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Class : 5 Kreatif
: SMK Bandar Baru Sungai Long
Teacher : Puan Hayati Aini bt. Ahmad
Title : ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/ 2010
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Contents Acknowledgement Objectives Introduction Exploration Procedure and findings Further Exploration Conclusion Reflection
Page 3 4 5 6 7 – 10 11 – 17 18 19
I now know the correct way to apply mathematic knowledge in my daily life to solve a lot of problems. For an example. I know which is the best after those comparison made. I can save a part of time and materials needed to construct any of the objects. I have gained consciousness in many other things in my life. Objectives 3 . Besides that. Then. Completing this paperwork in a team had gave me a chance to know each other and broaden my view on Mathematics. a bridge construction.First of all. Finally to my parents who had always encourage me to put in some effort to complete such big task and also allowing me to visit each other's house to discuss about this paperwork. I would like to say thank my teacher Puan Hayati who had gave us some guides on how to complete this paperwork. Next to my fellow teammates who had held on each other firmly until we had completed this paperwork. While I was conducting this paperwork. This way. We use the same method to find out all the things we needed to complete it in the most beautiful and cost saving way. I also have learnt to accept other ideas from different people to make out all the possible results.
• • To widen our prospective view on mathematics.The aims of carrying out this project are : • To learn the way to apply the formulas of mathematics in our daily life accurately. • • To develop positive attitude towards mathematics to improve our way of thinking INTRODUCTION 4 . To improve our mastering skills. • To use the correct language to express our mathematical ideas properly.
or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. e. volume is a fundamental parameter. however. sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive. Not one individual person 'discovered' how to calculate the volume of a sphere. such as the sum of the areas of the exposed sides of a polyhedron. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volume is how much three-dimensional space a substance (solid. as it is called. exists in Heron's Metrica. 287-212 B. The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. VOLUME ½ radius 2 X θ (in radian). One-dimensional figures (such as lines) and twodimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. cube. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container. gas. 5 .C. No single person can be regarded as the first to describe how to calculate volume. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold." "b. straight-edged. Arab scholars who studied the mathematics of the ancient Greeks claimed that this formula was known earlier to Greek mathematician Archimedes (ca. Volumes of some simple shapes.) is best known for having discovered the formula for calculating the area of a triangle. typically a region bounded by a closed curve. rhomboid. and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. such as regular. etc. In Heron's formula. The surface area of a 3-dimensional solid is the total area of the exposed surface. rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. the sides of a triangle are labeled "a." and "c". the cubic metre. Area is an important invariant in the differential geometry of surfaces. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. and is a conjugate variable to pressure. However. i. V is equal to half the perimeter. The formulae related for this subject are: ½ (base X height). In thermodynamics.AREA Area is a quantity expressing the two-dimensional size of a defined part of a surface. The formula related to this subject are: Area X (length/ base/ height) History of Area Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria (first century B. The formulae for calculating the volume of an object were arrived at many many years ago by many people in many civilisations. liquid. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit. volume is expressed by means of the volume form.C). History of Volume The formulae for volume were discovered independently by many people over centuries of time. and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In differential geometry. The oldest written record of the formula.
Exploration Procedure and Findings 6 .
5 into Y= a Y=a Y= + 4. 4) into (1) 4= 4a = -0.5) and pass through point (2.5 A= -0.Solution: (a) Function 1 Maximum point (0.125 Therefore.5……………… (1) Substitute (2. 4.4) Y= a +c +c Let b = 0 and c = 4.5 Function 2 7 .5 + 4.5 + 4. Y = + 4.
...5 A = -0.5) and pass through (2.. 0..5 Y= Y= + 0.5 Function 3 8 .125 Therefore.5 + 0. 0) Y= +c Let b= 0 and c = 0.....Maximum point (0..5 + 0. (2) Substitute (2..5.... Y= + 0. 0) into (2) 0= 4a = -0.
5 A= -0.5 + 4.½ (base x height) 9 .5) and pass through (0. Y = + 4. 4) Y= +c Let b = 2 and c = 4. 4) into (3) 4= 4a = -0.125 Therefore.5 …………… (3) Substitute (0.5 Y= + 4.5 Function 4 A = Area of sector – Area of triangle = ½ r2 θ .Maximum point (2. 4.
