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3500317 Applied Probability

3500317 Applied Probability

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Sections

• Mathematical Models
• Deterministic models
• Nondeterministic models
• Sets
• Basic deﬁnitions
• Set operations
• Set identities
• A proof of the distributive law for sets
• Elementary sets
• Cardinality of sets
• Sample spaces and events
• Sets of events
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1
• Questions for Chapter 1
• ENUMERATION
• Fundamental Rule
• Permutation of n items distinguished by groups
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2
• Questions for Chapter 2
• PROBABILITY
• Probability Spaces
• Measuring sets
• Interpretation of probability
• Examples using logical probability
• Relationships between English and set notation
• Deductions from the axioms
• THE BIRTHDAY PROBLEM
• The birthday problem on the planet Yak
• Conditional Probability and Independence
• Conditional probability
• Independence
• Bayes’ theorem
• Independence of more than two events
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3
• Questions for Chapter 3
• Cumulative Distribution Function
• Properties of any cumulative distribution function
• Discrete Random Variables
• Properties of any probability mass function
• Examples of discrete distributions
• Properties of any probability density function
• Differential mass interpretation of the pdf
• Examples of continuous distributions
• Expectation
• Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions
• Binomial distribution
• Poisson distribution
• Geometric distribution
• Exponential distribution
• Other measures of central tendency
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4
• Questions for Chapter 4
• Some examples
• Discrete case
• Continuous case
• Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables
• Expected values for functions of random variables
• The kth Moment of X
• Variance
• Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X))
• Chebychev’s Inequality
• The Law of Large Numbers
• The Normal Distribution
• Tools for using the standard normal tables
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5
• Questions for Chapter 5
• RANDOM VECTORS
• Deﬁnition
• Joint Distributions
• Discrete Distributions
• Continuous Distributions
• Marginal Distributions
• Functions of Random Vectors
• Independence of Random Variables
• Testing for independence
• Expectation and random vectors
• Random vectors and conditional probability
• Conditional distributions
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6
• Questions for Chapter 6
• Transforms
• Notation
• Probability generating functions
• Moment generating functions
• Other transforms of random variables
• Linear combinations of normal random variables
• The distribution of the sample mean
• The Central Limit Theorem
• The DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem
• The distribution of the sample mean for large n
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7
• Questions for Chapter 7
• Basic Concepts
• Random samples
• Statistics
• Point Estimation
• The problem
• Unbiased estimators
• Finding Estimators
• Method of maximum likelihood
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 8
• Questions for Chapter 8
• Coin Tossing (Binary) Models
• The binomial distribution
• The geometric distribution
• The Poisson distribution
• Random Particle Models
• Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 9
• Questions for Chapter 9
• Approximation for the Normal Integral
• Approximation for the Inverse Normal Integral
• Questions for Chapter 10
• TABLE I: STANDARD NORMAL CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION
• TABLE II: SOME COMMON PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
• SAMPLE EXAMINATION 1
• PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
• PART II
• SAMPLE EXAMINATION 2

Lecture Notes in Applied Probability

2005 Wayne F. Bialas Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo

i

Copyright c 2005 Wayne F. Bialas Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo 301 Bell Hall Buffalo, New York 14260 USA E-mail: bialas@buffalo.edu Web: http://www.buffalo.edu/˜bialas All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced by any means without the express written permission of the author.

Date printed: May 12, 2005

ii

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements To the student 1 Sets, Sample Spaces and Events Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deterministic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondeterministic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Venn diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proving statements about sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A proof of the distributive law for sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elementary sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardinality of sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample spaces and events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sets of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi xiii 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14

iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditional probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . Conditional Probability and Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permutation of n items distinguished by groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deductions from the axioms . . . . . . Questions for Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation of probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2 . . . . . 3 Probability Probability Spaces . Examples using logical probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independence of more than two events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bayes’ theorem . . . . . . . . . . Occupancy . . . . The Birthday Problem . 19 20 20 26 26 29 32 35 35 35 36 40 41 41 45 48 49 49 51 52 54 57 67 Independence . . . . . . . . . .iv CONTENTS 2 Enumeration Fundamental Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The birthday problem on the planet Yak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relationships between English and set notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sampling . .

. . . . . . . . Properties of any probability density function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binomial distribution . . . . . . . 109 Continuous case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other measures of central tendency . . . . . . . . . . Exponential distribution . . . . . . . . 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 85 86 87 88 89 90 90 90 91 91 92 92 99 105 5 Functions of Random Variables Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of any cumulative distribution function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Chapter 4 . . . . . Geometric distribution . . . . . Differential mass interpretation of the pdf . . 110 . . .CONTENTS v 4 Random Variables Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of any probability mass function . . . . . . . . . . Discrete Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of discrete distributions . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of continuous distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Some examples . . Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 . . . . . . Continuous Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cumulative Distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Discrete case . . . . . . . . Poisson distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expectation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 . . . . . 162 Functions of Random Vectors . . . . 168 Independence of Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Variance . . . . . 155 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Continuous Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 The Law of Large Numbers . . 119 Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Expectation and random vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Random vectors and conditional probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 6 Random Vectors 155 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 The k th Moment of X . . . . . 121 Chebychev’s Inequality . 126 The Normal Distribution . . . . . . . . . . 180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Joint Distributions . . . . . . . . . . 112 Expected values for functions of random variables . . . . 178 Conditional distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Tools for using the standard normal tables . 159 Marginal Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Discrete Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 . . . . 133 Questions for Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Testing for independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 214 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Probability generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 The DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Linear combinations of normal random variables . . . . . . . . . . 199 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Other transforms of random variables . 227 Random samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 7 Transforms and Sums 199 Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 The problem . 229 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Finding Estimators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Unbiased estimators . . . . . . . 229 Method of maximum likelihood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 8 Estimation 227 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 The Central Limit Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 The distribution of the sample mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Questions for Chapter 8 . . . . . . . 199 Moment generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Questions for Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii Questions for Chapter 6 . . . . . . . 213 The distribution of the sample mean for large n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Point Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 The binomial distribution . . . . . . . . . 251 B Answers to Self-Test Exercises C Sample Examination 1 253 257 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Part II . . . . . . 238 10 Approximations and Computations 247 Approximation for the Normal Integral . . . . . . . 248 Questions for Chapter 10 . . . . . . . 234 The Poisson distribution . . . . . . . . 247 Approximation for the Inverse Normal Integral . 259 D Sample Examination 2 261 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 The geometric distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Random Particle Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Table II: Some Common Probability Distributions . . . 257 Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Questions for Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 A Tables 249 Table I: Standard Normal Cumulative Distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 9 Probability Models 233 Coin Tossing (Binary) Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 271 . . . . . .CONTENTS ix E Sample Final Examination 265 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . 265 Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x CONTENTS .

Derek Hoiem. WFB Buffalo. Judah Eisenhandler. Dawn Holmes. and AFPL Ghostscript were used to produce the printed output. a This manual was typeset using Donald Knuth’s TEX with Leslie Lamport’s L TEX aTEX style ﬁle developed enhancements as implemented by Eberhard Mattes. Harold T. A L by H. Mona Khanna. I am grateful to Mark Chew. Kevin Cleary. Lindsay Koslowski. Shiju David. Elif Tokar and Min Zhang for ﬁnding numerous mistakes in previous editions. Simin Huang. Taneka Lawson. James Pasquini. Lynne Makrina Tkaczevski. Xiaofeng Nie. 2005 xi . Amol Salunkhe. Wicks. Steven Kieffer. Partel was modiﬁed and used to format this document. dvipdfm. The Adobe AcrobatTM driver. Keith Klopﬂe. I must also thank Yu-Shuan Lee Brown.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Contained herein is a bit of the wisdom of the greatest scholars in probability theory. written by Mark A. Satyaki Ghosh-Dastidar. Michael Holender. Andrew Lenkei. Any remaining errors and omissions are mine. Some of them were my professors. Rajarshi Chakraborty. These notes have beneﬁted the most from the many contributions of my students and teaching assistants. Gerber. Nguk Ching Ling. Alfred Guiffrida and Nishant Mishra for several contributions to these notes. Angelo Morgante. Nikola Petrovic. New York May 12. In particular. I would not have dared to prepare these notes without these tools.

xii CONTENTS .

too. We will do that. 1790) xiii .TO THE STUDENT These notes are for a course devoted to describing those processes around us that appear to produce random outcomes. For that purpose. There we will quickly discover analogies between allocating probability and allocating physical mass. A fool must now and then be right by chance. For that. That measure will be called probability. become the mean and variance of our probability distributions. The universe is not a deterministic clockwork. For some problems. we can assign probabilities to events by simply counting equally likely outcomes. we are always more comfortable working with real numbers. ultimately. we will introduce the concept of random variables and random vectors to map our abstract probability problems into Euclidean real space. or when they arise from a continuum of possible values. When outcomes are not equally likely. in a systematic way. We will show you how sets can be used to express events. with examples ranging from coin tossing to proving one of the most important results in all of science. we provide some counting techniques. the goal of any good mathematical model is to serve as a tool for reaching conclusions about the processes being modeled. Probability theory provides a way to mathematically represent chance. a measure of uncertainty to each of those sets. What is certain. The concepts of center of mass (center of gravity) and moment of inertia. Point masses and continuous mass densities arise as a natural consequence. As engineers and scientists. the Central Limit Theorem. is that a course in probability asks that you change your view of everything around you. Conversation (c. – WILLIAM COWPER. but a harmony of random possibilities. and then assign. But. we will use the mathematical theory of measure.

xiv CONTENTS .

BARR. All the Days of My Life (1913) Mathematical Models What is a mathematical model?    .1 SETS. SAMPLE SPACES AND EVENTS There are no little events in life. – AMELIA E.

.

 Observation  .

Example: V = IR Established experimentally by George Simon Ohm in 18271 Nondeterministic models Also called probabilistic models or stochastic models. Application    Deterministic models For speciﬁed values of an experiment’s input parameters. the result is a known constant. Examples: 1 To place this date in perspective. University at Buffalo was founded in 1846. 1 .

we write x ∈ A. ω. A set can be described • by listing the set’s elements A = {1. Ω. If x is not an element of A. Question: What is the difference (if any) between Ø and {Ø}? Deﬁnition 1.1. A set is a collection of elements. . . 2. we write x ∈ A. . . Sets Basic deﬁnitions We will need to use set theory to describe possible outcomes and scenarios in our model of uncertainty. If x is an element of a set A. The empty set (the set containing no elements) is denoted by Ø.” • by using the notation {ω : speciﬁcation for ω} A = {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1} or A = {0 ≤ x ≤ 1} There are two sets of special importance: Deﬁnition 1.2. 3. 4} • by describing the set in words “A is the set of all real numbers between 0 and 1. inclusive.) while their elements are denoted by small letters (a. . Notation: Sets are denoted by capital letters (A. • the outcome of a single toss of a fair die.3. The universe is the set containing all points under consideration and is denoted by Ω. . B. b.2 Sets • the number of α-particles emitted from a piece of radioactive material in one minute. Deﬁnition 1.). . • the number of students who will earn an A in EAS305.

If every point of set A belongs to set B . A is a proper subset of B if A ⊆ B and A = B . Deﬁnition 1. We write A⊆B B⊇A Now we have a way to say A is identical to B . the set of all real numbers. 1. then we say that A is a subset of B (B is a superset of A).5. / Venn diagrams Ω B A Set operations Complementation Ac = {ω ∈ Ω : ω ∈ A} . . We write A ⊆B .Sets 3 Deﬁnition 1. 3} Then A ⊆ B and B = C .4. We avoid the ambiguity here by using ⊆ for subset and ⊆ for proper subset. Deﬁnition 1. Example: Let Ω = R. .6. / Note: Some authors use the symbol ⊂ for subset and other use ⊂ for proper subset. Deﬁne the sets A = {x : x2 + x − 2 = 0} B = {x : (x − 3)(x2 + x − 2) = 0} C = {−2. A = B if and only if A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A.

4 Example: Here is the region representing Ac in a Venn diagram: Ω Sets A Ac Union A ∪ B = {ω ∈ Ω : ω ∈ A or ω ∈ B (or both)} Example: Consider the following Venn diagram: Ω A B then the region representing A ∪ B is: Intersection A ∩ B = {ω ∈ Ω : ω ∈ A and ω ∈ B} .

Deﬁnition 1. These basic operations can be extended to any ﬁnite number of sets.7. A ∪ B ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C and A ∩ B ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C You can show that (a) A ∪ B = B ∪ A (b) A ∩ B = B ∩ A (c) A ∪ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∪ C (d) A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C Note: (a) and (b) are the commutative laws Note: (c) and (d) are the associative laws Set identities (e) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) (f) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) (g) A ∩ Ø = Ø .Sets 5 Example: Using the same Venn diagram as above the region representing A ∩ B is given by: Note that some textbooks use the notation AB instead of A ∩ B to denote the intersection of two sets. Two sets A and B are disjoint (or mutually exclusive) if A∩B = Ø.

You cannot prove a true mathematical statement regarding sets using Venn diagrams. Hence A ⊆ C . Here is an example of a simple set theorem and its proof. Theorem 1. x ∈ B implies x ∈ C .6 Sets (h) A ∪ Ø = A (i) (A ∪ B)c = Ac ∩ B c (j) (A ∩ B)c = Ac ∪ B c (k) (Ac )c = A Note: (e) and (f) are called the Distributive Laws Note: (i) and (j) are called DeMorgan’s Laws Proving statements about sets Venn diagrams can only illustrate set operations and basic results.1. every element x ∈ A is also an element of C . . then A ⊆ C . If A ⊆ B and B ⊆ C . from the deﬁnition of subset. For example. x ∈ A implies x ∈ B . Many mathematicians prefer to write proofs in paragraph form.1 would become: Proof. the proof of Theorem 1. Proof. Since A ⊆ B . But they can be used to disprove a false mathematical statement. (1) (2) (3) (4) Discussion If x ∈ A then x ∈ B Since x ∈ B then x ∈ C If x ∈ A then x ∈ C Therefore A ⊆ C Reasons Deﬁnition of A ⊆ B Deﬁnition of B ⊆ C By statements (1) and (2) Deﬁnition of A ⊆ C (as in the above proof) or the Note: A proof is often concluded with the symbol letters QED. Furthermore. Therefore. since B ⊆ C . Choose an x ∈ A.

We now prove the inclusion in the opposite direction: 2 Dinkines. Discussion If x ∈ A ∩ (B ∪ C). Meredith Publishing. Deﬁnition of ∪. Deﬁnition of ∪. By (1) and (2). F.2. . then x ∈ B or x ∈ C . The proof is from a textbook on set theory by Flora Dinkines2 Theorem 1. Since x ∈ B ∪ C .Sets 7 A proof of the distributive law for sets Here is a proof of one of the distributive laws for sets.. giving us A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊆ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). x ∈ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). Elementary Theory of Sets. 1964. A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). Therefore x ∈ A and x ∈ B . then x ∈ A and x ∈ B ∪ C . Proof. or x ∈ A and x ∈ C . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Therefore every element of A ∩ (B ∪ C) is also an element of (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). Deﬁnition of ∩. Hence x ∈ A ∩ B or x ∈ A ∩ C. Reasons Deﬁnition of ∩.

. Therefore. S1 . then y ∈ (A ∩ B) or y ∈ (A ∩ C). giving us A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊇ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). . Therefore y ∈ A and y ∈ B ∪ C. Therefore y ∈ A ∩ (B ∪ C). If y ∈ A ∩ C then y ∈ A and y ∈ C . . Deﬁnition of ∪. In either case (7) or (8). S7 are called the elementary sets of A. it is in the union. . B and C . Therefore every element of (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) is also an element of A ∩ (B ∪ C). and C . If y ∈ A ∩ B then y ∈ A and y ∈ B . Consider the following subsets of Ω: A B C 0 0 0 Ac ∩ B c ∩ C c = S0 0 0 1 Ac ∩ B c ∩ C = S1 0 1 0 Ac ∩ B ∩ C c = S2 0 1 1 Ac ∩ B ∩ C = S3 1 0 0 A ∩ Bc ∩ C c = S4 1 0 1 A ∩ Bc ∩ C = S5 1 1 0 A ∩ B ∩ Cc = S6 1 1 1 A∩B∩C = S7 The sets S0 . y ∈ A and y is an element of one of the sets B or C . Elementary sets Let Ω be a universe with three subsets A. Deﬁnition of ∩. Deﬁnition of ∩. we have A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). using the deﬁnition of set equality. Statements (7) and (8) Since y is in B or C . . B . Same as (7).8 Sets (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) If y ∈ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C).

Sets 9 Ω A B A Bc Cc A B Cc A B C Ac B Cc Ac Bc Cc Figure 1. Elementary sets have two very useful properties: • Elementary sets are pairwise disjoint.1: An example of elementary sets for three subsets For example.1. and C can always be represented as a union of the elementary sets for A. B and C . the binary sequence (0. For example (A ∪ B) ∩ C = S3 ∪ S5 ∪ S7 Cardinality of sets The cardinality of a set A (denoted by |A|) is the number of elements in A.1 illustrates all of the 23 = 8 elementary sets for A. • Any set operation involving A.1) corresponds to S3 = Ac ∩ B ∩ C . Si ∩ Sj = Ø for any i = j . B and C using a Venn diagram. B . we have                            A Bc C Ac B C Ac Bc C C . That is. For some (but not all) experiments. This is the subset of elements that are 0: 1: 1: not in A in B in C and and Figure 1.

8. The die turns up 6. B= 3. then you just (re)invented the concept of a random variable. Example: Consider the experiment of rolling a die once. The die turns up less than 5. A sample space. 3 What should be Ω for this experiment? Ω= If you thought the answer was Ω = {1. An event is any subset of a sample space. 2. This will be discussed in a later chapter. 3 Identify the subsets of Ω that represent the following events: 1. 3.9. . 5. C= Example: Consider the experiment of burning a light bulb until it burns out.. Sample spaces and events Using set notation. 6}.e. Deﬁnition 1. Deﬁnition 1. 4. Ω.10 • |Ω| is ﬁnite. • Each of the outcomes of the experiment are equally likely. is the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. we can now introduce the ﬁrst components of our probability model. The outcome of the experiment is the life length of the bulb. A= 2. Sets In such cases. The die turns up even. count) the number of elements of subsets of Ω. it is important to be able to enumerate (i.

namely A1 = {{HH}} A2 = {{HT }} A3 = {{T H}} A4 = {{T T }} A5 = {{HH}. we resorted to assigning a nonnegative real number to each possible outcome of the experiment. T H. suppose we toss a two-sided coin twice. The bulb lasts exactly 24 hours. The sample space is Ω = {HH. {HT }} A6 = {{HH}. For example. you would need to list all possible subsets of Ω. A = {x ∈ R : 0 ≤ x < 1. T T }. Each element of F is a subset of Ω.Sets 3 What should be Ω for this experiment? 11 Ω = {x ∈ R : x ≥ 0} For the lack of a better representation. Ω. If you were asked to list all of the possible events for this experiment. HT. 3 Identify the subsets of Ω that represent the following events: 1. The bulb burns out within one and one-half hours.5} 2. The bulb lasts at least 5 hours. {T H}} . C = {24} Sets of events It is sometimes useful to be able to talk about the set of all possible events F. B = {x ∈ R : x ≥ 5} 3. The set F is very different than the set of all possible outcomes. the set of all events is really a set of sets. Since an event is a set.

How to properly select a smaller F. {HT }. {T H}. A16 } Deﬁnition 1. choose the best response among those provided. then |2A | = 2|A| Proof. B and C occurs. "at least one of the events A." is (A) A ∪ B ∪ C (B) A ∩ B ∩ C (C) (A ∩ B ∩ C)c . {T H}. For a given set A. {T T }} = Ω A16 = {} = Ø In this case F = {A1 . {T T }} A11 = {{HH}. Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1 For each of the following multiple-choice questions. If Ω is a sample space. then we often use the set of all possible events F = 2Ω .10. {T T }} A8 = {{HT }. In those cases. {T T }} A15 = {{HH}. {T T }} A13 = {{HH}.3.12 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1 A7 = {{HH}. If A is a ﬁnite set. Theorem 1. Answers can be found in Appendix B. and is denoted by 2A . {T H}} A9 = {{HT }. . . {HT }. we select a smaller collection of sets. Left to reader. this often works well. . {T T }} A14 = {{HT }. the set of all subsets of A is called the power set of A.1 The event that corresponds to the statement. {T H}} A12 = {{HH}. {T T }} A10 = {{T H}. A2 . is found in many graduate level probability courses. to represent those events we actually need to consider. When Ω contains a ﬁnite number of outcomes. for some experiments. {T H}. Ω contains an inﬁnite number of outcomes (either countable or uncountable) and F = 2Ω is much too large. However. {HT }. F. S1. .

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1 (D) (A ∪ B ∪ C)c (E) none of the above 13 S1.5 For any sets A and B . B or C occurs is (A) (A ∩ B ∩ C) (B) (A ∩ B ∩ C)c (C) (A ∪ B ∪ C) (D) (A ∩ B c ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B c ∩ C) (E) none of the above.3 The set (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ B c ) is equivalent to (A) Ø (B) Ω (C) A (D) B (E) none of the above. (A) (A ∩ B) ⊆ B (B) A ⊆ (A ∪ B) (C) Ac ⊆ (A ∩ B)c (D) all of the above are true.2 The event that corresponds to the statement that exactly one of the events A.4 The set (A ∩ B) ∪ A is equivalent to (A) (A ∪ B) ∩ A (B) B (C) A ∩ B (D) Ø (E) none of the above. S1. . S1. S1.

and B = {x : 0.5}. 7}. 4}.1 Suppose that the universe consists of the positive integers from 1 through 10.14 Questions for Chapter 1 (E) none of the above are true. Describe the following sets: (a) (A ∪ B)c (b) A ∪ B c (c) (A ∩ B)c . S1. 6. S1. List the elements of the following sets: (a) Ac ∩ B (b) Ac ∪ B (c) (Ac ∪ B c )c (d) A ∪ (B ∩ C)c c 1. 5} and C = {5. B = {3.6 For any events A and B . the event (A ∪ B c ) ∩ B equals (A) Ø (B) Ω (C) A ∪ B (D) A ∩ B (E) none of the above. 4. 3. Ω. Questions for Chapter 1 1.7 If A ∩ B = Ø then (Ac ∪ B c )c equals (A) Ø (B) A (C) B (D) Ω (E) none of the above. is given by Ω = {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 2}. Let A = {x : 0. Let A = {2.5 ≤ x ≤ 1}.2 Suppose that the universe.25 ≤ x ≤ 1.

(a) (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) = A ∪ (B ∩ C) (b) (A ∪ B) = (A ∩ B c ) ∪ B (c) Ac ∩ B = A ∪ B (d) (A ∪ B)c ∩ C c = Ac ∩ B c ∩ C c (e) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B c ∩ C) = Ø 1.Questions for Chapter 1 (d) Ac ∩ B 15 1.5 Let A = set of all even integers.4 Identify the set obtained by the following set operations.3 Which of the following relationships are true? In each case. C = set of all integers that are integral multiples of 4. where Ω is the universe and A is a subset of Ω. (a) A ∩ Ac (b) A ∪ Ac (c) A ∩ Ø (d) A ∪ Ø (e) Ω ∩ Ø (f) Ω ∪ Ø (g) A ∩ Ω (h) A ∪ Ω 1. either prove your result using basic set relationships or disprove by providing a counterexample. B = set of all integers that are integral multiples of 3. and J = set of all integers Describe the following sets: (a) A ∩ B (b) A ∪ B .

e. 2. one by one. one by one. . The circuit is on for less than one hour. Subsequently. a switch is placed in the “ON” position.9 During the course of a day. 1. The circuit is turned on before time r and turned off after time s (r < s).7 A box of N light bulbs has r (r ≤ N ) bulbs with broken ﬁlaments. (b) Suppose that the above bulbs are tested. The outcome of the experiment consists of the pair of numbers (X. X .16 Questions for Chapter 1 (c) B ∩ C (d) A ∪ J (e) A ∪ C 1. (b) Describe and sketch in the XY –plane the following events: 1. a machine produces three items. The circuit is on exactly three times as long as it is off. until a defective bulb is found. 1. 3. is determined at the end of the day.. at some time. The circuit is on at time z where z is some instant of time during the 24–hour period. Describe the sample space generated by a day’s production. (a) Describe the sample space for the above experiment. (still during the same 24– hour period) the switch is placed in the “OFF” position. each of whose quality. i. at some future time. Y . 4. Assume that X and Y are measured in hours on the continuous time axis with the beginning of the time period as the origin. Describe the sample space for this experiment. Y ). until all defectives have been found. 1.6 Prove the Law of Absorption.8 During a 24–hour period. show that for any sets A and B . the following holds: A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A. defective or nondefective. These bulbs are tested. (a) Describe the sample space.

11 Let A. (d) At least one event occurs.Questions for Chapter 1 17 1.10 A space probe is sent to Mars. Express the following verbal statements in set notation: (a) At least one of the events occurs. If it fails. (b) Exactly one of the events occurs. 1.12 (†) (provided by Nishant Mishra) Provide a theorem that is true for Venn diagrams but false for an arbitrary universe Ω. B and C be three events associated with an experiment. . another probe is sent. This process continues until a successful probe is launched. another follows. Describe the sample space for this experiment. Do not add other attributes of elements of R2 such as the distance between points. (c) Exactly two of the events occurs. If the second probe fails. but no more than two of the events occur. 1. Your theorem should only use sets and basic set operations.

18 Questions for Chapter 1 .

K.1.1: A single domino dominoes have each half of a tile painted with 1 to 9 dots (called “pips”) or a blank for a total of 10 possible choices.) Chung. L. 1975.1) dominoes.2 How many different dominoes does your factory actually produce? (Try this problem on your friends and see how many different answers you get. Typically. Fables (600 BC) This section is based on Chapter 3 of a text by K.1) the dominoes by 180 degrees. L. – AESOP. Chung1 So you think you know how to count? Consider the following problem: Suppose you are the chief engineer at the Ellicott Dominoes domino factory. Dominoes are rectangular tiles used in some parlor games and they look like Figure 2. Figure 2.2 ENUMERATION Do not count your chickens before they are hatched. Of course.1). 1 19 .. Springer-Verlag. 2 Just have a person at the end of the assembly line rotating half of the (4. a domino painted (1.4) can be turned 180 degrees to look like a domino painted (4. So there is no need to have one assembly line producing (1.4) dominoes and another producing (4. Elementary probability theory with stochastic processes. New York.

3. The total number of possible research teams is. Sampling with replacement and with ordering.20 Sampling In this chapter. 1. 2. The total number of possible ways to answer all of the questions on the exam is 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 = 25 = 32. The total number of alternatives for the whole set of choices is equal to (m1 )(m2 )(m3 ) · · · . there are two ways to answer the ﬁrst question. n possible ways to draw the second. the total number of possible sequences is nm . We will classify counting problems into four categories. The order of the balls is noted.. After a ball is drawn. most counting problems can be approached using one or a combination of these four basic types. A total of m balls are drawn sequentially. 2. There are four choices for selecting the man and ﬁve choices for selecting the woman. In practice. it is replaced in the urn and may be drawn again. 4 · 5 = 20 Sampling The Urn Model: Imagine an urn that contains n balls marked 1 to n. etc. we will present a systematic way to approach counting problems. each with a possible answer of True or False. There are m1 alternatives for the ﬁrst choice. Example: Suppose a engineering class has ﬁve women and four men. Hence the sequence 1. m2 alternatives for the second. Fundamental Rule The following rule forms the foundation for solving any counting problem: Multiplication Principle: Suppose there are several multiple choices to be made. You would like to select a research team consisting of one man and one woman. I. Since there are n possible ways to draw the ﬁrst ball. . Therefore. m3 for the third. 3 is distinguished from 3. two ways to answer the second question. etc. 3. therefore. and solve each type. and so on. Example: Suppose you give a quiz with 5 questions. There are four disciplines under which the balls can be drawn from the urn and examined.

Hence the total number of ways you can assign ﬁve birthday cards to your three friends is 5 · 4 · 3 = 60. and Sue) with birthdays this week. the number of possible choices for Sue’s card is 3. The number of possible choices for Bill’s card is 5. It’s interesting to note that the sequence of friends (Bill. then Sue) is arbitrary and does not affect the answer. For the special case when m = n. then Mary. The card for Mary’s must come from the remaining 4 cards. Computational Hint: We can compute n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − m + 1) = n! . the total number of possible sequences is n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − m + 1).Sampling 21 II. ? ? ? B M S . Sampling without replacement and with ordering. The order of the balls is noted. n − 2 possible ways to draw the third. Mary. Here is another way to look at this problem: Consider the empty mailboxes of your three friends. 0! ≡ 1 so that when n = m. After a ball is drawn. Since there are n possible ways to draw the ﬁrst ball. Finally. and you have three friends (named Bill. (n − m)! By deﬁnition. we have n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − n + 1) = n! n! = = n !. etc. A total of m balls are drawn sequentially with m ≤ n. the total number of possible ways to draw n balls is n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (2)(1) ≡ n!.. (n − n)! 0! Example: Suppose you have ﬁve different birthday cards. this is equivalent to the problem of counting the number of ways you can arrange n different balls in a row. You want to send one card to each friend. n − 1 possible ways to draw the second. it is not replaced in the urn and hence cannot be drawn again. Note that when m = n.

m This number is often referred to as the binomial coefﬁcient. arrange the m items in order.e.b.. Bill’s mailbox). Combined. the two stages implement Case II (sampling without replacement and with ordering). This time we have 3 positions to ﬁll with 3 different items. The balls are not replaced after each drawing and the order of the drawings is not observed. The total number of ways a subset of m items can be drawn from a set of n elements is (1) n! ≡ m!(n − m)! n . Example: Using the above example. A total of m balls (m ≤ n) are drawn from the urn. 4 ways to ﬁll the second position and 3 ways to ﬁll the third. we can compute the number of ways one can arrange the three letters x. III. then one possible assignment is c d B M a S There are 5 ways to ﬁll the ﬁrst position (i. To derive the above formula. Stage 1 (selecting the m balls) can be performed x ways. We can ﬁnd the value of x by considering Case II as a two-stage process: Stage 1 Grab m items from n without replacement and without ordering.d. z. let x denote the number of ways to choose m items from n items without replacement and without ordering.e. this case can be thought of as reaching into the urn and drawing m balls simultaneously. ? ? ? 1 2 3 So a possible arrangement is y z x 1 2 3 and there are 3 · 2 · 1 = 3! = 6 possible assignments. .22 Sampling If the cards are labelled a. Hence. Stage 2 Given the m items selected in Stage 1. Sampling without replacement and without ordering.c. y.

Computational Hint: Note that n m = n! n n! = = . Furthermore. m!(n − m)! (n − m)!m! n−m So. . 97 3 3!97! 3! Example: A consumer survey asks: Select exactly two vegetables from the following list: ◦ peas ◦ carrots ◦ lima beans ◦ corn 4 2 The total number of ways you can select two items from the four is = 6. that the entire process of Stage 1 followed by Stage 2 can be performed in n! (n−m)! ways. Stage 2 (ordering the m balls) can be performed m! ways (using Case II for m items drawn from m items).Sampling 23 our unknown quantity. we know. for example. Hence. Hence. Solving for x then yields our result. 4 5 Also note that if n is large. using Case II (with m items drawn from n items). [Stage 1] · [Stage 2] = [Case II]. note that n m = n! n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − m + 1) = . To overcome this. m!(n − m)! m! with only m terms in both the numerator and the denominator. brute force computation of all three factorial terms n of m can be a challenge. we must have x · m! = n! (n − m)! In other words. 10 10! 10 · 9 = = = 45 2 2!8! 2! and 100 100 100! 100 · 99 · 98 = = = = 161700. 5 5 = 3 2 and 9 9 = .

3. would represent 3. For example. 2. This case is perhaps the most difﬁcult to perceive as a sampling discipline. 2 and their counterparts would be represented as 1 2 2 2 3 2 √√√ 3 √ Now notice that any of these outcomes can be represented by only specifying √ the arrangement of the four check marks ( ) among the inner two vertical lines (|). Ball 2 was drawn once. m Let’s prove that this formula works. the sequence of the draws is ignored. First. 3 we only need to know that Ball 1 was drawn once. 3. drawing 3. Each ball is replaced after being drawn. the arrangements 2. note that to describe a possible outcome from this scenario. 2. 2 or 1. and Ball 3 was drawn twice. 2. for example. 3. 1. 2. yet it has important applications. 3 or 2. 1 √ 2 3 √ √√ √√√ √ √√√√ || 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 Coded Representation √ √ √√ | | √√√ √ | | So. The number of ways that m balls can be drawn from an urn containing n balls in this fashion is m+n−1 . 3. 2. Therefore. 3. to describe 3. 3. However. 2 is the same as drawing 1. 3. Sampling with replacement and without ordering. we only need to know how many times each ball was drawn. This arrangement can be represented as follows: 1 √ 2 √ 3 √√ 1 2 3 3 For another example using this scheme. 3. A total of m balls are drawn sequentially from the urn.24 Sampling IV. 3. For example. 1. .

In general. if there are n balls and m drawings. In this case. She likes peanut butter cookies. chocolate chip cookies and sugar cookies. our table has three columns with twelve check marks. note that our coded representation has six positions ? ? ? ? ? ? √ Any four of these can be selected for the check marks ( ) and the remaining two will be ﬁlled with the two vertical lines (|).Sampling 25 To count the total number of possible outcomes. there are 15 4 possible ways we can select 4 balls from an urn containing 3 balls if we allow replacement and disregard ordering. we will need m check marks √ ( ). our table will have n columns. To represent all possible outcomes. we are arranging 14 symbols in a row: . our coded representation will have m check marks and n − 1 vertical lines. In this case. Therefore. The number of ways we can select 4 positions from 6 positions is 6 = 15. So the following arrangement: Peanut Butter √√ Chocolate Chip √√√ Sugar √√√√√√√ Coded Representation √√ √√√ √√√√√√√ | | would represent the outcome when Mary selects 2 peanut butter. So we need (n − 1) + m positions for both check marks and vertical lines ? ? ? ··· ? (n − 1) + m positions The number of ways we can select m positions for check marks from (n − 1) + m positions is n+m−1 m Example: Mary wants to buy a dozen cookies. The baker will allow her to select any number of each type to make a dozen. 1 √√ 2 √ ··· ··· n √ k1 k2 · · · kn Coded Representation √√ √ √ | |···| Therefore. 3 chocolate chip and 7 sugar cookies.

The number of distinct arrangements of these seven letters in a row is 7! = 210. Some may be easier to conceptualize as occupancy problems rather than sampling problems. A. we think of n balls placed in an urn from which m balls are drawn.26 Occupancy 2 vertical lines and 12 check marks. A. There are four disciplines for placing the tokens in the boxes. i=1 If the balls are arranged in a row. and m tokens numbered 1 to m. A direct analogy can be made with so-called occupancy problems. Nevertheless. So the number of possible different boxes of one dozen cookies is 12 + 3 − 1 14 14 14 · 13 = = 91. . this situation is the same as case III. . the number of distinguishable arrangements is given by n! . = = 12 2·1 12 2 Permutation of n items distinguished by groups An extension of case III is the situation where one has n balls with n1 of them painted with color number 1. In such models. 3!2!2! Occupancy The Token Model: In sampling problems. n2 of them painted with color number 2. we are given n boxes marked 1 to n. .. B. The reason for introducing occupancy problems becomes clear as one encounters different counting problems. C . Example: Consider the seven characters. n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! This quantity is a generalization of the binomial coefﬁcient and is called the multinomial coefﬁcient. C. B. We have k ni = n. . A. Note that when k = 2. Each of these four scenarios correspond to one of the four sampling cases.nk of them painted with color number k . the number of distinguishable ways in which the tokens may occupy the boxes is computed in precisely the same manner as in the sampling models.

Occupancy

27

The connection between the two formulations is easy to remember if you note the following relationships: Sampling Problems ball number of drawing j th draw yields ball k Occupancy Problems box number on token j th token is placed in box k

For example, suppose we have a sampling problem with 3 balls (labelled a, b, c) being drawn 4 times. This would correspond to an occupancy problem with 3 boxes and 4 tokens (See Figure 2.2). Moreover, the following outcomes from each

Tokens 1 2 3 4

Tokens 1 2 3 4

2

1

3

4

a

b

c

a

b

c

(a) Token labels observed

(b) Token labels not observed

Figure 2.2: The occupancy problem model would be equivalent: Sampling Drawing Ball 1 b 2 a 3 b 4 c Occupancy Box Token(s) a 2 b 1,3 c 4

Sampling cases I to IV can now be viewed as

28

Occupancy

I*. Each box may contain any number of tokens and the labels on the tokens are observed. II*. No box may contain more than one token and the labels on the tokens are observed. III*. No box may contain more than one token and the labels on the tokens are not observed. IV*. Each box may contain any number of tokens and the labels on the tokens are not observed. The scheme with check marks and vertical bars that we used for Case IV is now readily apparent. Each column of the table represents a box, and each check mark represents a token. Example: Suppose a school has ﬁve classrooms (with different room numbers) and three teachers, Ms. Smith, Mr. Thomas and Ms. Warren. For some courses, more than one teacher might be assigned to the same classroom. I*. If more than one teacher can be assigned to a classroom, and it matters which teacher teaches in a particular room, then the number of ways you can assign teachers to classrooms is
nm = 53 = 125.

II*. If only one teacher can be assigned to a classroom, and it matters which teacher teaches in a particular room, then the number of ways you can assign teachers to classrooms is
n(n − 1) · · · (n − m + 1) = 5 · 4 · 3· = 60.

