A Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Communities Copyright © 2009 Local Governance Support Program
in ARMM (LGSPA) All rights reserved. The Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) encourages the use, translation, adaptation and copying of this material for non-commercial use, with appropriate credit given to LGSPA. Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this manual, neither the publisher nor contributor, nor writer can accept any liability for any consequences arising from the use thereof or from any information contained herein. ISBN: 978-971-94065-7-0 Printed and bound in Davao City, Philippines Published by: The Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) Unit 72 Landco Corporate Centre J.P. Laurel Avenue, Bajada 8000 Davao City, Philippines Tel. No. 63 2 227 7980-81 www.lgspa.org.ph
TECHNICAL TEAM Writer Rachel Aquino-Elogada Local Development Planning Advisor Divina Luz Lopez Editorial and Creative Direction Myn Garcia Editor Sef Carandang Technical Review Team Isa Romancap, Provincial Director, DILG-Maguindanao Eva K. Tan Dr. Imelda Soriano Divina Luz Lopez Merlinda Hussein Cecille Isubal Wihelmina Morallas Myn Garcia Contributor Mags Maglana Technical Coordination Sef Carandang Maya Vandenbroeck Art Direction, Cover Design and Layout Jet Hermida, creativejet
This project was undertaken with the ﬁnancial support of the Government of Canada provided through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). LGSPA was implemented by Agriteam Canada www.agriteam.ca
BARANGAY GOVERNANCE AND PLANNING FOR ARMM COMMUNITIES
A Field Guide
FOREWORD i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii PREFACE INTRODUCTION PART 1 Peace-Promoting Barangay Governance Module 1: Barangay and Local Governance Module 2: Bridging Islamic Leadership for Social Change Module 3: Localizing Peace-Building in ARMM PART 2 Towards a Peace –Focused Barangay Development Plan Module 4: Participatory Barangay Development Planning Module 5: A Simple Approach to Managing Barangay Projects 9 23 31 39 41 107 123 153 7 1 v
MENU OF PRA TOOLS REFERENCES
Assalamo Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuho!
he Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)-ARMM hails the publication of A Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Communities of the Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA). While there are other publications on governance processes at the barangay level, this Field Guide is distinctive in a number of respects. First, by targeting local actors in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) such as the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators, Municipal Local Government Operations Officers, and other members of the Municipal Technical Working Group as Field Guide users; and by identifying interface points between barangay development processes and that of the municipality, it is strengthening the relationship between municipal and barangay LGUs. These two levels of
government, as strategic frontliners in the critical work of public administration, have to work in synergy to be more effective in meeting the challenges of their localities. Second, it is one of the ﬁrst publications that locate decentralized processes within the realities of Muslim Mindanao autonomy. This is signiﬁcant because autonomy serves as a context of, and driver for improved leadership, responsive planning, inclusive peace and development initiatives, and appropriate conﬂict response at the barangay level. Third, it promotes responsiveness and relevance by incorporating Islamic Bridging Leadership and the thematic areas of peace and human security. The leadership paradigm resonates with the belief system of the majority of the population in region. The two themes address the
aspirations of citizens to be “free from fear, want and humiliation” by concretely mainstreaming poverty reduction, gender equality, cultural integrity, and environmental sustainability, among others. DILG-ARMM is proud to feature and make available A Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Com-
munities among the knowledge resources in its Local Governance Resource Center (LGRC) and intends to disseminate it to stakeholders in ARMM. This Field Guide will be among our tools in sustaining the gains of good local governance in the region. More power and Wassalam!
Hon. Ansaruddin A. Adiong Regional Vice Governor, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Regional Secretary, Department of the Interior and Local Government in ARMM
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his publication was made possible through the dedication and collective efforts of individuals and teams who have willingly shared their ideas and valuable time in conceptualizing and developing this Field Guide. The Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) would like to thank … … the Barangay Officials, Municipal Technical Working Groups (MTWG), Local Planning and Development Coordinators, Local Legislative Councils, Local Government Operations Officers, Civil Society Organizations and community representatives and the rest of the technical staff of barangay governments in ARMM who formulated and implemented their barangay development plans
… Local Resource Partners and On-Site Coaches who helped barangay governments in formulating and implementing their barangay development plans. Without their expertise, LGSPA would not have been able to successfully implement its initiative in strengthening local development planning process in ARMM … the technical team of this publication who were so committed to developing and seeing through the completion of the Field Guide … LGSPA managers and staff who contributed in many ways to the completion of this Field Guide and in promoting an integrated local development planning process at the barangay level that is able to make a difference in promoting good governance in ARMM
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Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Communities is a resource on an approach to developing governance capacities at the barangay level. It covers both concepts and methodologies that can be used to strengthen barangay local governance. There is a wealth of guides and manuals developed by other governance programs for training and coaching within the broad areas of barangay governance and barangay development planning. The Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) in publishing this Field Guide adds to these previous efforts by its integration of thematic areas of peace and human security, the inclusion of a module on Islamic Bridging Leadership, the integration of crosscutting themes of poverty reduction, gender equality, cultural integrity, and environmental sustainability, as well as a very conscious effort to identify interface points between barangay and municipal development planning processes. Finally, the Field Guide
is uniquely placed within the context of autonomy in Muslim Mindanao. The ﬁeld guide has two parts: Part I has three modules on basic barangay governance concepts, with peace as an overarching principle. Part II provides a step-by-step guide in barangay development planning and includes a module on project management. The ﬁrst part looks at the barangay as the basic local governance unit, the local justice systems that exist in ARMM apart from the formal court system, and basic principles of change leadership. The second part emphasizes the peace and human security aspects of planning, and discusses basic concepts in managing barangay projects. With the dissemination of A Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Communities to key users such as the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators, Municipal Local Government Operations Officers,
and members of the Municipal Technical Working Group tasked to assist barangays within their localities, LGSPA looks forward to more accounts of effective, efficient, engaged, equitable and ethical governance among the barangays of ARMM.
Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA)
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PEACE IN ARMM he Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was created in 1989 with the enactment of Republic Act 6734. Originally composed of four provinces during its creation, it presently covers the ﬁve provinces of Maguindanao, Lanao Sur, Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi, and the City of Marawi, covering a total of 101 municipalities and 2,148 barangays.
nium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, made the conclusion that “while the Philippines as a whole performs relatively well, ARMM is far from meeting the basic goals for education, health, and gender equality”. The following are the highlights of the World Bank report on ARMM: ❋ The incidence of poverty in ARMM (2000) is almost twice compared to the nation - 62.9 percent are considered poor compared to the national at 34.0 percent. ❋ The average annual household income (2000) is only 57% of the national (P81,519 for ARMM compared to P144,039 for the whole country) ❋ Infant mortality (1995 ) is 63 per 1,000 live births compared to the national average of 49 per 1,000 live births ❋ Maternal mortality (1995 ) is 320 per 100,000 live births compared to the national average of 180 per 100,000 live births
According to the National Statistics Coordination Board, four of these ﬁve provinces (Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi) were among the 44 poorest out of 77 provinces in the country.1 The World Bank described ARMM as having the “worst human development indicators in the country” in its publication, Human Development for Peace and Prosperity in ARMM (2003). The report, which measures development in ARMM using the Millen-
❋ Net enrolment rate in primary education (2001) is 82% compared to the national average of 96.4% ❋ Net enrolment rate in secondary education (2001) is 39.2% compared to the national average of 72.2% The report also cites three critical factors that contributed to this human development condition in ARMM. These are: ❋ Extreme poverty makes it more difficult for households and communities to meet their basic needs ❋ Continuous, though sporadic, armed conﬂict has prevented the regular delivery of basic services for health and education ❋ The political and economic history of ARMM has been marked by exclusion and instability, limiting both institutional and human capital on which to build on the foundations for accelerated human development. In Walking a Tightrope Between Peace and Development (Tumbaga, ed. 2000)2 the same critical factors were mentioned. Although other regions in the country experience a slow pace of development, the fragile peace and order condition in many parts of ARMM has constrained regional development and economic growth. This has generated other problems such as the lack of employment opportunities which in turn has brought about a brain and brawn drain, as shown by the negative net migration in three ARMM provinces from 1990-1995.
Armed conﬂicts are a festering problem. After the peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the government started an offensive against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in 2000. Armed conﬂicts with these two groups have resulted to the displacement of thousands of civilians in different parts of ARMM. In addition, the offensive against the kidnap for ransom group Abu Sayyaf, and the conﬂicts between many feuding families, called “rido”, both contributed heavily to the region’s instability. All the above factors constrained the delivery of social and economic services, keeping the region largely underdeveloped. However, the region has a resilient people, is rich in natural resources, and endowed with vast tracts of fertile land. Barangay development planning that is effectively interfaced with the development planning of the municipality and the province is seen as one important step towards a ﬂourishing and independent ARMM.
LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ARMM
The ARMM is the only regional government in the country with a unique system of governance.3 RA 6734, otherwise known as the Organic Act, which created the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, was signed into law in August 1989 under then President Corazon Aquino. In November of that same year, a plebiscite was conducted in the proposed ARMM areas; however, only four provinces opted to be part of the area of autonomy. These are the provinces of Maguindao, Lanao del Sur, Tawi Tawi,
and Sulu. Under the same Act, special courts, known as Sharia Courts, were created, with jurisdiction over personal, family, and property law. Similar to the other formal courts elsewhere in the country, the Sharia Courts were placed under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The ARMM legislated its own decentralization process with the passage of the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act (MMAA) No. 25 (also known as the Local Government Code of Muslim Mindanao) in April 1993. It has an executive branch (office of the Governor and the devolved national agencies), the Regional Legislative Assembly with 21 elected members, and a Judiciary through its Shariah Courts. ARMM has 22 devolved line agencies, eight line agencies that are not devolved but with ﬁeld ofﬁces in the ARMM, and nine regionally created offices. RA 9054, which amended RA 6734 and expanded the coverage of the ARMM, was enacted into law on September 2001 under President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Two more local government units were added to the four original provinces: Basilan Province and Marawi City. The ﬁrst regional election was conducted in November of that same year. RA 9054 provides that “the Regional Government shall adopt a policy on local autonomy whereby regional powers shall be devolved to local government units particularly in the areas of education, health, human resources, science and technology, and
people empowerment”. The guidelines of MMAA No. 25 provided for the functions of local governments at the regional, provincial, and municipal levels. Although based on the Local Government Code of 1991 or RA 7160, the ARMM Local Government Code provides for added powers and authority to its executive and legislative branches such as the powers of taxation, and formulation of laws protecting the customary laws, beliefs, education and other special needs of its inhabitants. Article 46 of the MMAA No. 25 also provides that “Consistent with the basic policy on local autonomy, the Regional Governor shall exercise general supervision over local government units in accordance with Section 18, Article VIII of RA6734”. The Act devolves to LGUs the direct provision of services such as agricultural support, health and social welfare, infrastructure, and others. Consequently, a Revenue Code for the ARMM was also crafted with the promulgation of the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 49. The provisions of MMAA No. 25 recognize the importance of LGUs and citizen participation in the attainment of development goals. One striking feature, however, is the power vested in the Regional Governor of ARMM. For instance, it is the Regional Governor, instead of the Provincial Governor, who appoints the Provincial heads of offices. Among these agencies are: the Departments of Agriculture, Social Welfare and Development, and Health whose functions, services and facilities, pursuant to Sec 17 of RA 7160, are supposed to be devolved from the national government to the local government units, and not just the
regional government of ARMM. There is decentralization but not devolution of functions to provinces and municipalities. Instead, devolution is lodged in the regional government, as in the case of the DA, DSWD, and DOH. Any assistance required by the LGUs in the implementation of these functions is also coursed through the regional government, which in turn brings up the matter to the national government. This, in effect, removes the responsibility of national line agencies to respond to requests for help from provinces and municipalities. Section 102 of MMAA No. 25 states that “the regional autonomous government shall have a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be initiated by the Regional Planning and Development Board (RPDB) and approved by the Regional Legislative Assembly”. The RPDB is composed of the Regional Governor as ex-officio chairman; all provincial governors and city mayors in the region; seven members of the RLA to be designated by the Speaker of the Assembly; and representatives made up of professionals, youth, and religious clerics.
“The ARG shall adopt effective, transparent, proactive, and responsible administrative and ﬁscal policies that will improve the regional bureaucracy, system and processes, as well as enhance the region’s ﬁnancial stability”. This thrust will be carried out at all levels of government, including the barangay as a local government unit of ARMM. Speciﬁcally, the aim is to: ❋ Strengthen regional governance; Improve regional ﬁscal management; ❋ Enhance capabilities in legislation, planning, policy formulation, and implementation monitoring and evaluation; ❋ Strengthen the public information system promoting citizenry participation in regional governance; and ❋ Improve cooperation of LGUs in regional governance. Barangay development planning that is effectively interfaced with the development planning of the municipality and the province is seen as one important step towards a ﬂourishing autonomous region that is the ARMM. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has for the past ten years assisted the barangays of ARMM in village governance, primarily focused on the formulation of barangay development plans (BDPs) through the Local Government Support Program Phase II (LGSP II) in 2001- 2005 and the Local
PRESENT DEVELOPMENT THRUST OF ARMM ON BARANGAY GOVERNANCE
The ARMM Regional Government (ARG) has the following thrust for development administration and governance in its ARMM Regional Executive Agenda.
Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) in 2005- 2009. Support through LGSPA was able to mobilize municipal officials in the formulation of the BDPs, and has strengthened the capacities of barangay development councils and peoples organizations in participatory methods of barangay planning. In a baseline capacity survey conducted by LGSPA in 2005, the municipal LGUs expressed the need for enhancement of their knowledge and competencies in the different areas of planning, and the need to be aware of and promote participatory governance at all levels. The program responded to the need for capacity building not only in short and long term planning for LGUs at the municipal and barangay levels, but also in participatory data collection, resource mobilization, proposal preparation, project implementation, and monitoring of projects. The promotion of barangay development planning in ARMM by LGSPA was expanded further through a partnership with the ARMM Social Fund Project (ASFP) and its Community Development Assistance (CDA) Project . The CDA, implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development in ARMM, encouraged its partner barangays to formulate a plan to enable them to access funds from ASFP. This became the basis for a partnership between LGSPA, ASFP, and DSWD. As a result, more than 300 barangays of ARMM beneﬁted from the CDA.
National Statistics Coordination Board, 2000 Poverty Estimates Local Governance in ARMM: Walking the Tightrope Between Peace and Development Challenges and Break Throughs, Letty C. Tumbaga, ed. 2000 3 The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, particularly Sec 15 Article 10, provides for the creation of autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras, consisting of “provinces, cities, municipalities and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage, economic and social structures, and other sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Cordillera autonomous region failed to be created because only two provinces voted in favor of autonomy in the plebiscite conducted for that purpose. The autonomous Muslim region was created after a separate plebiscite was conducted.
Peace-Promoting Barangay Governance
Part I is the ﬁrst of two major substantive chapters in this ﬁeld guide. This chapter helps orient barangay planners on the basic concepts of leadership and barangay governance in ARMM, with peace as an overarching theme. It consists of three modules that collectively are meant to contextualize barangay planning within the larger rubric of good Islamic governance, as well as provide the link between peace and development planning in ARMM.
❋ Module 1 The Barangay and Local Governance ❋ Module 2 Islamic Bridging Leadership ❋ Module 3 Localizing Peacebuilding in ARMM
The Barangay and Local Governance
his stand-alone module is designed as a one-day orientation session. It provides basic information on the role and functions of the barangay, its organizational structure and stafﬁng, and the duties and functions of barangay ofﬁcials. It also includes sessions on how to conduct effective assemblies and meetings on participatory governance through the local special bodies, discussing the role of civil society organizations, private-sector organizations, and informal groups in local governance.
Note to Facilitators Facilitators should ensure that 1/3 of the participants are composed of sectoral CSO representatives; there should also be gender balance.
❋ Elected and appointed barangay ofﬁcials ❋ Sectoral government agency representatives ❋ Representatives from Civil Society Organizations (CSOs, i.e., peoples organizations, non-government organizations, sectoral representatives, religious groups, private sector organizations, and informal groups) The ideal maximum number of participants is 30.
The module is meant to provide a short orientation on barangay governance. The participants will be able to understand the mandates and functions of the barangay as the basic political unit of government, as well as their respective duties and functions.
Speciﬁcally, at the end of one day, the participants will be able to: 1. Know and understand the basic concepts in barangay administration; 2. Demonstrate how to conduct barangay assemblies and regular Sanggunian meetings in accordance with parliamentary procedures; 3. Appreciate the role and functions of CSOs, PSOs and informal groups in barangay governance within the overall context of participation in democratic governance; and 4. Know and understand the difference between the Sangguniang Barangay and the Barangay Development Council.
Session 1: Roles, Powers, and Authority of the Barangay (1 hour) Session 2: Organizational Structure of the Barangay; and Staffing, Duties and Responsibilities of Barangay Officials (2 hours) Session 3: Procedures for Effective Barangay Assemblies and Meetings (2 hours) Session 4: Participatory Governance (2 hours)
TOTAL TIME REQUIRED
Seven (7) hours
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Roles, Powers, and Authority of the Barangay
At the end of a one-hour session, the participants will be able to discuss the legal basis for the creation of the barangay, and the power and authority granted to it by the Local Government Code.
❋ 4 -6 pcs. manila papers ❋ Notebooks ❋ 2 pcs. coloredof cartolina cut into idea cards ❋ Writing pens ❋ Masking tape ❋ Bond paper ❋ Pentel pens ❋ Name tags
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article X RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991), Sections 14-33 MMAA No. 25 (Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 25) Sections 382393; MMAA No. 25 Implementing Rules and Regulations Articles 152-159; Art. 178; Art 212 ; Art. 297 RA 6734 as amended by RA9054 (Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao) Barangay Governance and Development Program – Local Government Academy
❋ Interactive lecture and discussion ❋ Small group workshop
One (1) hour
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1. 2. Annex A. The Barangay and Local Governance Annex B. Streamlining Barangay Governance: A Step by Step Guide in the Implementation of the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee – DILG Calabarzon Region. 2008.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Ask a participant how her/his barangay was created, and the legal basis for its creation. Process the information with the other participants for correctness. Refer to RA 7160 and MMA No. 25. Divide the participants into two groups. Using idea cards of one color, ask the participants in the ﬁrst group to write down the basic services and facilities they think should be provided by the barangay. Ask the second group to write down on idea cards of another color the powers and authority that barangays are allowed to do under the Local Government Code, the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 25, and RA 9054. Instruct the participants to write a maximum of ﬁve (5) words per card, and to legibly write in bold letters. 3. Prepare 2-3 pcs. manila papers for each group where the participants can paste their answers. Post the answers of the ﬁrst group together, and those of the second group together. Conduct an open forum. Fill in the other information that the groups missed using the suggested readings and by referring to the Local Government Code and Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 25.
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Organizational Structure of the Barangay; and, Staffing, Duties, and Responsibilities of Barangay Officials
At the end of a one-hour session, the participants will be able to identify and discuss the structure and staffing of the barangay (including the committees and councils at the barangay level), and the duties and responsibilities of barangay officials.
❋ Barangay organizational structure on manila paper ❋ Idea cards
Note to Facilitators It is not expected for participants to have read the suggested readings and references of each session. Facilitators are, however, assumed to have reasonably familiarized themselves with the reading materials. It is recommended that these materials be on hand during the sessions for ready reference.
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article X RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991), Sections 14-33; Sec 48 RA 6734 as amended by RA 9054 MMAA No. 25 (Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 25) Sections 382-393; MMAA No. 25 Implementing Rules and Regulations Articles 152-159; Art. 178; Art 212 ; Art. 297; Sec 55
Interactive lecture and discussion
Two (2) hours
“A Guide to the Local Government Code” by Manuel S. Tabunda and Mario M. Galang, Mary Go Educational Supply Manila. 1992.
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HOW TO DO IT
1. 2. Prepare barangay organizational structure on manila paper Ask each of the barangay officials present to put their name in the boxes shown. Call those whose name appear on the boxes and ask each of them to enumerate their roles and responsibilities. For time management, ask only two (2) of the councilors (i.e. kagawads) to represent the rest of the council. Supplement their answers with other functions not mentioned. Ask the participants to write on idea cards the different committees and councils in the barangay that they are aware of.
Process the cards by going through each item one by one and checking these against the suggested readings. Supplement the given structure by enumerating the other committees and councils that are important for barangay affairs such as: • Barangay Development Council • Lupong Tagapamayapa • Barangay Peace and Order Council • Barangay Anti-Drug Abuse Council • Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council • Barangay Tanod/Bantay Bayan • Barangay Council for the Protection of Women and Children • Barangay Nutrition Council
• Barangay Physical Fitness and Sports Dev. Council • Barangay Ecological Solid Waste Management Committee • Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee • Sanggunian Kabataan • Others (specify) 7. Mention current efforts by the DILG to rationalize barangay-based institutions, as outlined in the manual entitled “Streamlining Barangay Governance: A Step by Step Guide in the Implementation of the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee”. Show the organizational structure that embodies this rationalization effort. Refer to Annex A.
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Procedures for Effective Barangay Assemblies and Meetings
At the end of the session, the participants would appreciate and use the Parliamentary Rules and Procedures in the conduct of barangay assemblies and meetings.
❋ Documentation or minutes of the latest meeting of barangay officials ❋ Checklist of the parts of a barangay meeting (to be distributed to participants who will act as observers in the role playing) ❋ Parts of the barangay meeting written on idea cards ❋ Masking tape
❋ Interactive lecture and discussion ❋ Role playing ❋ Playing
HOW TO DO IT
1. Draw from the participants what they think is the importance of effective barangay assemblies and meetings. Ask the participants: When was your latest Barangay Assembly?”. Or
Two (2) hours
“When was your last barangay meeting?” Ask them to brieﬂy describe how it was conducted, i.e., did it go well or not? Why or why not? Ask the participants why it is important to have effective barangay assemblies/meetings. Ask the participants to describe the different parts of their latest barangay meeting. Using previously prepared idea cards, supplement their answers with inputs on the parts of a model meeting. Post the idea cards (see list below) in a prominent place (not visible to those who will do the actual role playing but visible to observers to the role play).
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CONTENT OF IDEA CARDS (One idea per card)
• CALL TO ORDER • ROLL CALL • READING AND CONSIDERATION OF PREVIOUS MINUTES • READING AND APPROPRIATE ACTION ON COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED • COMMITTEE REPORTS • CALENDAR OF BUSINESS a. Unﬁnished business, (if any) List down the unﬁnished business, if any b. Business for the day List down all resolutions/ordinances ready for sponsorship or ﬂoor deliberation - Sponsorship of, and action on, proposed resolutions - Sponsorship of, and action on, proposed ordinances c. Unassigned business - At this stage the Presiding Ofﬁcer may assign measures that have not yet been referred, or assigned, to a particular committee. • ANNOUNCEMENT (Optional) • ADJOURNMENT
Role playing (1 hour, including processing). • Ask a barangay chairperson to volunteer for role playing the conduct of a barangay meeting from the start to the end. If only one barangay chairperson is present, call on her/him. Assume that the sole purpose of the meeting is to form a planning team for the upcoming barangay development planning exercise. The output of the meeting should be a resolution designating the members of the planning team. (Use minutes of the latest barangay meeting for the Reading and Consideration of Previous Minutes.) • Assign half of the participants to act as barangay kagawads who are participating in the meeting. • Assign the other half to act as observers. Distribute to the ob-
servers the checklist of the parts of a barangay meeting. • Allow the barangay chairperson ﬁve (5) minutes to internalize the instructions. While the chairperson is preparing for the role play, provide instructions to the kagawads and observers. Ask the assigned kagawads to realistically portray their role as kagawads in a regular barangay meeting. Using the checklist given to them, observers will note whether the parts of the meeting are conducted in the proper sequence, and/or if any parts are missed. • Give 15 minutes for the role play Processing the role play • Ask the participants what appropriate steps were successfully demonstrated by the barangay chairperson.
