of faceted faces. you can select more than one face or edge from both the fixed and the movable part instances. you can remove all the existing position constraints without changing the position of the part instances by using Instance Convert Constraints and then applying the new position constraint. In addition. see “Controlling curve refinement. 17. for part instances in two-dimensional or axisymmetric modeling space. If that is the case.

a negative value for the clearance results in overclosure between the selected faces or edges. you should specify a small clearance value. you do the following: • Select faces or edges from the part instance that will move and from the part instance that will remain stationary. rather than simply specifying zero. You must use the Interaction module to specify mechanical contact between surfaces. Figure 17–11 illustrates the selected edges and translation vector. ABAQUS/CAE then moves the part instance along the translation vector a distance specified by the clearance value. • Prescribe the motion of the movable part instance by defining a translation vector. The clearance can be zero or a positive or negative number. you must not mix a contact position constraint with other position constraints. As a result. As a result. A contact position constraint often conflicts with other position constraints and will break those constraints if applied. Translation vector Selected edges Figure 17–11 Select the edges to contact and define the translation vector. Figure 17–12 shows the effect of the contact constraint after specifying a clearance value of zero and a clearance value of d. 17–14 . • Define the desired clearance between the selected faces or edges. If you want to avoid any possibility of overclosure. To define a contact position constraint between two part instances. ABAQUS/CAE first moves the part instance along the translation vector until any pair of selected faces or edges come into contact. When you apply a contact constraint. ABAQUS/CAE calculates the position of the movable part instance within a tolerance based on its size. To measure the clearance d. the physical proximity of the selected surfaces is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between them. contact may not be precise unless it is applied between two planar surfaces. The contact position constraint is satisfied only within a tolerance based on the size of your model.CREATING THE ASSEMBLY Even though you apply a contact position constraint to two part instances.

you can choose whether the new part instance inherits all the constraints from the instance it replaced. see “Replacing a part instance.” Section 17. ABAQUS/CAE positions the new part instance such that its origin is located at the origin of the original part instance. you can cut away an instance of a native part using selected part instances to make the cut.8. For example.” Section 17. You can also merge instances of orphan mesh parts. see “Merging or cutting part instances. in the online version of this manual. see “Constraining two part instances with contact between two faces separated by a specified distance.4. Replacing a part instance is useful when you are replacing a part instance with one that has similar geometry. 17.5 Merging and cutting part instances You can select instances of native parts that you created using ABAQUS/CAE and merge them into a single instance. in the online version of this manual.” Section 17.5. In addition. 17.9. and their axes align. For detailed instructions.8. 17–15 . For detailed instructions. In addition. This section describes how you merge and cut part instances. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and does not apply the constraint if contact is not possible given the selected translation vector.9. the new part instance might have additional detail that was not present in the original part instance.MERGING AND CUTTING PART INSTANCES Assembly Module d Points of contact Figure 17–12 The effect of applying a contact constraint and specifying clearance values of zero and d.5 Replacing a part instance You can replace a part instance with a second part instance. For detailed instructions.7. in the online version of this manual.

You can merge part instances even if the instances are not touching or overlapping. see “Copying a part. For more information. 17–16 . In addition. You can choose whether to remove or retain the intersecting boundaries between the merged part instances.” Section 15. If desired. The two part instances are positioned along a common face and then merged into a single part instance that can be meshed and analyzed. you can choose to suppress or retain the original part instances. The merge and cut operations are described in more detail in the following list: Merge ! You can select multiple native part instances and merge them into a single part instance. as shown in Figure 17–14. you can use the Part Copy dialog box to create a mirror image of a part about one of the three principal planes. Both operations create a new part instance and a new part.1 Merging and cutting native part instances Select Instance Merge/Cut from the main menu bar to merge multiple instances of native parts that you created using ABAQUS/CAE. When you merge or cut part instances. Figure 17–13 shows two part instances that model a 15-pin connector. you can cut a single native part instance using one or more selected native part instances to make the cut. Figure 17–13 Two part instances merged into a single part instance.MERGING AND CUTTING PART INSTANCES 17. For example.5.5.

and then you can select one or more part instances that are touching or overlapping the part instance to be cut. • When you import a complex assembly. In contrast. ABAQUS/CAE creates a separate mesh for each instance and you must apply tie constaints to effectively merge the nodes. 17–17 . the assembly may appear in ABAQUS/CAE as a large number of individual part instances that will be meshed individually. when you merge part instances. Figure 17–15 shows a bottle and a rectangular blank and how the cut process creates the mold. and you do not need to apply computationally expensive tie constraints. • Merging part instances allows you to assign material properties to the single part created by the merge operation instead of to each part individually. The following list describes some examples of why you might want to merge part instances: • If part instances touch or overlap but you do not merge them. or you can merge groups of part instances into several separate part instances. ABAQUS/CAE creates a single combined mesh. You can merge all the part instances into a single part instance. ABAQUS/CAE uses the part instances that will make the cut (the die) to cut away from the part instance to be cut (the blank).MERGING AND CUTTING PART INSTANCES Assembly Module Figure 17–14 The effect of removing and retaining intersecting boundaries. The cut operation is useful if you want to create a mold from a part or vice versa. Cut You can select a single part instance to be cut. • You can apply a display body constraint to a group of merged part instances instead of applying the constraint to each part instance individually. You cannot cut part instances that are not touching or overlapping.

7.2 Merging and cutting orphan mesh part instances Select Instance Merge/Cut from the main menu bar to merge multiple instances of orphan mesh parts. the bottle was converted from a shell to a solid part in the Part module.5.7.8. The cut operation is also useful for modeling a structure and an acoustic medium when you are performing an acoustic or shock analysis. You cannot make a cut with a shell part instance. see “Merging or cutting part instances. see “Creating a solid from a shell.5. In addition. before the cut operation was performed. in the online version of this manual. For more information. the original part instances (the blank and the die) were suppressed after the cut operation. As a result. For detailed instructions. in the online version of this manual.MERGING AND CUTTING PART INSTANCES position part instances cut Figure 17–15 A mold created from a blank and a die using the cut operation.” Section 17. You can also merge selected nodes of an orphan mesh part using the Edit Mesh toolset in the ! 17–18 . 17.” Section 48.

you can choose to suppress or retain the original orphan mesh part instances.1. ABAQUS/CAE will not merge nodes from the same element. you cannot cut instances of orphan mesh parts. If no nodes are closer than the specified distance. ABAQUS/CAE updates your sets during the merge operation. If the value that you entered for the Node merging tolerance is too large. However. the large tolerance can result in a distorted mesh. ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to cancel the procedure or create a single instance from the selected instances.1. and ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to continue or end the merging procedure. If you select instances that contain node or element sets.MERGING AND CUTTING PART INSTANCES Assembly Module Part module. Figure 17–16 shows how you can position two instances of orphan mesh parts along a common face and merge them into a single part instance. The location of the new node is the average position of the deleted nodes. Merging orphan mesh part instances is similar to merging native part instances in that the operation creates a new orphan mesh part instance and a new orphan mesh part. Although merging orphan mesh part instances is similar to merging native part instances. which is the maximum distance between nodes that will be merged. ABAQUS/CAE may detect duplicate nodes from the same element.” Section 43. 17–19 . for more information. Figure 17–16 Two orphan mesh part instances merged into a single part instance. ABAQUS/CAE deletes nodes that are closer than the specified distance and replaces them with a single new node. Similarly. You can specify the Node merging tolerance. Merge You can merge multiple orphan mesh part instances. see “What are the Edit Mesh tools?.

you may want to merge all the nodes in the selected part instances.5. ABAQUS/CAE does not check for duplicate nodes in the interior of the parts. You should retain this default setting if the part instances intersect at only a common face. for example. in which case ABAQUS/CAE merges the part instances into a single instance but retains all the original nodes. As a result. see “Obtaining general information about the model. and in most cases you should accept the default behavior.” Section 15.” Section 10.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE When you merge orphan mesh part instances that intersect. ABAQUS/CAE merges the orphan mesh part instances only along their boundaries.2. As a result.2. However. All If the part instances overlap. You can choose between the following methods for merging the nodes: Boundary only By default. In many cases you will be merging part instances that do not intersect but share a common face. you cannot perform a cut operation between two mesh part instances or between a geometric part instance and a mesh part instance.2. see “Copying a part. A duplicate element has the same connectivity as another element.6 Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module The Assembly module provides several toolsets that allow you to modify the features that define the assembly. the two part instances shown in Figure 17–16. For more information. The mesh may also contain merged faces that have an incompatible mesh pattern. You can use the Mesh gaps/intersections tool in the Query toolset to check for small gaps and incompatible faces. Although the resulting merged mesh may appear acceptable in the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE deletes duplicate elements. as described in the discussion of stability in “No compression or no tension. you can use the Part Copy dialog box to create a mirror image of a part about one of the three principal planes. refer to: 17–20 .2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For more information. 17. you must retain duplicate elements if you want to model a material with a combination of material properties that are not supported by ABAQUS. the mesh may contain small gaps between a node and an element face that are not readily apparent. This section describes how these toolsets are used within the Assembly module. If desired. you can choose whether to create duplicate elements as well as duplicate nodes. you can choose to merge none of the nodes. For more detailed information about each toolset. and this speeds up the merging process.” Section 46. By default. Cut You cannot cut orphan mesh part instances. None Alternatively.

” Section 51. you can use a datum axis when creating a parallel edge or edge-to-edge constraint if the desired edge does not exist. You use the reference geometry to help you define position constraints and to position part instances. ! 17–21 . A datum is a parent feature of any constraint in which it was selected. For more information. As a result. one to each of the three part instances shown. You can make datum geometry invisible while still retaining it in the assembly by selecting View Assembly Display Options from the main menu bar. Figure 17–18 illustrates an edge-to-edge position constraint applied between three movable part instances and a fixed datum axis that provides reference geometry. when you translate and rotate a part instance in the Assembly module. 44. 47. 49. “The “The “The “The “The “The Datum toolset” Feature Manipulation toolset” Partition toolset” Query toolset” Reference Point toolset” Set and Surface toolsets” The Display Group toolset is discussed in Chapter 52. In addition. edges. Similarly. and surfaces) that is not provided by the assembly. You can suppress or delete it. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE Assembly Module • • • • • • Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 42. but you cannot modify it.” 17. a datum created in the Assembly module follows only the reference points that were used to create the datum. would result in alignment of the three instances along the datum axis. Datum geometry that you create in the Part module is transferred along with the rest of the part’s geometry when you create a part instance in the Assembly module.6. The datum axis was created with the deformable part in the Part module and moves along with the movable part instance when the position constraint is applied. The triad indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system is a datum coordinate system created by the Assembly module. see “Controlling datum display. 45. the behavior of the datum may not reflect your design intent. you should create the datum in the Part module. If you know that a datum should be associated with a part. For example. The shell is positioned easily by applying an edge-to-edge position constraint between a selected edge of the lower rigid surface (the fixed part instance) and a datum axis associated with the shell (the movable part instance). a datum created in the Part module is translated and rotated along with the instance. you use the Datum toolset to provide additional reference geometry (vertices.6.1 Using datum geometry in the Assembly module Within the Assembly module. you can use a datum plane when creating a parallel face or face-to-face constraint if the desired surface does not exist. In contrast. if you translate and rotate the part instance. In contrast. Applying three edge-to-edge position constraints. A datum is a feature of the assembly and is regenerated along with the rest of the assembly. In this example the datum axis was created along the X-axis of the assembly and is not associated with any part instance. 46. Figure 17–17 illustrates a model in which a deformable curved shell will be compressed between two rigid surfaces.

UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE Rigid part instance Movable deformable part instance Datum axis d Selected edge Fixed rigid part instance Figure 17–17 An edge-to-edge constraint applied between a datum axis and a selected edge. Selected edge d Fixed datum axis Figure 17–18 Edge-to-edge constraints applied between multiple parts and a fixed datum axis. 17–22 .

you must display the Feature Manager and select the position constraint from the list of features that appears. You can modify the following parameters of a position constraint: • The direction of the arrow normal to the selected face or along the selected edge of the movable part instance. ABAQUS/CAE automatically regenerates instances of a modified part when you return to the Assembly module. The following feature manipulation tools are available from the Feature Manipulation toolset: Edit When you edit a feature. see Chapter 52. suppress. You can make a part instance invisible while still retaining it in the assembly by selecting View Assembly Display Options Instance from the main menu bar. see “Controlling instance visibility.” ! ! Position constraints You can edit. it may be convenient to postpone regeneration until you make all your changes. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model.” Section 51. suppressed. edge-to-edge. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Feature dialog box and you can modify the feature’s parameters or the sketch that defined the feature. since regeneration can be time consuming. Select Feature Regenerate when you are ready to regenerate the assembly. To modify a part instance. you must return to the Part module to modify the original part. You can use the Feature Manipulation toolset to modify features of the assembly. a datum.6. This technique is not the same as suppressing a part instance. and contact constraints. Translations and rotations are not stored as features and cannot be edited. • The clearance between the selected face or edge of the movable part instance and the selected face or edge of the fixed part instance. a suppressed part instance is removed from the assembly until you resume it. resume. to select a position constraint. you can select a visible feature such as a part instance. For more information. the following are considered to be features of the assembly and appear in the list of features in the Feature Manager: Part instances You can suppress. ! 17–23 . resume. and delete position constraints. You can partition a part instance. or deleted. You cannot edit part instances. but you cannot edit its geometry. for more information. You can also use display groups to make part instances invisible.10.2 Manipulating features in the Assembly module Along with datum geometry and partitions. you must edit the original part in the Part module. and delete part instances. or a partition from the viewport. Regenerate When you modify features in a complex assembly. However. resumed. When you are prompted to select a feature to modify. The clearance parameter applies only to face-to-face.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE Assembly Module 17.

Delete Deleting a feature removes it from the assembly. the set of features most recently suppressed.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE Rename Rename a feature. You can use vertices. 17–24 . and is not included in the analysis of the model. You can choose to resume all features. Suppressing a parent feature will suppress all of its child features. Partitions cannot span part instances. “The Feature Manipulation toolset. in the online version of this manual. and they are regenerated along with the rest of the assembly. or just a selected feature. you might use the Extend Face method to partition a cell by extending a face of one part instance into a second part instance. Query When you query a feature.” 17.4 Querying the assembly You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information. for example. Partitions you create in the Part module are transferred along with the rest of the part’s geometry when you create a part instance in the Assembly module. For a more detailed explanation of the Feature Manipulation toolset.rpy) in the form of comments. Suppress Suppressing a feature temporarily removes it from the definition of the assembly.2. see “Obtaining general information about the model. Resume Resuming a feature restores a suppressed feature to the assembly. ABAQUS/CAE displays information in the message area and writes the same information to the replay file (abaqus. cannot be meshed. and faces from one part instance to create a partition that divides a second part instance.” Section 46. 17.2. A partition in the assembly appears in every module that operates on the assembly. see Chapter 44. A suppressed feature is invisible.6.6. Partitions are features of the assembly. edges. you can use the Partition toolset to partition the assembly into additional regions. you cannot restore a deleted feature. You cannot turn off the display of partitions.3 Partitioning the assembly Within the Assembly module. For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries. Options The Feature Options dialog box allows you to tune the regeneration performance of the current model.

You create surfaces by selecting faces or edges from the assembly. and interactions are applied. for example. RP-3. Assembly sets can include regions from multiple part instances. and you use the Set toolset to create and manage assembly sets. however. 17. ABAQUS provides only read-only access to these part sets in assembly-related modules. see “Controlling reference point display. you cannot access a part set from the Set Manager in assembly-related modules. see Chapter 47. In addition.5 Creating reference points From the main menu bar. Typically you select a surface when a procedure is expecting a face. 17–25 . You can create multiple reference points on the assembly. see “Using the Query toolset to query the assembly. however.6 Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module Sets created by selecting geometry from the assembly are called assembly sets. For more information.7. When you instance a part in the Assembly module. and modeling space • Origin • The sum of the translations and rotations applied to the instance For more information. For example.” Section 17. For more information. ! ! 17. you can turn off the display of the reference point symbol and the reference point label. see “Understanding sets and surfaces.” Section 51.6. RP-2. If desired.” ABAQUS/CAE displays the reference point at the desired location along with its label. for more information. see “What is a surface?. You can also use assembly sets to define regions of the model from which ABAQUS/CAE will generate output during the analysis.” Section 49.10. such as pressure loads. For more information. and you use the Surface toolset to create and manage surfaces.2.3. etc. part sets are created by selecting geometry from a part in the Part module or the Property module. you can select an assembly set to indicate where loads. boundary conditions. you can select an eligible part set during a procedure by clicking the Set button and selecting the set from the Region Selection dialog box that appears. for example. select Tools Reference Point to create a reference point on a part instance. when you are applying distributed loads. you can refer to any part sets that you previously created. and defining contact interactions.” Section 49. type. “The Reference Point toolset. In contrast. in the online version of this manual. You can use the Feature Manipulation toolset to change the reference point label by selecting Feature Rename from the main menu bar.UNDERSTANDING TOOLSETS IN THE ASSEMBLY MODULE Assembly Module In addition. selected vertices or faces.2.6. you can use the Assembly module-specific queries to determine the following attributes of a part instance: • Name. ABAQUS/CAE labels them RP-1.

3.2. 17–26 . see “Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons. Figure 17–19 shows the hidden icons for all the Assembly module tools in the toolbox.7 Using the Assembly module toolbox You can access all the Assembly module tools through either the main menu bar or through the Assembly module toolbox. To see a tooltip containing a brief definition of an Assembly module tool. For information on using toolboxes and selecting hidden icons. Part instance creation tool Rotation tool Translation tool Contact tool Merge/cut tool Position constraint tools Figure 17–19 The Assembly module tools.” Section 7. hold the mouse over the tool for a moment.USING THE ASSEMBLY MODULE TOOLBOX 17.

see “Getting help.1 Understanding the role of the Step module You can use the Step module to perform the following tasks: Create analysis steps Within a model you define a sequence of one or more analysis steps. • Specify solution controls.” Section 18. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • • • • • “Using the Step Manager.4 “Understanding restart.” Section 18.” Section 18. The Step module You can use the Step module to perform the following tasks: • Create analysis steps.” Section 18.3 “Understanding output requests. “A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model. changes 18–1 . • Specify adaptive meshing.” Section 18.14 For information on displaying the online documentation. 18.” Section 18.6 Step Module • “How can I customize the ABAQUS analysis controls?. diagnostic.7 • “Using the Step module toolbox.” for examples of how to create steps and request output.” Section 18.9 “Using the step editor.” Section 18.” Section 18. This chapter covers the following topics: • • • • • • “Understanding the role of the Step module.” Section 18.” Section 18.” Section 6.12 “Customizing adaptive meshing. The step sequence provides a convenient way to capture changes in the loading and boundary conditions of the model.6.5 “Understanding adaptive meshing.8 In addition.11 “Requesting specialized output. See Chapter 4.2 “Understanding steps.” Section 18. • Specify output requests.” Section 18.1 “Entering and exiting the Step module.10 “Defining output requests.UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE STEP MODULE 18. and monitor output.” Section 18.13 • “Customizing the ABAQUS analysis controls.

You can also use steps to define linear perturbation analyses about nonlinear base states. including controls specific to problems involving contact. Specify solution controls You can customize solution controls.1. you might request output of the entire model’s displacement field at the end of a step and also request the history of a reaction force at a restrained point.3 Understanding steps This section gives an overview of steps. from which region of the model they will be output.3. they will be saved automatically when you save the model database by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. you specify the output by creating output requests that are propagated to subsequent analysis steps. To exit the Step module. the data output. 18. see “Procedures: overview. the contents of the viewport disappear when you start the Step module. For example. You need not save your steps or output requests before exiting the module. Other. For additional information on steps.UNDERSTANDING STEPS in the way parts of the model interact with each other. 18.” Section 6. Specify adaptive meshing You can define adaptive mesh regions and specify controls for adaptive meshing in those regions.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar. and various controls.2 Entering and exiting the Step module You can enter the Step module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Step in the Module list located under the toolbar. Specify output requests ABAQUS writes output from the analysis to the output database. You can use the replace function to change the analysis procedure of an existing step. the removal or addition of parts. steps allow you to change the analysis procedure. ! ! 18. Output. select any other module from the Module list. If the current viewport contains something other than the assembly. The Step. and at what rate they will be output. In addition. and any other changes that may occur in the model during the course of the analysis.1 What is a step? An ABAQUS/CAE model uses the following two types of steps: 18–2 . An output request defines which variables will be output during an analysis step.

fields. and it cannot be renamed. For detailed information on creating. edited. and replacing steps. see “Step sequence restrictions. The initial step allows you to define boundary conditions. Step 1: Compress Apply a compressive force to the right end of the pipe.UNDERSTANDING STEPS The initial step ABAQUS/CAE creates a special initial step at the beginning of the model’s step sequence and names it Initial. if a boundary condition or interaction is applied throughout the analysis. The manager lists all of the steps in the analysis as well as a few salient details concerning each step.2 • “Editing a step.” Section 18. There is no limit to the number of analysis steps you can define.9.” Section 18. replaced. editing.1 • “Creating a step. copied. Compress. This step is a linear perturbation step. conditions applied in the initial step form part of the base state for the perturbation.” Section 18. you can select Step Manager from the main menu bar to display the Step Manager. Likewise.9. Eigenmodes. Step 2. consider the following analysis of a section of a piping system: ! Initial Step: Apply boundary conditions to fix the left end of the pipe and to allow only axial movement at the right end. to select and define the analysis procedure used during the step.” Section 18.3.3 • “Replacing a step. and to manage existing steps. is indented to show that it is a linear perturbation step based on the state of the model at the end of Step 1. when the first analysis step is a linear perturbation step.9.4 18–3 . (For more information. Each analysis step is associated with a specific analysis procedure.” Section 18.9.3. it is usually convenient to apply such conditions in the initial step. For example.) You use items from the Step menu to create a step. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “The Step Manager. Alternatively. This step is a general analysis step. Figure 18–1 shows the Step Manager after you create these steps. Step 2: Eigenmodes Calculate the frequencies and modes of vibration of the pipe in its compressed state. ABAQUS/CAE creates only one initial step for your model. and interactions that are applicable at the very beginning of the analysis. but there are restrictions on the step sequence. For example. Step Module Analysis steps The initial step is followed by one or more analysis steps. or deleted.

” Section 18. nonlinear geometric effects can become important.” Section 18.” Section 18. However. You use the Procedure type field to choose between General and Linear perturbation steps when you select the procedure in the Create Step dialog box. the effects may be small enough to be ignored. • Select Step Nlgeom from the main menu bar.2 18. If the displacements in a model due to loading are relatively small during a step. if ABAQUS is already accounting for geometric nonlinearity.2 Linear and nonlinear procedures The Step Manager distinguishes between general nonlinear steps and linear perturbation steps by indenting the names and procedure descriptions of linear perturbation steps. The Nlgeom setting is turned on by default for ABAQUS/Explicit steps and turned off by default for ABAQUS/Standard steps. Linear perturbation analysis steps provide the linear response of the model about the state reached at the end of the last general nonlinear step.5 • “The step editor.10. The Nlgeom setting for a step determines whether ABAQUS will account for geometric nonlinearity in that step. • “Resetting the default values in the step editor. For each step in the analysis. ! 18–4 . the Step Manager also indicates whether ABAQUS will account for nonlinear effects from large displacements and deformations. The sequence of steps and the current Nlgeom setting determine whether you can change the Nlgeom setting in a particular step. in cases where the loads on a model result in large displacements.1 • “The Incrementation tab.10.UNDERSTANDING STEPS Figure 18–1 The Step Manager.9. the Nlgeom setting is toggled on for all subsequent steps.3. • Click Nlgeom in the Step Manager. For example. the following methods allow you to change the Nlgeom setting for a step: • Click the Basic tab in the Step Editor and toggle the Nlgeom setting. Where permissible. General nonlinear analysis steps define sequential events: the state of the model at the end of one general step provides the initial state for the start of the next general step. and you cannot toggle it off.

For example. General procedure containing an ABAQUS/Standard self-contact interaction. You can modify the default values and specify values for optional settings in the step editor.” Section 6.” Section 18. see “Accounting for geometric nonlinearity.3. you select the step that you want to replace and the new analysis procedure for that step. the list of valid procedure types in the Create Step dialog box will change to include only those procedures that are compatible with the first step. Therefore. if possible. The selection of procedure types in the Create Step and Replace Step dialog boxes depends on the following: ! ! Step Module • The procedures that you have already associated with existing steps. boundary conditions. in the online version of this manual or see “General and linear perturbation procedures. both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit procedure types appear in the list. The Edit Step dialog box appears with default values for the new analysis procedure. For example. ABAQUS/CAE substitutes an equivalent object. a Create Step dialog box appears in which you can specify the procedure type for the step that you are creating. General procedure to a Static. a pressure load. However. if the first step is an ABAQUS/Standard step. when you select Step Replace from the main menu bar. 18.UNDERSTANDING STEPS For more information.1. such as loads. a Replace Step dialog box appears in which you can specify a new procedure type for an existing step. ABAQUS/CAE copies all of the compatible step-dependent objects to the new step. General procedure to a Dynamic. and interactions. After you select Step Replace from the main menu bar. Riks procedure.6. you can change from a Static. ABAQUS/Explicit procedures no longer appear in the list. for example. you may want to run another analysis using a different procedure without having to redefine objects in your model. When you replace a step. once you have created the first step. 18–5 . and an inertia relief load with a Dynamic.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Explicit procedure. ABAQUS/CAE displays a list of the objects that were deleted during step replacement in the message area. ABAQUS/CAE does the following: ! • Substitutes an ABAQUS/Explicit self-contact interaction for the ABAQUS/Standard self-contact interaction in the Dynamic. Explicit procedure or from a Static. If objects are incompatible with the new step. if you replace a Static. • The position of the new or replaced step in the analysis step sequence. You can use the replace function to replace the analysis procedure for an existing step with any procedure that is allowed by ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Explicit procedure. you may want to copy the model before you replace the step.9. Similarly.3 Step sequence restrictions When you select Step Create from the main menu bar. For example. you can choose from a list of valid procedure types. when you create the first step in an analysis.4 What is step replacement? After you have defined your model and performed an analysis. and deletes the remaining objects. 18.3.

18. see “Modifying the history of a step-dependent object. An output request consists of the following information: • The variables or variable components of interest.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS • Copies the pressure load to the Dynamic. 18–6 . you can create additional ABAQUS/Explicit steps and use the step-dependent managers to move objects that were copied during step replacement to the appropriate ABAQUS/Explicit procedures. you can use the Interaction Manager to move the interactions.” Section 7.3. jobs. In the Job module you can click Write Input in the Job Manager to write the input file and then check the input file for errors. You can then delete the other three steps and replace the remaining step with a Dynamic. you can use the Load Manager to move all of the loads into one of the four steps. • The rate at which the variable or component values are written to the output database. element types. and boundary conditions and fields in the initial step remain valid for the model. You can then delete the other steps and replace the remaining step with the new analysis procedure. you should verify that previously defined properties. Usually you are interested in only a small subset of all of this computed data. 18. For example. After you replace a step. • Deletes the inertia relief load.5 Replacing an ABAQUS/Standard procedure with an ABAQUS/Explicit procedure or vice versa If you want to replace an ABAQUS/Standard analysis procedure with an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis procedure or vice versa. Similarly. Inertia relief loads apply only in ABAQUS/Standard procedures.5. You can use the replace function to reset step settings to their default values by replacing an existing step with a step of the same procedure type. Explicit procedure. 18. If desired. If your model contains multiple steps. if you want to change a model that contains four Static. you can use step-dependent managers to move objects to a single step.4. • The region of the model and the integration points from which the values are written to the output database.4. You can specify the data that you want written to the output database by creating output requests. General procedures from an ABAQUS/Standard analysis to an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis.4 Understanding output requests This section gives an overview of output requests. you must have only one analysis step in the model for the desired procedure type to appear in the Replace Step dialog box. For more information. Explicit procedure.1 What is an output request? The ABAQUS analysis products compute the values of many variables at every increment of a step.

When you create a field output request for an ABAQUS/Standard analysis procedure.11. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Creating an output request.” Section 9. When your analysis is complete.” Section 18.1 • “Modifying field output requests. output is requested from every node or integration point in the model and from default section points. 18–7 . Default output requests and output requests that you modified are propagated to subsequent steps in the analysis. or symbol plots.2 What is the difference between field output and history output? When you create an output request. In addition. For example. ABAQUS writes every component of the selected variables to the output database. When you create a field output request. you can choose either field output or history output. For detailed instructions on creating and editing output requests. Field output ABAQUS generates field output from data that are spatially distributed over the entire model or over a portion of it. You could then use the Visualization module to view a contour plot of stresses and deflections in the final loaded state. By default. In most cases you use the Visualization module to view field output data using deformed shape. As a result.” Section 18. if you were using solid elements to model a cantilever beam with a load at the tip.11.” Section 18.11. you can specify the output frequency in increments or you can request output after the last increment of each step. You can edit these default output requests or create and edit new ones.3 Step Module 18. ABAQUS/CAE selects a default set of output variables corresponding to the step’s analysis procedure.14. you typically request that ABAQUS writes field data to the output database at a low rate. see “Decreasing the amount of data in an output database by retaining data at specific frames.5 of the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual.2 • “Modifying history output requests.4. for example. If you have a large model that includes the default output requests and requests output from a large number of frames. ABAQUS/CAE selects the default rate at which the variables are written to the output database. after every step or at the end of the analysis. you specify the output frequency in equally spaced intervals. contour. When you create a field output request for an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis procedure. the resulting output database will be very large. You can use a C++ program to extract data from a large output database and copy only selected frames to a second output database. you use the Visualization module to read the output database and graphically display the data that were written to it. The amount of field output generated by ABAQUS during an analysis is often large. For more information. you could request the stress (all six components) and the displacement (all six components) data from the entire model after the last increment of the loading step.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS When you create the first step.

and the rate can be very high. You can also use history output for data that relate to the model or a portion of the model as a whole. data generated for diagnostic purposes may be written to the output database after every increment. When you create a history output request for an ABAQUS/Standard analysis procedure. you might request the following output after each increment of the loading step: • The principal stress at a single node at the root of the beam. When you create a history output request for an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis procedure. You can also request output after the last increment. if you model the response of a cantilever beam with a load applied to the tip. ABAQUS/CAE creates both a default field output request and a default history output request. the new or modified request is propagated to subsequent general steps. and that default output request propagates to all subsequent general steps. For example. the output request from the previous general step propagates to the new step. In most cases you use the Visualization module to display history output using X–Y plots. the propagation behavior of output requests varies between general steps and linear perturbation steps. 18–8 . 18. When you create a history output request. ABAQUS/CAE creates a default output request that is propagated to subsequent steps. The output requested in a general step is independent of the output requested in a linear perturbation step. you can specify the individual components of the variables that ABAQUS/CAE will write to the output database. If you insert a new general step into the sequence of steps. In addition.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS History output ABAQUS generates history output from data at specific points in a model. You could then use the Visualization module to view an X–Y plot of stress at the root versus displacement at the tip with increasing load. for example. For example. The rate of output depends on how you want to use the data that are generated by the analysis. The Field Output Requests Manager and the History Output Requests Manager are step-dependent managers that display the propagation and the status of output requests between steps. you specify the output frequency in equally spaced intervals or units of time. General steps ABAQUS/CAE creates a default field output request for the first general step in your model. • The vertical displacement at a single node at the tip of the beam.4. Similarly.3 Propagation of output requests When you create the first step in the analysis. if you create a new output request or modify the default output request. you can specify the output frequency in increments or you can request output after the last increment of the step. whole model energies.