III*. If only one teacher can be assigned to a classroom, and it does not matter which teacher teaches in a particular room, then the number of ways you can assign teachers to classrooms is
n m =

5 = 10. 3

IV*. If more than one teacher can be assigned to a classroom, and it does not matter which teacher teaches in a particular room, then the number of ways

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2

29

you can assign teachers to classrooms is
m+n−1 m =

3+5−1 = 35. 3

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2
For each of the following multiple-choice questions, choose the best response among those provided. Answers can be found in Appendix B. S2.1 Bill’s Donut Shop bakes 10 varieties of doughnuts. How many different boxes of 12 doughnuts can a customer select from the 10 varieties? Note: Assume that Bill’s Shop has at least 12 of each type of donut. (A) 12! (B)
21 12

(C) 10! (D) 1210 (E) none of the above. S2.2 A teacher has a class of 30 students. Each day, she selects a team of 6 students to present their homework solutions to the rest of the class. How many different teams of 6 students can she select? (A)
30 6

(B) 306 (C) 30!/24! (D) 630 (E) none of the above S2.3 A box is partitioned into 3 numbered cells. Two indistinguishable balls are dropped into the box. Each cell may contain at most one ball. The total number of distinguishable arrangements of the balls in the numbered cells is (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 6

30

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2

(D) 9 (E) none of the above. S2.4 A professor wants to use three colors (red, green and blue) to draw an equilateral triangle on a sheet of paper. Each edge of the triangle is a single color, but any color can be used more than once. How many different triangles can be drawn? (A) 33 (B) 3! (C) (D)
5 3 5 3

+1

(E) none of the above. S2.5 A professor has an equilateral triangle cut from a sheet of cardboard. He wants to use three colors (red, green and blue) to color the edges. Each edge of the triangle is a single color, but any color can be used more than once. How many different triangles can be produced? (A) 33 (B) 3! (C) (D)
5 3 5 3

+1

(E) none of the above. S2.6 Two white balls are dropped randomly into four labelled boxes, one at a time. A box may contain more than one ball. The number of distinguishable arrangements of the balls in the boxes is (A) (B)
4 2 7 2

(C) 4 (D) 42 (E) none of the above.

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2

31

S2.7 One white ball and one black ball are dropped randomly into four labelled boxes, one at a time. A box may contain more than one ball. The number of distinguishable arrangements of the balls in the boxes is (A) (B)
4 2 7 2

(C) 4 (D) 42 (E) none of the above. S2.8 A class has ten students. The teacher must select three students to form a committee. How many different possible committees can be formed? (A) 103 (B) 310 (C) 10!/7! (D)
10 3

(E) none of the above S2.9 A student club has ten members. The club must elect a president, vicepresident and treasurer from the membership. How many ways can these three positions be ﬁlled? (A) 103 (B) 310 (C) 10!/7! (D)
10 3

(E) none of the above S2.10 A candy company is introducing a new, bite-sized, chocolate candy called "XYZ’s". Each candy is covered with a sugar coat that is colored a single color: either red, green, or blue. Also each candy is marked with a single letter: either “X,” “Y” or “Z’. How many different possible candies are there?

.2 At a bridge table. n? 2. . ranging from ﬁve different ﬂavors to ﬁve scoops of the same ﬂavor. how many ways can 4 workers be assigned to the machines? (A) 42 (B) 4! (C) 7 4 (D) 44 (E) none of the above Questions for Chapter 2 2. .32 Questions for Chapter 2 (A) 9 (B) 33 (C) 9 3 (D) 3! (E) none of the above. the 52 cards are partitioned into four equal groups. If each is worker assigned to one machine. How many different playing situations are there? . 2. The pieces are symmetrical so that the number pair is not ordered.11 An ice cream shop offers 20 different ﬂavors of ice cream. . Their menu says that their “Big Dish” contains ﬁve scoops of ice cream.12 There are 4 machines in a factory. How many different pieces can be made using the numbers 1. S2.1 A domino piece is marked by two numbers. You may order the ﬁve scoops in any way. How many different “Big Dishes” are possible? (A) 205 (B) (C) 20 5 24 5 (D) 20!/5! (E) none of the above S2.

7 An election ballot lists 10 candidates.4 Throw three indistinguishable dice. exactly four are women. how many different ways can Jack order a dozen doughnuts? 2. How many distinguishable results of the throw are there? 2. A cell may contain more than one ball. Each voter is allowed 4 votes. He notices that they have the following inventory of his favorite doughnuts: Bavarian Creme (21). how many different ways can you mark your ballot? 2. Two balls are dropped into the box. How many three-person committees can be chosen so that at least one member is female? 2. different. ignoring suits)? 2. Peanut Krunch (11) and Powdered Jelly (15).Questions for Chapter 2 33 2.10 Consider a box partitioned into 3 cells. (b) If Jack wants 2 Peanut Krunch for himself. and his boss in the Parks Department wants 3 Bavarian Creme for his coffee break. list all possible arrangements. .5 From eight persons. You may vote for any three of them. (a) How many different ways can Jack order a dozen doughnuts? Assume that ordering 6 Bavarian Creme and 6 Peanut Krunch is the same as ordering 6 Peanut Krunch and 6 Bavarian Creme. According to the “bullet” voting system.e. If the balls are indistinguishable. How many different ways can the ballot be marked? 2..6 A ballot lists 10 candidates. How many different ways could a student answer the entire test? 2. each independently of the other.3 How many ways can a poker hand of 5 cards be drawn from a 52 card deck so that each card is a different number or face (i.9 (provided by Mark Chew) Jack Dukey enters the Dip-’n-Donut Shop to buy a dozen doughnuts for himself and his co-workers in the Parks Department. how many committees of three members may be chosen? Suppose that among the eight persons. Strawberry (30).8 A multiple choice test contains 10 questions with each question having 4 possible answers. If you vote for exactly three candidates. in such a way that every cell has an equal chance of receiving a ball. and may assign more than one check mark to any candidate(s) up to a total of four marks. a voter must place 4 check marks on the ballot.

) A ballot lists 10 candidates.12 Fifty students have rented 3 busses for a class trip. 2. . (a) arrange all of them in a row? (b) choose m of them simultaneously? (c) divide them (perhaps unequally) between two identical urns? (d) divide them (perhaps unequally) between two children (and each child cares about the colors he or she receives)? . How many different ways can you mark your ballot? 2.14 Prove the binomial theorem: For any real numbers x and y and integer n ≥ 1 (x + y)n = n k=0 n k n−k x y k 2.6.34 Questions for Chapter 2 Reanswer the question if no cell can have more than one ball. . Each bus can hold 50 riders.11 A classroom in the Bell Elementary School contains 16 seats with four rows of four seats each. B .13 (See also Question 2. A. How many different ways can the students sign up for busses? 2. A class is composed of 4 girls and 12 boys. You must pick three candidates and rank them according to your preference.15 You are given n balls of different colors. How many ways can the 4 girls be seated among the 12 boys if the students are distinguished only by sex? 2. or C with A being your most preferred candidate. How many distinguishable ways can you.

An event is any subset of the sample space. Measuring sets Deﬁnition 3.2. that does not necessarily include every possible subset of Ω. Ω.1. The sample space. Ω = R) we often cannot reasonably compute P (A) for all A ⊆ Ω. we showed how you can use sample spaces Ω and events A ⊆ Ω to describe an experiment. deﬁned on subsets of Ω. Reﬂection (c 1880) Probability Spaces In Chapter 1. Deﬁnition 3. we restrict our deﬁnition of P (A) to some smaller subset of events. is the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. is a function. – THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY. How would you measure a set? • ﬁnite sets • countable sets • uncountable sets Deﬁnition 3. P (A) and the mathematics necessary to consistently compute P (A) for all events A ⊆ Ω. that assigns to each event E a real number P (E) such that the following three probability axioms hold: 35 . (for example. In this chapter. Ω. A probability measure. The mathematical details are usually covered in advanced courses in probability theory. In those cases. For inﬁnite sample spaces. F. we will deﬁne what we mean by the probability of an event. P (·).3.3 PROBABILITY The scientiﬁc imagination always restrains itself within the limits of probability.

Henri Lebesgue and Eugene Dynkin. we will show that 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 for every A ⊆ Ω. including Emile Borel. measures. Interpretation of probability How do you assign the real numbers in Deﬁnition 3. 1]. That’s why we refer to P (·) as a probability measure. However. . That is. P (E) ≥ 0 for all events E 2. . That is P : F → [0. Here.e. P (Ω) = 1 3. Note that every event A ⊆ Ω is assigned one and only one number P (A). you worked with real-valued functions f (·). n . . the function. 1]. the set of events. Such functions assign each number in R a single number from R. . . ωn } and each of the outcomes in Ω is equally likely. If E ∩ F = Ø (i. That is P ({ωi }) = 1 n for i = 1. ω2 . a great deal of probability theory has its foundations in a mathematical ﬁeld called measure theory with important results from many mathematicians. In mathematics we call functions that assign real numbers to subsets. In calculus. . if the events E and F are mutually exclusive ). f : R → R. then P (E ∪ F ) = P (E) + P (F ) The three speciﬁcations in the above deﬁnition are often called the Kolmogorov axioms for probability measures. maps x = 2 into f (2) = 8. is a function whose argument is a subset of Ω (namely an event) rather than a number.36 Probability Spaces 1. P (·) is a function that assigns to each member of F. In section 3. a single number from the interval [0. In mathematical terms. For example. .. . f (x) = x3 . P (·).3? Logical probability This can be done when Ω is a ﬁnite set Ω = {ω1 .

So we can assign. consider the outcome of rolling a fair six-sided die once. We also must be able to assume that the outcome of any one of the trials does not affect the probabilities associated with the outcomes of any of the other trials. 2. ω2 . 6 3 6 P ({The die is even}) = P ({ω2 . suppose we . As an example. in general. . 6. and there is no reason for one card to be drawn rather than another. ω4 . for example. tossing a fair coin The coin is symmetrical and there is no reason for heads to turn up rather than tails. . . rolling a fair die The die is symmetrical and there is no reason for one side to turn up rather than another. the notion of logical probability has limited applications. drawing a card randomly from a deck of playing cards Each card is physically the same. . In that case Ω = {ω1 . . . As you can see. Experimental probability This interpretation requires that the experiment can be identically reproduced over and over again. indeﬁnitely. . Some examples where logical probability can be used are: P (A) = and. for any A ⊆ Ω assign P (A) = |A| n 37 For example. ω6 } where ωi = the die shows i pips for i = 1.Probability Spaces In that case. P ({ωi }) = 1 6 for i = 1. ω6 }) = |A| for any A ⊆ Ω 6 Logical probability is only useful when the mechanism producing the random outcomes has symmetry so that one could argue that there is no reason for one outcome to occur rather than other. . . . . Each replicate is called an experimental trial. .

. Ω = {bad. We can. with each transistor an experimental trial. and is typically covered in a graduate-level probability course. there always existed some K .38 Probability Spaces examine transistors being produced by an assembly line. . The value of K is. say that P (K < ∞) = 1. determined in advance. T2 . It is possible. i=1 would be zero. there does exist some integer K such that for all n > K n i=1 Ti Ti n − P (A) < δ. that you could examine billions of transistors and ﬁnd that all of them n are bad. Let A = {good}. good}. In that case. it can be proven that for a prespeciﬁed small number δ > 0. In particular. The outcome of one of our experimental trials is whether that transistor is either good or bad. In calculus. To assign P (A) using logical probability. That concept is not suitable here. that P (A) equaled 2 . Some examples where experimental probability can be used are: . such that for all n > K the quantity n i=1 Ti n was arbitrarily close to P (A). and assign P (A) = lim n→∞ n i=1 Ti n There are some important mathematical issues associated with deﬁning P (A) in this way. however. Consider the sequence of outcomes for the repeated experiment. 1 Suppose. and quite far away from the n eventual limit of 1 as n gets bigger than billions. with Ti = 0 Ti = 1 if transistor i is bad if transistor i is good In this case. although not likely. itself. random and cannot be predetermined. 2 In fact. the type of limit that you deﬁned in calculus cannot be used. for instance. consider the inﬁnite sequence of experimental outcomes T 1 . The proof requires measure theory. .

football Specifying the probability that the Buffalo Bills will win the Super Bowl next year. with the outcome being the grade that you get in the course. interarrival times for queues Stating the probability that the time between any two consecutive customers is greater than ﬁve minutes. Once the decision maker has decided how many balls of each type to place in the urn. hitting a home run Specifying the probability that a baseball player will hit a home run on any attempt. . consider the experiment of taking EAS305. but it is impossible to argue that the experiment can be replicated. with the goal of making the event of drawing a red ball equivalent to getting an “A” in EAS305. Some examples where subjective probability can be used are: weather Specifying the probability that it will be warm and sunny tomorrow. Let A = {you get an “A” in EAS305} The procedure of determining the subjective probability of A. and an unlimited quantity of red and white balls. For example. auctions Stating the probability that painting by Monet will sell for one million dollars at an art auction. subjective probability has a lot of critics. is to construct an equivalent lottery consisting of an urn.Probability Spaces 39 quality assurance Specifying the probability that a single microprocessor from a semiconductor fabrication facility will be defective. Subjective probability There are some cases where we would like to use probability theory. we simply count the balls in the urn and assign P (A) = number of red balls in the urn total number of balls in the urn Not surprisingly. But sometimes it is the only way we can give meaning to the number P (A). There is a mathematical theory (complete with axioms and deductions) regarding the existence of such equivalent lotteries. The decision maker is asked to place in the urn any number of red balls and white balls he or she desires.

P (A) = 1 − P (Ac ) P (A) ≤ 1 from Theorem 3.2. A ⊆ B ⇒ P (A) ≤ P (B) Proof. Let A be the event that the selected student is one of those who likes .Probability Spaces 41 Relationships between English and set notation • P (not E) = P (E c ) • P (E or F ) = P (E ∪ F ) • P (E and F ) = P (E ∩ F ) Deductions from the axioms Theorem 3. A∪B (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ Ac ) A ∪ (B ∩ Ac ) P (A ∪ (B ∩ Ac )) P (A) + P (B ∩ Ac ) P (A) = = = = = ≤ B B B P (B) P (B) P (B) since A ⊆ B since A ∪ Ac = Ω DeMorgan’s law See Question 3. Consider the experiment of picking a student at random from the class of 100.3.31 A ∩ (B ∩ Ac ) = Ø since P (B ∩ Ac ) ≥ 0 (Axiom 1) Example: In a class of 100 students it is known that 80 of the students like hamburger. P (Ω) P (A ∪ Ac ) P (A) + P (Ac ) P (Ac ) = = = = 1 1 1 1 − P (A) from Axiom 2 since Ω = A ∪ Ac since A ∩ Ac = Ø Theorem 3.1.1 since P (Ac ) ≥ 0 (Axiom 1) Theorem 3. P (A) ≤ 1 for all A ⊆ Ω Proof. P (Ac ) = 1 − P (A) Proof.

. that’s Axiom 3.80. (By induction) Is it true for n = 2? Yes. Why? Solution: For any events E and F .80. . 3 Show that A ∩ B ⊆ A. Ak we have P (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) = P (A1 ) + · · · + P (Ak ) . is it true for n = k + 1? Assume for k pairwise disjoint sets A1 . That implies that ω ∈ A and ω ∈ B . A2 . E ⊆ F implies P (E) ≤ P (F ).80. For any ﬁnite number of pairwise disjoint sets A1 . . . ω ∈ A. we have P (A ∩ B) ≤ P (A) = 0. Assume it’s true for n = k . Hence. . Theorem 3. . 3 Describe the set A ∩ B . Suppose |B| is unknown. . Let B be the event that the selected student is one of those who likes broccoli.42 Probability Spaces hamburger. An we have P (A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An ) = P (A1 ) + P (A2 ) + · · · + P (An ) Proof. A ∩ B ⊆ A. . 3 Even if |B| is unknown we know that P (A ∩ B) ≤ 0.4. A2 . In this case |A| = 80 and |Ω| = 100 and we can use logical probability to determine P (A) = 80/100 = 0. Solution: Pick an element ω ∈ A ∩ B . Since A ∩ B ⊆ A. Therefore. Solution: A ∩ B is the event that the student selected likes hamburger and broccoli.

Then (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) ∩ Ak+1 = Ø since Ai ∩ Ak+1 = Ø for all i P ((A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) ∪ Ak+1 ) = P (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) + P (Ak+1 ) since (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) ∩ Ak+1 = Ø P ((A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ) ∪ Ak+1 ) = (P (A1 ) + . For any two events A and B P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (B) − P (A ∩ B) Proof. . a surface defect. . A ∪ B = A ∪ (Ac ∩ B) Distributive law for sets and B = (A ∩ B) ∪ (Ac ∩ B) Distributive law for sets Therefore P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (Ac ∩ B) from Axiom 3 P (B) = P (A ∩ B) + P (Ac ∩ B) from Axiom 3 Subtracting the second equation from the ﬁrst produces the result. + P (Ak )) + P (Ak+1 ) from induction hypothesis P (A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak ∪ Ak+1 ) = P (A1 ) + . a structural defect A single piston may have one. . .Probability Spaces 43 Let Ak+1 be an event such that Ai ∩ Ak+1 = Ø for all i = 1. and/or 2. . k . .5. From quality control records we see that • The probability that a piston has a surface defect is 0. both or neither defect. . . Example: A hydraulic piston can have only two types of defects: 1.5. . + P (Ak+1 ) Associative law Theorem 3.

P (Ø) P (Ø) P (Ø) P (Ø) = = = = 1 − P (Øc ) 1 − P (Ω) 1−1 0 from Theorem 3.4.5 P (T ) = 0.* If A1 . using Theorem 3. then ∞ ∞ P i=1 Ai = i=1 P (Ai ) .4 P (S ∪ T ) = 0. is a countable sequence of disjoint sets. .6 Therefore. . P (Ø) = 0 Proof.6 To ﬁnd the probability that a piston has both a structural and a surface defect. • The probability that a piston has some type of defect is 0.3 to apply to a countable collection of disjoint sets (rather than just a ﬁnite collection). A2 .6. We know that P (S) = 0. P (S ∪ T ) = P (S) + P (T ) − P (S ∩ T ) 0.1 since Øc = Ω from Axiom 2 In order to allow the extension of Axiom (3) in Deﬁnition 3.6 = 0.6 = 0. ﬁrst deﬁne the following events: S = {a piston has a surface defect} T = {a piston has a structural defect} We want to ﬁnd P (S ∩ T ).5 − 0.4 + 0. .3 Theorem 3.4 + 0.5 − P (S ∩ T ) P (S ∩ T ) = 0. the third probability axiom is replaced by 3.5.44 Probability Spaces • The probability that a piston has a structural defect is 0.

That is. 1.The Birthday Problem 45 Example: Consider the experiment of counting the number of accidents in a factory in a month. . . .50 that at least two of them will have the same birthday? To solve this problem. What is the probability that at least two of them will have the same birthday? How large must k be so that the probability is 0.* and the fact that Ei ∩ Ej = Ø for any i = j . . and we want to ﬁnd the probability that the factory has at least one accident in a month. . 2. we have ∞ ∞ P (Ei ) = i=0 i=0 e−1 i! ∞ i=0 = e −1 1 i! = e−1 e1 = 1 Using axiom 3. 2. Suppose that P (Ei ) = e−1 i! for i = 0. we will make two assumptions: . 1.. Let Ei be the event that exactly i accidents occur in a month with i = 0. we get ∞ ∞ P i=0 ∞ Ei Ei i=1 ∞ = i=0 P (Ei ) = 1 P E0 ∪ = 1 = 1 P (E0 ) + P i=1 ∞ Ei Ei i=1 Since E0 ∩ ∪∞ Ei = Ø i=1 P = 1 − P (E0 ) = 1 − e−1 THE BIRTHDAY PROBLEM Suppose k randomly selected individuals are seated in a room. . we want to compute P ∪∞ Ei . i=1 Since ∞ αi i=0 i! = eα for any α.

Jan02). Later. Step 3 Divide the number obtained in Step 2 by the number in Step 1. there are (365)k corresponding permutations of their k birthdays. Let’s suppose the individuals are ordered. where d1 .Jan04). d2 and d3 are the birthdays of the three individuals.} The assignment of birthdays with ordered individuals can be represented as a sampling problem. and any n. d3 ).Jan01.” Why ordered? Why not? Suppose k = 3. (Jan01. each person is assigned a birthday with any of the n = 365 days being equally likely. . It sounds simple.Jan01. To illustrate the issues.Jan01. We can begin to write down all of the elements of Ω as follows: Ω = {(Jan01. that is until you begin identifying and counting equally likely elements in Ω. For just one example of many. there are n = 365 days in a year 2. we’ll use an approach that is common for most problems involving logical probability: Step 1 Count the number of equally likely outcomes in Ω. The number of ways we can draw three balls from 365 with replacement and with ordering is (365)3 .Jan03). (Jan01. 1985.Jan01.46 The Birthday Problem 1. d2 . we’ll ﬁrst solve the problem for k = 3 and n = 365. An introduction to probability and its applications. But P (E) = 1 − P (F ) and it turns out that P (F ) is easier to compute. Some textbooks1 say something like “If we imagine the k people to be ordered. Step 2 Count the number of elements in F ⊆ Ω. 1 . . Larsen and Morris Marx. (Jan01. we’ll extend our solution for any k . see Richard J. Deﬁne the events E = {at least 2 birthdays are the same} F = {all of the birthdays are different} and notice that E = F c . The question asks us to compute P (E).Jan01). . Then every element of the sample space can be written as an ordered triple ω = (d1 . To compute P (F ). Prentice-Hall.

the general correct answer is P (E) = 1 − P (F ) = 1 − (n)!/(n − k)! (n)k To answer the question “how large must k be?. Identifying the elements of Ω without ordering the individuals is equivalent to listing all of the ways we can draw 3 balls from an urn containing 365 balls..50. Furthermore. if we perform the same computations for any n and k ≤ n.253 0. . etc. So for k = 3 we get P (E) = 1 − P (F ) = 1 − (365)!/(365 − 3)! (365)3 This turns out to be the correct answer. We can do this by creating a table with 365 columns (one for each calendar day) and asking the question. .475 0. Jan02 √ √ Jan03 .. “how many ways can we arrange 3 check marks among the 365 columns?” Jan01 √√√ √√ √√ .891 0.” the following table lists P (E) for several different values of k with n = 365: k 15 22 23 40 50 70 P (E) 0. And that number is (365)!/(365 − 3)!.970 0.999 and we see that we need at least 23 persons to insure that P (E) is at least 0. .507 0. the number of ways that we can assign birthdays to individuals with everyone getting a different birthday is equal to the number of ways we can draw three balls from 365 without replacement and with ordering.The Birthday Problem 47 Continuing with this reasoning. with replacement and without ordering. But why would we get the wrong answer if we don’t order the k individuals? Let’s see what this would mean for k = 3.

. Jan02. the total number of elements in Ω is n+k−1 k = (n + k − 1)! k !(n − 1)! and the number of elements in F is n k = n! k !(n − k)! (n)!(n − 1)! (n + k − 1)!(n − k)! So that P (E) = 1 − P (F ) = 1 − To show why the unordered individual assumption is wrong. They are from a planet called Yak.48 The Birthday Problem Using this approach. The names of the days are “Heads” and “Tails”. etc. In this case. assume that birthdays are randomly assigned. T H. with each day equally likely. using the unordered individual assumption. etc. that is Ω = {HH. HT. each element of Ω is distinguishable by the number of times someone in the group is assigned the birthday Jan01. and P (E) = 1 − 1 (2)!/(2 − 2)! = (2)2 2 . We can again compute P (E). Under the ordered individual model there are four elements in Ω. but this time. But we would wrong to assume that such elements are equally likely. T T }. Jan02. Assigning birthdays at random to the aliens is the same as each alien tossing a fair coin to determine it’s birthday.. So we can use our formulas with values n = 2 and k = 2. There is nothing wrong with identifying the elements of the sample space Ω in this way. not who in the group is assigned Jan01. let’s use all of our formulas to solve a slightly modiﬁed version of the birthday problem: The birthday problem on the planet Yak There are two aliens from outer space in a room. Yak has only two days in its calendar year. Once again.

4) (1. 1) (5. 5) (3. The sample space can be represented as in Figure 3. 6) (3. 1) (2. 3) (3. 4) (6. 1754. 6) (6.” And the corresponding computation for P (E) yields P (E) = 1 − P (F ) = 1 − 2 (2)!(2 − 1)! = (2 + 2 − 1)!(2 − 2)! 3 And we see that the second (and faulty) formulation results in the same mistake that Jean d‘Alembert2 made in 1754. 3) (6. 4) (3. “two tails” and “one head one tail. 6) Figure 3. des arts and des m´ tiers. 3) (5. 2) (3.3 Conditional Probability and Independence Conditional probability Example: Roll a die twice. see the work of Bose and Einstein in statistical mechanics. 6) (2. 5) (6. 1H1T} that is. 5) (1. 1) (1. Moral of the story: Sampling Case IV (with replacement and without ordering) usually cannot be used to enumerate equally likely outcomes resulting from multiple. 1) (3. 2) (2. 5) (2.1: Sample Space for Rolling a Die Twice Under the unordered individual model there are three elements in Ω. 2) (5. 3) (1. 6) (5. 3 For an important exception.1. 2) (1. Deﬁne the events A = {ﬁrst roll is less than or equal to the second roll} B = {the sum of the two rolls is 4} Jean d’Alembert Encyclop´ die ou dictionnaire raisonn´ des sciences. 4) (4. 3) (4. 5) (4. 3) (2. 2T. 1) (4. 2) (4. Ω = {2H. “two heads”. repeated random assignments. 2) (6. 1) (6. 4) (2.Conditional Probability and Independence 49 (1. e e e Volume 4. 5) (5. 6) (4. 4) (5. 2 .

If E ∩ F = Ø then P (E ∪ F ) = P (E) + P (F ) Suppose P (B) > 0 and consider P (· | B) • For any event E ⊆ Ω P (E | B) = = P (E ∩ B) P (B) [something ≥ 0] ≥0 [something > 0] Therefore P (E | B) ≥ 0 for all events E . we can use logical probability to get P (B) = 1/12. Suppose you are told that the ﬁrst roll is less than or equal to the second. . The probability of an event A given the event B . A2 . With this additional information. what is the probability that the two rolls sum to 4? Deﬁnition 3. . denoted P (A | B). For any events A1 . . P (Ω) = 1 3.4.7. P (E) ≥ 0 for all events E 2. .50 Conditional Probability and Independence Since each of the outcomes is equally likely. this is equivalent to P (A | B) = P (A ∩ B) P (B) Notation: Sometimes we write P (A ∩ B) = P (AB). Theorem 3. is the value that solves the equation P (A ∩ B) = P (A | B)P (B) Note: If P (B) > 0. An P (A1 A2 · · · An ) = P (A1 )P (A2 | A1 )P (A3 | A1 A2 ) · · · P (An | A1 A2 · · · An−1 ) P (· | B) is a probability measure Remember that P (·) is a probability measure if and only if 1.

• We can think of P (· | B) as the updated version of P (·) given B . • When interpreting P (E | A) we are asking the “what if” question. we have P (Ω | B) = = P (Ω ∩ B) P (B) P (B) =1 P (B) Therefore P (Ω | B) = 1 • And for any two events E and F with E ∩ F = Ø P (E ∪ F | B) = = = = = P ((E ∪ F ) ∩ B) P (B) P ((E ∩ B) ∪ (F ∩ B) P (B) P (E ∩ B) + P (F ∩ B) P (B) P (E ∩ B) P (F ∩ B) + P (B) P (B) P (E | B) + P (F | B) Therefore if E ∩ F = Ø then P (E ∪ F | B) = P (E | B) + P (F | B) • Hence P (· | B) is a probability measure. A and B . “what is the probability of E if the event A occurs. Independence Deﬁnition 3. . • In fact. every event A ⊆ Ω produces an updated probability measure P (· | A).Conditional Probability and Independence 51 • Also.” • We can evaluate and use P (E | A) and P (E | B) simultaneously for different events. The events A and B are independent if and only if P (A ∩ B) = P (A)P (B).5.

and • Ac and B c are independent events. Proof. Theorem 3. Bn then n n P (A) = i=1 P (A ∩ Bi ) = i=1 P (A | Bi )P (Bi ) . and 2. A complete set of alternatives is a collection of events B1 . Bn such that 1.52 Conditional Probability and Independence Note: If P (B) > 0 this is equivalent to saying that A and B are independent if and only if P (A | B) = P (A). . If A and B are independent events then • A and B c are independent events. Then P (A ∩ (B ∪ B c )) = P (A) P ((A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ B c )) = P (A) P (A ∩ B) + P (A ∩ B c ) = P (A) P (A)P (B) + P (A ∩ B c ) = P (A) P (A ∩ B c ) = P (A) − P (A)P (B) P (A ∩ B c ) = P (A)(1 − P (B)) P (A ∩ B c ) = P (A)P (B c ) Therefore A and B c are independent events. . B2 . . .6. B2 . Bi ∩ Bj = Ø for any i = j . Bayes’ theorem Deﬁnition 3. . Suppose A and B are independent events.8. . . (Law of Total Probability) Given an event A and a complete set of alternatives B1 . B1 ∪ B2 ∪ · · · ∪ Bn = Ω. . • Ac and B are independent events. The other two results follow by interchanging the roles of A and B .9. Theorem 3.

. 1 We can the use the law of total probability. and write P (A2 ) = P (A1 )P (A2 | A1 ) + P (Ac )P (A2 | Ac ) 1 1 = 1 5 · 2 6 + 2 5 · 4 6 = 1. . Bn be a complete set of alternatives. . the value of P (A2 ) is not 5 . Meyer. the snails bravely travel from one section of the garden to the other by crawling across the steps of the concrete stairway. then P (A | Bk )P (Bk ) P (Bk | A) = n i=1 P (A | Bi )P (Bi ) Example: Thousands of little snails live in the Snail Garden between the University at Buffalo Natural Sciences Complex and Talbert Hall. But the value of 1 P (A2 | A1 ) is 5 . 1 Although the answer is correct. The proper solution is obtained by writing P (A1 ∩ A2 ) = P (A2 | A1 )P (A1 ) = 1 5 · 2 6 = 1 15 . 4 . Reading MA. Many of the snails are crushed by the feet of unthinking students and faculty walking up and down the stairway. To evaluate P (A2 ) properly. If two bolts are chosen at random. . B2 . P. we note that {A1 . 3 Theorem 3. (Bayes’ Theorem) Let B1 . 1965. what is the probability that the two short bolts are picked? Let Ai = {the ith chosen bolt is short}.Conditional Probability and Independence 53 Example: (from Meyer4 ) Suppose that among six bolts. It is a treacherous journey. The common but incorrect solution is obtained by writing P (A1 ∩ A2 ) = P (A2 )P (A1 ) = 1 5 · 2 6 = 1 15 . . Addison-Wesley. Introductory probability theory and statistical applications. A concrete stairway divides the garden into two sections. two are shorter than a speciﬁed length.10. Ac } is a complete set of alternatives. When it rains.

What is the probability of ﬁnding a smart snails after two rainstorms? Independence of more than two events The deﬁnition of independence can be extended to more than two events.60)(0. Suppose that half of the snails are smart snails. and the other half are not-so-smart snails. The probability after the rainstorm is 0.50. at random.60. a snail that has successfully crossed the concrete steps. Therefore.50) = 0.40.50) + (0. you select.10. What is the probability that it is a smart snail? In this case.90)(0.90)(0.60 (0. The probability that a smart snail will be crushed is 0.54 Conditional Probability and Independence There are two types of snails. The probability that a not-so-smart snail will be crushed is 0.50) The probability of selecting a smart snail before the rainstorm was 0. The event that any one snail will be crushed is independent from all others. . A not-so-smart snail crawls on the horizontal part of a step.50) + (0.90)(0. we want to ﬁnd P (S | A) = = P (A | S)P (S) P (A | S)P (S) + P (A | S c )P (S c ) (0. 3 To ﬁnd the probability that a single snail (chosen at random) will successfully cross the concrete steps uncrushed deﬁne the events S = {The snail is a smart snail} S c = {The snail is a not-so-smart snail} A = {The snail is successful} Note that S ∪ S c = Ω and S ∩ S c = Ø. A smart snail crawls along the vertical portion of a step to avoid being crushed. using the Law of Total Probability P (A) = P (A | S)P (S) + P (A | S c )P (S c ) = (0.60)(0.50) = 0.75 3 Suppose that after the end of a rainstorm. smart snails and not-so-smart snails.

Let A B C = = = {second die is 1. A3 are independent if and only if (1) (2) (3) (4) P (A1 ∩ A2 ) = P (A1 )P (A2 ) P (A1 ∩ A3 ) = P (A1 )P (A3 ) P (A2 ∩ A3 ) = P (A2 )P (A3 ) P (A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 ) = P (A1 )P (A2 )P (A3 ) All of the above must hold for A1 . A2 and A3 where equation (4) holds. TT. 6 with probability of 36 assigned to each point. 5 or 6} {the sum of the faces is 9} . It is also possible to have three events A1 . j = 1. Three events A. A2 . . A2 . . A3 to be independent. and assign probability HH. B and C can be pairwise independent. An are independent if and only if P (Ak1 ∩ · · · ∩ Akj ) = P (Ak1 ) · · · P (Akj ) for all 2 ≤ j ≤ n and all 1 ≤ k1 < · · · < kj ≤ n. . j) 1 for i. then we say that A1 . HT. A2 . the events A1 .7. A ﬁnite collection of events A1 . Note: For n = 3. as shown by the following example: Example: Toss a fair coin twice. . and let Ω be all ordered pairs (i. Let A = {ﬁrst toss is a head} B = {second toss is a head} C = {ﬁrst toss equals second toss} 1 4 to each of the outcomes Then P (A ∩ B) = P (A ∩ C) = P (B ∩ C) = P (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 = P (A)P (B) = P (A)P (C) = P (B)P (C) = P (A)P (B)P (C) Hence A. TH. C are pairwise independent but not independent. B. This is demonstrated by the following example: Example: Suppose that two dice are tossed. . A2 .Conditional Probability and Independence 55 Deﬁnition 3. but not independent. . If only the ﬁrst three conditions hold. 2 or 5} {second die is 4. A3 are pairwise independent. . but equations (1). 2. . (2) and (3) all fail.

. .. . 2. . for n = 1.. . .. . We can also compute. P (ﬁrst 6 occurs after toss k) ∞ = n=k+1 ∞ P (An ) 5 6 n=k+1 n−1 1 6 = letting n = n − (k + 1) ∞ = n =0 5 6 k+n 1 6 . Assume all the outcomes from each roll are independent. 2.56 Conditional Probability and Independence Then P (A ∩ B) = P (A ∩ C) = P (B ∩ C) = P (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 1 6 1 36 1 12 1 36 = P (A)P (B) = = P (A)P (C) = = P (B)P (C) = 1 4 1 18 1 18 = P (A)P (B)P (C) Example: Suppose you roll a fair die repeatedly until a six appears. c c c P (An ) = P (S1 )P (S2 ) · · · P (Sn−1 )P (Sn ) c c c An = S1 ∩ S2 ∩ · · · ∩ Sn−1 ∩ Sn = 5 6 n−1 1 6 for n = 1. Furthermore. Let Sk = {toss k is a six} An = {the ﬁrst six occurs on toss n} Then P (Sk ) = 1 6 c P (Sk ) = 5 6 for k = 1. . 2. .

. So c c c {ﬁrst 6 occurs after toss k} = S1 ∩ S2 ∩ · · · ∩ Sk c c c P (ﬁrst 6 occurs after toss k) = P (S1 )P (S2 ) · · · P (Sk ) k = 5 6 for k = 0. choose the best response among those provided. Which of the following are always true? (A) p = 0 (B) A and B are independent (C) P ((A ∩ B)c ) = 1 − p (D) A and B are mutually exclusive (E) none of the above.1 If P (A) = 0.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 57 = = = 1 6 1 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 k k k ∞ n =0 5 6 n ·6 for k = 0. Answers can be found in Appendix B. . 1. S3. S3. .. .. 1. Which makes sense. P (B) = 0. . . .3 and P (A | B) = 0. Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 For each of the following multiple-choice questions.2 Let P (A) = P (B) = 2p and let P (A ∪ B) = 3p. 2. since the ﬁrst 6 occurs after toss k if and only if you get k non-6’s in a row.3. 2.3 then (A) A and B are mutually exclusive (B) P (A ∩ B) = 0 (C) A and B are independent (D) all of the above (E) none of the above.

P (B) = p and P (A ∩ B) = p2 then (A) A ∪ B = Ω (B) A = B (C) A and B are independent (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. and the other is painted blue. P (B) = p > 0 and P (A ∪ B) = 2p then P (B | A ∪ B) equals (A) 1 (B) p (C) 1/2 (D) p2 (E) none of the above S3.3 If A ⊆ B . One coin is painted red. Let R denote the outcome of the red coin (Heads or Tails).5 If P (A) = p. Then P (R = Heads | R = B) is equal to (A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/2 .6 Two fair coins are tossed once.58 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 S3. then which of the following statements are always true? (A) A and B are independent (B) P (A) > P (B) (C) A and B are mutually exclusive (D) A ∪ B = A (E) none of the above S3.4 If P (A) = p > 0. S3. Let B denote the outcome of the blue coin.

What is the probability that they both turn up the same value? (A) 1/72 (B) 1/36 (C) 1/12 (D) 1/6 (E) none of the above. S3.8 Suppose P (A) = 0. Then (A) A = Ø (B) P (A ∩ A) = P (A)P (A) (C) P (A ∪ B) = 0 for any B ⊆ Ω. S3.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 59 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.7 Two indistinguishable six-sided fair dice are rolled.10 Suppose P (A) = p. S3. If A ⊆ B and A = B then (A) p ≥ q (B) p ≤ q (C) p > q (D) p < q .9 Which of the following statements are always true? (A) P (Ω) = 1 (B) If P (A) < P (B) then A ⊆ B (C) If P (A) = 0 then A = Ø (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. (D) all of the above are true (E) none of the above are true. S3. P (B) = q .

What is the probability that the junior stays home? . S3.13 Two balls are dropped randomly into four labelled boxes. three of them are seniors and one of them is a junior.11 There is one lock on a door and the key is among the six different ones you usually carry in your pocket.14 A student club has four ofﬁcers. Someone places a seventh.12 A multiple choice test has 12 questions. in your pocket. useless key. what is the probability that the student will answer all questions correctly? (A) 1/(125 ) (B) 1/(512 ) (C) 1/ (D) 1/ 12 5 16 5 (E) none of the above. If a student randomly picks the answer to each question. Three of the students will be picked at random to go on a trip. The probability that both balls fall in the same box is (A) 4/ 7 2 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/16 (D) it depends on whether or not the balls are different colors (E) none of the above. S3.60 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 (E) none of the above. S3. one at a time. with each question having 5 possible answers. S3. A box may contain more than one ball. What is the probability that the ﬁrst key you try will open the door? (A) 1/6 (B) 1/2 (C) 1/3 (D) 2/3 (E) none of the above.