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• Then ask the participants what were missed steps or areas needing improvement. • Supplant the missing steps or statements overlooked by the barangay chairperson or Punong Barangay and the participants. • Remind the participants of the following important issues connected to barangay meetings: • Need for a quorum • Ordinance and resolutions • Decorum during sessions • Voting and motions • Ask one representative from the kagawads, from the observers, and lastly, the barangay chairperson to share their insights on the activity. One insight from
each. End the activity by saying that parliamentary procedures are meant to concretize democracy in motion by encouraging participants in a meeting to observe certain decorum so that the objectives of a meeting will be met in an efficient manner, and that participants are able to put forward their ideas effectively. Thank the participants, especially the barangay chairperson, for their cooperation and insights.
Note to Facilitators Facilitators should reassure role players that the activity is a LEARNING exercise for everyone’s beneﬁt and not meant to assess their personal skills in conducting meetings nor criticize their way of doing things. Strive to create an environment “safe” from criticism and judgment for the role players. If the participant is obviously not comfortable nor adequately prepared for role playing, allow for some ﬂexibility and call on others. When processing the role play, use words carefully to avoid giving the impression of criticizing practices. Avoid using the word “dapat” (must) or its local equivalent for observed behaviors. Use words like “mungkahi” (suggestion) or phrases like “baka mapaunlad pa ito sa pamamagitan ng…” (this could be further enhanced by... or its local equivalent when recommending changes to observed behavior.
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At the end of the session, the participants should be able to: 1. Identify the role of csos in barangay governance; 2. Know and appreciate the different avenues for participation in local governance; and 3. Know the role of the barangay development Council in planning and programming for the barangay.
Two (2) hours
❋ Idea cards ❋ White board/blackboard/manila papers with easel or masking tape ❋ Whiteboard markers/ chalk/pentel pens
rio M. Galang pp. xiv-xvi; Chapter I p. 55-65 Mary Go Educational Supply Manila. 1992
HOW TO DO IT
1. Begin the session by saying that the process of “governing” is not merely the task of elected officials or those in government. There is no government if there are no people to be governed. The responsibility of governance is on the shoulders of both the governing and the governed. In a democracy, a government is “of the people, by the people, and for the people”. Real political power rests on the people.
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) 2. “A Guide to the Local Government Code” by Manuel S. Tabunda and Ma-
Interactive lecture and discussion
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They only assign this power to those they elect. If the source of power is the people, it follows that government should be for the purpose of development that beneﬁts the people. If the real power rests on the people, it is just ﬁtting that they participate in the process of governance. 2. Divide the participants into two groups: CSOs and barangay officials. For the CSO group: Ask the participants from CSOs to share their experiences in working with government, if any, using the following thought guides: a. What was the program/project/ activity all about; b. What was the speciﬁc role of the CSO. Based on the sharing of experiences, ask the CSO participants to write on idea cards their role/s in barangay
governance. These could be expressed in terms of opportunities or venues for participation. For the barangay officials group: Ask the barangay officials to write on idea cards the role/s they expect the CSOs to play in barangay governance. These could be expressed in terms of opportunities or venues for participation. 3. Paste the idea cards of both groups on manila paper. Based on their answers, write key words that capture the forms of CSO participation. Examples of these may be membership in local special bodies, delivery of basic services, joint undertakings, funding from LGUs for NGO/PO/ Cooperative projects, ﬁshery rights; franchises, mandatory consultation, consultations, public hearings, initiatives and referendum, public hearings, among others.
4. Process their answers by connecting them to: a. The legal framework for participation of CSOs in local governance (Constitutional and LGC provisions) b. The modes of participation of CSOs in local governance. (See RA 7160 Sections 34-38 on Relations with People’ and NGOs; Sections 69-75 on Recall; Sections 120-127 on Local Initiative and Referendum) c. The levels of participation that citizens and CSOs could engage in d. The different Local Special Bodies (See Sections 98-101 on Local School Boards; Sections 102-105 on Local Health Boards; Sections 106-115 on Local Development Councils; Sec 116 on Local Peace and Order Council)
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5. Ask if the Barangay Development Council is functional. When was the last meeting, if any? Ask participants who the members of the BDC are, and what its primary role is. Supplement their answers with tasks stated in the Local Government Code. 6. As a way to synthesize the discussion, conclude by saying that by participating through the different avenues provided for by law, citizens ensure that governance genuinely responds to people’s best interests.
7. End the session by saying that autonomy and participation cannot be separated from each other; they complement each other. The transfer of powers from higher levels of government to local governments has been proven all over the world to hasten the process of development. This is premised on the belief that citizens at the local level know best what their needs are and how best to address those needs.
8. Thank the participants for their inputs and participation.
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Bridging Islamic Leadership for Social Change
his stand-alone module is designed as a half-day session to provide a conceptual framework which situates barangay development planning as a mechanism or vehicle for democratic barangay governance as espoused by Islamic leadership principles. The module hopes to inspire barangay leaders and stakeholders in addressing societal divides by leading collaborative action to bring about social change.
This module also promotes Bridging Leadership as an approach in addressing barangay concerns. The use of multi-stakeholder processes and collaborative action in addressing issues for social transformation has been found to be effective in many cases. Convening of stakeholders and conducting of dialogues are encouraged for constituents to participate and get involved in barangay governance. At the end of the module is a paper on Bridging Leadership, meant to facilitate the introduction of Islamic precepts into the discussion of leadership.
This module may be used as a guide to promote Islamic Bridging Leadership for Social Change and may be included in other trainings as appropriate.
❋ Elected barangay officials ❋ Civil society organization representatives, including women and youth leaders ❋ Religious leaders ❋ Council of Elders, if applicable
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This module aims to orient barangay leaders on the concept and functions of leadership. At the end of the half day session, participants will: 1. Be oriented on basic Islamic leadership; 2. Know and understand leadership qualities for effective barangay governance; 3. Know and understand the Bridging Leadership framework; and 4. Integrate Islamic values to leadership.
Session 1: Deﬁnition and Approaches to Leadership (1 hour) Session 2: Qualities of an Effective Leader (1 hour) Session 3: Islamic Bridging Leadership (2 hours)
TOTAL TIME REQUIRED
Four (4) hours
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Definition and Approaches to Leadership
At the end of the session, the participants will be able to: 1. Deﬁne their life’s mission 2. Relate their role as leaders to God’s plans
❋ Prepared quotation on leadership (boxed below) written in manila paper ❋ Idea cards ❋ Pentel pens ❋ Manila paper ❋ Ballpens ❋ Notebooks/journal
1. Annex C. Bridging Leadership for Barangay Governance by Hannbal Bara, Ph.D. Paper presented during an LGSPA workshop conducted June 23-25, 2007, Davao City. Annex D. Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration: The Critical Role of Leadership. A Concept Paper by Steven Pierce. June 2002
❋ Oral reading ❋ Individual testimonies
❋ Selected Khutba: A Guide to Social Development for Muslim Communities in the Philipppines, Local Governance Support Program in ARMM, Davao City, Philippines. 2008. (downloadable from www.lgspa.org.ph)
One (1) hour
HOW TO DO IT
1. Ask the barangay chair this question: “What is your personal mission in order to accomplish God’s vision for your barangay?” After the chair-
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man has given his testimony, ask a kagawad to do the same. Allow 10 minutes per testimonial. Process the testimonials by providing different deﬁnitions of leadership as provided by Dr. Bara and Steven Pierce (Annexes B & C). Synthesize the session by reading the quotation pre-written on manila paper:
The purpose of Islamic leadership is to secure peace, justice and human security for the entire mankind. These three goals sum up the meaning of peace in Islam. That is why Islam demands that the leader should be morally sound and intellectually capable to discharge his and power and duties. To construct the ediﬁce of peace requires strong leadership and political will. (Dr. Hannbal Bara)
End the session by thanking the participants for their sharing, especially those who gave their testimonies. Show appreciation through an innovative clap or a phrase collectively said.
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Qualities of an Effective Leader
At the end of the session, the participants would be able to: 1. Identify the qualities of a good leader 2. Relate their performance to acceptable standards of leadership
❋ Prepared quote in manila paper (see box below) ❋ Idea cards ❋ Masking tape
1. Annex C. Bridging Leadership for Barangay Governance by Hannbal Bara, Ph.D. Paper presented during an LGSPA workshop conducted June 23-25, 2007, Davao City. Annex D. Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration: The Critical Role of Leadership. A Concept Paper by Steven Pierce. June 2002
Selected Khutba: A Guide to Social Development for Muslim Communities in the Philipppines, Local Governance Support Program in ARMM, Davao City, Philippines. 2008. (downloadable from www.lgspa.org.ph)
❋ Self reﬂection ❋ Testimonials ❋ Sharing and interactive discussion
HOW TO DO IT
1. Ask the participants to write on idea cards the qualities that they expect from a good leader (one quality per card). These are to be pasted on a manila paper.
One (1) hour
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2. Process the qualities using the categories given by Dr. Bara 3. Synthesize the session by reading the paragraph pre-written on a manila paper.
The Prophet said: As-Sayyidul qawmi hadimuhum. “The leader is the servant of the people”. He is to serve the people like a servant who serves his master honestly. He should be dependable, sensitive and responsive to the call of his people. Imam Khumayni deﬁned a leader “as one who champions the needs of the society”. To champion the needs of the people, the leader should be at the forefront in the affairs of the community. He always sees his power and authority as amanat or trust of Allah. Hazrat Umar said: “the best leader is that the people ﬁnd prosperity and the worst leader is that the life of the people becomes miserable”.
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Islamic Bridging Leadership
At the end of the session, the participants would be able to: 1. Appreciate the importance of bridging leadership 2. Understand the process in bridging leadership
Prepared prayer on Bridging Leadership
Selected Khutba: A Guide to Social Development for Muslim Communities in the Philipppines, Local Governance Support Program in ARMM, Davao City, Philippines. 2008. (downloadable from www.lgspa.org.ph)
Annex D. Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration: The Critical Role of Leadership. A Concept Paper by Steven Pierce. June 2002
HOW TO DO IT
1. Begin the session by saying that Bridging leadership is a leadership approach in addressing complex issues. It is applicable in situations that: • cannot be solved by one sector alone (or by barangay government alone) • need the collaborative action of three sectors (government, private sector and civil society) • require shared resolutions to issues
❋ Interactive discussion ❋ Self reﬂection ❋ Testimonials
1. Annex C. Bridging Leadership for Barangay Governance by Hannbal Bara, Ph.D. Paper presented during an LGSPA workshop conducted June 23-25, 2007, Davao City.
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• need a bridge to bring together the different stakeholders to own the issues and their resolutions Ask the participants to reﬂect on a situation they found difficult to resolve using the following thought guides: • the period when this happened • the general circumstances • the stakeholders involved • the challenges presented by the situation Request three participants to share their testimonies. Allow 10 minutes per testimony. Introduce the concept of bridging leadership by giving a short deﬁnition pre-written on a manila paper: Bridging leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on creating and sustaining effective working relationships among diverse actors and stakeholders. By "bridging" different perspectives and opinions often found across the breadth of different stakeholders, a common agenda can begin to be developed
and shared in order to ﬁnd solutions to social and economic problems. Ask a participant to talk about the Prophet Mohammad as the ﬁrst bridging leader. Allow 10 minutes for this talk. After the talk, describe the 3 processes involved in bridging leadership: ownership, co-ownership, and co-creation. (See boxed text) Ask 2-3 participants to share their insights on bridging leadership. (1-2 sentences each). After each sharing, acknowledge and show appreciation by asking the rest of the participants for an innovative clap. Thank those who gave testimonies,, and all the participants for their inputs and sharing. Ask the participants to do an innovative clap for everyone. End the module by reading a preprepared prayer that asks Allah to help each one to become a Bridging Leader, no matter under what capacity, issue or circumstance.
Bridging Leadership has 3 processes: Ownership - The Bridging Leader owns the issue, understands its systemic analysis and recognizes the interest of its stakeholders, and makes a personal response to the issue. Co-Ownership - The Bridging Leader convenes the stakeholders through a process of dialogue and engagement and, collectively, they arrive at a shared vision and shared response. The vision is an outcome aspired for by everyone. Co-Creation - A social innovation is adopted and carried out through new institutional arrangements. Such arrangements become formal structures and processes over time with a policy environment supportive to stakeholders’ participation and responsive institutions. The Bridging Leader sustains his work by cultivating sources of renewal.
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Localizing Peacebuilding in ARMM
his module is meant to provide the link between peace and development planning. Local development happens best where conditions of relative stability and peace are present. Peace is possible when grievances and injustices are addressed in the most culturally-appropriate and accessible manner. One of the mechanisms for accessing justice at the lowest levels is the Barangay Justice System (BJS) or the Katarungang Pambarangay. The Katarungang Pambarangay was institutionalized through
Presidential Decree 1508, promulgated in 1978, and integrated in the Local Government Code of 1991 as a strategy for making the justice system more responsive to the needs of communities. This module discusses the Katarungang Pambarangay Law’s salient features and the basic steps in mediation. In addition to the Katarungang Pambarangay, this module also discusses local conﬂict resolution mechanisms (LCRMs), which are unique to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
These two major mechanisms (Katarungang Pambarangay and LCRMs) are discussed as concrete avenues for peacebuilding and promoting good governance at the grassroots level.
Punong barangays Barangay secretaries Barangay development planners Actual or potential members of the lupon tagapamayapa ❋ Traditional and religious leaders ❋ Leaders of informal groups in the barangays. ❋ ❋ ❋ ❋
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The general objective of the module is to orient Lupong Tagapamayapa members, barangay officials and CSO representatives on the Katarungang Pambarangay and to surface other dispute resolution practices in their localities. At the end of a one day session, the participants would be able to: 1. 2. 3. Review the salient features of the Katarungang Pambarangay law; Be oriented on the general process, steps and skills on mediation; and Describe local dispute resolution practices and mechanisms operating in their community.
Session 1. Salient Features of the Katarungang Pambarangay Law and Mediation (4-6 hours) Session 2: Local Conﬂict Resolution Practices and Mechanisms (1-2 hours)
Note to Facilitators If the Lupon Tagapamayapa is not yet constituted, the facilitator could encourage the Punong Barangay to identify 10-20 potential members of the Lupong Tagapamayapa, who are women and men of integrity and good judgment. As much as possible, gender and sectoral balance should be achieved. If participants are not members of the Lupong Tagapamayapa (eg. kagawads, purok leaders, heads of CSOs), focus on salient features of the law and the core message of helping strengthen the barangay justice system. Encourage the Punong Barangay to activate the Lupong Tagapamayapa by appointing members to it, having them trained, and by delegating disputes resolution to the Lupon or to the local conﬂict resolution mechanisms as much as possible.
TOTAL TIME REQUIRED
Five (5) to eight (8) hours
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Salient Features of the Katarungang Pambarangay Law and Mediation
At the end of the session, participants would be able to review the salient features of the Katarungang Pambarangay (KP) Law.
❋ Sets of cartolina cards with A, B, C and D written on them. The number of sets will depend on the number of the participants. ❋ White/ black board ❋ Whiteboard marker/ chalk ❋ Masking tape ❋ Prepared manila paper/ metacards where salient points of the topics are written (for faster and efficient presentation) or LCD projector and PowerPoint presentation of the topics ❋ Optional • Video on Mediation • VCD player/computer with CDR • Television with remote control • Guide questions (Annex G)
❋ Structured learning exercise ❋ Interactive lecture and discussion
• Handouts on mediation • Visual aid on mediation roadmap • Bond paper, cut into 1/2 strips lengthwise (2 per pax) • Pentel pens (1per pax) • Colored metacards (5 different colors)
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. Local Government Code Book III Title 1 Chapter 7 Katarungang Pambarangay “Localizing the Justice System in Six Peace Zone Areas in the ARMM: A Guidebook for Mainstreaming Indig-
Four (4) hours (without video-showing) Six (6) hours (with video -showing)
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enous Conﬂict Resolution in ARMM LGUs” LGSPA and SALIGAN,”. 2004 “Workshops on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law, Laws on Women and Children, and on Mediation: Trainers Guide”. 2008 DILG-Local Government Academy.
1. 2. 3. Annex E. SLE: Review Quiz on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law Annex F. Lecture Notes on Katarungang Pambarangay Law Annex G. Guide Questions on Video on Mediation
HOW TO DO IT
1. Structured Learning Exercise (SLE) for review/ refresher on the participants’ knowledge about Katarungang Pambarangay. This is based on the assumption that adult learners have basic knowledge of the topic, or have heard of a few things about the topic. The participants’ answers shall also be used in the lecture-
discussion that shall be conducted shortly after the SLE. • For the SLE, ask the participants to organize themselves into groups of 3 or 4. (This can be done by counting off ). Ideally, each group should have 4 members. This number is big enough to allow participants to bounce their ideas off one another before putting up an answer, and small enough to allow everyone in the group to participate in the discussion. • Once organized, each group shall be given a set of cartolina cards (with A, B, C and D written on them) • The facilitator shall read questions and their corresponding multiple choice answers pertaining to KP (see Annex E). Each group shall respond by raising the cartolina stating the group’s answer on the count of three. • The facilitator then gives out the correct answer and writes
the scores of each group on the board. The facilitator gives a short explanation of the correct answer, and shall take note of the answers of the groups. S/ he should use the correct and incorrect answers as examples or illustrations during the lecturediscussion. Lecture-discussion: Give a short lecture lecture on the salient features of the Katarungang Pambarangay, using Annex F. Video Showing (optional). Show the video on mediation to illustrate the basic steps in mediation. (30 minutes). After the video, select a few questions from the video’s discussion guide (See Annex G) Divide the participants into ﬁve groups. Assign a major step for each group • Group 1 – Mediators Opening Remarks (Pambungad na Pananalita ng Tagapamagitan)
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Important Reminders 1. Before the presentation of the video, it is important that the Katarungang Pambarangay Law has already been discussed. 2. Present the mediation roadmap ﬁrst before showing the video and have the major steps visible at a glance (a PowerPoint slide, acetate slide, or other visual aids such as manila paper or cartolina, with print big enough for all participants to see). 3. The video is best presented using Windows Media Player as it has userfriendly pause-play-rewind-forward features that could be minimized. If using other formats such as DVD player or VCD player, a remote control is desirable (make sure the batteries are new). Practice playing and pausing and delivering your interactive lecture beforehand. 4. The facilitator has the option to present the video in its entirety in one go, or to pause on each major step and discuss, until all ﬁve major steps have been covered. If time allows, a combination of both options is recommended.
• Group 2 – Sharing of Perspectives (Pagbibigay ng Pananaw ng Bawa’t Isa Tungkol sa Problema) • Group 3 – Mediator’s Summary of Issues (Pagsusuma ng Tagapamagitan sa Mahahalagang Punto ng Pag-uusap)
• Group 4 – Generation of Options (Paglutas ng Problema sa Bawa’t Isyu) • Group 5 – Selection of Options and Closure/ Writing the Agreements (Kasunduan at Kasulatan ng Kasunduan)
Give each member of the group one strip of bond paper (1/2 length wise), and one pentel pen Instructions for participants: • Observe the major step assigned to you. Note down your observations on the following: – The objectives of each major step – The sub-steps used for each major step – Attitude and demeanor of the mediator – Attitude and demeanor of disputants • Write down your observations in bold letters in each metacard/ strip of bond paper; (maximum of ﬁve words per card/paper) Write the following headings on the board (or prepare metacards with the following headings: Qualities and Attitudes of a Mediator (Mga Katangian ng Mediator), Characteristics of the Process of Mediation (Mga Katangian ng
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Proseso ng Mediation), Objectives of Mediation (Mga Layunin ng Mediation), Steps in Mediation (Mga Hakbang sa Mediation). Distinguish the four major steps from the substeps for each by using colored metacards (e.g. blue for major step, green for substep) 9. Call on each group to verbally share their observations before placing their metacards under the appropriate heading. 10. Allow as many observations as possible within the prescribed time limit. Cluster the observations according to the appropriate headings:
• Qualities and Attitudes of a Mediator (pasensyoso, mahinahon, may diplomasya, patas ang pagtrato sa mga partido, etc) • Characteristics of the Process of Mediation (mahaba, madali/ mahirap, madetalye, nakakatuwa dahil nagbibigay solusyon sa paraang madali at hindi magastos, akma sa kulturang Pinoy, etc) • Objectives of Mediation • Steps in Mediation (ﬁling the complaint, summoning complainant and respondent, etc)
11. Invite the participants to answer some of the additional guide questions on the video on their own. 12. End the session by saying that mediation is a concrete way for promoting peace at the barangay. Katarungang Pambarangay helps to address grievances and conﬂicts at the lowest levels, thus helping maintain peace and order in the barangay.
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Local Conflict Resolution Practices and Mechanisms
At the end of the one-hour session, participants are able to: 1. Describe local conﬂict resolution practices in their communities; and 2. Identify ways to enhance complementation between local conﬂict resolution mechanisms and the Katarungang Pambarangay
Guidebook for Mainstreaming Indigenous Conﬂict Resolution in ARMM LGUs. LGSPA and SALIGAN-Mindanaw. March 2004. Davao City
Prepared matrix on local conﬂict resolution practices
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. MMAA No. 25 (Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act, the ARMM Local Government Code) RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) Chapter 7 Sections 399-422 Republic Act 8371: Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act (IPRA) Republic Act 9054: ARMM Organic (Article III Sec 2; Article VIII Sec 19; Article X, Sec 4; Act Article XIV Sec 2 b) Localizing the Justice System in Six Peace Zone Areas in the ARMM: A
Annex H. LGSPA Survey on Local Conﬂict Resolution Mechanisms.
❋ Workshops in small groups ❋ Story telling ❋ Interactive lecture and discussion
2. 3. 4.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Divide the participants into the following groups: 1) cultural/traditional leaders; 2) formally elected barangay officials and Lupong Tagapamayapa members; 3) civil society representatives. Assign reporters and documenters.
Two (2) hours
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3. 4. 5.
Ask them to discuss particular disputes that they know were resolved by a community member(s) who was/ were NOT elected barangay officials, barangay officials nor Lupong Tagapamayapa members. Describe the issue and disputants, and who helped resolve the disputes. Each group should be able to cover 1-3 cases each. Ask them to describe the processes and steps used. Ask them to report on and share their stories to the plenary Process the sharing of groups by: • Filling in the matrix (see example). • Citing the stories and the matrix, say that there are community leaders, practices, and modes, aside from that of the Katarungang Pambarangay, who and which have been helping facilitate the resolution of conﬂicts even before the promulgation of the Katarungang Pambarangay Law, using traditional values, religious teachings and practices.
Issues/Disputes Marital dispute Boundary dispute
Parties Husband and wife (both Muslims) Tedurays and Moros Katutubo (Indigenous Person) and another Katutubo
Third Party Intervenor Imam Traditional Leader / Elder
Process used Counseling through religious teachings Arbitration
Cite the results of the LGSPA survey on indigenous conﬂict resolution modes (Annex H). and SALIGAN’s work on LCRM and the different modes and mechanisms of dispute resolution that indigenous peoples and Muslim communities in ARMM use. Examples of these are: The Mayor’s Council of North Upi, Jumpoc in Barira, Maguindanao, Bleye Kitab in South Upi, Municipal Peace Committee in Kapatagan, Lanao del Sur, and the Barangay Justice Advocates and Big Book Initiative of Tawi-Tawi. Ask the participants how these traditional modes of conﬂict resolution could best complement the Katarungang Pambarangay. Some examples of possible answers: by religious and customary leaders volunteering to
Module One SESSION 1
be members of the Lupong Tagapamayapa, coordinating with the Lupon on conﬂicts they are handling, and helping train Lupon Tagapamayapa members. End the session and the module by saying that the Katarungang Pambarangay and the local conﬂict resolution mechanisms and practices both contribute valuably in promoting peace and conﬂict transformation in communities in ARMM. By maintaining relative stability, these local conﬂict resolution mechanisms and the Katarungang Pambarangay facilitate development in the barangays. These mechanisms should be strengthened and enhanced by local governments, particularly by the punong barangay, the customary and religious leaders, and civil society organizations.