Rename. and that default output request propagates to all subsequent linear perturbation steps that use the same analysis procedure. ABAQUS/CAE creates a new default output request. • If you delete a step (general or linear perturbation) that contains a new output request. and delete procedures using the Output Field Output Requests and Output History Output Requests submenus in the main menu bar. You can also initiate the create. the Field Output Requests Manager is shown in Figure 18–2. for example.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS Linear perturbation steps ABAQUS/CAE creates a default field output request for the first linear perturbation step in your model. the Edit. Alternatively. and Delete buttons allow you to edit. if you create a new output request or modify the default output request. the output request from the previous linear perturbation step that uses the same analysis procedure propagates to the new step.4. The Field Output Requests Manager and the History Output Requests Manager contain lists of all of the output requests that you have created. all the frequency analyses. After you select the step. Similarly.” Section 7. For example.4. rename. Copy. the Create button in the two managers allows you to create a new output request during that step. for more information. • If a step does not contain an output request. The new default output request propagates to all subsequent linear perturbation steps that use the same analysis procedure.2. You should be aware of the following behavior: • If you insert a new general step at the beginning of a sequence of existing general steps. see “What are stepdependent managers?. ABAQUS/CAE displays a warning in the Job module when the input file is generated. the new or modified request is propagated to subsequent steps that use the same analysis procedure. edit. copy. If you insert a new linear perturbation step into the sequence of steps. If you create a linear perturbation step that uses a different analysis procedure. if you insert a new linear perturbation step at the beginning of a sequence of existing linear perturbation steps of the same procedure type. rename. ABAQUS/CAE does not create a default output request for the new step. and delete the selected output request. copy. you can use the output request managers to move the output request from the following step to the new step. The output request managers are step-dependent managers. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the output request from all subsequent steps into which the request had propagated. ! ! 18–9 . which means that they contain information concerning the status of each output request in each step of the analysis and allow you to control the propagation of requests across the sequence of steps. ABAQUS/CAE does not create a default output request for the new step. In both cases you must create a new output request for the new step. Similarly. Similarly. Step Module 18.4 The output request managers ABAQUS/CAE provides separate managers for field output requests and history output requests.

you can request that ABAQUS write history data to the output database for an existing connector. or interaction. For example. • The name of the step in which you are creating or modifying the output request. The top of the editor displays the following: ! ! ! ! • The name of the output request. Activate. • All to request all output variables for the procedure. The Output Variables section of the editor contains a list of the variable categories that are applicable to the step procedure.4. Choose one of the following: • Select from list below to request the variables from the list of check boxes below. 18–10 .5 Creating and modifying output requests To create an output request. An editor appears in which you can enter all of the information necessary to define the output request. bolt load. and Deactivate buttons allow you to control the propagation of output requests over the course of an analysis. Move Right. select Output Field Output Requests Create or Output History Output Requests Create from the main menu bar. You can click the check box next to a category name to select all of the variables within that category.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS Figure 18–2 The Field Output Requests Manager. • The name of the analysis procedure associated with the step. the Field Output Request editor is shown in Figure 18–3. 18. The Domain section of the editor allows you to choose the region from which output will be generated. • Preselected defaults to request the default output variables for the procedure. In addition. The Move Left. or you can click the arrow next to a category name to display the list of variables in that category and then select individual variables. You can request that ABAQUS write field and history data to the output database for the whole model or for an existing set.

if you select the vector U in a three-dimensional model. 18–11 . If you use the Field Output Request editor to select a vector or tensor variable to be included in a field output request. ABAQUS automatically writes all components of that variable to the output database during the step. You can manually edit this field and type or delete variable names. • Edit variables to request variables from the text field below. For example.UNDERSTANDING OUTPUT REQUESTS Step Module Figure 18–3 The Field Output Request editor.

” Section 7. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Modifying field output requests. for more information. It is useful to specify individual components in a history output request because these variables are typically output very frequently—possibly as often as every increment. if you modify an output request during a step into which it was propagated. and the output frequency. U2. 18. However. • Select Output Field Output Requests Manager or Output History Output Requests Manager to display the field or history output requests manager. The user has selected all of the variables in the Stresses category.5.2. the output variables. Use the manager to modify the stepwise history of the output request. and UR3.1 Restart output requests You can use the restart files created by ABAQUS to continue an analysis from a specified step of a previous analysis.” Section 18. The editor also allows you to specify the section points from which output will be obtained and the frequency at which the output is written to the output database. the output for rebar option.3 Once you have created an output request. DIAGNOSTIC. For detailed instructions on selecting output variables and components.11. For example. UR2. the History Output Request editor allows you to select individual components of the variable. and monitor output This section explains the additional output controls available in the Step module. 18. If your model contains rebar. you can modify only the output variables and the output frequency. AND MONITOR OUTPUT ABAQUS outputs the three displacement components U1. you can modify it in the following ways: • Select Output Field Output Requests Edit or Output History Output Requests Edit to display the field or history output request editor. if you use the History Output Request editor to select a vector or tensor variable to be included in a history output request.4. the section points. (See “What are step-dependent managers?.) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! If you modify an output request during the step in which you created the request.5 Understanding restart. This section describes how you control the output of restart data. in Figure 18–3 the user is editing a field output request that is associated with a Static. General analysis procedure. ABAQUS will write output from the default section points at every increment. These variables will be included in the output request during the step named Side Load.11. you must toggle on Output for rebar to include rebar output in the data that ABAQUS writes to the output database and to view plots of the rebar orientations in the Visualization module.UNDERSTANDING RESTART. and U3 to the output database along with the three rotation components UR1. In contrast. you can modify the domain. For a discussion 18–12 . diagnostic.2 • “Modifying history output requests.” Section 18.

In addition. ABAQUS does not overlay data. and “Restarting an analysis.3. see “Restarting an analysis. ABAQUS/Standard writes restart information at the end of the step regardless of whether the last increment corresponds to the specified frequency. You can request that data written to the restart files overlay data from the previous increment. ! ABAQUS/Standard Step Module For an ABAQUS/Standard analysis the frequency is in increments. however. By default. invoked by selecting Output Restart Requests from the main menu bar in the Step module. You can use an ABAQUS Scripting Interface script or a C++ program to combine one or more output databases created by a restart analysis. and a subset of the information is written to the output database (. for an ABAQUS/Explicit step you can choose whether the output is written at the exact time interval or at the closest approximation. see Chapter 26. see “Adding results from one output database into another output database. ABAQUS/CAE generates restart information every time you submit an analysis. the behavior of restart differs between ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.” Section 22. “Viewing 18–13 . For more information.” Section 8.2. 18.1.9. you cannot avoid writing information to the restart files for ABAQUS/Explicit steps.” Section 13. ABAQUS/Explicit For an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis the frequency is in time intervals.3. You can specify the frequency at which ABAQUS writes data to the restart files.UNDERSTANDING RESTART. ABAQUS retains only the information from one increment of each step in the restart files. ABAQUS/Standard does not write any information to the restart files during the step. The Edit Restart Requests dialog box. you can examine its iteration-byiteration progress by looking at selected diagnostic information that is written to the following files: For ABAQUS/Standard analyses: Diagnostic information is written to the message (. allows you to specify how often you want the restart information to be written.” Section 7. or “Adding results from one output database into another output database. However.2 Diagnostic printing If the analysis of your model fails or produces unexpected results. restart information will be written only at the end of the step. if you set the frequency to zero for an ABAQUS/Explicit step.14.12. If you select this option.” Section 18.5. and the information is written at the end of each step. You can view the diagnostic information in the output database in the Visualization module (for more information. By default.odb) file.” Section 22. in the online version of this manual. DIAGNOSTIC. thus minimizing the size of the files. If you set the frequency to zero.7 of the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. see “Restarting an analysis.6 of the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. In addition. and “What are the model attributes?.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. AND MONITOR OUTPUT of how you use the restart data in a subsequent job. For more information. see “Configuring restart output requests.” Section 9. For detailed instructions on requesting restart output.msg) file.2.1.

msg) file at specific increments during the course of an analysis. 18–14 . in the online version of this manual.6.sta) file. you must indicate which degree of freedom you want to monitor at that vertex or node. Requesting this information is analogous to including the following line in an analysis input file: *MONITOR. how often you want the information displayed in a viewport. to the message (.12. see “Output. see “Monitoring the progress of an analysis job. a plot of the degree of freedom value over time appears in a new viewport that is generated automatically when you submit the analysis. For ABAQUS/Explicit analyses: Diagnostic information is written to the status (.sta) file and.6 Understanding adaptive meshing Adaptive meshing allows you to maintain a high-quality mesh throughout an analysis. by allowing the mesh to move independently of the material. When you place your request in the DOF Monitor dialog box (which is invoked by selecting Output DOF Monitor from the main menu bar). the set must contain only one vertex.” Section 4. even when large deformations occur. You display the Edit Diagnostic Print dialog box by selecting Output Diagnostic Print from the main menu bar.2.” Section 22. see “Configuring diagnostic printing. (For more information. • If you are working with an orphan mesh. the mesh topology remains unchanged. in the online version of this manual. you must first specify an existing geometric set or node set that you have created using the Set toolset: ! • If you are working with a native geometric model.” Section 18. the set must contain only one node.3 Degree of freedom monitor requests You can request that ABAQUS write the values of a degree of freedom at one selected point to the status (. (For information about creating sets. the information is written during every iteration.2. “The Set and Surface toolsets.) You can use this information to monitor the progress of the solution.” Section 18. For information on the frequency at which this information is written. DOF=dof. for ABAQUS/Standard analyses.”) Once you have specified a set. see “Configuring monitor requests. and how often you want it printed to the status and message files.5.3. By default. you can request that ABAQUS discontinue writing diagnostic information by specifying an output frequency of zero. FREQUENCY=N For detailed instructions on monitoring a degree of freedom. For detailed instructions on requesting diagnostic printing. adaptive meshing moves only nodes.1. In addition.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. see Chapter 49.UNDERSTANDING ADAPTIVE MESHING diagnostic output”).12. 18. Using the Edit Diagnostic Print dialog box is equivalent to including the *PRINT option in an analysis input file. ! 18. Currently. NODE=node_number.

HOW CAN I CUSTOMIZE THE ABAQUS ANALYSIS CONTROLS?

Note: Currently, these options are available only for Dynamic, Explicit and Dynamic, Temp-disp, Explicit steps. You can define regions of the model where you want adaptivity by selecting Other Adaptive Mesh Domain from the main menu bar. If necessary, you can select Other Adaptive Mesh Controls to customize the adaptivity controls. Currently, you can define only one adaptive mesh

!

!

domain for any particular step. Defining adaptive mesh domains and controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the ADAPTIVE MESH and *ADAPTIVE MESH CONTROLS options in an ABAQUS/Explicit input * file. For detailed information on adaptive meshing, see “Adaptive meshing,” Section 7.16 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For detailed instructions on defining adaptive mesh regions, see “Defining an adaptive mesh region,” Section 18.13.1, and “Specifying controls for adaptive remeshing,” Section 18.13.2, in the online version of this manual.

Step Module

18.7

How can I customize the ABAQUS analysis controls?

This section explains how you can adjust the parameters that control the ABAQUS analysis.

18.7.1

Solution controls for contact problems

If your model includes complex geometries and numerous contact interactions, you can customize the variables that control the contact algorithms for selected contact interactions. The default contact controls are usually sufficient, but customizing these controls may result in a more cost-effective solution. Note: Currently, these options are available only for Dynamic, Explicit and Dynamic, Temp-disp, Explicit steps. You can access the contact controls by selecting Other Contact Controls from the main menu bar. Customizing contact controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *CONTACT CONTROLS option in an ABAQUS/Explicit input file. For more information, see “Common difficulties associated with contact modeling using the contact pair algorithm in ABAQUS/Explicit,” Section 21.4.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. WARNING: Contact controls are intended for experienced analysts and should be used with great care. The default settings of these controls are appropriate for most analyses. Changing these values inappropriately may greatly increase the computational time of your analysis or produce inaccurate results. For detailed instructions on setting contact solution controls, see “Customizing solution controls for contact problems,” Section 18.14.1, in the online version of this manual.

!

18–15

USING THE STEP MODULE TOOLBOX

18.7.2

General solution controls

You can customize the numerous variables that control the convergence and time integration accuracy algorithms in ABAQUS. The default solution controls usually work well, but customizing these controls may result in a more cost-effective solution or help you to obtain a solution for particularly difficult analyses. Note: These options are available only for general ABAQUS/Standard analysis steps. You can access the solution controls by selecting Other General Solution Controls from the main menu bar. Customizing solution controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *CONTROLS option in an ABAQUS/Standard input file. For more information, see “Analysis convergence controls,” Section 8.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. WARNING: Solution controls are intended for experienced analysts and should be used with great care. The default settings of these controls are appropriate for most nonlinear analyses. Changing these values inappropriately may greatly increase the computational time of your analysis or produce inaccurate results. For detailed instructions on setting general solution controls, see “Customizing general solution controls,” Section 18.14.2, in the online version of this manual.

!

18.7.3

Solver controls

You can customize the variables that control the iterative linear equation solver. Note: You can use the iterative linear equation solver only for Static, General; Static, Linear perturbation; and Heat transfer (steady-state) analysis steps. You can access the solver controls by selecting Other Solver Controls from the main menu bar. Customizing solver controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *SOLVER CONTROLS option in an ABAQUS/Standard input file. For more information, see “Iterative linear equation solver,” Section 8.1.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. For detailed instructions on setting solver controls, see “Customizing solver controls,” Section 18.14.3, in the online version of this manual.

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18.8

Using the Step module toolbox

You can access all the Step module tools through the main menu bar; in addition, you can also access the tools through the Step module toolbox. Figure 18–4 shows the icons for the tools in the Step module toolbox.

18–16

USING THE STEP MODULE TOOLBOX

Create step Create field output Create history output

Step manager Field output manager History output manager

Step Module

Figure 18–4 The Step module toolbox.

18–17

UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE INTERACTION MODULE

19.

The Interaction module
You can use the Interaction module to define and manage the following objects: • Mechanical and thermal interactions between regions of a model or between a region of a model and its surroundings. • Analysis constraints between regions of a model. • Connectors between two points of a model or between a point of a model and ground. This chapter covers the following topics: • “Understanding the role of the Interaction module,” Section 19.1 • “Entering and exiting the Interaction module,” Section 19.2 • “Understanding interactions,” Section 19.3 • “Understanding interaction properties,” Section 19.4 • • • • “Understanding “Understanding “Understanding “Understanding constraints,” Section 19.5 connectors,” Section 19.6 connector properties,” Section 19.7 Interaction module managers and editors,” Section 19.8

Interaction Module

• “Understanding symbols that represent interactions, constraints, and connectors,” Section 19.9 • “Using the Interaction module toolbox,” Section 19.10 • “Tutorial: Using the Interaction module,” Section 19.11 The tutorial at the end of this chapter will help you become familiar with techniques for creating and applying interaction definitions. In addition, the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Using the Interaction module,” Section 19.12 • “Using the interaction editors,” Section 19.13 • “Using the constraint editors,” Section 19.14 • “Using the connector property editors,” Section 19.15

19.1

Understanding the role of the Interaction module
• Contact interactions. • Elastic foundations. • Thermal film conditions.

You can use the Interaction module to define the following:

19–1

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTIONS

• Radiation to and from the ambient environment. • A user-defined actuator/sensor interaction. • Tie constraints. • Rigid body constraints. • Display body constraints. • Coupling constraints. • Shell-to-solid coupling constraints. • Embedded region constraints. • Equation constraints. • Connectors. Interactions are step-dependent objects, which means that when you define them, you must indicate in which steps of the analysis they are active. (For more information about step-dependent objects, see “Understanding the status of an object in a step,” Section 7.4.3.) For example, you can define film and radiation conditions on a surface only during a heat transfer, coupled temperaturedisplacement, or coupled thermal-electrical step. Similarly, you can define an interaction with a user-defined actuator/sensor only during the initial step. The Set and Surface toolsets in the Interaction module allow you to define and name regions of your model to which you would like interactions and constraints applied. You can use the Amplitude toolset to define variations in some interaction attributes over the course of the analysis. You can use the Reference Point toolset to define reference points that are used in constraints and connectors. ABAQUS/CAE does not recognize mechanical contact between part instances or regions of an assembly unless that contact is specified in the Interaction module; the mere physical proximity of two surfaces in an assembly is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between the surfaces.

19.2

Entering and exiting the Interaction module

You can enter the Interaction module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Interaction in the Module list located under the toolbar. Interaction, Constraint, Connector, Feature, and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar; and a Step list appears under the toolbar. To exit the Interaction module, click another module in the Module list. You need not take any specific action to save objects created in the Interaction module before exiting the module; they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar.

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19.3

Understanding interactions

You can use the Interaction module to define the following types of interactions:

19–2

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTIONS

Surface-to-surface contact and self-contact

Surface-to-surface contact interactions describe contact between two deformable surfaces or between a deformable surface and a rigid surface. Self-contact interactions describe contact between different areas on a single surface. For detailed instructions on creating these types of interactions, see “Defining surface-to-surface contact,” Section 19.13.1, and “Defining selfcontact,” Section 19.13.2, in the online version of this manual. Creating these types of interactions is analogous to including the *CONTACT PAIR option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Defining contact pairs in ABAQUS/Standard,” Section 21.2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, and “Defining contact pairs in ABAQUS/Explicit,” Section 21.4.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
General contact (ABAQUS/Explicit only)

General contact interactions allow you to define contact between many or all regions of the model with a single interaction. Typically, general contact interactions are defined for an all-inclusive surface that contains all exterior faces, shell perimeter edges, and edges based on beams and trusses in the model. To refine the contact domain, you can include or exclude specific surface pairs. Unlike surface-to-surface contact or self-contact interactions, surfaces used in general contact interactions can span many disconnected regions of the model. Contact properties and surface properties are assigned as part of the contact interaction definition but independently of the contact domain definition, which allows you to use one set of surfaces for the domain definition and another set of surfaces for the property assignments. For detailed instructions on creating this type of interaction, see “Defining general contact,” Section 19.13.3, in the online version of this manual. General contact interactions and surface-to-surface or self-contact interactions can be used together in the same analysis. For example, contact involving analytical rigid surfaces (not allowed in general contact) can be modeled using surface-to-surface interactions and the rest of the contact definition can be modeled with general contact interactions. Creating general contact interactions is analogous to including the *CONTACT option (and related options) in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Contact interaction analysis: overview,” Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, and “Defining general contact interactions,” Section 21.3.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. The following options are not supported in ABAQUS/CAE: • assignment of a penalty stiffness scale factor (*CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT); • specification of a pure master-slave contact formulation (*CONTACT FORMULATION); and • control over the feature edges that are included in the general contact domain (*SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT, PROPERTY=FEATURE EDGE CRITERIA). In addition, node-based surfaces cannot be used in a general contact interaction in ABAQUS/CAE.
Elastic foundation (ABAQUS/Standard only)

Interaction Module

Elastic foundations allow you to model the stiffness effects of a distributed support on a surface without actually modeling the details of the support. You can create elastic foundation interactions

19–3

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTIONS

only in the initial step. Once an elastic foundation is activated, you cannot deactivate it in later analysis steps. For detailed instructions on creating this type of interaction, see “Defining foundations,” Section 19.13.6, in the online version of this manual. Creating an elastic foundation is analogous to including the *FOUNDATION option in an ABAQUS/Standard input file. For more information, see “Element foundations,” Section 2.2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Thermal film condition

Film conditions define surface heating or cooling due to convection by surrounding fluids. You can define film interactions only during a heat transfer, fully coupled thermal-stress, or coupled thermal-electrical step. For detailed instructions on defining this type of interaction, see “Defining a convective interaction,” Section 19.13.7, in the online version of this manual. A film condition interaction is analogous to including the *SFILM option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Thermal loads,” Section 19.4.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Radiation to and from the ambient environment

Radiation interactions describe heat transfer between a nonconcave surface and a nonreflecting environment due to radiation. You can define radiation interactions only during a heat transfer, fully coupled thermal-stress, or coupled thermal-electrical step. For detailed instructions on creating this type of interaction, see “Defining a radiative interaction,” Section 19.13.8, in the online version of this manual. A radiation interaction is analogous to including the *SRADIATE option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Thermal loads,” Section 19.4.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Actuator/sensor (ABAQUS/Standard only)

An actuator/sensor interaction models a combination of sensors and actuators and, therefore, allows for modeling control system components. Currently, this type of interaction allows sensing and actuation at just one point. For detailed instructions on creating this type of interaction, see “Defining an actuator/sensor interaction,” Section 19.13.9, in the online version of this manual. The interaction definition and its optional associated property are used to define the basic aspects of the interaction, but the user must provide user subroutine UEL to supply the specific formulae for how actuation depends on sensor readings. You specify the name of the file containing the user subroutine when you create the analysis job in the Job module. WARNING: This feature is intended for advanced users only. Its use in all but the simplest test examples will require considerable coding by the user/developer. “User-defined elements,” Section 18.10.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, should be read before proceeding. Actuator/sensor interactions are available only for ABAQUS/Standard analyses. For more information, see “UEL,” Section 25.2.19 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, and Part IX, “User Subroutines and Utilities,” of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

19–4

UNDERSTANDING CONSTRAINTS

19.4

Understanding interaction properties

You can define a set of data that is referred to by an interaction but is independent of the interaction; for example, the coefficients that define friction during contact. This set of data is called an interaction property. One interaction property can be referred to by many different interactions. You can create the following types of interaction properties:
Contact

A contact interaction property can define tangential behavior (friction and elastic slip) and normal behavior (hard, soft, or damped contact and separation). In addition, a contact property can contain information about damping, thermal conductance, thermal radiation, and heat generation due to friction. A contact interaction property can be referred to by a general contact, surface-to-surface contact, or self-contact interaction.
Film condition

A film condition interaction property defines a film coefficient as a function of temperature and field variables. A film condition interaction property can be referred to only by a film condition interaction.
Actuator/sensor

Interaction Module

An actuator/sensor interaction property provides the PROPS, JPROPS, NPROPS, and NJPROPS variables that are passed into a UEL user subroutine used with an actuator/sensor interaction.

19.5

Understanding constraints

Constraints defined in the Interaction module define constraints on the analysis degrees of freedom, whereas constraints defined in the Assembly module define constraints only on the initial positions of instances. In the Interaction module you can constrain the degrees of freedom between regions of a model. Currently, you can create the following types of constraints:
Tie

A tie constraint allows you to fuse together two regions even though the meshes created on the surfaces of the regions may be dissimilar. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining tie constraints,” Section 19.14.1, in the online version of this manual. Creating a tie constraint is analogous to including the *TIE option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Mesh tie constraints,” Section 20.3.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Rigid body

A rigid body constraint allows you to constrain the motion of regions of the assembly to the motion of a reference point. The relative positions of the regions that are part of the rigid

19–5

UNDERSTANDING CONSTRAINTS

body remain constant throughout the analysis. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining rigid body constraints,” Section 19.14.2, in the online version of this manual. For more information on reference points, see Chapter 47, “The Reference Point toolset.” Creating a rigid body constraint is analogous to including the *RIGID BODY option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Rigid body definition,” Section 2.4.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Display body

A display body constraint allows you to select a part instance that will be used for display only. You do not have to mesh the part instance, and it is not included in the analysis; however, when you view the results of the analysis, the Visualization module displays the selected part instance. You can constrain the part instance to be fixed in space, or you can constrain it to follow selected nodes. You can apply a display body constraint to an instance of an ABAQUS native part or to an instance of an orphan mesh part. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining display body constraints,” Section 19.14.3, in the online version of this manual. You can customize the appearance of display bodies in the Visualization module; for more information, see “Customizing the appearance of display bodies,” Section 39.8. A display body constraint is especially useful for mechanism or multibody dynamic problems where rigid parts interact with each other via connectors. In such cases you can create a simple rigid part, such as a point part, and a display body that is more representative of the physical part. For an example of a model that includes a display body constraint combined with connectors, see “Using display bodies in your model,” Section 24.2. You can also use display bodies to model stationary objects that are not involved in the analysis but that help you to visualize the results. Creating a display body constraint is analogous to including the *DISPLAY BODY option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Display body definition,” Section 2.5.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Coupling

A coupling constraint allows you to constrain the motion of a surface to the motion of a single point. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining coupling constraints,” Section 19.14.4, in the online version of this manual. Creating a coupling constraint is analogous to including the *COUPLING option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Coupling constraints,” Section 20.3.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Shell-to-solid coupling

A shell-to-solid coupling constraint allows you to couple the motion of a shell edge to the motion of an adjacent solid face. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining shell-to-solid coupling constraints,” Section 19.14.5, in the online version of this manual.

19–6

UNDERSTANDING CONNECTOR PROPERTIES

Creating a shell-to-solid coupling constraint is analogous to including the *SHELL TO SOLID COUPLING option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Shell-to-solid coupling,” Section 20.3.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Embedded region

An embedded region constraint allows you to embed a region of the model within a “host” region of the model or within the whole model. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining embedded region constraints,” Section 19.14.6, in the online version of this manual. Creating an embedded region constraint is analogous to including the *EMBEDDED ELEMENT option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Embedded elements,” Section 20.4.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Equation

Equations are linear, multi-point equation constraints that allow you to describe linear constraints between individual degrees of freedom. For detailed instructions on creating this type of constraint, see “Defining equation constraints,” Section 19.14.7, in the online version of this manual. Defining an equation constraint is analogous to including the *EQUATION option in an analysis input file. For more information, see “Linear constraint equations,” Section 20.2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

Interaction Module

19.6

Understanding connectors

Connectors allow you to model a connection between two points in an assembly or between a point in an assembly and ground. You specify a connector property and local orientations associated with the connector points to define the function of a connector. For more information on connectors in ABAQUS/CAE, including an overview and an example of connector modeling, see “Modeling connectors,” Section 24.1.

19.7

Understanding connector properties

Connector properties are referred to by connectors. The connector property defines the connection type and may include connector behavior data. A connector property can be referred to by many different connectors.

19.7.1

Connection types

Table 19–1 summarizes the connection types available when creating connector properties. You can define basic and assembled connection types.

19–7

UNDERSTANDING CONNECTOR PROPERTIES

Table 19–1 Basic Types Translational Axial Cartesian Join Link Radial-Thrust Slide-Plane Slot

Connection types. Assembled Types Beam CV Joint Cylindrical Hinge Planar Translator U Joint Weld

Rotational Align Cardan Constant velocity Euler Flexion-Torsion Revolute Rotation Universal

Basic types

Basic connection types include translational types and rotational types. Translational types affect translational degrees of freedom at both connector points and may affect rotational degrees of freedom at the first point. Rotational types affect only rotational degrees of freedom at both connector points. You can use a single basic connection type (translational or rotational) or one translational and one rotational type.
Assembled types

Assembled connection types are predefined combinations of basic connection types. For a description of each connection type and the equivalent basic connection types that define the kinematic constraints of assembled type connections, see “Connection type library,” Section 17.1.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

19.7.2

Behavior options

You apply behavior options to the components of relative motion for a specified connection type. Some behavior options are valid only for available components of relative motion. Available components of relative motion are displacements and rotations that are not kinematically constrained. Multiple behavior options can be defined in a connector property. If you define behavior options for invalid components of relative motion, ABAQUS/CAE issues a warning when the input file is written. You can specify the following behavior options: • Elasticity: Define spring-like elastic behavior. • Damping: Define dashpot-like damping behavior. • Stop: Define limit values of the admissible range of positions.

19–8

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS

• Lock: Specify a user-defined locking criterion. • Failure: Define limit values for force, moment, or position (ABAQUS/Explicit analyses only). • Reference Length: Define the translational or angular positions at which constitutive forces and moments are zero. Specify implicit or explicit time integration for elasticity and damping • Integration: (ABAQUS/Explicit analyses only). For detailed instructions on defining behavior options, see “Using the connector property editors,” Section 19.15, in the online version of this manual. For more information on behavior options, see “Connector behavior,” Section 17.1.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

19.8

Understanding Interaction module managers and editors

You can create and manage objects in the Interaction module using managers and editors.

19.8.1

Managing interactions, interaction properties, constraints, connectors, and connector properties

Interaction Module

The Interaction module provides the following managers that you can use to organize and manipulate objects associated with a given model: • • • • • The The The The The
Interaction Manager allows you to create and manage interactions. Interaction Property Manager allows you to create and manage interaction properties. Constraint Manager allows you to create and manage constraints. Connector Manager allows you to create and manage connectors. Connector Property Manager allows you to create and manage connector properties.

For example, a list of interaction properties appears in the Interaction Property Manager shown in Figure 19–1.

Figure 19–1

The Interaction Property Manager.

19–9

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS

The Create, Edit, Copy, Rename, and Delete buttons in the managers allow you to create new objects or to edit, copy, rename, and delete existing ones. You can also initiate these procedures using the Interaction, Interaction Property, Constraint, Connector, and Connector Property menus from the main menu bar. After you select a management operation from the main menu bar, the procedure is exactly the same as if you had clicked the corresponding button inside the manager dialog box. The Interaction Manager is a step-dependent manager, which means that it contains additional information on the history of each interaction through the analysis. This manager also contains buttons that allow you to manipulate the stepwise history of interactions. (For more information, see “What are step-dependent managers?,” Section 7.4.2.) The Interaction Manager is shown in Figure 19–2.