15 Suppose that ﬁve tiles labelled with the letters C. S3.16 Suppose A is any event. T are placed in a container. If three tiles are selected from the container (without replacement).17 If A ⊆ B with P (A) = P (B) > 0 then (A) P (Ac ∩ B) = 0 (B) A = B (C) Ac ∩ B = Ø (D) all of the above are true (E) none of the above are true. Then P (A) + P (Ac ) equals (A) 0 (B) P (A) (C) P (Ac ) (D) 1 (E) none of the above. S3. S3. A. C. S3.18 Which of the following statements are always true? . what is the probability that they can be arranged to spell the word CAT? (A) 1 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/ (D) 3/ 5 3 5 2 (E) none of the above. C.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 61 (A) 1/4 (B) 1/ 6 3 (C) 1/4! (D) 1/43 (E) none of the above.

25. (E) none of the above are true. the probability that the sum of the two tosses is 7 equals (A) 1/36 (B) 1/18 (C) 1/9 (D) 1/6 (E) none of the above. with each question having 4 possible answers. what is the probability that the student will answer all questions correctly? (A) 1/(45 ) (B) 1/4 (C) 1/ (D) 1/ 5 4 8 4 (E) none of the above. Given that a 2 appears on the ﬁrst toss.20 A multiple choice test has 5 questions. (E) none of the above are true.62 (A) P (Ω) = 1 (B) If A ⊆ B then P (A) ≤ P (B) Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 (C) P (A ∩ B c ) ≤ P (A) for any event B (D) all of the above are true. S3. S3. If a student randomly picks the answer to each question.19 Suppose P (A) = 1 and P (B) = 0. Which of the following statements are always true? (A) A and B are independent (B) A ∩ B = B (C) B ⊆ A (D) all of the above are true. .21 A fair die is tossed twice. S3.

23 Four fair dice are rolled simultaneously. .25 If P (A) = 1 4 1 2 and P (B) = 1 2 1 2 1 4 then (A) P (A ∪ B) = (B) P (A ∪ B) ≤ (C) A ∩ B = Ø (D) A = B (E) none of the above.24 If P (A) ≤ P (Ac ) then (A) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ (B) P (A) = 0 (C) A ⊆ Ac (D) P (A) can be any value between 0 and 1 (E) none of the above.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 63 S3. S3.22 If A ∩ B ∩ C = Ø then which of the following must be true (A) A ∩ B = Ø (B) P (A ∩ B) = 0 (C) P (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 0 (D) all of the above are true (E) none of the above. The probability that exactly two of them turn up with a value less than or equal to 4 is (A) 24/81 (B) 1/3 (C) 4/9 (D) 1/2 (E) none of the above S3. S3.

Machine B produces 30% of the daily output. B and C that produce screws.26 The probability that the birthdays of twelve people will fall in twelve different calendar months (assuming equal probabilities for the twelve months) is (A) 12!/(1212 ) (B) 1/(12!) (C) 1/12 (D) 1/(1212 ) (E) none of the above. 5%. Then P (A ∩ B c ) equals . respectively.28 A box contains ﬁfty light bulbs. 4% and 2% of the screws are defective. Machine C produces the remaining 50% of the daily output. S3. Of their output. the probability that all of them are good is equal to (A) (0. Machine A produces 20% of the daily output. 0. 0.29 Suppose A and B are independent events with P (A) = p and P (B) = q . none of the above. What is the probability that it came from machine A? 1. S3. A screw is chosen at random from a day’s production and found to be defective.64 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 S3. exactly ﬁve of which are defective.032 3. If ﬁve bulbs are chosen at random from the box. 0. 0.2 4.27 In a screw factor.3125 5.01)5 (B) 1/ (C) 5/ 50 5 50 5 (D) (45!)2 /(40!50!) (E) none of the above. S3. there are three machines A.01 2.

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 65 (A) pq (B) 1 − pq (C) p − pq (D) q − pq (E) none of the above.30 Suppose A and B are independent events with P (A) = p and P (B) = q . Then which of the following statements are true: (A) P (A ∩ B) = pq (B) P (A ∩ B c ) = p − pq (C) P (Ac ∩ B) = q − pq (D) all of the above are true (E) none of the above are true. S3. A classroom has 364 students. . One ball is drawn from the urn at random and then thrown away. S3. S3.31 An urn contains 5 red balls and 5 black balls.32 Suppose birthdays are assigned to people randomly with each of the 365 days of the year equally likely. A second ball is then drawn from the urn. What is the probability that they all have different birthdays? (A) 0 (B) 365!/(365)364 (C) 1/365 (D) (365!364!)/728! (E) none of the above. The probability that the second ball is red equals (A) 1/3 (B) 4/9 (C) 1/2 (D) 5/9 (E) none of the above.

6 . ﬁve are bad. S3.5 (D) 0. S3.66 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3 S3. The probability that the lamps will light is (A) 2/9 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 (D) 3/4 (E) none of the above.5 Then P (B | A) equals (A) 0. Five of them are good.34 Which of the following statements (A) (B) or (C) are not always true? (A) P (E ∩ F ) = P (E)P (F ) for any events E and F (B) P (Ω) = 1 (C) P (E) ≥ 0 for any event E (D) all of the above are always true. The following circuit contains two such incandescent lamps in series and a (good) battery sufﬁcient to light both lamps: + Both lamps must be good in order for either to light.35 Suppose P (A | B) = 0.2 (B) 1/3 (C) 0.33 A box contains 10 incandescent lamps. (E) none of the above are always true.8 P (B) = 0. Two lamps are randomly chosen from the box.4 P (A | B c ) = 0.

4 There are two locks on the door and the keys are among the six different ones you usually carry in your pocket. However. 2. . in haste. n}. Show that P (·) satisﬁes the three probability axioms.3333 (E) none of the above. For any event. What is the probability that you can still open the door? What is the probability . Questions for Chapter 3 3. .10 0. you’ve lost a key at random. Hint: B = A ∪ (B \ A).05 Model year 2002 2003 Other Proportion of all vehicles 0. What is the probability that the model year for this automobile is 2003? (A) 0.02 0. Let |A| denote the number of elements in the set A. in haste. you’ve lost one. 3.0200 (B) 0. . Show that if A ⊂ B then P (B \ A) = P (B) − P (A).70 You know that an automobile has been involved in an accident. S3.Questions for Chapter 3 67 (E) none of the above. .36 A study of automobile accidents produced the following data: Probability of involvement in an accident 0.0513 (D) 0.20 0. However. A.3 There is one lock on the door and the correct key is among the six different ones you usually carry in your pocket. 3.0390 (C) 0.2 Let P be a probability measure. What is the probability that you can still open the door? What is the probability that the ﬁrst key you try will open the door? 3.1 Consider the sample space Ω = {1.01 0. deﬁne P (A) ≡ |A|/n.

Ω.3 P (A ∪ B) = 0. but only one leads to the outside.9 Consider a sample space. S . is divided into three strips. justifying your answer: P (A ∩ B ∩ C) P (Ac ∪ B c ) P (A ∩ B ∩ C c ) P (A ∩ B) P (A | B) (b) Are A and B mutually exclusive? Justify your answer.7 Suppose P (S) = p and P (T ) = q with 0 < p < 1 and 0 < q < 1.68 Questions for Chapter 3 that the ﬁrst two keys you try will open the door? (Note: There are two interpretations. in this kingdom.8 Suppose that the land of a square kingdom. What is the value of P (S ∪ T | T )? 3. .. There are 4 manholes in the prison.5 P (A ∪ B ∪ C) = 0. i. show that V satisﬁes the three probability axioms.) 3. Ω. Show that V is a probability measure. never reentering an unsuccessful manhole. The prisoner plans to enter each of the manholes at random.5 A convict is planning to escape prison by leaving through the prison sewer system.5 P (B) = 0. 3.2 P (A ∪ C) = 0. For any piece of land. with events A. What is the probability that the prisoner must try exactly 1 manhole? 2 manholes? 3 manholes? 4 manholes? 3. B and C and probability measure P (·). the relative value with respect to that of the kingdom is then given by the formula V (S) = P (S ∩ A) + 3P (S ∩ B) + 2P (S ∩ C) 2 where P (D) = (area of D)/(area of Ω) for any region D.6 If P (S) = p and P (T ) = q with p > 0. B and C of equal area. what is the value of P (S ∩ T | S)? 3. such that P (A) = 0.6 P (C) = 0.4 (a) Compute each of the following. and the events S and T are independent. A.3 P (B ∪ C) = 0. and suppose that the value per unit is in the ratio of 1:3:2.e.

” The American Statistician. If you choose the box containing the keys. I’ll give you \$10. 6 To Monty Hall’s credit. Vol. Contestant: I’ll take box B. 29. and there are several claims for its origin. Monty provided a short. Now either box C or your box B contains the car keys.000 cash for your 2 box. statement of 5 . once Selvin’s paper appeared in American Statistician. Monty Hall: I’ll give you \$2000.10 (from Selvin5 ) It’s “Let’s Make a Deal” – the famous TV show starring Monty Hall! Monty Hall: One of the three boxes labelled A.)6 This problem has appeared in various forms. the probability of your box containing the keys is now 1 . 3. Monty Hall: Now box A and box C are on the table and here is box B (contestant grips box B tightly). Since there are two boxes left.5? Why does the contestant want to trade boxes? (Hint: The contestant is a former EAS305 student.000. Contestant: No thank you. the original problem appeared in the paper by Steve Selvin. No. August 1975. Monty Hall: I’ll do you a favor and open one of the remaining boxes on the table (he opens box A). you win the car.Questions for Chapter 3 69 3. To my knowledge. Contestant: Gasp! Monty Hall: Select one of these boxes. I think I’ll keep this box. Contestant: No. In that letter. “On The Monty Hall Problem. It’s empty! (Audience: applause). but I’ll trade you my box B for box C on the table. it is claimed that Monty wrote a letter to Steve Selvin. but clear. Contestant: No. B and C contains the keys to that new car worth \$50. Is Monty right? Assuming Monty knows which of the three boxes contains the keys. The keys might be in your box! I’ll give you \$500 for the box. is the contestant’s probability of winning the car 0. The other two are empty.

Who has the advantage? 3.50 of the coffee makers from B are defective. If a B is printed. Other printer errors are impossible. During each transmission. The probability that an C will be incorrectly printed as a B is 0. can A and B be independent? Why? 3. Should you accept the claim that die is a fair die? Why or why not? the correct answer to this question. Monty also cautioned that there is a difference between the actual probability that the keys are in B and the contestant’s perceived probability. B or C ) to a printer.70 Questions for Chapter 3 3. It is known that any one coffee maker has an equal chance of originating from A or B . (a) Suppose that a single A is transmitted. but without any veriﬁcation of its authenticity. What is the probability that it is correctly printed? (b) Suppose that two characters are transmitted independently. what is the probability that a B was transmitted? 3. each character has an equal chance of being sent. A and B . and a probability measure P (·) such that P (A) > 0 and P (B) > 0. Mary throws twelve dice and wins if she scores at least two aces.10 of the coffee makers from A are defective while 0.15 A person gives you a six-sided die and tells you that it is a fair die.5.2. You roll the die 100 times and 99 of the 100 rolls turns up 4.13 A computer can send any one of three characters (A. You test it and discover it is defective.14 John throws six dice and wins if he scores at least one ace. However. . What is the probability that it came from Factory B ? 3. past history has shown that 0. due to transmission errors.11 Given two mutually exclusive events A and B . However. it is possible that the printer will not print the same character as transmitted. (a) You know that two particular coffee makers came from the same factory. The text of Monty’s letter is available on several web sites.12 A warehouse receives the same model of a coffee maker from two different factories. What is the probability that the other one is also defective? (b) You chose another coffee maker at random from those in the warehouse. One is defective. The probability that an A will be incorrectly printed as a B is 0. What is the probability that two A’s will be printed? (c) Suppose that a single character is transmitted.

Feller is often regarded as the ﬁrst person to organize probability theory as a self-contained subject. what is the probability of such an event? 3. What is the probability that each cell is occupied? 3. 3. list all possible arrangements. each independently of the other. thus.17 Let n balls be placed “randomly” into n cells. four boys take turns at washing dishes.18 A parking lot attendant noticed that in a section where there are 10 parking spaces arranged in a row. Out of a total of four broken dishes.Questions for Chapter 3 71 3. Two balls are dropped into the box. Was his renting a garage only for Tuesdays and Thursdays justiﬁed? 3. when the process of breaking dishes is actually random? 3. A cell may contain more than one ball.” Was he justiﬁed in attributing the frequency of his breakage to chance? Hint: Before the four dishes are broken.19 Consider a box partitioned into 3 cells. (a) If the balls are indistinguishable. he is clumsy. adopt the following decision rule: If the youngest brother breaks three or more of four broken dishes. Using this decision rule. Every one of the 12 tickets was given on either a Tuesday or Thursday. Wiley. what is the probability of incorrectly announcing that the youngest is clumsy.21 de M´ r´ ’s paradox: Which is more probable: (a) to get at least one ace with ee four dice. there are 6 cars parked. Find the probability of this event assuming tickets are given out on random days.20 (from Feller7 ) In a certain family. in such a way that every cell has an equal chance of receiving a ball. Reanswer (a) and (b). we will announce that the four dishes were not randomly broken and. but in such a way so that the four empty places were adjacent to each other. An introduction to probability theory and its applications. or (b) to get at least one double ace in 24 throws of two dice? 7 This is a problem from the text: William Feller. three were caused by the youngest and he was thereafter called “clumsy. 1950. . (b) What is the probability of each arrangement? (c) Suppose that no cell can have more than one ball. Assuming that car owners pick a parking place at random among the spaces available.16 A professor parks illegally on campus every night and has received twelve tickets for overnight parking.

the neighborhood postal carrier decides to deliver n letters addressed to n different individuals. However. (a) The students in the class are assigned seats at random.24 A classroom in the Bell Elementary School contains 16 seats with four rows of four seats each. What is the probability that the four girls will be seated together in a block of two rows and two columns somewhere in the classroom. Each bus can hold 50 riders. Answer the following questions assuming that each student chooses his bus for the trip at random: (a) What is the probability that every bus has at least one rider? . one letter per box. the carrier places the letters randomly into the n mailboxes. in his state-of-mind.2 for an example of such a block). (b) If the seats are assigned randomly. If no new passengers are picked up.22 A bus starts with r passengers and stops at n bus stops (r ≤ n).2: Example of a ‘Block’ for Bell Elementary School 3. (a) How many different ways could the postal carrier deliver the letters? (b) What is the probability that everyone gets the correct letter? (c) What is the probability that at least two people get the wrong letters? 3. A class is composed of 4 girls and 12 boys. (See Figure 3.23 After a night on the town.25 Fifty students have rented 3 busses for a class trip. what is the probability that no two passengers leave at the same stop? What assumptions are you making? 3. G = Girl) Figure 3.72 Questions for Chapter 3 B B B B G G B B G G B B B B B B (B = Boy. what is the probability that each row contains exactly one girl? 3.

What is the probability that the youngest child breaks exactly x dishes? 3.3 is still true even if we replace ⊆ by proper subset (i. and 20% of the independents favor him. 000 independents..32 A community of 20. If each student casts his vote independently and at random for one of the two candidates. 3.31 We know that A = B ⇒ P (A) = P (B) Note that this is used in many of the proofs in this chapter.27 A class of 100 students vote for class president among two candidates. Provide an example where A ⊂ B (with A = B ) and P (A) = P (B). n boys take turns at washing dishes. 000 Democrats and 5. That is.e. what is the probability of a tied election? 3. Show that for any events A. 000 voters is composed of 10.28 In a family. A = B ⇐ P (A) = P (B) 3. 5.26 If an ordinary deck of 52 cards is dealt to four hands of 13 cards each. what is the probability that the player who gets the ace of spades will also get the ace of hearts? 3. while 5% of the Democrats favor JK.Questions for Chapter 3 73 (b) What is the probability that all students sign up for the same bus? 3.30 Show that Theorem 3. Out of a total of d broken dishes. From a recent survey.29 Let Ω be a sample space with probability measure P (·). Provide an example to show that the converse is not true. it is known that 80% of the Republicans favor Presidential candidate JK. (a) What is the probability that a voter chosen at random from the community will favor JK? . A ⊂ B and A = B ). 000 Republicans. B and C P (A ∪ B ∪ C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) −P (A ∩ B) − P (A ∩ C) − P (B ∩ C) +P (A ∩ B ∩ C) 3.

she picks two socks at random from the basket. each character being produced by a unique impulse. Let P (B) = p.36 The Colorful LED Company manufacturers both green and red light emitting diodes (LED’s).74 Questions for Chapter 3 (b) Suppose a voter is chosen from the community and it is learned to favor JK. a second barrel was ﬁlled with a mixture of LED’s.34 Let A and B be two events. independent of past behavior. the probabilities that any of the 25 other characters will actually appear are equal. one barrel of red LED’s was produced.4 while P (A∪B) = 0. On a busy production day.33 A printing machine capable of printing any of the 26 letters (A through Z ) is operated by electrical impulses. Suppose the machine has the probability 0.9 of correctly producing the character corresponding to the impulse received. The barrels have no distinguishing markings. accidentally. LED’s are packaged and shipped in bulk using large cardboard barrels. and the character C is printed both times. In addition. Only when an electrical current is applied. What is the probability that the voter is a Republican? 3. What’s the probability that both socks are the same color? 3. 4 red socks and 2 green socks. When turned off. and that the character C is printed. a university student. If it prints the wrong character. . In the dark. (a) For what choice(s) of p is P (A ∩ B) = 0? (b) For what choice(s) of p are A and B indpendent? 3. one fourth green and three quarters red. (a) Suppose that one of the 26 impulses is chosen at random and fed into the machine. What is the probability that the impulse chosen was the one designed to produce a C ? 3. has a basket that contains 5 blue socks.7. the red and green LED’s look alike.35 Mary. can it be determined whether the LED gives off green or red light. Suppose that P (A) = 0. What is the probability that the impulse chosen was the one designed to produce a C ? (b) Suppose that one of the 26 impulses is chosen at random and fed into the machine twice.

What is the probability that it is the barrel with a mixture of green and red LED’s? 3. the space aliens zap you with a electromagnetic beam that causes you to forget which doors you have previously chosen. P (E2 ) and P (E3 ). Only one of the three doors leads to an escape spacecraft.37 You have been captured by aliens from outer space and held in a one-room cell on their planet. What is the probability that it is a green LED? (c) Suppose that one of the two barrels is chosen at random. every time you attempt to escape. you know how to expertly pilot the spacecraft back to Earth. What is the probability that it is the barrel with a mixture of green and red LED’s? (b) Suppose that one of the two barrels is chosen at random and then an LED is tested. (c) Assuming that the aliens zap you with their anti-memory beam (as in part (b)). (a) You decide to try each door (one at a time) at random. Find the values of P (E1 ). B and C . Let Ek denote the event that you require exactly k escape attempts. . Because of your engineering degree. you choose randomly from all three doors. you may need more than three attempts to escape. Assume that after a failed escape attempt you never choose a previously chosen door. (b) Anticipating your plan to escape. each time you return to your cell.Questions for Chapter 3 75 (a) Suppose that one of the two barrels is chosen at random. Find the values of P (E1 ). What is the probability that you need more than three attempts? (d) Assume that the aliens zap you with their anti-memory beam (as in part (b)). The room has three doors labelled A. and it turns out to be RED. Two of the doors lead to corridors that return you back to your one-room cell. Hence. P (E2 ) and P (E3 ). Find a formula to compute the value of P (Ek ) for any positive integer k . an LED is tested.

purple and yellow jelly beans. one contains only red petunia seeds. The purple and yellow jelly beans are placed in a blue bowl.). green. an angry employee removed the labels from all four barrels of seeds so that they are now indistinguishable (unless. Then you will choose a bowl at random and then pick a jelly at random . you will be blindfolded. You determine that it is a white petunia seed. Two of the barrels contain only white petunia seeds. What is the probability you selected the barrel containing a mixture of red and white seeds? 3. Before they are grown. At the end of the season. red and white petunia seeds are indistinguishable except through DNA testing. The green jelly beans are likewise placed in a white bowl. What is the probability that it is the barrel with the mixture of red and white seeds? Are you using logical. from the barrel that was randomly chosen in part (a. What is the probability that it is a red petunia seed? (c) You now perform a DNA test on that single petunia seed (the one chosen at random in part (b. The beans in both bowls are thoroughly mixed together. of course.76 Questions for Chapter 3 3. the company has only four barrels of petunia seeds remaining. with each bag containing jelly beans that are all of the same color. you are given one bag each of red. Exactly one half of the red jelly beans (one-half pound) are placed in the blue bowl and the other half are placed in the white bowl. and the fourth barrel contains a mixture of 10% red petunia seeds and 90% white petunia seeds. you perform a DNA test on the seeds).)). experimental or subjective probability? (b) You choose a single petunia seed at random from the randomly chosen barrel. (a) Suppose you choose a barrel at random. Just before leaving the company.38 The Belchee Seed Company sells ﬂower seeds and specializes in red petunias and white petunias. In order to conduct a probability experiment. (a) In the experiment.39 Jelly beans are packaged in one-pound bags.

3. you choose a bowl at random and then pick a jelly bean from that bowl at random. Let B = {the BLUE bowl is chosen} W = {the WHITE bowl is chosen} Also let R = {a RED jelly bean is chosen} G = {a GREEN jelly bean is chosen} P Y = {a PURPLE jelly bean is chosen} = {a YELLOW jelly bean is chosen} Do the events B and W form a complete set of alternatives? Brieﬂy explain why. What is the probability that it is a RED jelly bean? (c) A friend (who is not blindfolded) tells you that you did. So you do not know precisely which bowl you selected in part (b) and (c). indeed. How should you initially distribute the balls so as to maximize the probability of drawing a white ball? 3. G.Questions for Chapter 3 77 from that bowl. P and Y form a complete set of alternatives? Brieﬂy explain why.40 Show that if P (A) = P (B) = 1 then P (A ∩ B) = 1. a box will be picked at random and a ball randomly chosen from the selected box.42 (†) We deﬁne P (A | B) to be the number x that solves the equation P (A ∩ B) = xP (B) . (b) While blindfolded.41 (†) Suppose that you have n white balls and m red balls which you plan to distribute between two boxes. what is the probability that the second jelly bean is also RED? 3. After you have distributed all of the balls between the two boxes. You draw out a second jelly bean from the same bowl as you selected in parts (b) and (c). choose a RED jelly bean? What is the probability that you selected the BLUE bowl? (d) You are still blindfolded. Do the events R. Given that the ﬁrst jelly bean was RED.

the same as the date of the drawing. assume the following: • Two sets of three numbers are drawn twice each day. But if we try to use (5) to deﬁne conditional probabilities. the lottery game is played twice a day. the numbers drawn were 9-1-1. then Equation (6) doesn’t always hold. Each message he receives belongs to one of the following three categories B1 = {the message is “junk mail”} B2 = {the message is “adult content mail”} B3 = (B1 ∪ B2 )c = {the message is regular E-mail} . The “spam” E-mail is of two types: junk mail that is advertising to sell a product. Why? 3.43 (†) The 9-1-1 New York Lottery Problem. once mid-day and once in the evening.4. . This was regarded by many as a “miraculous” outcome. What is the probability that the lottery numbers will match the calendar date at least once in a year? 3. For this question. On September 11. Pop has carefully analyzed his E-mail messages. B and C . Consider the following equation (6) P (A ∩ B ∩ C) = P (A)P (B | A)P (C | A ∩ B) Show that if we use Deﬁnition 3. must match a sequence of three numbers.44 Mr. Mr. That is. Pop has a computer with an E-mail account.78 Questions for Chapter 3 We do not deﬁne P (A | B) as (5) P (A | B) = P (A ∩ B) P (B) Here is one reason why. • The numbers can match the calendar date only in the months of January to September. or adult content mail that is promoting web sites containing explicit adult material. Jackpot winners of the daily New York Lottery numbers game. and he gets a lot of “spam” messages. with each number independently selected at random from the digits 0 through 9. . then Equation (6) holds for any events A. 2002.

Upon further analysis. and that almost all of the “adult mail” contains the text string ‘’XXX”.Questions for Chapter 3 79 Note that every message is assigned to one and only one category.1 P (B3 ) = 0. 60% of his E-mail is “junk mail. that is. Pop estimates that the probability that a single message is assigned to a category is given by P (B1 ) = 0.6 P (B2 ) = 0. Pop has determined that most of the “junk mail” contains the text character ‘\$’. Being a former EAS305 student. Mr. Use Bayes’ theorem to ﬁnd the probability that the message is “adult content mail. Mr. (b) An E-mail message arrives and contains the character ‘\$’.” and the remaining 30% is useful. the probability that an E-mail message chosen at random contains the character ‘\$’.1 P (AX | B1 ) = 0. regular E-mail.8 P (A\$ | B2 ) = 0. Use Bayes’ theorem to ﬁnd the probability that the message is “junk mail.3 That is. Mr.0 P (AX | B2 ) = 0.9 P (AX | B3 ) = 0.” .2 P (A\$ | B3 ) = 0. Regular mail usually contains neither string.” (c) An E-mail message arrives and contains the character string “XXX”. Pop deﬁned the events A\$ = {the message contains ‘\$’} AX = {the message contains “XXX”} and determined that P (A\$ | B1 ) = 0.0 (a) Use the law of total probability to ﬁnd P (A\$ ).” 10% is “adult content mail.

80 Questions for Chapter 3 .

1. FX (a) is a nondecreasing function of a. Properties of any cumulative distribution function 1. lim FX (a) = 1 a→∞ 2. The Man Against the Sky (1921) Basic Concepts Deﬁnition 4. lim FX (x) = x↓a FX (a) 81 . 4. FX (a).4 RANDOM VARIABLES He stares in vain for what awaits him.2. And sees in Love a coin to toss. For any random variable X . we deﬁne the cumulative distribution function (CDF). FX (x) is a right-continuous function of a. – EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON. a→−∞ lim FX (a) = 0 3. Notation: (1) P {ω ∈ Ω : X(ω) = a} ≡ P {X(ω) = a} ≡ P (X = a) Cumulative Distribution Function Deﬁnition 4. as FX (a) ≡ P (X ≤ a). In other words. A random variable is a function X(·) which assigns to each element ω of Ω a real value X(ω).

6 F(x) 0. all xi 3.1.82 Discrete Random Variables 1 0.8 0.3.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Figure 4. pX (x) ≥ 0 for every x 2. For any random variable X and real values a < b P (a < X ≤ b) = FX (b) − FX (a) Discrete Random Variables Deﬁnition 4. Properties of any probability mass function 1.1: An example of a CDF for a discrete random variable Theorem 4. P (E) = xi ∈E pX (xi ) = 1 pX (xi ) .4 0. The probability mass function (pmf) of a discrete random variable X is given by pX (xi ) ≡ P (X = xi ).

2. 1. but. n. The random variable X is said to have a binomial distribution and has probability mass function (2) pX (k) = n k p (1 − p)(n−k) k for k = 0. success or failure.. Let X denote the number of successes on n trials. with each trial having two possible outcomes. Let p be the probability of a success for any single trial. Then the probability mass function for Y is given by pY (k) = (1 − p)k−1 p for k = 1. repeated trials. . then 1. and the random variable Y is said to have a geometric distribution with parameter p where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. . . n k=0 pX (k) Let’s check to make sure that if X has a binomial distribution. We will need the binomial expansion for any polynomial: (a + b)n = n k=0 = n k (n−k) a b k So n k=0 n k p (1 − p)(n−k) = (p + (1 − p))n k = (1)n = 1 The geometric distribution Recall the “success/failure” model that was used to derive the binomial distribution. . this time. we want to ﬁnd the probability that the ﬁrst success occurs on the k th trial. . Let p be the probability of a success for any single trial and let Y denote the number of trials needed to obtain the ﬁrst success.Discrete Random Variables 83 Examples of discrete distributions The binomial distribution Consider a sequence of n independent. . . .

∞ j=0 θj = 1 1−θ Proof.84 Discrete Random Variables Some facts about geometric series When working with the geometric distribution. For any 0 < θ < 1.2 ∞ j=0 ∞ j=0 θj θj = = 1 1−θ d 1 dθ 1 − θ d dθ . ∞ j=0 ∞ j j=0 ∞ j=0 ∞ θ − θ0 = θ − θ j θj = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 = j=1 ∞ j+1 j=0 ∞ j=0 ∞ j=0 ∞ j=0 θj − θ θj θj θj (1 − θ) 1 1−θ Theorem 4. ∞ j=0 jθj = θ (1 − θ)2 Proof. For any 0 < θ < 1. the following results are often helpful: Theorem 4.3. Using Theorem 4.2.

Continuous Random Variables . 1. . 2. we can show that the probability mass function for a geometric random variable must sum to one. then ∞ ∞ pY (k) = k=1 (1 − p)k−1 p (1 − p)j p k=1 ∞ = = j=0 1 p=1 1 − (1 − p) The Poisson distribution The random variable X is said to have a Poisson distribution with parameter α > 0 if X has a probability mass function given by (3) pX (k) = e−α αk k! for k = 0. ..2. .Continuous Random Variables ∞ 85 d j θ dθ j=0 ∞ = 1 (1 − θ)2 1 (1 − θ)2 1 (1 − θ)2 θ (1 − θ)2 θ (1 − θ)2 jθj−1 = jθj jθj jθj = = = θ j=1 ∞ −1 j=1 ∞ j=1 ∞ j=0 Example: Using Theorem 4. . . Suppose pY (k) = (1 − p)k−1 p for k = 1. . 2.

2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Figure 4. then (4) FX (a) = a −∞ fX (x) dx.86 Continuous Random Variables 1 0.8 0. The probability density function (pdf) of a continuous random variable X is given by d FX (a).5. P (E) = E Theorem 4.4. Theorem 4.6 F(x) 0.4 0. −∞ fX (x) dx = 1 fX (x) dx 3. If X is a continuous random variable. If X is a continuous random variable then P (X < a) = P (X ≤ a). .2: An example of a CDF for a continuous random variable Deﬁnition 4.4. fX (a) ≡ da Properties of any probability density function 1. fX (x) ≥ 0 for every x ∞ 2.

x + dx)) = fX (x)dx .3: The differential mass interpretation of fX (x) dx Differential mass interpretation of the pdf (5) P (X ∈ [x.Continuous Random Variables 87 Area = f(x)dx f(x) x x+dx Figure 4.

pmf pX (x) ≥ 0 P (X = x) = pX (x) pX (x) = 1 all x pdf fX (x) ≥ 0 P (x ≤ X < x + dx) = fX (x) dx ∞ −∞ fX (x) dx = 1 a −∞ FX (a) = x≤a pX (x) FX (a) = fX (x) dx pX (x) = P (E) x∈E E fX (x) dx = P (E) Examples of continuous distributions The uniform distribution The random variable X is said to have a uniform distribution if it has the probability density function given by (6) 1 fX (x) = b−a  0   if a ≤ x ≤ b otherwise The exponential distribution The random variable X is said to have an exponential distribution with parameter α > 0 if it has the probability density function given by (7) fX (x) = αe−αx if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise .88 Continuous Random Variables Comparison of pmf’s and pdf’s A comparison of the properties of the probability mass function and probability density function.

5. The expected value of a random variable X is given by E(X) = all x xpX (x) + for discrete X .” • The value of E(X) can be interpreted as the center of mass or center of gravity of the probability mass distribution for X . Example: Roll a fair die once. and E(X) = +∞ −∞ xfX (x) dx for continuous X . • The expected value of X is often called the “mean of X . Then E(X) = all x xpX (x) = (1)pX (1) + (2)pX (2) + (3)pX (3) + (4)pX (4) + (5)pX (5) + (6)pX (6) 1 1 = (1) 6 + (2) 1 + (3) 1 + (4) 1 + (5) 1 + (6) 6 = 3.Expectation 89 Expectation Deﬁnition 4. Note: • E(X) is a number.5 6 6 6 6 Example: Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 2x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 0 otherwise Then E(X) = = = 0 +∞ −∞ 0 −∞ 1 xfX (x) dx 1 0 x0 dx + x2x dx + 1 1 +∞ x0 dx 2x2 dx = 2x3 3 = 0 2 3 −0= 2 3 . Let X equal the number of pips.

1. . . The expected value for X can be found as follows: ∞ E(X) = k=0 ∞ ke−α e−α αk k! = k=1 αk (k − 1)! . . n. . . We can ﬁnd E(X) as follows: n E(X) = k=0 n k n k p (1 − p)n−k k = n! pk (1 − p)n−k (k − 1)!(n − k)! k=1 Let s = k − 1 n−1 E(X) = = np = np n s=0 n−1 s=0 n − 1 s+1 p (1 − p)(n−s−1) s n−1 s p (1 − p)(n−s−1) s Poisson distribution Let X be a Poisson random variable with parameter α > 0. We have pX (k) = n k p (1 − p)n−k k for k = 0. . .90 Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions Binomial distribution Let X be a binomial random variable with parameters n and 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. 1. 2. We have pX (k) = e−α αk k! for k = 0.

2. ∞ E(X) = = p kq k−1 p kq k−1 k=1 ∞ k=1 = p 1 1 = (1 − q)2 p Exponential distribution Let X be an exponential random variable with parameter α > 0. letting dv = αe−αx dx and x = u. . .. We have pX (k) = (1 − p)k−1 p for k = 1. To ﬁnd E(X) let q = (1 − p) and then. This produces E(X) = −xe−αx ∞ 0 + 0 ∞ e−αx dx = 1 α .Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions 91 Let s = k − 1 ∞ E(X) = = α = α e−α s=0 ∞ s=0 αs+1 s! αs s! e−α Geometric distribution Let X be a geometric random variable with parameter 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. We have fX (x) = αe−αx if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise We can get E(X) as follows: E(X) = 0 ∞ xαe−αx dx Integrate this by parts. Hence v = −e−αx and du = dx. .

S4. equals (A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/2 (D) any of the values in the set {−1. denoted by Mode(X). is given 2 by 1 P (X ≤ m 1 (X)) = .6. Answers can be found in Appendix B. 1} (E) none of the above are true.1 If X is a discrete random variable with P (X = −1) = P (X = 0) = P (X = 1) = 1/3 Then the expected value of X . choose the best response among those provided. The median of a random variable X . 2 2 Deﬁnition 4.92 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 Other measures of central tendency Deﬁnition 4.2 Suppose X is a continuous random variable with cumulative distribution function   0 if x < 0  2 x if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 FX (x) =   1 if x > 1 Then P (X < 0. is given by pX (Mode(X)) = max pX (x) if X is discrete x fX (Mode(X)) = sup fX (x) x if X is continuous Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 For each of the following multiple-choice questions. E(X). denoted by m 1 (X). The mode of a random variable X . S4.7.50) equals (A) 0 . 0.

3 Suppose X is a random variable with cumulative distribution function 1/3 FX (x) =  2/3    1 Then P (X = 2) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 2/3 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.50 √ (D) 0.4 Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) =   0    if x < 0 if 0 ≤ x < 1 if 1 ≤ x < 2 if x ≥ 2 1/2 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ c otherwise Then the value of c is (A) 1/2 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) +∞ (E) none of the above. S4. S4.50 (E) none of the above.25 (C) 0.5 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = λe−2x 0 if x > 0 otherwise The value of λ must equal . S4.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 93 (B) 0.

8 The length X (in inches) of a steel rod is a random variable with probability density function given by   x−9 fX (x) =  0 2 if 9 ≤ x ≤ 11 otherwise A rod is considered defective if its length is less than 10 inches. S4. Which of the following statements are always true: (A) lim FX (a) = 0 a→∞ (B) P (X = a) = FX (a) − FX (a − 1) (C) 0 ≤ FX (a) ≤ 1 for every a (D) all of the above are true (E) none of the above are true.94 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 (A) 1/2 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) e2x (E) none of the above. The probability that exactly two heads turn up is (A) (B) (C) (D) 1 2 1 4 3 8 2 3 (E) none of the above.7 Let X be a random variable with cumulative distribution function FX (a). If 2 independent steel rods are examined. the probability that exactly one is defective is (A) 1/4 .6 Suppose a fair coin is ﬂipped 3 times. S4. S4.

then α must equal (A) −1 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) 2 (E) none of the above.10 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = αe−αx if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise If P (X > 1) = e−2 . S4.01 that a person making an airline reservation will never show up for his or her ﬂight.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 95 (B) 3/8 (C) 1/16 (D) 3/16 (E) none of the above.11 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = x/2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise Then P (X ≤ 1) equals . If the airline permits 101 persons to make reservations for a given ﬂight. the probability that someone will be denied a seat is (A) 0 (B) 0. Assume that a person decides independently whether or not to show up for a ﬂight. Passenger behavior has been extensively studied over the years.99)101 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. It is known that the probability is 0.9 An airplane can hold 100 passengers.01 (C) (0. S4. S4.

S4.13 You have two light bulbs. 2.12 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function P (X = k) = e−1 k! for k = 0. The probability that both bulbs will each last at least one hour is (A) 0 (B) (1 − e−2 )2 (C) e−4 (D) 2e−2 (E) none of the above.96 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 (A) 1/8 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/3 (D) 1/2 (E) none of the above. S4. . The life length of each bulb (in hours) is a continuous random variable X with probability density function fX (x) = 2e−2x if x > 0 0 otherwise The two bulbs are allowed to burn independently of each other. . . Then P (X > 1) equals (A) e−1 (B) 1 − e−1 (C) 1 − 2e−1 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. . 1.

The value of E(X) is (A) 0 (B) 3/8 (C) 3/4 (D) 3/2 (E) none of the above. Suppose FX (0) = 0. .50 (C) 0. S4. Then P (0 < X ≤ 1) equals (A) 0 (B) 0. S4. The value of fX (0) is (A) 0.2 (C) 0.3 (D) 0.5.16 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3x2 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise Let E(X) denote the expected value of X .Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 97 S4.14 Let X be a continuous random variable with cumulative distribution function   0  FX (x) =   1 1 2 (x + 1) if x < −1 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 if x > 1 Let fX (x) denote the probability density function for X .75 (D) 1.5 (E) none of the above.00 (B) 0.00 (E) none of the above.3 and FX (1) = 0.15 Let X be a random variable with cumulative distribution function FX (x).