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Towards a Peace-Focused Barangay Development Plan
While Part 1 of the Field Guide provided the general backdrop under which successful barangay development in ARMM can occur, Part 2 takes the facilitator and barangay planners through the various steps of the barangay development planning process itself.
❋ Module 4 Barangay Development Planning ❋ Module 5 A Simple Approach to Managing Barangay Projects
Collectively, these two modules enable barangay planners to move forward with barangay development in small, concrete steps.
Participatory Barangay Development Planning
to establish a more comprehensive picture and analysis of the community. It is highly recommended that facilitators commit to stay with the community until the whole planning cycle is completed. The output of this process will be useful in validating issues and policy responses identiﬁed in the municipal Comprehensive Development Plan- Executive and Legislative Agenda (CDP-ELA), or in higher level plans of the province and the region. This is possible if complementation and interface in strategic steps in planning between the component barangays and the municipality, and between the compo-
oday’s ARMM barangays are faced with the challenges of securing peace and development for their communities. This module not only provides Municipal Planning Teams and facilitators with a guide for a participatory barangay development planning, but also integrates peace and human security as a foundation for good governance in the planning process. It assumes a barangay development planning process that will take place over a staggered period of time, taking anywhere between ﬁve days to two weeks. This module is designed to guide the barangay planners through a 12-step process, as well as in the pre- and post-planning
phases. It sets the bases for determining barangay priorities by establishing a barangay proﬁle that includes, among others, the history, population, resources, and special features of the community. Based on an analysis of the resources, a listing of problems, needs, and gaps are deﬁned by the local stakeholders. The whole module is built on participatory and interactive approaches, thus, brief lectures are interspersed with focused group discussions and workshops using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. PRA tools are used extensively in getting primary information. The PRA tools used are backed up by relevant secondary data
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nent municipalities and the province, are operationalized.
❋ Barangay Development Council (BDC) members ❋ Barangay officials and community working groups tasked with developing a barangay development plan.
The general objective of the module is to equip BDC members and sectoral working groups with the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed in facilitating participatory barangay development planning through PRA. At the end of the planning process, participants would have: 1. 2. Understood the Planning Road Map Gained an appreciation of the basic principles and concepts of gender and development participatory development, and peace and development Developed basic skills in barangay development planning using participatory methods
Step 4 Problem/Situational Analysis by Sector (1/2 day) Step 5 Prioritizing Issues (2 hours) 5. Step 6 Vision, Mission and Goal-Setting (1/2 day) Step7 Identifying Programs, Strategies, and Implementing Mechanisms CONTENT (4 hours) Session 1: Principles and Concepts in Par- Step 8 Setting the Three-year Barangay ticipatory Development Planning (1 day) Development Plan (1/2 day) 1. Participatory Planning Step 9 Setting Next Year’s Annual In2. Gender and Development vestment Plan (1/2 day) 3. Five Key Development Areas Step 10 Linking the Budget with the Plan (2 hours) Session 2: Preparing to Plan: Overview of The Planning Road Map and an InSession 5: Adopting the BDP troduction to the 12 Steps of Barangay Step 11 Presenting the BDP to the Development Planning (1 day) Barangay General Assembly (1/2 Session 3: Starting to Plan Step 1 General Orientation (1/2 day) Step 2 Forming Sectoral Working Groups (1/2 day) Session 4: Actual Planning Step 3 Conducting PRA by Sectoral Working Groups (2-3days) day) Step 12 Drafting the Barangay Resolution and Adopting the Barangay Development Plan (1/2 day) Session 6: Packaging and Communicating the Results of the BDP (1 day)
Identiﬁed interface points between barangay development planning and municipal development planning Produced a barangay development plan using participatory methods
TOTAL TIME REQUIRED
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Principles and Concepts in Participatory Barangay Development Planning
At the end of the one-day session, participants would have: 1. Appreciated the concept of participation in development planning 2. Appreciated the concepts of gender and development 3. Known the ﬁve key development areas in planning and the data requirements for each
❋ Participatory Planning • Handouts on Participatory Planning • Handouts on PRA Tools ❋ Gender and Development • Poster containing the words “Sa pinagsama-samang galing ng babae at lalaki, kaunlara’y mararating” (Provide translation in the appropriate ARMM language) • List of statements to be used for the exercise ❋ Five Key Development Areas • Visual Aid on Five Key Development Areas
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. Gender-Based Effectiveness Skills Training for Agrarian Reform Beneﬁciaries: A GuideBook for Trainers Asian Women in Co-operative Development Forum (AWCF) and Department of Agrarian Reform. 2002 GeRL (Gender-Responsive LGU) KA BA? Self Assessment Manual of Administration. Department of the Interior and Local Government and National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women”. 2005. Manual on Barangay Development Planning Through Participatory Learning and Action, Institute of Politics and Governance, 2007.
❋ Interactive lectures ❋ Structured learning exercises
One (1) day
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Participation in Development: The Question, Challenges and Issues. A Symposium Background Paper. Participation in Development: The Question, Challenges and Issues a Symposium Background Paper. Kenny, Michael (1997) Available from http://eprints.nuim .ie/233/; accessed October 13, 2008. The World Bank Participation Source Book. Participatory Rural Appraisal. Collaborative Decision-Making. Community-Based Method. Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ wbi/sourcebook/sba104.htm; accessed October 13,2008. Towards a Peace and Human-Security Focused Barangay Development Planning by Isabelo Julio Cesar Benitez (see Annex I)
HOW TO DO IT Participatory Planning
1. Start this topic by saying we often hear the word “participation” especially in the process of planning and implementation of projects. It is important to not merely look at the process of participation but also at the results of participation of citizens. It is also important to examine whether the participation of citizens aids the process of empowerment or whether this is only being used as a form of tokenism. There are many instances where people participate but they are made as “rubber stamps” to get their support for a particular program or process that is being handed down to them. Give a short lecture on participation and development. Give a short overview on Participatory Rural Appraisal. Give an overview on the Tools for Participatory Rural Appraisal. • Semi-strucuredstructured interview/workshop and Focus Group
Discussions Group Mapping Charts and Graphs Time Lines Transect Walks Seasonal Calendars and Diagrams • Matrix Scoring or Ranking Mention that the tools for PRA will be explained by the facilitators to each of the sectoral group who will undertake the activities. The objectives, methodology, and expected outputs are provided in each of the PRA tools. • • • • •
Gender and Development
Structured Learning Exercise. Sabay Tayo Instructions: 1. Request for two volunteers; one woman and one man 2. Require that they each have a handkerchief or piece of cloth. Ask the volunteers to stand in an area where there is enough space to move eight
2. 3. 4.
1. 2. 3. Annex I. Participation and Development Annex J. Participatory Rural Appraisal Annex K. Gender and Development
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(8) steps forward, and where everybody can see them. The volunteers must stand side by side or alongside each other, both facing forward. 3. Explain the process of the exercise: Statements will be read aloud. If the statement is true with regards to the experience of most women in their barangay, the female volunteer will take one step forward. If on the other hand, the experience is true with most of the males in the barangay, the male will take a step forward. If the statement is true for both, then both will take a step forward. 4. List of statements to be read: a. I take care of the children b. I am an officer of a community organization c. I cultivate the farm d. I am an official of the barangay e. I wash clothes f. I make decisions on any concerns on the family g. I can ask from a loan without the consent of my spouse. h. My work is oftentimes paid
Check how many steps the male and female volunteers took. “Who is in front?” Usually, it is the man who is ahead of the woman. If this is the case, then let the man extend his handkerchief or piece of cloth to the woman behind him. Let the woman stretch her hand to take hold of the handhandkerchief or piece of cloth of the man. (Note to the facilitator: If both volunteers end up alongside each other, say that it is possible for men and women to be at the same level (pwedeng magsabay). Let the participants silently reﬂect on the activity Synthesis and Closing Statement: “What should men and women do to equalize their situation and thereby grow equitably together? They have to recognize each other’s worth, rights, and distinctive capacities. And they both have to be concerned with each other’s wholistic development as persons”. Show a poster that contains the words:
“Sa pinagsama-samang galing ng babae at lalaki, kaunlara’y mararating” (Provide translation in the appropriate ARMM language Maranao: “So kiyapag-isa isa o katao o bae ago datu na so kapakausor na phekaangin; Maguindanaoan – “Su nasumpong a kategel nu babay enggo mama na kadsabapan na kagpia nu dalpa” ) 9. Give a short lecture on Gender and Development. 10. Let the participants give two claps (bagsak) to celebrate the unity and equality of men and women. Other suggested exercises that can be done at the community level:
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The 24 Hour Clock Objectives 1. Generate information about daily activities participated in by men and women (gendered division of labor) 2. Raise awareness about the different workloads of men and women 3. Link gender based division of labor to time 4. Identify gender roles within the community Activity 1. Explain to the whole group the concept of the 24 hour clock and gender based divisions of labor. Men do some work and activities while women do other kinds of work and activities. 2. Divide the group in two: men and women 3. Both groups will draw up what they see is a daily, 24 hour activity plan for 1) men and 2) women 4. Use the metacards to show the activities. If an activity does not have a metacard, then participants should draw the activity 5. The metacards relate to: • Activities / work that is done in the house • Activities / work that is done outside the house • Activities / work that is done for the community • Rest and recreation Debrief together with the groups the results of their 24 hour clock. Look at how much work is done by men and women, in and out of the house and in the community. Notes for the facilitator • The individual group should discuss and reach a consensus on the daily activities • The groups are free to list all relevant activities • If you notice a time gap, ask the group to to clarify what is happening here • Using color-coded metacards (for house activities, outside the house, community, etc) will help everyone see where activities are being undertaken Materials Large paper for each group, pencils, ballpens, pentel pens, masking tape, metacards
Mime/Role-Play “A Day in the Life of Men and Women” Drama techniques can be a comfortable method of communication, transmitting clear messages in a non-patronizing, humorous way and also allowing awareness and understanding through discussing the roles played. Speaking “behind” a role, allows people to say and do things that they would normally ﬁnd difﬁcult to express. This allows the actor to project feelings, beliefs and behaviours in a safe way. Objectives 1. To introduce the notion of the different roles of men and women 2. For the participants to show how they perceive the daily roles of men and women 3. To introduce PRA gender proﬁling in a fun way Activity 1. Divide the participants into groups 2. Give each group 10 minutes to come up with a role play or mime of the daily activities of men and women in any way that they choose 3. Ask each group to present their mime or role play 4. Facilitate a large group discussion on the activity
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The Five Key Development Areas
1. Explain the ﬁve key development areas brieﬂy: A. Social Development Sector This sector is concerned with improving the state of well-being of the local population and upgrading the quality of social services such as health, education, welfare, housing and the like. Questions of equity, social justice and gender sensitivity are also addressed by this sector’s programs/projects. The preservation and enrichment of culture as mandated by the Local Government Code (Sec. 16) are also major concerns of the social sector. B. Economic Development Sector Although it is not the business of government to go into business in general, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that the state of health of the economy is sound. This is because the level of family income and employment, hence the level of
well-being of residents, depend on sound economic development. The programs/projects in this sector help the local government to create a favorable climate for private investments. Through a combination of policies and public investments, the barangay government enables communitybased entrepreneurial activities to ﬂourish and ultimately assures residents of a steady supply of goods, services, employment and household income. A very signiﬁcant component in this sector’s programs/projects is the LGU’s support to agriculture and other food production activities to ensure a certain degree of local food self-sufficiency. C. Environment and Natural Resources Sector This sector consolidates the environmental implications of all development proposals within the barangay and provides mitigating and preventive measures for their anticipated im-
pacts. The programs/projects are for maintaining cleanliness of air, water and land resources and rehabilitating or preserving the quality of natural resources to enable them to support the requirements of economic development and ecological balance across generations. D. Institutional Development Sector This sector focuses on strengthening the capability of the local government bureaucracy as well as elected ofﬁcials to plan and manage the barangay’s territory and serve its constituency. Relevant capability building programs/projects include those of ﬁscal management, responsive legislation, program and project management, and monitoring and evaluation. The development of appropriate structures and recruitment of suitably qualiﬁed staff for the barangay government is also an important concern of this sector. Membership in different functional and sectoral committees
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(and even professional leagues, when appropriate) and participation in their planned activities is also encouraged and supported by this sectoral area. The involvement of voluntary groups or civil society organizations is likewise promoted in the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the different sectoral programs, projects and activities as a vital component of this sector’s development plan. E. Culture and Peace Sector – This sector focuses on enhancing the peace and order situation, with appropriate consideration of the cultural sensitivities of different ethnic and religious groups. Given the tenuous conditions of peace in the region, it is important to integrate and mainstream peace in the various stages of local development planning, espe-
cially at the barangay level. This is to ensure that development initiatives at the very least do not contribute to or result in aggravating conﬂict in any given situation in the barangays. The establishment of local conﬂict resolution mechanisms such as the Katarungang Pambarangay and indigenous modes of dispute resolution are also supported by this development sector. Programs and projects within this sector aim to promote sustainable peace and foster respect of traditional practices of indigenous groups. 2. Explain that participants will be divided into these ﬁve key development areas as sectoral planning groups. The importance of dividing into sectoral planning groups is to ensure that key concerns of these sectors are addressed and are taken into consideration in the planning process. Doing
so will enable the barangay development planners to develop a more or less comprehensive picture of the problems of the barangays and come up with accompanying solutions to these sectoral concerns. 3. End the session by saying that the principles of participatory development, gender and development, and the ﬁve key development areas, which include peace and culture, are all basic concepts that must be integrated in the planning process. A basic understanding of these concepts through experiential learning methods has been facilitated by this session, and hopefully will be internalized and consciously applied by the participants throughout the planning process.
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Preparing to Plan : Overview of the Planning Road Map and the 12 Steps to Barangay Development Planning
At the end of this session, participants would have: 1. Appreciated the importance of planning 2. Understood the 12 steps in barangay development planning 3. Understood the composition and functions of the planning team 4. Prepared all the necessary requisites to undertake Steps 1 & 2 of the 12Step BDP process
One (1) day
❋ For the SLE: three paper balls or any light balls of the same size ❋ Manila paper illustration (or PowerPoint presentation) of the Planning Road Map ❋ Manila paper illustration (or PowerPoint presentation) of the 12 Steps to BDP ❋ Visual aid on roles and functions of team members ❋ Base map of barangay ❋ Computer, printer and LCD projector, if possible ❋ List of data sets
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ ❋
Manila papers Pentel pens Masking tapes Kraft papers One candle and box of matches
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. Department of Budget and Management. “PRIMER on Barangay Budgeting”. (Manila: 2001) Institute of Politics and Governance. “Manual on Barangay Development Planning Through Participatory Learning and Action”. 2007. Local Governance Support Program in ARMM. “Manual on the Local Planning Process. Focus on the
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ Interactive lecture Structured learning exercises Focus group discussions Use of participatory rapid appraisal tools
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Comprehensive Development Plan – Executive Legislative Agenda (CDPELA). Revised Ed, 2008. Philippines-Australia Local Sustainability Program (PALS). “Barangay Development Planning Methodology Manual” .2006. Transparent Accountable Governance (TAG) Project. The Asia Foundation. “Facilitator’s Manual on Barangay and Municipal Planning and Budgeting”. 2005. United Nations Development Programme. “Barangay Development Planning Manual: Using the Rights Based Approach in Localizing the Millennium Development Goals”. 2007
Annex O. How to Formulate a Barangay Budget
actions that would address identiﬁed needs and problems to attain development goals”.
Note to Facilitators: Translate key concepts to the nearest applicable terms in the local language, and use the most common examples of planning done by participants in their everyday lives. Be creative in concocting acronyms and metaphors.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Start the session with the following statements: “Before the start of actual planning, the planning group has to fully understand the task ahead.. This means understanding the basic planning “roadmap”, which could be compared to a road towards a desired destination”. Ask a participant why they need to plan for the barangay. Enhance participants’ answers by emphasizing the advantages of planned development. Use metaphors as much as possible. For example, (e.g. a house or a mosque cannot be successfully built without a plan, or a blueprint). Deﬁne “planning” as: “an organized, deliberate and sustained effort to choose the best way to obtain a desired end. It is a systematic process of analysis and choosing among many possible alternatives, activities, or
1. 2. 3. Annex L. Checklist of Data to be Gathered, by Sector Annex M. Structured Learning Exercise (Basketball Game) Annex N. Municipal and Barangay Development Planning Interface Points 3.
Elicit from the participants the possible consequences of lack of planning. Process their responses by going back to the previous metaphors used, (for example, emphasize, that while there are many ways to get to a destination, it is entirely possible to get lost and arrive somewhere else or worse, never take off from where one started; or end up with a house or building completely different from what was envisioned or not ﬁnish any building at all).
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Sharing in dyads/triads. Ask the participants to recall what particular planning activity they have undergone that was particularly successful. • Request them to share to each other these successful planning endeavors in their dyads or triads. Thought guides are: 1) describe the planning endeavor and what the end product was, 2) how they went about getting to the end; 3) one or two factors which made the activity successful (10 minutes) • In plenary, ask one member of dyad/triad to: • Summarize the endeavors shared (2 sentences each) • Share key factors that made the endeavors successful Processing of sharing in plenary. Process the answers by using the following categories of a successful planning process: • Realistic assessment of the situation
• SMART (speciﬁc, measurable, attainable, resource-based and time bound) • GREAT (gender-responsive, equality-oriented, aware of social economic and gender differences, targeted stakeholders) objectives • Prioritizes needs • Clear assignment of roles and responsibilities
• Educational value • Flexible and adapting to changes in the environment Show the Planning Road Map. Explain each stage brieﬂy Show the 12 steps in barangay development planning that will be undertaken by the group. Explain each step brieﬂy.
Starting Point: PREPARING TO PLAN • Social Preparation • Team Preparation
PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION
POST-PLANNING ACTIVITIES • Packaging the BDP • Communicating the Results of the BDP • Resource Mobilization
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Twelve Steps in Barangay Development Planning (BDP) Step 1. General Orientation Step 2 Forming Sectoral Planning Groups Step 3 Conducting PRA by Sectoral Planning Groups Step 4 Problem/Situational Analysis by Sector Step 5 Prioritizing Issues Step 6 Vision, Mission, and Goal Setting Step 7 Formulating Strategies, Identifying Programs, and Implementing Mechanism Step 8 Setting the Three Year Barangay Development Plan Step 9 Setting Next Year’s Annual Investment Plan Step 10 Linking the Budget with the Plan Step 11 Presenting the BDP to the Barangay General Assembly Step 12 Drafting the Barangay Resolution Adopting the Barangay Development Plan
Explain that you are at the Preparatory Activities portion, which is not included in the 12 steps. This means that they (the facilitators) are preparing to undertake Steps 1 and 2. above. 10. Ask the participants what activities they think are included in planning preparations. Process their answers by • Separating those that are already in the 12 steps, or • By the general categories of Social Preparation, or Team Preparation. 11. Explain to the participants that the next sessions are designed to complete such preparatory work, and that the preparation is as important as the result. 12. Structured Learning Exercise: Basketball Game. (See Annex M) 13. Processing the SLE. Ask the participants the following questions: • What factors helped the winning team, win?
• What can you say about the way each member of that team played? What can you say about their teamwork? • What do you think is the message of this exercise? 14. Bridging Statement: “The game shows the importance of one’s familiarity with the game, the clarity of goals, as well as rules, and tasks of members, the presence of team work, and the conﬁdence of the members with their team mates and their own selves. These are the essential requirements for a team to win the game. In the same way, Barangay Development Planning has critical requirements and components so that it will be successful”. 15. Discuss the team composition and the roles and functions of each team member such as the role of a facilitator, documenter, process observer.
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Composition of the Municipal Planning Group
The planning team is composed of facilitators, documenters, and process observers, all of whom are members of the Municipal Planning Group. Each member of the team should possess the following characteristics: ❋ Be advocates and practioners of the participatory nature of the BDP;4 ❋ Be committed to the development of the community ❋ Have the ability to motivate sustained peoples’ participation in the process ❋ Has minimum knowledge and understanding of the sectoral issues of the community ❋ Is open-minded and willing to learn ❋ Displays basic skills in the use of participatory planning tools
Roles and Functions of the Planning Team
The Municipal Planning Group5
The Municipal Planning Group is a new feature in Barangay Governance formed to ensure sustainability of the barangay planning activities in the municipality. It has the following responsibilities: it convenes the barangay planning team, assists the barangays in the formulation of a barangay development plan, and makes sure that the barangay proﬁle and plan document is updated. It ensures that the BDP is a product of a participatory exercise, that the needs of all sectors are addressed (with special emphasis on culture and peace), and that the BDP becomes a legal document which will be reﬂected in the municipal level plans. The Municipal Planning Group is headed by either the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (MPDC) or the Municipal Local Government Operations Ofﬁcer (MLGOO). Since the mandate to assist barangays in formulating their Barangay Development Plan is given by law to the DILG, the MLGOO would be the logical head. However, some of the MLGOOs in ARMM handle more than one LGU, and has to delegate the task to the MPDC in areas it cannot focus on. The Municipal Planning Group is usually composed of 5 to 7 members: the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Ofﬁcer, the Municipal Health Ofﬁcer, the Municipal Agriculture Ofﬁcer, the Municipal Engineer, the CSO Representative, Sangguniang Bayan Representative, and the MPDC and the MLGOO. From among the members of Municipal Planning Group, facilitators, documenters and process observers are selected and assigned. Because there are ﬁve sectoral planning groups for the barangay development planning, a total of 15 people will be needed to complete the line-up of facilitators, documenters, and process observers. If there are not enough qualiﬁed people at the municipal level, the Municipal Planning Group may select key people from the barangay to ﬁll-in some of the vacant slots, keeping in mind the indicated characteristics.
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15. Show visual aid on the expected roles and functions of team members.
a. Acts as moderator during barangay sectoral groupings and plenary discussions b. Explains the process and the objective of the activity c. Ensures that the discussions are in the right context, towards the attainment of the objectives d. Moderates the discussion so that all participants are provided equal opportunity to speak e. Summarizes agreements arrived at and the problems and opportunities that arise from every tool or activity
• Questions raised • Disagreements • Decisions made c. Transfers the tools from the manila papers to a notebook or pad paper d. Safekeeps the tools and other documents e. Documents the outputs (tools, problem situations identiﬁed, needs prioritization) of the sector for presentation during the Barangay Development Council meeting
16. From among the Municipal Planning Group members that is now facilitating the Barangay Development Planning, identify and point out who are the facilitators, documenters, and process observers.