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Figure 19–2 The Interaction Manager. For detailed instructions on creating interactions, interaction properties, constraints, connectors, and connector properties, see “Creating interactions,” Section 19.12.1; “Creating interaction properties,” Section 19.12.2; “Creating constraints,” Section 19.12.4; “Creating and modifying connectors,” Section 19.12.5; and “Creating connector properties,” Section 19.12.6, in the online version of this manual.

19.8.2

Interaction editors

To create interactions, select Interaction Create from the main menu bar. A Create Interaction dialog box appears in which you can provide a name for the interaction, select the step in which the interaction will be created, and choose the type of the interaction. When you click Continue in the Create Interaction dialog box after selecting any interaction type except general contact, you are prompted to select the regions to which to apply the interaction.

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19–10

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS

Once you have selected the region or regions, an interaction editor appears in which you can specify additional information about the interaction, such as the interaction property that you want to associate with the interaction. For general contact interactions, the interaction editor appears when you click Continue in the Create Interaction dialog box. Each interaction editor displays the current step and the name and type of the interaction that you are defining in the top panel of the dialog box. The format of the rest of the editor varies depending on the type of interaction you are defining. For example, the surface-to-surface contact editor for ABAQUS/Standard analyses is shown in Figure 19–3.

Interaction Module

Figure 19–3 The surface-to-surface contact editor. Interaction editors sometimes contain one or more Options buttons at the bottom of the dialog box. If you click one of these buttons, another dialog box appears that allows you to specify data concerning some aspect of the interaction. For example, the Interference Fit button in the editor shown in Figure 19–3 displays a dialog box that allows you to set interference fit options. If you do

19–11

UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS

not change any settings in an options dialog box, the default settings are applied automatically to the interaction. Once you have created an interaction, you can modify the interaction in the following ways: • You can modify some or all of the data that you entered in the editor when you created the interaction. • You can use the Interaction Manager to modify the stepwise history of the interaction. (For more information, see “What are step-dependent managers?,” Section 7.4.2.) You can display information on a particular editor feature by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest.

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19.8.3

Interaction property editors

To create interaction properties, select Interaction Property Create from the main menu bar. A Create Interaction Property dialog box appears in which you can specify a name for the interaction property and the type of interaction property that you want to create. Once you have specified this information, click Continue in the Create Interaction Property dialog box to display the interaction property editor. The format of the interaction property editor depends on the type of interaction property you are defining. For example, the film condition and actuator/sensor property editors display data fields in which you can enter all of the information necessary to define the property. The film condition property editor is shown in Figure 19–4.

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Figure 19–4

The film condition property editor.

The format of the contact property editor, on the other hand, is identical to the material editor in the Property module (see “Creating materials,” Section 16.4.1, for more information). Like the

19–12

and the related parameters appear in the lower half of the editor. you can select that option from the Contact Property Options list and then click Delete. Click Continue to specify the regions to which to apply the constraint (if applicable) and to display the editor in which you can enter the data necessary to define the constraint. For detailed instructions on creating properties. For example.4 Constraint editors To create constraints. as shown in Figure 19–5. see “Creating interaction properties. the Contact Property Options list in Figure 19–6 reflects that the Tangential Behavior and Normal Behavior options (located in the Mechanical menu) have been included in the property definition. select Constraint Create from the main menu bar.UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS material editor. Figure 19–5 The contact property editor contains Mechanical and Thermal option menus. If you want to remove an option from a contact property definition.12. ! 19. the name of the option appears in the Contact Property Options list at the top of the editor. and the option becomes part of your interaction property definition.” Section 19. The format of the rest of the editor varies depending on the type of constraint you are defining. the option definition area in the lower half of the editor changes to provide fields in which you can specify information for the currently selected option.” Section 19. Each constraint editor displays the name and type of the constraint you are defining in the top panel of the dialog box. Tangential Behavior is currently selected. and “Specifying contact property options. ! 19–13 . In addition. the tie constraint editor is shown in Figure 19–7. A Create Constraint dialog box appears in which you can specify the name and type of the constraint.2. Interaction Module When you select an option from a menu.8.3 in the online version of this manual. You can display help on a particular feature of the editor by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the feature of interest. the contact property editor contains menus from which you select options to include in the property definition. For example.12.

Figure 19–7 The tie constraint editor. 19–14 .UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS Figure 19–6 A mechanical contact property definition that includes the Tangential Behavior and Normal Behavior options.

12. see “Defining tie constraints. For example. see “Creating and modifying connectors.4. in the online version of this manual. a connector editor appears in which you can specify information about the connector. For detailed instructions on creating connectors. “Defining display body constraints. You can display information on a particular editor feature by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest.” Section 19. Each connector editor displays the connector name in the top panel of the dialog box. in the online version of this manual.3. and “Defining equation constraints.2.5.1.” Section 19.14. the connector editor associated with the connector Shock_Absorber is shown in Figure 19–8. select Connector Create from the main menu bar.14. such as the points and orientations defining the connector and the connector property that you want to associate with the connector.14. “Defining shell-to-solid coupling constraints.” Section 19.” Section 19.5 Connector editors To create connectors. ! 19–15 .7. “Defining embedded region constraints. ! 19. When you click Continue in the Create Connector dialog box.5. “Defining rigid body constraints.6.8.” Section 19. For detailed instructions on creating constraints.14.14.” Section 19.” Section 19. A Create Connector dialog box appears in which you can provide a name for the connector. ! Interaction Module Figure 19–8 The connector editor. “Defining coupling constraints.14.UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION MODULE MANAGERS AND EDITORS You can display information on a particular editor feature by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest.14.” Section 19.

and connectors.8. and connectors to native geometry or to an orphan mesh. constraints. For example. or connectors to regions of the model. Interactions and constraints If you apply an interaction or constraint to native geometry.6. constraints. you can select that option from the Behavior Options list and then click Delete. a symbol appears at that vertex. You can define multiple options of the same type for some behavior options. If the interaction or constraint definition involves a node region rather than a surface. the symbols appear equally spaced on the edges of the node region and at any vertices in the node region.” Section B. the Behavior Options list in Figure 19–9 reflects that two Elasticity options and a Reference Length option have been included in the connector property definition.6 Connector property editors To create connector properties. select Connector Property Create from the main menu bar.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT INTERACTIONS.15. For detailed instructions on creating connector properties and defining behavior options.” Section 19. click Continue in the Create Connector Property dialog box to display the connector property editor. the available and constrained components of relative motion (CORM) for that connection type are displayed in the dialog box. and “Using the connector property editors. You can display help on a particular feature of the editor by selecting Help On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the feature of interest. and the option becomes part of your connector property definition. and connectors When you apply interactions. If the interaction or constraint is applied to a single vertex. When you select a connection type. they should be consistent with the available components of relative motion. see “Creating connector properties. The connector property editor allows you to add the connector behaviors available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. the name of the option appears in the Behavior Options list at the top of the editor. The option definition area in the lower half of the editor changes to provide fields in which you can specify information for the currently selected option. Once you have specified the name and connection type. After you select an option.” Section 19. A Create Connector Property dialog box appears in which you can specify a name for the connector property and the connection type that you want to create. constraints. When you select forces or moments to define behavior options. ! ! ! 19. CONSTRAINTS. For information about graphical symbol types. symbols appear approximately equally spaced over the surface or surfaces to which the interaction or constraint is applied. a list of options appears. You can apply interactions. If you want to remove an option from a connector property definition. in the online version of this manual. or connector. constraint.9 Understanding symbols that represent interactions. The Elasticity option highlighted defines elastic behavior in the same direction as the selected moment. see “Symbols used to represent interactions. 19–16 . such as elasticity. constraints. AND CONNECTORS 19.2.12. you can choose to display symbols in the viewport that indicate where you have applied the interaction. When you click Add in the editor.

the connector sphere symbol and orientation triad appear at the connector points. Connectors If you define a connector using two connector points. CONSTRAINTS. AND CONNECTORS Interaction Module Figure 19–9 The connector property editor. The connection type label appears midway along a line 19–17 .UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT INTERACTIONS. symbols appear at the center of each element face for surface-based regions or at the nodes for node-based regions. If you apply the interaction or constraint to an orphan mesh.

If you define a connector with either connector point connected to ground. and connectors. Create interaction Create interaction property Create constraint Create connector Create connector property Interaction manager Interaction property manager Constraint manager Connector manager Connector property manager Figure 19–10 The Interaction module toolbox. see “Controlling the display of prescribed conditions. 19.” Section 20. Such an interaction would be necessary for an analysis in which a load is applied to each side of the clamp. and connection type label appear at the specified connector point. The tasks in this tutorial involve the clamp model shown in Figure 19–11. 19. see “Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions.5. orientation triad.11 Tutorial: Using the Interaction module This section contains a short tutorial that will help you to become more familiar with the Interaction module. For information on symbols representing prescribed conditions. You will create an interaction that defines the contact between the inner surfaces of the clamp. the connector sphere symbol. 19–18 . this tutorial will show you how to create the interaction property first and then create an interaction that refers to that property.11. interactions. Although you can create interaction properties in the middle of the procedure for creating interactions.10 Using the Interaction module toolbox You can access all the Interaction module tools through either the main menu bar or the Interaction module toolbox.” Section 51. After you have created the interaction. constraints. you will modify its history so that it is active in Step 2 and inactive thereafter. causing the prongs to come into contact. For information about controlling the visibility of these symbols.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE between the connector points. Figure 19–10 shows the icons for all the load tools in the Interaction module toolbox.

From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box.11.cae) if it is not already selected. 3. In the Module list located under the toolbar.cae from the list of model database files. select Model Database (*.1 that you will refer to later in a contact interaction definition. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Interaction module loads. and click OK. 19. ! ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the clamp model. Select clamp. select File Open. 19. click Interaction. select your local directory. you must open the model database that contains the clamp model. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory. 5.2 Creating an interaction property In this section you will create an interaction property corresponding to a friction coefficient of 0. 19–19 . From the main menu bar. 4. To open the model database: 1.11. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=clamp 2.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE Figure 19–11 The clamp model. To create the interaction property: 1. The Open Database dialog box appears. The clamp model appears in the viewport.1 Opening the model database Interaction Module To start the tutorial. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box.

you can use the following techniques to manipulate the position of the clamp in the viewport: • Use a combination of the view manipulation tools and the display option tools in the toolbar and the tools in the Views toolbox to resize and reposition the model as necessary. The contact property editor appears. select Mechanical Tangential Behavior. 6. b. From the editor menu bar. you will probably find the magnification tool useful for displaying the model at a convenient size and orientation. ! ! 19–20 . Accept “Hard” Contact. In the lower half of the editor. Name the property Friction. From the editor menu bar. c. specify information relating to the Tangential Behavior option: a. 3. 5. Accept Contact as the Type selection. (The Views toolbox appears when you select from the toolbar. click the Iso tool original size and position in the viewport. b. Select the Penalty formulation. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective. In the lower half of the editor. b. For more information on the view manipulation tools. Click OK to exit the editor and to save your property definition.” 2. In the Friction Coeff 1 field. c. Click the arrow next to the Friction formulation field to see the available formulations. Click the arrow next to the Pressure-Overclosure field to see the options for defining the pressure-clearance relationship between the surfaces. Accept the Allow separation after contact setting. 4.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE Note: During the course of this tutorial.1. in the Views toolbox to return the model to its • When necessary. From the main menu bar.) and the rotation tool In particular. ! ! The Create Interaction Property dialog box appears. select Mechanical Normal Behavior. select Interaction Property Create. Look over the other options. see Chapter 9. type a friction coefficient of 0. In the dialog box: a. and accept the defaults. review the settings for the Normal Behavior option: a. Click Continue.

4. b. Accept Surface-to-surface contact (Standard) as the Types for Selected Step selection. you will create an interaction that defines the contact between the two inside surfaces of the clamp. In the Step list located under the toolbar. d. Note: If you had already defined the surface using the Surface toolset. click Step-1.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE 19. In the dialog box: a. The interaction definition will include a reference to the interaction property that you just created. you could click Surfaces at the end of the prompt area and then select the surface name from the list that appears. Select the inside lower surface of the clamp to be the master surface. To create the interaction: 1. Interaction Module Y Z X Figure 19–12 Select the inside lower surface to be the master surface.11. 3. c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. select Interaction Create.3 Creating a surface-to-surface contact interaction Next. as shown in Figure 19–12. 2. From the main menu bar. Click Continue. ! The Create Interaction dialog box appears. The interaction that you are defining will become active in this step. 19–21 . Enter the name Contact for the interaction.

you can use the view manipulation tools to enable your selection. when you click in a region that overlaps more than one face. In the editor. and OK buttons in the prompt area. 7. A surface-to-surface contact editor appears. e. you can turn off the default behavior and cycle through the valid selections. Click OK to confirm your choice. Click Next or Previous until the desired face is selected. 6. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. as shown in Figure 19–13. notice that the master and slave surfaces are labeled as (Picked) to indicate that you picked them directly from the viewport. 19–22 . An Options dialog box appears. a. c. click the selection options tool . click the inside lower surface of the clamp. In the dialog box. By default. In the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next. b. Previous. Alternatively. From the buttons in the prompt area. identify the Select the Entity Closest to the Screen tool by holding the cursor briefly over each button in the dialog box. To select the inside upper surface of the clamp. ABAQUS/CAE selects the face that is “closest” to the screen.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE 5. 8. Select the inside upper surface of the clamp to be the slave surface. In the prompt area. d. Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 19–13 Select the inside upper surface to be the slave surface. select Surface as the slave type. The Switch button allows you to interchange your master and slave surface selections without having to start over. toggle off this tool.

select Constraint Create. Yellow squares appear in the viewport indicating the surfaces to which the interaction is applied. Click Interference Fit to see the contents of the Interference Fit Options dialog box. 19–23 . and click Continue. click OK to save the interaction definition and to exit the editor. ! ! The Create Set dialog box appears. and click Continue. In the dialog box. To create this constraint. From the Type list. you will need to create a geometry set for each point that will be constrained. 4. select Equation. From the main menu bar. enter the name asymmetry for the constraint.2.” Section 7. Select the upper left corner point on the top clamp piece as the geometry for the set. The equation constraint is of the form A + B = 0. Use the same method to create a geometry set called Bottom_Right that contains the lower right corner point of the bottom clamp piece. Interaction Module To create the geometry sets: 1. In the interaction editor. Click OK to exit the constraint editor. 11. The constraint editor appears. 4. where A is the displacement of the upper left corner of the clamp and B is the displacement of the lower right corner of the clamp. 3. select Tools Set Create. 5.11. You can accept the default selections and values provided for the interaction. enter the name Top_Left for the first set.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE 9. In this tutorial you will create a simple equation constraint on the displacements of the clamp ends in the 3-direction. 3. In the dialog box. for more information on entering information in the table editor. Accept the default Sliding formulation and Slave Node Adjustment options. and select Friction as the interaction property. 2. From the main menu bar. 10.4 Creating an equation constraint You can also create linear multi-point equation constraints between points in the Interaction module. 12. To create the constraint: 1. 2. Yellow circles appear in the viewport indicating the points to which the constraint is applied. 19. and click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry.7. Click the arrow next to the Interaction property field. Enter the constraint information in the table as shown in Figure 19–14. ! The Create Constraint dialog box appears. See “Entering tabular data.

modify and deactivate them for different steps of an analysis.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE Figure 19–14 Equation constraint. ABAQUS/CAE automatically propagates the interaction through Step-2 and Step-3 of the analysis unless you deactivate the interaction in one of these steps. 19–24 . you specified that the interaction be activated in Step-1 of the analysis.5 Changing the stepwise history of the interaction Interactions are step-dependent objects. in some cases. It also contains a series of buttons that allow you to change the status of interactions in different steps. From the main menu bar. select Interaction Manager. you will specify that contact be recognized between the surfaces in Step-2 of the analysis but become undefined in Step-3. which means that you can create and. To alter the history of the interaction: 1. when you created the interaction Contact. the interaction Contact appears in the Interaction Manager shown in Figure 19–15. In this section you will use the buttons in the Interaction Manager to activate the interaction in Step-2 of the analysis rather than in Step-1. 19. Expand the width of the Interaction Manager by dragging either the left or the right edge until all of the analysis steps are visible in the manager table. 2. For example. ! The Interaction Manager dialog box appears.11. For example. In other words. and you will deactivate the interaction in Step-3. The Interaction Manager displays all of the interactions that you have created and the status of the interaction in each step.

6 Summary of key points The following list summarizes the key points demonstrated in this tutorial: • When you define an interaction. symbols representing the interaction or constraint appear in the viewport. 5. 4. In the manager. in some cases. 3. click Move Right.11. On the right side of the manager. • Contact interaction definitions refer to interaction properties. The Created status of the interaction Contact moves from Step-1 to Step-2. to manipulate the stepwise history of an interaction.TUTORIAL: USING THE INTERACTION MODULE Figure 19–15 The Interaction Manager. • You can use the Interaction Manager to view and. In the Interaction Manager. 19. click the cell labeled Created in the column labeled Step-1. That cell becomes highlighted. • When you apply an interaction or constraint to a model. Interaction Module That cell becomes highlighted. The Propagated status in Step-3 changes to Inactive. 7. you must specify the following: – The interacting regions. click in the cell labeled Propagated in the column labeled Step-3. Click Deactivate. 19–25 . – The step in which the interaction begins. which contain information about friction and other behavior between surfaces. 6. Click Dismiss to close the Interaction Manager.

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” Section 20.6.5) “Understanding the role of the Load module.” Section 20. For information on modeling a bolt load. 20–1 . You can use the load.” Section 24. The Set and Surface toolsets in the Load module allow you to define and name regions of your model to which you would like to apply prescribed conditions. You can also use the Step list located under the toolbar to specify the steps in which new loads.” Section 20.” Section 20.7 This chapter covers the following topics: The tutorial at the end of this chapter will help you become familiar with techniques for creating and applying prescribed conditions.1 Understanding the role of the Load module Prescribed conditions in ABAQUS/CAE are step-dependent objects.11 Load Module 20.” Section 20. You can use the Amplitude toolset in the Load module to specify complicated time or frequency dependencies that can be applied to prescribed conditions. boundary conditions. and field managers to view and manipulate the stepwise history of prescribed conditions. In addition. see “Modeling bolt loads.” Section 20. • • • • • • • • • • • The Load module You use the Load module to define and manage the following prescribed conditions: Loads Boundary conditions Fields Load cases (see “Using load cases. which means that you must specify the analysis steps in which they are active.UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE LOAD MODULE 20.5 “Using the Load module toolbox.3 “Creating and modifying prescribed conditions.6 “Tutorial: Using the Load module.1 “Entering and exiting the Load module.” Section 20.” Section 20.9 boundary condition editors. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • • • • “Using “Using “Using “Using the the the the Load module.” Section 24.4 “Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions. and fields become active by default.8 load editors.2 “Managing prescribed conditions. boundary condition.” Section 20.” Section 20.10 field editors.” Section 20.

BC. For example.2 Entering and exiting the Load module You can enter the Load module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Load in the Module list located under the toolbar. Feature.” Section 24. You can create load cases in static perturbation and steady-state dynamic. A Step list appears under the toolbar. Field. You access the managers by selecting Manager from the appropriate menus on the main menu bar. and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar. To exit the Load module. specify another module in the Module list in the context bar. Figure 20–1 The Load Manager. The Load. Load Case. Each kind of prescribed condition that you can define in the Load module has a separate manager. see “Using load cases.3 Managing prescribed conditions Prescribed condition managers are dialog boxes that you use to organize and manipulate the prescribed conditions associated with a given model. direct steps. For information on load cases. they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar.5. the Load Manager shown in Figure 20–1 contains a list of loads. 20–2 . Prescribed condition managers contain alphabetical lists of all the prescribed conditions of a certain type that you have created.MANAGING PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Load cases are sets of loads and boundary conditions used to define a particular loading condition. You need not take any specific action to save your prescribed conditions before exiting the module. 20. ! ! 20.

) For detailed instructions on creating.” Section 20. and Field menus in the main menu bar.” Section 20. rename. You can also initiate the create. the procedure is exactly the same as if you had clicked the corresponding button inside the manager dialog box. (For more information. the analysis step you are currently in. and manipulating prescribed conditions. and delete existing ones. unless the prescribed condition is applied to the whole model. copy. an Edit Region button appears next to the Region field or an Edit button appears next to the Connectors field.CREATING AND MODIFYING PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS The Create. such as its magnitude.10 • “Using the field editors. rename. Once you have selected the region or connectors. and Delete buttons in the managers allow you to create new prescribed conditions or to edit.” Section 20. editing. in some cases. which means that they contain additional information concerning the history of each prescribed condition in the model. and delete procedures by using the Load.9 • “Using the boundary condition editors.2. you are prompted to select the region or connectors to which you want to apply the prescribed condition. allow you to manipulate the history of prescribed conditions. these buttons allows you to edit the region or connectors to which the prescribed condition is applied. The prescribed condition managers are step-dependent managers. select Create from the appropriate menu in the main menu bar.) Load Module 20–3 . If you are selecting multiple connectors. boundary condition. These managers also contain buttons that. A Create dialog box will appear in which you can provide a name for the prescribed condition and choose the type of the prescribed condition that you want to create. When you click Continue in the Create dialog box. (For more information. Edit.5. The top panel of each prescribed condition editor displays the name and type of the prescribed condition. hence. BC. and the region of the model or the connectors to which the prescribed condition will be applied. If the prescribed condition is applied to the whole model. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Using the Load module. do not appear.” Section 7.” Section 20.4. the Edit Region and Edit buttons are not applicable and.” Section 20. copy.4. edit. see “Editing the region to which a prescribed condition is applied. in the online version of this manual.8. After you select a management operation from the main menu bar. you should ensure that all of the connectors have the available components of relative motion for which you are defining loads and boundary conditions. You should apply connector loads and connector boundary conditions only to the available components of relative motion of a connector.” Section 20. or field. Copy.11 20. Rename.8 • “Using the load editors.4 Creating and modifying prescribed conditions To create a load. If you are editing a prescribed condition in the step in which it was first created. an editor appears in which you can specify additional information about the prescribed condition. see “What are step-dependent managers?.8. and “Respecifying the connectors to which a load or boundary condition is applied.

This editor contains special text fields in which you can specify the components of the force in the 1-. For example. the editor for concentrated forces is shown in Figure 20–2. The editor also contains an Amplitude text field that allows you to vary the magnitude of the prescribed condition as a function of time. see Chapter 41. 2-. and 3-directions.CREATING AND MODIFYING PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS The format of the rest of the editor depends on the type of prescribed condition you are defining and on the step specified at the top of the editor. You can accept either the default amplitude or select an amplitude that you have defined using the Amplitude toolset. Figure 20–2 The editor for concentrated forces. (For more information.”) You can specify the coordinate system in which you will apply the following loads or boundary conditions: • Concentrated force loads • Moment loads • Inertia relief loads • Displacement/rotation boundary conditions • Velocity/angular velocity boundary conditions • Acceleration/rotational acceleration boundary conditions 20–4 . “The Amplitude toolset.

you can select an existing datum coordinate system or you can accept the global coordinate system. (For more information. If the load or boundary condition allows you to specify the coordinate system. For more information. you can choose to display symbols in the viewport that indicate the following: • • • • The regions or connectors to which you applied the prescribed condition.” Section 19.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Once you have created a prescribed condition. If applicable. the direction (negative or positive) in which you applied the prescribed condition. select Help On Context from the main menu bar and then click the feature of interest. The rules for creating and modifying fields vary depending on the field type: • Some fields require that you specify only the initial conditions.2. 20–5 .” Section 19.) Note: If you delete or suppress the datum coordinate system. If applicable. ABAQUS computes subsequent values for the field as the analysis progresses.6. You can create and edit this type of field only in the initial step. that field is assumed to have a value of zero at the start of the analysis. • You can create temperature fields for any step in the analysis. you can modify the prescribed condition in the following ways: • You can modify some or all of the data that you entered in the editor when you created the prescribed condition. see “Initial conditions.) To display help on a particular manager or editor feature. Note: If you do not define initial values for a field.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS All other prescribed conditions use the global coordinate system. in the online version of this manual.” in “Predefined fields. (For more information. • You can use the managers to modify the stepwise history of the prescribed condition. ! Load Module 20. see “Creating datum coordinate systems. you can create it using the Datum toolset. see “Temperature.4. initial velocity is the only field of this type that is supported. the orientation of the load or boundary condition reverts to the global coordinate system.” Section 7. see “What are step-dependent managers?.2. which are applied normal to the selected surfaces. with the exception of pressures. If the desired datum coordinate system does not exist. The type of the prescribed condition. Currently. You can define the temperatures for the current model either by entering the values for the desired steps or by reading the temperature values computed by ABAQUS in a previous analysis with thermal components. For more information.5 Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions When you apply prescribed conditions to a region or connectors.9. the degrees of freedom to which you applied the prescribed condition.” Section 42.

20.11. the arrows that appear in Figure 20–3 represent the three components of a concentrated force that is applied to two vertices.” Section B. for summaries of the significance of the symbol types and colors. the arrow representing that component lacks a stem. For information about controlling the visibility of these symbols. constraints.2 What do single-headed and double-headed arrows represent? In many cases ABAQUS/CAE uses arrows to represent prescribed conditions in the viewport. 2 3 1 Figure 20–3 A concentrated force with three components. (For information on controlling arrow size. and connectors.) For example.” Section 51.” Section 51. Note: When a boundary condition fixes a degree of freedom in place. Refer to “Symbols used to represent prescribed conditions.5. see “Controlling the display of prescribed conditions. 20.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS This section explains how to interpret the symbols.1. and connectors.11. see “Controlling the display of prescribed conditions. constraints.1 Understanding prescribed condition symbol type and color The type and color of the symbols that represent prescribed conditions can vary with • the type of prescribed condition that the symbols represent and • the degrees of freedom to which you apply the prescribed condition. interactions.5. The size of the arrows is uniform and unrelated to the magnitude of the prescribed condition. 20–6 . These arrows represent each component of the prescribed condition. interactions.

For example. For example. 3. A magnified view of the double-headed arrows appears in Figure 20–5.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS An arrow with a single arrowhead represents a component of a prescribed condition that is applied to a translational degree of freedom. Load Module 2 3 1 Figure 20–5 Magnified double-headed arrows. both the single-headed and the double-headed arrows appear. In 20–7 . the three components of the concentrated force in Figure 20–3 are applied to degrees of freedom 1 through 3. When a component of a prescribed condition is applied to a rotational degree of freedom. and 6 of the vertex in Figure 20–6. a Velocity/Angular Velocity boundary condition is applied to degrees of freedom 1. 2 3 1 Figure 20–4 A boundary condition applied to rotational degrees of freedom. 4. If you apply a prescribed condition to both translational and rotational degrees of freedom. that component appears as a double-headed arrow. each arrow in the figure has a single arrowhead. The arrows in Figure 20–4 indicate that a Velocity/ Angular Velocity boundary condition is applied to degrees of freedom 4 and 6 of the vertices. therefore.

UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS 2 3 1 Figure 20–6 Magnified view of a boundary condition applied to translational and rotational degrees of freedom.5.” Section 20. The double-headed arrows appear directly behind the single-headed arrows and indicate that degree of freedom 4 and 6 of the vertex are fixed.5.g.. this figure the single-headed arrows indicate that degrees of freedom 1 and 3 of the vertex are fixed. For all other prescribed conditions Table 20–1 indicates where symbols appear on geometric models.1.” Section 20.3 Understanding symbol location and direction The placement of symbols on a model can depend on the type of prescribed condition that the symbols represent and the type of region to which the prescribed condition is applied. For information on arrow color. see “Understanding prescribed condition symbol type and color. see “Understanding symbol location and direction. and Table 20–2 indicates where symbols appear on meshed models. pressure load) Region type to which the prescribed condition is applied Vertex Edge Face 20–8 . Table 20–1 Symbol location on native geometry. 20. For information on when to expect arrows to point toward or away from a region. Connector load and connector boundary condition symbols appear at the vertices (on geometric models) or nodes (on meshed models) defining the connector points of a connector.5.3. Location of symbols on the model At the vertex Equally spaced along the edge Equally spaced over the interior of the face for directional prescribed conditions (e.

Load Module 2 3 1 Figure 20–7 A concentrated force and a boundary condition. Location of symbols on the model At the node At the midpoint of the element edge At the centroid of the element face Table 20–2 Region type to which the prescribed condition is applied Node Element edge (for two-dimensional meshes) Element face (for three-dimensional meshes) For example.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Region type to which the prescribed condition is applied Location of symbols on the model Equally spaced along the edges of the face for nondirectional prescribed conditions (e. surface charge and boundary conditions) Cell Whole model (inertia relief load only) Equally spaced along each edge of the cell At the point required to define the rigid body motion. at the triad indicating the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system Symbol location on meshes. 20–9 .g. Figure 20–7 shows a concentrated force applied to two vertices and a boundary condition applied to a surface of a geometric model.. otherwise.

2 3 1 Figure 20–8 A pressure load and a boundary condition. 20–10 . and 3 in place. the boundary condition in Figure 20–9 fixes degrees of freedom 1. arrows representing components of a prescribed condition point out from the region. In all other cases.UNDERSTANDING SYMBOLS THAT REPRESENT PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Figure 20–8 shows a boundary condition applied to four nodes and a pressure load applied to several element faces of a mesh. When a boundary condition fixes a degree of freedom in place. as illustrated in Figure 20–10. For example. the arrows representing that pressure load point into the region. 2. if a positive pressure load is applied to a region. the arrow representing that component points into the region and lacks a stem. Likewise. 2 3 1 Figure 20–9 A boundary condition fixing degrees of freedom in place.

20–11 . Create load Create boundary condition Create field Create load case Load manager Boundary condition manager Field manager Load case manager Load Module Figure 20–11 The Load module toolbox. when a boundary condition leaves a degree of freedom unconstrained.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE 2 3 1 Figure 20–10 A positive pressure load. no arrow appears for that component. Note: When a component of a concentrated force is zero.6 Using the Load module toolbox You can access all the Load module tools through either the main menu bar or the Load module toolbox.7 Tutorial: Using the Load module This section contains a short tutorial that will help you to become more familiar with the Load module. Likewise. 20. no arrow appears for that component. 20. The tasks in this tutorial involve the clamp model shown in Figure 20–12. Figure 20–11 shows the icons for all the load tools in the Load module toolbox.