17 Suppose that an integrated circuit has a life length X (in units of 1000 hours) that is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3e−3x if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise An integrated circuit considered defective if its life length is less than 3000 hours. given by the following graph: 1 0. The expected number of defective items is (A) e−3 (B) (1 − e−3 ) (C) (1 − e−9 ) (D) 100(1 − e−9 ) (E) none of the above. F (a) ≡ P (X ≤ a). A batch of 100 integrated circuits are tested. The life lengths of any two integrated circuits are independent random variables.8 0.4 0.2 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 FX(a) a The value of P (−1 ≤ X ≤ 1) is (A) 0.98 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4 S4.4 (C) 0. S4.8 .6 (D) 0.6 0.2 (B) 0.18 Let X be a discrete random variable with cumulative distribution function.

19 An unfair coin is tossed 4 times. .Questions for Chapter 4 99 (E) none of the above. (c) Find E(X). 4. Questions for Chapter 4 4.2 The angle of ascent of an erratic rocket is a random variable X having the cumulative distribution function given by   1  FX (x) = if x > π/2 sin x if 0 ≤ x ≤ π/2   0 if x < 0 (a) Compute P (X ≤ π/8). (c) Find E(X). What is the probability of getting exactly two heads on 4 tosses? (A) (B) (C) 4 2 1 4 1 4 1 4 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 (D) 1 − 3 4 2 (E) none of the above.1 Let X be a continuous random variable having the probability density function 3 2 2 (1 − x ) if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise (a) Compute and plot the cumulative distribution function for X. The probability of a head on one toss is 1/4. S4.5). (b) Find the probability density function fX (x) for X . (b) Find P (X ≥ 0.

100 Questions for Chapter 4 4. Identify all possible values for p. 4.4 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (−1) = p pX (0) = 1 − 2p pX (1) = p The value of p is unknown.25). Find the value of c.7 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 1/θ if 0 ≤ x ≤ α 0 otherwise What relationship must hold between θ and α? .P Y ≥ 1 2 .6 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = cx if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise 1 2 . F (1.5 Let Y be a random variable with probability density function fY (y) = 3y 2 if 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 0 otherwise (a) Find the cumulative distribution function for Y . P (Y ≤ 0).3). and P 1 3 ≤Y ≤ 1 2 . 4. (c) Find E(X). (b) Compute P (−1 ≤ X ≤ 0. 4. (b) Compute P Y ≤ (c) Find E(Y ). (a) Compute F (0.3 Let X be a random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3√ 2 x 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise Let F denote the cumulative distribution function of X .25). 4. and F (−0.25).

2 pX (−1) = 0. If the number of weekly accidents in this factory is distributed with a Poisson distribution.12 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (−2) = 0.8 The angle of ascent of an erratic rocket is a random variable X having the cumulative distribution function given by   1  FX (x) = if x > π/4 sin x if 0 ≤ x ≤ π/4   0 if x < 0 Note: This is an example of a mixed probability distribution with both discrete and continuous probability mass. 4. then P (X = 1) = e−1 .Questions for Chapter 4 101 4. 4.2 pX (+2) = 0. 3. is a random variable with the following probability distribution: P (D = k) = c2k k! k = 1. (b) Find the probability density function fX (x) for X and the probability mass at π/4.10 The probability is p that there will be at least one accident in a certain factory in any given week. (b) Compute the expected demand. (c) Find E(X).9 Suppose that D. . 4. There is a positive point mass at π/4. .11 True or False: If X has a Poisson distribution and P (X = 0) = e−1 . (a) Evaluate the constant c. 2.4 pX (0) = 0. . (a) Compute P (X ≤ π/8). the daily demand for an item. . what is the expected number of weekly accidents? 4.2 Draw a plot of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for X .

then the gasoline is Low grade if High grade if r < 85 r ≥ 85 When gasoline is delivered.13 Suppose that X is a random variable with the following probability density function: 2x if 0 < x < 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise (a) Compute P (X > 0. there is an equal probability that it was produced at Plant A or Plant B .005(x − 80) 0 if 80 < x < 100 otherwise The octane rating of gasoline produced at Plant B is a continuous random variable Y with probability density function fY (y) = 0. A truck has arrived with today’s shipment of gasoline.5). If the octane rating is r.02(y − 80) 0 if 80 < y < 90 otherwise The grade of the gasoline is determined by its octane rating. (c) Compute P (−0.5).5). (b) Let FX (x) denote the cumulative distribution function for X . Find FX (0. 4. You are the owner of a Classey Gassey gasoline station.5 ≤ X ≤ 0.14 The Classey Gassey gasoline company produces gasoline at two plants (A and B ) and then delivers the gasoline by truck to gasoline stations where it is sold.102 Questions for Chapter 4 4. (a) Given only the above information. The octane rating of gasoline produced at Plant A is a continuous random variable X with probability density function fX (x) = 0. what is the probability that the shipment is Low grade gasoline? .

(a) Compute F (−5).15 Suppose that X is a random variable with the following probability density function: cx if 0 < x < 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise where c is a constant. Assuming that each cake can be sold only on the day it is made. F (π) and F (2π). and F (14).16 Let X be a random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 2/x2 if 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise Let F denote the cumulative distribution function of X .17 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (−4) = 1/4 pX (4) = 1/8 pX (−π) = 1/4 pX (π) = 1/8 pX (0) = 1/4 Let F denote the cumulative distribution function of X . 1. 4 and 5.00 on each cake that he sells and a loss (due to spoilage) of \$0. 3.40 on each cake that he does not sell. 4. ﬁnd the baker’s expected proﬁt for . (b) Compute E(X). 4. Low grade gasoline.Questions for Chapter 4 103 (b) You actually test today’s shipment of gasoline and discover that it is. He also knows that there is a proﬁt of \$1. 3 (a) Compute F (−11). in fact.18 The manager of a bakery knows that the number of chocolate cakes he can sell on any given day is a random variable with probability mass function p(x) = 1 6 for x = 0. 4. (a) What is the value of the constant c? (b) Find P (X < 0.5). 2. F (−3). (b) Find E(X). F ( 2 ). What is the probability that the shipment came from Plant A? 4.

X . You can then answer the question using the random variable Y . Using the probability distribution for X (the number of customer asking for cakes) ﬁnd the probability distribution for Y . Hint: Deﬁne the random variable Y as the actual daily proﬁt (or loss). . (b) a day when he bakes 4 chocolate cakes.. what is her expected proﬁt? 4. stopping only when he has at least one pretzel of each type. (a) Find P (X = k) for k = 4. . 5. 6. Billy plans to reach into the bag and draw out one pretzel at a time. (c) How many chocolate cakes should he bake to maximize his expected proﬁt? 4.104 Questions for Chapter 4 (a) a day when he bakes 5 chocolate cakes. The probability distribution for Y will depend on the number of cakes you decide to bake that day. You can assume that there is an inﬁnite number of pretzels in the bag with equal proportions of each shape. square. .19 If a contractor’s proﬁt on a construction job is a random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 1 18 (x + 1) 0 −1 ≤ x ≤ 5 otherwise where the units are \$1000. may exceed your supply. Let the random variable X denote the number of pretzels that Billy will draw from the bag. Be careful to consider the possibility that the demand for your cakes.20 (†) A large bag contains pretzels with 4 different shapes: heart. . circle and star. (b) Find E(X).

5 FUNCTIONS OF RANDOM VARIABLES When you do dance. They permit algebraic manipulation of event deﬁnitions. Ontario prefer the random variable Y representing the same Buffalo temperature. move still. at the point y = 20. Can we still ﬁnd P (A)? 105 . that you might ever do Nothing but that. – WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. New York temperature at 4:00 pm next Monday in degrees Fahrenheit. but our neighbors in Fort Erie. They are convenient. still so. we could evaluate the cumulative distribution function for Y . except in degrees Celsius. 2. And own no other function. they are interested in the event A = {ω ∈ Ω : Y (ω) ≤ 20} where Ω is the sample space of the underlying experiment. and probably more important reason for using random variables: 3. The Winter’s Tale (c 1600) Basic Concepts Two of the primary reasons for considering random variables are: 1. FY (y). representations of experimental outcomes. In order to compute P (A). namely FX (x). Furthermore. They allow us to restrict our attention to sample spaces that are subsets of the real line. Note that Ω is being mapped by both of the random variables X and Y into the real line. and often obvious. There is a third. let X be the random variable representing the Buffalo. But suppose we only know the cumulative distribution function for X . This chapter deals with this third “feature” of random variables. As an example. I wish you A wave o’the sea. This random variable might be suitable for the use of Buffalonians.

1 The function h(x) maps merely points in the real line (the sample space for X ) into points in the real line (the sample space for Y ) as in Figure 5. We can then redeﬁne the event A in terms of X as follows: A = {ω ∈ Ω : Y (ω) ≤ 20} = ω∈Ω : 5 9 (X(ω) − 32) ≤ 20 = {ω ∈ Ω : X(ω) − 32 ≤ 36} = {ω ∈ Ω : X(ω) ≤ 68} . let the function h(x) be deﬁned by h(x) = 5 (x − 32). we also have Y = h(X) as a random variable. When ﬁnding the probability of the event A.1. 9 which is nothing more than the equation of a straight line. we can use the shortcut notation presented in Chapter 5: P (A) = P (Y ≤ 20) = P ( 5 (X − 32) ≤ 20) 9 = P (X − 32 ≤ 36) = P (X ≤ 68) = FX (68). The general concept surrounding the above example is the notion of a function of a random variable. 1 . If X is a random variable. we can compute probabilities of events expressed in terms of the random variable Y . So. allows a representation of the event A in terms of either the random variable X or the random variable Y . So. mathematicians usually will drop the (ω).106 The answer is “yes. if we know the probability distribution for X . notice that for any ω ∈ Ω. (1) Y (ω) = 5 9 Basic Concepts X(ω) − 32 . Note that we should have really written this as Y (ω) = h(X(ω)). To show you what we mean by this. In order to simplify the notation.” First. knowing a relationship like Equation 1 between X(ω) and Y (ω) for every ω ∈ Ω.

the folks in Fort Erie are asking us to compute P (Y ≤ 20). we can compute P (X ≤ t) for any value of t.1: The mapping Y (ω) = h(X(ω)) The random variable X serves as a “middleman” in the mapping shown in Figure 5..Basic Concepts 107 Ω ω X( ) Real line Y( ) Real line 212 100 Figure 5. more obvious to deﬁne Y as mapping directly from Ω to the real numbers. This gives us the cumulative distribution function FX (t) and allows us to compute the probability of many other events. To oblige. An even more general situation appears in Figure 5. it would be very handy to have a tool that would enable us to compute probabilities involving Y using the facts we already know about X . “What are all of the possible outcomes of the experiment (i.e. But consider the case where we have already deﬁned X and then are given a functional relationship between X and Y . Also assume that we are given the cumulative . Returning to our example.1. at ﬁrst. Under those circumstances. In this case. suppose we are given a random variable X .2. Using this. you can see that what is happening is really quite simple. Referring to Figure 5. the Buffalo temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.3. measuring Monday’s 4 pm temperature) that would result in announcing that the temperature in degrees Celsius in 20 or less?” Call this event A and compute the probability of A from the distribution of the random variable X. Suppose we are given a cumulative distribution function for the random variable X . It may seem. we ask ourselves.

3: A more complicated example .2: Representing the event {Y ≤ 20} y y= h(x) B x = h-1(B) Figure 5.108 Basic Concepts y 20 y= ) h(x x 68 A Figure 5.

−1. we cannot make such a statement for continuous random variables.3) we can compute the probability measure of any subset B in the sample space for Y by determining which outcomes of X will be mapped by h into B . as we will see in a later example. We would like to ﬁnd the probability distribution for Y . If we then deﬁne the random variable Y = h(X) (where h is the function shown in Figure 5. we should ﬁrst ask ourselves. To solve the problem.Some examples 109 distribution function for X so that we are capable of computing the probability measure of any subset of the sample space for X . 1. The probability of any of these particular outcomes of X is. So all of the probability mass for the random variable Y is assigned to the set {0. Let A be the smallest subset of R such that P (Y ∈ A) = 1. x = −1 into 1. x = 0 into 0. “Since X can take on the values −2.1. 0. 4}. 1 or 2. Such a set is called the support for the random variable Y .1. also the probability of observing Y taking on a value in B . therefore. what values can Y assume?” We see that the function h(x) = x2 maps the point x = −2 into the point 4. Unfortunately. Solution: There is a pleasant fact that helps when working with discrete random variables: Theorem 5. x = 1 into 1 and x = 2 into 4. Some examples Discrete case Example: Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (−2) = pX (−1) = pX (0) = pX (1) = pX (2) = 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 Let Y = X 2 . Deﬁnition 5. Then A is called the support of the distribution for the random variable Y . A function of any discrete random variable is also a discrete random variable. .

. Find the distribution for the random variable Y = X 2 . it is easier to deal with the cumulative distribution functions. the density for X is given by fX (x) = if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0 otherwise 1 2 and the cumulative distribution function is x+1 FX (x) =  2   1   0   if x < −1 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 if x > 1.   0  .” With no elaborate computation. we can say that 2 pY (4) = pX (−2) + pX (2) = 5 . “Since X can take on only values from −1 to +1.110 Some examples Since X will take on the value −2 with probability 1 and the value 2 with probability 5 1 . Solution: For continuous random variables.e. Hence the probability distribution for Y is 5 5 given by the probability mass function: pY (0) = pY (1) = pY (4) = 1 5 2 5 2 5 Continuous case Example: Let X be a uniformly distributed random variable on the interval (−1. i. Similarly. and since each of these mutually exclusive events will result in Y taking on the 5 value 4. Let’s try to ﬁnd FY (y). we now know that if y < 0 ? if 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 FY (y) =   1 if y > 1. First. pY (1) = 2 and pY (0) = 1 . the answer is “Y can assume values from 0 to 1. we should ask ourselves. 1). what values can Y take on?” Since Y = X 2 .

FY (y) =   0  √ if y < 0 y if 0 ≤ y ≤ 1   1 if y > 1 Finding the probability density function for Y is now easy. i. We immediately know that the random variable Y is discrete. the density for X is given by fX (x) = if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise   0   1 2 and the cumulative distribution function is x FX (x) =  2   1 if x < 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 if x > 2 Let h(x) be the greatest integer less than or equal to x. i. Look at Figure 5..4. That task is left to you. Solution: Since X takes on the values ranging continuously from 0 to 2. We then have FY (y) = P (Y ≤ y ) = P X2 ≤ y √ √ = P − y≤X≤ y √ √ = FX y − FX − y √ √ y+1 − y+1 = − 2 √ 2 = y.e. 2). To ﬁnd the probability mass function for Y . So. and we have our ﬁrst example of a continuous random variable being mapped into a discrete random variable. 1 and 2 (why 2?).Some examples 111 Now suppose that y is equal to a value in the only remaining unknown case.. Find the distribution for Y = h(X).e. We know that Y takes on the value 0 when X takes on any value from 0 to 1 (but not including . Y can take on only the integers 0. Example: Let X be a uniformly distributed random variable on the interval (0. let h be given by the step function shown in Figure 5.4 again and try to visualize why this happened. that is 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. ﬁrst let’s try to ﬁnd pY (0).

. 2 2 which is good thing because we ran out of probability mass after the ﬁrst two computations. if for every y ∈ R there exists some x ∈ R such that y = h(x). pY (0) = 0 1 1 x dx = 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 = . 2 Similarly. 1 pY (0) = pY (1) = 2 . A function h : R → R is called one-to-one.112 Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables y 3 2 1 x -2 -1 1 2 3 4 A Figure 5. Hence. pY (1) = 1 1 dx = 2 2 and 1 dx = 0. pY (2) = 2 So we have the answer.4: The greatest integer function 1).2. Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables First we need a few concepts about inverse functions from calculus: Deﬁnition 5. if h(a) = h(b) implies a = b. A function h : R → R is called onto.

Therefore. for any a ≤ b. we can develop a general relationship between the probability density function for X and the probability density function for Y . Suppose h(x) has an inverse and is increasing (or decreasing). if X is a continuous random variable.2. If one considers the function Y = h(X) as a transformation (x) → (y). This produces the following relationship between the cumulative distribution function for X and the cumulative distribution function for Y : FY (y) = P [Y ≤ y] = P [h(X) ≤ y] FY (y) = P [h−1 (h(X)) ≤ h−1 (y)] FY (y) = P [X ≤ h−1 (y)] FY (y) = FX (h−1 (y)) To get the relationship between the densities. then we can deﬁne the inverse function h−1 : R → R such that h−1 (y) = x if and only if h(x) = y . then the random variable Y = h(X) has probability density function d fY (y) = fX (h−1 (y)) h−1 (y) dy We will leave it to you to ﬁnd a similar result for the case when h(x) is decreasing rather than increasing. If h(x) a strictly increasing function and h(x) has an inverse. Note: This transformation technique is actually a special case of a more general technique from calculus. then h−1 (x) is nondecreasing. and Y = h(X). take the ﬁrst derivative of both sides with respect to y and use the chain rule: d FY (y) = dy d FX (h−1 (y)) dy d fY (y) = fX (h−1 (y)) h−1 (y) dy We have just proven the following theorem: Theorem 5. the monotonicity property of h allows us to uniquely solve . If h(x) is a strictly increasing function with a differentiable inverse h−1 (·). Then. Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x).Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables 113 If a function h(x) is both one-to-one and onto. we have h−1 (a) ≤ h−1 (b).

has a nonnegative ﬁrst derivative with respect to y . In those cases. the resulting n × n determinant is called the Jacobian of the transformation. Find the probability density function for Y without explicitly ﬁnding the cumulative distribution function for Y .114 Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables y = h(x). So the support for Y is [−8. Example: Let X be a continuous random variable with density for X given by fX (x) = |x|/4 if −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise Let Y = h(X) = X 3 . That solution is x = h−1 (y). In calculus. When −8 ≤ y ≤ 8 fY (y) = = = 1 1 1 −2 3 3 4 |y |( 3 )y 1 1 1 3 √ 12 |y | 3 y 2 1 −1 3| 12 |y 1 1 1 . we can use Theorem 5. fX (y 3 ) = 0 hence fY (y) is zero. Solution: The support for X is [−2.2 to get fY (y) = fX (h−1 (y)) = fX (y 3 ) 1 1 1 d −1 h (y) dy d 1 y3 dy 2 = fX (y 3 )( 1 )y − 3 3 When y < −8 or y > 8 we have y 3 < −2 or y 3 > 2. 2]. when solving transformation problems with n variables. 8]. Since h−1 (y) = y 3 . We can then express the probability density function of Y as fY (y) = fX (h−1 (y))J(y) where J(y) is the following 1 × 1 determinant: J(y) = ∂ −1 ∂x ∂ −1 = h (y) = h (y) ∂y ∂y ∂y since h−1 (y) is also an increasing function of y and. thus.

2. Proof. We will provide proofs for both the discrete and continuous cases. then E(Y ) = E(h(X)) = all x h(x)pX (x) If X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x).. Let h(X) denote your winnings.Expected values for functions of random variables 115 Summarizing fY (y) = |y − 3 |/12 if −8 ≤ y ≤ 8 0 otherwise 1 Expected values for functions of random variables Theorem 5. Let Y = h(X). Let X = 1 if heads. your expected winnings. . X = 0 if tails. What are your expected earnings? Theorem 5. −5 x = 0 h(x) = 10 x = 1 Find E(h(X)). If X is a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (x). the life length of a transistor. We are really ﬁnding E(h(X)) where h(x) = a for all x. Question: Let X . . .4. Suppose X is a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (xk ) = P (X = xk ) = pk for k = 1. E(a) = a if a is a constant.3. then E(Y ) = E(h(X)) = +∞ −∞ h(x)fX (x) dx Question: Toss a coin. . be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 2e−2x x ≥ 0 0 otherwise Suppose you earn ln(x) + x2 − 3 dollars if the transistor lasts exactly x hours.

. . Proof. 2. Then E(h(X)) = E(a) = ∞ −∞ ∞ h(x)fX (x) dx afX (x) dx fX (x) dx = a(1) = a = a −∞ ∞ −∞ Theorem 5. E(aX) = aE(X) if a is a constant. Then E(h(X)) = E(aX) = ∞ −∞ ∞ h(x)fX (x) dx axfX (x) dx xfX (x) dx = a(E(X)) = a −∞ ∞ −∞ . We are ﬁnding E(h(X)) where h(x) = ax. Then E(h(X)) = k h(xk )pk axk pk k E(aX) = = a xk pk = a(E(X)) k Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x). Suppose X is a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (xk ) = P (X = xk ) = pk for k = 1.116 Expected values for functions of random variables Then E(h(X)) = k h(xk )pk apk k E(a) = = a pk = a(1) = a k Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x). . .5.

2. Suppose X is a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (xk ) = P (X = xk ) = pk for k = 1.6. We are ﬁnding E(h(X)) where h(x) = x + b. Proof.7. Then E(h(X)) = E(X + b) = = ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ h(x)fX (x) dx (x + b)fX (x) dx = xfX (x) dx + ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ (xfX (x) + bfX (x)) dx bfX (x) dx = E(X) + b(1) Theorem 5. Suppose X is a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (xk ) = P (X = xk ) = pk for k = 1. 2. We are ﬁnding E(h(X)) where h(x) = h1 (x) + h2 (x). Then E(h(X)) = k h(xk )pk . Then E(h(X)) = k h(xk )pk (xk + b)pk = k k E(X + b) = = k (xk pk + bpk ) xk pk + k bpk pk = E(X) + b(1) k = k xk pk + b Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x). . . ...Expected values for functions of random variables 117 Theorem 5. . E[h1 (X) + h2 (X)] = E[h1 (X)] + E[h2 (X)] for any functions h1 (X) and h2 (X) Proof. E(X + b) = E(X) + b if b is a constant. . .

Then E(h(X)) = E[h1 (X) + h2 (X)] = = = ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ h(x)fX (x) dx (h1 (x) + h2 (x))fX (x) dx (h1 (x)fX (x) + h2 (fX (x)) dx h1 (x)fX (x) dx + ∞ −∞ h2 (x)fX (x) dx = E[h1 (X)] + E[h2 (X)] Notice in the all of the above proofs the close relationship of Discrete X and Continuous X ∞ and k −∞ P (X = k) = pX (xk ) = pk and P (x ≤ X ≤ x + dx) = fX (x) dx Also notice that Theorem 5. Simply use Theorem 5.6 is really only a corollary to Theorem 5. The kth Moment of X If we let h(x) = xk and consider E[h(X)]. The quantity E(X k ) is deﬁned as the kth moment about the origin of the random variable X .7 with h1 (x) = x and h2 (x) = b and you get Theorem 5. we get the following deﬁnition: Deﬁnition 5.6.7.3.118 The k th Moment of X E[h1 (X) + h2 (X)] = k [h1 (xk ) + h2 (xk )]pk [h1 (xk )pk + h2 (xk )pk ] k = = k h1 (xk )pk + k h2 (xk )pk = E[h1 (X)] + E[h2 (X)] Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x). .

Variance 119 Variance Recall that E(X) is simply a number.5 2 = E[X ] + E[−2XE(X)] + E[[E(X)]2 ] = E[X ] − 2E(X)E[X] + E[[E(X)] ] .5. Note that Var(X) = for a discrete random variable X . The standard deviation of a random variable X is given by σX ≡ Var(X). This can be interpreted as the moment of inertia of the probability mass distribution for X . Var(X) = E(X 2 ) − [E(X)]2 Proof. we get Var(X) = E[(X − E(X))2 ] = E[X 2 − 2XE(X) + [E(X)]2 ] 2 2 expand the square from Theorem 5. Note: The value of Var(X) is the second moment of the probability distribution about the expected value of X . If we let h(x) = (x − E(X))2 and compute E(h(X)) we get a very useful result: Deﬁnition 5. The variance of a random variable X is Var(X) ≡ E[(X − E(X))2 ] . and Var(X) = +∞ −∞ (x − E(X))2 pX (x) all x (x − E(X))2 fX (x) dx for a continuous random variable X . Deﬁnition 5.7 from Theorem 5.8. Using the properties of expected value.4. Notation: We often write E(X) = µX 2 Var(X) = σX Theorem 5.

Using Deﬁnition 5. we get Var(aX) = E[(aX)2 ] − [E(aX)]2 = E[a2 X 2 ] − [E(aX)]2 = a2 E[X 2 ] − [aE(X)]2 = a E[X ] − a [E(X)] = a2 Var(X) 2 2 2 2 Using Theorem 5. Let Y = h(X) then Var(Y ) = E [h(X) − E(h(X))]2 Example: Suppose X is a continuous random variable with probability density function 3x2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise .5 = a2 (E[X 2 ] − [E(X)]2 ) Using Theorem 5. Var(X + b) = Var(X) Proof. we get Var(X + b) = E[((X + b) − E[X + b])2 ] = E[(X + b − E[X] − b)2 ] = E[(X − E[X])2 ] = Var(X) The proof of the following result is left to the reader: Theorem 5.4.8.120 Variance = E[X 2 ] − 2E(X)E[X] + [E(X)]2 = E[X ] − 2[E[X]] + [E(X)] = E[X 2 ] − [E[X]]2 2 2 2 from Theorem 5.8 Theorem 5.10.4 Theorem 5.9. Using Theorem 5.11. Var(aX) = a2 Var(X) Proof.

then even using these short-cut methods for computing E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) may result in difﬁcult integrals. Often. L. Then (2) (3) 2 h (µ) 2 σ 2 Var(Y ) ≈ [h (µ)]2 σ 2 E(Y ) ≈ h(µ) + Meyer. This avoids the need for explicitly ﬁnding the probability distribution for the random variable Y = h(X) if we are only computing expected values.Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) 121 Let Y = h(X) = 1/X . if the function h(·) is very complicated. P. Let X be a random variable with E(X) = µ and Var(X) = σ 2 . we can compute E(Y ) = E(h(X)) directly using only the probability distribution for X . 1965. Introductory probability theory and statistical applications. given a random variable X and function Y = h(X). Meyer.2 We have already shown that. Reading MA.. . we can get good results using the following approximations: Theorem 5.12. Addison-Wesley. However. Suppose Y = h(X). Then E(Y ) = 0 1 h(x)(3x2 ) dx = = 1 (3x2 ) dx 0 x 3 21 3 x = 2 0 2 3 2 1 Then we can use E(Y ) = E(h(X)) = Var(Y ) = 0 1 to compute (h(x) − E(h(X)))2 (3x2 ) dx = = = 1 3 2 − (3x2 ) dx x 2 0 1 1 3 9 (3x2 ) dx − + 2 x x 4 0 1 1 1 27 3 3 dx − 9x dx + x2 dx = 4 0 0 0 4 1 Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) This section is based on material in a text by P.

this will not be the same as h(µ) = h(E(X)). expand h in a Taylor series about x = µ to only one term to get Y = h(µ) + (X − µ)h (µ) + R2 where R2 is the remainder. A common mistake when using expected values is to assume that E(h(X)) = h(E(X)). the expected sales ﬁgure is “plugged into” the proﬁt function. Y = h(X) is the actual proﬁt from selling X items in a month. Equation (2) in Theorem 5. For example. Often. suppose we are selling a product. That is. Y = h(µ) + (X − µ)h (µ) + (X − µ)2 h (µ) + R1 2 where R1 is the remainder of the expansion. Now suppose. Discard the term R2 and take the variance of both sides to get Equation (3). We obtain. (This is only a sketch of the proof. and the random variable X represents the monthly demand (in terms of the number of items sold). Discard the remainder term R1 and take the expected value of both sides to get Equation (2). the expected proﬁt is actually E(Y ) = E(h(X)). h (µ) 2 σ 2 h (µ) 2 h(µ) − E(Y ) ≈ − σ 2 E(Y ) ≈ h(µ) + .) Expand the function h in a Taylor series about x = µ to two terms. believing the result is the expected proﬁt.12 provides an approximation for the error if you incorrectly use h(µ) rather than E(h(X)).122 Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) Proof. In fact. Unless h is linear. For the second approximation. This is not generally true. the number h(µ) is incorrectly interpreted as the expected proﬁt. Then E(X) = µ represents the expected number of items sold in a month.

the surface tension of a liquid (dyn/cm) is given by the formula S = 2(1 − 0.6 and 5. where T is the temperature of the liquid (degrees centigrade). h (x) = 0.8 Since µ = 15. This result for the linear case is also provided by Theorems 5.7.005(15))−0.12. results in E(S) ≈ h(15) + 75h (15) = 1.82 (dyne/cm) Var(S) ≈ 75[h (15)] = 0. 5.000012(1 − 0. E(T ) = ∞ 10 3000t−3 dt = 15 (degrees centigrade) Var(T ) = E(T 2 ) − (15)2 = ∞ 10 3000t−2 dt − 225 = 75 (degrees centigrade)2 In order to use Equations (2) and (3).01 h (15) = 0.005t)0.005t)1. we have h(15) = 1. Example: (Meyer) Under certain conditions. Suppose T is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3000t−4 if t ≥ 10 0 otherwise Therefore. using Theorem 5.000012(1 − 0. and ∆ = 0.005T )1.82 h (15) = 0.2 h (t) = 0.5.87 2 (dyne/cm)2 . if you incorrectly state that h(µ) is your expected monthly proﬁt.8 ≈ 0+ and.012(1 − 0.Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X)) 123 Therefore. your answer will be wrong by approximately ∆=− h (µ) 2 σ 2 Note that if h is linear.005t)−0.2 h (t) = −0.2 . we will use h(t) = 2(1 − 0.

Let X be a discrete or continuous random variable with E(X) = µ and Var(X) = σ 2 . Hence. We will prove this result when X is a continuous random variable. is applicable for any random variable X with ﬁnite variance.124 Chebychev’s Inequality Chebychev’s Inequality Chebychev’s inequality. Then for any a > 0 P (|X − µ| ≥ a) ≤ σ2 a2 Proof. we have (x − µ)2 fX (x) ≥ a2 fX (x).13.13.) We have for any a > 0 +∞ σ2 = = (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx −∞ µ−a µ+a +∞ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx + −∞ µ−a µ−a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx + µ+a +∞ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx = −∞ µ−a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx + something ≥ 0 + µ+a +∞ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx ≥ −∞ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx + µ+a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx µ+a since µ−a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx ≥ 0.” Source: The American Heritage R Dictionary of the English Language. Theorem 5. +∞). Rural country. and fX (x) dx replaced by the probability mass function for X . Houghton Mifﬂin Company. For a given Var(X). for all x over this region of integration. µ − a] ∪ [µ + a. the backwoods. Therefore. . Note that (x − µ)2 ≥ a2 for every x ∈ (−∞. Fourth Edition. given in the following Theorem 5. and 3 boon·docks (b¯ on’d˘ ks’) plural noun. the inequality establishes a limit on the amount of probability mass that can be found at distances far away from E(X) (the boondocks3 of the probability distribution). (The proof for X discrete is similar using summations rather than integrals. Example usage: The o¯ o 1965 Billy Joe Royal Song: “Down in the Boondocks. µ−a −∞ +∞ µ+a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx ≥ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx ≥ µ−a −∞ +∞ µ+a a2 fX (x) dx a2 fX (x) dx.

has determined that the mean and variance of X are 18 and 6. What is the probability that there will be between 8 and 28 customers on any given Saturday? Solution We are given E(X) = µ = 18 and Var(X) = σ 2 = 6.Chebychev’s Inequality 125 So. Linda Chattin at Arizona State University for this example.9375 102 This is the best statement we can make without knowing more about the distribution for X . we get σ2 ≥ ≥ µ−a −∞ µ−a −∞ (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx + a2 fX (x) dx + +∞ µ+a +∞ µ+a (x − µ)2 fX (x) dx a2 fX (x) dx = a2 P (X ≤ µ − a) + a2 (P (X ≥ µ + a) = a2 P (|X − µ| ≥ a) Note: X can be discrete. X .25 respectively. Using extensive prior experience. the manager. . An equivalent way to state Chebychev’s inequality is Let X be a discrete or continuous random variable with E(X) = µ and Var(X) = σ 2 . 4 Thanks to Dr. so P (8 < X < 28) = P (8 − 18 < X − 18 < 28 − 18) = P (−10 < X − 18 < 10) = P (|X − 18| < 10) = P (|X − µ| < 10) ≥ 1 − 6.25.25 = 0. a former EAS305 student. Then for any a > 0 P (|X − µ| < a) ≥ 1 − σ2 a2 Example:4 The number of customers who visit a car dealer’s showroom on a Saturday morning is a random variable.

The theorem guarantees that. and Var(X) = σ 2 .126 The Normal Distribution The Law of Large Numbers This is an important application of Chebychev’s inequality. We often say that “X is distributed normally with mean µ and variance σ 2 ” We write X ∼ N (µ. with probability one. σ 2 ) then E(X) = µ. If X ∼ N (µ. . 4 X4 . Let Xn ≡ number of times the event A occurs p ≡ P (A) Then for any > 0 n→∞ lim P Xn −p < n = 1.15. 1 X2 . this sequence converges to p. Theorem 5. with each outcome of the experiment independent of all others. the probability that the ratio Xn /n is observed to be “close” to p approaches one. 1 X3 . . µ and σ . . we often say that the sequence { n Xn } converges to p almost surely.} 2 3 The strong law states that. The random variable X is said to have a normal distribution if it has probability density function 1 1 fX (x) = √ e− 2 σ 2π x−µ 2 σ for −∞ < x < ∞ Note that X has two parameters. In 1 this case. Let an experiment be conducted n times. The Normal Distribution Deﬁnition 5. σ 2 ) .14. Theorem 5. The above result is the weak law of large numbers. as n gets large. There is a related result called the strong law of large numbers that makes a similar (but stronger statement) about the entire sequence of random variables 1 {X1 .6.

and thus avoid numerically integrating Equation 4 for every conceivable pair of values µ and σ . to an equivalent probability statement involving only a normal random variable with mean zero and variance one. If X ∼ N (µ. In other words.e. Suppose X ∼ N (µ. Deﬁnition 5. The standard normal random variable. σ 2 ). σ 2 ). there exists no function in closed form whose derivative is 1 1 fX (x) = √ e− 2 σ 2π x−µ 2 σ The only way to compute probabilities for normally distributed random variables is to evaluate the cumulative distribution function in Equation 4 using numerical integration.The Normal Distribution 127 One of the amazing facts about the normal distribution is that the cumulative distribution function (4) FX (a) = a −∞ 1 1 √ e− 2 σ 2π x−µ 2 σ dx does not exist in closed form. has probability density function 1 2 1 φ(z) = √ e− 2 z 2π i. such as P (X ≤ a). 1) probabilities.7. We denote the cumulative distribution function for Z by Φ(a) = P (Z ≤ a). 1). the probability density function for X is 1 x−µ 2 1 for −∞ < x < ∞ fX (x) = √ e− 2 σ σ 2π Deﬁne the function x−µ h(x) = σ . Z . Therefore. σ Proof.16. If X ∼ N (µ. Theorem 5. Z ∼ N (0. then the random variable Z= X −µ ∼ N (0.. We can then refer to a table of N (0. there is an important property of the normal distribution that allows us to convert any probability statement. σ 2 ). 1). Such a table is provided in Table I of Appendix A.

X −µ If X ∼ N (µ. and 3.17. σ Then E(Z) = 0 and Var(Z) = 1. Proof. Suppose X is any random variable with ﬁnite mean E(X) = µ and ﬁnite. σ 2 ). nonzero variance Var(X) = σ 2 .128 The Normal Distribution Note that z = h(x) is an invertible. Z has a normal distribution Actually.2. E(Z) = 0 2. increasing function of x with h−1 (z) = σz + µ d −1 h (z) = σ dz Using Theorem 5.16 tells us three things about Z = σ 1. Theorem 5. We have E(Z) = E X −µ σ . the probability density function for the random variable Z = h(X) is fZ (z) = fX (h−1 (z)) = = d −1 h (z) dz 1 (σz+µ)−µ 2 1 σ √ e− 2 σ for −∞ < σz + µ < ∞ σ 2π 1 2 1 √ e− 2 z for −∞ < z < ∞ 2π Note that we couldn’t use the cumulative distribution function of X to ﬁnd the cumulative distribution function of Z since neither cumulative distribution function exists in closed form. the ﬁrst two results would be true even if X did not have a normal distribution: Lemma 5. Deﬁne the random variable Z= X −µ . Var(Z) = 1.

16 is that if X is normally distributed. E(Z) = 0 and Var(Z) = 1. σ 2 ). in Theorem 5. the function Y = h(X) is strictly decreasing. What is important in Theorem 5. X −µ Z= σ is also normally distributed. it is no surprise that. This fact is provided by the following theorem: Theorem 5. Proof.18. a2 σ 2 ).e.2. then any linear function h(X) = aX + b is also normally distributed as long as a = 0. . If a > 0. then the linear transformation of X . When we perform the above transformation (i. namely. then the function Y = h(X) is strictly increasing and if a < 0. A distribution that has zero mean and unit variance is said to be in standard form.16.The Normal Distribution 129 = E = = = 1 (X − µ) σ 1 E[X − µ] σ 1 (E[X] − µ) σ 1 (0) = 0 σ and Var(Z) = Var X −µ σ 1 = Var (X − µ) σ 1 Var[X − µ] = σ2 1 = Var[X] = 1 σ2 So. then for any constants a = 0 and b. Z = (X − µ)/σ )..) With a little additional work we can show that id X is normally distributed. we say we are standardizing the distribution of X . This is just a special case of Theorem 5. the random variable Y = aX + b ∼ N (aµ + b. If X ∼ N (µ.

