Social and Personality Development


Social development
¾ ways in which a person·s interactions and

relationships with others change as that person grows older

Personality development
¾ emergence of distinctive styles of thought,

feeling, and behavior

Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) € Psychosocial theory (Erikson) € Social learning theory € Cognitive developmental perspective € Biological perspective € .

€ Beginnings of social relationships ¾ social smile ¾ temperament ¾ bi-directional influence ¾ reaction range .

€ The formation of attachments ¾ Harlow·s monkeys ¾ secure attachment x infant expects that caregiver will be available ¾ anxious attachment x caregiver cannot be counted on for comfort .

€ Self-understanding ¾ physical self ¾ active self ¾ social self ¾ psychological self .

€ Environmental influences ¾ parenting styles x authoritative vs. sexual. permissive ¾ child abuse x physical. or neglect ¾ the impact of divorce .

€ Genetic influences ¾ sociability. and general activity level € The interplay of genes and environment . emotionalism.

€ Gender roles ¾ patterns of behavior characteristic of members of one·s own sex € Biological influences ¾ some behavioral differences between the sexes appear before much contact with the social environment .

€ Environmental theories ¾ The Freudian perspective x Oedipus conflict ¾ The social learning perspective ¾ The cognitive developmental view .

€ Socialization ¾ learning the expectations and values of one·s society € Internalization ¾ incorporating society·s values into the self to such an extent that violation of those standards produces guilt .

€ The Freudian perspective ¾ child internalizes the moral code of the same-sex parent ¾ rapid development of superego € The social learning perspective ¾ children act morally due to reinforcement ¾ children have moral models to imitate .

€ The cognitive developmental perspective ¾ preconventional level ¾ conventional level ¾ postconventional level .

The ´law and orderµ orientation € Post-conventional Morality ¾ 5. The ´good boy/nice girlµ Orientation ¾ 4. Punishment-obedience ¾ 2. Social contract orientation ¾ 6. Universal ethical principle orientation .€ Preconventional Morality ¾ 1. Personal reward orientation € Conventional Morality ¾ 3.

¾ Stage 2: Personal Reward Orientation x ´You scratch my back.€ Preconventional Morality ¾ Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation x Avoid (physical) punishment x High school example: One middle school teacher has latecomers do pushups--50 of them--in front of the class. I·ll scratch yoursµ x High school example: A group of high school students involved in a cooperative learning activity get upset because one of their group members is repeatedly absent and did not do any work. .

This rule reinforces the fundamental purpose of government to protect the health and welfare of its citizens . she wrote "I am going to work harder in school so I won't let you down because if you think I can make it then I can make it" ¾ Stage 4: A ´Law and Orderµ Orientation x "Move carefully in the halls".€ Conventional Morality ¾ Stage 3: The ´good boy/nice girlµ Orientation x In an inner city high school student's journal.

€ Post-conventional Morality ¾ Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation x Example for a handout in a high school class: "Please remember that this is your room and your class." . the following laws have been established for this classroom.. The behavior and participation of each person will shape the type of learning that will occur. Since one person's behavior affects everyone else. To ensure that our rights are protected and upheld.. I request that everyone in the class be responsible for classroom management.

Jr. equality. Martin Luther King. and respect x Very rare. It is not fair to erase someone's face. Examples: Gandhi. ethnic. everyone is entitled to equal dignity as a human being. reciprocity.µ . Mother Theresa. In this room. x High school teacher: "I will not tolerate any racial.€ Post-conventional Morality ¾ Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation x an orientation toward universal ethical principles of justice. or sexual slurs in this classroom.

Secondary sexual characteristics € Importance of timing of puberty € Establishment of an independent identity € Peer relationships € Psychological and sexual intimacy € .

€ Early adulthood ¾ period of action ¾ challenge to women ¾ change in attitudes and concerns ¾ age-thirty crisis .

€ Mid-life and beyond ¾ changes resulting in crises ¾ consistent with Erikson·s seventh stage ¾ generativity x the desire to reach out and become concerned with the well-being of future generations .


Individual differences in adult development € Coping and satisfaction in adulthood € .

Assessed personality traits repeatedly over longer time intervals (at least one year apart) ‡Data in the meta-analysis: 3. . ‡Original Studies: Method.217 correlation coefficients from 152 longitudinal studies of personality. 2000) ‡Meta-Analysis: A meta-analysis combines results of several original studies.Meta-analytic study (Roberts and DelVecchio.

Results: Roberts and DelVecchio (2000) .

the only significant personality changes are those related to reduced physical activity . reaching adult levels by age thirty. people tend to become less emotional and more responsible and cooperative Beyond age thirty.€ € Mean levels of personality traits change with development. Between twenty and thirty.

€ € € By age thirty. personality traits are essentially fixed All of the major personality traits display this stability Stability of personality holds true regardless of gender. or other demographic categories . race.

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