In addition.cae) if it is not already selected. select Model Database (*.7. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the clamp model. 5. 20–12 . you will fix the clamp in place by applying a boundary condition to the end of the clamp.2 Applying a pressure load In this section you will apply a pressure load to the top surface of the clamp. 20.1 Opening the model database To start the tutorial. and you will apply a uniform temperature field across the open end of the clamp.7.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE Figure 20–12 The clamp model. Select clamp. 4. you will use managers to manipulate the stepwise history of the load. ! The Open Database dialog box appears. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=clamp 2. you must first open the model database that contains the clamp model. select your local directory. and click OK. From the main menu bar. 3. select File Open. In this tutorial you will apply a pressure load to the top of the clamp. To open the model database: 1. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box. 20.cae from the list of model database files.

Note: During the course of this tutorial. click the top face of the clamp in the ABAQUS/CAE viewport. 5. The load editor appears.” 2. select Load Manager. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. Load Module b. you will probably find the magnification tool useful for displaying the model at a convenient size and orientation. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective. e. The clamp model appears in the viewport. d. in the Views toolbox to return the model to its • When necessary. In the Load Manager. (The Views toolbox appears when you select from the toolbar. you can use the following techniques to manipulate the position of the clamp in the viewport: • Use a combination of the view manipulation tools and the display option tools in the toolbar and the tools in the Views toolbox to resize and reposition the model as necessary. In the Create Load dialog box: a. 20–13 . Click Continue. The desired face is shown in Figure 20–13. see Chapter 9.) and the rotation tool In particular. click Create. 6. Accept the default Distribution and Amplitude settings. For more information on the view manipulation tools. 7. 4. c. accept the default selection of Mechanical. In the editor. select Pressure. From the Category list. 8. ! The Load Manager appears. The Create Load dialog box appears. 3. enter a load magnitude of 500. Select Step-1 as the step in which the load is first applied to the model. Name the load Pressure. click Load. From the main menu bar. click the Iso tool original size and position in the viewport. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load module loads. In the Module list located under the toolbar.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE To define a pressure load: 1. From the Types for Selected Step list. To select the surface to which the pressure load will be applied.

you specified that the load begin in Step-1 of the analysis. 2. For example. shown in Figure 20–14. To alter the status of the load: 1. the Load Manager in Figure 20–14 indicates that you have activated (created) the load Pressure in Step-1 and that it remains in effect through Step-2 and Step-3. the name of the load appears in the load manager. The Created status of the load Pressure moves from Step-1 to Step-2. Click OK to save your data and to exit the load editor. In this section you will use the buttons in the Load Manager to activate the load Pressure in Step-2 of the analysis rather than in Step-1. You can view information about when a load is first activated and how it propagates through the analysis by displaying the Load Manager.3 Changing the stepwise history of the pressure load Loads are step-dependent objects.7. The arrows point into the surface. when you created the load Pressure. click Move Right. which means that you can create them in a step and then modify and deactivate them in subsequent steps. That cell becomes highlighted. 9. This type of manager also contains a series of buttons that allow you to change the stepwise history of an object.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 20–13 Select the top face. In addition. In the Load Manager. ABAQUS/CAE managers that display information about an object’s status in each step of an analysis are called stepdependent managers. Violet arrows appear in the viewport indicating the surface to which the load is applied. 20–14 . click the cell labeled Created in the column labeled Step-1. For example. On the right side of the Load Manager. and you will deactivate the load in Step-3. indicating that a positive pressure load is applied onto that surface. 20.

when you click in a region that overlaps more than one face. click Edit Region. Load Module To edit the load: 1. By default. and the load editor appears. click the cell labeled Created in the column labeled Step-2. you need to turn off the default behavior and cycle through the valid selections. as shown in Figure 20–15. The editor disappears. In the viewport. click the cell labeled Propagated in the column labeled Step-3. 3. In the editor. In the Load Manager. 20–15 . That cell becomes highlighted. The region to which the load is currently applied is highlighted in the viewport. 20. Click Deactivate. • You will increase the magnitude of the load.4 Editing the pressure load You will now edit the pressure load in two ways: • You will change the region to which the load is applied. ABAQUS/CAE selects the face that is “closest” to the screen. The Propagated status in Step-3 changes to Inactive. Then click Edit.7. 4. select both the bottom and the top faces of the clamp. 3. 2.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE Figure 20–14 The Load Manager. In the Load Manager. To select the bottom surface of the clamp.

toggle off this tool. Click Dismiss to close the manager. [Shift]+Click the bottom surface of the clamp. The Edit Load dialog box reappears. 5. click the selection options tool . In the prompt area.5 Applying a boundary condition to the model Like loads. In the viewport. and OK buttons in the prompt area. Previous. In the Edit Load dialog box. indicating that a positive pressure load is applied to each surface. Click OK to confirm your choice. boundary conditions are also step-dependent objects. change the magnitude of the load from 500 to 5000. b. In the dialog box. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. 4. c. An Options dialog box appears. In this section you will apply a boundary condition to the model in the initial step and allow the boundary condition to remain in 20–16 .TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 20–15 Add the bottom face.7. Violet arrows point into both surfaces. 20. identify the Select the Entity Closest to the Screen tool by holding the cursor briefly over each button in the dialog box. a. Then click OK to save your changes and to close the editor. Click Next or Previous until the desired face is selected. A pressure load of magnitude 5000 is now applied to both the top and bottom faces. d. 6. e. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next.

d. Again. Click Continue. ! The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. select Displacement/Rotation. 2. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. you will have to turn off the default selection behavior and cycle through the valid selections to choose the end surface of the clamp. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. 4. From the main menu bar. From the Types for Selected Step list. In the viewport. From the Category list. select the face at the end of the clamp. the corresponding degree of freedom is constrained. e. the corresponding degree of freedom is unconstrained. To create a boundary condition: 1. 3. c. The boundary condition will be applied to the model in the initial step.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE effect for the entire analysis. The boundary condition will constrain the end of the clamp in all degrees of freedom. accept the default selection of Mechanical. b. 20–17 . Y Z X Load Module 2 3 1 Figure 20–16 Select the face at the end of the clamp. Name the boundary condition Constrain. If a box is toggled on. The editor contains a check box for each degree of freedom. select BC Create. if a box is toggled off. Select Initial from the Step list. The desired face is shown in Figure 20–16. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

and U3 to constrain these degrees of freedom. 4. 7. The Create Field dialog box appears. 7.TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE 5. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box. ! The temperature field will be applied to the model in the initial step. The desired faces are shown in Figure 20–17. 6. select the two faces at the open end of the clamp. The Edit Field dialog box appears. The temperature in this region will remain constant at 28 for the entire analysis. Click Continue. c. 20. select Other. In the Edit Field dialog box. Name the field Temperature. d. Yellow squares appear in the viewport indicating that a temperature field is applied to both surfaces. Enter a temperature magnitude of 28.7. To create a temperature field: 1. accept the default coordinate system of Global.7. From the Category list. In the Create Field dialog box: a. which indicates that the boundary condition fixes the degrees of freedom in place. In the viewport. Click OK to save your data and to exit the editor. Orange. From the Types for Selected Step list. fields are also step-dependent objects. 2. Select Initial from the Step list. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the selected geometry. In this section you will apply a temperature field to the model in the initial step and allow the field to remain in effect for the entire analysis. accept the default selection of Temperature. Toggle on the check boxes labeled U1. Click OK to save your data and to exit the editor. which indicate that the boundary condition is applied to degrees of freedom 1–3. 5. b. select Field Create. e.6 Applying a temperature field to the model Like loads and boundary conditions. 3. These arrows lack stems. 6. accept the default Distribution option of Uniform and the default Cross-section option of Constant over section. U2. single-headed arrows appear in the viewport. 20. From the main menu bar.7 Summary of key points The following list summarizes the key points demonstrated in this tutorial: 20–18 .

or field. or field. you must specify the following: – The region to which you want to apply the load. or field. or the Field Manager to view and. • When you define a load. manipulate the stepwise history of a load. or field becomes active. the Boundary Condition Manager. symbols representing that prescribed condition appear in the viewport. boundary condition. • You can use the Load Manager. boundary condition. Load Module 20–19 .TUTORIAL: USING THE LOAD MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 20–17 Select the two faces at the open end of the clamp. – The step in which the load. in some cases. boundary condition. • When you apply a prescribed condition to a model. boundary condition.

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1. As a 21–1 . the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Seeding a model.7 • “Structured meshing.” Section 21.13 The tutorial at the end of this chapter will help you become familiar with creating meshes in ABAQUS/CAE.15 • “Controlling mesh characteristics.” Section 21.12 • “Tutorial: Using the Mesh module. As with creating parts and assemblies. mesh techniques.” Section 21.14 • “Creating and deleting meshes.3.10 • “Advanced meshing techniques.” Section 21.” Section 21.” Section 21.” Section 21.2 • “Mesh module basics.6 • “Understanding mesh generation.18 For information on editing the nodes and elements that comprise an orphan mesh.UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE MESH MODULE 21.16 • “Obtaining mesh information and statistics.” Section 21.” Section 21.1 Understanding the role of the Mesh module Mesh Module The Mesh module allows you to generate meshes on assemblies created within ABAQUS/CAE.1 • “Entering and exiting the Mesh module. In addition.” Section 21.” Section 21.” Section 21.9 • “Swept meshing. In addition.” Section 43. This chapter covers the following topics: • “Understanding the role of the Mesh module.8 • “Free meshing.” Section 21. the process of assigning mesh attributes to the model—such as seeds.17 • “Creating an orphan mesh part. see “Editing the meshed assembly in the Mesh module. The Mesh module The Mesh module contains tools that allow you to generate meshes on assemblies created within ABAQUS/CAE.5 • “Verifying and improving meshes.4 • “Assigning ABAQUS element types. and element types—is feature based.” Section 21. Various levels of automation and control are available so that you can create a mesh that meets the needs of your analysis. 21.” Section 21.” Section 21.” Section 21. the Mesh module contains functions that verify an existing mesh.11 • “Using the Mesh module toolbox.” Section 21.3 • “Understanding seeding.

it will be saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. To exit the Mesh module. select any other module from the Module list. the assembly will appear. if you select a viewport containing a model for which an assembly exists. Feature. If no assembly exists. • Tools for refining the mesh and for improving the mesh quality. 21. you use the following process: 21–2 . • Model coloring that indicates the meshing technique assigned to each region in the model.MESH MODULE BASICS result you can modify the parameters that define a part or an assembly. It gives you an overview of the functions available and describes the role that each function plays in the mesh creation process. • A variety of mesh controls. • A tool for saving the meshed assembly or selected part instances as an orphan mesh part.3. many options in the Mesh module will be unavailable. The Seed.2 Entering and exiting the Mesh module You can enter the Mesh module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Mesh in the Module list located under the toolbar. • A tool for verifying mesh quality. You can mesh only instanced parts within assemblies. 21. The Mesh module provides the following features: • Tools for prescribing mesh density at local and global levels. such as: – Element shape – Meshing technique – Meshing algorithm • A tool for assigning ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit element types to mesh elements. Mesh. ! ! 21. and the mesh attributes that you specified within the Mesh module are regenerated automatically. The elements can belong either to a model that you created or to an imported orphan mesh.3 Mesh module basics This section provides brief explanations of terms and concepts that you must understand to use the Mesh module effectively.1 The meshing process To mesh your assembly and create an acceptable mesh. ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to create an assembly by instancing one of the parts in the model. and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar. If you choose to leave the assembly empty by not instancing any parts. Therefore. You need not save your mesh before exiting the module. not the original parts.

– The Edit Mesh toolset allows you to make minor adjustments to your mesh.3. For example. such as mesh density. and element type. Mesh Module Figure 21–1 A model with biased seeding. 21–3 .4. element shape. – The Partition toolset allows you to partition complex models into simpler subregions. Generate the mesh The Mesh module uses a variety of techniques to generate meshes. see “Understanding seeding. Verify the mesh The verification tools provide you with information concerning the quality of the elements used in a mesh.2 Mesh attributes and controls ABAQUS/CAE provides you with a variety of tools for controlling mesh characteristics: • You can specify the density of a mesh by creating seeds along the edges of the model to indicate where the corner nodes of the elements should be located.” Section 21. – The Virtual Topology toolset allows you to simplify the assembly by combining small faces and edges with adjacent faces and edges. Refine the mesh The Mesh module provides a variety of tools that allow you to refine the mesh: – The seeding tools allow you to adjust the mesh density in selected regions. 21. The different mesh techniques provide you with different levels of control over the mesh.MESH MODULE BASICS Assign mesh attributes and set mesh controls The Mesh module provides a variety of tools that allow you to specify different mesh characteristics. For more information. Figure 21–1 displays a model with biased seeding along the top and left edges.

” Section 21. The result can be either a two-dimensional mesh 21–4 .8. and shape along with specific element controls.3 Mesh generation ABAQUS/CAE can use a variety of meshing techniques to mesh models of different topologies. • You can choose the meshing technique—free. geometric order. you can choose the meshing algorithm—medial axis or advancing front. Figure 21–2 Two meshes with different element shapes. 21. However. For example. Figure 21–2 shows a model that has been meshed first with quadrilateral elements and then with triangular elements.3. structured. Most unpartitioned solid models are too complex to be meshed using preestablished mesh patterns. For more information.MESH MODULE BASICS • You can select the shape of the mesh elements. For more information. see “Assigning ABAQUS element types.3. where applicable. In some cases you can choose the technique used to mesh a model or model region.3.” Section 21. • You can select the element type that is assigned to the mesh by choosing the element family. For more information.” Section 21.” Section 21. In other cases only one technique is valid.5. For more information. see “Understanding mesh generation. such as hourglassing. Swept meshing ABAQUS/CAE creates swept meshes by internally generating the mesh on an edge or face and then sweeping that mesh along a sweep path. you can often partition complex models into simple regions with topologies for which structured meshing patterns exist. see “Structured meshing. Structured meshing Structured meshing gives you the most control over your mesh because it applies preestablished mesh patterns to particular model topologies. The different meshing techniques provide varying levels of automation and user control. see “Mesh generation. or swept—and. Figure 21–3 shows an example of a structured mesh.7.

sweep path target side source side Figure 21–4 Free meshing A swept mesh.10. Figure 21–4 shows an example of a swept mesh. swept meshing is limited to models with specific topologies and geometries. created from an edge or a three-dimensional mesh created from a face.” Section 21. Like structured meshing. It uses no preestablished mesh patterns and can be applied to almost any model shape. However. free meshing provides 21–5 . Mesh Module The free meshing technique is the most flexible meshing technique.MESH MODULE BASICS Figure 21–3 A structured mesh. see “Swept meshing. For more information.

see Chapter 45. • You can use the Partition toolset to divide part instances into smaller regions.” Section 21.4 Mesh refinement The Mesh module provides a set of tools that allow you to refine a mesh. the region turns orange when you enter the Mesh module. You can also use partitioning to create regions to which you can assign different element types. If a region is unmeshable using the element shape currently assigned to it. For example. the region turns green when you enter the Mesh module. therefore. you might want to assign reduced-integration elements to some portions of your model and fully integrated elements to others. if any.9. Figure 21–5 shows an example of a free mesh. see “Free meshing. The Virtual Topology toolset allows you to remove these small details by combining a small face 21–6 .” • In some cases part instances in the assembly contain details such as very small faces and edges. you can combine partitioning and seeding to gain additional control over the mesh generation process. Figure 21–5 A free mesh generated with tetrahedral elements. is currently assigned to a region. For more information. if a solid region is meshable using the structured meshing technique. ABAQUS/CAE uses different colors to indicate which meshing technique. For more information.MESH MODULE BASICS you with the least control over the mesh since there is no way to predict the mesh pattern. The resulting partitions introduce new edges that you can seed. 21. For example. You can change the available meshing techniques by partitioning the region into smaller regions with simpler topology or by changing the element shape assigned to that region.3. “The Partition toolset. the green color indicates that the structured meshing technique is assigned to that region by default.

1.5 Mesh verification The Mesh module provides a set of tools that allow you to verify a mesh and to obtain mesh statistics and mesh information.3. “The Virtual Topology toolset.6.” Section 21.” Section 21.” • You can use the Edit Mesh toolset to make minor adjustments to your mesh. Both the mesh density along the boundary of the region and the mesh density in the interior of the region are determined by the seeds along the edges of the region. “Querying your mesh. see “Editing the meshed assembly in the Mesh module.17. see “Verifying your mesh. 21–7 .3. You can distribute seeds uniformly along an edge. as shown in Figure 21–6. 21. and “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Mesh module.2. in the online version of this manual. You can create and control seeds using the Seed menu in the Mesh module main menu bar.1 What are mesh seeds? Seeds are markers that you place along the edges of a region to specify the target mesh density in that region.1.4.” Section 43. Introducing virtual topology is a convenient method for creating a clean. see Chapter 50. For more information.” Section 21.6. ABAQUS/CAE generates meshes that match your seeds as closely as possible. or you can bias their distribution toward one end of the edge. 21. well-formed mesh.3. For more information.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING with an adjacent face or by combining a small edge with an adjacent edge.4 Understanding seeding This section explains the concept of seeding and how to use seeding to improve meshes. The Mesh module also provides geometry diagnostic tools that will help you determine why ABAQUS/CAE cannot mesh a region. Mesh Module Figure 21–6 A model with biased seeding. 21. For more information.

In addition. to a lesser extent. ABAQUS/CAE often changes the element distribution so that the mesh can be generated successfully. ABAQUS/CAE adjusts the locations of the nodes to reduce element distortion. Figure 21–7 shows the prompt area when you start the procedure to apply seeds uniformly (by element number or by element size). you can partition the region and then provide seeds along the partitions you have created. the precise locations of the nodes. if necessary.2 Can I seed a face or a cell? You can select edges. you should use such constraints with care. When you select faces or cells to seed. however. Figure 21–7 Deciding where to apply seeds.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING Only minimal seeding is necessary if you do not have strict mesh requirements. or cells to seed. This technique is described in greater detail in “Verifying and improving meshes. In addition. ABAQUS/CAE creates seeds only along the edges of the faces or cells. you can seed just one edge of the part instance or region and then let ABAQUS/CAE use a similar element density for the unseeded edges. For example. You can prevent such adjustments by constraining the number of seeds along an edge.4.6. 21. Mesh seeds specify only a target mesh density. and ABAQUS/CAE creates seeds along the edges of the geometry contained in the set. If you are using hexahedral or quadrilateral elements. and. 21–8 . When you constrain seeds.” Section 21. you can also select a set to seed. you are prescribing mainly the number of elements along the edge. ABAQUS/CAE creates seeds only along edges. If you want more control over the mesh. faces. since they can make it more difficult for the mesh generator to obtain a mesh.

ABAQUS/CAE will change the element length slightly to obtain an integer number of elements along the edge. The bias ratio is the ratio of the largest element to the smallest element along an edge. see “Using the angle method to select multiple objects. • Number of elements desired along an edge. ABAQUS/CAE then selects every adjacent edge until the angle between the edges is equal to or exceeds the angle that you entered. or you can use the angle method to select a group of edges or faces. New edges created by partitioning are given instance seeds by default. Alternatively. faces. In other words. For more information. you can click Sets on the right of the prompt area and select from eligible sets. the seeds on the face or edge at the beginning of the sweep path are propagated Mesh Module 21–9 .2. Viewport/Sets By default.3. When you seed an edge of a region that is assigned the swept or revolved mesh technique. faces.” Section 10. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select only edges. ABAQUS/CAE ignores any vertices in the set. This method results in a nonuniform distribution of elements along the edge as long as the bias ratio is not equal to one. you can use a combination of the following methods to select the region to which ABAQUS/CAE will apply the seeds: Individually/By angle You can select edges.3.) • Bias ratio and number of elements desired along an edge. By default. seeds created using the other three methods are called edge seeds and appear in magenta. When you select a set.2.” Section 10. (If the edge length is not an integer multiple of the element length.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING When you are applying uniform seeds. For more information. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to apply seeds to edges. when you specify the average element size for the entire part instance.3 Controlling the seed density You can control the seed density by specifying any of the following: • Average element size for the entire part instance. including every edge of all the cells and faces in the set. or All. Cells. • Average element size along an edge. For example. and cells that you select from the viewport. Seeds created by specifying an average element size for the entire part instance are called instance seeds and appear in white. the edge seeding tools automatically propagate seeds from the selected edge to the matching edges in the region. Selection filters You can use filters to choose the type of object to select—Edges. if you choose the angle method and select an edge. Edge seeds always override instance seeds. ABAQUS/CAE applies seeds to every edge in the set.4. see “Filtering your selection based on the type of object. Faces. therefore. instance seeds appear only on edges of the region that do not already have edge seeds. or cells individually. 21.

4 • “Applying constraints to seeds.” Section 21.14. even though you select a single edge of a face to seed.14. you must constrain the seeds along that edge. As a result. when you are meshing with quadrilateral.2 • “Seeding an edge by prescribing element size. the mesh generation will attempt to allow the location of the nodes to correspond exactly to the location of the seeds. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Defining seed density for the entire part instance.10. see “What is swept meshing?. mesh seeds prescribe only a target mesh density. Fully constrained seeds appear as squares. the seeds created on one edge along the sweep path are propagated automatically to the other edges along the sweep path.14.14.” Section 21.1. You can apply this constraint only to edge seeds. This constraint allows the mesh to become denser than is specified by the seeds but no coarser.” Section 21. You can assign any one of the following three states to a group of seeds: Unconstrained This is the default setting. Unconstrained seeds appear as open circles. Partially constrained seeds appear as upward-pointing triangles.7 • “Deleting edge seeds.14. ABAQUS/CAE may alter the element distribution so that it can successfully generate the mesh. an exact match between the seeds and the nodal positions is not guaranteed.” Section 21.1 • “Seeding an edge by prescribing the number of elements. When the seeds are fully constrained.” Section 21.” Section 21. For more information. The number of elements along an edge can either increase or decrease so that the mesh can become denser or coarser than is specified by the seeds. When you are meshing with triangularor tetrahedral-shaped elements. Partially constrained The number of elements along an edge may be increased during mesh generation but cannot be decreased.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING automatically to the face or edge at the end of the sweep path.4. Likewise.4 Constraining seeds By default. For detailed instructions on prescribing seed density.” Section 21. ABAQUS/CAE generally matches the mesh seeds exactly.” Section 21.3 • “Prescribing biased seeding along an edge.5 • “Seeding previously meshed part instances or regions. 21–10 .14. However. However.or hexahedral-shaped elements.14.” Section 21.14. To fix a specific number of elements to an edge. Fully constrained The number of elements specified by constrained seeds along an edge cannot be altered by the mesh generation process.6 • “Deleting instance seeds. not to instance seeds. ABAQUS/CAE will propagate the seeds to additional edges and faces.8 21.

a close match between your seeds and nodes depends heavily on the following: The element shapes you allow in transition regions You will obtain a better match between your seeds and the nodes of the mesh if you allow triangular elements in transition regions. 21–11 . The seed constraints Fully constrained seeds closely match the generated nodes in both number and position.or hexahedral-shaped elements. The seeds and the nodes are less likely to match if you restrict your mesh to including only quadrilateral elements. In many cases the mesh generator must redistribute elements (and deviate from the number and location of the seeds) to generate a mesh successfully. ABAQUS/CAE will not be able to generate a mesh. you must fully contrain only a few edges of a part instance. the mesh generated using the advancing front meshing algorithm matches your seeding better than the mesh generated using the medial axis algorithm. However. For detailed instructions on constraining seeds. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Applying constraints to seeds.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING ABAQUS/CAE always creates a fully constrained seed at each geometric vertex of a region to indicate that a finite element node will be positioned at each vertex. if you are using quadrilateral.” Section 21. However. The meshing technique The structured meshing technique generally produces a better match between your seeds and the nodes of the mesh than the free meshing technique.5 • “Relaxing constraints using the error dialog box.9 21. ABAQUS/CAE often redistributes the elements so that the mesh is compatible between regions. leave seeds unconstrained or at least avoid fully constraining large numbers of seeds in a given part instance so that the mesh generator has as much freedom to redistribute seeds as possible. the seed arrangement may need to be changed since the number of elements must be compatible with neighboring regions along shared edges. In addition. otherwise.5 Minimizing seed repositioning During the mesh generation process ABAQUS/CAE uses the seeds that you create as target locations for nodes along the edges of the mesh. How neighboring regions are seeded Mesh Module When meshing multiple regions.” Section 21. For the greatest likelihood of meshing success.4. The mesh transition setting You will obtain a better match between your seeds and the nodes of the mesh if you allow for mesh transition.14.14. Even though a single region’s seed arrangement may be adequate for generating a mesh on that one region.

you should keep in mind that the location of vertices in the part influences the quality of the mesh that ABAQUS/CAE can generate. Fully constrained seeds that appear at vertices always indicate that nodes will appear at those vertices.4.) Therefore.13.6 What is the relationship between vertices and nodes? When you seed a model. in the online version of this manual. If given a choice between making a large change along a single seeded edge and making a small change to many edges. ABAQUS/CAE automatically places fully constrained seeds wherever vertices appear along the model’s edges. ABAQUS/CAE will make many small changes. Figure 21–8 shows a sketch of a two-dimensional part. Note the locations of the nine vertices. Techniques for obtaining compatible meshes are described in “Compatible meshes between part instances. (For information about altering vertex locations.11. as shown in Figure 21–10.1.) For example. as shown in Figure 21–9.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING Note: Mesh compatibility between part instances is not guaranteed. ABAQUS/CAE tries to adhere as closely as possible to the number and location of seeds that you specified when balancing the element redistribution for the entire model. (Fully constrained seeds that appear at other locations along an edge of a region do not indicate the exact location of nodes.” Section 21. they indicate only the number of nodes along that edge.3. When the model is meshed. These vertices were created by sketching several line segments along the top and bottom edges rather than one continuous line segment along each edge. ABAQUS/CAE always places nodes at the location of the fully constrained seeds that are located at vertices. When an instance of that part is seeded. fully constrained seeds appear at each vertex. In some simple cases seeding can help achieve part-to-part mesh compatibility. see “Moving and resizing Sketcher objects by moving their vertices. when you sketch a part. 21. 21–12 .” Section 23. Figure 21–8 Vertices on a two-dimensional part. square-shaped.

which the Sketcher creates at the locations you click to define the circles’ perimeters. Figure 21–10 Nodes appear at the vertices. 21–13 .UNDERSTANDING SEEDING Figure 21–9 Fully constrained seeds appear at each vertex. Note the location of the vertices. Mesh Module Figure 21–11 Concentric circles with aligned vertices. Likewise. Figure 21–11 shows the sketch of two concentric circles that will be extruded to form a hollow cylinder.

21–14 . nodes always appear at the location of the fully constrained seeds that are located at vertices. Figure 21–12 Fully constrained seeds appear at each vertex. When the model is meshed. you risk generating a distorted mesh. square-shaped. as shown in Figure 21–12.UNDERSTANDING SEEDING When the cylinder is seeded. If you do not align the two vertices when you sketch the cylinder. For example. Figure 21–13 Nodes appear at the vertices. the vertices of the two concentric circles are not aligned in Figure 21–14. as shown in Figure 21–13. fully constrained seeds appear at each vertex.

Figure 21–15 A distorted mesh. Most elements in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit correspond to one of the shapes shown. 21. the mesh is slightly distorted on the right side. As a result. that is.5.5 Assigning ABAQUS element types This section explains how to assign ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit element types to mesh regions and to elements of orphan meshes. Mesh Module 21.1 How do mesh elements correspond to ABAQUS elements? The Mesh module can generate meshes containing the element shapes shown in Figure 21–16. as shown in Figure 21–15.ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES Figure 21–14 Concentric circles whose vertices are not aligned. 21–15 .

ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES One-Dimensional Lines Two-Dimensional Triangles Quadrilaterals Three-Dimensional Tetrahedra Triangular prisms (wedges) Hexahedra Figure 21–16 Element shapes. 21–16 .

) Note: After you submit the analysis for execution. Similarly. Every mesh region has one or more ABAQUS element types assigned to it by default. even though ABAQUS/CAE will mesh a region with only all hexahedral or only all tetrahedral elements.) Otherwise. CAXA8PN. ABAQUS/CAE does not prevent you from specifying heat transfer elements such as DC2D4. If you want to assign these element types to a model. DC2D4 is used for heat transfer analysis. etc.) Infinite elements (CIN3D8. it is possible to choose an element that is inappropriate for the analysis you will be conducting. etc. For information on generating the input file.1. and a tetrahedral element type assigned to it by default. For example. CINAX4. For example. For example. etc. (Neither element is available in ABAQUS/Explicit. although the elements CPE4.) Frame elements (FRAME2D and FRAME3D) Second-order line spring elements (LS3S and LS6) Nine-node quadrilateral membrane elements (M3D9 and M3D9R) Nine-node doubly curved thin shell elements (S9R5) Mesh Module 21–17 . some elements are not supported and must be generated outside the Mesh module. MCL6.) • Stress/displacement variable node elements (C3D15V. all five elements are topologically equivalent to a linear quadrilateral. and AC2D4 is used for acoustic analysis.” Section 22.) Drag chain elements (DRAG2D and DRAG3D) Hydrostatic fluid elements (F2D2. ASI2.) Cylindrical elements (CCL9. However. • • • • • • • • • Axisymmetric elements with non-axisymmetric response (CAXA4N. ! ! 21. since no element type checking is done until you submit the analysis. Each element type corresponds to an element shape that can be used in the region.5. CAX4R. even though you may be conducting a stress analysis. you must use a text editor to add them to the input file generated in the Job module. however. You can select Mesh Element Type from the main menu bar to change the element assignment to any ABAQUS element that is topologically equivalent to the element shape assigned to the region. C3D27.2. F3D4. etc. and S4R are used for stress analysis. you can select Mesh Controls to select the element shape for meshing. etc. a solid mesh region typically has a hexahedral.ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES they are topologically equivalent to these shapes. there is no way to generate variable node hexahedra with ABAQUS/CAE. a wedge. • Acoustic interface elements (ASI1. The following list describes the elements that are not supported by ABAQUS/CAE.2 What kinds of elements must be generated outside the Mesh module? ABAQUS/CAE provides support for most of the elements that are used by ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. see “Basic steps for analyzing a model. ABAQUS/Standard automatically converts any C3D20(R)(H) element that is adjacent to a slave surface in a contact pair into the corresponding C3D27(R)(H) element. etc.