130

The Normal Distribution

We know

1 1 fX (x) = √ e− 2 σ 2π

x−µ 2 σ

Suppose a > 0, then
FY (y) = P (Y ≤ y) = P (aX + b ≤ y) y−b = P X≤ a y−b = FX a

Take derivatives on both sides and use the chain rule to obtain d y−b d fY (y) = FY (y) = FX dy dy a y−b 1 = fX a a
= =

1 √ e σ 2π 1 1 √ e− 2 aσ 2π

−1 2

y−b a −µ σ

2

1 a

y−(aµ+b) 2 aσ

Hence, Y ∼ N (aµ + b, a2 σ 2 ). Now suppose a < 0, then
FY (y) = P (Y ≤ y) = P (aX + b ≤ y) y−b = P X≥ a y−b y−b = P X> +P X = a a y−b y−b +P X = = 1 − FX a a = and since X is continuous. . . y−b +0 = 1 − FX a

Take derivatives on both sides and use the chain rule to obtain d d y−b fY (y) = FY (y) = 1 − FX dy dy a

The Normal Distribution
y−b 1 a a and remembering that a < 0 . . .
1 −2 y−b a −µ σ 2

131

= −fX

=

1 1 √ e −a σ 2π 1 y−(aµ+b) 2 1 aσ √ e− 2 = −aσ 2π and since a2 = (−a)2 . . . 1 y−(aµ+b) 2 1 √ e− 2 −aσ = −aσ 2π

So, again, we have Y ∼ N (aµ + b, a2 σ 2 ). Question: What happens to the probability distribution of Y = aX + b when a = 0? Linear transformations rarely preserve the “shape” of the probability distribution. For example, if X is exponentially distributed, Z would not be exponentially distributed. If X was a Poisson random variable, Z would not be a Poisson random variable. But, as provided by Theorem 5.16, if X is normally distributed, then Z is also normally distributed. (See Question 5.6 to see that the uniform distribution is preserved under linear transformations.) Tools for using the standard normal tables
P (Z ≤ a) = Φ(a) is given in the tables for various values of a. It can be shown that since Z is a continuous random variable and the probability density function for Z is symmetric about zero, we have

Φ(a) = 1 − Φ(−a). Example: Suppose X ∼ N (0, 4). Let’s ﬁnd P (X ≤ 1).
P (X ≤ 1) = P (X − 0 ≤ 1 − 0) X −0 1−0 = P ≤ 2 2

Since X ∼ N (0, 4) we know from Theorem 5.16 that
Z= X −0 2 ∼ N (0, 1)

132

The Normal Distribution

so, using Table I in Appendix A, we have
P (X ≤ 1) = P Z ≤ = P Z≤

1−0 2
1 2

= 0.6915

This is the area shown in the following ﬁgure:
0.5 0.4 0.3

φ(z ) φ( )

0.2 0.1 0.0 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.1 -0.9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

z

Example: Suppose X ∼ N (2, 9). Let’s ﬁnd P (0 ≤ X ≤ 3).
P (0 ≤ X ≤ 3) = P (0 − 2 ≤ X − 2 ≤ 3 − 2) X −2 3−2 0−2 ≤ ≤ = P 3 3 3

Since X ∼ N (2, 9) we know that
Z= X −2 3 ∼ N (0, 1)

Hence,
2 P (0 ≤ X ≤ 3) = P − 3 ≤ Z ≤ 1 3

= P Z≤

1 3

− P Z < −2 3

Since the N (0, 1) distribution is symmetric about zero,
P Z < −2 = P Z > 3
2 3

=1−P Z ≤

2 3

Finally, from Table I, we get
P (0 ≤ X ≤ 3) = P Z ≤
1 3

− 1−P Z ≤

2 3

= 0.63 − (1 − 0.75) = 0.38

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5

133

which is the area shown in the following ﬁgure:
0.5 0.4 0.3

φ(z ) φ( )

0.2 0.1 0.0 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.1 -0.9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

z

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5
For each of the following multiple-choice questions, choose the best response among those provided. Answers can be found in Appendix B. S5.1 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function
fX (x) =
1 2

0

if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise.

The value of P (X 2 ≥ 1 ) is 4 (A) 0 (B) (C)
1 4 1 2

(D) 1 (E) none of the above. S5.2 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 0 and E(X 2 ) = 2. Then the value of E[X(1 − X)] is (A) −2 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 2 (E) Var(X)

134

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5

(F) none of the above. S5.3 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 1 and E(X 2 ) = 2. Then Var(X) equals (A) −1 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 3 (E) none of the above. S5.4 Suppose that X is a continuous random variable with P (X < −2) = P (X < 2) = 1 . Then P (X 2 ≤ 4) equals. 2 (A) (B) (C)
1 4 1 2 3 4 1 4

and

(D) 1 (E) none of the above. S5.5 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 2. Then E[(X − 2)2 ] equals (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) Var(X) (D) E(X 2 ) (E) none of the above. S5.6 Let X be a random variable with cumulative distribution function if x < 0 x if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 FX (x) =   1 if x > 1 Then P (3X ≤ 1) equals (A) 1/6
  0 

Then P (Y ≤ 2 ) equals . The value of P (X 2 = 1) is 2 (A) p2 (B) 2p (C) (1 − 2p)2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. −1. S5. S5.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 135 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/3 (D) 1/2 (E) none of the above.8 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (x) = 1/4 if x = −2. Then P (Y ≤ 2 ) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/4 (C) 3/4 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.7 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function pX (−1) = p pX (0) = 1 − 2p pX (1) = p where 0 < p < 1 . S5.9 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 1/4 if −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise 1 Let Y = 1/X . 1 or 2 0 otherwise 1 Let Y = 1/X .

S5.12 Suppose that X is a random variable with P (X > 0) = r where 0 < r < 1. S5.11 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0 otherwise 1 2 Then P (|X| ≤ 1 ) equals 4 (A) 0 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. S5. Then P (X 2 ≥ 0) equals (A) 0 .136 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 (A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 3/4 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.10 Let X be a random variable with P (X < −1) = 1/4 P (X ≤ +1) = 3/4 Then P (|X| > 1) equals (A) 1/4 (B) 1/2 (C) 3/4 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.

The expected daily proﬁt from chocolate cake is equal to . Let Y denote your actual net amount won (which may be negative).Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 √ r 137 (B) (C) r (D) 1 (E) none of the above.00 per cake. S5.5 pX (3) = 0. the bakery owner bakes two chocolate cakes at a cost of \$2. The cake is sold for \$5. with each outcome independent of the others.14 A fair coin is tossed 10 times.13 Suppose X is a random variable with E(X) = α and Var(X) = α. At the beginning of the day. S5.15 The daily demand for chocolate cake in a neighborhood bakery is a random variable X with probability mass function given by pX (0) = 0. S5. Then P (Y ≥ 0) equals (A) 2/3 (B) 848/1024 (C) 904/1024 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. Suppose you win \$2 for every head and lose \$1 for every tail.2 pX (1) = 0.1 where X represents the number of cakes requested by customers. Then E(X 2 ) equals (A) 0 (B) α (C) α2 (D) α + α2 (E) none of the above.2 pX (2) = 0.00 a cake and all unsold chocolate cakes are thrown away at the end of the day. where α > 0.

but guarantees a total refund if X ≤ 1.50 (C) \$2.138 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 (A) 0 (B) \$1. S5.17 Suppose that an electronic device has a life length X (in units of 1000 hours) that is considered a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = e−x 0 if x > 0 otherwise Suppose that the cost of manufacturing one such item is \$2.00. What is the manufacturer’s expected proﬁt per item? (A) 5e−1 (B) 2e−1 (C) −2 + 5e−1 . The bread is sold for 50 cents a loaf and all unsold loaves are thrown away at the end of the day. S5.00 (E) none of the above.00.2 pX (2) = 0.2 pX (1) = 0. The expected daily proﬁt from rye bread is equal to (A) 0 (B) 20 cents (C) 30 cents (D) 40 cents (E) none of the above. the store owner bakes two loaves of rye bread at a cost of 20 cents per loaf.00 (D) \$3. The manufacturer sells the item for \$5.16 The daily demand for rye bread in a corner grocery store is a random variable X with probability mass function given by pX (0) = 0.6 At the beginning of the day.

S5. S5. S5. You win \$2 for each head that appears.18 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 2 and E(X 2 ) = 5. Let Y denote your earnings after 3 tosses.20 A fair coin is tossed 3 times. .19 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 1 and Var(X) = 4 then E((X − 1)2 ) equals (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 4 (D) 16 (E) none of the above. and you lose \$1 for each tail that appears.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 139 (D) 5 − 2e−1 (E) none of the above. Then Var(X) equals (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 7 (D) 9 (E) none of the above. The value of E(Y ) is (A) 0 (B) 3/2 (C) 1 (D) 3 (E) none of the above.

22 Let X be a normally distributed random variable with E(X) = 3 and Var(X) = 9.8413 (E) none of the above S5. Y = σ Which of the following are always true: (A) E(Y ) = 0 and Var(Y ) = 1 (B) Y has a normal distribution (C) P (Y > 0) = 1/2 (D) all of the above are true.5 (D) 0 (E) none of the above.5 and P (X = +1) = 0.5.5 (D) 0. then P (−2Y < 0) equals (A) p (B) 1 − p (C) 0. Consider the random variable X −µ .23 If Y is a random variable with P (Y ≥ 0) = p.140 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 S5. Then P (X < 0) equals (A) 0 (B) 0.21 Let X be any random variable with E(X) = µ and Var(X) = σ 2 . (E) none of the above are true. S5. S5.1587 (C) 0. Then the value of E(|X|) is (A) 0 .24 Let X be a random variable with P (X = −1) = 0.

Let Y denote the reward for any one customer.3413 (E) none of the above.5 (C) 1 (D) 2 (E) none of the above are true.25 The time to wait for service in the El Gasso Mexican Restaurant is a continuous random variable X (in minutes) with probability density function fX (x) = 5e−5x 0 x≥0 otherwise The restaurant will pay a customer a \$10 reward if they wait more than 5 minutes for service. S5. The value of E(Y ). S5.1826 (C) 0.27 Suppose X is a continuous random variable with cumulative distribution function   0 if x < 0  2 x if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 FX (x) =   1 if x > 1 .1528 (B) 0. the expected reward.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5 141 (B) 0. is (A) 0 (B) 5 (C) 10 (D) 10e−25 (E) none of the above. Then. P (|X| ≤ 1) equals (A) 0.26 Suppose that the random variable X has a normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4. S5.3174 (D) 0.

28 The life length X (in years) of a printer costing \$200 is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = e−x if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise The manufacturer agrees to pay a full refund to the buyer if the printer fails within the ﬁrst year. (a) Find the probability density function for the random variable Y = h(X) = 1/X . how much should he expect to pay in refunds? (A) \$2706.29 (E) none of the above.642.142 Questions for Chapter 5 Let ln(x) denote the natural logarithm of x.71 (B) \$7357. S5.50 (E) none of the above.1 Let X be the random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3 2 (1 0 − x2 ) if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise Let h(x) = 1/x. Questions for Chapter 5 5. Deﬁne the random variable Y = ln(X).41 (D) \$17.25 (C) 0. .293.50)) equals (A) 0 (B) 0. E(h(X)) and h(E(X)). If the manufacturer sells 100 printers.59 (C) \$12. Then P (Y < ln(0. (b) Find E(X).50 √ (D) 0.

4 The price.2 Let X be the random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 2/x2 if 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise Let h(x) = ln x. of a commodity is a continuous random variable with the following probability density function   ax if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1  fX (x) =   0 a if 1 < x ≤ 2 otherwise (a) Determine the value of a. 9 (b) Find E(X). (a) Find the probability density function for the random variable Y = h(X) = ln X . (c) Find Var(X).5). (b) Find E(X). (c) Compute P (2X 2 ≤ 0. (d) Compute E(X) and Var(X).Questions for Chapter 5 143 (c) Find Var(X). (c) Find Var(X). 9 (a) Find the probability density function for the random variable Y = h(X) = 4 X . E(h(X)) and h(E(X)). (b) Determine the cumulative distribution function for X . E(h(X)) and h(E(X)). X .3 Let X be the random variable with probability density function fX (x) = 3√ 2 x 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise Let h(x) = 4 x. 5. 5. . 5.

8 Suppose that an electronic device has a life length X (in units of 1000 hours) that is considered as a continuous random variable with probability density function: e−x x>0 fX (x) = 0 otherwise Suppose that the cost of manufacturing one such item is \$2. (b) Using the probability density function for Y ﬁnd E(Y ) and Var(Y ). What is the manufacturer’s expected proﬁt per item? .6 (†) Let X be a uniformly distributed random variable on the interval [a. let X be the random variable with probability density function 3x2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise (a) Find the probability density function for the random variable Y = h(X) = 1/X .9.00.5 Let X be a random variable with the following probability density function: 1 2 fX (x) = √ e−x /2 2π for −∞ < x < ∞ The is the normal distribution with parameters µ = 0 and σ 2 = 1. b].5 using the actual probability density function for Y . Note: The integral for fX (x) does not exist in closed form.144 Questions for Chapter 5 5. Z= Let 5. That is.5. 5. Note: Be careful of the case where s < 0.7 Verify the results of Example 5. Show that Z also has a uniform distribution. The results should be the same as Example 5. 5.00 but guarantees a total refund if X ≤ 0. The manufacturer sells the item for \$5. In other words. Find the probability density function for the random variable Y = X 3 . suppose the cumulative distribution function of X is given by  if x < a  0   x−a if a ≤ x ≤ b FX (x) =  b−a   1 if x > b. X −r s Where r and s are non-zero constants. where a < b.

where Y = X 2 + 1. The examination consists of 4 multiple choice questions. Let X denote the number of questions correctly answered by Billy. Mary will pay an “entry fee” in advance to John equal to her expected winnings. was not able to study for an examination.e. Bill Bell. an industrial engineering student. Billy plans to answer the questions randomly by rolling a fair die for each question and choosing the response associated with the number rolled.9 Suppose that the continuous random variable X has a probability density function given by   √1 e−x2 fX (x) = 2π  −∞ ≤ x ≤ +∞ 0 otherwise Let Y = X 2 .12 Due to pressing social commitments.Questions for Chapter 5 145 5. (a) What is the expected number of tosses required to obtain the ﬁrst head? (b) What is Mary’s entry fee? Is this fair? Why? 5..11 John and Mary play a game by tossing a fair coin repeatedly and betting on the number of tosses required.10 Let X be a random variable with density   2 fX (x) = x2  0 d dx 1≤x≤2 otherwise 1 x. X . (a) Using the fact that Var(X). Therefore. John will pay Mary 2X dollars when the game is over (i. (a) What is the probability mass function for the random variable X? (b) If the professor assigns a credit of ten points for every correct answer and deducts one point for every incorrect answer. Each question has 6 possible answers from which to choose. Evaluate E(Y ). To make the game fair. only one of which is correct. 5. Mary’s entry fee will be E(2X ). when the ﬁrst head appears). to obtain the ﬁrst head. what is Billy’s expected score? . ln(x) = compute E(X) and (b) Compute E(Y ). 5.

That is.00. 5.3. Suppose that X ∼ N (µX . common six-sided die is tossed.6 At the beginning of the day.00. the store owner bakes k loaves of bread at a cost of 20 cents for the ﬁrst loaf and 10 cents for each additional loaf.14 (True or False) If X is a random variable with E(X) = 1. If its weight is greater than 52 ounces.15 If X is a random variable with P (X = −2) = what is the value of E(|X|)? 1 2 and P (X = +2) = 1 . For what number α is E(X(α − X)) zero? 5. pX (1) = 0. it is sold for \$15. σX ). What is the expected selling price of an article? 5. R. Then Y is said to have a log-normal distribution. 56).18 A distribution closely related to the normal distribution is the log-normal 2 distribution. 2 5. if the store owner decides to bake one loaf (i. and has a uniform distribution on the interval (36. pX (2) = 0.16 The daily demand for pumpernickel bread in a corner grocery store is a random variable X with probability mass function given by pX (0) = 0.146 Questions for Chapter 5 (c) The professor deducts points for wrong answers in order to discourage random guessing. The bread is sold for 30 cents a loaf and all unsold loaves are thrown away at the end of the day. it is sold for \$12. If its weight is greater than 44 ounces and less than 52 ounces. If 10 points are credited for each correct answer. Justify your answer. If the weight of the article is less than 44 ounces. then E(X(X − 1)) equals zero. (a) Determine the probability distribution for the daily proﬁt. Find the probability density function for Y . Y is log-normal if and only if ln(Y ) is normal. how many points should be deducted for each wrong answer so that Billy’s expected score from guessing is zero? 5.1.17 A random variable X represents the weight (in ounces) of an article. (b) How many loaves should the grocer bake per day to maximize his expected proﬁt? 5.. k = 1). Let Y = eX . .e. it is considered unsatisfactory and thrown away.13 Let X be the number of dots obtained when a fair.

20 The Youbee Resistor Company uses a machine to produce resistors. otherwise it is scrapped. (a) What proportion of the resistors must be scrapped? (b) The company is considering the purchase of a new highprecision machine that will reduce the above production . The relationship between the moments of X and the moments of Y is given by µX 2 σX = ln(µY ) − = ln 2 1 σY 1 2 ln + 1 = ln(µY ) − σX 2 2 2 µY 2 σY +1 µ2 Y Examples of random variables that may be represented by the log-normal distribution are river ﬂows. What must his new proﬁt function be in order to achieve this goal? 5. it can be sold for 25 cents. The actual resistance of each resistor is a normally distributed random variable with mean resistance of 1000 ohms and a variance of 625 ohms2 . and the length of life of certain items. the diameter of a small particle after a crushing process.19 A rocket fuel is to contain a certain percent (say X ) of a particular additive. 5. 9).Questions for Chapter 5 147 Note: For this question. He intends to do this by increasing his proﬁt (per gallon) on those batches of fuel meeting the speciﬁcation 30 < X < 35. The speciﬁcations call for X to be between 30 and 35 percent. by 50%.10 per gallon if 30 < X < 35 if 35 < X < 40 or 25 < X ≤ 30 otherwise (a) If X ∼ N (33. E(T ). the size of an organism subject to a number of small impulses.05 per gallon   -\$0.10 per gallon  T (X) = \$0. The manufacturer will make a net proﬁt on the fuel (per gallon) which is the following function of X :   \$0. These are not the expected value and standard deviation of Y . If a resistor has a resistance between 950 and 1050 ohms. your answer is in terms of µX and σX . The cost of producing one resistor is 10 cents. evaluate E(T ). (b) Suppose that the manufacturer wants to increase his expected proﬁt.

10? Suppose. Although the selling price of resistors would remain the same. σ 2 ). = 0. chosen at random. In the above example.841. Assume furthermore that a sample of this fabric is considered to be defective if X ≤ 162. the reading will have a normal distribution with mean 5 and variance 9.148 Questions for Chapter 5 variance to 400 ohms2 (the mean remains the same).975. This situation will occur frequently: A certain random variable that we know cannot take on negative values will be assumed to have a normal distribution anyway. If the company wishes to maximize expected proﬁt. .95. What would E(X) have to be so that P (X < 0) = 0. That is P (X < 0) ≈ 0. that we hold Var(X) ﬁxed at 9. Otherwise. say X .22 Let Xi ∼ N (µ. You settle on the following signal detection rule: If the reading is 7 or greater. 5.21 Suppose that the breaking strength of cotton fabric (in pounds). you will announce that a signal is present. As long as the parameters µ and σ 2 are chosen so that P (X < 0) is essentially zero. the reading. suppose we hold E(X) ﬁxed at 165. such a representation may work. If a signal is present when the button is pressed. the strength of cotton fabric. = 0. However. cannot take on negative values. What would Var(X) have to equal so that P (X < 0) = 0. Nevertheless. X . the cost of producing each resistor will increase to 15 cents if the company decides to purchase the machine (the new machine’s capital cost is included in this production cost). will have a normal distribution with mean 10 and variance 9. will be defective? Note: An immediate objection to the use of the normal distribution may be raised here.23 A measuring device provides a reading on a continuous scale whenever a button is pressed. If only noise is present.10? 5. It is obvious that X . is normally distributed with E(X) = 165 and Var(X) = 9. Find k such that P (X > µ − kσ) = 0. you will say only noise is present.99. a normally distributed random variable may be observed to take on any positive or negative value. the above model (apparently not valid in view of the objection just raised) assigns negligible probability to the event {X < 0}. = 0. What is the probability that a sample of fabric. should the new machine be purchased? 5. Compute this probability to verify this property for yourself in the above example. on the other hand.

Questions for Chapter 5

149

(a) If a signal is truly present, and you use the above rule, what is the probability that your announcement is wrong? If only noise is really present, what is the probability that your announcement is wrong? (b) Suppose that the probability that a signal is truly present when the button is pressed is 0.25. If your reading is greater than 7, what is the probability that a signal is really present? (c) The value, 7, is called the threshold. What should this value be changed to so that your two answers for question (a) are equal? 5.24 An electronic device has a life length X (in years) that is considered a continuous random variable with probability density function
fX (x) = x/2 0

if 0 < x < 2 otherwise

(a) Find P (X > 1). (b) Find E(X). (c) Suppose that the cost of manufacturing one such item is \$2.00. The manufacturer sells the item for \$10.00, but guarantees a total refund if X ≤ 1. What is the manufacturer’s expected proﬁt per item? (d) Suppose that the cost of manufacturing one such item is \$2.00 and the customer is guaranteed a total refund if X ≤ 1. What should be the manufacturer’s selling price in order to provide an expected proﬁt of \$4.00 per item? 5.25 The reading of a water level meter is a continuous random variable X with probability density function
fX (x) =

1/4 0

if −2 < x < 2 otherwise

(a) Find P (X ≤ 1). (b) Find P (|X| ≤ 1). (c) Find E(X).

150

Questions for Chapter 5

(d) Find Var(X). (e) Let Y = X 2 . Find the cumulative distribution function for Y. 5.26 The daily demand for pumpkin pies at a corner grocery store is a random variable with probability mass function
  1 

pX (k) =

4 16 k   0

for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 otherwise

The cost of baking one pumpkin pie is \$1.00. The store sells the pies for \$3.00, each. At the beginning of every day, the store manager must decide how many pies to bake. At the end of the day, any unsold pies are thrown away. If the demand for pies exceeds the supply, you can only sell those pies that you have already baked for that day. The additional customers leave unsatisﬁed. (a) Find P (X > 0). (b) Find E(X). (c) Find Var(X). (d) If the manager decides to bake three pies, what is the expected proﬁt for that day? 5.27 The input voltage for an electronic component is a continuous random variable X with probability density function
fX (x) =

1/3 0

if −1 < x < 2 otherwise

(a) Find P (X ≤ 1). (b) Find P (X 2 ≤ 0.25). (c) Find E(X 2 ). (d) Let Y = 2X . Find the cumulative distribution function for Y. 5.28 The Youbee Mine has been used to mine gold ore for several years. The mass (in grams) of actual gold in one cubic centimeter of ore is a random variable

Questions for Chapter 5

151

X with probability density function fX (x) = cx3 0

if 0 < x < 1 otherwise

(a) Find the value of the constant c. (b) Find the cumulative distribution function for X and sketch a graph of the cumulative distribution function. (c) Each cubic centimeter or ore is worth \$5 if it has more than 1 2 gram of gold. It is worth \$0 otherwise. Let Y be a random variable denoting the value of a cubic centimeter of ore selected at random. What is the probability mass function for Y ? 5.29 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function
fX (x) =

1/3 0

if −1 < x < 2 otherwise

Let Y = X 2 . Find the cumulative distribution function for Y . 5.30 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function
fX (x) =

1 0

if −1 < x < 0 otherwise

Let Y = X 2 . Find P (Y ≤ 0.25). 5.31 Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function
  a(1 + x) 

fX (x) =

  0

a(1 − x)

if −1 ≤ x < 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 otherwise

(a) Prove that the value of a must be 1. Use a clear mathematical presentation to show why this must be true. (b) Find P (X ≤ 0.5). (c) Find P (X 2 ≤ 0.25). (d) Find the cumulative distribution function for X .

152

Questions for Chapter 5

5.32 A person accused of a crime is being questioned by the police. A new “lie detector” device is being used that measures the amount of stress in a person’s voice. When the person speaks, the device gives a reading, X . If the person is telling the truth, then X ∼ N (2, 1). If the person is lying, then X ∼ N (4, 1). Therefore, the mean (expected) stress level of a person’s voice increases if he is lying. (a) The police decide on the following rule: If a person’s voice stress exceeds 4 when he is answering a question, conclude that he is lying. What is the probability of incorrectly accusing person of lying when he is telling the truth? (b) When the suspect was originally brought in for questioning, the police thought there was only a 50% chance that he was guilty of the crime. The police ask him the question, “Did you commit the crime?” The suspect replies, “No.” The reading on the voice stress meter exceeds 4. What is the probability that he committed the crime? 5.33 Consider a random variable X with possible outcomes, 0, 1, 2, . . . Suppose that P (X = k) = (1 − a)(ak ) for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . (a) Identify all permissible values for the constant a. (b) Show that for any two positive integers, m and n,
P (X > m + n | X > m) = P (X ≥ n).

5.34 Check whether the mean and the variance of the following distributions exist: (a)
fX (x) =

2x−3 0

x≥1 otherwise

(b) (The Cauchy distribution) a is a positive constant.
fX (x) = a π(a2 + x2 ) −∞ < x < ∞.

Questions for Chapter 5

153

5.35 Diameters of bearings in mass production are normally distributed with mean 0.25 inch and standard deviation 0.01 inch. Bearing speciﬁcations call for diameters of 0.24 ± 0.02 inch. What is the probability of a defective bearing being produced? 5.36 Suppose that the continuous random variable X has a probability density function given by
  √2 e−x2 fX (x) = 2π 

x≥0

0

otherwise

Let Y = X 2 . Evaluate E(Y ). 5.37 Suppose that the life lengths of two electronic devices, D1 and D2 , have distributions N (40, 36) and N (45, 9), respectively. If the electronic device is to be used for a 45-hour period, which device is to be preferred? If it is to be used for a 50-hour period, which device is to be preferred? 5.38 (†) Suppose random variable Z has a standard normal density function
φ(z) =
1 2 √1 e− 2 z 2π

for −∞ < z < ∞

Let Y = Z 2 . Find the probability density function for Y . (We say that Y has a Chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom.) Warning: Y is not strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

154 Questions for Chapter 5 .

” 155 . let T be a random variable representing tomorrow’s maximum temperature and let R be a random variable representing tomorrow’s total rainfall.6 RANDOM VECTORS Basic Concepts Often. “What is the probability that the temperature will be greater than 70◦ regardless of the rainfall?” To answer this question. For example. relative humidity and temperature. It would not be either easy or desirable to attempt to combine all of this information into a single measurement. we would need to compute the probability of the event B = {T > 70}.1 inch. Another question that we might like to have answered is. tomorrow’s weather is really best described by an array of random variables that includes wind speed. R < 0. In this chapter. It would be reasonable to ask for the probability that tomorrow’s temperature is greater than 70◦ and tomorrow’s total rainfall is less than 0. we will build on our probability model and extend our deﬁnition of a random variable to permit such calculations. Deﬁnition The ﬁrst thing we must do is to precisely deﬁne what we mean by “an array of random variables. atmospheric pressure. wind direction. We would like to extend the notion of a random variable to deal with an experiment that results in several observations each time the experiment is run.1}. we wish to determine the probability of the event A = {T > 70. For example. a single random variable cannot adequately provide all of the information needed about the outcome of an experiment. In other words.

156

Deﬁnition

y
ω
3 2 1 1 2 3 (4,1)

4

5

x

Figure 6.1: A mapping using (X1 , X2 ) Deﬁnition 6.1. Let Ω be a sample space. An n-dimensional random variable or random vector, X1 (·), X2 (·), . . . , Xn (·) , is a vector of functions that assigns to each point ω ∈ Ω a point X1 (ω), X2 (ω), . . . , Xn (ω) in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Example: Consider an experiment where a die is rolled twice. Let X1 denote the number of the ﬁrst roll, and X2 the number of the second roll. Then (X1 , X2 ) is a two-dimensional random vector. A possible sample point in Ω is

that is mapped into the point (4, 1) as shown in Figure 6.1.

Joint Distributions

157

(x,y)

Figure 6.2: The region representing the event P (X ≤ x, Y ≤ y).

Joint Distributions
Now that we know the deﬁnition of a random vector, we can begin to use it to assign probabilities to events. For any random vector, we can deﬁne a joint cumulative distribution function for all of the components as follows: Deﬁnition 6.2. Let (X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ) be a random vector. The joint cumulative distribution function for this random vector is given by
FX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ≡ P (X1 ≤ x1 , X2 ≤ x2 , . . . , Xn ≤ xn ).

In the two-dimensional case, the joint cumulative distribution function for the random vector (X, Y ) evaluated at the point (x, y), namely
FX,Y (x, y),

is the probability that the experiment results in a two-dimensional value within the shaded region shown in Figure 6.2. Every joint cumulative distribution function must posses the following properties: 1.
all xi →−∞

lim

FX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = 0

158

Discrete Distributions

x2 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x1

Figure 6.3: The possible outcomes from rolling a die twice. 2. lim
FX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = 1

all xi →+∞

3. As xi varies, with all other xj ’s (j = i) ﬁxed,
FX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

is a nondecreasing function of xi . As in the case of one-dimensional random variables, we shall identify two major classiﬁcations of vector-valued random variables: discrete and continuous. Although there are many common properties between these two types, we shall discuss each separately.

Discrete Distributions
A random vector that can only assume at most a countable collection of discrete values is said to be discrete. As an example, consider once again the example on page 156 where a die is rolled twice. The possible values for either X1 or X2 are in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Hence, the random vector (X1 , X2 ) can only take on one of the 36 values shown in Figure 6.3. If the die is fair, then each of the points can be considered to have a probability

Continuous Distributions

159

1 mass of 36 . This prompts us to deﬁne a joint probability mass function for this type of random vector, as follows:

Deﬁnition 6.3. Let (X1 , X2 , . . . Xn ) be a discrete random vector. Then
pX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ≡ P (X1 = x1 , X2 = x2 , . . . , Xn = xn ).

is the joint probability mass function for the random vector (X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ). Referring again to the example on page 156, we ﬁnd that the joint probability mass function for (X1 , X2 ) is given by
pX1 ,X2 (x1 , x2 ) =
1 36

for x1 = 1, 2, . . . , 6 and x2 = 1, 2, . . . , 6

Note that for any probability mass function,
FX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) =
x1 ≤b1 x2 ≤b2

···
xn ≤bn

pX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).

Therefore, if we wished to evaluate FX1 ,X2 (3.0, 4.5) we would sum all of the probability mass in the shaded region shown in Figure 6.3, and obtain
1 FX1 ,X2 (3.0, 4.5) = 12 36 = 1 . 3

This is the probability that the ﬁrst roll is less than or equal to 3 and the second roll is less than or equal to 4.5. Every joint probability mass function must have the following properties: 1. pX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) ≥ 0 for any (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ). 2.
all x1

...
all xn

pX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) = 1 pX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) for any event E .
(x1 ,...,xn )∈E

3. P (E) =

You should compare these properties with those of probability mass functions for single-valued discrete random variables given in Chapter 5.

Continuous Distributions
Extending our notion of probability density functions to continuous random vectors is a bit tricky and the mathematical details of the problem is beyond the scope of

160

Continuous Distributions

an introductory course. In essence, it is not possible to deﬁne the joint density as a derivative of the cumulative distribution function as we did in the one-dimensional case. Let Rn denote n-dimensional Euclidean space. We sidestep the problem by deﬁning the density of an n-dimensional random vector to be a function that when integrated over the set
{(x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ Rn : x1 ≤ b1 , x2 ≤ b2 , . . . , xn ≤ bn }

will yield the value for the cumulative distribution function evaluated at
(b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ).

More formally, we have the following: Deﬁnition 6.4. Let (X1 , . . . , Xn ) be a continuous random vector with joint cumulative distribution function
FX1 ,...,Xn (x1 , . . . , xn ).

The function fX1 ,...,Xn (x1 , . . . , xn ) that satisﬁes the equation
FX1 ,...,Xn (b1 , . . . , bn ) =
b1 −∞

···

bn −∞

fX1 ,...,Xn (t1 , . . . , tn ) dt1 · · · dtn

for all (b1 , . . . , bn ) is called the joint probability density function for the random vector (X1 , . . . , Xn ). Now, instead of obtaining a derived relationship between the density and the cumulative distribution function by using integrals as anti-derivatives, we have enforced such a relationship by the above deﬁnition. Every joint probability density function must have the following properties: 1. fX1 ,X2 ,...,Xn (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) ≥ 0 for any (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
+∞ +∞ −∞

2.

−∞

···

fX1 ,...,Xn (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 · · · dxn = 1 fX1 ,...,Xn (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 · · · dxn for any event E .

3. P (E) =

···

E

You should compare these properties with those of probability density functions for single-valued continuous random variables given in Chapter 5.

You should be able to verify this formula for yourself by accounting for all of the probability masses in the regions shown in Figure 6.4. Example: Let (X.4: Computing P (a1 < X1 ≤ b1 .X2 (b1 .Y (x. with a comparable formula given by P (a1 < X1 ≤ b1 . b2 ) − FX1 .5): fX.X2 (a1 . a2 ) + FX1 . a2 ). b2 ) − FX1 .Continuous Distributions 161 x2 b2 a2 a1 b1 x1 Figure 6. The situation in the multidimensional case is a little more complicated.X2 (a1 . a2 < X2 ≤ b2 ). .X2 (b1 . a2 < X2 ≤ b2 ) = FX1 . y) = 2−y 0 2 1 0 2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 2 otherwise Note that (2 − y) dx dy = 1. Y ) be a two-dimensional random variable with the following joint probability density function (see Figure 6. In the one-dimensional case. we had the handy formula P (a < X ≤ b) = FX (b) − FX (a). This worked for any type of probability distribution.

Suppose we would like to ﬁnd the cumulative distribution function for X alone.5 1. FX (x)? We know that FX. y) over the region {(x.Y (x.. we calculate the volume under the surface fX.5: A two-dimensional probability density function Suppose we would like to compute P (X ≤ 1. i.y) 1 1 2 y 1 2 x Figure 6. y) dx dy 3 (2 − y) dx dy = 8 . . “Can we determine the distribution of X1 .Y (x.5). in the two-dimensional case. we may be given a random vector (X.0. . y ≤ 1.0.Y (x. y) : x ≤ 1.5 1. we get. Y ≤ 1. y) = P (X ≤ x. P (X ≤ 1.Y (x. Marginal Distributions Given the probability distribution for a vector-valued random variable (X1 . y). This region of integration is shown shaded (in green) in Figure 6. To do this.162 Marginal Distributions fXY(x. Y ≤ y) .0 1. For example.0 −∞ −∞ 1.5) = = 1.5}. disregarding the other components?” The answer is yes. Y ≤ 1. Y ) with joint cumulative distribution function FX. and the solution requires the careful use of English rather than mathematics.e. Performing the integration. we might ask the question. .5. Xn ).0 0 fX.

. we shall deﬁne what we will call the marginal cumulative distribution function: Deﬁnition 6. .X2 . .. y). x2 . xn ). . The marginal cumulative distribution function for X1 is given by FX1 (x1 ) = lim x2 →∞ x3 →∞ lim · · · lim FX1 . ..X2 (2. we ask “What is the probability that X = x regardless of the value that Y takes on? This can be written as pX (x) = P (X = x) = P (X = x. xn →∞ Notice that we can renumber the components of the random vector and call any one of them X1 . 6 and x2 = 1. suppose we have a discrete random vector (X. . To ﬁnd pX (x).5 is a nice deﬁnition. .Y (x. . But in terms of both X and Y . 6 To ﬁnd pX1 (2).” Therefore. x2 ) = 1 36 for x1 = 1. for example. xn ). Although Deﬁnition 6.Y (x. . . we compute 6 pX1 (2) = P (X1 = 2) = k=1 1 pX1 . . For example. it is more useful to examine marginal probability mass functions and marginal probability density functions. Y ≤ ∞) = y→∞ lim FX. . it would make sense to say FX (x) = P (X ≤ x) = P (X ≤ x.Xn (x1 .. Y = any value) = all y pX. y). Example: In the die example (on page 156) pX1 . Y ) with joint probability mass function pX.. .. Xn ) be a random vector with joint cumulative distribution function FX1 . So we can use the above deﬁnition to ﬁnd the marginal cumulative distribution function for any of the Xi ’s.Xn (x1 . 2. Let (X1 ..Y (x. y).. . .Marginal Distributions 163 and we are asking for (1) FX (x) = P (X ≤ x). Using this idea. . . 2.X2 (x1 . expression 1 can be read: “the probability that X takes on a value less than or equal to x and Y takes on any value. . k) = 6 . ..5. . .

15 . 1) + pX. is.15.20 etc.164 Marginal Distributions Table 6. we are simply adding the entries all columns for each row of Table 6.Y (2.25 pX (3) = pX. but fX (x)dx. but it brings some comfort to know we can get it from all of the mathematical machinery we’ve developed thus far.10 0 . X .025 .10 4 0 0 0 0 . To ﬁnd the marginal probability mass function for the total daily production. we sum the probabilities over all possible values of Y for each ﬁxed x: pX (1) = pX.1.Y (1.10 5 0 0 0 0 0 This is hardly a surprising result.10 = 0. y) 1 2 X 3 4 5 Y 2 3 0 0 . Y ) is given by Table 6.05 + 0. We simply look for the result in the margin1 for the entry Y = 2.10 . 3) = 0.Y (2.10 .10 1 . 1) + pX.Y (3. Using this joint distribution. 2) = 0.Y (3. 1) = 0. Recall that a density.10 = 0. 1) = 0.2 So.05 .05 pX (2) = pX. The procedure is similar for obtaining marginal probability density functions.Y (3. P (Y = 2) = pY (2) = 0. 2) + pX. fX (x).15 + 0. and let Y be the number of defective items produced.05 .1. for example. Example: Let X be the total number of items produced in a day’s work at a factory.Y (2.025 . Doing this for Y as well as X we can obtain Table 6. So 1 Would you believe that this is why they are called marginal distributions? .05 . But notice that in these computations.1: Joint pmf for daily production pX. we can see that the probability of producing 2 items with exactly 1 of those items being defective is pX.Y (x.05 .05 + 0. itself is not a probability measure. Suppose that the probability mass function for (X.275.

. xn ) dx2 · · · dxn .Y (x. .. y) dy dx it would seem reasonable to deﬁne fX (x) ≡ +∞ −∞ fX..05 .05 .Xn (x1 ..05 ..10 .025 .10 .40 1 .275 . . y) dy dx where y is the variable of integration in the above integral. . Looking at this relationship as fX (x) dx = +∞ −∞ fX. Xn ) be a continuous random variable with joint probability density function fX1 .05 .Marginal Distributions 165 Table 6.Xn . . Notice that in both the discrete and continuous cases.4 4 0 0 0 0 . .2: Marginal pmf’s for daily production pX. .15 .20 . y) dy and we therefore offer the following: Deﬁnition 6. we sum (or integrate) over all possible values of the unwanted random variable components.Y (x. Let (X1 .05 ..X2 . Y = any value) = +∞ −∞ fX.6. .10 .225 pX (x) . y) 1 2 X 3 4 5 pY (y) Y 2 3 0 0 .025 . .25 ...Y (x.10 .Y (x. x2 .10 0. The marginal probability density function for the random variable X1 is given by fX1 (x1 ) = +∞ −∞ ··· +∞ −∞ fX1 .10 .10 0 . .10 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 with a little loose-speaking integration notation we should be able to compute fX (x) dx = P (x ≤ X < x + dx) = P (x ≤ X < x + dx.