03125 θ – 2( 4.471 therefore.75 = 4.25 = 0.491 rad.68 = 3. = 0. A = ½ r2 θ – (2 x length) a) Given base = 4m Height = 1 m – 0.25……………………………2 A = ½ r2 θ – (2 x length)…1 Substitute 2 into 1 A1 = ½ (4.32 m2 sin θ = 2/4.68 Shaded Area = A – A1 = 4 – 0.431 – 3.25)2 θ – ½ (r –h)(2) = 9.5)2 – (4/2)2 = r2 – r + 0.) – 3.= ½ r2 θ – ½ (4 x length) Therefore.25 – 0.5 m = 0.75 = 0.491 rad.1/180 x ) rad. θ = 2806’ = (28.25 + 4 r2 = 4. Further Exploration a) I) Structure 1 10 .0.75 = 9.5) = 9.03125 θ – 3.03125(0.5 m r2 = (r-h)2 + (½ )2 = (r.
0456 m2 Cost = 1.0456 x RM 840.5)2(0.00 = RM 878.614 x 0.4 = 1.386 m2 A2/ Area of 2 triangle = 2 x ½ x 4 x 2 = 8 m2 Area of structure = (1 x 4) – (A1 – A2) = 4.386 = 2.30 Structure 2 11 .4m Total volume = 2.142 Angle of triangle = 5308’ In radian = 5308’/1800 x = 0.1.Using 3.927) = 9.614 m2 Thickness = 0. A1/ Area of Sector = ½ r2 θ = ½ (4.927 rad.
5 m2 Total Area = 3m2 Thickness = 0.4 = 1.00 Structure 3 12 .5/2)(2) = 1.00 = RM 1008.4 m Total volume = 3 x 0.Area of trapezium = (L1+L2 / 2) (height) = (1.2 x RM 840.2 m3 Cost = 1.
4 m Total volume = 0.00 = RM 924.75 m2 Thickness = 0.75 = 1.00 Structure 4 13 .4 x 2.5) + (1 x 0.1 m3 Cost = 1.5) = 2.Total Area = 2 trapezium + rectangle = 2 (1.1 x RM 840.25 + 0.5 = 2.5/2 x 1.
5 x 0.5/2 x 1) + (2 x 0.5 m2 Thickness = 0.5 + 1 = 2.4 m Total volume = 2.5) = 1.00 = RM 840.Total Area = 2 trapezium + rectangle = 2 (1.00 14 .4 = 1 m3 Cost = 1 x RM 840.
the parabolic shape matches the standard of society nowadays. Secondly. In this way. I will choose structure 1. Therefore. Since from the beginning of time. it lasts longer compared to other structures and needed less frequent maintenance. b) I) 15 . We can construct a rigid structure by maximizing our structure's performance by using only the smallest amount of materials needed. In addition. it can withstand higher pressure. based on survey conducted.Structure choosing As the president of the Arts Club. a lot of people considered circular objects are the most perfect objects. majority people felt uneasy when they saw sharp edges on most objects. This is because the cost needed is worthwhile. Furthermore. this structure is more stable compared to the others as the pressure exerted on it is distributed evenly to all parts of the structure because of its shape.
9375 2.K(m) 0 0.5625 2.5000 ii) By using K = 0 m. the area will gradually decreases.75 2 Area to be painted (m2) (correct to 4 decimal places) 3.25 1.00 1.6250 2.000 2.75 1.7500 2.8750 2.8125 2.50 1.25 0. the structure may be like this: When the value of K gradually increases.6875 2.50 0. 16 .
25 m. the shape of concrete structure will be something like: Conclusion: 17 .By using K = 0. the structure may be like this: c) When K approaches more to 4.
I can save materials used in all sorts of production. I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture. Reflection 18 . Not only that.By doing this paperwork. the cost will be reduced. Through applying all these formulas. drawer and designer. At the same time.
At the same time. the cost will be reduced. I also have learnt the correct way to listen to other members and to judge all the ideas we got after brainstorming through comparison based on calculations. Only through teamwork. drawer and designer. I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. Through applying all these formulas. At the same time. the cost will be reduced. Through applying all these formulas. I have learnt the correct way to display the workings correctly and arrange the calculations and topics systematically. Not only that. I know the history of these formulas and also able to determine the correct formula to be used in certain circumstances. I can save materials used in all sorts of production. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture. I also have learnt that co-operation is very important for a team. Not only that. we can finish any task given by all means.By doing this paperwork. By doing this paperwork. From this paperwork. I can save materials used in all sorts of production. I can finish any work associated with mathematics at a very fast and accurate rate. I now learn that the knowledge of integration and area and even volume calculations can be used to solve daily problems such as in architecture. Through teamwork. After completing this paper. Now. Through this. I have learnt how to co-operate with my teammates to complete this paperwork. I LOVE YOU ADDITIONAL MATHEMATIC 19 . drawer and designer. I have successfully completed this project along with my friends. At the same time.
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