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Chapter Outline

Mechanical Properties of Metals

How do metals respond to external loads?

" Tension

" Compression

" Shear

" Torsion

! Elastic deformation

! Plastic Deformation

" Yield Strength

" Tensile Strength

" Ductility

" Toughness

" Hardness

Not tested: true stress-true stain relationships, resilience, details

of the different types of hardness tests, variability of material

properties

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 1

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Introduction

To understand and describe how materials deform

(elongate, compress, twist) or break as a function of

applied load, time, temperature, and other conditions we

need first to discuss standard test methods and standard

language for mechanical properties of materials.

Stress, σ (MPa)

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 2

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Types of Loading

Tensile

Compressive

Shear

Torsion

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

(tension and compression)

calculated per unit area.

Engineering stress: σ = F / Ao

F is load applied perpendicular to speciment cross-

section; A0 is cross-sectional area (perpendicular to

the force) before application of the load.

Engineering strain: ε = ∆l / lo (×

× 100 %)

∆l is change in length, lo is the original length.

compare test results for specimens of different cross-

sectional area A0 and of different length l0.

for compressive loads

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

(shear and torsion)

Shear stress: τ = F / Ao

F is load applied parallel to the upper and lower faces

each of which has an area A0.

θ (×

× 100 %)

θ is strain angle

this case is a function of applied torque T, shear strain

is related to the angle of twist, φ.

Shear Torsion

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Stress-Strain Behavior

Reversible: when the stress

is removed, the material

returns to the dimension it

had before the loading.

Usually strains are small

Stress

plastics).

Plastic deformation

Irreversible: when the stress

is removed, the material

does not return to its

Strain previous dimension.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

In tensile tests, if the deformation is elastic, the stress-

strain relationship is called Hooke's law:

σ = Eε

E is Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity, has the

same units as σ, N/m2 or Pa

Unload

Stress

Slope = modulus of

elasticity E

Load

Strain

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 7

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.

Definitions of E

between origin and σ1

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Chapter 2: the force-separation curve for interacting atoms

High

modulus Strongly

bonded

Force, F

Separation, r

Low

modulus

Weakly

bonded E ~ (dF/dr) at ro

(r0 – equilibrium separation)

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

(time dependence of elastic deformation)

time independent (i.e. applied stress produces

instantaneous elastic strain)

(finite rate of atomic/molecular deformation

processes) - continues after initial loading, and after

load release. This time dependent elastic behavior

is known as anelasticity.

• The effect is normally small for metals but can be

significant for polymers (“visco-elastic behavior”).

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Unloaded Loaded

εx εy

ν=− =−

εz εz

Materials subject to tension shrink laterally. Those

subject to compression, bulge. The ratio of lateral and

axial strains is called the Poisson's ratio υ.

opposite sense to longitudinal strain

Theoretical value for isotropic material: 0.25

Maximum value: 0.50, Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

∆y

Zo

Unloaded

Loaded

τ

Relationship of shear stress to shear strain:

τ = G γ, where: γ = tgθ = ∆y / zo

G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m2)

For isotropic material:

E = 2G(1+υ υ) → G ~ 0.4E

(Note: single crystals are usually elastically

anisotropic: the elastic behavior varies with

crystallographic direction, see Chapter 3)

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 12

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Plastic deformation:

• stress and strain are not proportional

• the deformation is not reversible

• deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of

atomic bonds (in crystalline materials primarily by

motion of dislocations, Chapter 7)

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Elastic Plastic

that causing a permanent strain

of 0.002

Stress

from being proportional to the stress

(the proportional limit)

resistance to plastic deformation

Strain

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Stress

Strain

includes both an upper and lower yield point. The

yield strength is defined in this case as the average

stress at the lower yield point.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Tensile Strength

then specimen will eventually break

Fracture

Strength

Stress, σ

“Necking”

stress (~ 100 - 1000 MPa)

Strain, ε

more important property than the tensile strength, since

once the yield stress has passed, the structure has deformed

beyond acceptable limits.

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 16

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

lf − l0

Defined by % EL = ×100

percent elongation l0

or A0 − Af

percent reduction in area % RA = × 100

A0

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 17

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

thermal and mechanical treatment, impurity levels,

etc. This variability is related to the behavior of

dislocations in the material, Chapter 7. But elastic

moduli are relatively insensitive to these effects.

elasticity decrease with increasing temperature,

ductility increases with temperature.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Toughness

the total area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture

Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m3

Can be measured by an impact test (Chapter 8).

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

σT = F/Ai εT = ln(li/lo)

σ = F/Ao ε = (li-lo/lo)

necked-down region, continues to rise to the point of

fracture, in contrast to the engineering stress.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

released, the material ends up with a permanent strain.

If the stress is reapplied, the material again responds

elastically at the beginning up to a new yield point that is

higher than the original yield point.

The amount of elastic strain that it will take before

reaching the yield point is called elastic strain recovery.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Hardness (I)

Hardness is a measure of the material’s resistance

to localized plastic deformation (e.g. dent or scratch)

A qualitative Moh’s scale, determined by the ability of

a material to scratch another material: from 1 (softest

= talc) to 10 (hardest = diamond).

hardness test has been designed

(Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers, etc.).

Usually a small indenter (sphere,

cone, or pyramid) is forced into the

surface of a material under

conditions of controlled magnitude

and rate of loading. The depth or

size of indentation is measured.

The tests somewhat approximate,

but popular because they are easy

and non-destructive (except for the

small dent).

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 22

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Hardness (II)

Tensile strength (MPa)

Brinell hardness number

degree of resistance to plastic deformation.

Hardness is proportional to the tensile strength - but

note that the proportionality constant is different for

different materials.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Stress

the yield strength is usually the

important parameter

Strain

anticipated stress, N’ is the “design factor” > 1. Want to

make sure that σd < σy

safety” > 1.

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Summary

Make sure you understand language and concepts:

" Anelasticity

" Ductility

" Elastic deformation

" Elastic recovery

" Engineering strain

" Engineering stress

" Hardness

" Modulus of elasticity

" Plastic deformation

" Poisson’s ratio

" Proportional limit

" Shear

" Tensile strength

" Toughness

" Yielding

" Yield strength

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Chapter 7: Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

# Motion of dislocations in response to stress

# Slip Systems

# Plastic deformation in

! single crystals

! polycrystalline materials

" Strengthening mechanisms

# Grain Size Reduction

# Solid Solution Strengthening

# Strain Hardening

" Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth

Optional reading (Part that is not covered / not tested):

7.7 Deformation by twinning

In our discussion of slip systems, §7.4, we will not get into

direction and plane nomenclature

University of Virginia, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 26

Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Due date: Thursday, February 15.

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