Preparation of the Checklist of Data
The checklist is a list of data sets that will be useful in the planning process. It serves as a guide to the team in facilitating the discussions. It contains the list of data to be gathered, why the data is needed, what tools will be used, focus questions, and who among the community stakeholders can provide the particular information. The preparation of the checklist must be done by the BDP team before the actual BDP. Gender, peace and human security, environmental sustainability (including natural disaster risks and effects), poverty reduction and other special concerns are considered in the preparation of the checklist of data. ❋ Present the list of data sets needed for the planning process. (See Annex L)
a. Helps the facilitator and the documenter in ensuring the quality of the discussions and the process b. Observes the process including what is said by the facilitator and the reaction of the participants c. Informs the facilitator of his/her observation d. Checks the checklist of data; remind the facilitator if there are data that has been omitted e. Evaluates the performance of the team for team assessment.
a. Ensures that the names of the tool, facilitators and participants are written b. Documents the discussion and its results: • Time started and ﬁnished • Highlights of the discussion per issue
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Collection of Secondary Data
Once the team has identiﬁed the data needed for the focus group discussions, relevant secondary data are also gathered and cross-checked with the checklist of data. Initial analysis and familiarization with the existing secondary data will enable the team to identify data gaps. Among the secondary data that can be used are: latest census of the barangay, barangay office records; Barangay Health Workers Monitoring Sheet; and the barangay socio-economic proﬁle. The Municipal/City Planning and Development Office and other LGU offices and departments as well as line agencies, NGOs and community-based organizations could also provide relevant and, more often, updated information. Results of Millenium Development Goals (MDG) surveys, Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS), Local Governance Performance Management System (LGPMS), Gender Responsive LGU (GeRL) Ka Ba? and other data generated by national agencies and other organiza-
tions are also rich sources of useful data for planning. In most instances, LGUs in ARMM receive foreign assistance in the conduct of situational analyses. Information may not be ﬁled with the LGU, but may be found with NGOs and donors and are good sources of secondary data. ❋ Present the Interface Points in Collecting Secondary Data. (See Annex N). These are the meeting points between municipal and barangay developing planning, and data collection. The value of understanding interface points is in the harmonization of barangay and municipal plans, including the baseline data on which plans are based.
resented throughout the entire duration of the planning activity. The participants should include, among others: barangay development council members, purok leaders, representatives of community organizations, and leaders of informal groups7. The selection of participants must be done with the assistance or concurrence of the Sanguniang Barangay. In identifying participants, it is very important that adequate representation of women is ensured.
It must be ensured that all the materials, supplies, equipment, food, and venue for the planning workshop are ready when they are needed, including the accommodation of the facilitators and other stakeholders. It is useful to make a checklist of items to be prepared. The venue could be a school, barangay hall, or any place in the barangay where the participants will be comfortable in conducting the activity.
Identiﬁcation of Participants for the BDP
The quality and reliability of information depends on the participants in the focus group discussions (FGDs). In identifying the participants, facilitators must ensure that all sectors and interests are well-rep-
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Invitation letters to the target participants should be sent at least one week before the target date of the activity. The invitation letter should include information on the venue, dates, and time of the activity. The team should also conﬁrm the attendance of the participants. This will help the team decide whether or not to continue the activity or postpone it to another date, depending on the availability of participants.
Taken from the “Manual on Barangay Development Planning Through Participatory Learning and Action”, Institute of Politics and Governance. 2007. 5 During the LGSPA Phase 2, this group was referred to as Municipal Technical Working Group or MTWG. For the purpose of this Field Guide, this group is being referred to as the Municipal Planning Group, to distinguish it to the Barangay Planning Team and the Barangay Sectoral Working Groups. 6 See DILG-ARMM Memorandum Circular No. 13
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Starting to Plan
Step 1 - General Orientation
This session focuses on the ﬁrst two steps of the Barangay Development Process: Step 1- General Orientation, and Step 2- Forming Sectoral Working Groups ❋ Visual Aid on the Five Key Development Areas ❋ Handouts on the Five Key Development Areas ❋ Visual Aid on Team Compositions and Functions
At the end of the half day session, participants would have: 1. Oriented the BDC, LGU officials and other concerned sectors on the 12 steps of barangay development planning. 2. Formed sectoral planning groups in preparation for the actual barangay development planning. 3. Assigned a facilitator, documenter and process observer for each of the sectoral planning groups.
Barangay assembly or meeting
❋ Visual Aid on Objectives of the Planning Activity ❋ Visual Aid on Key Concepts of Participatory Development ❋ Visual Aid on the 12 Steps of BDP
HOW TO DO IT Step 1: General Orientation
1. To prepare for the General Orientation, ﬁrst draw up a list of invitees/ participants. This may consist of the following:
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• Barangay officials • Members of the Barangay Development Council • Representatives of the Municipal government and agencies concerned • Representatives of puroks • Representatives of civil society organizations or sectoral representatives (Note: Gender and sectoral balance should be achieved) Draft a general program for the General Orientation. The program may look like this:
• • • • • • • • • •
Opening Program National Anthem Gathering Ritual/Prayer Welcome Remarks Introduction of Participants and Facilitators Objectives (of the Orientation) Concept of Participatory Development, context of the BDP Presentation of the 12 Steps of the BDP Sectoral Planning Groups Formation (Step 2 below) Presentation/ Brainstorming on Schedule of Activities
Assign roles and responsibilities among team members on who will write letters of invitation, what will be the process for dissemination of invitations and information on the orientation, administrative and logistical concerns, etc. Have a detailed plan that speciﬁes the date of orientation, venue and logistics (sound system, board and markers, hand outs, food, lodging for the team members, etc) Conduct the General Orientation as planned. Revise the plan according to feedback generated from the General Orientation.
Step 2 - Forming Sectoral Planning Groups
Organize the participants into Five Sectoral Planning Groups. As much as possible, ensure gender balance in each working group’s composition. A. Social Development Sector B. Economic Development Sector C. Environment and Natural Resources Sector D. Institutional Development Sector E. Culture and Peace Sector 1. Show the matrix below. Explain that the sectoral planning groups will be tasked to analyze the topics in the second column, and will be composed of 4-5 people from among those in the third column of the matrix Among the members of the Municipal Planning Group, reiterate who will be the facilitator, documenter and process observer for each group. (Ideally, this would have already been agreed on before the General Orientation. However, as much as possible, get agreement from members of the secotral planning groups themselves on their assigned facilitator, documenter, and process observer).
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Note to Facilitators: It is ideal that there be organized groups of citizens that will take the lead in the BDP process. In instances where there are no organized groups, it might be necessary to organize sectoral groupings ﬁrst and prepare them before the actual planning process. Based on experience, analysis of issues and problems are sharper and are more in-depth, and therefore quality of plans are better if organized groups have been substantially drawn into the process. It is also easier to implement plans with the help of organized groups. Plans are also more sustainable under these circumstances. In organizing sectoral planning groups, NGOs working in the area might be able to help because of their organizing and advocacy experience in the area. Because of the general low level of participation in some barangays in initial interventions, a minimum of 4-5 members of sectoral planning groups may have to sufﬁce.
Sectoral Planning Groups Social Development Sector
Will Analyze the Following • Population (size, growth, distribution) • Social services and status of well-being (health, education, recreation) • Schools • Social welfare • Protective services • History of the barangay • Gender equity concerns • Special concerns (senior citizens, indigenous peoples, others) • • • • • • • Agriculture Irrigation systems Livestock Fisheries Manufacturing Electricity Water supply • • • • Transportation Tourism Cooperatives Cottage industries and Enterprises • Other sources of income • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Possible Members (minimum 4-5 members) Barangay health worker Teacher in elementary school at the barangay Mother’s group representative “Hilut” or traditional healer Day care worker Parent’s Teachers Association representative Women’s group representative Barangay Kagawad assigned to social development concerns Farmers/ﬁsherfolk representatives Women’s representative Cooperative organization chairperson Vendors’ group representative Barangay kagawad assigned to economic development concerns
Economic Development Sector
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Sectoral Planning Groups Environment and Natural Resources Sector • • • •
Will Analyze the Following Current use of land Water source Waste management Disaster risk and preparedness • • • • •
Possible Members (minimum 4-5 members) Forestry/ﬁshery ofﬁcial Farmers/ﬁsherfolk representative People’s Organization representative Women’s group representative Barangay Kagawad assigned to environment and natural resources concerns • Disaster preparedness group/NGO representative • Environmental group/NGO representative • • • • • • People’s Organization representative Women’s group representative Barangay chairperson Barangay kagawad Purok leaders Council of Elders representative
Institutional Development Sector
• • • •
Organization and management Fiscal management Legislative output Inter-organizational linkages
Culture and Peace Sector
• • • • •
Peace and order Mechanisms for conﬂict resolution and persons involved Deﬁne processes undertaken in conﬂict resolution Human security Peace process: peace advocacy, community peace building, social justice, programs for reconciliation, reintegration ,rehabilitation and development • Culture and traditions • Ancestral domain and land tenure
• Religious leaders (Ulama/Ustadz/Aleem/Aleema) • Traditional leaders/Indigenous Peoples representative/tribal leader • Lupong Tagapamayapa representative • Barangay kagawad assigned to Peace and Order Council or Committee • CVO/CAFGU/Barangay Tanod • Youth leader • Women’s group representative
Explain to the sectoral planning groups the tasks of facilitators, documenter and process observers, as well as the tasks of the rest of the team. Discuss the following: a. Schedule for implementing the rest of the steps
b. Logistics required for the PRA c. Budget for the logistics and where to source out the funds Facilitate a ritual of commitment to signify the participant’s commitment to begin the planning process. En-
sure that all facilitators and observers participate in the ritual to convey to the community that they will all be together in the whole process. Ensure that the ritual is ethnic, religious, and gender-sensitive.
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Example of a Ritual of Commitment: Instruct the participants to do the following: • Draw a big map of your barangay on a manila paper. Spread this paper on the ﬂoor with a lighted candle at the center of the map. There shall then be one map for the whole group. • Indicate the locations of the puroks in the barangay, particularly those puroks represented by the participants • Arrange the chairs around the big map and ask the participants including all the facilitators and documenters to take their seats
• Ask each one to put in the map something which represents their commitment to the barangay development planning. Tell them they could put something which they wear or something from their bags. Request them to give reasons why they chose that object. • For example: “ To symbolize my full support to the Barangay Development Planning, I will contribute my watch. This means that I will always be available whenever my help is needed”. (Some participants may become emotional during this activity. Be prepared for this possibility).
Close the session by saying “We all have said our commitments to the Barangay Development Planning by putting on the map symbols of our contributions. This is the beginning of a journey towards development and peace in our barangays. The journey starts with ourselves. How we will start the process of development and promoting peace in our community will be seen in how we deal with people in our households, members of our organizations, and officers or partners of the barangay LGU. Since the journey has started, we will all wish each other the best. Let us join hands and sing: (a local song with the theme of working together in unity)”.
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Step 3- Conducting Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) by Sectoral Planning Groups
At the end of 2-3 days, it is expected that barangay planners would have: 1. 2. 3. Identiﬁed community problems written on metacards Identiﬁed opportunities that would come up from discussions Assigned a reporter from the sectoral planning groups that would present the group’s output in a plenary session Assigned a documenter for the cross-sectoral validation session
❋ Use of Participatory Rural Appraisal tools ❋ Secondary data collection
HOW TO DO IT
1. Begin with the end in mind: Present the outline of the packaged BDP to enable the participants to know the end result of all their efforts.
❋ Visual Aid on the Outline for the Packaged BDP ❋ Materials for each PRA Tool
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Topical Outline BARANGAY PROFILE Introduction Geographical location Historical highlights Signiﬁcant characteristics (tourist spots, etc.) CCT situation Geographical and Physical Characteristics Barangay Boundaries and Sitios Topography and climatic conditions Natural resources and its condition Land uses Barangay Socio-Demographic Characteristics Number and size of households Gender characteristics Educational attainments and literacy rate Tribes and language spoken Religion Census data, LGU Census data, LGU Census data, LGU Census data, LGU Census data, LGU
Source of Data (either secondary or through PRA)
Municipal base map, LGU PRA- Barangay Time Line PRA-Resource Map PRA- Historical Transect
Municipal base map, LGU Topography and Climate Maps PRA- Seasonal Calendar PRA- Transect Map Barangay Land use/ resource map; municipal records Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP)
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS BY SECTOR Social Development Sector Health • Sources of water and % of population with access to potable water • Common illness Status chart of barangay health services CBMS, Census data, LGU RHU data
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Topical Outline • Health services available (Bgy health station, day care center) Education • Types and condition of educational facilities • Participation and drop-out rates in the elementary and high school • Ratio of teachers to pupils • Distance of secondary and tertiary schools to barangay Role of women in the community • Participation of women in community activities • Percentage of women leaders in the barangay (please give names) Religious/Cultural highlights • Important events celebrated • Distinct cultural characteristic of barangay • Religious services (Masjid, Madrasah) Economic Development Sector Inventory of Local Production Resources Income and Expenditure Patterns Sources of income and expenditure • Primary source of income • Secondary sources of income • Household income patterns (gender disaggregated) Expenditure patterns • Biggest expenses/ proportion PRA, Census Data RHU data
Source of Data (either secondary or through PRA)
Status chart of barangay educational services DEP-ED DEP-ED; CBMS DEP-ED; CBMS DEP-ED General Status and Role of Women PRA PRA Indigenous and other Socio-cultural Features of the Community PRA – Historical timeline PRA – Historical timeline
Resource and Land Use Map PRA-Flow Charts PRA – Income –Expenditure tree; HH survey PRA- Income Expenditure Tree, HH Survey PRA
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Topical Outline Employment Farming Rice and Corn; Coconut; other crops Fishing Environment and Natural Resources Sector Forest conditions Rivers and lakes Basic Infrastructures Other infrastructure services Institutional Development Sector Relationship of barangay to municipal government • List of barangay ofﬁcials • Joint projects undertaken Government services provided • Infrastructure • Condition of infrastructure Peace and security • Size of police force • Organizations for self-defense Performance of barangay administration External linkages Organizations Status chart of BDC FGD with ofﬁcials FGD with ofﬁcials FGD with ofﬁcials FGD with ofﬁcials PRA- Transect Map PRA- Transect Map
Source of Data (either secondary or through PRA) CBMS; Venn Diagram of Existing Livelihood
PRA- Production Flow Charts of Major Crops PRA- Seasonality Matrix;
Land Use Map, Road Map Water System Map, Electriﬁcation map, other maps if any
Status chart of government. services FGD with ofﬁcials FGD with ofﬁcials
PRA – Performance Rating of Ofﬁcials
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Topical Outline • Types and number of organizations in the barangay • Assistance given by organizations E. Culture and Peace Internal and external sources of conﬂicts; leading source of conﬂict Mechanisms for conﬂict resolution and promotion of peace and order
Source of Data (either secondary or through PRA) PRA – Venn diagram PRA – Venn diagram
Venn Diagram of sources of conﬂict Status of Local Conﬂict Resolution Mechanisms such as the Lupon Tagapamayapa and, Council of Elders and other forms CVO/Tanod Local conﬂict resolution process ﬂow chart CDP-ELA of municipal mayor
Conﬂict resolution process used 3. Additional problems addressed in the Executive and Legislative Agenda
BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PLAN A. Vision, Mission, and Goals B. 3 Year Development Plan C. Annual Investment Program (or Plan) D. Resource Mobilization Plan
When the sectoral planning groups have been formed, collection of data can now begin. As much as possible, collect secondary data ﬁrst. Refer to Annex L on the checklist of data to be collected, as well as the interface points (i.e.,
the points of intersection and synchronization between the municipal and barangay planning) in collecting secondary data If data needed are not available using secondary sources, these may be generated through PRA tools which,
if done right, will make it easier to surface problems and opportunities in the community. PRA methodologies allow community members to discuss and analyze their present situation. PRA is also seen as a method that facilitates the community’s own in-depth look at themselves and
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enables them to articulate needs and concerns in their own colorful, meaningful, useable and realistic way. To speed up the process, sectoral planning groups may simultaneously conduct PRA. The Municipal Planning Group guides the community sectoral planners throughout the process. Collection of data becomes fun and enjoyable if community members participate using PRA tools. Facilitators should keep in mind the objectives of data collection which is to surface community problems and opportunities. It is also important that the Municipal Planning Group keep in mind their respective roles as facilitators, documenters, and process observers. Devote time for discussing the checklist of data to be collected. In the actual collection of data, the items in the list of data to be collected might increase or decrease. PRA team facilitators should be attentive to this, as the process is as important as the output of the activities.
Notes to Facilitators
• • • • • • • • Ensure that the process is participatory Maintain a pleasant and even fun atmosphere in the use of the PRA tools Encourage community members to discuss on their situations Try to achieve consensus whenever possible Let the participants accomplish the tools Collect only those data that are important for planning Do not insist on your own ideas Facilitate a deeper analysis through a more comprehensive discussion of issues so as to effectively surface problems and opportunities • Prepare all materials needed before data collection starts
Notes to Documenters
• • • • • Note down all issues that surface out of the discussion of each PRA tool Write down verbatim; do not interpret nor edit Make sure to copy each PRA tool as accomplished Note down the names of participants Transfer to metacards problems and opportunities that surfaced out of the discussions after each session • Safe keep each PRA tool. File them in one place.
Notes to Process Observers
• Ensure that the facilitator maintains a participatory process • Observe if all of the participants are able to participate actively in the discussions; be sensitive to their behavior and body language • Cue the facilitator if you observe participants’ energies to be waning. In those instances, call for breaks or ice breakers • Always check if there are any items in the checklist of data that were missed
Notes to all members of the Municipal Planning Group
• Transfer each identiﬁed problem and opportunity to metacards immediately • Always countercheck items collected with checklist of data • Let the community members accomplish the PRA tools and analyze the data collected. The key to effectively doing this is through clear instructions and objectives of the tools.
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Step 4- Problem/Situational Analysis by Sector
During the Participatory Rural Appraisal, each group has collected data and made some situational analysis on their areas of concern. It is now important to bring together all the participants in a plenary sharing session.
At the end of this session, each sector would have: 1. Collectively identiﬁed root problems and their causes and symptoms 2. Constructed a problem tree of community problems 3. Constructed a needs tree of community problems 4. Prioritized the community’s needs.
❋ Idea cards ❋ Manila paper ❋ Masking tape and pentel pens
HOW TO DO IT
1. Explain the objectives of this Step/ Session. Draw a parallel between a sick patient and the diagnosis of her/his doctor. Sometimes, the wrong diagnosis of a patient’s illness results in the exacerbation of the illness, or worse, death of the patient. This is a result of wrong analysis (diagnosis). Participants may view analysis of the community’s situation in the same way. Sometimes, projects and programs being launched do not match the needs of the community nor address the problems of the com-
❋ Interactive group discussion ❋ Use of Problem Tree analytical tool ❋ Use of Needs Tree analytical tool
munity. If the analysis of the situation is wrong, the resulting plan will also be ill-ﬁtting. Recall that collection of data, either through PRA or secondary data collection, is expected to result in identiﬁcation of problems and opportunities in the community. The identiﬁed problems will be used in the construction of a Problem Tree analysis, to determine sectoral goals and objectives. Identiﬁed opportunities and strengths, on the other hand, will be used in identifying strategies. For each sector, review all the tools that were used and accomplished. Line-up all the identiﬁed problem cards generated from the data gathering. Guide the community in constructing a Problem Tree.
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Procedure in constructing the Problem Tree
6. Clarify that a problem is a negative condition which the community wants to change. 7. Line up all problem cards. Ensure that all problems belong to the appropriate sector. If not, this could be passed on to the appropriate/relevant sector. 8. Cluster all similar problem cards and re-state them into a new card, if necessary. 9. To start off the process, choose one starter card that the community views as most prevalent in the community (eg., low harvest) 10. Clarify if this is a problem of the majority of residents in the community (it is possible that the problem written on the card is a concern of only a few members of the community or is a personal problem of a participant)
11. Analyze if this is a cause or effect. 12. Look for other related problem cards. Analyze if this is a cause or an effect of the starter card. If this is a cause, place it below the starter card. If this is an effect, place it on top of the starter card. 13. Connect the cards with arrows. The ends of the arrow should point to the effects. 14. Ask if there are problems in the sector that were not written in the idea cards. If there are other problems not previously seen, and is now being put forward, get the agreement of the other participants if these will be added to list of problems. 15. After accomplishing the Problem Tree, guide the community in constructing a Needs Tree
Procedure in constructing the Needs Tree
16. Get a different color of idea cards. Translate the negative problem statement into a positive needs statement. 17. Put up a fresh piece of manila paper and connect arrows, similar to that done with the problem tree. 18. The accomplished Needs Tree should be encoded/ﬁled properly because this will be used as a reference in formulating sectoral goals and objectives.
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Some Examples of a Problem Tree: Example 1: Culture and Peace Sector
Poor peace and order situation Lupon Tagapamayapa is not constituted/ reconstituted Council of Elders and religious leaders do not have opportunity to meet and discuss conﬂicts
High incidence of violence due to rido
Widespread availability of ﬁrearms
Little conception of Culture of Peace
Example 2: Economic Development Sector
Mababang kita ng mga taga-barangay
Kaunting huli ng isda
Kakulangan sa gamit pansaka
Kakulangan sa gamit pangingisda
Di mapuksang peste sa pananim
Pagkasira ng yamang-dagat
Kakulangan sa kaalaman sa pagsasaka
Pagkasira ng mga bakawan
Pagmomonopolisa ng commercial ﬁshers
Laganap na iligal na pangingisda
Mahinang pagpapatupad ng batas pangisdaan
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Examples of a Needs Tree Example 1. Culture and Peace Sector
Improve the peace and order situation in the barangay
Constitute the Lupon Tagapamayapa
Decrease incidence of violence due to rido
Harness/Organize a Local Conﬂict Resolution Mechanism
Declare a Peace Zone (requiring armed individuals and groups to surrender arms before entering the barangay)
Develop a Culture of Peace among barangay residents
Example 2: Economic Development Sector
Mapataas ang kita ng mga taga-barangay Mapataas ang ani Maparami ang huling isda Magkaroon ng sapat na kagamitan sa pangingisda
Magkaroon ng sapat na kagamitan sa pagsasaka
Mapuksa ang mga peste
Maibalik ang likas-yamang dagat
Magkaroon ng sapat na kaalaman sa agricultural technology
Mangrove reforestation/ rehabilitation
Mapigilan ang pagpasok ng commercial ﬁshers
Mabawasan ang iligal na pangingisda
Mahigpit na pagpapatupad ng mga batas pampangisdaan
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19. Draw the matrix below in a piece of manila paper
20. Prepare the long list of problems and issues for prioritization using the Problem-Solution Finding Matrix shown below
21. Show the ﬁlled-up Problem-Solution Finding Matrix to the constituents during a General Barangay Assembly for validation
PROBLEM-SOLUTION FINDING MATRIX
Key Development Areas 1. Social Development Problems and Issues 1. High prevalence of of malnutrition among children 2. (Other) 2. Economic Development 1. Lack of irrigation system Lack of facilities/funding Factors Affecting (Causes of) Problems/Issues Addressed Lack of knowledge on proper nutrition among parents Implications of Problems Stunted growth and limited opportunities for development of children Increased health risks Low income of farmers Out migration (to seek greener pastures) Low contribution of agriculture to economic growth 2. (Other) 3. Environment and Natural Resources 1. Frequent occurrence of ﬂoods - Unstable river banks - Denuded watershed - Flashﬂoods which causes devastation of plants, properties and even loss of lives - Limited economic development Allocation of funds for ﬂood control Local government should provide funding for facilities and equipment Proposed Solution to Problems and Issues Improve knowledge of parents on proper nutrition through intensive IEC
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Key Development Areas 4. Institutional Development
Problems and Issues 1. Low level of locally generated revenues and dependence on IRA
Factors Affecting (Causes of) Problems/Issues Addressed Limited information campaign on tax collection
Implications of Problems
Proposed Solution to Problems and Issues Update and/or amend local tax ordinance Intensify tax mapping collection efforts
2. (Other) Intensive IEC 5. Culture and Peace 1. Practice of private burial grounds Indigenous traditional practices Environmental and health problems /contamination of ground water Establish areas for burial of the dead with sensitivity to the culture and traditions of indigenous peoples through an ordinance
Step 5 - Prioritizing Issues
At the end of a half day (up to one day), sectoral planning groups would be able to 1. Rank problems and needs for their sector according to an agreed-on criteria 2. Convert problems into proposed solutions; and 3. Cross-validate concerns and solutions in an intersectoral plenary session.
