# Name

:

Class : 5 Kreatif

School

: SMK Bandar Baru Sungai Long

Teacher : Puan Hayati Aini bt. Ahmad

Title : ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/ 2010

Index
1

No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Contents Acknowledgement Objectives Introduction Exploration Procedure and findings Further Exploration Conclusion Reflection

Page 3 4 5 6 7 – 10 11 – 17 18 19

Acknowledgement

2

• To use the correct language to express our mathematical ideas properly. • • To widen our prospective view on mathematics. • • To develop positive attitude towards mathematics to improve our way of thinking INTRODUCTION 4 .The aims of carrying out this project are : • To learn the way to apply the formulas of mathematics in our daily life accurately. To improve our mastering skills.

No single person can be regarded as the first to describe how to calculate volume. Area is an important invariant in the differential geometry of surfaces. sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive. volume is expressed by means of the volume form. The formulae related for this subject are: ½ (base X height). rhomboid. such as the sum of the areas of the exposed sides of a polyhedron." "b. e. The formulae for calculating the volume of an object were arrived at many many years ago by many people in many civilisations. straight-edged.AREA Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface. volume is a fundamental parameter. etc. and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas.) is best known for having discovered the formula for calculating the area of a triangle. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. Volumes of some simple shapes. The oldest written record of the formula. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. 5 . In Heron's formula. or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. such as regular.C. VOLUME ½ radius 2 X θ (in radian). i. In thermodynamics. often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit. The surface area of a 3-dimensional solid is the total area of the exposed surface. gas. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container. The formula related to this subject are: Area X (length/ base/ height) History of Area Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria (first century B. the sides of a triangle are labeled "a. liquid. and is a conjugate variable to pressure. as it is called. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes.C). cube. V is equal to half the perimeter." and "c". One-dimensional figures (such as lines) and twodimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space. the cubic metre. 287-212 B. and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In differential geometry. History of Volume The formulae for volume were discovered independently by many people over centuries of time. Volume is how much three-dimensional space a substance (solid. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. However. however. Arab scholars who studied the mathematics of the ancient Greeks claimed that this formula was known earlier to Greek mathematician Archimedes (ca. Not one individual person 'discovered' how to calculate the volume of a sphere. exists in Heron's Metrica. The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. typically a region bounded by a closed curve.

Exploration Procedure and Findings 6 .

Y = + 4.Solution: (a) Function 1 Maximum point (0.5) and pass through point (2.5 into Y= a Y=a Y= + 4.5 + 4.4) Y= a +c +c Let b = 0 and c = 4.5 + 4. 4) into (1) 4= 4a = -0.5 A= -0.125 Therefore.5 Function 2 7 .5……………… (1) Substitute (2. 4.

...5. 0) into (2) 0= 4a = -0... 0) Y= +c Let b= 0 and c = 0..5 Function 3 8 ..5 A = -0.Maximum point (0... Y= + 0. 0. (2) Substitute (2....5) and pass through (2..5 + 0.5 + 0.125 Therefore..5 Y= Y= + 0.

125 Therefore.5) and pass through (0. 4) Y= +c Let b = 2 and c = 4. Y = + 4. 4) into (3) 4= 4a = -0.5 Function 4 A = Area of sector – Area of triangle = ½ r2 θ .5 Y= + 4.5 + 4.Maximum point (2. 4.5 A= -0.5 …………… (3) Substitute (0.½ (base x height) 9 .

5 m = 0.25 – 0.) – 3.5)2 – (4/2)2 = r2 – r + 0.03125 θ – 2( 4.75 = 0.25……………………………2 A = ½ r2 θ – (2 x length)…1 Substitute 2 into 1 A1 = ½ (4.68 Shaded Area = A – A1 = 4 – 0.32 m2 sin θ = 2/4.491 rad.75 = 4.0.1/180 x ) rad.471 therefore. = 0.= ½ r2 θ – ½ (4 x length) Therefore.03125 θ – 3.68 = 3.25 = 0.25 + 4 r2 = 4. Further Exploration a) I) Structure 1 10 .75 = 9. A = ½ r2 θ – (2 x length) a) Given base = 4m Height = 1 m – 0.5) = 9.5 m r2 = (r-h)2 + (½ )2 = (r. θ = 2806’ = (28.25)2 θ – ½ (r –h)(2) = 9.03125(0.491 rad.431 – 3.