See “Assigning gasket elements to a region. Unsupported. SPRING2 ABAQUS/CAE support Replaced by connectors. CONN3D2 DASHPOTA. see “Understanding connectors. however. Replaced by connectors. in the Mesh module. friction behavior is not supported. (Certain restrictions apply to the assignment of gasket types. For more information. • A set that refers to a region selected from geometry-based part instances. however. Unsupported. and GAPUNI GAPUNIT ITSCYL and ITSUNI ITT21 and ITT31 JOINT2D and JOINT3D JOINTC SPRINGA.2. 21. However. Similarly. The following table shows the support for connector elements within ABAQUS/CAE: Connector element CONN2D2. Replaced by connectors.3 Element type assignment Element types can be assigned to the following: • A region selected from geometry-based part instances.3. you can assign a point section to a rigid part in the Property module. damping inertia. The instances must have come from parts that you created in the Part module or from parts that you imported. and rotary inertia as well as lumped heat capacitance. A point section has properties of point mass. Unsupported. SPRING1. you cannot assign MASS and ROTARYI elements in the Mesh module.” Section 16. The set can also refer to a skin reinforcement. see “Defining sections.6. Replaced by connectors.ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES You cannot assign connector elements. Unsupported. SPRING1. GAPSPHER. and DASHPOT1.3. you can create the equivalent connectors in the Interaction module.” Section 24. for more information. These assignments depend on the kind of part to which 21–18 . DASHPOT1.) All regions from geometry-based part instances and all elements from an orphan mesh part instance have default element type assignments.3. such as CONN2D2. DASHPOT2 DGAP FLINK GAPCYL. Replaced by connectors.5. Replaced by connectors.” Section 19. Unsupported. • An element or an element set from an orphan mesh part instance. For more information.

which you can display by selecting Mesh Element Type. ! Figure 21–17 The Element Type dialog box for a two-dimensional region. the Element Type dialog box for a two-dimensional region is shown in Figure 21–17. geometric order. Mesh Module At the top of the dialog box. For example. Then. and family. you enter your preferences for element library. You can view and change the ABAQUS element types that are assigned using the Element Type dialog box.ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES the region or element belongs. you select a specific element type by clicking the tabs in the bottom half of the dialog 21–19 .

The name and a brief description of the triangular shell element that meets all of the criteria specified in the dialog box appear at the bottom of the Tri tabbed page in Figure 21–18. see “Associating ABAQUS elements with mesh regions.2. After clicking the Quad tab. describes the elements that cannot be selected. step-by-step instructions for assigning element types to a mesh region. If the selected region in this example happens to contain a combination of triangular and quadrilateral mesh elements: • The quadrilateral mesh elements are assigned the S4R element type. Wedge. in Figure 21–17 the options for a linear shell element from the ABAQUS/Standard element library are selected. For example. “ABAQUS/Standard Element Index. in the online version of this manual.” Section 21.” of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Figure 21–18 The Tri tab. The name and a brief description of the quadrilateral shell element that meets all of these criteria appear at the bottom of the tabbed page. 21–20 . see Section I. “ABAQUS/Explicit Element Index. If the region contains only quadrilateral elements. For lists of the element types that are available. • The triangular mesh elements are assigned the S3 element type.” of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.10. You can select most of these elements through the Element Type dialog box. and Section I. The Tri tab in this dialog box is shown in Figure 21–18.16. For detailed. all of the elements are assigned the S4R element type. • The Quad and Tri tabs allow you to choose an applicable element type and assign it to twodimensional mesh elements in the region. and Tet tabs allow you to assign three-dimensional element types to the threedimensional mesh elements in the region. “What kinds of elements must be generated outside the Mesh module?.ASSIGNING ABAQUS ELEMENT TYPES box and choosing from the options that appear. The dialog box can contain from one to three tabs depending on the dimensionality of the selected region or regions: • The Line tab allows you to choose an applicable element type and assign it to one-dimensional mesh elements in the region.1.” Section 21.5. • The Hex.2. reduced integration and finite membrane strains are selected.

1 Verifying your mesh ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of tools in the Part module and Mesh module that allow you to verify the quality of your mesh and to obtain information about the nodes and elements in the mesh. ABAQUS/CAE does not support analysis checks for shell. You use the Statistical checks to highlight elements of a selected shape that do not meet one of the following selection criteria: ! ! Smaller face corner angle ABAQUS/CAE highlights elements containing faces where two edges meet at an angle smaller than a specified angle. Larger face corner angle ABAQUS/CAE highlights elements containing faces where two edges meet at an angle larger than a specified angle.” Section 21. The mesh quality tests in the input file processor are extensive and specific to each element type. to control mesh generation. Mesh Module Aspect ratio ABAQUS/CAE highlights elements with an aspect ratio larger than a specified value. and the tests issue an error if the distortion is severe. such as checking for elements with a large aspect ratio. For detailed information on using the mesh verify tools. At a minimum. the mesh quality tests issue a warning for elements that seem inappropriately distorted. beam. geometric regions. 21–21 . 21. You can then select the part. or gasket elements. You can use these tools to isolate regions where the mesh quality is poor and to guide you if you need to refine your mesh. select Mesh Verify from the main menu bar. The aspect ratio is the ratio between the longest and shortest edge of an element. select Part Verify Mesh from the main menu bar.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES 21. To verify the quality of the mesh in the Mesh module. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to choose between checking that your mesh will pass the quality tests in the analysis products and checking that your mesh passes individual quality checks.17. ABAQUS/CAE highlights any elements that fail the mesh quality tests and displays the number of elements tested along with the number of errors and warnings in the message area. or element to verify. see “Verifying element quality.1. in the online version of this manual. part instances.6 Verifying and improving meshes This section explains how you use the tools in the Mesh module to verify your mesh quality. To verify the quality of an orphan mesh part in the Part module. and to improve the mesh quality.6. You use the Analysis checks to verify that the elements in your mesh will pass the element quality checks that are included with the input file processor in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit.

The shape factor criterion is available only for triangular and tetrahedral elements.0 0.0 0. Table 21–1 Selection criterion Smaller face corner angle Larger face corner angle Aspect ratio Shape factor Quadrilateral 30 140 2.2 Wedge 30 120 3. with 1 indicating the optimal element shape and 0 indicating a degenerate element. • The number of highlighted elements and the percentage of the elements being verified that these elements comprise. • The total number of elements of the selected shape in the part instance or in the selected regions. Hexahedral 30 140 3. The shape factor ranges from 0 to 1. • For triangular elements the normalized shape factor is defined as shape f actor = element area optimal element area : Optimal element area is the area of an equilateral triangle with the same circumradius as the element. (The circumradius is the radius of the sphere passing through the four vertices of the tetrahedron.) • For tetrahedral elements the normalized shape factor is defined as shape f actor = element volume optimal element volume : Optimal element volume is the volume of an equilateral tetrahedron with the same circumradius as the element. (The circumradius is the radius of the circle passing through the three vertices of the triangle. ABAQUS/CAE displays the following information in the message area for each selected part instance: • The name of the part instance.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES Shape factor ABAQUS/CAE highlights elements with a normalized shape factor smaller than a specified value. 21–22 .) Table 21–1 shows the default limits for the selection criteria based on the element shape.4 In addition.0 N/A Selection criteria limits.0 N/A Tetrahedral 20 120 3.0 N/A Triangular 20 120 2.

(For more information.) • To gain more control over mesh generation. (Almost all three-dimensional part instances are meshable using the free meshing technique. There are three reasons to create partitions in the Mesh module: • To divide a complex. all two-dimensional parts are meshable without any manual partitioning. When you create the mesh using this default technique. see “Free meshing with quadrilateral and quadrilateral-dominated elements. In addition. • The total number of nodes and elements in a selected region along with the number of elements of each element shape and the meshing technique. ABAQUS/CAE implicitly creates partitions that divide the part instance into regions that can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. • To obtain regions to which you can assign different element types. • The type and connectivity of a selected element. 21.2. three-dimensional part instance into simpler regions that ABAQUS/CAE can mesh using primarily hexahedral elements with the structured or swept meshing techniques.6.6. • Whether any edges of boundary faces have incompatible interfaces. Mesh Module 21–23 . see “Obtaining mesh information.” Section 21.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES • The average value of the selection criterion. See Chapter 45. or gaps and whether any edges intersect other faces. For detailed information on using the Query toolset.” for detailed information on how to use each tool in the Partition toolset.” Section 21. cracks. you can select Tools Query from the main menu bar to request the following information about the mesh: ! • The total number of nodes and elements in a selected part instance along with the number of elements of each element shape and the meshing technique. “The Partition toolset. but three-dimensional free meshes can include only tetrahedral elements. • The positive and negative sides of shell and membrane faces.3 Why partition? You can use the Partition toolset to divide part instances into smaller regions.2 Querying your mesh The Query toolset in the Mesh module allows you to obtain information about the nodes and elements in the mesh.2. 21.9. By default. • The worst value found for the selection criterion.17. • The direction of beam and truss tangents. the free meshing technique with quadrilateral elements is applied to all twodimensional part instances.) Therefore.

Orange (cannot be meshed) Figure 21–19 Unmeshable three-dimensional region. you must take one of the following steps: • Change the element shape assigned to the part instance from hexahedra to tetrahedra so that the free meshing technique can be applied to the part instance. ABAQUS/CAE uses the color orange to indicate that a three-dimensional region is unmeshable using hexahedral elements. the green region can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. • Partition the part instance into structured. the model can be meshed with hexahedral elements. with partitions. With the addition of a partition. the mesh is aligned only along the exterior edges of the part instance. the mesh “flows” along the partitions. Even when a part instance can be meshed without partitioning. as shown in Figure 21–20. and the yellow regions can be meshed using the swept meshing technique.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES However. Without partitions. Green (structured meshing technique) Yellow (swept meshing technique) Figure 21–20 The model is partitioned into three regions. in 21–24 . when a three-dimensional part instance is unmeshable using hexahedral elements. For example. the resulting mesh will have rows or grids of elements aligned along the partitions. you may still want to partition to gain more control over mesh generation. That is.or swept-meshable regions. as shown in Figure 21–19.

partition Figure 21–21 The mesh flows along the partition. In addition. such as element shape. For example. Figure 21–23 shows how partitioning and local mesh seeds allow you to refine the mesh in the area of a stress concentration. to the regions created by a partition. 21–25 . Figure 21–22 illustrates how a partition and local mesh seeds allow you to control the mesh flow and density. You can use the additional edges created by partitioning a face to control the mesh characteristics. partition local seeds Figure 21–22 A partition and local mesh seeds allow you to control the mesh flow and density.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES Figure 21–21 the partition that divides the rectangle in two causes the mesh to flow at an angle along the partition. Mesh Module Similarly. you can apply different mesh controls.

6. For example. the left and right edges of the part instance in Figure 21–24 are seeded with seven elements per edge. try to ensure that partitions make angles as close to 90 as possible with other partitions or edges.4 How are seeds and other attributes affected by partitioning? Seed distributions along edges you have seeded may change during the partitioning process. ABAQUS/CAE redistributes the seeds to accommodate any new vertices created by partitioning. remember that partitions will become element boundaries. you should avoid creating unwanted short edges that will distort the mesh. In addition.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES Figure 21–23 Partitioning and local mesh seeds allow you to refine the mesh in the area of a stress concentration. Figure 21–24 The left and right edges each have seven elements. When partitioning. 21–26 . 21. Therefore.

If you return to the Part module and widen the right side of the model. consider the partition on the right side of the part instance shown in Figure 21–26. In this situation simply add.5 Regenerating partitions after modifying geometry Partitions are features associated with the part instance.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES If you create a partition that splits the part instance into two regions. this redistribution can result in seeds that are not aligned. The top region has one seed more on the left side than it does on the right. ABAQUS/CAE also redistributed the existing seeds to eliminate any overly small elements created by the new partition. and the reverse is true for the bottom region. Any other mesh attributes. Sometimes regeneration of a partition creates unmeshable regions. However. the partition also expands and continues to divide the face into two regions. modify. as shown in Figure 21–27.6 Using virtual topology to improve your mesh In some cases part instances in the assembly contain details such as very small faces and edges. or delete partitions until the part instance becomes meshable again. Figure 21–25 Redistribution of seeds. that you have applied to the assembly are applied automatically to each new region that you create when you partition the assembly. such as element shape or element type. For example.6. In Figure 21–25 you can see how ABAQUS/CAE added seeds at the new vertices so that nodes will exist at the corners of each region. you can assign different mesh attributes to each region.6. new vertices are created at the midpoints of both edges. However. therefore. once you have created the different regions. In this example you could change the number of elements along the right and left edges to an even number to ensure that the seeds align after partitioning. 21. Mesh Module 21. The Virtual Topology toolset allows you to remove these small details by combining a small face with an 21–27 . you can modify and regenerate them like any other feature.

“The Virtual Topology toolset. you can apply virtual topology to a part instance only when you have assigned the allowable mesh controls to the part instance. • You are using the free meshing technique to create quadrilateral or quadrilateral-dominated elements using the advancing front algorithm.” 21–28 . well-formed mesh. For more information. Similarly. which has the same effect as combining faces and edges. however. As a result. if you have applied virtual topology to a part instance.VERIFYING AND IMPROVING MESHES Figure 21–26 A partitioned part instance. see Chapter 50. • You are using the free meshing technique to create tetrahedral elements. You can mesh a wireframe part instance containing virtual topology. you can assign only the allowable mesh controls to the part instance. other part instances containing virtual topology can be meshed only under the following conditions: • You are using the free meshing technique to create triangular elements. The Virtual Topology toolset is available only in the Mesh module. You can also ignore selected edges and vertices. Figure 21–27 The partition is regenerated. Introducing virtual topology is a convenient method for creating a clean. adjacent face or by combining a small edge with an adjacent edge.

2. For more information. Typically. Meshes generated by ABAQUS/CAE conform to the geometry of the part instance they discretize. By default. 21. Generate a mesh on each region using the meshing technique currently assigned to that region. However. along the common interface between hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. quadrilateral. ABAQUS/CAE merges the nodes along the common boundaries of neighboring regions into a single set of nodes.1 Overview ABAQUS/CAE follows these basic steps to generate a mesh on a part instance or on a set of regions: 1. as shown in Figure 21–28: Internal midside nodes centered between corner nodes Node at each vertex Element faces along each geometric face Midside boundary nodes conform to the geometric boundary Element edges along each geometric edge Mesh Module Figure 21–28 The mesh conforms to the geometry of the part instance.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION 21. or hexahedral elements throughout.11. for example.” Section 21. Merge the meshes of all regions into a single mesh.1. in certain cases ABAQUS/CAE creates tied surface interactions instead of merging these nodes.7.7 Understanding mesh generation This section explains basic concepts and terminology related to meshes and mesh generation. 21–29 . ABAQUS/CAE generates meshes with first-order line. see “Meshing multiple three-dimensional solid regions.

” Section 21.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION • • • • A node is generated at each geometric vertex. A connected set of element faces is generated along each geometric face. some precision of the nodal coordinates will be lost. it exists in its own coordinate system. you should try to position a part close to the origin of its coordinate system.” Section 21. If the geometry of the part lies far from the origin of its coordinate system. 21.1. To preserve precision. see “Creating a mesh. if possible.) The Mesh module stores these nodal coordinates in single precision. when you generate a mesh. A connected set of element edges is generated along each geometric edge. ABAQUS/CAE writes the nodal coordinates for each instance relative to its own coordinate system and passes the instance positioning and orientation information to the analysis product via the *SYSTEM keyword. 21.” Section 21. independent of other parts in the model. “Free meshing. when you create an instance of the part in the Assembly module and position it relative to other part instances. In contrast. the Mesh module separates the positioning information of a part instance from the geometry of the instance.7. As a result.2 Preserving the precision of nodal coordinates When you create a part in the Part module. Nodes that are on the boundary of the mesh (including the midside nodes of second-order elements) are also on the boundary of the geometry. The color coding is as follows: • • • • Structured meshing technique: green Free meshing technique: pink Swept meshing technique: yellow Unmeshable: orange See “Structured meshing. 21–30 . you are working in the assembly’s global coordinate system. For detailed. step-by-step instructions on creating a mesh. For example. • Midside nodes of second-order elements that are internal to the part instance are centered between the two corner nodes.10.9. To prevent this loss of precision. (When the Job module generates an input file.3 Determining which regions are meshable The color of a region in the Mesh module indicates the meshing technique currently assigned to that region.15.” Section 21.7. for information about each meshing technique. and “Swept meshing. the origin of the coordinate system of an ABAQUS/CAE native part is located at the origin of the sketch that defined the base feature. Therefore. you should position the sketch of the base feature over the origin of the sketcher grid.8. in the online version of this manual. the nodal coordinates for the part instance are computed relative to the coordinate system of the original part.

ABAQUS/CAE first creates a triangular mesh on the external faces of the region and then uses those triangles as faces of the exterior tetrahedral elements.” Section 21. you can apply local seeds of a finer density to the saved set. Some of the more common reasons why a region fails to mesh and the associated solutions are as follows: Inadequate seeding The region contains some small edges or the seed density is too coarse.16. Poor boundary triangles When you are creating a free mesh with tetrahedral elements. see “Why partition?. the part instance becomes meshable using the free-meshing technique. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • • • • “Assigning mesh controls. In some cases ABAQUS/CAE cannot complete the conversion from triangles to tetrahedra and highlights the nodes on the boundary mesh that cannot be inserted into the tetrahedral mesh. You can use the Query toolset to check the geometry. If a region fails to mesh. see “What is a tetrahedral preview mesh?. Mesh Module 21–31 .28.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION In many cases ABAQUS/CAE can use more than one technique to mesh a region. you can change which meshing techniques are valid for a region by adding partitions to the region or by assigning a different element shape to the region.” Section 21. You can create a display group from the set and use the display group to study the region that failed to mesh. You can choose to preview the triangular mesh on the faces and decide if it is acceptable before continuing with the time-consuming process of generating tetrahedral elements through the interior of the region.16.7. For example. In most cases ABAQUS/CAE highlights the region and allows you to save it in a set. in these cases you can either accept the default technique. if you save the region that failed to mesh in a set.” Section 21.9 21. For more information.4.2 “Selecting a meshing technique. ABAQUS/CAE displays an Error dialog box that explains why the meshing failed. For more information.3 “Changing mesh controls for previously meshed regions. if you change the element shape assignment of an unmeshable three-dimensional part instance from hexahedra to tetrahedra. Alternatively.” Section 21.” Section 15. You can use the Virtual Topology toolset to merge small edges.” Section 21. see “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Part module.1 “Choosing an element shape.16.4 What should I do if a region fails to mesh? There are many reasons why a region fails to mesh. Bad geometry Bad geometry refers to small edges or faces or to part instances that are imprecise.9.6. in the online version of this manual. For more information. In addition. For detailed information on controlling the mesh technique and element shape assigned to a region. or you can use the Mesh Controls dialog box to select an alternative technique.” Section 21.3.16.

ABAQUS/CAE provides mesh transition controls for the following types of meshes: • A two-dimensional. hexahedral-only mesh that is created by sweeping a two-dimensional mesh. 21. which in some cases will 21–32 .10. Virtual Topology toolset to combine small faces and edges with adjacent faces and Partition toolset to partition regions into simpler subregions. When transition controls are applicable to the type of mesh you are creating.” Section 21.5 What is a mesh transition? A mesh transition is an area where a mesh transitions from coarse (large elements) to fine (small elements). as shown in Figure 21–29. Figure 21–29 Transition A mesh with a transition from coarse to fine elements. By default. • A three-dimensional. and you can try the following: – Use the – Use the edges. ABAQUS/CAE minimizes the mesh transition. quadrilateral-only mesh that is created using the structured meshing technique or the free meshing technique with the medial axis algorithm. For more information. You can generate a gasket reinforcement mesh only on a region that is a gasket mesh.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION The highlighted nodes serve as indicators of regions that require attention. Edit Mesh toolset to improve the tetrahedral boundary mesh. a toggle button appears on the right side of the Mesh Controls dialog box that allows you to minimize the mesh transition. see “What is swept meshing?. – Use the – Use the Gasket regions seeding tools to increase the mesh density.1.7.

6 What is the difference between the medial axis algorithm and the advancing front algorithm? The medial axis algorithm and the advancing front algorithm are two meshing schemes that ABAQUS/CAE can use to generate a mesh when you are doing the following: • Meshing a surface with quadrilateral or quadrilateral-dominated elements using the free meshing technique. the mesh may move closer to the specified mesh seeds. ! 21. If the region being meshed is relatively simple and contains a large number of elements. You may have to experiment with the two algorithms to obtain the optimal mesh. The algorithm then uses structured meshing techniques to fill each simple region with elements.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION reduce mesh distortion. the advancing front algorithm supports meshing of virtual topology.) The following list describes the two algorithms: Medial axis The medial axis algorithm first decomposes the region to be meshed into a group of simpler regions. the medial axis algorithm generates a mesh faster than the advancing front algorithm. For more information. The mesh transition option is available only for quadrilateral and hexahedral meshing. see “Setting transition options. Using the option to minimize the mesh transition may improve the mesh quality.7. Mesh Module 21–33 . Conversely.16.” Section 21. in the online version of this manual. For other meshes the elements generated by the advancing front algorithm will always follow the seeding more closely than those generated by the medial axis algorithm. the medial axis algorithm does not. When you are trying to mesh a surface. (ABAQUS/CAE generates hexahedral and hexahedral-dominated meshes by sweeping the quadrilateral and quadrilateral-dominated elements generated by the two algorithms from the source side to the target side.5. Advancing front The advancing front algorithm generates quadrilateral elements at the boundary of the region and continues to generate quadrilateral elements as it moves systematically to the interior of the region. • Meshing a solid region with hexahedral or hexahedral-dominated elements using the swept meshing technique. In this example both algorithms generate an acceptable mesh. if you toggle off the option to minimize mesh transition. select Mesh Controls from the main menu bar. To display the Mesh Controls dialog box. The elements generated by the advancing front algorithm will always follow the seeding exactly for quadrilateral-dominated and hexahedral-dominated meshes. Figure 21–30 illustrates a simple shell region that was meshed with quadrilateral-dominated elements using the two meshing algorithms.

the advancing front algorithm is preferable. Element skew is illustrated in Figure 21–31. Because the elements produced by the advancing front algorithm follow your seeds.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION Medial axis Advancing front Figure 21–30 Both algorithms generate acceptable meshes. if it is important that the elements follow your seeds. small elements in the mesh can unduly control the size of the time step. the resulting mesh may include some skew in the elements in narrow regions. Uniform element size can play an important role in the analysis. for example. the advancing front algorithm may generate elements of a more uniform size with a more consistent aspect ratio. Medial axis Advancing front Elements with skew Figure 21–31 In some cases the advancing front algorithm generates elements with some skew. as shown in Figure 21–32. In contrast. In addition. if you are creating a mesh for an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. 21–34 .

ABAQUS/CAE generates a mesh with sheared elements at the interface between regions. In some cases. Figure 21–33 shows multiple swept regions and the resulting mesh generated by the medial axis algorithm. which results in shear at the common boundary when ABAQUS/CAE merges the adjacent meshes. Nodes in one region may be positioned differently than nodes in an adjacent region. 21–35 . Mesh Module Figure 21–33 Mesh shear is significant between adjacent regions using the medial axis algorithm. when you mesh multiple regions.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION Medial axis Advancing front Figure 21–32 In some cases the advancing front algorithm produces a more uniform mesh.

Figure 21–34 shows the same part meshed with the same seeding using the advancing front algorithm. see “Setting the mesh algorithm. • Chooses Advancing front if the element shape is Hex-dominated and the meshing technique is Sweep. the mesh shear will be reduced. By default.6. However. You use the Mesh Controls dialog box to choose the meshing algorithm. To display the Mesh Controls dialog box.7.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION The advancing front algorithm positions the nodes on the source side at the same location as your seeds.16. ! 21. you may have to experiment with the two algorithms to obtain the optimal mesh. as stated earlier. select Mesh Controls from the main menu bar. • Chooses Medial axis if the element shape is Hex and the meshing technique is Sweep. • Chooses Advancing front if the element shape is Quad-dominated and the meshing technique is Free.” Section 21. Figure 21–34 Mesh shear is reduced between adjacent regions using the advancing front algorithm. For more information. in the online version of this manual. ABAQUS/CAE does the following: • Chooses Medial axis if the element shape is Quad and the meshing technique is Free. as a result.7 What kinds of meshes cannot be generated automatically? There are a few types of meshes that you cannot create using the mesh generator in the Mesh module: 21–36 .

(Element order and type are the only attributes that. You can also avoid this warning message for the remainder of the current session by toggling Automatically delete meshes whenever required. for descriptions of these techniques. when changed. The next time you attempt to change the attributes of a part instance or region that already contains a mesh. instead of modeling a table as an assembly of four leg part instances and a top part instance. You can delete the mesh by clicking the Delete Meshes button. ABAQUS/CAE displays a dialog box similar to the one shown in Figure 21–35. WARNING: There is no way to avoid deleting the mesh when you change one of the attributes listed above. although there are some techniques you can use to work around the problem. (See “Compatible meshes between part instances. Symmetric meshes You cannot ensure that ABAQUS/CAE will mesh a symmetric part instance with a symmetric mesh.) If strict compatibility is a serious issue. do not require the mesh to be deleted and recreated. As a result. you should use caution when changing these attributes.11.) Whenever you make a change that will affect any of these attributes.8 When will ABAQUS/CAE delete a mesh? The following attributes of a part instance or region affect how the mesh will be generated: • Seeding • Element shape • Meshing technique • Meshing algorithm • Logical corners of a two-dimensional structured region • Transition control • Sweep path of a swept region If you change any of the attributes listed. You cannot prescribe mesh compatibility between instances.3.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION Compatible meshes between part instances of the same assembly Compatibility means that the element faces or element edges of the meshes of adjacent part instances share the same nodes and have the same topology at the common interface. and you can recreate a new mesh that matches the new attributes. the existing mesh on the part instance or region will no longer be consistent with its attributes.” Section 21. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the mesh.7. For example. model the entire table as a single part. Since remeshing can be time consuming for large or complex models. you can try creating a single part that corresponds to the original set of parts. Mesh Module 21–37 . or you can keep your mesh and exit the procedure by pressing the Cancel button. 21. the mesh will be deleted immediately without any warning being displayed.

21.15.” Section 21. ABAQUS/CAE tries to preserve the existing mesh in other regions of the model if possible. where each meshing operation meshes a different region of the model.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION Figure 21–35 The warning dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE will detect the problem and allow you to choose between the following: – Remesh the regions that are already meshed and the central region to generate a compatible mesh. For detailed. consider the part instance in Figure 21–36. For example. consider the part instance in Figure 21–37. you can revert back to that mesh if you are dissatisfied with later meshing attempts. You can use incremental meshing to fine-tune the mesh in a selected region of your model without having to wait for ABAQUS/CAE to remesh the entire model. If you try to mesh only the central region. • Incremental meshing cannot proceed if the existing mesh needs to be derived from the mesh you are trying to create. in the online version of this manual. In some cases ABAQUS/CAE cannot proceed with an incremental meshing operation and must delete all the existing meshes before proceeding: • Incremental meshing cannot proceed if the seeding between the existing mesh and the selected region cannot be honored. The central region cannot be meshed incrementally because one end has a mesh with 4 2 4 mesh pattern and the opposite end has a mesh with a 3 2 3 mesh pattern. If you save your model to a model database before you delete the mesh. When you mesh a selected region. – Cancel the operation to mesh the central region.9 Do I have to mesh the entire model in one operation? ABAQUS/CAE allows you to mesh the model in an incremental fashion.7. However. For example. 21–38 . see “Deleting a mesh. incremental meshing may force the nodes on the boundaries of the existing mesh to move and can reduce the mesh quality along the interfaces between the regions. You must allow ABAQUS/CAE to delete the existing mesh and remesh the original regions and the selected region.2. step-by-step instructions on deleting a mesh.

• Changes to the seeding always propagate out to the boundaries.UNDERSTANDING MESH GENERATION Figure 21–36 The central region cannot be meshed incrementally. you should start meshing from the interior of the part instance and continue out to the boundaries of the instance. As a consequence. and the mesh seeding. If incremental meshing cannot proceed. the mesh of region 3 is derived from the mesh of region 2. If you want to mesh the assembly incrementally. To create a compatible mesh between region 1 and region 2. you can follow a strategy that will minimize the number of times ABAQUS/CAE has to delete the entire mesh. You must allow ABAQUS/CAE to mesh region 1 prior to remeshing regions that were already meshed. if you mesh region 3 first. which in turn was derived from the mesh of the cylinder in region 1. the mesh of region 2 is derived from the mesh of the cylinder in region 1. The meshing strategy depends on the topology of the regions. Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Figure 21–37 The regions must be meshed in the correct sequence. the meshing technique. Similarly. As a result. Mesh Module 21–39 . ABAQUS/CAE displays a warning message prior to deleting an existing mesh. the element shapes. ABAQUS/CAE cannot incrementally mesh regions 1 and 2.

You must create two separate part instances and create tied contact between them. if you can identify a set of adjacent three-dimensional regions that will be meshed using the swept method. ABAQUS/CAE simply adds or removes the midside nodes as required.” Section 14. For example. Figure 21–38 illustrates how simple mesh patterns for triangles. As a result. all information on the location of the midside nodes is lost.1 What is structured meshing? The structured meshing technique generates structured meshes using simple predefined mesh topologies. The same is also true for regions that are meshed by quadrilateral-dominated elements using the advancing front algorithm. For more information. if you subsequently decide to change back from linear to quadratic elements. you will not be able to return to the original mesh. and as a result you should take care when changing the order of the elements.STRUCTURED MESHING • However. 21. This section also discusses how you can use partitions to generate regions in a part instance that can be meshed using this technique. 21. An orphan mesh contains no underlying geometry information. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to change the element order without having to recreate the entire mesh. 21.1. • Regions that are meshed by triangles or tetrahedral elements will never force the entire mesh to be deleted during incremental meshing. If the part instance is an orphan mesh. If you change the elements in an orphan mesh from quadratic to linear. WARNING: If you change the order of the elements in adjacent regions of a part instance. onto the geometry of the region you want to mesh.1. you should start meshing on one side of the instance and continue the mesh through the interior to the other side of the instance. and pentagons are applied to more complex shapes. ABAQUS/CAE transforms the mesh of a regularly shaped region. squares. you can change the order of all the elements in the part or you can change the order of only selected elements.7.8. ABAQUS/CAE cannot create tied contact between the linear nodes and the quadratic nodes at the boundary of the two regions. ABAQUS/CAE can always remesh these regions.8 Structured meshing This section describes the structured meshing technique and the types of regions to which this technique can be applied. You can apply the structured meshing technique to regions that have been assigned the Quad or Quad-dominated element shape option for simple two-dimensional regions (planar or curved) 21–40 .10 Can I change the geometric order of the elements in a mesh? If you have already meshed a part instance or a region. If you change between linear and quadratic elements. see “What kinds of files can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE?. such as a square or a cube. and you can mesh them at any time.

or the Hex or Hex-dominated element shape option for simple three-dimensional regions. Mesh Module Figure 21–39 The mesh pattern for a regular pentagon is applied to the region. it applies the mesh pattern for a regular pentagon to the region. However. when ABAQUS/CAE creates a mesh using the structured meshing technique. When you mesh a region using any meshing technique. invalid mesh. when ABAQUS/CAE meshes this region using the structured meshing technique. therefore. which results in a distorted.STRUCTURED MESHING Figure 21–38 Two-dimensional structured mesh patterns. the nodes on the boundary of the mesh are always located on the boundary of the geometric region. 21–41 . the region in Figure 21–39 has five sides.2. For example. it is possible for nodes in the interior of the mesh to fall outside the region’s geometry.” Section 21. For more information about assigning element shapes to a region. see “Choosing an element shape. in the online version of this manual.16. This problem typically occurs near concave boundaries.

a distorted mesh results due to the concavity at the highly curved edge. • Partition the part instance into smaller. as shown in Figure 21–40. Nodes from the interior of the mesh pattern (indicated by closed circles in Figure 21–41) fall outside the region’s geometry. 21–42 . while nodes on the boundary of the mesh (indicated by open circles in Figure 21–41) remain on the boundary of the region’s geometry. Figure 21–41 Nodes from the interior of the mesh fall outside the region’s geometry. more regularly shaped regions. the number of elements along the highly curved edge in Figure 21–39 is greater than in Figure 21–41. Figure 21–40 Seeds prescribing a coarser mesh. if you seed the region so that the number of elements is reduced. When interior nodes fall outside the region’s geometry. the model was partitioned into three regions in Figure 21–42. For example. you can try the following techniques to improve the mesh: • Change the mesh seeds and remesh. For example.STRUCTURED MESHING However.