❋ Interactive group discussion in sectoral planning groups ❋ Interactive group discussion in plenary session ❋ Pairwise ranking and/or matrix ranking ❋ Intersectoral validation
1/2 - 1 day
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ Idea cards of needs statements Matrix template Manila paper Pentel pens Masking tapes
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HOW TO DO IT
1. Start the session with the following statements: A community has various needs that would range from simple to complex. Community needs emerge because of problems in the community. Barangay governments must be able to address these needs in order to be effective. Programs and projects must be able to address particular needs in order to be relevant. Otherwise, the barangay and the community members would ﬁnd it difficult to implement projects. LGUs exist to create order in the community and address arising needs. However, due to its limitations, the barangay can not address all the needs at the same time. Funds and resources are limited. Addressing some needs may require big investments. Projects or programs that could address the needs may be important but not that urgent, or it may require
input from the outside because the resources of the barangay could not provide its requirements. Due to the limitations of the barangay and the wide range of community needs, prioritization is very important so that the barangay would be able to focus on what is most urgently needed.
Pair-Wise Ranking Method
2. Explain that the Pair-Wise Ranking method is a ranking exercise to evaluate the most important or urgently needed task. By comparing pairs of ideas, community members are able to identify the highest priority to the least priority of needs. This is often used if the community members ﬁnd it difficult to formulate a set of criteria to appropriately evaluate competing needs. Explain the process that would be undertaken. Write each need on separate idea cards. 8.
Construct the matrix template. Place all the need statements in the ﬁrst column of the chart with assigned letters A, B,C, D….etc. Each need statement should have its equivalent on the ﬁrst row of the chart. The order of arrangement on the ﬁrst column should be the same order IN THE FIRST ROW OF THE CHART. Decide on the criteria for selection with the participants Match each need with the other needs. • Compare by pairs (Need #1 vs. Need #2, Need #1 vs Need #3 etc). The most important question is why one was prioritized over the other. • Allow for a free ﬂowing discussion until a consensus is reached. Always cross-check opinions with others. If the facilitator thinks that others are still not fully convinced, encourage the group to continue the discussion.
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• Write the reasons why one need is prioritized over the other. • When all needs have been paired and compared, count the number of times one item has been prioritized. The item that emerges with the most number of times prioritized might be considered the highest priority, and so on.
9. Explain that Matrix Ranking is another method for ranking projects, problems and needs. 10. Explain the process of ranking that would be undertaken. 11. Review the Needs Tree analysis. Line-up all needs statement that would be compared. 12. Agree on the criteria to be used. Criteria that may be used are: • Number of people that would be affected , e.G. The more people affected, the higher the degree of importance of the issue at hand • Urgency
• Capacity of the barangay (resources) • Other criteria may be used. Agree on a rating system. For instance, 1 signiﬁes the lowest point, 5 the highest point. Rate each need statement according to the agreed criteria. Sum up the total points obtained for each item compared to the other items. The item garnering the highest points should be made the highest priority, and so on. Community members may use pebbles or seeds for indicating points for each item. Present the prioritized problems and needs in the recommended ProblemSolution Matix Form
18. Assign one facilitator and documenter for this session. 19. Convene the representatives of the sectoral planning groups and the PRA Team in a plenary session.
20. Explain the objective of this particular activity. One of the basic tenets of PRA is cross-checking and triangulation. Intersectoral validation may be one of the ways that this principle could be adhered to. This is being done to identify data gaps, and validate data and information gathered by the different sectors. Through intersectoral validation, inconsistencies in data and analysis are identiﬁed and resolved. 21. Present to the plenary the results of the data gathering through PRA of each sector. Show all the problems and opportunities identiﬁed by each sector. 22. Present the accomplished Problem Trees, Needs Trees, and Matrix Ranking and Pair-Wise Ranking done by each sector. 23. Open the discussion to comments, feedback, and recommendations after each sector has reported their outputs.
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24. Get the consensus of the group regarding each comment and recommendation.
25. Write the changes on idea cards. 26. Ask each sector to go back and ﬁll-in the data gaps and inconsistencies
identiﬁed through the process of intersectoral validation.
Step 6- Vision, Mission and Goal-Setting
At the end of the ½ day session, participants would have: 1. 2. 3. 4. Drawn a vision map or a picture of an alternative future; Formulated a Vision Statement Formulated a Mission Statement; and Formulated Goals and Objectives for the next 5 years.
❋ Resource and Land Use Map (from PRA) ❋ Crayons (black, blue, yellow and green) or pentel pens ❋ Manila papers/kraft papers ❋ Idea cards
❋ Vision statement formulation: workshop in plenary ❋ Mission statement formulation: individual reﬂection and workshop in small groups
HOW TO DO IT
1. Open the session with the following statements: A Vision is the hoped for (dream) situation or aspiration, which the people of the barangay will work to attain
in the future. It is the culmination of all the development efforts of the barangay. Even if it is only a dream, it is realistic and attainable. To make it more attainable, the vision must be simple and must provide character to the barangay. Having too many components in a vision makes it more difficult, complicated, and hard to attain. However, in predominantly Muslim barangays, it will be helpful to think of Islam as a Way of Life, and should therefore be considered in the formulation of a vision. One way of charting the vision is through an exercise called “Vision Mapping”. In this exercise, the participants undertake the following steps:
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Prepare a Resource and Land Use Map of the barangay. Color the existing land use green. Ask the participants to add other features in the map which they hope to ﬁnd in the future. The additional features should be based on the needs identiﬁed in the situational analysis. Color these new structures – health centers, roads, etc.- yellow. Be sure that the needs of all sectors are addressed. Guide Questions for the participants: • How do you see your barangay in the future? • (or) What do you want your barangay to become in the future?
states in words the description of this picture. Ask a representative from each sector to describe the features they added to the picture that they drew. While the participants are describing this, the facilitator or the documenter lists down key words (“handles”) that are being described. Guide questions for the descriptions: • What do you see the residents in your barangay becoming?
Key Words: Peaceful environment Healthy children and adults Sustainable use of environment No poverty Adequate infrastructure Effective barangay leaders
• What do you see in their situation and environment? • What do you see in the barangay government? • What do you see in the nearby/ contiguous areas or higher levels of LGU? Review the key words that were compiled from the participants. Ask the participants to deﬁne/describe further each key word/key phrase. See examples below.
Deﬁnition/description by the community All conﬂicts are resolved; working LCRM such as a Council of Elders or a Lupong Tagamapayapa Low infant mortality; easy and affordable access to health care Protected coastal and land resources Livelihood opportunities are available Good roads, schools, telecommunications Barangay leaders are competent and respond to residents’ needs Rights of women, children and indigenous peoples are protected and respected
Formulating the Vision Statement
4. Tape the “Vision Map”, on the board/ wall. Explain that while the Vision Map provides the picture of the development of the barangay, the Vision Statement, on the other hand
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Flash these key words and descriptions. From these key words and descriptions, ask the participants to formulate their vision statement for their barangay. Example of a vision statement:
“We envision a well-developed, peaceful and economically stable community with a pleasing environment guided by the framework of Islam” - Adapted from the Vision of Barangay Condaraan, Bayang, Lanao del Sur
such as how difficult or impossible it is to achieve dev elopement for the barangay.
Formulating the Mission Statement
9. Begin this activity with the following statements: The community mission is the statement of the agreed commitment and roles of the different community stakeholders/sectors in order to achieve the Vision. It should reﬂect the following: • What is the role of the barangay as a government, and as an organization to achieve the Vision? • What is the role of citizens of the barangay and the community to achieve our Vision? • What are we here to do together? • What is our “reason for being” (why are we here?) in relation to the Vision?
The Mission Statement answers the question “Why does an organization exist, and what is its purpose?” The Mission provides the motivation and reason for being of the barangay in its continuing existence towards its desired Vision. An example of a mission statement that could be the input of the barangay officials’ group is the mandate for the barangay as provided for in the Local Government Code:
“As the basic political unit, the barangay serves as the primary planning and implementing unit of government policies, plans, programs, projects and activities in the community, and as a forum wherein the collective views of the people may be expressed, crystallized, and considered, and where disputes may be amicably settled” (Sec. 384)
End this activity by saying that once written, a Vision Statement helps to deﬁne the direction towards which to proceed. A vision statement can be used to “work backwards” to develop a plan of action. For instance: “If this was the future, and this vision has happened, what was done? How did we get this outcome?” This helps avoid focusing on negative reactions
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10. If the participants wish to formulate a mission different from that provided for in the Local Government Code, form the participants into the following groups: Barangay Officials, Barangay Residents, CSO members. Using the Vision Statement as guide, and keeping in mind the workshop questions, ask the participants to do the following: • Individual Reﬂection. Ask each group to answer the questions posed above, ﬁrst, through individual reﬂection. Provide enough time for each participant to reﬂect on the questions. Ask them to write in their reﬂections on paper. • Group Brainstorming. Ask each group to discuss each individual’s reﬂection results. Provide enough time so that each are able to share and discuss their reﬂections. Based on the individual sharing, ask each group to write in metacards the roles and commitment that
they would play or commit to in order to achieve the Vision. Ask the group to formulate a Mission Statement that combines as individual’s ideas. • Ask each group to write in metacards their agreed on formulation of the Mission. Paste each metacard on the board/wall. • Group Consensus. From these metacards, formulate a sentence that would combine all commitments of all groups. Example of a Mission Statement for a barangay that is different from the mandate provided for by the Local Government Code:
“We shall pursue our mission through the joint effort of the barangay ofﬁcials and the community towards a developed, peaceful and God fearing community of Barangay Oring” – Mission Statement of Brgy. Oring, Buldon, Maguindanao
11. End the activity with a group clap or cheer.
Formulating Sectoral Goals and Objectives
12. Begin the activity by explaining the difference between a Vision and a Goal: “ While the Vision is the ideal aspiration or situation of the barangay, and the Mission is on how the barangay government and the citizens will do to attain the Vision, the Goals are the sectoral targets of the Vision”. Goals are simply a clearer statement of the Vision, specifying the outcomes if the Vision is to become real. Goals are the desired output that the sector wants to achieve in a given period of time. It may be stated in medium terms (3 years) or strategic terms (5-10 years or more). Goals are more comprehensive and broader
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in scope compared to Objectives. Like the Vision Statement, the goals should be formulated in such a way that the community is motivated to achieve them. 13. Explain the characteristics of a Goal Statement: Goal Statements are: of General Concern Long term (or Medium Term) Operational Broad in Scope Exciting During the barangay planning exercise, the barangay can decide how it would want to be identiﬁed in the next ﬁve years – its “niche” in development, and as a result of the assessment of problems as well as resources previously undertaken. Some examples: a. Barangay Borongotan in Upi, Maguindanao deplored the lack of
available medicine in the Poblacion. Thus, in its BDP formulation, they wanted a Botica sa Barangay so that residents will no longer go to the city to buy their medicine. With funding from LGSP, they started a small botica at the health station. The other barangays in Upi found this to respond to their needs, and until now, the small botica has been supplying the medicine of the barangay residents and those of adjoining areas. The Barangay of Dalumangcob in Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao is proud of their municipal hall and municipal high school. Due to the increasing population and the number of pre-school children, the barangay wanted to provide better social services. This was reﬂected in their BDP through the improvement of their Day Care Center. LGSP assisted the barangay in the purchase of tables, chairs, and other needs of the center. Barangay Bubong in Tugaya, Lanao Sur is one of the sources of Maranao
wood carvings and brasswares that Tugaya is well-known for. Presently, this is just a cottage industry. The barangay decided that this “niche” has to be supported both ﬁnancially and with government infrastructure. An example of an Overall Goal is: To be the most peaceful community in the whole Municipality where a diverse group of people live ” Examples of Sectoral Goals are: Social Development Sector ❋ Improved housing for 50% of the residents of the barangay. ❋ Increased access to secondary education for 40% of the student population Economic Development Sector ❋ Increased productivity of the agricultural sector by 2% ❋ Decrease in rate of unemployment by 5%
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14. Explain the difference between Goals and Objectives An objective enables the community to accomplish their Sectoral Goals. Sectoral Objectives are clearer statements of the speciﬁc activities required to achieve the Goals. Objectives reﬂect the current status and specify what the members of the community will be able to do, or perform, to achieve the Goal. Another way to view objectives is that they are goals stated in terms of performances that are clearly tangible to the members of the community. When formulating objectives, be sure to describe the intended result. Some characteristics of Objectives are SMART and GREAT S – Speciﬁc in targeting an objective M- Progress is measurable through indicators A – Can be assigned to particular responsibility and people R – Can be realistically done T – Has a timeframe as to when it can be achieved
GR – Gender responsive E – Equality-oriented A – Aware of cultural, social, economic and gender differences T – Targeted stakeholder Examples of Goals and Objectives: Sector: Economic Development Sector Goal: Increase the income of barangay residents (by __ %) (if data is available on the current levels of harvests and income of barangay residents, it is better to set a target on the increase in terms of percentages). Objectives: • Increase by (how many percent?) the rice harvest of (how many farmers?) in (how many years?) • Increase by (how many percent?) the ﬁsh catch of (how many ﬁsherfolk?) in (how many years?) 15. Explain that as partners of the national government, local governments are
expected to play a major role in helping meet the country’s international commitments such as the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), which to a great extent, pertain to basic services that are devolved functions of LGUs. The barangay could choose to include some or all of these Goals. The MDGs are as follows: a. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger b. Achieve universal primary education c. Promote gender equality d. Reduce child mortality e. Improve maternal health f. Reduce maternal mortality rate g. Combat against HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases h. Ensure environmental sustainability 16. Instructions for participants in formulating the Sectoral Goals and Objectives:
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• Group back into their sectors, and retrieve their respective Needs Trees. • Analyze the needs in the upper portion of the Needs Tree and select those that cover the general concern of the sector which can be converted into a Sectoral Goal. • Formulate the need into a Sectoral Goal, using the characteristics of Goal Statements as a guide. • After formulating the Goal Statement, identify which of the needs on the lower portion of the Needs Tree could be translated as objectives. These are usually the root problems. Formulate the objectives using the SMART and GREAT characteristics as guidelines. • The remaining cards can be used later in the planning as Projects or Activities to achieve particular sectoral objectives.
17. Encourage the participants to develop Success or Outcome Indicators instead of input or activity type of indicators. Success or outcome indicators measure the extent of achieve-
ment of desired results. They are needed for both Goals and Objectives and can be expressed either qualitatively or quantitatively. Examples of Success Indicators are:
OUTCOME INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL SERVICES (Local Governance Performance Management System) Service Area Health and Nutrition LGPMS Outcome (Development) Indicators Percentage of children aged 0-71 months with below normal weights Infant mortality rates Mortality rate of children aged 1-5 Morbidity rate Maternal mortality rate Mortality rate Secondary school completion rate Tertiary school completion rate Vocational school completion rate Literacy rate Percentage of households living in informal settlements or makeshift houses Percentage of households with sustainable potable water supply Percentage of households with sanitary toilets Percentage of households with electricity Incidence of index crimes Incidence of non-index crimes
Housing and Basic Utilities
Peace and Security
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18. Explain that for poverty reduction goals, the Core Local Poverty Indicators (CLPI), derived through the Community-Based Monitoring System or CBMS and the MDGs provide
a sound basis for establishing critical gaps. The CBMS indicates the state of well-being of households in the community while the MDGs serve as benchmarks on similar well-being in-
dicators. These two sets of indicators combined can assist LGUs in setting poverty reduction goals and targets. 19. End the session with a success cheer or a clap (bagsak).
Step 7- Identifying Programs, Strategies and Implementing Mechanisms
At the end of the ½ day session, sectoral planning groups would have: 1. Identiﬁed priority programs, and 2. Identiﬁed implementing mechanisms for priority programs
❋ Visual Aids on the Vision and Mission Statements ❋ Visual Aids on the Needs Trees for each sector ❋ Visual Aid of Problems and Opportunities identiﬁed from the PRA ❋ Visual Aid on Characteristics of Effective Strategies ❋ Idea cards (yellow, green, orange, blue) ❋ Manila papers ❋ Pentel pens
HOW TO DO IT Formulating Strategies Per Sector
1. Explain that Strategies are the means by which objectives will be achieved. Strategies answer the question “What needs to be done to reach the objectives?” “What are the ends we seek and how should we achieve them?” Strategies must capitalize on the barangay’s strengths, reduce weaknesses, take advantage of external opportunities, and avert external threats. Failure to make satisfactory
❋ Lecturette ❋ Short lecture ❋ Workshop in small groups
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progress towards accomplishing objectives signals a need for corrective actions, thus periodic review of strategies are essential. 2. Give a short lecture on characteristics of effective Strategies, as follows: • Based on existing social, political, and economic conditions • Allows for future scenario-building • Considers internal capacities • Operating within certain organizational tasks, systems, structures and deﬁned objectives • An acceptable course of action based on people’s dreams, values and preferences • Focused efforts and interventions • Within a chosen time frame • Feasible and doable • Ability to be ﬂexible and responsive • Has capacity to yield desired results
A very useful tool in strategy formulation is the SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis is a tool for analyzing Strengths and Weaknesses of the barangay, the Opportunities that could enhance the potential for development of the barangay, and Threats that could present risks. Strengths and Weaknesses are factors within the internal environment of the barangay. Strengths are positive characteristics that show the barangay’s resources and capacities, while Weaknesses are negative characteristics that show the barangay’s gaps or insufficiencies in terms of resources and capacities. Opportunities and Threats are found in the barangay’s external environment. Opportunities are external factors that may positively affect the barangay’s development, while Threats are risks that may negatively affect the barangay’s development.
Steps in conducting SWOT Analysis • Participants will need idea cards of four different colors, manila paper and pentel pens, the Vision and Mission Statements written on manila paper, and problems and opportunities culled during the PRA • Group the participants per sector • Ask the participants to • Review the Vision and Mission statements and the problems and opportunities identiﬁed per sector • List down in yellow metacards the strengths of the barangay • List down the weaknesses of the barangay in green metacards • Paste the metacards on the board/wall based on their categories (Strengths, Weaknesses). Read the metacards and ask the participants to explain each idea.
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• Cluster similar ideas together. • Then ask the participants to list down Opportunities and Threats according to their assessment of the political, social, cultural, economic and environmental conditions. • Ask them to write in orange metacards the Opportunities and in blue metacards the Threats. Ask them to paste them on the board. • Read the metacards and ask the participants to explain each idea. Cluster similar ideas together. • Remember that some conditions could contain both positive and negative aspects. In such situations, let the participants agree on whether its a strength, weakness, opportunity or threat. • Number each idea card S1, S2, S3, S4, W1, W2, W3, W4, O1, O2, O3, O4, and T1, T2, T3, T4).
Social Services Sector Service: Health Strengths S1 S2 A health center was established by the ASF and LGSP The community has indigenous knowledge of herbal medicines Opportunities O1 O2 There is an NGO that teaches alternative and herbal medicine ASF intends to allocate funds for a Botica sa Barangay program that the barangay can access T1 T2 W1 W2 Weaknesses There is a lack of medicines for common illnesses The nearest hospital is at the Poblacion, and sick residents often do not get treated in time due to bad roads Threats There is a dengue epidemic in the next barangay There is no doctor for the barangay
In formulating Strategies, it is important to examine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that will affect the barangay’s performance in each sector. By combining and matching positive and negative conditions within and outside the barangay, good strategies could be formulated through four strategic options:
• Option 1: Using Strengths to take advantage of Opportunities • Option 2: Using Strengths to minimize or block Threats • Option 3: Minimizing or eliminating Weaknesses by taking advantage of Opportunities • Option 4: Eliminating Weaknesses to minimize or block Threats
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Strengths Opportunities Threats Option 1: Strength-Opportunity Strategy Option 2: Strength-Threat Strategy
Weaknesses Option 3: Weakness-Opportunity Strategy Option 4: Weakness-Threat Strategy
6. 5. Instructions for formulating Strategies based on SWOT Analysis • Per sector, review the identiﬁed Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. • Answer the following questions: • Among the Strengths, which one/s can be harnessed so that existing Opportunities could contribute to the barangay’s development? • Among the Strengths, which one/s can be harnessed so that imminent Threats that might hinder the barangay’s development could be avoided? • Among the Weaknesses, which one/s should be addressed so that Opportunities are taken advantage of? • Among the Weaknesses, which one/s should be addressed so that imminent Threats could be minimized? • Formulate Strategies based on the above questions. Try to achieve consensus among the sectors. Use the characteristics of effective Strategies as a screen. An example of a Strategy based on the SWOT Analysis above for the Social Development Sector would be: “Strengthen the Barangay Health Center and establish multistakeholder partnerships involving the barangay LGU, faith-based NGOs, and the ASF through the Municipal
LGU”. (In planning format, this could simply be reduced to “Strengthen Barangay Health Center”) When Strategies per sectoral planning group have been formulated, convene the planning groups in Plenary and present all strategies per sector. Allow for a discussion and obtain consensus until the Strategies had been agreed upon by everyone. Display the Strategies in prominent sites of the workshop area.
Note to Facilitators The formulation of Strategies may prove to be too cumbersome or complicated for some barangays. Exercise sensitivity on whether to undertake or dispense of this step. If this step proves to be too difﬁcult, barangay planners may proceed immediately to Identifying Programs, Projects and Implementing Mechanisms.
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Identifying Programs, Projects, and Implementing Mechanisms
1. Explain that this step takes off from the formulated Sectoral Goals and Objectives Explain that Programs or Projects address the Objectives. Programs are continuing services that barangays are mandated to carry out throughout the years. Legislation may also be included in this category. Projects are development initiatives that have deﬁnite timeframes, require deﬁnite resource inputs such as additional staff, equipment, office space, etc, and target speciﬁc outputs. Regroup the participants into the sectoral planning groups, and ask them to answer the following: Objectives – What are the objectives of the sector? Review the Needs Tree. Objectives are those that are rooted on the needs of the sector
PROJECTS OR PROGRAMS Speciﬁc life cycle, with deﬁnite start and completion points with calendar dates Can be abruptly terminated even if goals were not yet met; always terminated when activities are completed Often unique; not done before; not repeated when completed Total effort must be completed within ﬁxed budget and schedule Prediction of ultimate time and cost required is difﬁcult Involves multi-disciplinary skills from different departments or organizations which may change from one life cycle to another. Rate and type of expenditures constantly changing Basically dynamic in nature
NON PROJECTS /NON PROGRAMS/ (CORE SERVICES, LEGISLATION) Continuous; no speciﬁc event tied to calendar dates other than ﬁscal year budget Assurance of continued function even in a major reorganization Usually involves performance of well-established functions and tasks are only slightly different from past efforts. Maximum work is performed within the annual budget ceiling Prediction of annual expenditures is relatively simple Involves one or a few inter-related skills and disciplines within one well-deﬁned stable organization. Relatively constant rate and type of expenditure Basically steady state in nature
Programs or Projects: – What are programs or projects and legislation that could contribute to each objective? List these down. The Needs Tree, and the Strategies identiﬁed through SWOT Analysis may again assist the participants in identifying programs and projects. Existing programs or projects can also be integrated into the list.