Example: Let (X. Y ) be a two-dimensional continuous random variable with joint probability density function fX.Y (x.6.6: The support for the random vector (X. We compute fX (x) = +∞ −∞ fX. If the dotted line in Figure 6. Drawing a picture of the region where there is positive probability mass (the support of the distribution) often helps. For the above example.6 indicates a particular value for x (call it a). The integration process assigns all of that mass to x = a in one-dimension.Y (x. Solution: Let’s consider the case where we ﬁx x so that 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. the picture of the support would be as shown in Figure 6. we are actually determining how much probability mass has been placed along the line x = a. y) dy .166 Marginal Distributions y 1 0 a 1 x Figure 6. by integrating over all values of y . Y ) in the example The trick in such problems is to insure that your limits of integration are correct. y) = x+y 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise Find the marginal probability density function for X . Repeating this process for each x yields the desired probability density function.

Y (x. Consider the case where we ﬁx x so that 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. y) = 2−y 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 2 otherwise Find the marginal probability density function for X and the marginal probability density function for Y .5 on page 162) fX. fX (x) = 1 2 0 0≤x≤2 otherwise . Y ) be the two-dimensional random variable with the following joint probability density function (see Figure 6. We compute fX (x) = = = = +∞ −∞ 2 1 fX. So. in fact.Y (x. Example: Let (X. y) dy (2 − y) dy y2 2 y=2 y=1 2y − 1 2 If x is outside the interval [0. Therefore. 1]. we have fX (x) = 0.Marginal Distributions 167 = 0 1 (x + y) dy y2 2 y=1 y=0 = xy + = x+ 1 2 If x is outside the interval [0. Solution: Let’s ﬁrst ﬁnd the marginal probability density function for X . 2]. summarizing these computations we ﬁnd that fX (x) = x+ 0 1 2 0≤x≤1 otherwise We will leave it to you to check that fX (x) is. a probability density +∞ functionby making sure that fX (x) ≥ 0 for all x and that −∞ fX (x) dx = 1. we have fX (x) = 0.

X2 (3. 2]. we have fX.X2 (1. Most of these problems just require a little careful reasoning. y) = 0 giving us fY (y) = 0. . X2 = 2}. pZ (4) = pX1 . So. 4. 3) + pX1 . Therefore.Y (x. We compute fY (y) = = = +∞ −∞ 2 0 x=2 (2 − y)x|x=0 fX. {X1 = 2. Z equals 4 precisely when any one of the mutually exclusive events {X1 = 1. X2 ) be the die-tossing random vector of the example on page 156. . 6. 6 and x2 = 1. .” For example. . “What are the possible values that Z can take on?” The answer: “The integers 2. y) dx (2 − y) dx = 4 − 2y If y is outside the interval [1. 2) + pX1 . 1) = 3 36 . .Y (x. Example: Let (X1 . . 12. Functions of Random Vectors The technique for computing functions of one-dimensional random variables carries over to the multi-dimensional case. . 4 − 2y 1≤y≤2 fY (x) = 0 otherwise You should also double check that fX and fY are both probability density functions.X2 (x1 . x2 ) = 36 for x1 = 1. Find the probability mass function for the random variable Z = X1 +X2 .168 Functions of Random Vectors To ﬁnd the marginal probability density function for Y . . 1 Solution: We already know that pX1 . 3.X2 (2. X2 = 1} occurs. . We ask the question. or {X1 = 3. . X2 = 3}. . . the sum of the two rolls. . consider the case where we ﬁx y so that 1 ≤ y ≤ 2.

6 pZ (7) = 36 . 5 pZ (8) = 36 . 2]. 3 pZ (4) = 36 . Case II (z > 1): FZ (z) = 0 z−1 0 1 (x + y) dx dy + 1 z−1 0 z−y (x + y) dx dy 1 1 = z2 − 3 z3 − 3 .8: Case I (z ≤ 1): FZ (z) = 0 z 0 z−y (x + y) dx dy = 1 3 3z . 3 pZ (10) = 36 . you should be able to verify that 1 pZ (2) = 36 . 2 pZ (3) = 36 . so   0  FZ (z) =   1 ? if z < 0 if 0 ≤ z ≤ 2 if z > 2 For the case 0 ≤ z ≤ 2. we are computing the probability mass assigned to the shaded set in Figure 6. Solution: The support for the random variable Z is the interval [0. 2 pZ (11) = 36 . Find the cumulative distribution function for the random variable Z =X +Y. we wish to evaluate FZ (z) = P (Z ≤ z) = P (X + Y ≤ z). 5 pZ (6) = 36 . Example: Let (X. In establishing limits of integration. we notice that there are two cases to worry about as shown in Figure 6. 1 pZ (12) = 36 . In other words. Y ) be the two-dimensional random variable given in the example on page 166. 4 pZ (9) = 36 .7 as z varies from 0 to 2.Functions of Random Vectors 169 Continuing in this manner. . 4 pZ (5) = 36 .

y z 1 z y 1 0 z 1 x 0 1 z x Case I Case II Figure 6.7: The event {Z ≤ z}.170 Functions of Random Vectors y 1 z x+ y= z 0 z 1 x Figure 6.8: Two cases to worry about for the example .

Deﬁnition 6.) random variables. F (x)). and FX1 . y) = [pX (x)][pY (y)] for all x and y . .. . bn . X2 . X2 .. . Testing for independence Case I: Discrete A discrete random variable X is independent of a discrete random variable Y if and only if pX. bn ) = FX1 (b1 )FX2 (b2 ) · · · FXn (bn ) for all values b1 . . Recall: An event A is independent of an event B if and only if P (A ∩ B) = P (A)P (B).e. Xn is independent if and only if.Independence of Random Variables 171 These two cases can be summarized as FZ (z) =   0   1 3  z 3 1  z2 − 1 z3 − 3  3   1 if z < 0 if 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 if 1 < z ≤ 2 if z > 2 Notice what we thought at ﬁrst to be one case (0 ≤ z ≤ 2) had to be divided into two cases (0 ≤ z ≤ 1 and 1 < z ≤ 2).d. . b2 .. . . A sequence of n random variables X1 . Xn is a random sample if and only if 1. . . .7.1. FXi (x) = F (x) for all x and for all i (i. . . Theorem 6. X2 . . Independence of Random Variables Deﬁnition 6. . A sequence of n random variables X1 . . each Xi has the same marginal distribution. . X1 .. . .Y (x. ..i. .X2 . b2 . We say that a random sample is a vector of independent and identically distributed (i.8. and 2.Xn (b1 . Xn are independent. If X and Y are independent random variables then any event A involving X alone is independent of any event B involving Y alone. .

grade A and grade B.Y (0.Y (x.172 Independence of Random Variables Case II: Continuous A continuous random variable X is independent of a continuous random variable Y if and only if fX.2 1 0. y ≥ 0 0 otherwise The marginal densities are fX (x) = 2e−2x x ≥ 0 0 otherwise fY (y) = 2e−2y y ≥ 0 0 otherwise . y) = 4e−2(x+y) x ≥ 0. fX.1 0. y) 0 x 1 2 0 0. Suppose that the joint probability mass function pX.1 = pX (0)pY (0) = (0.1 The random variables X and Y are not independent. Let Y denote the number of grade B compressors produced on the same day.4)(0. Let X denote the number of grade A compressors produced on a given day.Y (x.Y (x. Example: A company produces two types of compressors. y) = [fX (x)][fY (y)] for all x and y . Y = y) is given by the following table: y pX.1 0. 0) = 0. Note that pX.3 0.5) = 0.Y (x. Let X be the time to failure of transistor 1 and let Y be the time to failure of transistor 2.2 Example: Suppose an electronic circuit contains two transistors.2 0. y) = P (X = x.

y) = 0 = fX (x)fY (y) = (0)(0) So the random variables X and Y are independent. Can we ﬁnd E(g(X. Y ))? Theorem 6.Expectation and random vectors 173 We must check the probability density functions for (X. Expectation and random vectors Suppose we are given a random vector (X. Y )) = all x all y ∞ ∞ g(x. y) = 0 = fX (x)fY (y) = (0)2e−2y For x < 0 and y < 0: fX.Y (x. y) = 4e−2(x+y) = fX (x)fY (y) = 2e−2x 2e−2y For x ≥ 0 and y < 0: fX. y) if (X. Y ) is continuous Example: Suppose X and Y have joint probability density function fX. y) = 0 = fX (x)fY (y) = 2e−2x (0) For x < 0 and y ≥ 0: fX. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 0 otherwise .2.Y (x. E(g(X.Y (x. Y ). Y ) and a function g(x. y).Y (x.Y (x.Y (x. Y ) is discrete E(g(X. X and Y for all values of (x. y)pX. y) dy dx if (X.Y (x. y) = x + y 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y)fX. y). For x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0: fX. Y )) = −∞ −∞ g(x.

Y ) is a continuous random vector.Y (x. y) dx dy ∞ −∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ x −∞ fX. then E[h(X)g(Y )] = E[h(X)]E[g(Y )] . If X and Y are independent.3.Y (x.Y (x. y) dx dy x fX (x) dx + y fY (y) dy = E(X) + E(Y ) Theorem 6. E(X + Y ) = E(X) + E(Y ) Proof.2 to get E(XY ) = = = 0 ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 3x y 1 3y 0 1 xyfX.Y (x. To ﬁnd E(Z) = E(XY ) use Theorem 6. The proofs for the discrete case are similar using summations rather than integrals.Y (x.Y (x.174 Expectation and random vectors Let Z = XY . y) dx dy yfX. Using Theorem 6. y) dx dy + xfX.4. y) dy dx + ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ yfX. y) dx dy xfX.Y (x.2: E(X + Y ) = = = = = ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ (x + y)fX. y) dx dy xy(x + y) dx dy x2 y + xy 2 dx dy 1 + 2 x2 y 2 1 0 = = 0 dy 1 + 1 y 2 dy 2 1 0 = 1 2 6y 1 + 6 y3 = 1 3 We will prove the following results for the case when (X. y) dy dx + ∞ −∞ y fX.Y (x. probability mass functions rather than probability density functions. Theorem 6.

Using Theorem 6. set h(x) = x and g(y) = y to get E[h(X)g(Y )] = E(h(X))E(g(Y )) E[XY ] = E(X)E(Y ) Deﬁnition 6.4. = = = ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ h(x)g(y)fX (x)fY (y) dx dy ∞ −∞ g(y)fY (y) h(x)fX (x) dx dy g(y)fY (y) E(h(X)) dy since E(h(X)) is a constant.2: E[h(X)g(Y )] = ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ h(x)g(y)fX.9.Y (x. . Note that Cov(X. . X) = Var(X). Using Theorem 6. . Theorem 6.Expectation and random vectors 175 Proof. y) dx dy since X and Y are independent.5. . The covariance of the random variables X and Y is Cov(X.6. Y ) . then E(XY ) = E(X)E(Y ) Proof. If X and Y are independent. For any random variables X and Y Var(X + Y ) = Var(X) + Var(Y ) + 2Cov(X. = E(h(X)) ∞ −∞ g(y)fY (y) dy = E(h(X))E(g(Y )) Corollary 6. Y ) ≡ E[(X − E(X))(Y − E(Y ))].

. Remember that the variance of a random variable W is deﬁned as Var(W ) = E[(W − E(W ))2 ] Now let W = X + Y . E(XY ) = E(X)E(Y ). let b = {Y − E(Y )}.9.5. Y ) = E(XY ) − E(X)E(Y ) = 0 . = E[XY ] − E(Y )E[X] − E(X)E[Y ] + E(X)E(Y ) = E[XY ] − E(X)E(Y ) Corollary 6.8. . Y ) = 0. and E[XY ] are all constants. Y ) Theorem 6.176 Expectation and random vectors Proof. Y ) = E(XY ) − E(X)E(Y ) Proof. = E[{X − E(X)}2 + {Y − E(Y )}2 + 2{X − E(X)}{Y − E(Y )}] = E[{X − E(X)}2 ] + E[{Y − E(Y )}2 ] +2E[{X − E(X)}{Y − E(Y )}] = Var(X) + Var(Y ) + 2Cov(X. . Var(X + Y ) = E[(X + Y − E(X + Y ))2 ] = E[(X + Y − E(X) − E(Y ))2 ] = E[({X − E(X)} + {Y − E(Y )})2 ] Now let a = {X − E(X)}. We can then use Theorem 6. . Cov(X. . . If X and Y are independent then Cov(X. from Corollary 6. Using Deﬁnition 6. and expand (a + b)2 to get. E[Y ]. Y ) = E[(X − E(X))(Y − E(Y ))] = E[XY − XE(Y ) − E(X)Y + E(X)E(Y )] = E[XY ] + E[−XE(Y )] + E[−E(X)Y ] + E[E(X)E(Y )]] Since E[X].7: Cov(X. we get Cov(X. Proof. If X and Y are independent then.7.

Y ) Var(X + Y ) = Var(X) + Var(Y ) + 2(0) Var(X + Y ) = Var(X) + Var(Y ) Deﬁnition 6.11.10. Then (with probability one). If a < 0. Y ) ρ(X. |ρ(X. If X and Y are independent then.8: Var(X + Y ) = Var(X) + Var(Y ) + 2Cov(X.12 are stated without proof. 1965. P. Y ) = −1. Then |ρ(X. Proofs of these results may be found in the book by Meyer. Y ) = +1. The correlation coefﬁcient for two random variables X and Y is given by Cov(X.2 Theorem 6. then ρ(X. 6.9. such that Y = aX + b where a and b are constants. 2 .10. Proof. Addison-Wesley. Y ) ≡ E (X − E(X))(Y − E(Y )) . Y ) ≡ . Meyer. Y )| ≤ 1.. Var(X)Var(Y ) Theorems 6. Y )| = 1. from Theorem 6.11.10. Suppose that |ρ(X. Y )| = 1. The covariance of two random variables X and Y is given by Cov(X. the Y is a linear function of X (with probability one). then ρ(X. Theorem 6. If X and Y are independent then Var(X+Y ) = Var(X)+Var(Y ).12. For any random variables X and Y . Suppose that X and Y are two random variables. If a > 0. Deﬁnition 6.11 and 6. Reading MA. The converse of this theorem is also true: Theorem 6. Y = aX + b for some constants a and b.Expectation and random vectors 177 Corollary 6. In other words: If the correlation coefﬁcient ρ is ±1.6 and Corollary 6. Introductory probability theory and statistical applications.

. consider the two transistors.2 = 0.1 0.1 0. Y = 1) P (X + Y = 2) 1 0. y) 0 x 1 2 0 0.2 1 0.Y (x.3 0.1 = 0. what is the probability that one of them is a grade B compressor? Solution: P (Y = 1 | X + Y = 2) = = = P (Y = 1. fX. y pX. y) = 4e−2(x+y) x ≥ 0. y ≥ 0 0 otherwise Given that the total life time for the two transistors is less than two hours. X + Y = 2) P (X + Y = 2) P (X = 1. what is the probability that the ﬁrst transistor lasted more than one hour? . Y = 0) P (Y = 0) 2 0.5 5 Given that 2 compressors were produced on a given day.3 3 Example: And.2 0.178 Expectation and random vectors Random vectors and conditional probability Example: Consider the compressor problem again.Y (x. again.1 Given that no grade B compressors were produced on a given day. what is the probability that 2 grade A compressors were produced? Solution: P (X = 2 | Y = 0) = = P (X = 2. .

y) fY (y) whenever fY (y) > 0.Y (x. y) and let pY (y) be the marginal probability mass function for Y .0885 1 − 5e−4 Conditional distributions Case I: Discrete Let X and Y be random variables with joint probability mass function pX.Y (x.Expectation and random vectors 179 Solution: P (X > 1 | X + Y ≤ 2) = P (X > 1. y) pY (y) whenever pY (y) > 0. X + Y ≤ 2) = = e 4e−2(x+y) dy dx − 3e−4 and P (X + Y ≤ 2) = 0 2 0 2−x 4e−2(x+y) dy dx = 1 − 5e−4 to get P (X > 1 | X + Y ≤ 2) = e−2 − 3e−4 = 0. y) and let fY (y) be the marginal probability density function for Y . Case II: Continuous Let X and Y be random variables with joint probability density function fX. . X + Y ≤ 2) P (X + Y ≤ 2) 2 1 0 −2 2−x We then compute P (X > 1.Y (x.Y (x. We deﬁne the conditional probability mass function of X given Y as pX|Y (x | y) = pX. We deﬁne the conditional probability density function of X given Y as fX|Y (x | y) = fX.

choose the best response among those provided. each with P (Xi = 1) = 1 and P (Xi = 0) = 1 .2 Let (X. Y ) be a discrete random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX. 1) = 1/2 Then P (Y = 1) equals (A) 1/3 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 .Y (0.1 Let X1 . S6. 0) = 1/4 pX.Y (0. S6. then the value of r is (A) (B) (C) 1 16 1 4 1 2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. X3 . X4 be independent and identically distributed random variables.Y (1. X2 .180 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 Law of total probability Case I: Discrete pX (x) = y pX|Y (x | y)pY (y) Case II: Continuous fX (x) = +∞ −∞ fX|Y (x | y)fY (y) dy Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 For each of the following multiple-choice questions. 1) = 1/4 pX. Answers can be found in Appendix B. Let P (X1 + X2 + 2 2 X3 + X4 = 3) = r.

Y (0.Y (1.3 Let (X. Y ) be a random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX. S6.4 Let (X.Y (x.Y (0.Y (1. y) = 1/2 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 0 otherwise Then P (X > 0) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/4 . 0) = 1 4 The value of P (XY > 0) is (A) 0 (B) (C) 1 4 1 2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. −1) = 1 4 pX.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 181 (D) 3/4 (E) none of the above. S6. −1) = 1 4 pX. 1) = 1 2 pX. 0) = 1 4 Let pX (x) denote the marginal probability mass function for X . S6. Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function fX.Y (1.Y (1. 1) = 1 2 pX. Y ) be a random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX.5 Let (X. The value of pX (1) is (A) 0 (B) (C) 1 4 1 2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.

Y (1.6 Suppose (X. 0) = 1/3 Then P (X + Y = 1) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 2/3 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.Y (0. Y ) be a discrete random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX.Y (1. 1) = 1/3 pX. S6. Y ) be a discrete random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX. y) = 0 otherwise Then P (X > 1 ) equals 2 (A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) e−1/2 (D) 1 −y 2e (E) none of the above.8 Let (X. Y ) is a continuous random vector with joint probability density function e−y if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and y ≥ 0 fX. 0) = 1/3 pX.7 Let (X.182 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 (C) 1/2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. 0) = 1/3 . S6. 1) = 1/3 pX. 0) = 1/3 pX.Y (x.Y (0. S6.Y (0.Y (0.

5) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/8 (C) 1/4 (D) 1/2 (E) none of the above. S6. Y ) is a continuous random vector with joint probability density function   y if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and  0≤y≤1 fX. Y < 0. Then P (W = 1) equals (A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 2/3 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. S6.Y (x. .9 Suppose (X. Y ) is a continuous random vector with joint probability density function   y if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and  0≤y≤1 fX.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 183 Let W = max{X. y) =   0 otherwise Then E(X 2 ) equals (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 4/3 (D) 8/3 (E) none of the above. Y }.10 Suppose (X.Y (x. y) =   0 otherwise Then P (X < 1.

14 Let (X. S6. S6. S6. each having an expected value of 6 ounces and standard deviation of 2 ounces. X2 . X3 be independent and identically distributed random variables. then Var(X + Y ) must equal (A) 2Var(X) √ (B) 2(Var(X)) (C) Var(2X) (D) 4Var(X) (E) none of the above. then the value of p is (A) (B) (C) 1 3 √ 3 r 1 2 (D) r3 (E) none of the above. Let Y denote the total net weight (in ounces) of a basket of n oranges. Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function 1/π if x2 + y 2 ≤ 1 fX. y) = 0 otherwise Then P (X > 0) equals .11 The weights of individual oranges are independent random variables. The variance of Y is equal to √ (A) 4 n (B) 4n (C) 4n2 (D) 4 (E) none of the above.Y (x. If P (X1 + X2 + X3 = 3) = r.184 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 S6.12 Let X1 .13 If X and Y are random variables with Var(X) = Var(Y ). each with P (Xi = 1) = p and P (Xi = 0) = 1 − p.

Then E[(X + 1)2 ] − (E[X + 1])2 equals (A) Var(X) (B) 2E[(X + 1)2 ] (C) 0 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. Let the random variable X represent the outcome of the ﬁrst toss and the random variable Y represent the outcome of the second toss. S6.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 185 (A) 1/(4π) (B) 1/(2π) (C) 1/2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above. S6.16 Let X .15 Let X be a random variable.17 Toss a fair die twice. Y and Z be independent random variables with E(X) = 1 E(Y ) = 0 E(Z) = 1 Let W = X(Y + Z). Then E(W ) equals (A) 0 (B) E(X 2 ) (C) 1 (D) 2 (E) none of the above S6. (A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/2 . What is the probability that X is odd and Y is even.

x − y} (D) min{1. x − w} (B) min{1. 0) = 1/4 pX. y + w} (E) none of the above. 0) = 1/2 pX.19 Assume that (X.18 Assume that (X. 1) = 1/4 Deﬁne the random variable W = XY . S6. The value of P (W = 0) is (A) 0 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 (D) 3/4 (E) none of the above.Y (0. y − w} (C) min{1. .Y (x.Y (−1.Y (0. To ﬁnd the cumulative distribution function for W we can compute FW (w) = B A D C k dx dy for 0 ≤ w ≤ 1. Y ) is a random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX. y) = k for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 and y ≤ x 0 otherwise where k is a some positive constant. Y ) is random vector with joint probability density function fX. Let W = X −Y . The limit of integration that should appear in position D is (A) min{1.186 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 (D) 1 (E) none of the above S6.

Y ) where X is the life length of transistor 1 and Y is the life length of transistor 2.Y (x. Y ) is a continuous random vector with joint probability density function fX.Y (x.22 The life lengths of two transistors in an electronic circuit is a random vector (X. S6.21 Suppose (X. The joint probability density function of (X. y) = 4xy 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise Then E 1 XY equals (A) +∞ (B) 0 (C) 1/2 (D) 4 (E) none of the above. Then E(X 2 + Y 2 ) equals (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 5 (E) none of the above. Y ) is given by fX.20 Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 0 and Var(X) = 1. S6. Let Y be a random variable with E(Y ) = 0 and Var(Y ) = 4.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6 187 S6. y) = 2e−(x+2y) if x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0 0 otherwise Then P (X + Y ≤ 1) equals (A) (B) (C) 1 1 −(x+2y) dx dy 0 0 2e 1 1−y 0 0 2e−(x+2y) dx dy 1 1 −(x+2y) dx dy 0 y 2e .

ω3 . 1) = 0. (b) Find the joint probability mass function for (X. {ω1 . (b) Find the marginal probability mass functions for X and for Y.Y (1.10. 1) = 0.Y (1. X(ω2 ) = 0. pX. ω2 . The joint probability mass function for X and Y is given by pX. and let Y be the number of Type 2 gizmos produced on the same day. 0) = 0. Z). pX. Y (ω3 ) = 1.Y (1. pX.2 A sample space Ω is a set consisting for four points. . Y (ω1 ) = 0. Z(ω3 ) = 3.188 Questions for Chapter 6 (D) 1 1 0 1−y 2e−(x+2y) dx dy (E) none of the above.Y (2.05. A probability measure.20. 2) = 0.20.Y (2. Z(ω2 ) = 2. Y ). Y = 2) and P (Y > 0). 6. 2) = 0. pX. Y. (a) Compute P (X ≤ 2. Type 1 and Type 2.Y (1.20. pX. 3) = 0. P (·) assigns probabilities. as follows: P ({ω1 }) = P ({ω3 }) = 1 2 1 4 P ({ω2 }) = P ({ω4 }) = 1 8 1 8 Random variables X . (c) Find the distribution for the random variable Z = X + Y which is the total daily production of gizmos. Questions for Chapter 6 6. Y (ω2 ) = 1.Y (3. Z(ω1 ) = 1. ω4 }.10. pX. Y = 2).10. Y and Z are deﬁned as X(ω1 ) = 0.1 A factory can produce two types of gizmos. 1) = 0. (c) Find the probability mass function for X . X(ω3 ) = 1. P (X ≤ 2. pX. 2) = 0.05. X(ω4 ) = 1 Y (ω4 ) = 0 Z(ω4 ) = 4 (a) Find the joint probability mass function for (X. Let X be a random variable denoting the number of Type 1 gizmos produced on a given day.Y (3.

i. The joint probability density function for (X. The ﬁrst one to fail burns out at time X and the second one at time Y . 1). y)-space for which the above probability density function assigns positive mass. (d) Compute P (Z > 1) and P (Y > 1). y) = 1 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise Find the cumulative distribution function for the random variable Z = X+Y ..e. (b) Find the marginal probability density functions for X and for Y .Y (x.5 If two random variables X and Y have a joint probability density function given by fX. Y }. (g) Find the probability mass function for the random variable V = max{X. let Z = Y − X . In other words. 6. 1). y) = 2 0 if x > 0. Y ) is given by fX. Y ) is given by fX.Questions for Chapter 6 189 (d) Find the probability mass function for the random variable W = X + Y + Z. 6. (e) Find the probability mass function for the random variable T = XY Z . Find the probability density function for Z .Y (x. 0).3 Let (X. T ). Obviously X ≤ Y . 6. (1. Y ) have a uniform distribution over the rectangle (0. (1. (0.Y (x. (f) Find the joint probability mass function for the random variable (W. y > 0 and x + y < 1 otherwise .4 Two light bulbs are burned starting at time 0. 0) . y) = 2e−(x+y) 0 if 0 < x < y < ∞ otherwise (a) Sketch the region in (x. the probability density function for (X. (c) Let Z denote the excess life of the second bulb.

(c) Find the marginal probability density function for Y . Y ) in the xy plane. 0 < y < 2 and 0 < z < 2 otherwise (a) Find the value of the constant α. (d) Find the marginal probability density function for X . (b) Find the probability that X will take on a value less than and Y and Z will both take on values less than 1. 2 1 4 (c) Find the probability that the sum of the values taken on by the two random variables will exceed 2 . 3 (d) Find the marginal probability density functions for X and for Y .Y. Y ). 6. (e) Find the probability density function for Z = X + Y . 2 (b) Find the probability that X will take on a value less than and Y will take on a value greater than 1 . (b) Evaluate the constant k . Y ) has joint probability density function fX. Y.Y (x.Z (x. (e) Find the marginal probability density function for Z = X + Y. 1 2 (c) Find the probability density function for the random vector (X. z) = α(xyz 2 ) 0 if 0 < x < 1.6 Suppose (X. 6.7 Suppose that the random vector (X. y) = kx(x − y) 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and |y| ≤ x otherwise (a) Sketch the support of the distribution for (X. .190 Questions for Chapter 6 (a) Find the probability that both random variables will take on a value less than 1 . y. Z) is a random vector with joint probability density function fX.

Y (x. P . p) = 5pe−ps 0 0. 6. 6. of salt crystals form a random variable (X. (b) Find the conditional probability density function for X given that Y takes on the value y . 000 units) is given by fS. (c) Find the probability that sales will exceed 20. and the width. (d) Find the probability that there will be at least a 20% response to the second type of mail-order solicitation.P (s.Y (x. (b) Find the conditional probability density function for S given that P takes on the value p. y) = 2 5 (x + 4y) 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise (a) Find the marginal probability density functions for X and for Y .Questions for Chapter 6 191 6. of a commodity (in dollars) and total sales. and the joint probability density function of X and Y is given by fX. .40 and s > 0 otherwise (a) Find the marginal probability density functions for P and for S .9 If the joint probability density function of the price. S . Y ) with joint probability density function fX.25.10 If X is the proportion of persons who will respond to one kind of mail-order solicitation.20 < p < 0. y) = x 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 otherwise (a) Find the marginal probability density functions for X and for Y . 000 units given P = 0. Y is proportion of persons who will respond to a second type of mail-order solicitation. (in 10.8 The length. (c) Find the conditional probability density function for Y given that X takes on the value x. Y . X .

Y (x. Y > 0).25). (e) Find the conditional distribution for X given Y = y . (Note: Be careful of the case |y| = 1. Y ) has a uniform distribution on a disk of radius one centered at (0. and the time when fuse 2 blows is a random variable.11 An electronic component has two fuses. Let pX be the marginal probability mass function for X . y) = e−y 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and y ≥ 0 otherwise (a) Compute P (X + Y ≥ 1).13 Let X and Y be discrete random variables with the support of X denoted by Θ and the support of Y denoted by Φ. (a) Compute P (X 2 + Y 2 ≤ 0. 6. (c) Compute P (X ≥ 0. 6.192 Questions for Chapter 6 (e) Find the probability that there will be at least a 20% response to the second type of mail-order solicitation given that there has only been a 10% response to the ﬁrst kind of mail-order solicitation. (b) Find the marginal distributions for X and Y . Y . (X. let pX|Y be the conditional probability mass function of X given Y . Y ) is given by fX. (d) Compute P (X ≥ 0 | Y > 0).) 6. and let pY |X be the conditional probability mass function of .12 The coordinates of a laser on a circular target are given by the random vector (X. X . If an overload occurs. y) =  π 0 x2 + y 2 ≤ 1 otherwise Hence. the time when fuse 1 blows is a random variable. 0). (b) Are X and Y independent? Justify your answer. The joint probability density function of the random vector (X.Y (x. Y ) with the following probability density function:   1 fX.

Y.17 Suppose the joint probability density function of the price. 6. (b) Are X and Y independent random variables? Justify your answer. 6.5 | Y = 0. (c) Compute P (X < 0. . y > 0 and x + y < 1 otherwise Find E(X + Y ).Y. 6.5). Z) is a random vector with joint probability density function fX.Z (x. p) = 5pe−ps 0 0.P (s. y) = 2 0 if x > 0.25).Questions for Chapter 6 193 Y given X .16 Suppose (X. Show that pX|Y (x|y) = pY |X (y|x)pX (x) pY |X (y|x)pX (x) x∈Θ for any x ∈ Θ and y ∈ Φ. Y ) has joint probability density function fX. P . y.40 and s > 0 otherwise Find E(S | P = 0.20 < p < 0. 0 < z < 2 otherwise Find E(X + Y + Z). The random vector (X. (in 10.15 Suppose (X. (d) Compute P (X < 0. Y ) is a continuous random vector with joint probability density function fX.Y (x. y) = 2 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 − x otherwise (a) Determine the marginal probability density functions for X and for Y .14 The volumetric fractions of each of two compounds in a mixture are random variables X and Y . respectively. S .5 | Y < 0. 6. of a commodity (in dollars) and total sales. 0 < y < 2. 000 units) is given by fS.5).Y (x. z) = 3 2 8 (xyz ) 0 if 0 < x < 1.

6.20 Suppose that (X.05 . Y ) is a random vector with the following joint probability density function: fX. (c) Find E(X).05 .04 . y) X (juniors) Y (seniors) 0 1 2 .15 . with 2 juniors and 3 seniors. (b) Find the marginal probability density function for Y .Y (x.Y (x. y) = 2xe−y 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and y ≥ 0 otherwise (a) Find P (X > 0. 6. Y ) has the following joint probability mass function: pX.5). y) = 2x 0 if 0 < x < 1 and 0 < y < 1 otherwise Find the marginal probability density function for Y .01 . After an extensive survey was conducted.04 .20 0 1 2 3 .18 Let X be the proportion of persons who will respond to one kind of mailorder solicitation. Plans are being made for a party. 6.01 .194 Questions for Chapter 6 6.21 The Department of Metaphysics of Podunk University has 5 students.03 .12 . and let Y denote the number of seniors who will attend. Suppose the joint probability density function of X and Y is given by fX.05 . (d) Are X and Y independent random variables? Justify your answer. y) = 2 5 (x + 4y) 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise Find E(X | Y = y) for each 0 < y < 1. and let Y be the proportion of persons who will respond to a second type of mail-order solicitation.Y (x. Let X denote the number of juniors who will attend the party.25 . Y ) is a random vector with the following joint probability density function: fX. it has been determined that the random vector (X.19 Suppose that (X.Y (x.

5 | Y ≤ 0.23 Let (X.5). otherwise (a) Find the marginal probability density function for X and the marginal probability density function for Y . (c) Find the conditional probability density function for Y given that X = 1 .22 Let (X. (b) Are X and Y independent random variables? Justify your answer. What is the probability that no seniors will show up? 6. y) = 2 0 if x ≥ 0.Y (x. y) = 4xy 0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 .Questions for Chapter 6 195 (a) What is the probability that 3 or more students (juniors and/or seniors) will show up at the party? (b) What is the probability that more seniors than juniors will show up at the party? (c) If juniors are charged \$5 for attending the party and seniors are charged \$10. (d) Find P (X > 0. otherwise (a) Compute P (X < Y ). what is the expected amount of money that will be collected from all students? (d) The two juniors arrive early at the party.Y (x. (b) Find the marginal probability density function for X and the marginal probability density function for Y . 2 (d) Are X and Y independent random variables? Justify your answer. . Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function given by fX. y ≥ 0 and x + y ≤ 1 . Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function given by fX. (c) Find P (X + Y ≤ 1). 6.

y) = 6x2 y 0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 otherwise (a) Find the marginal probability density function for X and the marginal probability density function for Y .Y (x. It is not replaced. Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function given by fX.0). (d) Find E(X + Y ). (d) Find E(X + Y ). and let Y be the number on the second ball. (b) Compute P (Y ≥ 3 | X = 1). A game consists of drawing one of the balls at random from the box. (a) Find the joint probability mass function for the random vector (X. 3 and 4.26 Suppose that (X. . (c) Find P (X + Y ≤ 1). Y < 1. Let X be the number on the ﬁrst ball drawn. (c) Find the marginal probability density function for X . Y ). A second ball is then drawn at random from the box. 6. (b) Are X and Y independent random variables? Justify your answer. y) = if 0 < x < 1 and y > 0 otherwise  0    (a) Compute P (X > 0.5 | Y < 1. (b) Compute P (X > 0.24 Let (X.Y (x.25 A box contains four balls numbered 1.5. 6. Y ) is a random vector with the following joint probability density function:   2xe−y    fX.0).196 Questions for Chapter 6 6. 2.

What is the probability that the student is a junior? 6.28 (†) Suppose X and Y are positive. (b) Now suppose that X and Y can be positive and/or negative. between 70 and 80)? (b) If a student is chosen at random from the class.27 Past studies have shown that juniors taking a particular probability course receive grades according to a normal distribution with mean 65 and variance 36. what is the student’s expected grade? (c) A student is chosen at random from the class and you are told that the student has a grade in the 70’s. Seniors taking the same course receive grades normally distributed with a mean of 70 and a variance of 36. Let Z = X/Y . independent continuous random variables with probability density functions fX (x) and fY (y). respectively.Questions for Chapter 6 197 6.. (a) What is the probability that a student chosen at random from the class will receive a grade in the 70’s (i. . Compare your answer to the case where X and Y are both positive. Express the probability density function for Z in terms of an integral that involves only fX and fY . (a) Express the probability density function for Z in terms of an integral that involves only fX and fY . A probability class is composed of 75 juniors and 25 seniors.e.

198 Questions for Chapter 6 .

Let X be a discrete random variable with support on the nonnegative integers. For any differentiable function h(u).7 TRANSFORMS AND SUMS Transforms Notation Throughout this section we will use the following notation: Deﬁnition 7. Then the probability generating function for X is given by gX (z) ≡ E(z X ) for |z| < 1.2.1. Example: Let h(x) = x3 then h(2) (4) = = = d2 h(x) dx2 d2 3 x dx2 x=4 x=4 3x 2 x=4 = 3(4)2 = 48 Probability generating functions Deﬁnition 7. h(k) (c) is the k th derivative of h evaluated at u = c. u=c In other words. 199 . and constant c h(k) (c) ≡ dk h(u) duk .

. . gX (0) = P (X = 1) (1) (1) Another derivative produces. . . we get ∞ k=0 gX (z) = E(z X ) = zk e−α αk k! = e−α (αz)k k! k=0 ∞ = e−α eαz = eα(z−1) Theorem 7. . . . gX (z) = z 0 P (X = 0) + z 1 P (X = 1) + z 2 P (X = 2) + z 3 P (X = 3) + . . If gX (z) is the probability generating function of X . .1. . (Informal proof) Let g (k) (z) denote the k th derivative of g with respect to z . 2. Recalling that ex = ∞ k k=0 (x /k !). then P (X = k) = gX (0) k! (k) Proof. gX (0) = (1)P (X = 0) Now take the ﬁrst derivative of gX (z). We have gX (z) = E(z X ) ∞ = k=0 z k P (X = k) Writing out the sum explicitly. gX (z) = P (X = 1) + 2zP (X = 2) + 3z 2 P (X = 3) + 4x3 P (X = 4) + . we get. . . 1. .200 Transforms Example: Let X have a Poisson distribution with parameter α > 0 Then pX (k) = e−α αk k! for k = 0. .

gX (0) = 3(2)P (X = 3) (3) (3) And. X2 . in general gX (0) = n!P (X = n) (n) Theorem 7.Transforms (2) 201 gX (z) = 2P (X = 2) + 3(2)zP (X = 3) + 4(3)z 2 P (X = 4) + 5(4)z 3 P (X = 5) + . Proof. Xn are independent random variables with probability generating functions gX1 (z). . then E(h(X)g(Y )) = E(h(X))E(g(Y )) . . If gX (z) is the probability generating function of X . . Recall that if X and Y are independent random variables. then E(X) = gX (1) (1) where gX (1) is the ﬁrst derivative of gX (z) with respect to z . As above. . ∞ (1) (1) (1) = k=0 kP (X = k) = E(X) Theorem 7.2. gX (0) = 2P (X = 2) (2) And once more to see the pattern.3. . . evaluated at z = 1. respectively. . gX2 (z). . . . . . . . If X1 . . . then the probability generating function of the random variable Y = X1 + X2 + · · · + Xn is n gY (z) = i=1 gXi (z). . gXn (z). gX (z) = P (X = 1) + 2zP (X = 2) + 3z 2 P (X = 3) + 4x3 P (X = 4) + . gX (1) = P (X = 1) + 2P (X = 2) + 3P (X = 3) + 4P (X = 4) + . gX (z) = 3(2)P (X = 3) + 4(3)(2)zP (X = 4) + 5(4)(3)z 2 P (X = 5) + . . Proof.