Mesh Module Figure 21–43 Mesh the region using the free meshing technique. For more information.9. The mesh in Figure 21–43 is not symmetric.) Figure 21–43 shows the region meshed using the free meshing technique. where you can switch from structured meshing to free meshing and still retain quadrilateral elements in the mesh. (Three-dimensional free meshing is limited to tetrahedral elements. see “Free meshing. This option is most useful for two-dimensional regions. which is typical of free meshes. 21–43 .STRUCTURED MESHING partitions Figure 21–42 Partition the region.” Section 21. • Select a different meshing technique.

ABAQUS/CAE inserts a single triangle as shown in Figure 21–44. or isolated vertices. For three. meshes must be compatible across regions.and five-sided regions.STRUCTURED MESHING 21. the total number of element edges around the boundary must be even. As a result. 21–44 . are the seeds evenly spaced along an edge or more concentrated at one end?) However. The resulting mesh matches the mesh seeding exactly. where each side is a connected set of edges. For example.8. Figure 21–44 ABAQUS/CAE inserts a single triangle into a four-sided region. If you are meshing a four-sided region with all quadrilateral elements. ABAQUS/CAE respects seed distribution wherever possible when generating a structured mesh. not necessarily the number of seeds.2 Two-dimensional structured meshing A two-dimensional region can be meshed using the structured meshing technique if it has the following characteristics: • The region has no holes. When you mesh a four-sided region with structured quadrilateral-dominated elements. and ABAQUS/CAE may adjust the nodes of a mesh region that is adjacent to a region that was meshed using the free meshing technique. isolated edges isolated vertex holes • The region is bounded by three to five logical sides. isolated edges. structured meshing gives you the most control over the mesh that ABAQUS/CAE generates. In general. the element nodes may not match the seeds exactly. the constraint equations are more complex. (Seed distribution describes the spacing of the seeds.

STRUCTURED MESHING In contrast. (This technique is not available for threedimensional regions.” Section 21. ABAQUS/CAE considers these two edges to be one logical side. each region in Figure 21–45 has five edges. the resulting mesh may not match the mesh seeding exactly. ABAQUS/CAE combines edges into a logical side automatically if the edges subtend a shallow angle.or a five-sided region with structured quadrilateral-dominated elements. ABAQUS/CAE may create invalid elements as shown in Figure 21–46. the mesh pattern for four-sided regions is applied to these regions. when you mesh a three. however. You can use the Redefine Region Corners button in the Mesh Controls dialog box to combine edges yourself. Therefore. For example. ABAQUS/CAE does not insert any triangles.) For more information.4. ! corner 1 corner 2 corner 3 Mesh Module corner 4 Figure 21–46 Regions must be well shaped. The resulting mesh uses all quadrilateral elements. select Mesh Controls from the main menu bar. regardless of the angle they subtend.16. Figure 21–45 Edges subtending shallow angles. since the top two edges in each region subtend a shallow angle.) This technique allows you to control which structured mesh pattern is applied to the two-dimensional region. in the online version of this manual. The region that you plan to mesh with structured quadrilateral elements must be well shaped. However. otherwise. 21–45 . see “Redefining region corners. (To display the Mesh Controls dialog box.

If you do not partition a complex region. 21–46 . 21. your only meshing option may be the free meshing technique with tetrahedral elements. • Redefine the region corners.8. The result of applying each technique is illustrated in Figure 21–47.STRUCTURED MESHING If the mesh contains invalid elements. corner 1 corner 2 corner 3 corner 4 adjust seeds corner 1 corner 2 corner 3 corner 4 corner 2 corner 3 corner 1 redefine logical corners corner 4 corner 5 partition into two five-sided regions Figure 21–47 Correcting a mesh that contains invalid elements. you can use several techniques to correct the mesh: • Adjust the position of the mesh seeds.3 Three-dimensional structured meshing Figure 21–48 illustrates examples of simple three-dimensional regions that can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. better shaped regions. which are preferred over tetrahedral elements. • Partition the face into smaller. Meshing more complex regions with this technique may require manual partitioning. Meshes constructed using the structured meshing technique consist of hexahedral elements.

the four partitions in the figure below convert the part instance from one region with a hole to four regions without holes. .. . or isolated vertices.. isolated faces. For example.STRUCTURED MESHING Figure 21–48 Regions that can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. etc. . ....... The characteristics described in the following list are required to mesh a three-dimensional region successfully using the structured meshing technique: • The region cannot have any holes... . . quarters. hole isolated face isolated edges isolated vertices You can eliminate holes (whether they pass all the way through the part instance or just part way through) by partitioning their circumferences into halves.. . .. isolated edges. . partitions Mesh Module partitions 21–47 .

. . you should partition to eliminate angles greater than 150. For example. . you can partition the region as necessary to create additional sides. the vertex at the top of an unpartitioned pyramid is connected to four edges.. .... ... • The region must be bounded by at least four sides (a tetrahedral region)... the semicircles at either end of the model below have only two sides each..... . . . If a region is bounded by fewer than four sides... the vertex is connected to only three edges for each individual region.. the part instance in the figure below has been partitioned so that the single region with 180 arcs becomes two regions with 90 arcs. if you partition the pyramid into two tetrahedral regions..... • The angles between sides should be as close to 90 as possible. • All the faces of the region must have geometries that could be meshed using the two-dimensional structured meshing technique. However. each semicircle is divided into two faces with three sides each.. . .. For example. • Exactly three edges of the region must meet at each vertex.) If you partition the model in half. For example. partition partition . without partitioning..STRUCTURED MESHING • You should limit arcs to 90 or less to avoid concavities along sides and at edges. . 21–48 partition vertex . (A face must have at least three sides to be meshed using the structured meshing technique..

In addition. For example. as shown in the following figure: 21–49 . the pattern of the faces must allow rows and columns of hexahedral elements to be created in a regular grid pattern along that entire side when the cube is meshed. – If the region is a cube. However. the sides in the following figure have acceptable face patterns: If the cubes in the figure above are meshed using the structured meshing technique. the side must not contain multiple faces. The sides in the following figure do not have acceptable face patterns: Mesh Module The face pattern shown on the left is unacceptable for structured meshing because each face has only three sides. a side must correspond to a single face. but the pattern does not allow a regular grid of elements to be created on the partitioned side of the cube. Each face in the pattern shown on the right has four sides. as shown below. that is. a side can be a connected set of faces that are on the same geometric surface. each face must have four sides. a regular grid pattern of elements is created in each mesh. with a consistent number of rows and columns appearing on the partitioned sides.STRUCTURED MESHING • Each side of the region must match one of the following definitions: – If the region is not a cube.

6.9.2. The topology of regions that you mesh with the free mesh technique can be very complex.9 Free meshing This section explains how you can use the free meshing technique to mesh two. For more information. 21. Quad. Medial axis When you free mesh a complex region with quadrilateral elements using the medial axis algorithm.” Section 21.16.” Section 21.2 Free meshing with quadrilateral and quadrilateral-dominated elements Free meshing with quadrilateral elements is the default meshing technique for two-dimensional regions. free meshing uses no preestablished mesh patterns. see “Choosing an element shape.FREE MESHING 21. Because it is unstructured. it is impossible to predict a free mesh pattern before creating the mesh. An example of a mesh generated with this technique is shown in Figure 21–49. When you mesh a region using the structured meshing technique. Free meshes are usually not symmetric.9. free meshing allows more flexibility than structured meshing. The free meshing technique with quadrilateral elements can be applied to any planar or curved surface.or three-dimensional models. For more information on assigning element shapes to a region. ABAQUS/CAE creates internal partitions that divide the region into simple structured mesh regions and then seeds the smaller regions. In contrast. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to choose between two meshing algorithms when you create a quadrilateral or quadrilateral-dominated mesh.1 What is free meshing? Unlike structured meshing. or Quad-dominated element shape options for two-dimensional regions or the Tet element shape option for three-dimensional regions.7. even if the part instance itself is symmetric. in the online version of this manual. You can use this technique to mesh a region with the Tri. 21–50 . see “What is the difference between the medial axis algorithm and the advancing front algorithm?. 21. you can predict the pattern of the mesh based on the region topology.

You cannot use the medial axis algorithm with virtual topology. a free mesh generated with quadrilateral-dominated elements is essentially the same as a free mesh generated with all quadrilateral elements. the global seeding becomes overconstrained. and it does not work well with imprecise parts. however.FREE MESHING Figure 21–49 A free mesh generated with quadrilateral elements. Using the medial axis algorithm. and the new mesh is generated more quickly. ABAQUS/CAE inserts a few isolated triangles in an effort to match the mesh seeds more closely. after modifying the seeds). • ABAQUS/CAE tries to minimize element distortions. if you specify fixed seeds around one of the holes in the plate shown in Figure 21–50. ABAQUS/CAE stores the internal partitions. In addition. For example. Mesh Module 21–51 . a free mesh with quadrilateral elements does not match the mesh seeds exactly for the following reasons: • ABAQUS/CAE tries to balance the seeds between adjacent regions and the smaller regions created by the internal partitioning. when you apply fixed seed constraints. ABAQUS/CAE matches the number of seeds exactly and attempts to match the seed positions exactly. the internal partitions allow ABAQUS/CAE to generate a fine mesh in a similar time to that required to generate a coarse mesh. or ABAQUS/CAE may not be able to generate a mesh. ABAQUS/CAE can generate a mesh with quadrilateral-dominated elements faster than it can generate a mesh with all quadrilateral elements. You should specify fixed seeds on only a few edges. If you use the medial axis algorithm to mesh a region and then remesh the region (for example. In general. Figure 21–50 illustrates a twodimensional plate with fixed seeds and movable seeds and the resulting all quadrilateral mesh. and ABAQUS/CAE cannot generate a mesh. However.

ABAQUS/CAE generates quadrilateral elements at the boundary of the region and continues to generate quadrilateral elements as it moves systematically to the interior of the region. as shown in Figure 21–51.FREE MESHING Figure 21–50 Fixed and movable seeds and the medial axis meshing algorithm. Figure 21–51 Fixed and movable seeds and the advancing front meshing algorithm. When you choose the advancing front algorithm. 21–52 . ABAQUS/CAE matches the seeds exactly. Advancing front When you free mesh a complex region with quadrilateral elements using the advancing front algorithm.

see “What is a valid and precise part?. By default. medial axis algorithm minimize mesh transition toggled on (default) minimize mesh transition toggled off advancing front algorithm Figure 21–52 The effect of mesh transition and the meshing algorithm. you can use the advancing front algorithm in conjunction with imprecise parts and with virtual topology. The time taken for ABAQUS/CAE to compute a free triangular mesh grows approximately linearly with the number of elements and nodes. however. ABAQUS/CAE minimizes the mesh transition when it generates a free quadrilateral mesh using the medial axis algorithm.3 Free meshing with triangular and tetrahedral elements Free meshing with triangular elements can be applied to any planar or curved surface. Mesh Module 21–53 . This meshing technique can handle large variations in element size. In contrast with the medial axis algorithm. matching the seeds exactly in narrow regions may compromise the mesh quality. and the part can be precise or imprecise. 21.” Section 14. the generated nodes deviate further from the mesh seeds.1. For more information. however. Figure 21–53 shows an example of a mesh generated using this technique. Minimizing the mesh transition results in a better mesh that is generated more quickly. Figure 21–52 illustrates the same planar part instance meshed using the medial axis algorithm with and without minimizing the mesh transition and meshed using the advancing front algorithm.2. mesh transitions are more acceptable.FREE MESHING In general. A free mesh of triangular elements matches the mesh seeds exactly.9. which is useful when you want to refine only part of a mesh.

Free meshing of three-dimensional solids using hexahedral elements is not supported. 21–54 . ABAQUS/CAE matches the mesh seeds exactly although the mesh may be finer around small holes if the mesh seeds are not fully constrained. Figure 21–54 shows an example of a free tetrahedral mesh. Free meshing with tetrahedral elements is similar to free meshing with triangular elements in that the part can be precise or imprecise. very complex models can be meshed using this technique without the help of partitioning. In general. Free meshing with tetrahedral elements can be applied to almost any three-dimensional region. Figure 21–54 A free mesh generated with tetrahedral elements.FREE MESHING Figure 21–53 A free mesh generated with triangular elements. in fact.

To save time. For more information. ABAQUS/CAE generates a tetrahedral mesh using the triangles as faces of the exterior tetrahedral elements. If your part is complex.5.3. generating a free tetrahedral mesh can be time consuming. see “What can I do with a preview mesh?. ABAQUS/CAE provides a variety of tools for correcting the problems. • There are no short edges.” Section 10. you can continue meshing the interior of the region.28 in the Part Module.9. when you query the final mesh.7. 2. see “What should I do if a region fails to mesh?. you can preview the triangles on the boundary faces after the first phase of the meshing process by toggling on Preview tet boundary mesh in the prompt area before you generate the mesh.2. see “Filtering your selection based on the type of object.9. If the mesh is acceptable. For more information. In addition. small faces. you must use the selection filters in the prompt area to set the type of entity to select to Faces. If you decide to create a triangular preview mesh. in the online version of this manual. see “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Part module.” Section 21.4 What is a tetrahedral preview mesh? When ABAQUS/CAE generates a free mesh on a solid with tetrahedral elements. For more information. Mesh Module 21–55 . which is in contrast to the cyan color that ABAQUS/CAE uses to represent the final mesh. However.FREE MESHING You should use the Query toolset in the Part module or the Mesh module to check the geometry of the parts or of the assembly before you try to generate a free mesh with tetrahedral elements. The triangles on the boundary faces have no concept of geometric order.” Section 21. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select faces to mesh even though your final intent is to mesh a solid. the meshing process consists of two phases: 1. 21. You should check the following: • There are no free edges in the solid. For more information. ABAQUS/CAE displays a preview mesh using white to represent the tetrahedral elements. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the nodes that it could not insert into the tetrahedral mesh. If the mesh is not acceptable or if some regions failed to mesh. to select faces.” Section 15. When you query the tetrahedral preview mesh. In contrast.4. or small face corner angles. if you choose to display the preview mesh but the meshing process fails to generate a tetrahedral mesh from the triangles on the exterior faces. ABAQUS/CAE refers to the elements as Tet boundary elements. A boundary mesh of triangles is generated on the exterior faces of the solid regions. The Faces option is available only after you toggle on Preview tet boundary mesh. ABAQUS/CAE refers to the elements as Linear tetrahedral elements or Quadratic tetrahedral elements.

see “Plotting display groups. or you can use the selection filters to check the quality of the boundary triangles of only selected faces. In some cases you will not be able to mesh an imported solid part with tetrahedral elements because of very thin triangular elements in the surface mesh or because some sliver faces cannot be meshed with triangles.5.2.2.4. you can check the quality of a preview mesh using the mesh verify tool. in the online version of this manual.1. see “What can I do with the Virtual Topology toolset?. you can try the following: • Use the geometry diagnostics tool to find small entities such as short edges. For more information.9. • Use the Repair toolset to remove redundant edges and vertices.2. For more information.” Section 43. You can create a set containing these small entities.9. “The Partition toolset.17. For more information.” Section 48. You can also remove a face and stitch over the resulting gap.FREE MESHING 21. You can do the following in the Mesh module: – Edit nodes – Collapse element edges – Swap the diagonal of a pair of adjacent triangular elements – Split element edges For more information.” Section 21. You can use display groups to display only the faces in the set. see “What do the manual repair tools provide?. see Chapter 45. it first generates a boundary mesh of triangles on the exterior faces of the solid regions.” • Use the Edit Mesh toolset to modify the preview mesh. For more information. In addition. You can save the highlighted faces in a set.” Section 21. “Using a combination of tools to mesh an imported solid part with tetrahedral 21–56 . narrow faces or cells. ABAQUS/CAE highlights any faces on the boundary that failed to mesh. The mesh verify tool allows you to check the quality of the boundary triangles of a part instance. see “Can I seed a face or a cell?. • Add partitions to reduce the aspect ratio of long.4.” Section 50. If tiny edges or faces prevent ABAQUS/CAE from generating an acceptable tetrahedral mesh. as described in “What is a tetrahedral preview mesh?. and faces with small face corner angles that can affect the mesh quality. small faces. In addition. For more information. These failures are usually due to mesh seeding that is too coarse or to tiny edges or faces.” Section 21.5 What can I do with a preview mesh? When ABAQUS/CAE generates a free mesh on a solid with tetrahedral elements.3 in the Mesh Module.” Section 52. in the online version of this manual. For more information about seeding faces in a set. see “Editing the meshed assembly in the Mesh module. • Use the Virtual Topology toolset to ignore tiny edges or faces. and you can apply finer seeds to only the faces in the set.4. see “Using the geometry diagnostic tools in the Mesh module.3. You can query a preview mesh using the Query toolset.

21–57 . or a spline.10.” Section 43. the resulting mesh is called a revolved swept mesh. If the sweep path is a circular edge. Figure 21–55 shows an extruded swept mesh. ABAQUS/CAE copies the nodes along an edge. is reached. a circular edge. If the sweep path is a straight edge. 21. For example. ABAQUS/CAE first creates a two-dimensional mesh on the source side of the model. Next. The sweep path can be any type of edge—a straight edge. To mesh this model.10 Swept meshing This section explains the swept meshing technique and describes the types of regions to which this meshing technique can be applied.1 What is swept meshing? ABAQUS/CAE uses swept meshing to mesh complex solid and surface regions. known as the target side. each of the nodes in the two-dimensional mesh is copied along a straight edge to every layer until the target side is reached. Mesh Module Figure 21–55 The swept meshing technique for an extruded solid. known as the source side.4. • ABAQUS/CAE copies the nodes of that mesh. 21.1.SWEPT MESHING elements. until the final side. The swept meshing technique involves two phases: • ABAQUS/CAE creates a mesh on one side of the region. one element layer at a time. Source side Target side Nodes copied from the source side to each element layer and to the target side. describes how you can use the Edit Mesh toolset and other tools in the Part module and the Mesh module to mesh the part successfully. and this edge is called the sweep path. the resulting mesh is called an extruded swept mesh.

21. for a surface region the source and target sides are also edges. swept. because a layer of triangular elements is generated at that point. and a revolved surface region can include translation. For more information.SWEPT MESHING To determine if a region is swept meshable. an extruded surface region can include twist. In addition. ABAQUS/CAE tests if the region can be replicated by sweeping a source side along a sweep path to a target side. or planar. however. Figure 21–56 A layer of triangular elements.3. ABAQUS/CAE meshes the source side and revolves that mesh around the axis of revolution to the source side. You must use the Quad-dominated element shape option when the source side touches the axis of revolution at a point. However.10. The sweep path can be revolved a full 360. this sweep path controls only the orientation of gasket elements and does not control which side is to be used as the source side. For example. revolved. the side that has an isolated edge or vertex) to be the source side. In general. 21–58 . You cannot control which side is the source side and which side is the target side. The sweep path is always an edge. If you are creating a revolved swept mesh.” Section 24. see “Assigning gasket elements to a region. ABAQUS/CAE selects the most complex side (for example. unless the revolved surface is a sphere.2 Swept meshing of surfaces ABAQUS/CAE can apply the swept meshing technique only to surface regions that can be replicated by sweeping a source side along a sweep path to a target side. The surface region can be extruded. ABAQUS/CAE indicates the direction of the sweep path and allows you to control the direction. ABAQUS/CAE cannot generate a revolved surface mesh when a single surface touches the axis of revolution at two points. When you assign mesh controls to a region.3. You can apply the swept meshing technique to surface regions using either the Quad or Quad-dominated element shape options. the source side touches the axis of revolution at the top of the model shown in Figure 21–56 and a layer of triangular elements is generated at that point.

SWEPT MESHING (For more information on assigning element shapes to a region. Figure 21–57 illustrates an extruded swept mesh—ABAQUS/CAE meshes the source side and extrudes that mesh along a straight edge to the target side.10. The cross-section of a swept region must remain constant and planar from the source side to the target side.) 21. or Wedge element shape option. see “Choosing an element shape. Hex-dominated. If a region is swept meshable. or Tri element shape option.2. For a three-dimensional solid the sweep path is an edge. sweep path target side source side Figure 21–57 The extruded swept meshing technique sweeps the mesh on the source side along a straight edge. Figure 21–58 illustrates a revolved swept mesh—ABAQUS/CAE meshes the source side and revolves that mesh about the axis of the circular edge to the target side. To generate the preliminary two-dimensional mesh on the source side. You can choose between the medial axis and advancing front meshing algorithms when you mesh a solid region with hexahedral or hexahedral-dominated elements using the swept meshing Mesh Module 21–59 . ABAQUS/CAE uses the free meshing technique with the Quad.16. respectively.” Section 21. in the online version of this manual. ABAQUS/CAE can generate the swept mesh on a region that has been assigned the Hex. Quad-dominated.3 Swept meshing of three-dimensional solids ABAQUS/CAE can apply the swept meshing technique to solid regions that can be replicated by sweeping a source side along an edge to the target side. but the source and target sides are faces.

2. the model in Figure 21–59 cannot be meshed using the swept meshing technique because one of the connecting sides is partitioned into two faces. technique.” Section 21.SWEPT MESHING source side sweep path target side Figure 21–58 The revolved swept meshing technique sweeps the mesh on the source side along a circular edge. source side connecting side target side Figure 21–59 A partitioned connecting side. (ABAQUS/CAE generates hexahedral and hexahedral-dominated meshes by sweeping the quadrilateral and quadrilateral-dominated elements generated by the two algorithms from the source side to the target side.) For more information.” Section 21.7. 21–60 . and “Free meshing with quadrilateral and quadrilateral-dominated elements.6. The following limitations apply to three-dimensional swept meshing: • Every side that connects the source side to the target side must contain only a single face without isolated edges or isolated vertices. For example.9. see “What is the difference between the medial axis algorithm and the advancing front algorithm?.

SWEPT MESHING Similarly. As a result. cannot be meshed using this technique because the target side contains two faces. you can create partitions at these rings using the N-sided patch partition tool. If the source or target face is not 21–61 . Figure 21–60 Using partitions to make a solid swept meshable. To make the part swept meshable. and the connecting side of each cell contains only a single face. a lofted part is not swept meshable. Figure 21–60 shows a part that cannot be swept meshed with hexahedral elements because the connecting side contains six rings. Partitions divide the solid into seven swept cells. For example. As a result. The part now consists of seven separate swept cells. the region on the left in Figure 21–61 can be meshed using the swept meshing technique because all of the isolated edges are on the source side. the part is now swept meshable. however. • The cross-section of a swept region must remain constant and planar from the source side to the target side. The connecting sides contain only a single face. the region on the right. source side source side target side target side Mesh Module Figure 21–61 Only the region on the left can be meshed using the swept meshing technique. • The target side must contain only a single face without isolated edges or isolated vertices.

you may be able to partition the solid into regions that can be meshed with the structured meshing technique. unmeshable swept region partition into structured regions Figure 21–62 A solid is partitioned into regions that can be meshed with the structured meshing technique. • A solid part is not swept meshable if the sweep path is comprised of multiple edges.SWEPT MESHING planar. axis of revolution Figure 21–63 The swept meshing technique cannot mesh a part if an isolated point touches the axis of revolution. 21–62 . as shown in Figure 21–63. as shown in Figure 21–62. the profile that was revolved to create the region must not touch the axis of revolution at one or more isolated points. the part instance may be swept meshable if you can partition the part into a sequence of sweep paths. However. • For a revolved region.

as shown in Figure 21–65. • A fully revolved region that does not touch the axis of revolution is meshable only if all the edges that are associated with the profile being revolved exist. Alternatively. axis of revolution wedge elements Figure 21–65 ABAQUS/CAE can mesh the region with hexahedral-dominated elements.8. Figure 21–66 shows a meshable part instance where all of the edges of the revolved profile exist. you must select the Hex-dominated element shape option before you mesh the region. In this example the user sketched the profile. ABAQUS/CAE can mesh the region with hexahedral-dominated elements by generating layers of wedge elements along the axis. As a result. revolved region whose profile touches the axis of revolution. the edges that bound the profile do not form a face. However. you can partition the region into simple structural mesh regions and select the Hex element shape option to create the mesh using all hexahedral elements. and ABAQUS/CAE revolved the profile to create the part.16. as shown in Figure 21–64. the edges that bound the profile must not create a face.” Section 21. For more information. however. However. axis of revolution Figure 21–64 ABAQUS/CAE cannot mesh a region with hexahedral elements if one or more edges lie along the axis of revolution.SWEPT MESHING Similarly. see “Sweep meshing a solid. Mesh Module 21–63 . in the online version of this manual. ABAQUS/CAE cannot mesh a region with hexahedral or wedge elements if one or more edges lie along the axis of revolution.

profile edges are missing Figure 21–67 Some of the edges of the revolved profile are missing. 21–64 . hence.SWEPT MESHING all profile edges exist Figure 21–66 All of the edges of the revolved profile exist. Figure 21–68 shows a part instance that is meshable because all of the edges of the revolved profile exist except for the edge along the axis of revolution. the part instance is not meshable. the part instance is meshable. If the profile included the edge along the axis of revolution. hence. • A fully revolved region that touches the axis of revolution is meshable only if all of the edges that are associated with the profile being revolved exist except the edges along the axis of revolution. In contrast. Figure 21–67 shows a part instance that is not meshable because some of the edges of the revolved profile are missing. the part instance would not be meshable.

except for the edge along the axis of revolution. However. and ABAQUS/CAE cannot generate a compatible mesh over the entire part instance. the part instance is meshable.) The mismatch that would occur between the nodes of the structured region and the nodes of the swept region is obvious if you mesh the two regions separately. sometimes the default meshing techniques applied to adjacent regions of a three-dimensional part instance are not compatible.1 Meshing multiple three-dimensional solid regions ABAQUS/CAE assigns a default meshing technique to each region of a part instance depending on its geometry and topology. If you initiate the meshing procedure and ABAQUS/CAE cannot generate a compatible mesh using the default meshing techniques.11 Advanced meshing techniques This section contains information about how to accomplish advanced meshing tasks that are not straightforward. hence. 21. as shown in Figure 21–70.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES edge along axis of revolution does not exist Figure 21–68 All of the edges of the revolved profile exist. (The cube on the right side of the part instance is a swept region because it is joined to the cylinder. For example. ABAQUS/CAE attempts to replace the default meshing techniques with new meshing techniques. 21.11. ABAQUS/CAE cannot generate a compatible mesh over the entire part instance in Figure 21–69 using the default meshing techniques because the nodes from the structured mesh on the left cannot be merged with the nodes of the swept mesh on the right. These new techniques are determined not only by the region’s geometry and topology but also by the characteristics of neighboring regions in the part Mesh Module 21–65 . which is also a swept region.

However.) 21–66 . ABAQUS/CAE changes the meshing technique assigned to this region from structured to swept. and the resulting incompatible mesh is shown in Figure 21–70. and a compatible mesh is generated over the whole part instance.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES structured region swept region shared target side Figure 21–69 A compatible mesh is impossible using these default meshing techniques. this cube can also be meshed using the swept meshing technique. Therefore. ABAQUS/CAE evaluates the interfaces between regions and tries to minimize the number of incompatible interfaces. For example. (The element shapes assigned to a region remain unchanged when ABAQUS/CAE changes the meshing technique assigned to the region. instance. the default meshing technique for the cube on the left side of the part instance in Figure 21–69 is structured. Figure 21–70 The structured region and the swept region meshed separately.

In general. • Use the free meshing technique to mesh the entire part instance. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the incompatible interfaces and prompts you to select one of the following options: – Cancel the meshing procedure. • If different techniques will allow a compatible mesh. see “Mesh tie constraints. (For more information on tie constraints. as shown in Figure 21–71. temperature. as described above. it can share a source side or a connecting side with a structured region. – Allow ABAQUS/CAE to use the default meshing techniques and automatically generate tie constraints across the incompatible interfaces.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES When you initiate the meshing procedure for a three-dimensional part instance.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. However. ABAQUS/CAE cannot sweep a mesh along the part instance shown in Figure 21–72 because a compatible mesh cannot be generated on the shared target face.) • If different techniques will still not allow a compatible mesh. – Automatically generate tied surface interactions across the incompatible interfaces. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the incompatible interfaces and prompts you to select one of the following options: – Cancel the meshing procedure. pore pressure. meshing proceeds. ABAQUS/CAE generally selects the surface with the finer mesh to be the slave surface. 21–67 . If a compatible mesh cannot be generated using the default techniques. Mesh Module • In some situations ABAQUS/CAE cannot mesh a part instance that contains multiple regions that have all been assigned the swept meshing technique. If a compatible mesh cannot be generated. For example. – Allow ABAQUS/CAE to replace the default techniques as necessary and generate a compatible mesh.” Section 20. ABAQUS/CAE checks to see if it can replace the default meshing techniques with different techniques that will allow a compatible mesh to be generated. you can try one of the following approaches: • Partition the part instance as necessary to generate a compatible mesh. ABAQUS/CAE automatically chooses one side of the interface as the slave surface and the other as the master surface for the automatically generated tie constraint but creates common (merged) nodes on the perimeter of the incompatible interface. The nodes on the slave surface are constrained to have the same value of displacement.3. ABAQUS/CAE determines if a compatible mesh can be generated using the default techniques assigned to each region in the part instance. If a compatible mesh is possible. The computation for the depth of the slave node adjustment zone for the tie constraint is based on the bounding dimensions of the interfacing regions. or electrical potential as the point on the master surface to which they are tied. the following restrictions apply to generating a compatible mesh on a three-dimensional solid part instance: • A swept region cannot share its target side with a structured region.

sweep direction ...ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES structured region swept region shared connecting side Figure 21–71 The connecting side of the swept region is shared with the structured region...... .. shared target face sweep direction Figure 21–72 A compatible swept mesh cannot be generated along this part instance........ . . ... .. ... 21–68 ... ...