Sifting Projects and Programs8 – Convene the participants in plenary. Sift programs and projects according to the following creens: • Repetitive or redundant proposals could be consolidated • Reject obviously impractical or undesirable project proposals and
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• Sift “projects and programs” from “non-programs, core services or legislation”. On the
previous page are some the distinguishing characteristics of “projects and programs ” and
“non-programs, core services or legislation”
Distinguishing Projects from Non-Projects is illustrated by the following example:
No. 1.0 Strategies Increased farm yield 1.1 Programs Intensify production support services 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 Improve post-harvest facility 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 2.0 Better prices of farm produce 2.1 Competitive pricing by traders 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 Up-to-date market information 2.2.1 Develop gravity irrigation Install communal pump irrigation Increase water yield of aquifer Promote use of certiﬁed seeds Construct mechanical dryers Regulate use of streets as solar dryers Put up storage facilities Encourage investments in processing plants Encourage competition Regulate prices Improve market infrastructure Install internet-based access to commodities market * * * * * * * * Projects * * * * Services Legislation
Sift projects by ownership (refer to Section 17 of the Local Government Code)
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Sifting projects by ownership is illustrated by the following example:
Project No. 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2.1 1.2.3 2.1.3 2.2.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2.2 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Project Title Gravity Irrigation Development Communal Pump Irrigation Construction of Mechanical Dryers Construction of Storage Facilities Market Improvement Project Internet-Based Commodities Market Information System Land Suitability Analysis Silvi-Pasture Pilot Project Agro-Industrial Fair Short Course in Entrepreneurship Skills Training on Non-Farm Trades and Crafts Transport and Communication System Modernization * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * National Local Private
programs; desirable self-liquidating projects; external funding is available Acceptable - Can be postponed without detriment to present operations if budget cuts are necessary Deferrable - Recommended for postponement or elimination from immediate considerations in the current LDIP; questionable in terms of over-all needs, adequate planning or proper timing. When appropriate, do a Peace and Conﬂict Impact Asssessment (PCIA) screen. These are valuable in assessing whether projects have the potential to be peace-promoting or conﬂict-creating. PCIA is applied during various stages of the project cycle: project selection and conceptualization, project development, project implementation, and project monitoring and evaluation (see Module 5). For this planning stage, some PCIA screen questions that could be useful are:
Rank proposed projects by level of urgency. Planning groups could be further guided by the following categories of and criteria for urgency: Urgent – Cannot be postponed; would remedy conditions dangerous to public health, safety & welfare;
needed to maintain critically needed programs; needed to meet emergency situations Essential - required to complete or make usable a major public improvement; required to maintain minimum standards as part of on-going
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PCIA Screen: a. Is the peace and order situation favorable for project implementation?Are there perceived threats of military operations? Or eruption of clan feuds? Or threats from lawless elements? b. Will the project contribute to social cohesion, support the development of
POs/CSOs/private sector or contribute favorably to develop trust and conﬁdence of revolutionary groups in government processes? c. Will the project contribute to poverty reduction? d. Is the project relevant to conditions in the community and feasible to ensure its sustainability?
e. Will the project contribute to greater awareness of human responsibility to protect their eco-systems? Implementing Mechanisms – identify “who does what”, i.e., what Committees/ Councils, persons or bodies would be tasked to implement speciﬁc projects and programs.
Step 8: Setting the Three-Year Barangay Development Plan
At the end of the ½ day session, sectoral planning groups would have drafted their three-year barangay development plan.
MATERIALS NEEDED ❋ Manila papers ❋ Pentel pens ❋ Pad paper or bond paper ❋ Ballpens ❋ Masking tape HOW TO DO IT
1. Give a short lecture on what planning is: A plan is an expression of the community’s desire to address the needs of the people. Members of the
❋ Short lecture ❋ Workshop in sectoral planning groups
community view the programs and projects contained in their plan as steps that would change their current situation and lead them to desired vision. It is in this context that development plans should directly address particular needs and respond to particular problems so that programs and projects are relevant. Planning is an organized and continuous attempt to select the most effective way to achieve desired objectives. It is a systematic process of
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analyzing and selecting from various alternative solutions, tasks or actions that will respond to current needs and problems in order to achieve development objectives. A development plan is the concrete activities that the community will undertake to achieve development. It should be consistent with the community’s vision and guided by their development strategy. Thus, a barangay development plan is a list of activities or tasks that will be carried out by the barangay ofﬁcials and citizens in a given period of time according to the barangay’s resources to achieve desired results and respond to prevailing needs. 2. Distribute copies of the Three Year Barangay Development Plan format to each sectoral planning group, and discuss the Guide in Formulating the Three-year Barangay Development Plan.
THREE-YEAR BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PLAN Barangay__________________________ Municipality_______________Province _________ Year ______ to _______ Sector:_______________________________________________________ Goal:
Key Result Areas and Needed Budget Objectives Program/ Project Resources Needed Year 1 KRA Cost Year 2 KRA Cost Year 3 KRA Cost Remarks
Guide in Formulating the Three-Year Barangay Development Plan
Objective – What are the objectives of the sector? Refer back to the Needs Tree. Objectives should be based on the root needs of the sector
Programs (including Legislation) or Projects – What are programs, projects and legislation that can address the objectives? The Needs Tree formulated during the previous session would provide the input on this. Existing programs or projects that have been implemented can also be integrated into the plan.
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Resources – What are the resources needed in order to implement each program or project? Key Result Area (KRA) – What are the speciﬁc result of each program or project each year? Identify what the program or project aims to see each year. This
should indicate the quantity (ex. 30 participants for a training program, or 10 additional beds for the health station). Be as speciﬁc as possible. Cost or Amount – How much will be needed in order to produce the KRA in a particular year? How much budget is
needed per line item (i.e., for transportation, labor, equipment, communication, etc.)? Remarks – This could include potential donors and other information that could help facilitate the completion of the program or project within the year.
Step 9: Setting Next Year’s Annual Operational Plan and Annual Investment Plan
At the end of the ½ day session, sectoral planning groups would have deﬁned the Barangay’s Annual Operational and Investment Plans for the next year.
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ Manila papers Pentel pens Pad paper or bond paper Ballpens Masking tape
❋ Short lecture ❋ Workshop in sectoral planning groups
HOW TO DO IT
1. Explain the difference between the Annual Operational Plan (AOP) and the Annual Investment Plan (AIP) and why each is needed.
The Barangay Development Plan is comprehensive and stated in general terms. An Annual Operational Plan is needed in order to outline the needed steps in implementing the projects each year, and to break up three year objectives into annul annual implementation plans. After completing the Operational Plan, an Annual Investment Plan is needed in order to see the sources of funds and when these will be needed for the projects. The AIP should be
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consistently aligned with the AOP, and like the AOP, should be completed for each sector. 2. Distribute copies of the Annual Operational Plan and Annual Investment Plan formats to each sectoral planning group, and discuss the guides in formulating both.
Guide in Formulating the Annual Operational Plan:
Sectoral Objective – What are the sectoral objectives for the year? Copy the objective from the BDP of the project that have activities for the target year Tasks – What are speciﬁc steps/activities that need to be done/conducted to attain the particular objective?
Guide in Formulating the Annual Investment Plan:
Program or Project – refer to the program or project indicated in the AOP Brief Description – short description of the project, including the number of beneﬁciaries and other information on the program or project. Location – details on where the program or project will be implemented, such as street, sitio, purok, barangay. Status – is the project ongoing, rehabilitation of an old project, or a new project?
Annual Operational Plan Barangay _______________ Sector: _______________________________
Program or Project Objective Tasks Needed Resources Timeframe Responsible Person
Sources of Funds – Where will project funds come from?
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Period of Implementation and Budget – Indicate how much will be needed for the project every quarter (three months). The Barangay Development Council must approve the disbursement of funds. Total Cost – Sum of the quarterly project costs.
Remarks – Other requirements for the implementation of the program or project, and/or other details that need to be taken into consideration or kept in mind by the project implementers.
ANNUAL INVESTMENT PLAN Barangay______________________ Year: ___________
Program/ Project Brief Description Location Status Sources of Funds Period of Implementation and Funds Needed Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Total Amount Remarks
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Step 10: Linking the Budget with the Plan
At the end of a half day session, participants would have: 1. Been oriented on the barangay budgeting system; 2. Understood the link between the just-formulated investment plan and the barangay budget
❋ Figures on IRA and revenues from taxes and other barangay income (should be obtained from the Barangay Treasurer prior to the workshop) ❋ Manila papers ❋ Pentel pens ❋ Pad paper or bond paper ❋ Ballpens ❋ Masking tape
❋ Short lecture ❋ Workshop in sectoral planning groups
HOW TO DO IT
1. Provide an orientation on the Barangay Budgeting System in broad strokes. The Municipal Budget Officer can serve as a resource person; otherwise the facilitator should be ready to discuss this. A barangay budget is a blueprint for the ﬁnancial policy decisions that
the barangay will implement during each ﬁscal year. It is the most important document for establishing control over the forces of change and determining the groundwork for future accomplishments of the barangay. It is a systematic process of relating the expenditure of funds against planned objectives. Discuss the sources of barangay income a. Tax Revenue • Share of Real Property Tax • Share of Community Tax • Share of Internal Revenue Allotment • Share from quarrying of sand and gravel • Share from the National Wealth b. Operating and Miscellaneous Income • Business Permit • Barangay Clearance Fees
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• Operations of Barangay Facilities • Fines/Penalties c. Grants/Subsidies/Loans • Subsidy of the Municipality/ Province • Borrowings from Banks • Other Donations If there is interest from the participants, discuss Scope of Taxing Powers of Barangays and Community Tax Sharing Schemes. Otherwise, skip this portion. Discuss the link between the Barangay Development Plan and the local budget. Highlight its importance by mentioning that this is the basic principle behind the “harmonized planning (and budgeting) system” being pursued thru the Joint Memorandum Circular # 1 involving the DBM, DILG, NEDA and DOF.
DIRECT LINKAGE OF THE LOCAL BUDGET TO THE BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PLAN Local Budget Cycle Budget Preparation Budget Authorization and Review Budget Execution Budget Accountability Barangay Development Plan Plan is used as basis for allocation Plan is used as basis for validation of the budget allocation Plan is used as basis for scheduling programs, projects, and activities implementation Plan is used to measure performance /accomplishment for Budget Year
Ask the participants to compute for the fund allocation for priority projects Computation of Budget Allocation from 20% IRA for Barangay Development Fund
ALLOCATION OF 20% IRA FOR BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECT/ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION TOTAL AMOUNT RUNNING BALANCE
Available Resources from 20% IRA for Development Projects Less: (Priority Projects/Activities) 1. 2. 3. 4…….. TOTAL PROJECT/ACTIVITY COST UNAPPROPRIATED BALANCE FOR 20% IRA
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Ask the participants to compute for the Annual Barangay Plan and Budget Consolidation of Annual Barangay Plan and Budget
PLAN-BUDGET CONSOLIDATION Object of Expenditure A. Maintenance of basic services • Barangay Nursery • Salary of Nursery Worker • Seedlings, pots, etc. • • • • Barangay Day Care Center Salary/wage of Day Care Worker Maintenance of Classroom Books, supplies and materials Personnel Services(PS) Maintenance and Operating Expenses (MOOE) CAPITAL OUTLAY TOTAL
• Library/Information Center • Infrastructure Maintenance • Facility Maintenance (dryers, talipapa etc) B. Executive and Legislative Services • Honorarium/Cash Gift to Barangay Ofﬁcials • Ofﬁce Supplies • Electric and Water Bills • Transportation/Travel Expenses • Communication Expenses • Other MOOE • Outlays
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PLAN-BUDGET CONSOLIDATION Object of Expenditure C. Expenditure for Development Projects D. Mandatory Allocations • SK Fund • GAD Fund • Calamity Fund • Discretionary Fund • LIGA Fee E. Grand Total G. Grand Total H. Total Available Income I. Unappropriated Balance Personnel Services(PS) Maintenance and Operating Expenses (MOOE) CAPITAL OUTLAY TOTAL
Adapted from the Rationalized Planning System Guidebook of the Department of of the Interior and Local Government
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Adopting the BDP
Step 11- Presenting the BDP to the Barangay Assembly
After drafting the sectoral plans and consolidating them into the Three-year Barangay Development Plan, the next step will be to present the BDP to the Barangay Assembly for feedback and validation. The barangay may opt to conduct a sitio/ purok consultation where the plans are presented for feedback and additional inputs. In sitio and purok consultations, it is important that sitio officials and members of organizations are present as they may be able to provide additional information and rally their sitio/ purok constituencies for support for the Barangay Development Plan. If this step is conducted, the Barangay Development Council should reconvene to review revisions and inputs on the Three Year Barangay Development Plan. The presentation should start with the discussion of the Vision and Mission of the Barangay. It is crucial that, the Barangay Assembly approves the Vision and Mission so that community residents are united and leveled-off on this. The presentation could then proceed to the Sectoral Plans and the Consolidated Three Year Barangay Development Plan. The presentation should end with a ritual of acceptance and approval of
the Barangay Development Plan by the Barangay Assembly
❋ Clean copies of the tools and the three year barangay development plan ❋ Clean copy on manila paper or on PowerPoint slides of the Vision and Mission statements ❋ Masking tape ❋ Sounds system
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HOW TO DO IT
1. 2. Draft a program or ﬂow of presentation Tape all tools and outputs at the walls of the barangay hall or around the immediate environment where the Assembly will be conducted Conduct the Preliminaries (National Anthem, Opening Prayer, Opening Remarks, Recognition of Participants to the Barangay Development Planning Process)
Turn over to the barangay captain the responsibility of presiding over the Barangay Assembly Let a community reading of the Vision and Mission Statements take place. Allow for feedback and comments. Conduct a ritual that would symbolize approval (bagsak or clap) of the Vision and Mission by the Barangay Assembly Let Sectoral Representatives report on their Sectoral Plans. Ensure that reporters are community residents.
After sectors have ﬁnished reporting on their plans, open the ﬂoor for feedback. Make sure that these feedback are documented The barangay captain, formally approves the plan and formally pass it on to the Barangay Development Council for passing a resolution to adopt it. Conduct closing ritual (closing prayer and community singing).
Step 12 - Drafting the Barangay Resolution Adopting the Barangay Development Plan
Immediately after the approval by the Barangay Assembly of the Barangay Development Plan, the Barangay Development Council should convene to draft and pass a resolution adopting the Barangay Development Plan. Such a resolution provides the legal basis for appropriating the Three Year and annual budgets of the barangay. Key members of the BDP-PRA facilitators should ideally be present in the meeting to help facilitate the review of the plan and to safeguard the integrity of the plan formulated collectively with leaders of sectoral and community groups. One of the tasks of the BDP-PRA team is to furnish members of the BDC copies of the results and outputs of the planning activity prior to the meeting. The BDC could also invite representatives (who may or may not be members of the BDC) of organizations that have programs and projects in the barangay but who were not able to participate in the BDP process to present their plans. This would help the BDC in reviewing the plans and
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consider whether these organizations could respond to needs identiﬁed in the BDP through the implementation of their existing programs. It would be to the beneﬁt of the barangay government if they would be able to tap the expertise and resources of these organizations. These organizations might also be able to fund some barangay projects based on their plans and programs. The BDC could also discuss the proposed allocation of the barangay budget and the projected income of the barangay for the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the plan. After approving the plan through a resolution, the BDC can now proceed to the drafting of budget plans based on the three-year barangay development plan.
Proposed Barangay Resolution Template: REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Barangay ______________________ Municipality of _________________ Resolution No. ______________ Series of __________________ RESOLUTION ADOPTING THE OUTPUTS OF THE BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING WORKSHOP AND BUDGETING CONDUCTED AT ________________ ON _____________________________. WHEREAS, the Barangay of ___________ was one of the barangays assisted through the Local Governance Support Program in ARMM through its Barangay Governance and Planning Field Guide; WHEREAS, the barangay Development Planning and Budgeting Workshop was conducted on _________________________; WHEREAS, the barangay development Vision and Mission Statements, Strategies, Goals and Objectives, the Annual Operations Plan and the Annual Investment Plan for the year ______ were among the major outputs of the workshop; PREMISES CONSIDERED, and after deliberation of the subject in motion by Barangay Kagawad _______________________ duly seconded by Barangay Kagawad __________________, be it RESOLVED, as it is hereby resolved, that the outputs of the Barangay Development Planning Workshop be adopted as the ___________ Barangay Plan and Budget and Investment Plan. RESOLVED, ﬁnally, that copies of this resolution be furnished to the Municipal Budget Ofﬁce (MBO), the Municipal Planning and Development Ofﬁce (MPDO), the Ofﬁce of the Municipal Mayor, the Ofﬁce of the Vice Mayor, and the ofﬁce of the Local Governance Support Program in ARMM (LGSPA) for their information, reference and appropriate action. UNANIMOUSLY APPROVED. Certiﬁed True and Correct: ________________________________ Barangay Secretary Attested by: _________________ Punong Barangay Captain
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Packaging and Communicating the Results of the Barangay Development Plan
The BDP-PRA Team will translate the outputs of the planning activity into an official document of the barangay. The packaged document shall contain the tools, results of analysis, prioritization, vision and mission statements, strategies (if any) and sectoral plans. It is important that documentation during the planning activity are effectively done in order to have a comprehensive ﬁnal document. Lay-outing for presentation purposes is also done to make it easier for readers and for resource mobilization purposes. It is also encouraged that facilitators together with some community stakeholders be involved in making the documentation and packaging of the three-year barangay development plan. The document will also serve as the Socio-Economic Proﬁle of the barangay that can be used for resource mobilization purposes and as reference for future planning and direction setting. Copies of the document are provided to the Mayor, Vice Mayor, and the Municipal Planning and Development Office. Potential donors for speciﬁc projects can also be provided copies to facilitate funding negotiations. Finally, the Barangay Development Plan should be integrated into the municipal-
ity’s Comprehensive Development Plan and Executive Legislative Agenda (ELA) with corresponding budgetary allocation. It is for this reason that a copy of the BDP should immediately be furnished to the Municipality, The Municipal Planning and Development Officer, being a member of the Municipal Planning team that facilitates the BDP, and the Punong Barangay are in the most strategic position to ensure that the interface between the municipal and barangay development plans is facilitated and substantially carried out.
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A Simple Approach to Managing Barangay Projects
his module covers the basic principles of project management including a simpliﬁed project cycle, and provides templates for project proposals and project monitoring and evaluation. To be conducted as a one-day workshop, it is designed to provide the basic outline for managing barangay projects. Screens for Peace and Conﬂict Impact Assessment are also provided whenever applicable.
This module is intended for barangay leaders and citizens who are potential project managers of select barangay development projects. The ideal number is not more than 15 participants.
At the end of the workshop, participants would be able to: a. Differentiate between a project and a program b. Plan projects according to the three basic elements: quality, cost and time. c. Know the basic elements of project monitoring and evaluation, integrating peace and conﬂict impact assessment; and d. Know the basic template for a project proposal.
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Session 1: Project Management and the Project Life Cycle (2.5 hours) Session 2: Preparing a Project Proposal (2.5 hours ) Session 3: Project Monitoring and Evaluation (3 hours)
Eight (8) hours
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Project Management and the Project Life Cycle
At the end of the session, participants would be able to 1. Deﬁne what a project is 2. Know and understand the basic project life cycle
❋ Hand out/ questionnaire on self reﬂection on projects (next page) ❋ Prepared idea cards with headings on the four major steps of the Project Cycle
HOW TO DO IT
1. Individual Reﬂection (20 minutes). Ask the participants to complete the following questionnaire. Read the ﬁrst question, then give them ﬁve minutes to answer the question. After ﬁve minutes, ask them to stop and proceed to the next question, and so on, until you’ve covered the whole questionnaire. Think of a project you have completed within the last two or three months. It may have been a project at home or something related to your barangay/organizational duties. Now, respond to the following questions:
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ Individual reﬂection Workshops in small groups Interactive lectures Practical exercises .
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. Haynes, Marion E. Project Management Revised Edition.Crisp Publications Inc., California. 1986. 2. Taylor, James. The Project Management Workshop: A Trainer’s Guide
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a. When did you ﬁrst get the idea for the project? How much time elapsed and what steps were involved between the ﬁrst idea and a clear understanding of what you will do? (5 minutes) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ b. How did you go about planning the project? Did you determine what tools, equipment, and supplies you would need, and where to obtain them? Did you plan for extra help if you could not handle the project alone? (5 minutes) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ c. Once you got underway, did everything go according to plan? Did you stay within your budget? Did
you ﬁnish on time? Did you meet your quality standards? Did any unanticipated problems occur? If so, how did you deal with them? (5 minutes) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ d. When the project was completed, were there people to be released or reassigned, tools and equipment to be returned, and surplus materials to be disposed of? (5 minutes) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ e. After the project was completed, did you spend any time reﬂecting on the experience to see where improvements could be made in the management of the project? If not,
take a few minutes now and write down some ideas for improvement. (5 minutes) ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ 2. Sharing in small groups (optional, 3 minutes per person, maximum 10 minutes total). Group the participants into groups of 3. Ask them to share their answers to the group. Assign reporters and documenters. Plenary reporting (3 minutes per report, maximum 15 minutes). Ask the reporter of each group to summarize the results of their sharing. Processing of reports (15 minutes). (If there will be no small groups sharing, ask two participants per question to share their answers.
From the projects that the participants identiﬁed, deﬁne what a project is.
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Projects are temporary undertakings that have a deﬁnite beginning and end. This quality distinguishes it from the ongoing work of an organization (be it household, office or the barangay). Projects are carried out to meet established goals within cost, schedule and quality objectives. A successful project produces an expected output within a deadline and cost limits. These are the three parameters with by which a project is planned, controlled and established. Quality is deﬁned by speciﬁcations, time is deﬁned by schedule, and costs is deﬁned by a budget. Project Management brings together and optimizes the resources necessary to successfully complete the project. These resources include: ❋ Skills, talents and cooperative effort of a team of people; ❋ Facilities, tools and equipment; ❋ Information, systems and techniques; ❋ Money
Using pre-prepared idea cards, group the participants’ answers within the headings of the basic project life cycle. Write ﬁrst the steps they used (using bullet points), group them and then label them according to the following headings: responses to question #1 Project Selection and Conceptualization; responses to question #2 Project Development; responses to question #3 Project Implementation; responses to question #4 Monitoring; and responses to question #5 Evaluation
Present the basic project cycle using either of the following illustrations: The Project Cycle
Selection and Conceptualization
Close out and Evaluation
Implementation and Monitoring
The Project Management Model: Life Cycle Phases of a Project
Selection Activities: Analyze strategic goals and objectives Financial analysis Rank projects Choose projects to pursue Concept Activities: Gather data Analyze requirements Determine project scope Develop work breakdown schedule (WBS) Organize project team Kick off meeting Development Activities: Reﬁne WBS Develop schedules Develop plans Write project proposal Implementation Activities: Implement control process Monitoring Close out Activities: Project scope veriﬁcation Technical audit Financial audit Close-out Evaluation
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Project Development and Implementation Process
Project Selection Concept Phase Development Phase
Explain that the four phases – Concept, Development, Implementation and Close-out – make up a life cycle representative of most projects. Explain that the selection phase is usually not included in the life cycle because many organizations/LGUs don’t regard it as a project until after the selection or decision to pursue the project has been made This life-cycle model is used in this workshop because of the importance of the selection process and because project managers need to have an understanding of how the decisions were made in pursuing their project
Elaborate on the activities under each of the phases (3 minutes each) 10. Explain that project activities don’t fall into neat categories such as those in this model, but if they can start thinking of the project phases and the typical activities they will encounter, then it will be easier to determine which project management tools they can use in these activities. 11. End the session by saying that we will now proceed with simple project development tools to aid them
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Preparing a Project Proposal
At the end of the 2-hour session, participants would have been able to prepare a simple project proposal. ❋ Template for a project proposal written on manila paper ❋ List of projects from the BDP ❋ Ballpens ❋ Manila paper ❋ Masking tape 3. project. It contains the activities which will realize the objectives of the project”. Discuss the major parts of a proposal. Present the project proposal template (see next page). Give plenty of illustrations per part that are appropriate to the participants’ circumstances. Proposal preparation in small groups: Begin the workshop with the following statement: “Funding agencies (both local and international) have different requirements and formats for project proposals. Before writing one, be sure that you are aware of the sectoral priorities and formats of the agency
❋ Workshop in small groups ❋ Interactive lecture ❋ Practical exercises
HOW TO DO IT
1. Open the session with the following statements: “The Barangay Development Plan includes the priority projects to be implemented by the barangay. These projects or interventions can be developed into project proposals”. Deﬁne a project proposal. You may use this deﬁnition: “A project proposal is a blueprint of the ideas of the barangay in implementing the 4.