5 without proof. gY (z) = E(z Y ) = E(z X1 +X2 +. Theorem 7. gY (z) = E(z Y ) = E(z a+X ) = E(z a z X ) = z a E(z X ) = z a gX (z) We offer Theorem 7. Example: Let T have a Bernoulli distribution with parameter p..+Xn ) = E(z X1 z X2 · · · z Xn ) = E(z X1 )E(z X2 ) · · · E(z Xn ) = gX1 (z)gX2 (z) · · · gXn (z) Theorem 7. and a is a nonnegative. P (T = 1) = p P (T = 0) = 1 − p = q Then the probability generating function of T is given by gT (z) = z 0 q + z 1 p = q + zp . integer constant.4. Except for some technical details.1.. it is a direct result of Theorem 7. The probability generating function of a random variable uniquely determines its probability distribution. Proof.5. We have. then the probability generating function of the random variable Y = a + X is gY (z) = z a gX (z). If gX (z) is the probability generating function of X .202 Transforms Therefore.

Then   fX (x) = 1 b−a  0 if a ≤ x ≤ b otherwise . One could obtain the probability generating function for X is given by computing gX (z) = E(z X ) = n k=0 zk n k (n−k) p q k But we can use Theorem 7. . . That is P (X = k) = n k (n−k) p q k for k = 0. . 1. Then the moment generating function for X is given by MX (t) ≡ E(etX ). The kth moment about the origin of a random variable X is deﬁned as E(X k ). . Deﬁnition 7. . Let X be (almost) any random variable.4. b). . Example: Let X have a uniform distribution on the interval (a.3. use Theorem 7. T1 . .Transforms 203 Example: Now suppose.3 with the Ti ’s to easily get gX (z) = gT1 (z)gT2 (z) · · · gTn (z) = (q + zp)n As an exercise.2 to get E(X) from gX (z). n. . Moment generating functions Deﬁnition 7. T2 . Tn are n independent Bernoulli random variables each with P (Ti = 1) = p P (Ti = 0) = 1 − p = q We know (from Chapter 4) that X = T1 + T2 + · · · + Tn has a Binomial distribution with parameters n and p.

MX (t) = E(etX ) = = = = = ∞ −∞ b a etx fX (x) dx etx 1 dx b−a b a 1 t(b − a) tetx dx b a 1 etx t(b − a) etb − eta t(b − a) for t = 0 Example: Let X have a Poisson distribution with parameter α > 0 Then pX (k) = e−α αk k! for k = 0. 2. it can have a probability generating function and a moment generating function. Recalling that ex = ∞ k k=0 (x /k !). 1. When a random variable has both a probability generating function and a moment generating function. we obtain gX (et ) = E[(et )X ] = E[etX ] = MX (t) Since the probability generating function for a Poisson random variable is gX (z) = eα(z−1) . . 2.204 Transforms Therefore. . . 1. we get tX ∞ MX (t) = E(e ) = k=0 etk ∞ e−α αk k! = e−α (αet )k k! k=0 t t −1) = e−α eαe = eα(e Note that since a Poisson random variable X has support {0. .}. . we can derive the following relationship: gX (z) = E[z X ] substituting z = et . .

Introductory probability theory and statistical applications. Addison-Wesley. 1965. MX (t) = 1 1 √ 2π +∞ −∞ exp[t(σs + µ)]e−s 2 /2 ds Meyer.. thus x = σs + µ and dx = σds. P. . . Example: Let X have an exponential distribution with parameter α > 0. MX (t) = = α x(t−α) ∞ e t−α 0 α for t < α α−t Example: (From Meyer.Transforms 205 the moment generating function for a Poisson random variable must be MX (t) = gX (et ) = eα(e t −1) It’s important to remember that this relationship will only hold for random variables with support {0. . 1 MX (t) = √ 2πσ +∞ −∞ 2 etx exp − 1 x−µ 2 σ 2 dx Let (x − µ)/σ = s. Then fX (x) = αe−αx if x ≥ 0 0 otherwise Therefore.} (that is. 1. . 2. σ 2 ). Reading MA. MX (t) = E(etX ) = 0 ∞ ∞ etx αe−αx dx αex(t−α) dx = 0 Note that this integral only converges if t < α. those random variables with probability generating functions). Then 1 1 x−µ fX (x) = √ exp − 2 σ 2πσ Therefore. for every t. Continuing.1 ) Let X ∼ N (µ. Therefore.

. MX (t) = E(X) + tE(X 2 ) + (1) t2 E(X 3 ) t3 E(X 4 ) + + ··· 2! 3! . MX (t) = 1 + tE(X) + t2 E(X 2 ) t3 E(X 3 ) t4 E(X 4 ) + + + ··· 2! 3! 4! Take the ﬁrst derivative of both sides to get . . . we get .6. +∞ −∞ e−v 2 /2 dv = e(tµ+σ 2 t2 /2) Theorem 7. . . We have MX (t) = E(etX ) = E (tX)k k! k=0 ∞ (k) Writing out the sum explicitly. MX (t) = E 1 + tX + (tX)2 (tX)3 (tX)4 + + + ··· 2! 3! 4! If the sum in the right hand side converges. 1. Proof.206 +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ Transforms 1 = etµ √ 2π 1 = etµ √ 2π = etµ+σ 2 t2 /2 1 exp(− 2 [s2 − 2σts]) ds exp{− 1 [(s − σt)2 − σ 2 t2 ]} ds 2 +∞ −∞ 1 √ 2π exp(− 1 [s − σt]2 ) ds 2 Now let s − σt = v . . . . If MX (t) is the moment generating function of X . 2. (Informal proof) Let MX (t) denote the k th derivative of MX with respect to t. then ds = dv and we obtain MX (t) = etµ+σ 2 t2 /2 1 √ 2π . then E(X k ) = MX (0) (k) for k = 0. we get. .

If X1 . and a and b are constants. MX (0) = E(X 2 ) (2) Continuing. then the moment generating function of the random variable Y = X1 + X2 + · · · + Xn is n MY (t) = i=1 MXi (t). X2 . . . . we see that. . The moment generating function of a random variable uniquely determines its probability distribution. MX (t) = E(X 2 ) + tE(X 3 ) + (2) t2 E(X 4 ) t3 E(X 5 ) + + ··· 2! 3! and when evaluated at t = 0. . . . . .7. respectively. σ 2 ) then the moment generating function for X is MX (t) = etµ+ 2 t 1 2 2 σ . MX (t) = E(X k ) + tE(X k+1 ) + (k) t2 E(X k+2 ) t3 E(X k+3 ) + + ··· 2! 3! and when evaluated at t = 0.9. . then the moment generating function of the random variable Y = aX +b is MY (t) = ebt MX (at). Xn are independent random variables with moment generating functions MX1 (t). MXn (t). If MX (t) is the moment generating function of X . . . MX (0) = E(X k ) (k) Theorem 7.8.Transforms 207 and when evaluated at t = 0. MX2 (t). Theorem 7. . . . . Example: If X ∼ N (µ. Theorem 7. MX (0) = E(X) (1) Take the second derivative of both sides to get . . .

suppose you are given that the random variable X has a normal distribution with mean µ and variance σ 2 .8 with a= 1 σ and b=− µ σ we ﬁnd that the moment generating function for Z is MZ (t) = ebt MX (at) = e−tµ/σ MX (t/σ) = e[− σ ] e = e = et 2 /2 tµ t [ σ µ+ t2 σ2 ] 2σ 2 [− tµ + tµ + σ σ t2 σ2 ] 2σ 2 which is the moment generating function of a normal random variable with expected value equal to zero and variance equal to one. we have shown that if X ∼ N (µ. And. Now. if you encounter a random Y with moment generating function MY (t) = et 2 /2 you can immediately say that Y ∼ N (0.208 Transforms So. . σ 2 ) then Z = (X − µ)/σ ∼ N (0. 1). So the moment generating function for X is MX (t) = etµ+ 2 t 1 2 2 σ Consider the random variable Z= 1 µ X −µ = X− σ σ σ Using Theorem 7. Therefore. 8). if someone tells you that the random variable W has moment generating function 2 MW (t) = e−2t+4t then the distribution of W must be N (−2. 1).

Note that the moment generating function for a continuous random variable X with probability density function fX (x) is MX (t) = ∞ −∞ etx fX (x) dx and the Laplace transform for the same density function is LX (t) = ∞ −∞ e−tx fX (x) dx So the moment generating function of a continuous random variable is simply the Laplace transform of the probability density function with t replaced by −t everywhere in the formula for the transform. an and b are constants.6. Linear combinations of normal random variables Theorem 7. .10. . Then the Laplace transform for X is given by LX (t) ≡ E(e−tX ). . . . Let X be (almost) any random variable. Then the characteristic function for X is given by ψX (t) ≡ E(eitX ) √ where i ≡ −1. then n Y =b+ i=1 2 ai Xi ∼ N (µY . X2 . σi ) and a1 . a2 . if X1 . Characteristic function Deﬁnition 7. . . σY ) where µY = b + n ai µi i=1 . Let X be any random variable.5.Linear combinations of normal random variables 209 Other transforms of random variables Laplace transform Deﬁnition 7. . Xn are independent normal random variables with 2 Xi ∼ N (µi .

we want to ﬁnd P (|X − 6| > 2). are iid with each Xi ∼ N (6. 4). P (T > 28) = P 28 − 24 T − 24 > 4 4 = P (Z > 1) where Z ∼ N (0. Let X = 1 (X1 + 4 X2 + X3 + X4 ) denote the average weight of the 4 snails. X2 .9772) = 0. and we would like to ﬁnd the probability that the total weight. i i=1 Example: The weights of snails are normally distributed with mean 6 gm.1587 3 Once again. X2 . . Therefore. Xn . . . 1). . Since X1 . .8413 = 0. 4).210 Linear combinations of normal random variables and 2 σY = n 2 a2 σi . 16). Xn . . . we have X = 4 1 i=1 Xi ∼ N (6. T = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 .? Since X1 . it is reasonable to assume that the weights of n snails chosen at random from the population of all snails are n independent identically distributed random variables. X2 . and variance 4 gm2 . suppose that 4 snails are selected at random.0456 . 4). That is. . 1) = 1 − [P (Z ≤ 2) − P (Z ≤ −2)] = 1 − [P (Z ≤ 2) − (1 − P (Z ≤ 2))] = 2 − 2P (Z ≤ 2) = 2 − 2(0. 4 P (|X − 6| > 2) = 1 − P (|X − 6| ≤ 2) = 1 − P (−2 ≤ X − 6 ≤ 2) = 1−P −2 X −6 2 ≤ ≤ 1 1 1 = 1 − P (−2 ≤ Z ≤ 2) where Z ∼ N (0. Let’s ﬁnd the probability that the observed average weight deviates from the expected weight by more than 2 gm. 3 Suppose that 4 snails are selected at random. we have T = 4 i=1 Xi ∼ N (24. are iid with each Xi ∼ N (6. Xn . Therefore. . with each Xi ∼ N (6. . . Therefore. 1) = 1 − P (Z ≤ 1) = 1 − 0. X1 . will exceed 28 gm. .

. X1 . Therefore. Proof. . Let X = n 1 i=1 Xi . . The Central Limit Theorem Theorem 7. MSn (t) = [M (t)]n . . . . . . . is a random variable. (Central Limit Theorem) If 1. . . Zn = then n→∞ Sn − nµ √ . X2 . Since each Xi has the same moment generating function for all i. X2 . First note that E(Sn ) = nµ and Var(Sn ) = nσ 2 . Remember that X . . and MZn (t) = e−µ √ nt/σ √ M (t/(σ n)) n We are going to need the following two facts: . the sample mean. Then n X ∼ N (µ.11. . Xn . 1) random variable. We will get the result by showing that the moment generating function for Zn must approach the moment generating function of a N (0. we can let M (t) denote the common moment generating function of each X1 . σ 2 ) distribution. Xn be a random sample from a N (µ. . we get √ √ (1) MZn (t) = e−µ nt/σ MSn (t/(σ n)) Since each Xi has the same moment generating function for all i. σ n lim P (Zn ≤ z) = Φ(z). . Xn . Xn is a random sample with E(Xi ) = µ and Var(Xi ) = σ 2 for all i. X2 . Then MZn (t) = M Sn√ (t) = M −nµ σ n Sn √ − σ n √ nµ σ (t) Since MaY +b (t) = etb MY (at) for any random variable Y and any constants a and b. σ 2 /n).The Central Limit Theorem 211 The distribution of the sample mean Let X1 . . and 3. X2 . we can let M (t) denote the common moment generating function of each X1 . and 2. Sn = X1 + X2 + · · · + Xn .

E(X 2 ) − E(X)2 2σ 2 t2 + [other terms] But E(X) = µ and E(X 2 ) − E(X)2 = σ 2 . σ k! σ n k=1 Note that the natural log term looks like fact (B) with ξ= E(X k ) k! k=1 ∞ t √ σ n k ..212 E(X k ) k t k! k=1 (−1)j−1 j ξ j j=1 ∞ ∞ The Central Limit Theorem (A) M (t) = 1 + (B) ln(1 + ξ) = for |ξ| < 1. so ln MZn (t)   √ ∞  −µ nt (−1)j−1 = + n  σ j j=1 =  √ −µ nt + n σ ∞ j E(X k ) k! k=1 t √ σ n k t √ σ n ∞ k    E(X k ) k! k=1 ∞ 1 − 2 E(X k ) k! k=1 t √ σ n k 2  + · · · . ξ ) will eventually be less than one. we can make this summation as small as we want. Collect similar powers of t to obtain √ −µ nt E(X) √ +n t+ ln MZn (t) = σ σ n Hence. for suitably large n. Therefore. take the natural log of both sides of equation (1) and use fact (A): √ t −µ nt ln MZn (t) = + n ln M √ σ σ n √ ∞ k −µ nt E(X k ) t √ = + n ln 1 + . Now. 1 ln MZn (t) = 0t + t2 + [other terms]. ln MZn (t) = √ (−µ + E(X)) n t+ σ E(X) 1 E(X)2 − 2!σ 2 n 2 σ 2 n t2 + · · · . the summation (i. Hence. permitting us to use fact (B). As n → ∞. 2 .e.

2 we get the following Theorem 7. T2 . Of course. . However. The DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem A proof of the Central Limit Theorem was provided by Liapounoff in 1902.12. n i=1 Ti Then E(Ti ) = p and Var(Ti ) = p(1 − p). . But DeMoivre (1733) and Laplace (1812) proved a similar result for the following special case: Let T1 . .. So limn→∞ P (Zn ≤ a) = Φ(a). because of the Central Limit Theorem. Hence.The Central Limit Theorem 213 But the “[other terms]” for tn with n ≥ 3 go to zero as n → ∞ because there is a power of n in the denominator of each of the “[other terms]” (expand the series further if you need convincing). that is let P (Ti = 1) = p P (Ti = 0) = 1 − p. as the number of Bernoulli trials increases) the distribution of Zn = Sn − np np(1 − p) approaches the distribution of a N (0. DeMoivre and Laplace didn’t know about the Central Limit Theorem and had to prove this in a different way. n. (DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem) As n gets large (i. 1) random variable. 2 n→∞ Therefore. 1).e. that is P (Sn = k) = n k p (1 − p)n−k k for k = 0. lim ln MZn (t) = lim MZn (t) = et t2 . . . 2 . 1. We already know that Sn = has a Binomial distribution with parameters n and p. . . 2 /2 n→∞ which is the moment generating function for N (0. . Tn be a random sample from a Bernoulli distribution.

. Xn is a random sample with E(Xi ) = µ and Var(Xi ) = σ 2 but the distribution of the Xi is not normal. since X is composed of a sum of independent random variables. σ 2 /n) distribution. because as n → ∞ both the mean np and variance np(1 − p) go to ∞. we can summarize both results as follows: • If X1 . σ 2 /n). And recall that the sample mean is deﬁned as X= 1 n n Xi i=1 Simply using the rules for expected value and variance. X2 .13. then for “large” values of n. we get what is often called the “normal approximation to the binomial. Then the probability distribution of the 1 sample mean X = n n Xi is N (µ. Suppose n is an integer and 0 < p < 1. In the limit. X2 . . . we get E(X) = µ Var(X) = σ 2 /n But. σ 2 /n). But for ﬁnite n. i=1 • If X1 . . we can still say that the probability distribution of the sample 1 mean X = n n Xi is approximately N (µ. X2 . because of the Central Limit Theorem. The distribution of the sample mean for large n Let X1 . .” as follows: Corollary 7. . Xn be a random sample from (just about any) distribution with E(Xi ) = µ and Var(Xi ) = σ 2 . . the distribution of the random variable Sn approaches the distribution of a N (np. . we can use the Central Limit Theorem to say that the probability distribution of X approaches a N (µ. np(1 − p)) random variable. Xn is a random sample from a normal distribution with E(Xi ) = µ and Var(Xi ) = σ 2 .214 The Central Limit Theorem Another (more casual) way to state the DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem is to say that as n → ∞. this is not very useful (and not precise). (k−np)2 n k −1 e 2 np(1−p) p (1 − p)n−k ≈ √ 1 2πnp(1−p) k This approximation usually works well when np(1 − p) > 9. Combining this fact with the case discussed on page 211. furthermore. i=1 . Then. . . . .

2 Suppose X ∼ N (2. each with the same probability distribution as X . S7. Then the moment generating function for Y = X1 + X2 is (A) e0.5199 (C) 0. S7.9772 (E) none of the above.5t 2 2 (B) 2e0.3 Suppose X is a random variable with moment generating function MX (t) = E(etX ) = e0. Then P (X + Y < 9) equals (approximately) (A) 0.1587 (B) 0.5t 2 Let X1 and X2 be two independent random variables. 16) are independent random variables. Answers can be found in Appendix B.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 215 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 For each of the following multiple-choice questions. 9) and Y ∼ N (2.1 Let X be a random variable with probability generating function g(z) = z + z5 + z6 3 The value of E(X) equals (A) 0 (B) 1 3 (C) 1 (D) 4 (E) none of the above. choose the best response among those provided. S7.8413 (D) 0.5t (C) et 2 .

then 3X − Y (A) has a normal distribution with mean 2 and variance 1 (B) has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 10 (C) has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 2 (D) has a normal distribution with mean 2 and variance 4 (E) none of the above.5t 4 (E) none of the above. .05 (C) 0. S7. normally distributed random variables each with mean 0 and variance 1. The value of P (X > Y ) is (A) 0 (B) 0.6 Let X and Y be independent random variables with X ∼ N (0. then each Ti has probability mass function pTi (k) = 1−p p if k = 0 if k = 1 where 0 < p < 1. If p is the probability that any one light bulb is good.216 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 (D) e0. . 1) and Y ∼ N (0.5 If X and Y are independent. T2 . and {Ti = 0} if light bulb i is bad. . S7. Let T1 . S7. Then S = n Ti is the i=1 total number of good light bulbs in the batch.4 An automated assembly line produces incandescent light bulbs. Tn be n independent identically distributed random variables with {Ti = 1} if light bulb i is good. . 2).50 . Then P (S ≥ 1) equals (A) 1 − pn (B) 1 − (1 − p)n (C) 2 ∞ √1 e−x /2 dx 1 2π (D) 1 (E) none of the above. Suppose that a batch of n bulbs are selected at random.

S7. each with E(Xi ) = 0 and Var(Xi ) = 1 for i = 1. normally distributed random variables each with mean 0 and variance 1. X2 .Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 217 (D) 0. X4 be independent random variables. S7. Then Var(Y ) equals (A) 1/16 (B) 1/4 (C) 4 (D) 16 (E) none of the above. 4. X3 . S7.7 Let X be a random variable with probability generating function g(z) = z(1 + z) 2 The value of P (X = 0) is (A) 0 (B) 1/4 (C) 1/2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.95 (E) none of the above. 2. 3.8 Let X1 .9 Let X and Y be independent. Let Y = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 . Then the random variables W1 = X + Y W2 = X − Y (A) have the same mean (B) have the same variance (C) are both normally distributed .

S7. S7.05 (B) 0. S7. The amount of water carried on any trip is independent of all other trips. Jack repeatedly goes to a well at the top of a hill. The amount of water he carries on any one trip from the well to the tank is normally distributed with mean 1 gallon and standard deviation 0. then X + Y + 1 has a moment generating function equal to (A) et (1 − t)−2 (B) (1 − t)−2 (C) 2et (1 − t)−1 (D) es (1 − t)(1 − s) (E) none of the above.12 Jack is attempting to ﬁll a 100 gallon water tank using a one gallon bucket. ﬁlls his one gallon bucket with water and brings that water down to the 100 gallon tank. The probability that Jack will need to make more than 100 trips to the well is (A) 0.1 gallon.10 Let X be a random variable with moment generating function MX (t) = et (1 + e2t ) 2 The value of E(X) is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) none of the above.11 Let X be a random variable with moment generating function MX (t) = (1 − t)−1 .0636 . Let Y be a random variable with moment generating function MY (s) = (1 − s)−1 .218 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. If X and Y are independent.

2) and Y ∼ N (1.0 (E) none of the above.2580 (D) 0.6915 (D) 1. . The value of P (X − Y < 1) equals (A) 0 (B) 0.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 219 (C) 0.5 (C) 1 (D) P (X + Y < 1) (E) none of the above.15 Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function given by 1 P (X = 0) = 3 P (X = 1) = 2 3 Then the moment generating function for X is (A) e2t/3 (B) (C) (D) 1 3 (1 1 2 (1 + 2et ) + et ) + e2t ) 1 t 2 e (1 (E) none of the above. S7. Then P (|X − Y | ≤ 1) equals (A) 0 (B) 0. 2).14 Let X and Y be independent random variables with X ∼ N (1.3830 (C) 0. S7.13 Let X and Y be independent random variables with X ∼ N (0.5 (E) none of the above. S7. 1) and Y ∼ N (0. 2).

X2 . n. . . S7. .220 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7 S7. . . 4) for i = 1. Deﬁne the random variable Y = 1 n n Xi i=1 Then E(Y ) equals (A) 0 . S7. 1) if and only if (A) c = 1 (B) c = n √ (C) c = 2 n √ (D) c = 2/ n (E) none of the above. . . . Xn are independent random variables with each Xi ∼ N (2.18 Let X1 .16 Suppose X1 . identically distributed random variables with each Xi having a probability mass function given by P (Xi = 0) = 1 − p P (Xi = 1) = p where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. . . Xn be independent. . 2. .17 Let X be a random variable with moment generating function MX (t) = et (1 + et ) 2 The value of E(X) is (A) 0 (B) 2 3 (C) 1 (D) 3 2 (E) none of the above. Let W = n Xi and deﬁne the random i=1 variable W − 2n Z= c Then Z ∼ N (0.

(b) Find E(X) and E(X 2 + 1).1 The probability generating function for a random variable X is given by g(z) = z 10 + z 20 . 4). 16).25)e27t + (0. integer support and moment generating function p .5)e26t + (0. Questions for Chapter 7 7. 2 (a) Find P (X > 18 | X > 13). . 7. (d) Find the moment generating function for X .Questions for Chapter 7 221 (B) p (C) p2 (D) 1 (E) none of the above.5 Suppose that X .4 Let X be a random variable with nonnegative. (c) Find E(|X − 15|).2 A random variable has the moment generating function M (t) = 2 .3 The moment generating function for a random variable X is given by M (t) = (0. 9) and Z ∼ N (3. 2−t What is the expected value for this random variable? 7. 7. Y ∼ N (2. and Z are independent random variables with X ∼ N (1.25)e49t . (a) Compute P (X ≤ 30). Y . (b) Find E(X). M (t) = t (1 − p) 1−e What is the value of P (X = 0)? 7.

(c) Compare the answers to (a) and (b). . These weights can be assumed to be independent and identically distributed. .05? . . You should be able to get this answer knowing the exact distribution of Xn . ﬁnd a number a (that will depend on n).222 Questions for Chapter 7 (a) Compute P (X + Y ≤ 1).01 and mean µ that can be varied by adjusting the packaging equipment.9 A one-pound box of breakfast cereal never contains exactly one pound of product. .8 A fair coin is tossed 5000 times. each with E(Xi ) = 0 and Var(Xi ) = 1 for all i = 1. Xn . Xn be independent and identically distributed random variables. . Approximately how many cartons can the forklift carry so that the probability that its total load exceeds its capacity is only 0. . (a) What value should µ be adjusted to so that the producer can guarantee that the probability that the net weight of a box is less than one pound is only 0. X2 . . 0. (c) Compute P [(X + Y + Z)2 ≤ 25]. . . Approximately what is the probability that at least 1965 of the tosses will turn up heads? 7. . 2. Explain the difference in your answers.3174 7. X2 .95 where X n denotes the sample mean of X1 . (a) Using Chebychev’s inequality. (d) Compute P [(3X − Z)2 > 52]. . n.95. The net weight (in pounds) is normally distributed with variance 0. . Hint: Don’t use Chebychev’s inequality. (b) Solve question (a) again using the additional information that each of the Xi is normally distributed. Cartons of items have individual weights that are normally distributed with mean 25 pounds and standard deviation 2 pounds.6 Let X1 . such that P (|X n | ≤ a) ≥ 0.01? 7. (b) Find the number a such that P (3−4a < Z < 3+4a) = 0. 7.5 ton (1000 pound) capacity.7 A large forklift has a 0.

28 pounds? 7. .0025 (ounces)2 .12 The Phizzi Soft Drink Company’s best selling product is Phizzi-Soda that it sells in 12-ounce bottles. 7. what is the probability that the average of their scores lies between 68 and 72? (c) What is the probability that the difference in the scores of two students (picked at random) lies between −5 and +5? 7.1 ounces and variance 0. Find P (X1 < 12).10 The distribution of test scores on an examination is approximately normal with mean 70 and standard deviation 7. (c) Let X = (X1 +X2 )/2 be a random variable representing the average ﬁll-volume of the two bottles selected in question (b). Let X1 and X2 be independent random variables denoting the ﬁll-volume of each of the two bottles. then 3X − Y has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 10. (b) Suppose that two bottles of Phizzi-Soda are chosen at random. Find P (X < 12). (a) What is the probability of receiving a grade less than 80? (b) If 49 students take the test.11 True or False: If X and Y are normally distributed random variables with mean 0 and variance 1. Find P (X1 > X2 ). Assume that X is normally distributed with mean 12. Hint: P (X1 > X2 ) = P (X1 − X2 > 0).Questions for Chapter 7 223 (b) What is the probability that a carton of 16 cereal boxes produced according to the speciﬁcations determined in part (a) will not exceed a total net weight of 19. the quantity of Phizzi-Soda in a single bottle is a random variable X . (a) Let X1 denote the ﬁll-volume of a single bottle of PhizziSoda. When the automated ﬁlling machine is working properly.

. then limz→1 gX (z) = 1.224 Questions for Chapter 7 7. identically distributed random variables.16 Let X and Y be independent.25(kgm)2 . The weights of all packages can be considered independent.1 kgm? 7.14 Individual packages of writing paper have weights that are normally distributed each with mean 2 kgm and variance 0. What is the probability that their average weight is greater than 2. (b) Find the moment generating function for X .15 Prove that if gX (z) ≡ E(z x ) is a probability generating function for X . 9) and Y ∼ N (6. (d) Compute P (0 ≤ X < 2). 7. (b) Find P (X > Y ). What is the probability that their total weight is greater than 25 kgm? (c) Suppose that ten packages of paper are weighed together.5 kgm? (b) Suppose that ten packages of paper are weighed together. normally distributed random variables with X ∼ N (1. (a) Find the number a having the property that P (Y > a) = 0. (c) Compute P (|X − 1| < 4). 7. Your answers to the following questions might depend on the constant θ. What is the probability that its weight is greater than 2. (a) Find Var(X).975. 0 otherwise where θ is a constant with θ > 0. 16).13 Let X be a continuous random vector with probability density function given by 1/θ for 0 ≤ x ≤ θ fX (x) = . (a) Suppose that one package of paper is weighed.

Y2 . X2 . . (a) Find E(Y ) and Var(Y ) (b) What is the probability that Mr. σ = 0. . The capacity of the swimming pool is 198869 gallons. . The amount of water carried the 200 individual helicopters can be assumed to be a collection of independent and identically distributed random variables X1 .19 Bill Gutts. The elevation of the pool (and his home) is very high so that it is impossible to pump water up the mountain. If the components are selected at random for the assembly.04 cm. Yn are independent log-normal random variables. Xn with n = 200.10 cm. wants to ﬁll one of the swimming pools at his mountain-top home. . what proportion of rods will not ﬁt? 7. Let Y = n Xi be a random variable denoting the total water carried by i=1 all of the n = 200 helicopters. σ = 0. a cylindrical rod with a circular cross-section has to ﬁt into a circular socket.18 At one stage in the assembly of an article. show that if Y1 . . 7.17 Referring to the previous question. The amount of water transported varies from helicopter to helicopter. Gutts plans to transport the water to the mountain-top pool using a ﬂeet of 200 helicopters with each helicopter carrying a small water-tank. Quality control measurements show that the distribution of rod diameter and socket diameter are independent and normal with parameters: Rod diameter: µ = 5. . Socket diameter: µ = 5. But it is well-known that the amount of water (in gallons) carried by a single helicopter can be represented by a random variable that is normally distributed with mean 1000 and variance 1600. . then n W = i=1 Yi is a log-normal random variable.Questions for Chapter 7 225 7. Mr. one of the wealthiest men on earth. . Gutts can ﬁll his swimming pool using the 200 helicopters? . For that reason.03 cm.01 cm.

226 Questions for Chapter 7 (c) Helicopters are very expensive. X has density function fX (x) = 1 if 0 < x < 1 0 otherwise The discrete random variable Y is a Bernoulli random variable with p = 1/2. That is. . Instead it is has a uniform distribution on the interval (930. 1069. Gutts would be happy if the probability that his swimming pool is completely ﬁlled is only 0.718. That is. Suppose Mr. Use the Central Limit Theorem to ﬁnd the approximate probability that Mr. Gutts is given the bad news that the amount of water carried by each helicopter does not have a N (1000.20 (†) Suppose X and Y are independent random varaibles.282). The continuous random variable X has a uniform distribution on the interval (0. How many helicopters should he use? (d) In an E-mail message. 7. Mr. Gutts.50. 1600) distribution. 1). even for a wealthy guy like Mr. Gutts can ﬁll his swimming pool if he uses 200 helicopters. 1/2 if k = 0 P (Y = k) = 1/2 if k = 1 Find the probability distribution of the random variable W = X + Y .

θ). Then a random sample..1. we often write it’s probability density function as fX (x. identically distributed random variables. A statistic is any function. X2 .2. xn . . . X1 . .Xn (x1 . Xn of independent. x2 . . . . identically distributed random variables. . of independent. . 227 . . . .X2 . Xn ).. A random sample is any sequence. θ) = 1 1 − θ (x1 +x2 +···+xn ) θe 0 xi > 0 for all i otherwise Statistics Deﬁnition 8. X2 . Xn representing n independent observations from this random variable has a joint probability density function given by fX1 . θ) = 1 1 −θx θe 0 x>0 otherwise where θ is unknown. . X1 . Example: Let X have an exponential distribution with probability density function fX (x. h(X1 . . If a continuous random variable X has an unknown parameter θ. . . X2 . .8 ESTIMATION Good and bad luck are often mistaken for good and bad jusment – ANONYMOUS... Salada TM tea bag tag Basic Concepts Random samples Deﬁnition 8.

n ˆ 2. . i=1 . X2 . . . . The sample mean is the statistic 1 n X≡ Xi n i=1 and the sample variance is the statistic s2 ≡ X n 1 n−1 (Xi − X)2 . . X2 . . . . . X2 . X2 . . X2 . . θ(X1 .228 Basic Concepts If a statistic is being used to establish statistical inferences about a particular ˆ unknown parameter θ. X2 . . . . θ(X1 . . . Xn ) = max(X1 . . Xn ) = i=1 Xi ˆ The random variable θ is the product of the observations. There are two important statistics that arise so frequently that they are given special symbols: Deﬁnition 8. . with the others discarded. You can think of the random variables X1 . θ(X1 . . Example: Let X1 . Xn ) = X1 ˆ The random variable θ is the ﬁrst observation. . . . . . Xn as representing the future data values that will be obtained by making n independent observations of our experiment. ˆ 3. Then the following are statistics: 1 ˆ 1. . . Xn ). Xn be a random sample. . . ˆ 4. .3. . Xn ) = n n Xi i=1 ˆ The random variable θ is the average of the observations. . Note: Any function of a random sample can be called a statistic. θ(X1 . Let X1 . Xn ) ˆ The random variable θ is the largest of the observations. X2 . Xn be a random sample. . . . then it is often written as θ(X1 . X2 . . X2 . .

. . Xn is to be drawn from this distribution. x2 . . .. xn ) our estimate for the ˆ 1 . . X2 . . Xn . xn ). . This number can be thought of as an actual observation of the random variable ˆ ˆ θ(X1 . . . . . where θ is unknown. The estimator θ is an unbiased estimator of θ if its expected value equals θ. The likelihood function for . . . . . X2 . . . . Unbiased estimators ˆ Deﬁnition 8. X2 . Xn is a random sample from X then 1 ˆ θ(X1 . . . . we will have to ﬁnd ways to distinguish good estimators from poor estimators. . . . We will call the number θ(x1 .5. . . . Xn be a random sample from a discrete random variable X with probability mass function pX (x. Xn ) has been already been selected for use. Example: Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function given by pX (0) = 1 − θ and pX (1) = θ. . ˆ ˆ Applying the function θ to these observations yields the number θ(x1 . . . Xn ) an estimator for θ. We call the random variable θ(X Since any statistic can be called an estimator of any parameter. x2 .Point Estimation 229 Point Estimation The problem Let X be a random variable with cumulative distribution function FX (x. X2 . Suppose that a statistic ˆ θ(X1 . . Xn ) = n is an unbiased estimator for θ. . x2 . X2 . . X2 . A random sample X1 . Let x1 . . θ). n Xi i=1 Finding Estimators Method of maximum likelihood Deﬁnition 8. . Let X1 . ˆ E(θ) = θ for all θ. . . xn denote the actual observed values taken on by X1 . X2 . . θ) that is completely determined except for the unknown constant θ. If X1 . . . . . value of θ. .4. Xn ).e. . i. X2 .

. x2 . . θ). . Then an unbiased estimator for µ is (A) (X1 )(X2 ) · · · (Xn ) (B) (X1 + X2 )2 /2 (C) 1 n n i=1 Xi .. . X2 . x2 .230 Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 8 X1 . Xn is given by n L(x1 . Maximum likelihood estimators are obtained by ﬁnding that value of θ that maximizes L for a given set of observations x1 . check to see if E(θ) Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 8 For the following multiple-choice question. . Xn ). . choose the best response among those provided. xn ). x2 . θ). . an unbiased estimator for θ (i. x2 . x2 . . . we can look at its performance prior to actually making the observations x1 . If. . . ˆ For example. where σ > 0. θ) = i=1 pX (xi . then the likelihood function is given by n L(x1 . xn . . X2 . . namely θ(x1 . . instead. . . . . . θ) = i=1 fX (xi . . That is we can substitute Xi for xi in the ˆ speciﬁcation for θ and look at its properties as the statistic ˆ θ(X1 . xn . . . . . . . x2 . ˆ To evaluate the properties of θ. xn . . one of the properties that we might like to check for is whether θ is ˆ = θ). . . xn .e. . . θ can be thought of as a function of ˆ x1 . Xn are independent identically distributed random variables each with marginal probability density function 1 1 fXi (x) = √ e− 2 σ 2π x−µ 2 σ for −∞ < x < +∞. θ).1 Suppose that X1 . Since the value of θ that does this will usually vary with x1 . X2 . xn . . . . . The answer can be found in Appendix B. X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x. S8. . x2 . . . xn . . .

.1 Let X be a random variable with a binomial distribution. i. 8. ˆ (a) Show that θ = X1 /n is an unbiased estimator for θ. . A random sample of n pages are observed . . X . . X2 . What constraint must be placed on a1 . 1. 2. ˆ (b) Show that θ = X1 /n is the maximum likelihood estimator for θ. .. a2 . Questions for Chapter 8 8. Xn be a random sample from X . . . k! for k = 0. θ) = 0 otherwise Let X1 . . . n. . pX (k . . 8. . . i. Xn .. .3 The life of a light bulb is a random variable X which has probability density function 1 1 −θx x>0 θe fX (x. a2 . X2 . .e. Let X1 be a random sample of size 1 from X . . 1.4 The number of typographical errors.. Suppose that E(Xi ) = θ and Y = n ai Xi where a1 .2 Let Y be an estimator for θ based on the random sample X1 . an are i=1 constants. pX (k . .Questions for Chapter 8 231 (D) σ (E) none of the above. (a) Find an estimator for θ using the method of maximum likelihood. . an in order for Y to be an unbiased estimator for θ? 8. .e. (b) Is the estimator for part (a) unbiased? Justify your answer. λ) = λk e−λ . . . (c) Find the maximum likelihood estimator for η = 1/θ. . θ) = n k θ (1 − θ)n−k k for k = 0. . on a page of text has a Poisson distribution with parameter λ.

8.232 Questions for Chapter 8 (a) Find an estimator for λ using the method of maximum likelihood. There are n such pairs. Xj }. X2 . X X .5 Given the random sample X1 . . (b) Is the estimator for part (a) unbiased? Justify your answer. . That statistic can be represented as 2 d2 ≡ X 1 n 2 i>j (Xi − Xj )2 Prove that d2 = 2s2 . Xn consider the statistic d2 formed by averaging the squared differences of all possible pairings of {Xi . . .

Then X is said to have a binomial distribution. A Bernoulli trial is an experiment with only two outcomes. . n pX (k) = n k p (1 − p)n−k k k = 0. n The binomial distribution Support: Probability mass function: 0. T2 . 2. then pX (k) = n k p (1 − p)n−k k k = 0. . 1. n 233 . If X is a binomial random variable with parameters n and p. Deﬁnition 9. with P (Ti = 1) = p for all i. . . . .9 PROBABILITY MODELS Coin Tossing (Binary) Models Deﬁnition 9. These outcomes are conventionally called success and failure. . . A Bernoulli random variable. . . . . . . Let T1 .2. T is a random variable with a probability mass function given by pT (0) = 1 − p pT (1) = p Deﬁnition 9. Note: X denotes the total number of successes from n independent and identically distributed Bernoulli trials. Let X = n i=1 Ti . Tn be a sequence of n independent and identically distributed Bernoulli random variables.1.3. Theorem 9.1. 1. . 1. . 2. 2.