00 = RM 878.614 x 0.386 m2 A2/ Area of 2 triangle = 2 x ½ x 4 x 2 = 8 m2 Area of structure = (1 x 4) – (A1 – A2) = 4.Using 3.0456 x RM 840.0456 m2 Cost = 1.927) = 9.927 rad.30 Structure 2 11 .4 = 1.386 = 2.1.4m Total volume = 2.614 m2 Thickness = 0. A1/ Area of Sector = ½ r2 θ = ½ (4.142 Angle of triangle = 5308’ In radian = 5308’/1800 x = 0.5)2(0.

00 Structure 3 12 .4 m Total volume = 3 x 0.5 m2 Total Area = 3m2 Thickness = 0.2 x RM 840.4 = 1.2 m3 Cost = 1.Area of trapezium = (L1+L2 / 2) (height) = (1.00 = RM 1008.5/2)(2) = 1.

5 = 2.75 = 1.5/2 x 1.25 + 0.00 Structure 4 13 .75 m2 Thickness = 0.1 m3 Cost = 1.4 x 2.5) + (1 x 0.4 m Total volume = 0.5) = 2.00 = RM 924.1 x RM 840.Total Area = 2 trapezium + rectangle = 2 (1.

5/2 x 1) + (2 x 0.5 x 0.00 14 .5 + 1 = 2.Total Area = 2 trapezium + rectangle = 2 (1.4 m Total volume = 2.5) = 1.4 = 1 m3 Cost = 1 x RM 840.5 m2 Thickness = 0.00 = RM 840.

this structure is more stable compared to the others as the pressure exerted on it is distributed evenly to all parts of the structure because of its shape. Furthermore.Structure choosing As the president of the Arts Club. based on survey conducted. b) I) 15 . a lot of people considered circular objects are the most perfect objects. This is because the cost needed is worthwhile. it lasts longer compared to other structures and needed less frequent maintenance. Therefore. In this way. Since from the beginning of time. majority people felt uneasy when they saw sharp edges on most objects. I will choose structure 1. In addition. it can withstand higher pressure. Secondly. the parabolic shape matches the standard of society nowadays. We can construct a rigid structure by maximizing our structure's performance by using only the smallest amount of materials needed.

000 2.50 1.8125 2.75 1.9375 2.00 1.25 0. 16 .5625 2. the area will gradually decreases.7500 2.25 1.8750 2.K(m) 0 0.75 2 Area to be painted (m2) (correct to 4 decimal places) 3.5000 ii) By using K = 0 m.6250 2. the structure may be like this: When the value of K gradually increases.6875 2.50 0.

25 m.By using K = 0. the shape of concrete structure will be something like: Conclusion: 17 . the structure may be like this: c) When K approaches more to 4.

I can save materials used in all sorts of production. Not only that. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture.By doing this paperwork. Through applying all these formulas. drawer and designer. the cost will be reduced. At the same time. I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. Reflection 18 .

After completing this paper. Not only that. Through this. I have learnt how to co-operate with my teammates to complete this paperwork. drawer and designer. From this paperwork. At the same time. Not only that. I also have learnt the correct way to listen to other members and to judge all the ideas we got after brainstorming through comparison based on calculations. Through applying all these formulas. I can finish any work associated with mathematics at a very fast and accurate rate. By doing this paperwork. I can save materials used in all sorts of production. At the same time. Through teamwork. we can finish any task given by all means. Only through teamwork.By doing this paperwork. Now. I can save materials used in all sorts of production. the cost will be reduced. At the same time. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture. I have successfully completed this project along with my friends. I also have learnt that co-operation is very important for a team. I LOVE YOU ADDITIONAL MATHEMATIC 19 . I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. the cost will be reduced. I have learnt the correct way to display the workings correctly and arrange the calculations and topics systematically. drawer and designer. Through applying all these formulas. I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture.

20 .