❋ Handout on Template for a project proposal
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to which you will address the proposal. In the case of proposals which are to be presented to the Municipal Development Council for inclusion in the Municipal Annual Investment Program (AIP), the template provided may be used. The work plan below is designed to help the barangay in preparing a project proposal”. 5. Group the participants into three groups. Give them them the following instructions: • Fill in the relevant spaces for LGUs • Select a project out of the array of projects lined up from the barangay development plan (or if the session is being conducted independent of the BDP, brainstorm and agree on a project they would like to implement in their barangay). No two project should be alike • Discuss among yourselves and ﬁll in the project proposal template.
PROJECT PROPOSAL TEMPLATE
Republic of the Philippines AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO Province of _____________ Municipality of _____________ BARANGAY _________________ PROJECT PROPOSAL
1. Project Title: ___________________________________________________________________________ (Name of project to be implemented) 2. Project Proponent: _____________________________________________________________________ (Name of the Barangay) 3. Background: Explain what problem you are trying to solve with the project ________________________________________________________________________________________ Geographical area and the population affected _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Why there is still a need to implement the project.____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Objectives: (One or two sentences may do. Start with the preposition to.) 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________
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5. Project Description: Please explain in detail the project you want to implement. If it is for a potable water system, indicate if level 1 or level 2. Specify what, where, and for whom. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Implementation Arrangements: This will show the involvement of the different players in the implementation of the project. Position Title Name of Person Agency/NGO Function
• Is the peace and order situation favorable for project implementation? Are there perceived threats of military operations? Or eruption of clan feuds? Or threats from lawless elements? • Will the project contribute to social cohesion, support the development of POs/CSOs/private sector or contribute favorably to develop trust and conﬁdence of revolutionary groups in government processes? • Will the project contribute to poverty reduction? • Is the project relevant to conditions in the community and feasible to ensure its sustainability? • Will the project contribute to greater awareness of human responsibility to protect their eco-systems?
7. Schedule of Implementation What are the activities in implementing the project? Try to put the activities in chronological order. Activity Date
8. Budget Requirements: Description Quantity Unit Cost Amount
Submitted by: ________________________ Punong Barangay
• Is the project staff adequate and capable of delivering expected outputs within the prescribed timeframe and budget? Is there adequate compensation or incentive given to staff? • Is accountability and transparency practiced among project implementers and stakeholders? Did the process build trust and conﬁdence in government’s sincerity to respond to community needs? • Does the project support gender and capacity enhancement of both formal or informal community structures?
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Project Monitoring and Evaluation
At the end of the 2-hour session, participants would have been able to; 1. Differentiate between Monitoring and Evaluation; 2. Know the basic principles of Project Monitoring and Evaluation.
❋ Handout on Project Monitoring and Evaluation ❋ Ballpens ❋ Manila paper ❋ Masking tape
HOW TO DO IT
1. Open the session with the following:
Deﬁne Monitoring and Evaluation
“Monitoring is a systematic gathering of information on the progress of project implementation. It is purposely conducted to put formative or corrective measures while the project is being implemented. Evaluation is the systematic gathering of information on the changes or impacts on the people and the environment caused by the implementation of a certain project. It is conducted at the end of a project, or after the implementation is completed. This ensures that any
SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES
1. Marion E. Project Management Revised Edition.Crisp Publications Inc., California. 1986. 2. Taylor, James. The Project Management Workshop: A Trainer’s Guide
❋ Workshop in small groups ❋ Interactive lecture ❋ Practical exercises
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negative impact will immediately be corrected, and positive impacts enhanced. It also provides lessons for more effective implementation of projects in the future. Monitoring is present-oriented while evaluation is future-oriented”. 2. State the Objectives of Monitoring, which are: a. To determine the actual schedule of implementation against the project work plan; b. To assess the quality of work and performance of contractors and implementers at the time of implementation; c. To determine if there are issues and problems which can be addressed to improve the implementation of the project. Discuss the Steps in Monitoring a. Identify the people who can be members of the Barangay Monitoring and Evaluation Team. This
team should be a multi-sectoral body in the barangay. b. Hold a focused group discussion so that the team will have a common understanding of the project
being monitored. c. Develop a monitoring plan and a monitoring form based on the project work plan being monitored.
MONITORING PLAN (M and E Form 1) Name of Barangay: _______________________ Project to be monitored: ___________________
Name of Monitor
Date for monitoring
Date for submission
Activity refers to the speciﬁc work being monitore, which is based on the project work plan. Ex. Drilling of hole for a well. Name of monitor - the team member who is assigned to do the monitoring of the speciﬁc activity
Date for monitoring – the time that the team member is supposed to collect his monitoring data Date for submission – the time that the team member is supposed to submit the data he/she has collected
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MONITORING INSTRUMENT (M and E Form 2) Project to be Monitored: _________________________ Project Location: ______________________ Name of Monitor: ______________________
Schedule of Implementation
Quality of work
Activity refers to the speciﬁc work being implemented. This is taken from the work plan submitted by the project. Ex. Drilling of hole for a well. Schedule of implementation - refers to the time that the activity will be implemented as sated in the work plan. Percent completed – estimated amount of work completed. This can be 10%, 50%, or 100% completed based on the ocular observation of the monitoring team.
Quality of work – refers to the assessment of the monitor as to the work or performance of the contractor. This can be rated poor, fair, good, or excellent. Remarks – refers to the reasons for the delay in implementation, or problems met in the process of implementation by the contractors or implementing group.
Recap on the Deﬁnition of Evaluation and its difference with Monitoring. Discuss the Objectives of Evaluation: a. To determine the effect (both positive and negative) of projects and their activities b. On day to day activities of people (both males and females) c. On the quality of the environment (water, natural resources, etc.) d. To determine if the project has any impact on poverty, speciﬁcally on social and economic indicators such as improved access to basic services, and increased personal income e. To determine if the project has any impact on peace and order Discuss the Steps in Conducting Project Evaluation: a. As in monitoring, it is important for the team to have a common
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understanding of the project being evaluated. Those assigned to interview should have adequate background on the project. b. Formulate a questionnaire or instrument which the evaluator can use while interviewing. The person interviewed is called the respondent or key informant, while the person interviewing is the interviewer. The key informant or KI is a person who is knowledgeable about the project being evaluated. Choose the KI carefully. There are political implications to this. The KI should be an impartial member of the community. Try to interview as many respondents as possible. For a more valid result, a minimum of 30 KIs should be interviewed. c. In evaluation, it is important to know the conditions before the project was implemented. This is called the baseline data. To get the impact, compare the
conditions before the project was implemented with the conditions after the project was implemented. (Ex. Noong wala pa itong artesian well, may mga nagkakasakit ba ng diarrhea o LBM dito? Ngayong tapos na ang project, may nagkakasakit pa ba?) Include recall questions in the questionnaire. If possible, the interview should be carried out like any ordinary conversation. The interviewer can add more questions which he/she thinks is important to the evaluation. d. Analyze the results by comparing the before and after data. The difference between the two is the impact. It may be positive or negative. Make sure that the impact being measured is due to the project, and not because of another project. e. Recommend measures to lessen the negative impact and enhance the positive impact.
• Was there peace dividend for all the intended beneﬁciaries? Who beneﬁted from the project? • Is the management system in place to ensure project sustainability? - Does the system promote project ownership among beneﬁciaries? • Did tensions or threat of violence erupt during project implementation? Were tensions lessened because of the project? • What is the peace and conﬂict impact of the intervention (either activity, training or project) to the community? Who beneﬁted from the intervention? Does the project promote social cohesion or created conﬂict in the community? Is the project owned by the stakeholders? Is a mechanism installed to ensure project sustainability?
f. Look for someone in the barangay who can write up the result of the evaluation.
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SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE (M and E Form 3) (This sample is for an artesian well constructed in the Barangay) Project to be Evaluated: Name of Key Informant: Sex: Name of Interviewer: Date of Interview: ______________________________ ______________________________ Male________ Female _________ ______________________________ ______________________________
(Introduce yourself to your key informant and tell him/her the reason for this interview. The questions below should be translated into your native dialect.) 1. Were you informed about the implementation of this project (explain project to be evaluated)? Yes ________ No ________ How did you get to know about the project? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. In general, how would you rate your satisfaction level regarding the implementation of this project. Are you? Very satisﬁed ____ Satisﬁed ____ Not satisﬁed____ 3. What conditions prevail in this barangay before and after the project in terms of: Unit of measurement Children sick of diarrhea Expense involved in procuring water Distance of well from home Frequency of baths Frequency of washing clothes Time spent in procuring water # of children sick Pesos spent # of meters away # of times # of times # of hours Better ______ Worse ______ Before After
4. Compare the water you get from this well with your previous source. Is it: 5. Do you think the other residents beneﬁt from this project? Yes ________
6. If another project (artesian well) will be constructed in this barangay, what recommendation would you give for improving this project: _______________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Synthesize the session with the following statements:
“ The goal of a project is to deliver an outcome for the barangay. Project Management focuses on a project. It is important to the success of a project that it be clearly deﬁned before it is undertaken. A successful project produces an outcome that performs as expected, by a set deadline, and within cost limits. To carry out the work of a project, a temporary team (Project Team) is usually
assembled. This necessitates developing a group, assigning responsibilities, and training people in their duties. Frequently, policies and procedures are required to clarify how the team is to function during the project. The Project Manager has many responsibilities. When work on the project begins, the work of different individuals and groups mujst be coordinated so that things run smoothly, and the progress of the project must be monitored and measured against plans. When deviations occur, corrective action must be undertaken. Also, project managers are expected to provide feedback to team
members, negotiate for materials, supplies or services, and help resolve differences that occur. Not every project requires the same attention to each of these activities. It will depend upon the type of project you are undertaking, its size and scope, and your organization. Use your judgment in selecting steps important to the success of your project. ❋ Wish the participants good luck with their chosen projects. ❋ Thank them for their participation. ❋ Ask a participant to lead a prayer or a ritual to end the session.
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MENU OF PRA TOOLS
Data to be Gathered : Barangay History Sectoral Planning Group : Social Development Sector
The history of the barangay can be written and analyzed using the PRA tools called Timeline and Historical Transect. A timeline illustrates the important events that took place in the barangay, which when put together in chronological order, becomes the history of the barangay.
1. To establish the history of the barangay through a chronological description of events; To identify people and their characteristics who were pillars in the building up of the community; To obtain the viewpoint of what men and women see as important in the history of their community using past experiences To analyze if there are issues and problems that can be related to or caused by the history of the community.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Identify the people who can be key informants (usually the most senior members of the community). Hold a focused group discussion so that they can help each other “recall” important events. The guide questions can be as follows: a. When did the residents start living in the area? Give details such as names, tribal affiliations, places of origin, other details on people. b. How did the names of the barangay come about? Are there other names for the place? c. What other events took place? Arrange these in chronological order. These can be: • Major political changes: leaders during speciﬁc years, election held, sultan/datu installed, etc. • Environmental changes: ﬂoods, typhoons, ﬁre, earthquakes or other man-made calamities like massacre, rebellion, etc.(see Violence and Peace below)
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• Basic social services: awards won, organizations established, epidemics. These can also be schools built, hospitals built, playground, church/mosque built, gymnasium or basketball court constructed. • Economic events: factory or plantation established, land reform implemented, mass lay-off in factory, logging concession started operations, use of fertilizer/ pesticides, road opened, ﬁsh landing constructed, boat or jeepney operations started. • Violence and peace: military operations, displacements, massacre, rebellion, etc. d. Check if there are gaps or data blanks. e. Arrange the data gathered and have them review the historical data.
Ask the discussion group about the implications of the collected data. Crosscheck present issues and problems. Facilitate the analysis to see if any of these show if and how past events may have caused these problems. For example, discuss how they have impacted on the present situation. Some questions could be: “Was there a change in family income due to the opening of the logging concession? What was its impact on the community? What was its impact on the environment?"
1968- Road opening (RP road) for easier logging operations 1972- Introduction of HYV rice; logging operations stopped 1974- Creation of 4 Barangays; resumption of logging operations 1980- Construction of rural health clinic 1982- Outbreak of typhoid fever; earthquake 1984- Introduction of citrus production 1986- Change in administration 1992- Farmers association formed By starting the discussion on the link between past events and the present situation, the facilitator explains the move from historical timeline to historical transect. The whole process is called historical proﬁling.
Example of a Timeline chronology of events:
Barangay: Talitay, Kapatagan 1946- Opening of the ﬁrst elementary school 1960- Bantam Consolidated opened up logging concession
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Data to be Gathered : Barangay History Sectoral Planning Groups : Economic Development Sector; Environment and Natural Resources Sector
A Historical Transect shows the trends in particular topics like population, forest, livestock, farm production, others. The transect also shows the reasons for the changes in time. This is a follow up of the historical timeline to assure the integration of the crosscutting themes of gender, environment, poverty, and peace/unity, and will be used for analyzing other items not included in the historical background. This can also be used for future projections
1. To show if there are changes over time in the important physical, social, economic, and environmental aspects of the barangay (with emphasis on cross-cutting themes) To identify the reasons and causes of the changes To come up with a list of issues and concerns for planning
HOW TO DO IT
1. This is done through a small group discussion among the most senior participants (or who has the longest residency in the barangay) Give the objectives in using the tool. Decide on the time span for the study. The before (noon), what year or how many years back, and the present (ngayon) Ask the participants to illustrate the changes over time through drawings
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SAMPLE HISTORICAL TRANSECT
Sector/ CCT Themes 1. Environment Topic Forest/ watershed Source of water Noon (Before-1950) Plenty of trees in the forest. People get materials for houses from the forest Abundant supply of water from the river and wells High production even without use of fertilizer and pesticides Deer can be hunted in the forest. Rivers yield plenty of ﬁsh No women leaders in the area Before, women only stay at home as homemakers Arranged marriage was the norm Peace in the community Many families have arms to protect themselves Some men recruited from here No problems Not so evident. People can eat 3 times a day "Ngayon" (Now-2002) Very few trees left in the forest. Forest slowly disappearing Rivers are dirty. Only trickles of water. Wells are drying up and becoming salty Yields are lower. Farmers have to use fertilizer to increase yield No more deers in the forest. Species of ﬁsh disappearing There are some women in the barangay council Women work in ofﬁces. Some men stay at home Women now has a say in choosing a partner There is “rido” between clans No need due to peace talks. No more arms No more rebel groups Some but not reported Many people are obviously poor Reason/causes for the change - Logging - Slash & burn - No planting of new trees - Deforestation - Increase in temperature - Salt water intrusion - Black bags/locusts - Disappearance of indigenous species - Conversion of lands to subdivisions - Introduction of exotic species - Commercialized/exported - Education have helped women - Economic problem - Education and empowerment of women - Land problems - Peace talks between rebel fronts and military - Peace talks - Mayor is strict - Lack of livelihood opportunities
Indigenous Fauna 2. Gender Women leaders Traditional occupations Marriage 3. Culture and Peace Family feuds Number of arms, weapons Rebel groups Crime incidence 4. Poverty No. of poor families
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Data to be Gathered : Barangay Topography Sectoral Planning Group : Environment and Natural Resources Sector
The barangay geographical location, its topography, and land uses can be identiﬁed and analyzed using the transect map (“side view” of the barangay)and the resource and land use map (the “aerial view” of the barangay). This is the map that shows the geography of the place, type of soil, agricultural crops, livestock, and other problems/ opportunities in the barangay.
1. To gather data on the topography of the place particularly the land forms, and type of soil To gather data on the type of ﬂora and fauna (crops, livestock, etc.) in the barangay To identify problems and opportuni-
ties in the barangay resulting from its geographical setting
HOW TO DO IT
1. Form a team who will undertake a “transect walk” and who will analyze the different places in the barangay The team should bring a base map of
the barangay as reference While walking, the group documents what they see. The group should be able to pass the different land use zones- commercial, residential, upland agricultural, lowland agricultural, forest, coastal, idle land etc. Use the following matrix to record the observations.
Idle Lands Coastal Sand Mangrove
Commercial/ residential Type of soil Type of plant and trees Animals, fauna Resources Problems Sandy Banana, coconut Goat, chicken Spring water
Farm low-land Sandy-loam Palay, bamboo Rats, birds Well, irrigation Decline in soil fertility
Farm upland Sandy-loam Corn, mango Carabao, goat Falls Lack of water-drought during hot season
Watershed/ forest Sandy clay Narra, camote,gabi, Wild pig Trees Kaingin, illegal logging Gravel
Erosion of the soil due to the absence of trees
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Data to be Gathered : Socio-Economic Resources Sectoral Planning Group : Social Development Sector Community Mapping is a simple PRA tool that can be used to show or highlight differences in socio-economic level or resources. OBJECTIVES
To show the community as members see it and identify places of speciﬁc interest or importance to men, women, boys and girls and the places that they would like to change. Through discussion, explore what and why they would like changes to occur. 2. 3. 4. Ask participants why maps are important and what they are used for. Divide the group into men and women Participants draw a map of their community, showing main roads, land and utilities and other important landmarks / features that they think are important. Participants can use their own symbols and colors. Participants also identify which landmarks / features they want to change using their own symbols and colors. Gallery viewing and reporting.
Note to Facilitators: Ensure that participants understand why maps are important and how they are able to interpret information based on what they have shown. Some prompt questions: • What are the important areas? Why? • What are the problematic areas? Why? • What are the areas that are affected by conﬂict? By environmental calamities?
HOW TO DO IT
1. Explain to the whole group the concept of community mapping as a way of identifying important places in a community, and places that they would like to see changes. These places will be important for different groups of people for different reasons.
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Point Land Use and Resource Map
Data to Be Gathered : Natural Resources and its conditions Sectoral Planning Group : Environment and Natural Resources Sector
The Point Land Use and Resource Map shows the resources and social infrastructures in the barangay from an aerial (or top) view. The purpose is to see the location of every resource, infrastructure and projects.
1. To determine the size of the built up area of the barangay and the location of the various establishments 2. To classify areas as residential, commercial, institutional, agricultural 3. To analyze the land use trends and developments and resources found therein 4. To identify issues and problems for planning technical description in the ordinance creating the barangay as the basis for plotting the boundaries) Starting from the boundaries, plot the permanent landmarks - roads, rivers, hills, lakes. Then plot the barangay hall, health center, schools, parks, other social services. Next, plot what resources can be found such as trees, crops, mineral deposits. Use legends in plotting the resources: * -barangay hall + - church // - road x- cemetery ≈ - river ♣-forest ≡ - bridge Δ- school ↓-rice land (see HLURB legends) Review the resource and land use map. Check if the placements/distance/direction are correct. (orientation should be to the North) 7. Plot the sitios and indicate how many houses are present in the cluster. 8. The map should be ﬁnalize and turned over to an engineer for “data cleaning” 9. Interpret the resource and land use map. Ask if basic service infrastructure are found in the barangay. Are these social resources enough to sustain the population of the barangay? What problems are identiﬁed with the existing land use? 10. Compare the data from the attached Barangay Data Sheet on basic service facilities with the resource and land use map.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Get a copy of the municipal base map. In the base map, plot the boundaries of the barangay. This will be the basis of the mapping operation. ( use the
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Point Land Use and Resource Map of Barangay
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Social Census Map or Household Survey
Data to Be Gathered Sectoral Planning Group : Population and Social Services : Social Development Sector
The barangay population is the most important data for the barangay because it shows the type and characteristics of the people residing in the community. This is determined with the use of a Social Census Map (or Household Survey) and a Minimum Basic Needs Survey. The Social Census Map generates data at the household level, including sickness, disability, size of household, educational attainment, tools and equipment, livestock, water sources, toilets, etc.
1. To collect demographic data of the barangay population 2. To determine the socio-economic situation in the barangay (as reﬂected in the Minimum Basic Needs Survey)
HOW TO DO IT
1. Plot the houses in a map bigger than the land use map. Place numbers for each house. Use a card (or survey form) for each house with the corresponding number.
2. Prepare a household survey form that would enable the collection of the following data for each house: • Names of household head, spouse, children, and extended family (grandmother, grandfather, etc.) • For each name, get the sex, ages, civil status, educational attainment, and occupation • Household income and expenditure • Primary and secondary source of income • Household with or without toilets
• Household with or without electricity • Source of water • Sickness during the past 5 years • Source of health service • HH members with disability 3. Summarize the data at the barangay level to show a quantitative description of the population.
Minimum Basic Needs
Instead of the 33 indicators for the Minimum Basic Needs, the National Poverty Commission has scaled down the indicators to 13 +1 for the Community
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Based Monitoring System (CBMS). This is divided into three groups: 1. Survival – includes indicators on health, nutrition, and water and sanitation 2. Security – includes indicators on shelter and peace and order 3. Enabling – includes indicators for income and livelihood, and basic education.
A worksheet for the CBMS is enclosed which will be used by the community (preferably puroks and sitios residents) to reﬂect the MBN situation through estimates on the percentages involved. For example, the indicator for health is the proportion of children 0-5 years old who have died to the sum of children 0-5 years old. This can be estimated at the purok or sitio level.
The purok data will be compiled with other puroks in the barangay to show the indicator for the barangay. The barangay data will then be compiled with other barangays to show the indicator for the municipality. This indicators are used to point out which barangays have situations reaching alarming levels.
Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS Indicators) Barangay Survey Sheet for ___________________ # of Puroks: _____________ Total # of Households: _____________ Total Population _______________
% of Population (children, households, etc.) Indicators Proportion of children aged 0-5 years old who died Proportion of women who died dur to pregnancy-related causes Proportion of children aged 0-5 years old who are malnourished Proportion of households living in makeshift housing Deﬁnition Purok 1 Death occurred after birth up to the age of 5 years. This excludes fetal deaths Pregnancy-related death is deﬁned as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death Total number of children aged 0-5 years old who are malnourished over toal number of children aged 0-5 years old Considered as makeshift housing are those housing structures with makeshift.salvaged materials in walls and/or roof Purok 2 Purok 3 Purok 4 Total
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% of Population (children, households, etc.) Indicators Proportion of households that are squatters Proportion of households without access to safe water supply Deﬁnition Purok 1 Considered as squatters are those households that live in house and/or lot that they do not own and without permission/consent of owner Considered as safe water facility - safe water supply refers to potable and non-contaminated water. Thus, open wells, and untreated water from streams, rivers, and lakes are not considered “safe”. Underground water accessed through jetmatic pumps or artesian wells are considered “safe”. Considered as sanitary toilet facility are water-sealed ﬂush to sewerage system or septic tank and closed pit, whether own use or shared with other households Total number of children aged 6-12 years old who are not attending elementary school over total number of children aged 6-12 years old Total number of children aged 13-16 years old who are not attending secondary school over total number of children aged 13-16 years old Poverty threshold is estimated by inﬂating the ofﬁcially-released poverty threshold of NSCB for Region or Province using prevailing monthly consumer price indices (CPI) from NSO for the reference period of the survey Food (subsistence) threshold is estimated by inﬂating the ofﬁcially released food (subsistence) threshold of NSCB using prevailing monthly consumer price indices (CPI) from NSO for the reference period of the survey Total number of households that experienced food shortage over total number of households Considered as members of the labor force are 15 yeard old and above who are employed and those who are unemployed but actively seeking for work. Household member became a victim of murder, theft, rape, abuse, or physical injury regardless of place of occurrence of the crime Purok 2 Purok 3 Purok 4 Total
Proportion of households without access to sanitary toilet facilities Proportion of children aged 6-12 years old who are not attending elementary school Proportion of children aged 13-16 years old who are not attending secondary school Proportion of households with income below the poverty threshold Proportion of households with income below the food (subsistence) threshold Proportion of households that experienced food shortage Proportion of persons who are unemployed Proportion of persons who are victims of crimes
Source: Philippine Institute for Development Studies
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Income Expenditure Tree
Data to be Gathered : Sources of Livelihood and Type of Expenditures (Barangay Economy) Sectoral Planning Group : Economic Development Sector
The barangay economy is a simple presentation of the sources of livelihood and types of expenditures in the barangay. An analysis of the economy can be facilitated by the use of Seasonality Diagrams for agriculture and ﬁshing, and the discussion on the Income Expenditure Tree. The Income Expenditure Tree shows the sources of income of the barangay (ugat or roots) and the expenditures (branches). This can be used to plan for the following: a. Support to increase further the identiﬁed sources of income of people. b. Support to decrease the identiﬁed expenditures of people.