2. .2)3 (0. 1. . What is the probability that it breaks down exactly 3 days out of a week? Solution: Let X denote the number of breakdowns.8) = 0. 2. p). P (X = 3) = 7 (0. 2.234 Coin Tossing (Binary) Models g(z) = (zp + (1 − p))n MX (t) = (et p + (1 − p))n E(X) = np Probability generating function: Moment generating function: Moments: Notation Var(X) = np(1 − p) If X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p. . we often write X ∼ B(n. P (Y = 4) = (0. The geometric distribution Support: Probability mass function: Probability generating function: Moment generating function: Moments: Note X denotes the number of independent and identically distributed Bernoulli trials required until the ﬁrst success (counting the successful trial).0064 . 1 zp for |z| < g(z) = 1 − z(1 − p) 1−p tp e MX (t) = 1 − et (1 − p) E(X) = 1/p Var(X) = (1 − p)/p2 Example: A computer breaks down at least once a day with probability 0.2)4 = 0. pX (k) = p(1 − p)k−1 k = 1.8). Hence. .8)3 (0. 0. It therefore remains operational for an entire day with probability 0. . X ∼ B(7. 1. .8.287 3 2. What is the probability that it is operational for 3 days in a row before a breakdown? Solution: Let Y denote the number of days until a breakdown.

. What is the probability that there are exactly k particles in the unit interval? Let X denote the number of particles in the unit interval. then for “large” n and “small” p P (X = k) = n k e−np (np)k p (1 − p)n−k ≈ k! k Random Particle Models n The expected number of particles per interval of length one is equal to α. 2. .Random Particle Models 235 The Poisson distribution Support: Probability mass function: Probability generating function: Moment generating function: Moments: 0. Therefore. k! g(z) = eα(z−1) for |z| < 1 MX (t) = eα(e E(X) = α t −1) Var(X) = α Theorem 9. 1. . . Suppose the interval is divided into n equal segments with at most one particle placed in any segment. If X is a binomial random variable with parameters n and p. 2. . 1. pX (k) = e−α αk k = 0. P (X = k) = n k α n k  1 1− α n n−k . X is a binomial random variable with parameters n and p = α/n. .2.

236 −k Random Particle Models αk k! n = 1− α n n n n−1 n−k+1 ··· n n 1− α n for k = 0. . . . .1)? Theorem 9. 1. W (see Figure 9. . Let Yi denote the interarrival time between occurrences i − 1 and i (see Figure 9. 1. 1. This limiting particle process is called the Poisson Process with α = expected number of occurrences per unit interval X = number of occurrences in a unit interval and the probability mass function for X is given by pX (k) = αk e−α k! k = 0. fW (w) = αe−αw 0 if w ≥ 0 otherwise . . . 2. 2. . n.. 2. . .3. Each of the Yi are independent and identically distributed random variables with probability density function given by fYi (y) = αe−αy 0 if y ≥ 0 otherwise Question: Suppose a person begins to observe the process at time t0 chosen independently of the future of the process? What is the distribution of the waiting time to the next occurrence.1). Taking the limit as n gets large (the segment widths decrease) we obtain lim P (X = k) = 1(1)(1) · · · (1) = e−α αk k! αk −α e k! n→∞ for k = 0.

2 Using the information in the previous question.1: Interarrival and waiting times Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 9 For each of the following multiple-choice questions. The company sells each bulb for r cents. S9. Cheapy will refund the purchase price of the entire box to the customer. Answers can be found in Appendix B.1 It costs the Cheapy Flashbulb Company c cents to manufacture a single ﬂashbulb. The probability that any one bulb is good is p > 0 and it is independent of all other bulbs. let Y denote the proﬁt from selling a box of Cheapy ﬂashbulbs.Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 9 237 Yi t i-1 W t t0 i Figure 9. If any of the bulbs in a box is bad. Note that Y may be negative. What is the probability that every bulb in a box is good? (A) 0 (B) p (C) 1 − p (D) pn (E) none of the above. S9. choose the best response among those provided. Flashbulbs are packed n to a box. The value of E(Y ) is (A) 0 .

can bring a proﬁt of c dollars per hour (c < 2) to a ﬁrm. If the machine breaks down x times during the t hours. If more than 2 tankers arrive in a day. when running properly. what is the probability of having to send tankers away? .238 Questions for Chapter 9 (B) n(rp − c) (C) nrpn − nc (D) nrpn + nc − 2ncpn (E) none of the above. Questions for Chapter 9 9.2 The number of oil tankers. N . Suppose that X has a Poisson distribution with E(X) = α > 0. arriving at a reﬁnery each day has a Poisson distribution with parameter α = 3. Let P be the random variable representing the total proﬁt from running the machine for t hours. However. this machine breaks down at unexpected and unpredictable times. Present port facilities can service 2 tankers each day. the excess tankers must be sent to another port. the probability that they all have no knots is (A) 1/4 (B) 4e−α (C) e−4α (D) α4 e−4α (E) none of the above. 9. S9.3 The number of knots in a piece of lumber is a random variable.1 A complicated piece of machinery. If four independent pieces of lumber are examined. (a) Find E(P ) as a function of t. (a) On any given day. The number of breakdowns during any period of length t hours is a random variable with a Poisson distribution with parameter t. (b) Find the length of time the machine should be operated to maximize the expected proﬁt. X . the loss incurred (from the shutdown plus repair costs) equals (x2 + x).

the probability that an incorrect digit will appear is 0. X2 . selected at random. what is the probability of ﬁnding zero. If 5 P i=1 Xi = 5 = r. then what is the value of p in terms of r? . (a) What is the average distance between cars? (b) What is the probability that the distance between any two cars is greater than 10 miles? 9. what is the expected total fees collected in one day? (g) How much must the present facilities be increased to assure that the expected total fees collected in one day is at least \$30000? 9. what is the probability that 10 pages.6 Let X1 . X5 be independent and identically distributed Bernoulli random variables. X4 .3 Suppose cars on a very long test track travel at exactly 50 miles per hour and pass a check point on the track according to a Poisson process at a rate of 5.4 Suppose that a book of 620 pages contains 55 typographical errors. one. If these are randomly distributed throughout the book. each with P (Xi = 1) = p. will be free of errors? 9.5 In forming binary numbers with 32 binary digits. X3 . or more than one incorrect digit in a binary number? If a computer forms 106 such 32-digit numbers per second.002.2 cars/hour. what is the probability that an incorrect number is formed during any one-second time period? 9. If the errors are independent.Questions for Chapter 9 239 (b) How much must the present facilities be increased to permit handling all tankers on approximately 80% on the days? (c) What is the expected number of tankers arriving per day? (d) What is the expected number of tankers serviced daily? (e) What is the expected number of tankers turned away daily? (f) If a fee of \$10000 is collected from each tanker serviced.

240 Questions for Chapter 9 9. with a simple link connecting exactly two molecules (see diagram below) .7 A chromosome can be considered a string of molecules.

Approximately what is the probability that an error cycle will be longer than two minutes? . (c) Consider the number of molecules on the smaller chains that result from the breakup. (a) Let N be the number of links broken.8 A computer transmits 1000 words per minute. and each link breaks independently of the others. In recombinant DNA experiments.    Suppose a section of a chromosome consists of 1000 such links (and 1001 molecules). Each link has a probability 0. some of these links are broken. (a) Approximately what is the probability of generating at least 2 words with parity errors in a one minute period? (b) An error cycle is the time between successive words with parity errors. Parity errors are generated independently from one word to the next. thus breaking the section into smaller chains.001. The probability that any one word has a parity error is 0.005 of breaking. What is the actual probability mass function for N ? (b) Compute the approximate probability that exactly 4 smaller chains result from the breakup. Approximately what proportion of these chains will contain at least 200 molecules? 9.

9 The number of knots in a piece of lumber has a Poisson distribution with an average of 2 knots per piece.10 Glass rods are manufactured by cutting a continuous glass rod leaving a production machine. What is the probability that the computer operator on the new shift will wait at least two minutes for the ﬁrst parity error on that shift? (d) What is the probability that no parity error occurs between 10:00 and 10:02 am? 9. If a piece has any knots. . .Questions for Chapter 9 241 (c) A shift change in computer personnel takes place at 8:00 am each day. . .11 (†) Suppose X1 and X2 are independent Binomial random variables with P (X1 = k) = P (X2 = k) = n k p (1 − p1 )n−k k 1 n k p (1 − p2 )n−k k 2 for k = 0. . To produce “perfect” glass rods. the continuous rod is cut at each imperfection. Small imperfections appear in the continuous rod according to a Poisson process with an average of two imperfections per foot of glass rod. n for k = 0. . If p1 = p2 then Y = X1 + X2 has a Binomial distribution. (a) What is the probability that a piece of lumber is unsatisfactory? (b) What is the expected number of unsatisfactory pieces in a load of 500 pieces? (c) What is the probability that all of the 500 pieces are satisfactory? 9. n (a) Prove or give a counterexample: Suppose 0 < pi < 1 for i = 1. it is considered unsatisfactory. . (a) What is the average length of the cut glass rods? (b) What fraction of the rods will have a length greater than one foot? 9. 1. 2. 1. . The number of knots from piece to piece can be assumed to be independent. .

Let W = Y − n.242 Questions for Chapter 9 (b) Prove or give a counterexample: Suppose 0 < pi < 1 for i = 1.12 (†) (from Meyer1 ) In the manufacturing of glass bottles. Assume that: (a) every particle may appear in any bottle with equal probability. . . 2. (ii) W as p2 → 1. Note that the molten glass required for 100 bottles contains. If p1 = p2 then Y = X1 + X2 cannot have a Binomial distribution. 9. show that for small x. for large M . we have d(x) ≈ x. (c) Show that. n where n = xM and α = x/100. P. the expected percentage of defective bottles equals d(x) = 100(1 − ex/100 ). Introductory Probability and Statistical Applications. on average. . 1. but for larger x (say x = 100) the “quick” solution is very wrong. 1. . On average. there are x particles in a batch of 100 kg of molten glass. (d) Finally. (b) Show that as M → ∞ P (Z = k) ≈ e−α ak k! for k = 0. (a) Show that for M 100 kg batches of bottles. has probability distribution P (Z = k) = n k α n k 1− α n n−k for k = 0. Z . . Find the limiting distribution for each of the following random variables: (i) Y as p2 → 0. . the number of particles in a randomly chosen bottle. If we wanted to compute the expected percentage of defective bottles. and (b) the distribution of any particle among the bottles is independent of all other particles. (c) Suppose 0 < pi < 1 for i = 1.. x particles. small particles in the molten glass cause individual bottles to be defective. the quick (and wrong) answer would be x percent. A defective bottle may have more than one particle. . Addison-Wesley. 1 Meyer. A single bottle requires 1 kg of molten glass. 2 and let Y = X1 + X2 . 1965 .

Suppose the offers X1 . (c) Find P (X = 0). ﬁnd FY (y) = P (Y ≤ y). (b) Find E(N ) (c) Find the cumulative distribution function for Y . where c is a positive constant. . .Questions for Chapter 9 243 9. . . for a box of 10 bulbs T1 . Since one fourth of the slices sold by Pip are pepperoni. identically distributed random variables with P (Ti = 0) = 0.1 for all i = 1.13 The Youbee Light Bulb Company manufactures electric light bulbs.9 P (Ti = 1) = 0. . There are four slices in each pizza.14 (†) Mr. . . (b) Let X = T1 + T2 + · · · + T10 denote the total number of defective bulbs in a box of 10 bulbs. He decides he will accept the ﬁrst offer exceeding c dollars. T10 are independent. T2 . That is.1. Bonkers is selling his house. (a) Find the probability mass function for N . Defects from one bulb to the next can be assumed to be independent random variables. . 10. X2 . every pizza that Pip prepares has pepperoni on only one of the . 9. 9. Compute E(X) and Var(X). Let N be the number of offers needed to sell the house. Each bulb has a probability be being defective equal to 0. (a) Compute E(Ti ) and Var(Ti ) for every i. 2. Clearly justify each step of your answer. Let Y be the actual selling price of the house. Therefore. are independent identically distributed random variables (in dollars) each with cumulative distribution function FX (x).15 (†) Pip’s Pizza Shoppe sells pepperoni and plain pizza by the slice. Let the Bernoulli random variable Ti equal 1 if bulb i is defective and 0 if the bulb is non-defective. . .

9. and Xi = 0 if it’s plain. Suppose that any tire becomes underinﬂated independently and with the same probability for each tire on every car. would require that Pip bake a second pizza before selling all of the slices in the ﬁrst pizza. Assume that Pip never throws away any slices of pizza during the day. . The remainder of the pizza is plain. X3 = 1. (b) Suppose Pip has just taken a freshly baked pizza out of the oven and suppose that there are no other unsold slices. . X2 . . . Each car has 4 tires. What is the probability distribution for the random variable Y ? Hint: There is only one pepperoni slice per pie. See the following diagram: Let the independent random variables X1 . Let the random variable Y denote the number of pizzas that Pip must bake that day. a major oil company says that one fourth of all cars have at least one underinﬂated tire. What is the probability that Pip must bake a another pizza before selling all of the slices in the current pizza? Hint: Find the probability that he doesn’t need to bake another pizza. the current customer wants pepperoni but Pip has no pepperoni slices available or the current customer wants plain but Pip has no plain slices available. X4 = 0. represent the slices sold by Pip with Xi = 1 if slice i is pepperoni. . (c) (††) What is the probability that Pip must bake a pizza to satisfy the request of the current customer? That is.16 (†) In a radio advertisement. X2 = 0.244 Questions for Chapter 9 four slices. . (a) Suppose 20 customers visit Pip’s Pizza Shoppe on a particular day. Note that a sequence such as X1 = 1. . X5 = 0.

We plan on testing the air pressure for every tire on every car. and then select a tire on that car at random. What is the probability distribution for X? .Questions for Chapter 9 245 (a) Suppose we select a car at random. Let the random variable X represent the number of tires (out of the 40) that are underinﬂated. What is the probability that the tire in underinﬂated? (b) Suppose a parking lot contains 10 cars.

246 Questions for Chapter 9 .

Inc.821255978 b5 = 1.1 Approximation for the Normal Integral Let Z be a standard normal random variable.nist. | (z)| < 7. and Stegun.10 APPROXIMATIONS AND COMPUTATIONS These numerical approximations are from a book by Abramowitz and Stegun. Handbook of Mathematical Functions.356563782 b4 = −1. New York (1970). that is Q(z) = ∞ z 1 2 1 √ e− 2 t dt 2π For z ≥ 0 the following approximation can be used to compute Q(z): Q(z) = φ(z)(b1 t + b2 t2 + b3 t3 + b4 t4 + b5 t5 ) + (z) where 1 r = 0.gov/. This handbook is being published as a reference source on the World Wide Web at http://dlmf.5 × 10−8 . M. I. 1 Abramowitz..330274429 t= b3 = 1. (1970).2316419 1 + rz b1 = 0. 247 . that is the probability density function for Z is given by 1 2 1 φ(z) = √ e− 2 z 2π −∞<z <∞ Let Q(z) ≡ P (Z > z).781477937 With this approximation.31938153 b2 = −0. Dover Publications.

that is the probability density function for Z is given by 1 2 1 φ(z) = √ e− 2 z 2π −∞<z <∞ Let Q = P (Z > z). Questions for Chapter 10 10. 1).5.515517 d0 = 1.01.802853 d1 = 0. the following approximation can be used to compute z : z =t− c0 + c1 t + c2 t2 + (Q) 1 + d1 t + d2 t2 + d3 t3 where 1 Q2 c1 = 0. for a given 0 < Q < 0.248 Questions for Chapter 10 Approximation for the Inverse Normal Integral Let Z be a standard normal random variable.01.5 × 10−4 .99.95 and 0. 10.5.1 Write a computer program to generate a table for the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution for −3. For a given 0 < Q < 0. 0.50.00 in increments of 0. 0.25.010328 d2 = 0.189269 t= ln c0 = 2. | (Q)| < 4. 0. ﬁnd the corresponding z that satisﬁes the above integral equation. that is Q= ∞ z 1 2 1 √ e− 2 t dt 2π The problem is.432788 c2 = 0. 0.001308 With this approximation.00 ≤ z ≤ 3. Write a computer program to ﬁnd z when P (Z ≤ z) = 0.05. .2 Let Z ∼ N (0.

Appendix A TABLES Page Table I Table II Standard Normal Cumulative Distribution Function Some Common Probability Distributions 250 251 249 .

9418 0.5319 0.7454 0.5359 0.9948 0.8023 0.9750 0.9949 0.9982 0.9713 0.9981 0.7324 0.9793 0.9850 0.8264 0.9977 0.6772 0.5478 0.2 z z a 0.15 0.9616 0.9545 0.5871 0.8186 0.6844 0.7486 0.9971 0.9573 0.9938 0.7224 0.9671 0.8 2.9871 0.7967 0.9821 0.6736 0.9881 0.5714 0.9591 0.9964 0.9332 0.9115 0.7995 0.5398 0.6 1.9452 0.9406 0.6985 0.9898 0.9319 0.9554 0.9940 0.5000 0.8621 0.5120 0.9941 0.9608 0.25 0.9913 0.4 1.9625 0.8 1.9207 0.9927 0.9972 0.6 -0.9664 0.6141 0.9911 0.8830 0.5 1.6915 0.0 0 0.8078 0.6103 0.1 0.5675 0.9951 0.0 1.8531 0.9975 0.8315 0.9846 0.5987 0.3 0.9236 0.8106 0.9484 0.0 2.8643 0.9943 0.9265 0.9887 0.9726 0.8708 0.8888 0.9699 0.9177 0.9878 0.9988 5 0.5832 0.8577 0.7422 0.9968 0.9989 7 0.7823 0.9756 0.9952 0.9582 0.5040 0.5 0.9890 0.2 2.9990 9 0.9974 0.9965 0.5557 0.5 0.8869 0.9861 0.9896 0.9959 0.9990 .8810 0.8 -1.2 1.8944 0.9131 0.7910 0.6808 0.9505 0.30 0.9641 0.6179 0.9976 0.5636 0.6443 0.7611 0.7734 0.9732 0.9960 0.5910 0.9953 0.9961 0.9761 0.9474 0.9495 0.9932 0.9970 0.9985 0.8849 0.6480 0.9812 0.9803 0.9772 0.9345 0.6293 0.3 1.6331 0.8770 0.9842 0.9984 0.9986 0.8554 0.9788 0.9370 0.8925 0.6591 0.9936 0.8389 0.8133 0.9986 0.8 0.6700 0.9599 0.9564 0.6664 0.7764 0.9929 0.5793 0.5 1.8749 0.35 0.8365 0.9778 0.00 0.5199 0.9767 0.6554 0.7549 0.8686 0.7088 0.9 3.9162 0.9969 0.9977 0.8438 0.9982 0.6950 0.6879 0.9920 0.8729 0.9983 0.9875 0.9909 0.9987 1 0.9979 0.0 1.9904 0.7291 0.40 Φ(a) ϕ(z) z 0.9633 0.8665 0.8 1.9693 0.8599 0.7054 0.6517 0.9 Φ(a) = a a ϕ(z) dz = −∞ −∞ 1 2 √1 e− 2 z 2π dz -2.7939 0.5160 0.9306 0.8461 0.9987 2 0.9719 0.5279 0.7517 0.9957 0.9945 0.9925 0.9946 0.6 2.9686 0.9 1.10 0.7673 0.9032 0.1 2.9808 0.6 0.7 a 1.8997 0.9 2.9974 0.9934 0.5596 0.9357 0.9884 0.9906 0.8980 0.7642 0.9893 0.6255 0.5948 0.8051 0.9678 0.2 0.9826 0.7852 0.5 2.0 -1.250 Table I: Standard Normal Cumulative Distribution Function TABLE I: STANDARD NORMAL CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION 0.7123 0.9463 0.8159 0.6368 0.8907 0.7190 0.9967 0.8962 0.7 2.7019 0.9738 0.3 0.9441 0.1 0.9978 0.9292 0.9656 0.9192 0.9099 0.9515 0.9066 0.9922 0.9916 0.3 2.9956 0.9955 0.7 0.9525 0.9279 0.9251 0.9015 0.9744 0.7257 0.9973 0.6064 0.9706 0.5 -1.9979 0.20 0.6628 0.9838 0.9989 6 0.8212 0.9931 0.9868 0.9854 0.7 1.9981 0.5438 0.9817 0.7881 0.9901 0.2 1.9857 0.7389 0.9783 0.5753 0.4 0.9222 0.8508 0.8289 0.8413 0.9382 0.9798 0.5080 0.9989 8 0.5239 0.1 1.9830 0.6217 0.9394 0.5517 0.9988 4 0.9864 0.05 0.9984 0.9147 0.1 -0.4 -0.9082 0.7357 0.7580 0.9963 0.9649 0.9834 0.9985 0.9535 0.9049 0.4 2.9429 0.7157 0.8238 0.9980 0.6026 0.0 0.9987 3 0.8340 0.9962 0.7794 0.9 -0.7704 0.8485 0.9918 0.8790 0.3 -1.6406 0.9966 0.

. 1. n np np(1 − p) (et p + (1 − p))n geometric disc 0≤p≤1 pX (k) = (1 − p)k−1 p k = 1. 1. . 1 p p(1 − p) et p + (1 − p) binomial disc n. 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 pX (k) = n k pk (1 − p)n−k k = 0. . . . 1 p α α 1−p p2 pet 1 − (1 − p)et eα(e t −1) Table II: Some Common Probability Distributions Poisson disc α>0 pX (k) = e−α αk k! k = 0. . a≤x≤b uniform cont a<b fX (x) = 1 b−a a+b 2 (b − a)2 12 ebt − eat (b − a)t TABLE II: SOME COMMON PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS exponential cont α>0 fX (x) = αe−αx x≥0 1 α 1 α2 α α−t r gamma cont r ≥ 1. σ > 0 1 1 fX (x) = √ e− 2 σ 2π 2 t2 /2) 251 .Name Type Parameters Deﬁnition Support E(X) Var(X) mgf Bernoulli disc 0≤p≤1 pX (k) = pk (1 − p)1−k k = 0. . . . 2. . α > 0 fX (x) = α (αx)r−1 e−αx Γ(r) x−µ 2 σ x≥0 r α −∞ < x < ∞ µ r α2 σ2 α α−t e(tµ+σ normal cont µ.

252 Table II: Some Common Probability Distributions .

5 D B E C S2. P (A ∩ B) = P (A)P (B).30 S3.11 S3.8 S3.1 S1.3 S2.33 E B B D A D A S3.5 S2.32 C D B A C D B S3.21 S3.3 C S1. Hence.20 S3.14 S3.5 Must have p = P (A) = P (B) = P (A ∩ B) = 0.5 Answer C is acceptable if you allow the triangle to be ﬂipped S2.6 S3.10 D A 253 .23 S3.6 Chapter 2 S2.28 S3.1 S2.26 S3.19 S3.8 B D S2.17 S3.6 S2.35 C B D A B D B 5 2 A D S1.4 A S1.13 S3.24 S3.9 A C S2.Appendix B ANSWERS TO SELF-TEST EXERCISES Chapter 1 S1.9 S3.22 S3.7 S2.16 S3.12 A D B S2.2 S2.2 S1.3 S3.7 S3.1 S3.4 S3.31 S3.7 D A S1.15 S3.4 S2.12 S3.11 Remarks S2. C C E D D A C C S3.34 C A A A A C A S3.29 S3.10 S3.36 Remarks S3.18 S3.25 S3.27 S3.6 The correct answer is Chapter 3 S3.2 S3.5 S3.

1 S6.15 C D B .21 S5. ANSWERS TO SELF-TEST EXERCISES Chapter 4 S4.23 S5.13 S6.14 S4.2 S5.17 S6.16 Chapter 5 S5.1 S7.11 S5.26 Remarks S5.14 S5.7 S4.7 S5.10 S6.19 C C B A S4.254 APPENDIX B.5 S5.9 S5.18 E C E D S6.16 Chapter 8 S8.19 The correct answer is 1 Chapter 7 S7.20 C B A D C C B C A D S5.4 S7.6 S6.18 C C D B S7.13 S5.5 S4.6 S4.2 S6.19 S5.8 S6.15 B C B B B B C D S6.17 S5.9 S4.14 S6.2 S4.22 D C C A B S6.12 S7.8 S4.6 S5.12 S4.6 S7.11 S6.7 S6.15 S6.24 A B B C C S5.16 S5.50)) = P (X < 0.19 C C C E S6.10 S4.11 S7.18 B B C C S4.3 S6.17 C A D D S7.8 S5.1 C D C A C S7.18 S5.12 S6.16 S6.4 S6.3 S7.7 S7.4 S4.2 S7.25 C B B B D A C B C S4.13 S4.9 S6.1 S4.10 S7.28 C C D A E C S5.11 S4.12 S5.10 S5.5 S6.3 S5.27 A B D C B B S5.22 S5.27 Note that P (ln(X) < ln(0.3 S4.13 S7.21 Remarks S6.9 S7.5 S7.14 B D B S7.17 B C C D S4.1 S5.8 S7. Chapter 6 S6.50) since ln(x) is an increasing function.20 S5.15 S5.4 S5.

3 C .2 C S9.1 D S9.255 Chapter 9 S9.

256 APPENDIX B. ANSWERS TO SELF-TEST EXERCISES .

Appendix C SAMPLE EXAMINATION 1 PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Instructions: For each of the questions in Part I. Ω is a sample space with events A. You purchased four birthday cards. 257 . (5 points) Four of your friends are having birthdays on the same date. In all of the following questions. How many different ways can you send cards to your friends so that each gets one card? (a) 4! (b) 4 4 (c) 4 (d) 44 (e) none of the above.) (a) 4! (b) 4 3 (c) 3! (d) 43 (e) none of the above. choose the best answer among those provided. How many different ways can you send cards to your friends so that each gets one card? (You will have one card left over. 1. (5 points) Three of your friends are having birthdays on the same date. You purchased four birthday cards. B and C and probability measure P (·). 2.

B and C occur simultaneously. 5. P (B) = q > 0 and A∩B = Ø then P (A∪B | A) equals (a) 1 (b) p (c) (p + q)/p (d) (p + q − pq)/p (e) none of the above .3 and P (A | B) = 0. (5 points) If A ⊆ B .3 then (a) A and B are mutually exclusive (b) P (A ∩ B) = 0 (c) A and B are independent (d) all of the above (e) none of the above.7.258 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions 3. “all of the events A. then (a) P (A ∩ B) = 0 (b) A = B (c) A ∩ B = Ø (d) A and B are independent (e) none of the above.3. 6.7 and P (B) = 0.” is (a) A ∪ B ∪ C (b) A ∩ B ∩ C (c) (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) ∪ (B ∩ C) (d) (A ∪ B ∪ C)c (e) none of the above. P (B) = 0. (5 points) If P (A) = p > 0. 4. (5 points) If P (A) = 0. P (A) = 0. (5 points) The event which corresponds to the statement.

8.75 (d) 1 (e) none of the above. Your chicken wings can be either hot or mild. accidentally mixed . (5 points) The value of the constant c is (a) 0. New York. Unfortunately. 7. you are now the owner of the most successful restaurant in Buffalo. Circle your ﬁnal answer. an engineering intern (who is working for you as a cook). After getting your engineering degree. 9. (5 points) P (X > 1) equals (a) 0.25 (b) 0. Your chicken wing recipe is so famous that the White House (in Washington DC) has asked that you send a large order of chicken wings for a important dinner.5 (b) 1 (c) 2 √ (d) 2 (e) none of the above. and usually you keep the two different types of chicken wings in separate containers.Part II 259 For questions 7 and 8: Assume that X is a continuous random variable with probability density function fX (x) = cx if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 0 otherwise where c is a constant. PART II Instructions: Show your work in the space provided.5 (c) 0.

the containers are unmarked. (b) (5 points) Compute P (X < 0).260 Part II some hot wings with some mild ones. and sample a chicken wing from that container. and you need to ship the order immediately.4 pX (+1) = 0. it will also be hot? Justify your answer. Given that the ﬁrst wing that you sampled was hot. Justify your answer using Bayes’ theorem. and then sample one of the chicken wings from that container. It’s a hot wing! What is the probability that you chose Container C (the one with both hot and mild wings). 10. Let X be a random variable with the following probability mass function: pX (−1) = 0. To make matters worse. You now have only three containers of chicken wings: Container A All hot wings Container B All mild wings Container C One half hot and one half mild wings The White House wants only hot chicken wings. You don’t want to accidentally ship Container B or C. (c) (5 points) Compute P (X > 1). (b) (10 points) You actually select a container at random.4 (a) (10 points) Sketch the cumulative distribution function for X . What is the probability that the wing will be mild? Justify your answer. (a) (10 points) You plan to choose a container at random. The only way you can determine the contents of the containers is by sampling the wings.2 pX (0) = 0. . (c) (10 points) You plan to sample one more wing from the container chosen in part (b). what is the probability that if you sample a second wing from the same container. (d) (10 points) Compute P (X = 0 | X ≤ 1).

(5 points) Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function λxn if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 fX (x) = 0 otherwise where λ is a constant and n is a nonnegative. 2. Then P (X ≥ k) equals (a) (b) 1 4 1 4 k k+1 261 . integer constant. (5 points) Let X be a discrete random variable with a probability distribution given by P (X = k) = 1 4 k 1− 1 4 for k = 0. choose the best answer among those provided. 2. A relationship which must exist between λ and n is (a) λn = 1 (b) λ = n + 1 (c) λ = n (d) λ = 2n (e) none of the above. .Appendix D SAMPLE EXAMINATION 2 PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Instructions: For each of the questions in Part I. . 1. 1.. .

(5 points) Let X and Y be random variables with E(X) = 2 and E(Y ) = 2. (5 points) If X is a random variable with P (X ≤ 0) = α. Y ) (e) none of the above.262 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions (c) (d) 3 4 3 4 k (e) none of the above. 4. 3. then P (−3X < 0) equals (a) 0 (b) 1 3α (c) α (d) 1 − α (e) none of the above. The value of P (X 2 ≥ 16) is (a) 1 − e−4 (b) e−16 (c) 1 − 4e−16 (d) e−4 (e) none of the above. E[(X − E(Y ))2 ] equals (a) 0 (b) Var(X) (c) Var(Y ) (d) Cov(X. (5 points) Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function 4e−4x if x > 0 fX (x) = 0 otherwise. 5. . Then.

Part I: Multiple Choice Questions 263 6.Y (0.  0 2 otherwise Then P (X < 0) equals (a) 0 (b) (c) (d) 1 8 1 4 1 2 (e) none of the above For questions 7 and 8: Assume that (X. 8. (5 points) Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function   x+1 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 fX (x) = . . (5 points) Deﬁne the random variable W = XY . −1) = 1/3 pX. 1) = 1/3 7.Y (1. 0) = 1/3 pX. The value of P (W = 1) is (a) 0 (b) 1/9 (c) 1/3 (d) 2/3 (e) none of the above. Y ) is a random vector with joint probability mass function given by pX.Y (−1. (5 points) The value of E(X + Y ) is (a) −1 (b) 0 (c) 1/3 (d) 1 (e) none of the above.

Then P (A | B c ) equals (a) 0 (b) r (c) r/(1 − s) (d) 1 (e) none of the above.50 (d) 0. B and C and probability measure P (·). and if the coin turns up tails. (3 points) Let P (A) = r and P (B) = s with A ∩ B = Ø. 1. choose the best answer among those provided. Ω is a sample space with events A. The value of P (X > Y ) is (a) 0 (b) 0. For questions 3 and 4: A game is played by repeatedly tossing a fair coin. In all of the following questions. 1) and Y ∼ N (0. you lose \$1.95 (e) none of the above. 2. 265 . you win \$1. If the coin turns up heads.Appendix E SAMPLE FINAL EXAMINATION PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Instructions: For each of the questions in Part I.05 (c) 0. (3 points) Let X and Y be independent random variables with X ∼ N (0. 2).

6. (3 points) Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function αe−x if x ≥ 0 fX (x) = 0 otherwise The value of α (a) must be 1 . Note that Yn may be negative. (3 points) In a class of 10 students. Two students are chosen at random from the class. The probability that both of the selected students received a grade of A is (a) 1/4 (b) 2/9 (c) 1/3 (d) 1/2 (e) none of the above. 5 students received an A on the last examination. 4. your winnings minus your losses) after n tosses. (3 points) The value of Var(Yn ) is (a) 0 √ (b) n (c) n (d) n2 (e) none of the above. 5.e. (3 points) The value of E(Yn ) is (a) 0 (b) −n (c) n/2 (d) n (e) none of the above.266 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions Let Yn denote your net winnings (i.. 3.

(Note: The chain will break if one or more links break. Approximately.5 (c) 1 (d) 1 − ( 1 )16 4 (e) none of the above. 8. The probability that the total weight of the gum drops in the bag exceeds 20 ounces is (a) 0 (b) 0.001 of breaking. (3 points) The weight of a gum drop (in ounces) is normally distributed with 1 mean 2 and standard deviation 4 . 7. .001)2000 (e) none of the above.) (a) e−2 (b) 1 − e−2 (c) 1/2 (d) (0.Part I: Multiple Choice Questions 267 (b) can be any positive real number (c) can be any positive integer (d) can be any real number (e) none of the above. (3 points) The set (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ B c ) is equivalent to (a) Ø (b) Ω (c) A (d) B (e) none of the above. 9. independently of all other links. (3 points) Suppose a chain link has a probability of 0. what is the probability that a chain with 2000 such links will break. A bag contains 10 independent gum drops.

13.0000 (e) none of the above. 11. then P (Y > 1) equals (a) 0. (3 points) Let X ∼ N (1. (3 points) Let X be a random variable with probability generating function g(z) = z(1 + z) 2 The value of E(X) is (a) 0 (b) 2/3 (c) 1 (d) 3/2 (e) none of the above. If Y = X 3 . (3 points) Let X be a random variable with moment generating function MX (t) = e(e t −1) The moment generating function of the random variable Y = 2X + 1 is (a) et (b) e2t (c) e(2e t −2) 2t −1) (d) e(t+e (e) none of the above.5000 (c) 0. (3 points) Let X be a random variable with E(X) = 2 and E(X 2 ) = 5.1587 (b) 0.268 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions 10. 12. Then Var(X) equals (a) 1 .8413 (d) 1. 8).

the probability that someone will be denied a seat is (a) 0 (b) 0. 1% of all persons making airline reservations never show up for their ﬂight.99)101 (d) 1 (e) none of the above.Part I: Multiple Choice Questions 269 (b) 3 (c) 7 (d) 9 (e) none of the above. (3 points) An airplane can hold 100 passengers. Assume that a person decides independently whether or not to show up for a ﬂight. If the airline permits 101 persons to make reservations for a given ﬂight. If 3 independent rolls of steel are examined. It is know that. (3 points) The weight X (in pounds) of a roll of steel is a random variable with probability density function given by fX (x) = 1 2 (x − 499) 0 if 499 ≤ x ≤ 501 otherwise A roll is considered defective if its weight is less than 500 pounds. the probability that exactly one is defective is (a) 1/4 (b) 3/8 (c) 9/64 (d) 27/64 (e) none of the above.01 (c) (0. over many years. 15. 14. each having marginal probability . For questions 16 and 17: Suppose that X1 and X2 are independent random variables representing the lifetimes of two lightbulbs.

16. . 18. Xn be a random sample with each Xi having a probability mass function given by P (Xi = 0) = 1 − p P (Xi = 1) = p . (3 points) Suppose A ⊆ B . Which of the following statements are always true? (a) P (A) ≤ P (B) (b) P (A ∪ B) = P (B) (c) P (A ∩ B) = P (A) (d) all of the above (e) none of the above. . (3 points) Let X1 . (3 points) The value of P (W < 2) is (a) 0 (b) 1/4 (c) 1/2 (d) 1 (e) none of the above.270 Part I: Multiple Choice Questions density function f (x) = 1/2 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 otherwise Let W = X1 + X2 represent the total lifetime of the two lightbulbs. 17. . 19. (3 points) The value of E(W ) is (a) 1/2 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) X1 + X2 (e) none of the above. .

and write down the answer to one of the following questions depending on the color of the bead: • If the bead is red.Part II 271 where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. In order to avoid embarrassing any students and help assure a truthful response to the survey. Any cell may contain more than one ball. The total number of distinguishable arrangements of the balls in the numbered cells is (a) (b) (c) 4 2 3 2 3 1 (d) 4 (e) none of the above. 21. Two indistinguishable balls are dropped into the box. An unbiased estimator for p is given by (a) p = ˆ (b) p = ˆ i=1 n 1 n n n Xi i=1 Xi Xi2 i=1 (c) p = ˆ (d) all of the above (e) none of the above. she decides on the following technique: A person is given a bowl which contains 600 red beads and 400 blue beads. The person is instructed to go to a secluded corner. PART II Instructions: Show your work in the space provided. draw out a bead at random. 20. Circle your ﬁnal answer. A sociologist is interested in determining the percentage of college students who like classical music. answer “Yes” or “No” to the question: . (3 points) A box is partitioned into 3 numbered cells.

(b) (5 points) Find the marginal probability density function for X . otherwise 1 2 (a) (5 points) Compute P X + Y < . except the person being surveyed. Determine P (X = k) as a function of k and p. (d) (5 points) Find the conditional probability density function for Y given 1 that X = 2 . y ≥ 0 and x + y ≤ 1 . (b) (5 points) Let X denote the number of “Yes” responses from a survey of 100 individuals. What is your best guess for the value of p? (Hint: Use an unbiased estimator for p. knows which question was actually answered. Y ) be a continuous random vector with joint probability density function given by fX.272 Part II Do you like classical music? • If the bead is blue.” No one. Let (X. y) = 2 0 if x ≥ 0. Therefore. (c) (5 points) Find the marginal probability density function for Y . Show that E(Y ) = p.) 22. What is the unconditional probability that a person surveyed will answer “Yes?” Your answer should depend on p. answer “Yes” or “No” to the question: Does your student number end in an odd digit? The person simply responds “Yes” or “No. the person is likely to be truthful. (c) (5 points) Let Y = (X/60) − (1/3).Y (x. (d) (5 points) Suppose 40 of the 100 students answered “Yes” to the survey. (a) (5 points) Suppose p is the unknown fraction of students who like classical music. .

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