Different regions of the same part instance can be meshed with hexahedral and tetrahedral elements as shown in Figure 21–74. extend planar faces to partition into three cells cell 2 cell 3 cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 cell 1 cell 4 extend cylinder face to partition cell 2 the resulting mesh Figure 21–73 Using partitions to generate a compatible swept mesh. 21–69 . tied surface inserted at partition tetrahedral region hexahedral region (region of interest) Mesh Module Figure 21–74 Different regions of the same part instance can be meshed with hexahedral and tetrahedral elements.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES However. Figure 21–73 shows how you can use partitions to produce a mesh that incorporates four swept regions.

swept. Figure 21–76 illustrates the resulting mesh. If you require mesh compatibility between two or more bodies. 21. first try to create a single part that contains all the bodies so that multiple parts are not necessary.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES You can use the hexahedral elements where accuracy is important.11. you should create a single part that includes the table top and the four legs.11. free region structured region swept region Figure 21–75 Adjacent regions of a three-dimensional shell part instance.2 Meshing multiple two.” Section 21. such as adjacent to contact surfaces or in areas of special interest that require a fine mesh. describes how the default meshing techniques applied to adjacent regions of a three-dimensional solid part instance may not allow you to generate a mesh that is compatible across the regions. When you mesh one region. and ABAQUS/CAE creates tied surfaces where the regions connect. You can use tetrahedral elements in other regions. For example. ABAQUS/CAE will not be able to create a mesh that is compatible between the part instances.11.and three-dimensional shell regions “Meshing multiple three-dimensional solid regions. If you try to assemble an instance of the table top along with instances of each leg. if you are modeling a table.or three-dimensional shell part instance are always compatible. and structured meshing techniques. 21–70 . Figure 21–75 illustrates a three-dimensional shell part instance with adjacent regions that ABAQUS/CAE can mesh using the free. 21. In contrast. ABAQUS/CAE does not adjust an existing mesh on adjacent regions.1.3 Compatible meshes between part instances Currently it is not possible to automatically obtain meshes that are compatible between part instances. adjacent regions of a two.

seeds. (You must always recreate the mesh itself after modifying a model.3. 21–71 .” Section 19. Mesh Module Figure 21–77 Seeded model with small hole.11. and mesh controls—after a part has been modified. For more information on tied contact. If the two objects must be modeled as separate parts. consider using tied contact so that mesh compatibility is not an issue. 21. the model shown in Figure 21–77 has been partitioned into four regions and then seeded to specify an approximate element size of 3. see “Understanding interactions.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES Figure 21–76 The resulting mesh. and the accuracy of the solution may suffer.) For example.4 Parametric modeling A useful feature of the Mesh module is the ability to regenerate partitions and mesh attributes—such as element type assignments. Keep in mind that this is not true compatibility.

settings in the Mesh Controls and Element Type dialog boxes (such as element shape. the partitions and the seeds are regenerated.3. as described in the following paragraphs. as shown in Figure 21–78. Free meshing allows you to mesh these parts with tetrahedral elements. When you return to the Mesh module. These rings exist only on the surface of the part. (You can display these two dialog boxes by selecting Mesh Controls and Mesh Element Type from the main menu bar. 21. you will probably have to introduce partitions to make the part swept meshable. ABAQUS/CAE inserts rings along the length of the solid. and meshing technique) are also regenerated.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES You can return to the Part module and modify the hole at the center of the model so that it is slightly larger.11.” Section 21.) ! ! Note: If you drastically modify the part. Figure 21–78 Seeds are regenerated after the part is modified.3). In these cases you must create new seeds and partitions after reentering the Mesh module. element type.9. when you create a part that is revolved more than 180 and then translated along the axis of revoution.5 Meshing complex solids with hexahedral elements You can use the Part module to create complex solid revolved parts that include a translation along the axis of revolution. and the part is not swept meshable with hexahedral elements unless you introduce partitions. you can use hexahedral elements to mesh an extruded part that is twisted. the seeds and partitions may fail to regenerate. For the Mesh module to create a three-dimensional swept mesh of hexahedral elements. the side that connects the source side and the target side now contains more than one face. In addition. as described in “Free meshing with triangular and tetrahedral elements. as shown in Figure 21–79.10. if you want to use hexahedral elements to mesh a revolved part that is translated. and they do not create faces that cut through the part. However. 21–72 . every side that connects the source side to the target side must contain only a single face (see Figure 21–59 in “Swept meshing of three-dimensional solids.” Section 21. In addition. As a result. and you can also create solid extruded parts that include a twist about a selected center point. However.

you cannot mesh an instance of the coil spring with a swept mesh of hexahedral elements until you partition the part. as a result. rings divide the main swept surface into several faces Figure 21–80 Rings divide the coil into several segments.ADVANCED MESHING TECHNIQUES Figure 21–79 A hexahedral swept mesh on an extruded part with twist. 21–73 . You select the rings to define the N-sided patches. The figure also shows the rings that ABAQUS/CAE inserted when the part was created. These rings divide the connecting face between the source side and the target side. Figure 21–80 shows a part that represents a coil spring. as shown in Figure 21–81. For example. Mesh Module The partitioning operation introduces partitions through the solid coil using N-sided patches to define the new faces.

21. 21–74 .USING THE MESH MODULE TOOLBOX N-sided patches partition the cell into multiple swept regions Figure 21–81 N-sided patches partition the cell. Figure 21–83 shows the hidden icons for all the tools in the Mesh module toolbox. Figure 21–82 The model is swept meshed with hexahedral elements.12 Using the Mesh module toolbox You can access all the Mesh module tools through either the main menu bar or the toolbox. as shown in Figure 21–82. You can now seed the part instance and generate a swept mesh using hexahedral elements.

” Section 21. The tasks in this tutorial involve the clamp model shown in Figure 21–84.13 Tutorial: Using the Mesh module This section contains a short tutorial that will help you become familiar with the Mesh module.2 “Seeding the model.13.13.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE Mesh seeding tools Element type assignment tool Mesh verification tool Mesh control assignment tool Meshing tools Figure 21–83 The Mesh module toolbox.” Section 21. you will perform the following procedures: • • • • • • “Opening the model database.1 “Partitioning the model.13.3 “Assigning element shapes to the model and specifying a meshing technique.” Section 6.” Section 21.6.” Section 21. As you work through the tutorial.13. For information on using the online documentation.6 Mesh Module 21–75 .5 “Assigning an element type. see “Getting help.” Section 21. Figure 21–84 The clamp model.13. 21.” Section 21.13. The online version of this manual contains detailed instructions on using each of the tools in the Mesh module toolbox.4 “Creating and refining the mesh.

select File Open. you can use the following techniques to manipulate the appearance and the orientation of the clamp in the viewport: 21–76 . The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Mesh module loads. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database containing the clamp model. and click OK. which default meshing technique ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the region. Enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=clamp 2.13. To open the model database: 1. ! The Open Database dialog box appears. 21. You will make the part meshable with hexahedral elements by partitioning the clamp into smaller regions. Select clamp.2 Partitioning the model When you first enter the Mesh module. 5.cae from the list of model database files. the different regions of your assembly change color. click Mesh. From the Directory list at the top of the Open Database dialog box. • If the region is meshable. 3. Note: During the course of this tutorial.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE 21.1 Opening the model database To start the tutorial.13.cae) if it is not already selected. From the File Filter list at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box. as shown in Figure 21–85. select your local directory. The clamp model appears in the viewport. You can use the ABAQUS fetch utility to copy the model database to your local directory. select Model Database (*. From the main menu bar. In this tutorial the entire model turns orange when it first appears in the Mesh module. In the Module list located under the toolbar. The color of a region in the Mesh module indicates the following: • Whether the region is meshable using the element shape currently assigned to the region. 4. To partition the model: 1. indicating that the part instance is currently unmeshable using the hexahedral element shapes that are assigned to the model by default. you must first open the model database that contains the clamp model.

Mesh Module The assembly contains only one cell. as a result. The triad in the middle of the model indicates the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system. as shown in Figure 21–86.” 2. In the dialog box. • Use a combination of the view manipulation tools and the display option tools in the toolbar and the tools in the Views toolbox to resize. select the bottom face of the top part of the clamp. you will probably find the magnification tool useful for displaying the model at a convenient size and orientation. ! The Create Partition dialog box appears. (The Views toolbox appears when you select from the toolbar. and change the render style of the model as necessary. select Cell from the list of Type options and select Extend face from the list of Method options. 4. ABAQUS/CAE selects this cell and prompts you to select the face to extend as the partitioning tool. select Tools Partition. in the Views toolbox to return the model to its • When necessary. “Manipulating the view and controlling perspective. From the main menu bar. reposition. click the Iso tool original size and position in the viewport. see Chapter 9. For more information on the view manipulation tools. The view orientation triad in the lower left corner of the screen indicates the orientation of the model with respect to the view. In the viewport. Then click Apply. 3.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 21–85 The clamp model appears in the viewport.) and the rotation tool In particular. 21–77 .

TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 21–86 Select the face. 21–78 . 5. as shown in Figure 21–87. As a result of the new partition the top region of the clamp turns green. In the prompt area. click Next or Previous in the prompt area until ABAQUS/CAE selects the desired face. If your selection is ambiguous. click Create Partition. A partition is created by extending the face that you selected in the previous step all the way to the end of the clamp. indicating that the region can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 21–87 The partition is created. Click OK to confirm your choice. Use the selection options (accessible from the prompt area) to filter your selection so that you can choose from all entities.

The middle region of the clamp is now yellow. ! Mesh Module 2. the magnification tool . 3.13. and the pan tool to enlarge the model in the viewport. Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 21–88 Create the second partition. use the zoom tool . ABAQUS/CAE will generate a very coarse mesh in that region. as shown in Figure 21–89. Use the [Shift]+Click technique to select all of the edges of the middle region of the clamp. Use a similar method to create a partition using the upper face of the bottom part of the clamp. Both the top and the bottom regions of the clamp are now green. When you have finished selecting edges.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE 6. 21. (To learn 21–79 . click Cancel to close the dialog box. From the main menu bar. In the toolbar. select Seed Edge By Size. which indicates that it is swept-meshable. click mouse button 2.3 Seeding the model Seeds are markers that you place along the edges of your model to indicate how dense you want the mesh to be. if you create only a few seeds spaced widely apart along the edges of a region. as shown in Figure 21–88. To seed the clamp model: 1. In this section you will seed the clamp in such a way that the middle region of the clamp (the region with the hole) will be more finely meshed than the other two regions of the model. which indicates that both are meshable with a structured mesh pattern. For example. 7. In the Create Partition dialog box.

enter an approximate element size of 2. Instance seeds appear in white along the edges of the model that have not yet been seeded.) 4. Click Constraints on the right side of the prompt area.) The instance seeds 21–80 . Click mouse button 2 to save your seeding specifications for the middle region of the model. 8. 5. The edge seeds that you have created appear in magenta along the edges of the middle region of the clamp.” Section 10. during mesh generation. not decrease it. 9. 6. (The edges that you have already seeded individually retain their magenta seeds. ABAQUS/CAE can only increase their number. select Seed Instance. From the main menu bar. The Edge Seed Constraints dialog box appears. In the text field in the prompt area.2. The options in this dialog box allow you to control how closely ABAQUS/CAE adheres to the seeds on the selected edges when creating the mesh. In the text field in the prompt area. Their shapes have the following significance: • The triangular seeds are partially constrained. if necessary. • The square seeds are fully constrained and cannot be altered by the mesh generation process. This selection prevents ABAQUS/CAE from reducing the number of elements that appear along the selected edges. In other words. see “Selecting and unselecting individual objects.1. ABAQUS/CAE can either create the same number of elements as is specified by the seeds or. Fully constrained seeds always appear at vertices.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE 2 3 1 Figure 21–89 Select the edges of the middle region. how to use the [Shift]+Click technique to select all of the edges. enter an approximate element size of 3 for the remaining ! edges in the model and then click mouse button 2. click Allow the number of elements to increase only and then click OK. In the dialog box. create more elements than are specified by the seeds. 7.

Note: If you had changed the element shape option to Tet at the beginning of the tutorial. ABAQUS/CAE would have been able to mesh the model without any partitions using the free meshing technique. The Mesh Controls dialog box appears. The Hex option is selected by default.5 Creating and refining the mesh Now that you have seeded the model and approved the Element Shape and Technique selections for the different regions. Select the top and the bottom regions of the model. but wedges are allowed in transition regions).4 Assigning element shapes to the model and specifying a meshing technique The Mesh Controls dialog box allows you to specify the shape of the elements in the mesh. and then click ! mouse button 2.13. 3. if you do not change the Element Shape option. In the prompt area. are more expensive to analyze. As a result. meshes composed of tetrahedral elements generally require more elements than hexahedral meshes and. Click OK to save the settings and to exit the dialog box. you are ready to create the mesh. 6. 4. your mesh will contain only hexagonal-shaped elements automatically. • Hex-dominated (mostly hexahedra. accept the default technique selection of Structured. therefore. 7. select Mesh Controls. To achieve a given accuracy. ABAQUS/CAE will change their number and location to generate the mesh. To specify the element shape and meshing technique: 1. Use a similar method to view and accept the default selections for the middle region of the model. 10. if necessary. Use the auto-fit tool to return the model to its original size in the viewport. In the Technique list. In the dialog box. accept the default element shape selection of Hex. 21. as shown in Figure 21–90. For example. Mesh Module 21. the mesh generator does not use these types of elements unless you specifically request them. 21–81 . click Done to exit the mesh controls assignment procedure. which indicates that they are unconstrained. 2. 5.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE are circular. the element shape options for three-dimensional models are as follows: • Hex (hexahedra only).13. • Tet (tetrahedra only). From the main menu bar.

From the main menu bar. select Mesh Instance. 2. 3. 1. ! Figure 21–91 The meshed model. You can improve the shape of these elements by creating additional partitions. The elements in the top and bottom regions of the mesh become distorted as they approach the left end of the clamp.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE Y Z X 2 3 1 Figure 21–90 To create and refine the mesh: Select the top and bottom regions. Use the rotation tool to view different sides of the model. In the prompt area. click Yes. The model should appear as shown in Figure 21–91. 21–82 .

as shown in Figure 21–93. select Cell from the list of Type options and select Extend face from the list of Method options. select the top and bottom regions of the clamp model. click Next or Previous in the prompt area until ABAQUS/CAE selects the desired face. select Tools Partition. Then click Apply.) The new mesh should appear as shown in Figure 21–94. you are prompted to select the cells to partition. In the prompt area. click Create Partition. Mesh Module 11. 9. (It is unnecessary to seed the new partitions. select Mesh Delete Instance Mesh. 8.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE 4. A prompt in the prompt area asks whether to delete the mesh. From the main menu bar. The partitions that you have added significantly reduce the distortion of the elements toward the left end of the clamp. Use the selection options (accessible from the prompt area) to filter your selection so that you can choose from all entities. click Yes. 21–83 . Remesh the model. In the viewport. 6. and click Done in the prompt area. Partitions are created by extending the face that you selected in the previous step through the top and bottom regions of the model. 10. select the face shown in Figure 21–92. Click OK to confirm your choice. 2 3 1 Figure 21–92 Select the face. 5. ! The mesh is deleted. they will be seeded automatically. If the selection is ambiguous. In the Create Partition dialog box. From the main menu bar. ! The Create Partition dialog box appears. click Cancel to close the dialog box. In the Create Partition dialog box. In the prompt area. 7. In the viewport.

Then click mouse button 2.13. 21–84 . Drag a rectangle around the clamp to select the entire model. To view the default ABAQUS element types: 1. 21. 3.6 Assigning an element type The Element Type dialog box allows you to assign specific types of ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit elements to the mesh elements that you have created. Accept Standard as the default Element Library selection. 2.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE 2 3 1 Figure 21–93 The top and bottom regions are partitioned. Figure 21–94 The mesh in the partitioned model. From the main menu bar. select Mesh Element Type. ! The Element Type dialog box appears.

the default ABAQUS element types that appear at the bottom of the Wedge and Tet tabbed pages would be assigned to those elements.TUTORIAL: USING THE MESH MODULE This selection specifies that you want to select an element type from the ABAQUS/Standard element library. Click OK to accept the default settings and to close the dialog box. 6. and Family selections.13. The name and a brief description of a default hexagonal. In the bottom half of the dialog box the Hex tab is visible. Mesh Module 21–85 .7 Summary of key points The following list summarizes the key points demonstrated in this tutorial: • You can use the Partition toolset to partition an unmeshable model into smaller. click the Wedge and Tet tabs to view the wedge element and tetrahedral element options. 21. Accept the default Element Library. 5. Geometric Order. you can create partitions to improve a mesh. three-dimensional stress ABAQUS/Standard element type appears at the bottom of the tabbed page. If your mesh contained any wedge. you would select Explicit so that you could select an ABAQUS/Explicit element type. Accept the default element type selection. • The density of a mesh is determined by the number and type of the seeds that you create along the edges of the region. If you were performing an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. • The Mesh Controls dialog box allows you to assign an element shape and a meshing technique to a region. In addition. 4. The Element Type dialog box allows you to assign ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit element types to the mesh elements in a region. Then. meshable regions.or tetrahedral-shaped elements.

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” Section 22. to submit it to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit for analysis. • Start the Visualization module and view a basic plot of the analysis results. and defining contact).” for examples of how to submit and monitor a job. In addition. • Kill a job before processing is complete.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Job Module 22. the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Creating. • Monitor its progress during processing.1 • “Understanding analysis jobs. If desired. editing. The Job module allows you to create a job.” Section 22. 22–1 . you can create multiple models and jobs and run and monitor the jobs simultaneously. assigning section properties. “A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model.” Section 22. • Submit the analysis job for processing.” Section 22. This option allows you to view and edit the input file before submitting it for analysis.5 See Chapter 3. you can use the Job module to analyze your model. and to monitor its progress.4 • “Using the job editor. • Associate the analysis job with a particular model.1 Understanding the role of the Job module Once you have finished all of the tasks involved in defining a model (such as defining the geometry of the model. 22. ! ! 22. you have the option of creating only the analysis input file for your model. You can also view and edit the analysis keywords for a model by selecting Model Edit Keywords model name from the main menu bar. This chapter covers the following topics: • “Understanding the role of the Job module. and manipulating jobs.2 • “Restarting an analysis.2 Understanding analysis jobs This section provides an overview of the Job module.” Section 22. The Job module You can use the Job module to perform the following tasks: • Create an analysis job.3 In addition.

you are not limited to the current model. you are ready to analyze it. Analyzing a model involves the following steps. As the analysis progresses. data.2 Entering and exiting the Job module You can enter the Job module at any time during a session by clicking Job in the Module list located under the toolbar. and the output database for your analysis job will be opened automatically.) However. and message files in the job monitor dialog box.” Section 3. ABAQUS/CAE asks you to name the new job and to associate it with a model selected from the model database. The job editor allows you to configure the job settings. you will enter the Visualization module. Alternatively.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. ABAQUS/CAE writes the input file in ASCII format. Write the input file ! When you submit a job for analysis. see “Execution procedure for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. those modifications are retained in the model and apply to any jobs associated with that model.1 Basic steps for analyzing a model After you have defined your model. ABAQUS/CAE displays information from the status. The Job menu appears in the main menu bar. log. (For more information. You must submit that input file using the abaqus command at the operating system prompt rather than using ABAQUS/CAE. you can also exit the Job module by selecting Job Results from the main menu bar. your changes to the input file will be lost. you can display results from the output database in the Visualization module by selecting Job Results from the main menu bar. You can select any model that exists in the database. If your job completed successfully. and you can view and edit it in your working directory. WARNING: If you edit the input file using a text editor outside ABAQUS/CAE and then submit the job in the Job module. if you use the Keywords Editor to modify the generated keywords for a model.2. Submit the job for analysis You submit the job for analysis by selecting Job Submit from the main menu bar.2. To exit the Job module. select any other module from the main menu. you can ask ABAQUS/CAE to generate only the input file.2. After your job is completed. ! ! 22.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS 22. ! 22–2 . each of which can be performed using either the Job menu on the main menu bar or the Job Manager: Create and configure an analysis job You create an analysis job by selecting Job Create from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE first generates an input file representing your model and then ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit performs the analysis using the contents of this file.

2. ! Figure 22–1 The Job Manager. rename. The four columns of the Job Manager display the following: Name The Name column displays the name of the job. • Kill a job that is currently running. • Monitor the analysis as it progresses. Figure 22–1 shows the layout of the Job Manager.3 The Job Manager The Job Manager.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Job Module You need not save your job before exiting the module. or delete the selected analysis job. • Copy. the Job Manager allows you to do the following: • Write the input file without submitting it for analysis. In addition. which is similar to other managers in ABAQUS/CAE. it will be saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. • View the results from a job. allows you to do the following: • Create an analysis job and associate the new job with a selected model. You can display the Job Manager by selecting Job Manager from the main menu bar. 22–3 . • Edit the selected analysis job. • Submit a job for analysis. ! ! 22. Click Rename to rename the selected job.

edit. and the job is being submitted for execution. Completed The analysis is complete.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Model The Model column displays the name of the model associated with the job. Status The Status column displays the current status of the analysis job and is updated continually while your job is running. You can click Results to view the contents of the output database and graphically verify your results. for more information. The status can be one of the following: None The job has not been submitted for analysis. and manipulate jobs. Aborted The job has been aborted due to problems such as fatal errors in the input file or lack of disk space. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: 22–4 .” Section 22. The job type can be one of the following: • Full Analysis • Data Check • Continue Analysis • Recover • Restart (See “Selecting a job type. For detailed instructions on using the Job Manager to create. Type The Type column displays the job type that you selected when you configured the job using the job editor. Terminated The job has been killed by the user.5. Running The job has been submitted for analysis and is running.) You can use the job editor to change the job type as long as the job is not running. Submitted The input file has been written.2.

1 • “Configuring job submission attributes.5.) The job editor contains the following tabbed pages: ! ! ! Submission Use the Submission tabbed page to configure the submission attributes of your job.4.” Section 22.5 22.4 “Viewing the results of your job.3 22–5 . such as job type.” Section 22.” Section 22. Memory Use the Memory tabbed page to configure the amount of memory allocated to an ABAQUS analysis. see the following sections in the online version of this manual: • “Navigating the job customization options.5. Precision Use the Precision tabbed page to specify either single or double precision for ABAQUS/Explicit analyses. You can also use the submission tabbed page to specify that the job is to be submitted to remote queues that have been configured by your local ABAQUS environment file or by your system administrator. run mode. For detailed instructions on using the job editor to define jobs.4.1 “Writing the input file only.” Section 22.” Section 22. and submit time.3 “Terminating an analysis job. (You can also click Create or Edit in the job manager.2 “Submitting an analysis job.2.4 The job editor You use the job editor to customize the settings for a new job or to edit the settings for an existing job.4. General Use the General tabbed page to configure job settings such as the analysis input file processor printout and the name of the directory used for scratch files. such as the number of processors to use and the parallelization method.2 • “Choosing the job type. Parallelization Use the Parallelization tabbed page to configure the parallel execution of an ABAQUS analysis job.5.” Section 22.” Section 22.4.” Section 22. You can display the job editor by selecting Job Create or Job Edit job name from the main menu bar.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Job Module • • • • • “Creating a new analysis job.4. You can also choose the precision of nodal output that is written to the output database during the analysis.

22–6 .6 • “Controlling memory settings. ABAQUS/CAE selects the job type to be Restart.5.5.5. This option is the default. after filling a disk or after a network problem. When you create a job that refers to a model with restart data attributes. review the data (.5.5.5. For detailed instructions on choosing a job type.2. perform a complete analysis of your model. describes how you can use the restart capabilities of ABAQUS/Standard to continue an analysis that terminated prematurely. Data check Check that the model is consistent and complete by running the input file through the analysis input file processor. see “Choosing the job type.” Section 22.9 22. To check the outcome.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS • “Choosing the run mode.7 • “Controlling parallel execution. and write the results to the output database. in the online version of this manual.” Section 22.” Section 22. Recover (Explicit) This option is available only when you are running ABAQUS/Explicit.9.5.” Section 22. “Recovering an ABAQUS/Standard analysis.” Section 22. This option generates (or regenerates) the input file for the job. it creates and saves all the files necessary to continue the analysis.3.3. You can then submit the job with the Continue analysis option selected to complete the analysis.5 Selecting a job type The Submission tabbed page in the job editor allows you to choose between the following job types: Full analysis Generate (or regenerate) the input file.5 • “Specifying general job settings.4 • “Setting the submit time.8 • “Controlling precision.” Section 22. Restart Submit a job that is a continuation of a previous analysis of this model.” Section 22. Submit a job with this option selected to complete your analysis after ABAQUS/Explicit stopped unexpectedly.” Section 22. for example.dat) file in your working directory. Continue analysis When ABAQUS performs a data check analysis.

6 Monitoring the progress of an analysis job The Job Manager continually updates the status of all the analysis jobs in the model database.log) file.2.msg).sta) file that ABAQUS creates for the analysis. If 22–7 . ABAQUS/CAE prints any error messages from the analysis products to the message area and creates diagnostic files in your current working directory.dat).sta) files. The top half of the dialog box displays the information available in the status (. The bottom half of the dialog box displays the following information: • Click the Log tab to display the start and end times for the analysis that appear in the log (.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Job Module 22. • Click the Errors and Warnings tabs to display the errors or the warnings that appear in the data (. You can monitor information concerning a submitted job by selecting Job Monitor job of your choice from the main menu bar or by selecting the job of your choice and clicking Monitor in the Job Manager. message (. In addition. ! ! Figure 22–2 The job monitor dialog box. You can display as many job monitors as necessary to view information on multiple jobs. status (. for ABAQUS/Explicit analyses. as shown in Figure 22–2. The job monitor dialog box for that job appears. and.

7 Submitting a job remotely When you configure a job. and you can view the set using display groups in the Visualization module. the Errors tabbed page appears in front of the other tabbed pages automatically to help you determine the cause of the failure. Each queue name that appears in the job editor refers to an entry in your ABAQUS environment file in which you specify how you want the job to be run on the host computer. 22. you specify not only the desired queue on the host computer but also other options. In other words. you can terminate the analysis job by clicking Kill at the bottom of the job monitor dialog box. see “Understanding output requests.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. “Using display groups to display subsets of your model. such as the directory on the host computer in which you want to run the job and the files you want copied back to your local directory when the job is complete. if you requested that ABAQUS monitor the values of a degree of freedom of a particular node to the message and status files. (For information on requesting output for a particular degree of freedom for a particular node. You can specify the remote queue by selecting an associated queue name in the Submission tabbed page of the job editor. see Chapter 52.3. If the job fails. you can request that ABAQUS/CAE route the job to a specified queue on a remote UNIX host computer.5. The plot appears in a new viewport that is generated automatically when you submit the job. the Output tabbed page records each time this information is written and the value of the degree of freedom at that point of the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE provides another opportunity to monitor the job by plotting the values of the degree of freedom over time. (For more information.”) • Click the Output tab to display a record of each output data entry as it is written to the output database.” Section 4.” Section 18. The name of the node or element set appears with the error or warning message.2.4.) If necessary. a node or element set will be created automatically that contains that region. If the visible part of the canvas is already filled with one or more viewports.” Section 18. in this case you should tile or cascade the viewports or enlarge the canvas to bring the viewport into view. You can specify your preferences for running a job remotely by adding the following to your ABAQUS environment file: def onCaeStartup(): import os from abaqus import * 22–8 .) For detailed information on the different output files that ABAQUS creates during an analysis.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS a particular region of the model is causing the error or warning. see “Degree of freedom monitor requests. the new viewport may be placed on a part of the canvas that is not visible.5. In addition.” Section 18. see “Output.3. and “Degree of freedom monitor requests. when you select a queue name in the job editor. The information presented in the job monitor dialog box is updated continually as the analysis progresses.1. If you requested DOF Monitor output on a particular degree of freedom for a particular node. (For more information on display groups.

Queue(name. queueName The name of an existing queue on the host computer. You can specify either UNIX or NT (for Windows). localPlatform. The default is the local directory (the directory from which you are submitting the job).UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS Job Module def makeQueues(*args): session. driver The name of the command on the host computer to execute ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. the value of this argument determines whether or not the analysis files will be copied back to the directory from which the job was submitted.) hostName The name of the host computer. directory. The default value is OFF. 22–9 . makeQueues) This entry is written using the ABAQUS command language. The default is the name of the local computer. fileCopy When the analysis is complete. driver. localPlatform The platform on the local computer. name The queue name that you want to appear in the job editor. remotePlatform. The default is abaqus. (For information on creating queues on the host computer. fileCopy. The following list describes each argument in the entry above. queueName. filesToCopy. UNIX is the default. directory The name of the directory on the host computer where you want the job run. refer to the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. You must have write privileges to this directory. description) addImportCallback(’job’. hostName.

and pac. The name and queueName arguments must be included in each queue definition. An example queue definition is shown below: def onCaeStartup(): import os from abaqus import * def makeQueues(*args): session.abq) file. dat. abq. and the packaging (. queueName The queue name on the host computer is aba_long. hostName The name of the host computer is jobserver. However.environ[’USER’]) addImportCallback(’job’. queueName=’aba_long’. makeQueues) The commands in the example above configure the following: name The queue name displayed in the job editor is long. Note: The restart (. 22–10 . By default. res. sta.res) file. the files with the following extensions are copied: log. default values will be supplied automatically. odb. if your localPlatform and remotePlatform settings differ. if you do not include any of the other arguments in a queue definition. directory=’/scratch/’ + os. description A short description of the queue. filesToCopy The three-letter extensions of the analysis files that you want copied back to the local directory when the job is complete. You can specify either UNIX or NT (for Windows). UNIX is the default. All of the other files listed above can be copied across platforms without any difficulty.UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS JOBS remotePlatform The platform on the host computer.pac) file are platform-dependent.Queue(name=’long’. hostName=’jobserver’. you will not be able to copy and use these files without some kind of translation. the ABAQUS/Explicit state (. msg.

you do not have to analyze all of the steps in a single analysis job. However. directory=’/scratch/’ + os. one named long and the other named job: def onCaeStartup(): import os from abaqus import * def makeQueues(*args): session. hostName=’jobserver’. The restart files generated by an ABAQUS analysis allow you to continue the analysis from a specified step. therefore. is not copied to your local directory until after the job is complete. are available for jobs run remotely just as they are for jobs run locally.Queue command as many times as necessary.Queue(name=’long’. the output database for the job.6. queueName=’aba_long’. 22. makeQueues) The monitoring functions described in “Monitoring the progress of an analysis job. remotePlatform. see “Restarting an analysis. Since the fileCopy.Queue(name=’job’. driver.2. and filesToCopy arguments have been left out of the entry above. If you want to create two or more queues.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS Job Module directory The directory on the host computer where ABAQUS will store the input file and all other files associated with the job is /scratch/your user name.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. queueName=’aba_job’. Indeed. This allows you to examine the results and confirm that the analysis is performing as expected before continuing with the next stage. it is often desirable to run a complex analysis in stages. localPlatform. you can repeat the line containing the session. you cannot use the Visualization module to view results generated by an analysis in progress. For example. hostName=’jobserver’. For more information. fileCopy=OFF) addImportCallback(’job’.3 Restarting an analysis If your model contains multiple steps.” Section 22. 22–11 .” Section 7.environ[’USER’]) session. the default options for these parameters are assigned to this queue automatically. like any other analysis files that you may have requested.1. the following ABAQUS environment file entry specifies two queues.

” Section 22. You can also choose one of the following: • Allow the selected step to continue to completion.” Section 13.4.” Section 22.8 • “Recovering an ABAQUS/Standard analysis.5. For more information. ABAQUS/CAE sets the job type to Restart. After an analysis has generated restart information.3. Job type You use the job editor to specify the job type.1. • Terminate the selected step at the specified increment and begin a new step.3.7 • “Visualizing results from restart analyses.4 The following topics describe examples of the most common uses for restart analysis: • “Restarting after adding more analysis steps to the model.” Section 22. If you edit the model attributes to specify that the model should reuse data from a previous analysis and you create a job that refers to this model.3.” Section 22.3. For more information.5 • “Restarting after modifying existing analysis steps.” Section 22.” Section 22.” Section 22.6 • “Restarting from the middle of a step.7. restart information is written at the end of each step for both an ABAQUS/Standard and an ABAQUS/Explicit analysis.9 • “Remote submission of restart jobs.2 • “Rules governing a restart analysis. see “Editing model attributes.3. 22–12 .3.5.3.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS This section describes the restart capability in ABAQUS/CAE.3.” Section 22. you can control the following aspects of the subsequent restart analysis: Model attributes To configure a restart analysis.” Section 22.” Section 22. see “Restart output requests. You can specify the step and the increment or time interval of the previous analysis from which the new analysis should start.1 • “Files required to restart an analysis.3.” Section 22. see “Choosing the job type.” Section 18. you must specify whether the model should reuse data from a previous analysis of the same model. The following topics provide some background information: • “Controlling a restart analysis.3.1 Controlling a restart analysis By default. in the online version of this manual. you can use the Step module to change the frequency at which restart information is written.3.3 • “The relationship between the model and the restart analysis.3. For more information.10 22. If desired. in the online version of this manual.

3 Rules governing a restart analysis Defining the restart information for models and jobs is straightforward using ABAQUS/CAE. material orientations. 22–13 .prt) State file (.3. various files that were created by the previous analysis must be available in the directory from which you started the ABAQUS/CAE session. In some cases the analysis will terminate with error messages. sections. materials. boundary conditions.3.odb) Restart file (. In other cases the analysis will run. ABAQUS/CAE ignores those changes when you restart the analysis. – For the new model do not modify or add any geometry. interaction properties.odb) Restart file (. interactions. you should understand the following before you use the analysis restart capability: • The model used in the restart analysis must be the same as the model used in the original analysis up to the restart location. ABAQUS/Standard • • • • • • • • • • Output database (.mdl) Part file (. fields. beam section orientations. or constraints.2 Files required to restart an analysis To restart an analysis. but the results may not correspond with your intent.res) Package file (. beam section profiles.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS Job Module 22. • If you used the keyword editor to edit the original model.stt) ABAQUS/Explicit Output database (. WARNING: ABAQUS/CAE does not perform any checks to ensure that the restart data stored for the original job are consistent with the model used in the restart analysis. – Similarly. however. Specifically.prt) State file (. or output requests) at or before the restart location.abq) The restart analysis generates an error if any of these files are not available in the current directory. 22.res) Model file (. mesh.pac) Part file (. do not modify any steps or prescribed conditions (loads.

5 Restarting after adding more analysis steps to the model The most common use of the restart capability is to analyze your model and then add one or more steps to the model and continue the analysis. to the model. say a material property. • Data from step-dependent objects that are associated with steps that appear after the restart step. etc. This section describes an example of this usage. etc. Only the following data are written: • Steps that appear after the analysis is restarted. that you specified using ABAQUS/CAE. loads. The restart capability allows you to compute the results for Step-3 without having to repeat the 22–14 . you edit the new model’s attributes and specify that the analysis continue from a specified step of the original analysis. interactions. steps. To request a restart analysis.3. As a result.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS 22. you decide to add another step. assembly. Step-3. fields. When you create a new restart job that refers to the new model. and property data. output requests. output requests. No part. or property data are written to the restart input file. is submitted to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file based on the restart information. Assume that you have done the following: • Created a model called Model-A that has two analysis steps. loads. • New regions and amplitudes that are used by step-dependent objects that are associated with steps that appear after the restart step. assembly. Step-1 and Step-2. • Analyzed the model. • Accepted the default frequency in the Edit Restart Requests dialog box in the Step module to output the restart information at the end of each step. ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file based on the definition of your model. ABAQUS/CAE sets the job type to Restart. steps. the information is not written to the input file that is submitted to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. This is an important consideration. boundary conditions. for example. ABAQUS reads the part. Some changes that you make to the model in a restart analysis. 22. After studying the results of the analysis. The input file contains the element and node definitions generated by the Mesh module along with the materials. The new model contains all the element and node definitions from the original model along with all the materials. although the model contains all this information.3. and that input file. When you submit the new job for analysis. interactions.4 The relationship between the model and the restart analysis When you first submit a job for analysis. it is recommended that you copy the model to a new model. loads. along with data from steps that appear before the restart step from the restart files that were generated by the original analysis. • Created a job called Job-A that uses Model-A. will not appear in the input file that is analyzed. and output requests. in turn. To run a restart analysis.

• Created a job called Job-A that uses Model-A. to an output request in Step-2. Copy Job-A to a new job. • Analyzed the model. Add new prescribed conditions (loads. Copy Model-A to a new model. 7.3. 3. From the Edit Model Attributes dialog box that appears. select Model Edit Attributes Model-A-restart. say Model-A-restart. Copy Model-A to a new model. From the main menu bar. or to a prescribed condition in Step-2. Assume that you have done the following: • Created a model called Model-A that has two analysis steps. however. The following steps describe a recommended procedure to follow: 1. Step-3 will continue the analysis after the end of Step-2. boundary conditions. fields. you realize that the results from Step-2 are no longer valid. and make Model-A-restart the current model. such as a load or boundary condition. and make Model-A-restart the current model. that uses Model-A-restart. Submit Job-A-restart for analysis. 22–15 . – Choose Restart from the end of the step. choose a job type of Restart. say Model-A-restart. 5. The restart capability allows you to recompute the results for Step-2 without having to repeat the computations for Step-1. • Accepted the default frequency in the Edit Restart Requests dialog box in the Step module to output the restart information at the end of each step. Step-1 and Step-2.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS Job Module computations for Step-1 and Step-2. say Job-A-restart. ! ! 22. or output requests) in Step-3. From the Edit Job dialog box that appears. select Job Edit Job-A-restart. 2. 6. Add the new Step-3 to Model-A-restart. You know that you can still use the results from Step-1. or modify the prescribed conditions propagated from Step-2. 4. You may also want to add some new steps with additional output requests and loads and with changes to the boundary conditions. you realize that you need to make changes to Step-2. The following steps describe a recommended procedure to follow: 1. interactions. • Set the restart location: – Enter Step-2 to indicate the step from which the restart data will be read. From the main menu bar.6 Restarting after modifying existing analysis steps You can use the restart capability to analyze your model and then modify an existing step before continuing the analysis. After examining the results of Job-A. This section describes an example of this usage. do the following: ! ! • Enter Job-A as the job from which the restart data will be read.

ABAQUS/CAE sets the job type to Restart. 4. • Used the Edit Restart Requests dialog box in the Step module to output the restart information every 10 increments. From the Edit Model Attributes dialog box that appears. hence. • Set the restart location: – Enter Step-1 to indicate the step from which the restart data will be read. Step-2 will continue the analysis after the end of Step-1. Now that you have some idea of the collapse load level. select Model Edit Attributes Model-A-restart. • Analyzed the model.3.7 Restarting from the middle of a step You can use the restart capability to continue the analysis from the middle of a completed step or from the middle of a partially completed step. You suspected that the loading is too severe for the structure and might lead to instabilities or collapse of the structure and. ! ! 22. Do the following: • Make the desired changes to Step-2. to numerical convergence difficulties. – Choose Restart from the end of the step. say Job-A-restart. • Add new steps after Step-2. you found that the analysis terminated before the end of Step-2. As a result. • Create new prescribed conditions in Step-2 and subsequent steps. When you ran the analysis. Assume that you have done the following: • Created a model called Model-A that has two ABAQUS/Standard analysis steps. The restarted analysis uses a new step that continues the analysis from a specified increment of the previous step. you used the Step module to save the restart information every 10 increments of each step. do the following: • Enter Job-A as the job from which the restart data will be read. Copy Job-A to a new job. you want to restart the analysis at increment 20 of Step-2 with lower levels of loading and more frequent output of results data. The following steps describe a recommended procedure to follow: 22–16 .RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS 2. Submit Job-A-restart for analysis. Step-1 and Step-2. 3. You used the Visualization module to look at the results of the analysis and realized that the negative eigenvalue messages confirmed your suspicion that the structure might have become unstable. that uses Model-A-restart. 5. at increment 25. This section describes an example of this usage. From the main menu bar. • Created a job called Job-A that uses Model-A.

From the Edit Model Attributes dialog box that appears.3. For more information. Copy Model-A to a new model. see “Restarting an analysis. Step-3 will continue the analysis from this location. select Model Edit Attributes Model-A-restart.” Section 7. and Step-3. – Choose Restart from increment/interval. however. You must change the output database if you are looking at the results from Step-1 or Step-2 and want to look at the results from Step-3. the output database generated by the analysis. Although Model-A-restart contains Step-1. contains results from only Step-3. that uses Model-A-restart.odb. 6. Submit Job-A-restart for analysis. As a result. and enter 20 to indicate the increment from which the restart data will be read. contour. You can use the Visualization module to create deformed.3. Job-A.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS Job Module 1. Modify the load levels and output requests in Step-3. • Set the restart location: – Enter Step-2 to indicate the step from which the restart data will be read. – Choose and terminate the step at this point to indicate that Step-2 should terminate at increment 20. Step-2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.” Section 22. 3. 22–17 . 5. you can plot the results from only one output database at any time. the output database generated by the restart analysis. say Model-A-restart. if the load at Step-2. ABAQUS/CAE sets the job type to Restart. and symbol plots of field data. and make Model-A-restart the current model. where you did the following: • Ran an analysis of Job-A that referred to Model-A that contains Step-1 and Step-2. 22. Add the new Step-3 to Model-A-restart. increment 20 was 250. contains results from Step-1 and Step-2. do the following: ! ! • Toggle on Read data from job and enter Job-A to indicate the job from which the restart data will be read.odb. you might change the load level for the end of Step-3 to 262. Job-A-restart.1. 4. For example. In addition. • Ran a restart analysis of Job-A-restart that referred to Model-A-restart. From the main menu bar. Copy Job-A to a new job.5.8 Visualizing results from restart analyses Each restart analysis creates a new output database. You can also reduce the size of the maximum increment to control the resolution of the data that are generated by the analysis. Consider the example described in “Restarting after adding more analysis steps to the model. say Job-A-restart. 2. increment 25 was 260 and the load at Step-2. you can increase the frequency at which data are written to the output database so that you can follow the progression of the collapse of the structure.

For example.3. The second X–Y data object should use the data from the modified Step-2 and the new Step-3.14.9. 22. Assume the following: • You analyzed Model-A containing Step-1. see Chapter 33. Alternatively. Alternatively. select Model Edit Attributes Model-A-recover. The following procedure describes how you can recover the analysis using the last restart information that was saved: 1.odb.7 of the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. • Create a second X–Y data object from the output database generated by the restart analysis— Job-A-restart.” Section 22. consider the restart analysis described in “Restarting after modifying existing analysis steps. • Because of a power outage. see “Adding results from one output database into another output database. see “Choosing the job type. ABAQUS/Standard does not have a recovery mechanism. for example. The second output database contains data from a modified Step-2 and the new Step-3. The first X–Y data object that you create should use only the data from Step-1 and should exclude the data from the original Step-2. • Create an X–Y plot of the two X–Y data objects. Step-2. • You requested that restart information be saved every 10 increments. The following example describes how you can use the restart capabilities of ABAQUS/Standard to continue an analysis that terminated prematurely. or “Adding results from one output database into another output database. ABAQUS provides a Python script and a C++ program for this purpose. The first output database contains data from Step-1 and Step-2.” Section 8. For more information.3.6. you can create a history plot of a variable over all three steps using the following technique: • Create one X–Y data object for the variable from the original output database—Job-A. the last restart information was saved at Increment 10 of Step-2.5. the analysis ended prematurely at Increment 17 of Step-2. As a result. you must combine the two output databases. and Step-3. For more information.9 Recovering an ABAQUS/Standard analysis ABAQUS/Explicit has a recovery mechanism for analysis jobs that terminate prematurely.3.” Section 9. However. because of disk space or power failures.” You should take care that your X–Y data objects are not referring to the same step. say Model-A-recover. append the first two X–Y data objects. unlike ABAQUS/Explicit. and make Model-A-recover the current model. 2. “X–Y plotting.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS If you want to create an animation of results from all three steps. For more information.6 of the ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual. From the main menu bar. From the Edit Model Attributes dialog box that appears. do the following: ! ! 22–18 . Copy Model-A to a new model.” Section 22. where you modified an existing step and added a new step before continuing the analysis. you can create a new X–Y data object using the Operate on XY data option. and create an X–Y plot of the result.odb.

Most of the files required for a restart analysis are platform-dependent binary files. – Choose and complete the step.7.10 Remote submission of restart jobs If you submit a job to a remote machine for analysis. • Set the restart location: – Enter Step-2 to indicate the step from which the restart data will be read.” Section 22. Copy Job-A to a new job. the two machines must be binary compatible. and enter 10 to indicate the increment from which the restart data will be read. 3.prt) file contains ASCII text and can be copied across platforms. 22. that uses Model-A-recover. you will not be able to continue a restart analysis on a Windows machine after starting the analysis on a UNIX machine. – Choose Restart from increment/interval. Submit Job-A-recover for analysis. If the remote job terminates prematurely. Step-2 will continue the analysis after increment 10 and run to completion.2.3. As a result. For more information. and enter Job-A to indicate the job from which the restart data will be read. see “Submitting a job remotely. ABAQUS/CAE sets the job type to Restart. 4. However. you may have to copy the files back to your local directory manually. 22–19 . say Job-A-recover. or vice versa. and it is recommended that the original analysis and the restart analysis both be executed on the same platform. The part (. ABAQUS does not test cross-platform compatibility of restart files.RESTARTING AN ANALYSIS Job Module • Toggle on Read data from job. The lack of portability across platforms with different binary formats does not preclude you from restarting an analysis on a machine that is different from the machine on which the original analysis was run. by default ABAQUS copies the files required for a restart analysis back to your local directory when the job is complete.

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15 • “Resetting the view.10 • “Adding dimensions.UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE SKETCH MODULE 23. Stand-alone sketches can be incorporated in the current sketch. or revolved to form a three-dimensional part.” Section 23.” Section 23. and they will overlay any existing geometry. swept.” Section 23.6 • “Modifying and copying objects.17.1 • “Entering and exiting the Sketch module.1 Understanding the role of the Sketch module You use the Sketch module to create and manage two-dimensional profiles that are not associated with a feature.17 Sketch Module 23.4 • “Sketcher geometry.” Section 23. or a partition or to create a sketch that might be extruded.” Section 23.” Section 23.” Section 23.7 In addition.2 • “Overview of the Sketch module. You use the Sketch module to create a sketch that defines a planar part. modify.” Section 23.8 • “Sketching simple objects.” Section 23.5 • “Specifying precise geometry. and manage sketches. The Sketch module Sketches are two-dimensional profiles that are used to help form the geometry defining an ABAQUS/CAE native part.9 • “Creating construction geometry.3 • “Basic Sketcher concepts. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Sketch module to create.” Section 23.” Section 23. The following topics are covered: • “Understanding the role of the Sketch module.” Section 23. a beam. in the online version of this manual. 23–1 . the following sections are available in the online version of this manual: • “Customizing the Sketcher.13 • “Copying and deleting objects.” Section 23. For more information.11 • “Adding reference geometry.16 • “Managing stand-alone sketches. see “Managing stand-alone sketches.14 • “Undoing and redoing sketching actions.” Section 23. these profiles are known as stand-alone sketches.” Section 23.” Section 23.12 • “Modifying objects.” Section 23.” Section 23.

• Sketch a partition on a face of the assembly while working in the Assembly module or the Mesh module. first exit the current drawing tool by clicking mouse button 2. in the Sketch module and deleted. You need not take any specific action to save your sketches before exiting the module. 23. • Sketch a partition on a face of a part while working in the Part module. Then click the Done button that appears in the prompt area. In addition. such as parts and loads. When you are using the Sketcher (for example. they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File Save or File Save As from the main menu bar. copied. Then. The Sketch module tools appear in the module toolbox. these sketches are called stand-alone sketches. you can save your work as a stand-alone sketch by clicking the sketch 23–2 . and the Sketch menu appears on the main menu bar. When you create or edit a stand-alone sketch. renamed. like other objects in the model. first exit the current drawing tool by clicking mouse button 2. click the Done button that appears in the prompt area.3 Overview of the Sketch module This section provides an overview of the Sketch module.3. click the sketch create tool toolbox. ABAQUS/CAE starts the Sketcher whenever you do one of the following: ! ! • Create or edit a feature while defining a part in the Part module.1 Stand-alone sketches You use the Sketch module to create and manage sketches that are not associated with a feature. In addition.2 Entering and exiting the Sketch module You can enter the Sketch module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Sketch in the Module list located under the toolbar. A stand-alone sketch is stored in the model. and select any other module from the Module list. the Sketch module starts the Sketcher and displays the Sketcher tools in the module toolbox. To create a stand-alone sketch. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the module that invoked it. follow any additional prompts to extrude. You should recognize the difference between the Sketch module and the Sketcher.OVERVIEW OF THE SKETCH MODULE 23. 23. Where applicable. when you are sketching the profile of a solid extrusion in the Part module). To exit the Sketcher and incorporate your sketch into the part or assembly. a stand-alone sketch can be edited. To exit the Sketch module. revolve. ABAQUS/CAE restores the original view of the part or assembly. or sweep the feature.

igs) • ACIS (file extension . such as lines. ABAQUS/CAE translates the contents of the file into a set of Sketcher entities. see “IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch. and splines. Similarly.stp) When you import a file as a stand-alone sketch. For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into a sketch.” Section 23.17. it ignores that geometry and continues importing the sketch. arcs.or ACIS-format file. • Resizes the viewport so that both the current sketch and the retrieved sketch are displayed.dxf) • IGES (file extension .2 Imported sketches You can import stand-alone sketches into the model by selecting File Import Sketch from the main menu bar. Sketcher entity Line Circle Arc Point Points ! ! AutoCAD entity Line Circle Arc Vertex Spline and polyline 23–3 . You can import sketches from files stored in the following industry-standard formats: • AutoCAD (file extension . ABAQUS/CAE can import most planar entities from an IGES-format file. Table 23–1 AutoCAD entities supported by the Sketcher. in the online version of this manual.3. If ABAQUS/CAE finds geometry that it cannot translate.7.” Section 14. see “Managing standalone sketches. ABAQUS/CAE does the following: • Positions the retrieved sketch so that its origin is coincident with the origin of the current sketch.OVERVIEW OF THE SKETCH MODULE save tool in the Sketcher toolbox. • Asks if you want to translate or rotate the retrieved sketch from the default position. Sketch Module For detailed instructions on creating and managing stand-alone sketches. When you retrieve a another sketch by clicking the sketch retrieve tool stand-alone sketch.sat) • STEP (file extension . you can incorporate one stand-alone sketch in in the Sketcher toolbox. When you import an AutoCAD.7. 23. in the online version of this manual. ABAQUS/CAE recognizes only the entities listed in Table 23–1 and Table 23–2.

see “Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons. and to modify the sketch. For information on using toolboxes and selecting hidden icons. in the online version of this manual. For detailed instructions. in the online version of this manual. If the file contains three-dimensional geometry. the file must contain a two-dimensional planar profile that can be mapped to the sketch plane.4 Basic Sketcher concepts You use the Sketcher to sketch the lines and curves that form the two-dimensional profile of a feature.4. you may have to move the part closer to its origin by moving the vertices of the sketch closer to the origin of the Sketcher grid. hold the mouse over the tool for a moment. Figure 23–1 shows the hidden icons for all the tools in the Sketcher toolbox.” Section 23. to add dimensions to the sketch. and splines. see “Creating construction geometry.BASIC SKETCHER CONCEPTS Table 23–2 ACIS entities supported by the Sketcher. such as lines.” Section 7. when you import a sketch to create the base feature of a part.9.2. see “The Sketcher sheet and grid. To see a tooltip containing a brief definition of a Sketcher tool.1 The Sketcher tools You can access all the Sketcher tools through either the main menu bar or the toolbox. 23. see “Sketching simple objects. This section describes some of the basic concepts used by the Sketcher and how these concepts influence the behavior of the Sketcher tools and appearance of the sketch.3. circles. The Sketcher tools allow you to do the following: • Create basic sketch entities. For more information. arcs. Sketcher entity Line Circle Arc Point Spline (a discretized version) ACIS entity Line Circle Arc Vertex Spline. the part will be far from its origin.4. 23.” Section 23. fillets. • Add construction geometry to your sketch to help you position and align sketch entities.” Section 23. For detailed instructions. and polyline For ABAQUS/CAE to convert the file to a sketch. To improve precision. ABAQUS/CAE positions the sketch relatively far from the Sketcher origin. As a result. ellipse.2. and the analysis of your model can be affected by a loss of precision. 23–4 . In some cases.10. ABAQUS/CAE cannot import the sketch.

the sheet size is the same as the approximate size of the part that you provided when you created the part. • Add dimensions to your sketch to make your sketch geometry more precise. In addition.” Section 23. see “Modifying objects.13.” Section 23.4. if you are creating a stand-alone sketch. 23. and its height and width are determined by the sheet size.BASIC SKETCHER CONCEPTS Sketch point Sketch circle Sketch arc tangent to curve Sketch fillet Construction geometry tools Edit vertex Sketch line Sketch rectangle Sketch arc Sketch spline Dimension tools Edit dimension Copy Sketch Module Linear pattern Undo/redo Add sketch Sketcher options Radial pattern Delete Save sketch Reset view Figure 23–1 The Sketcher toolbox.2 The Sketcher sheet and grid When you enter the Sketcher and either create a new sketch or edit an existing sketch. depending on what you are sketching: • If you are sketching the base feature of a new part. ABAQUS/CAE determines the sheet size and the location of the origin. see “Adding dimensions. the sheet size is the same as the size used by the most recent sketch of a feature belonging to the part or assembly. the sheet size is the same as the approximate size of the sketch that you provided when you created the sketch. Similarly. in the online version of this manual. For detailed instructions. • If you are adding a feature to a part or to the assembly. The sheet size 23–5 . ABAQUS/CAE displays a sheet in the current viewport on which you sketch. the triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the orientation of the part or the assembly relative to the Sketcher sheet. For detailed instructions. The sheet is always square.11. • Modify your sketch by moving vertices and changing dimensions. in the online version of this manual. The origin of the sheet is located at the origin of the part’s coordinate system.

To help you visualize the grid points underlying the Sketcher grid. every other grid point. or snaps. for example. or reshape objects. For example. to the point.2. If you selected a datum plane as the sketching plane. resize. To access the Sketcher display options. select from the Sketcher toolbox. although it also prevents you from positioning the cursor between grid points. when you move the cursor near a grid point. 23–6 . and “Customizing the sheet size and grid. The origin of the sheet is located at the centroid of the selected face.4.8. If it is more convenient. move. see “Turning snapping on or off. the cursor automatically moves. sheet size: 200 grid spacing: 10 show 1 out of 2 grid lines 200 grid points 10 10 20 200 20 axes grid lines 2 3 1 Figure 23–2 The Sketcher grid. you can disable the snapping behavior so that you have full control over the cursor. in the online version of this manual. the origin of the sheet is located at the center of the part or assembly. This behavior relieves you from having to position the cursor precisely. You can use the Sketcher display options to increase or decrease the sheet size if it does not correspond with the size of the geometry you are trying to sketch.8. For more information.BASIC SKETCHER CONCEPTS does not depend on the size of the face on which you are sketching.4.” Section 23.” Section 23.8. ABAQUS/CAE displays visible grid lines that pass through the grid points at a selected interval. For more information. magnify tool ABAQUS/CAE overlays the sheet with a grid of invisible grid points to help you position the cursor as you draw. By default. You may need to use the to view the entire Sketcher sheet within the viewport. in the online version of this manual. Figure 23–2 shows a sheet whose size is set to 200 and a grid whose spacing is set to 10 units.” Section 23. see “Customizing the the customization tool sheet size and grid.

You can customize the appearance and behavior of the grid by choosing the spacing of grid points. In addition. you may have to move the part closer to its origin by moving the vertices of the sketch closer to the origin of the Sketcher grid using the vertex modification tool. 1. a face of a part or a datum plane. You can also realign the grid relative to the sketch by moving the origin of the grid and by rotating the grid.13. and the sheet size. For more information.) Three-dimensional modeling space When you add a feature to a three-dimensional part or assembly.and Y-axes of the sketch. therefore. the sketch may be relatively far from the Sketcher origin. Moving the origin of the Sketcher grid closer to the sketch is a graphical convenience only and has no effect on the underlying precision of the coordinates. You should not move the origin of the sketch closer to the vertices. see “Customizing the Sketcher.1.and Y-axes of the part from the axes of the sketch that defined the base feature. This arrow represents the direction in which the sketch will be extruded or revolved. in the online version of this manual. 2.8. you must use the following technique to control the orientation of the view relative to the Sketcher grid.BASIC SKETCHER CONCEPTS Only one out of every two grid lines is visible. The orientation of the sketch plane depends on the modeling space of the part or assembly and the type of feature you are creating: Two-dimensional or axisymmetric modeling space When you add a planar feature to a two-dimensional or axisymmetric part or assembly. this plane is known as the sketch plane. however. By default. For example. the spacing of the visible grid lines is 20 units. in the online version of this manual.3 How ABAQUS/CAE orients your sketch When the Sketcher starts. 3. the Sketcher displays dashed lines along the grid indicating the X.and Y-axes of the part with the axes of the Sketcher grid. . regardless of the type of feature you are creating. ABAQUS/CAE starts the Sketcher and aligns the X. If you are sketching the profile of an extruded or revolved feature. as a result.” Section 23. ABAQUS/CAE orients the view of the part or assembly so that the face or datum plane on which you are sketching is parallel to the screen. To improve precision. (ABAQUS/CAE derives the X. Select the plane on which to sketch by selecting appropriate geometry.4. you must select the direction of an arrow normal to the face. For more information. see “Moving and resizing Sketcher objects by moving their vertices. it is recommended that you increase its size to include the entire sketch. The analysis of your model can be affected by a loss of precision if the coordinates of a part are far from the origin of the part. Alternatively. Sketch Module 23. if you find that you need to sketch outside the grid. Your sketch can extend beyond the Sketcher grid.” Section 23. for example. the spacing of the visible grid lines that overlay the grid points. the part will be far from its origin. Select an edge. after you import a sketch to create the base feature of a part. you can choose a different orientation for the edge in 23–7 . the selected edge will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid. the lines intersect at the origin of the sketch.

When you are partitioning faces using the sketch method in the Partition toolset. The orientation of the view on the Sketcher grid also depends on the type of feature you are creating: • When you are sketching a cut feature in the Part module.4 Realigning the sketch grid relative to the sketch When you are sketching a feature. for example. in the online version of this manual. You can use the following techniques to realign the grid: • Shift the grid relative to the sketch by selecting a vertex representing the origin of the grid. For details of the resulting view orientation.4.” Section 15. and the orientation of the edge on the Sketcher grid. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected edge.21. the sketch grid does not always align with the vertices and lines of the sketch or the underlying reference geometry. but you cannot select the edge of a datum plane. enters the Sketcher.6.1. you must sketch a sweep path and sweep profile.4. see “Adding a swept solid feature. in the online version of this manual.” Section 15. You can select a curved edge.” Section 15. • When you are sketching a feature other than a cut (for example. an extruded solid). and “Creating a swept cut. but the resulting orientation of the part or assembly is unpredictable.24.22. reset view tool Figure 23–3 illustrates how ABAQUS/CAE determines the sketch plane orientation relative to a three-dimensional part after you select a face. You can select a datum axis.BASIC SKETCHER CONCEPTS the Sketcher grid before you select the edge. or you can select one of the axes of a datum coordinate system. use the view manipulation tools to examine the sketch plane and the object on which you are sketching. • When you are adding a swept feature. ABAQUS/CAE orients the view based upon the modeling space of the part or assembly and the type of faces you selected to partition. see “Using the sketch method to partition faces.” Section 45. • Rotate the grid relative to the sketch by selecting a line that will be parallel to the X-axis of the sketch. You c