1. To identify the most important sources of income of the barangay and issues connected with these 2. To identify the most important expenditures of the barangay and issues connected with these 3. To come up with recommendations on how the barangay can enhance income and lessen expenditures.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Identify major source of income of people in the barangay. Rank the sources according to importance. 2. Identify alternative sources of income of people in the barangay (those not mentioned in letter a) 3. Identify expenditures of people in the barangay. Rank them according to importance. 4. Ask the participants to think of problems in connection with the identiﬁed income, resources (priorities) and expenditures (prioritized 1-5) Include the problems in the issues and concerns for barangay planning so that solutions can be identiﬁed.
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Production Flow Chart
Sectoral Planning Group : Economic Development Sector
The ﬂow chart is a tool to show the different steps that each product goes through from production up to marketing. It can also show the different ways of producing and selling the product. During the discussion, problems in each step may surface and the barangay can provide solutions to the problems mentioned while doing the ﬂow chart.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Make a ﬂow chart for each major product in the community 2. Start with production. What is the initial process in making the product? For example, palay starts with land preparation 3. Plot the next steps. Show the succession of steps by placing an arrow in each step. 4. Follow the process until the marketing system – or until the product reaches the end consumer. Show the different ways of selling the product to consumers and describe the problems, threats, opportunities in each system. 5. In each step, place the expenses (if any) and revenues (if any). This will give an estimate of the proﬁt or income in each step of the process.
6. Show the problems and opportunities while doing the ﬂow chart. Which of
the steps are costly? Why? Are there problems in selling the products?
Sample Production Flow Chart
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Venn Diagram of Roles of Organizations
Sectoral Planning Group : Culture and Peace Sector
The Venn diagram helps study relationships in the community. For this purpose, it shows the role played by institutions present in the community in its development process.
1. To identify the institutions in the community that exert inﬂuence in its day-to-day affairs 2. To show which institutions should be given importance based on the help they extend to the community.
Barangay Council COMMUNITY POs
HOW TO DO IT
1. Prepare circles of different sizes made of cartolina or colored paper. On manila paper, draw a large circle to show the community. 2. Ask the participants to write the names of the institutions on other circles. The bigger the organization, the bigger the circle. Smaller organizations should be depicted as smaller circles. 3. Ask the participants to position the circles in the community. The more inﬂuential the institution, the nearer it is to the center of the community. 4. After all the institutions have been placed inside the community circle, explain that the institutions near the center are the ones that are easy to approach and have provided much help to the community. Make a listing of important organizations and institutions which can be involved in the development process.
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Data to be Gathered : Internal and External Sources of Conﬂict Sectoral Planning Group : Culture and Peace Sector OBJECTIVE
This tool helps planners identify sources of conﬂict and classify them according to their origin: internal or external to the community.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Draw a big circle on manila paper (or other ﬂat surface). 2. Label the inside portion of the big circle as Internal Sources of Conﬂict and label the outside portion of the circle as External Sources of Conﬂict. 3. Explain the Venn Diagram symbols and the concept of internal and external conﬂict to the planners 4. Hand out metacards to the planners 5. Instruct planners to identify source of conﬂict. Allow them some time to think and to write.
6. When the participants are ready, let them post their metacards on the Venn Diagram. 7. When everyone has posted their metacards on the Diagram, facilitate a discussion for each metacard.
8. The facilitator can also write down ideas on the metacards for participants who are not able to write.
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Conﬂict Evaluation Ranking
Data to be Gathered : Internal and External Sources of Conﬂict Sectoral Planning Group : Culture and Peace Sector
This tool helps planners prioritize sources of conﬂict that they have earlier identiﬁed.
HOW TO DO IT
1. In one huge ﬂat surface (manila paper, black board, etc) draw the matrix as illustrated below and list down the sources of conﬂicts that were earlier identiﬁed by the planners. 2. Orient the planners on the purpose and methodology of the session. 3. Facilitate consensus building around the criteria for ascertaining/prioritizing the sources of conﬂict. Allow ideas to surface from the planners themselves. From their ideas, summarize the discussion by highlighting the agreed criteria. Suggested criteria are as follows: • Propensity to Cause Displacement • Propensity to Cause the Loss of Life
Conﬂict Evaluation Matrix
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SOURCES OF CONFLICT DISPLACEMENT (Niakaawa) LOSS OF LIFE (Niawa or badan) PROPERTIES (Tamok) COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP (Kapagisa-isa) SCORE
Politics Family Conﬂict Drug Abuse Sabong Sugal
Legend: 1 – 2 = Low Intensity
1 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 1 1
3 = Medium Intensity
5 1 2 3 3
3 5 2 2 2
5 = High Intensity
12 11 8 7 7
• Propensity to Cause Damage to Properties • Propensity to Destroy Good Community Relationship 4. Tackling one source of conﬂict at a time, let the participants agree on what rating they will give to the issue using a scale of 1 to 5, with one as the
lowest and ﬁve as the highest score. 5. After all the sources of conﬂict have been rated, summarize the scores. 6. Identify top sources of conﬂict. 7. Facilitate a discussion on the planners’ recommendations on how to address the top ﬁve sources of conﬂicts.
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Data to be Gathered Sectoral Planning Group : Internal and External Sources of Conﬂict : Culture and Peace Sector
This tool helps planners identify local human resources that are essential in implementing a peace program in the community.
HOW TO DO IT
1. Post the prepared matrix (see illustration) on a wall where everyone could can see. 2. Explain the focus of the discussion and the three elements of community peaceabilities. 3. Facilitate a discussion, going through each peace issue one at a time. Chart the responses of the planners on the matrix 4. After the matrix has been ﬁlled up, gather the planners’ observations on the data and prompt the planners to connect these to the peace challenges that the community is facing.
PEACE ISSUES Settling neighborhood disputes Settling hand disputes Bridging differences between tribes Settling marriage problems Solving problems related to farming Overcoming natural disasters Overcoming problems related to evacuations Community defense Treatment of strangers TRAITS AND TRADITIONS Ijma and taritibs, Islamic laws, or government laws Shariah Law or Government Law Elder’s usually initiate do stop the feuds and made some arrangement to ease the warring tribes Ijma and taritib relatives, or both parties of the male and female Bayanihan in harvesting crops Bayanihan, helping each other in solving the problem, if its too services Giving arms to the barangay folks giving them security and provide them with food and shelter We have the local militia to give us defense from any lawless elements We are hospitable to friendly visitors; we accommodate them with security and shelter HOMEGROWN STRATEGIES But preferably amicable settlements Amicable settlement But preferably amicable settlement
Usually the parents will do the agreement Helping each other Bayanihan Help them manually
Barangay Patrol Show them friendly gestures
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Organizational Rating Matrix
Data to Be Gathered : Barangay Government Sectoral Planning Group : Institutional Development Sector
The Organizational Rating Matrix (ORM) shows the performance of the barangay council as rated by the group. The members of CSO organizations can also use the tool to rate their own organizations. Remember that the ratings are only the perception of those making the ratings. The organizational rating matrix shows the strength and weakness of: ❋ Sangguniang Barangay ❋ Barangay Development Council ❋ Other barangay organizations (NGOs, POs, PTA, etc.)
1. To identify the important roles and functions of the barangay organization 2. To determine the perceptions of participants on the performance of these roles and functions 3. To determine the areas where the organization would need capacity development
HOW TO DO IT
1. Narrate the objectives of the rating activity. Explain that this is for strengthening or enhancing performance of barangay officials rather than putting down anybody or showing anyone in a negative light. 2. List down what areas should be rated and develop a rating scale (see sample on the following page).
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Performance Activities 1 -– Poor to Unsatisfactory (Mahina) 2 – Satisfactory (Katamtaman) 3- – Very Satisfactory to Outstanding (Mahusay)
Functions of the organization: 1. Formulating ordinances on taxation, welfare, and other services 2. Approval of supplemental budget 3. Maintenance of equipments 4. Forwarding resolutions to the Sangguniang Bayan 5. Help in organizing cooperatives 6. Providing needs of Lupong Tagapamayapa 7. Organize lectures, programs on community problems 8. Provide for delivery of basic services 9. Conduct barangay general assembly twice a year
Rating key: 1-Poor to Unsatisfactory 2-Satisfactory 3- Very Satisfactory to Outstanding
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Performance Gap Analysis
Data to be Gathered : Barangay Government Sectoral Planning Group : Institutional Development Sector
Review the ratings given in the table above. Those rated 1 are indicative of a performance gap which should be addressed. Discuss the causes of poor performance, and recommend a capacity development intervention (training, logistical support, facilities, etc.).
Performance Gap Analysis
Performance Gap 1. Formulating ordinances 2. Help in organizing cooperatives 3. (Other) Causes/Reasons for the Gap Lack of knowledge to formulate ordinances No listing of organizations Recommended Capacity Intervention Training in legislative function Prepare directory of CSOs
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Focus Group Discussion
Data to be Gathered : Barangay Government Sectoral Planning Group : Institutional Development Sector
Focus Group Discussion is a methodology for collecting data which involves putting together the ideas of 7 to 10 participants. The participants are relevant/ knowledgeable persons in the community who can express their aspirations, and can make an immediate assessment of community conditions. The following are the requirements in an FGD: 1. A facilitator who will lead the discussion. He or she should encourage all participants to contribute to the discussion (nobody should monopolize) and should ensure that the discussion is really focused on the topics desired; 2. A documenter who will write down the minutes of the discussion. The documenter is ideally the rapporteur if the group wants to be updated on what has transpired and should have the responsibility of keeping the records of the discussion. It would be helpful if a board is used to write down comments, suggestions, etc of the participants so that reactions can at once be noted. If a board is used, an assistant recorder is assigned for the board work. 3. Since the FGD is used extensively in Development Administration, the following guide may be used: • Barangay treasurer • Barangay secretary • Members of the Barangay Development Council • Members of the Lupong Tagapayapa • Barangay Tanod • Sangguniang Kabataan 2. If the above entities have poor performance, what are the causes or reasons for their performance? 3. What capacity development interventions would you recommend for each of the above mentioned officials and members? 4. What improvements would you introduce to barangay governance to make it more responsive to its constituents?
FGD GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
1. How do you assess the capacity of the following entities in discharging their functions? • Punong barangay • Members of the Sangguniang Barangay
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MASTERING SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
The planners analyze the local barangay situation in order to identify issues that have to be addressed and to establish the bases for the objectives and strategies of the Barangay Development Plan. Among the objectives for undertaking a community situational analysis are the following: 1. To identify the primary challenges facing the community in the ﬁeld of peace and human security as well as the major factors for growth; 2. To objectively deﬁne and examine the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the community; 3. To identify the underlying factors of the weaknesses and the facilitating factors in the strengths of the community. It is best to present the Situational Analysis in a thematic fashion, supporting analytical statements with concrete data.
Matrix for Peace -Focused BDP through PRA Sample Sector: Social Development Sector SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED Barangay Population Number of males Number of females Number of male children Number of girl children Senior citizens Persons with Disabilities OBJECTIVE Know the total population of the barangay and its distribution based on the said categories FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the population of the barangay How many percent are females? How many percent are males? Percent of male/girl children? Percent of senior citizens? Percent of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)? TOOLS Social Census Map or Pie Chart (Information to be collected from secondary data)
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DATA TO BE GATHERED List down basic services in the barangay
OBJECTIVE Know the basic services available in and out of the barangay Know the quality of basic services identiﬁed
FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the basic services available in the barangay? What are the basic services available outside the barangay (that could be accessed by barangay members)? Are these basic services being offered by government agencies? Are there any other organizations offering these basic services (eg church, NGOs, Pos) What can you say about these basic services? Note to facilitators: In getting the information on each of the basic services, list down all services like health center, day care center, school, water source/water system, etc and ﬁnd out their state and quality. QUESTIONS FOR HEALTH SERVICES
TOOLS Service Map
Know the health services in the barangay health center Know what other medical help the barangay residents need, from children, men, women, senior citizens, and handicapped
What are the health services that are given by the Health Center? To whom are these services open to? What are the particular programs for children? Babies? (e.g. nutrition programs, vaccinations, check-ups)
Service Map A Health Services Pie Chart may be made out of the services given by the Health center and how many are beneﬁting from these.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED GENDER RELATED Health services for women
OBJECTIVE Know if there are RH programs and of what kind are they Know the particular services for women, men, children, and other special sectors
FOCUS QUESTIONS Are there Reproductive Health Programs given by the barangay? What are the health services for women? How many are pregnant? Lactating? On and after pregnancy, are there any health services open to them? Where do pregnant mothers go during labor? (Hospital, komadrona, Lying-in clinic) Are there family planning programs in the barangay? Discuss one by one the health services for the following Are there health programs for men? (e.g. prostate check-ups) For children (and what are these) LGBT Elderly Are there medicines given by the health center? Are these enough? Where do the residents get the medicine?
TOOLS Health Services Pie Chart
Common illnesses, diseases, and other health problems
Know the medical status of the barangay population Know the reasons why diseases occur and what the barangay does for this
Know the common diseases of the barangay population. You may start from the illnesses of children and up to the elderly. What are the most common illnesses of children? Ready the Seasonality Chart. Discuss one by one the diseases mentioned. In a year, when does this disease most commonly occur? What are the common reasons? Does the barangay have medicine available for this disease? How do health service providers counter this? How do residents counter this? Then, know the common sicknesses of the elderly, with the same procedure.
Seasonality Chart on the Illnesses of Children Seasonality Chart on the Illnesses of the Elderly
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Status of the barangay’s rest areas
OBJECTIVE Know the status of the yards of the barangay residents to know how clean the barangay is
FOCUS QUESTIONS What kind of rest areas do houses in the barangay have? How many use a water sealed CR, open pit and antipolo type CR? Are there any without their own rest areas?
TOOLS Service Map You may want to have a Social Census Map and Pie Chart on Kinds of Rest Areas Service Map Social Census Map and Pie Chart on Kinds of Rest Areas
Potable water resources
Know if the barangay has access to clean and safe water
Note: Parallel the questions to what kind of water system the barangay has. Where do the barangay residents get their drinking water? If there is no water system What kind of source do residents get their drinking water? Do all residents have access to drinking water? How many use the same source of water? How far is this source to the homes of the residents? Who usually goes to get the water? Are there any speciﬁc times when the water should be taken? Is this source still available during the rainy season? If there is a water system What kind of water system does the barangay have? Where does the water come from? Do all the houses have faucets? Since when had the water system been open/ Who manages the water system? Who collects the bill? How much is the bill? When is it paid?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Proper waste management
OBJECTIVE Know the ways by which the barangay disposes of its waste
FOCUS QUESTIONS How do the barangay residents dispose of their wastes? Is there waste segregation? Recycling? Do residents have compost pits? As for recycling, where do recyclable materials go to? Is there any income out of this? Of the said ways in disposing garbage, what percent of people use which way? (discuss each one by one, then basing from the results of the pie chart, know the reason why residents prefer the highest percentage) QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
TOOLS Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart on Garbage Disposal
Different kinds of schools (Daycare, elementary, highschool, college, vocational)
Know the educational need of residents Know how many children have been educated Know if the number of teachers are sufﬁcient See if facilities are enough
What educational institutions are in the barangay? What are the conditions of these? Are they in good condition? What facilities are there in the barangay schools? (classrooms, chairs, tables, library, toilet, playground, etc) How many of the residents are studying? Males? Females? What grades / levels are there in the schools? For each grade and section, how many students are there? How many teachers? Are the teachers enough to cover all of the students? Are the classrooms enough for all the students? Are there drop-outs? Males? Females? What grade levels are most prone to drop-outs?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Education level of the barangay residents Number of residents without education / unﬁnished education
OBJECTIVE Know the literacy level of the residents Know if facilities are enough or not
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the common education level of the residents? At what level have they ﬁnished? How many women have ﬁnished education? Men?
Know the reasons why residents have unﬁnished education
What are the common jobs of residents with ﬁnished education in the barangay? Of the residents with unﬁnished education, what is the most common reason for this? For those with no education, what is the most common reason for this?
QUESTIONS FOR HOUSING SERVICES Kinds of housing in the barangay Know the current condition of housing in the barangay Know if this is temporary or permanent GENDER RELATED Information on who has access, beneﬁt on basic services on times of calamity Know who gets primary access to beneﬁts in times of calamity Who has access to the services mentioned? Note to facilitators: For each item mentioned, know if this is open to men, women, children, etc. If it is, have symbols to show if it is open to men / young males, women / young females GENDER RELATED QUESTIONS Gender Know the opinions of residents on the roles of men and women in the family and community. Know the potential of men and women in different roles, activities, and jobs What are the characteristics of men and women? What are their speciﬁc roles in their families, their communities? What are the common roles of men and women in the barangay? Work Division Matrix Service Map What kinds of housing are there in the barangay? Are there any housing programs in the barangay? Discussion from Social / Resource Map
Workload of men and women
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Decision making
FOCUS QUESTIONS Who usually does the decision-making in the family? What are the reasons why (men / women) always do the decisions? Why are they followed?
Cases of Abuse
Know and see cases of abuse in the barangay Find a solution to counter this
Have there been any cases of abuse in this barangay that the residents know of? What are these? To whom does this happen? When, and where does this happen? How is this being answered?
Focus Group Discussion
After the data from the PRA and other sources have been gathered, do analysis using the following guide questions:
1. What did you see from the data gathered? What does it mean? 2. What problems and opportunities are identiﬁed?
3. What are the trends and patterns from each tool used? What do they mean?
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1. Local Governance in ARMM: Walking the Tightrope Between Peace and Development Challenges and Break Throughs, Letty C. Tumbaga, ed. 2000 National Statistics Coordination Board, 2006 Census Report 3. 4. 5. 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article X MMA 25 (Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 25) Sections 382-393; MMA 25 Implementing Rules and Regulations Articles 152-159; Art. 178; Art 212 ; Art. 297 RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991), Sections 14-33 RA 6734 as amended by RA9054 (Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao) Streamlining Barangay Governance: A Step by Step Guide in the Implementation of the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee – DILG Calabarzon Region 2008.
MODULE 2: ISLAMIC BRIDGING LEADERSHIP FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
1. Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration: The Critical Role of Leadership. A Concept Paper by Steven Pierce. Bridging Leadership for Barangay Governance by Hannbal Bara, Ph.D. Paper presented during an LGSPA workshop conducted June 23-25, 2007, Davao City. Selected Khutba: A Guide to Social Development for Muslim Communities in the Philipppines, Local Governance Support Program in ARMM, Davao City, Philippines. 2008. (www. lgspa.org.ph)
MODULE 1: THE BARANGAY AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE
1. “A Guide to the Local Government Code” Manuel S. Tabunda and Mario M. Galang pp. xiv-xvi; Chapter I p. 55-65 Mary Go Educational Supply Manila. 1992.. Barangay Governance and Development Program – Local Government Academy
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MODULE 3: LOCALIZING PEACEBUILDING IN ARMM
1. Local Government Code Book III Title 1 Chapter 7 Katarungang Pambarangay “Localizing the Justice System in Six Peace Zone Areas in the ARMM: A Guidebook for Mainstreaming Indigenous Conﬂict Resolution in ARMM LGUs” LGSPA and SALIGAN,”. 2004 “Workshops on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law, Laws on Women and Children, and on Mediation: Trainers Guide”.2008 DILG-Local Government Academy. MMAA 25 (Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act, the ARMM Local Government Code) RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) Chapter 7 Sections 399-422 RA 8371: Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act (IPRA) RA 9054: ARMM Organic Act (Article III Sec 2; Article VIII Sec 19; Article X, Sec 4; Act Article XIV Sec 2 b)
MODULE 4: PARTICIPATORY BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
1. Department of Budget and Management. “PRIMER on Barangay Budgeting”. (Manila: 2001) Gender-Based Effectiveness Skills Training for Agrarian Reform Beneﬁciaries: A GuideBook for Trainers Asian Women in Co-operative Development Forum (AWCF) and Department of Agrarian Reform.”.. 2002 GeRL (Gender-Responsive LGU) KA BA? Self Assessment Manual of Administration Department of the Interior and Local Government and National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women. ”, 2005. Local Governance Support Program in ARMM. “Manual on the Local Planning Process. Focus on the Comprehensive Development Plan – Executive Legislative Agenda (CDPELA). Revised Ed, 2008. Manual on Barangay Development Planning Through Participatory
5. 6. 7.
Learning and Action” Institute of Politics and Governance , 2007. Participation in Development: The Question, Challenges and Issues. A Symposium Background Paper. Participation in Development: The Question, Challenges and Issues a Symposium Background Paper. Kenny, Michael (1997) Available from http://eprints.nuim .ie/233/; accessed October 13, 2008. Philippines-Australia Local Sustainability Program (PALS). “Barangay Development Planning Methodology Manual” .2006. The World Bank Participation Source Book. Participatory Rural Appraisal. Collaborative Decision-Making. Community-Based Method. Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ wbi/sourcebook/sba104.htm; accessed October 13,2008. Transparent Accountable Governance (TAG) Project. The Asia Foundation. “Facilitator’s Manual on Barangay and Municipal Planning and Budgeting”. 2005.
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10. United Nations Development Programme. “Barangay Development Planning Manual: Using the Rights Based Approach in Localizing the Millennium Development Goals”. 2007
ANNEXES (ON CD)
Annex A Lecture Notes on Barangay and Local Governance Annex B Streamlining Barangay Governance Annex C Bridging Leadership for Barangay Governance by Hannbal Bara, PhD. Annex D Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration. The Critical Role of Leadership. A Concept Paper by Steven Pierce, Synergos Institute Annex E Structured Learning Exercise: Review Quiz on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law Annex F Lecture Notes on Katarungang Pambarangay Law
Annex G Guide Questions on the Video on Mediation Annex H LGSPA Survey on Local Conﬂict Resolution Mechanisms Annex I Participation and Development
MODULE 5: A SIMPLE APPROACH TO MANAGING BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
1. Haynes, Marion E. Project Management Revised Edition.Crisp Publications Inc., California. 1986. Taylor, James. The Project Management Workshop: A Trainer’s Guide
Annex J Participatory Rural Appraisal Annex K Gender and Development Annex L Checklist of Data to be Gathered (By Sector) Annex M Structured Learning Exercise: Basketball Game Annex N Municipal and Barangay Development Planning Interface Points Annex O How to Formulate a Barangay Budget
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A Field Guide: Barangay Governance and Planning for ARMM Communities
Lecture Notes on Barangay and Local Governance
A. CREATION OF BARANGAYS 1. How is a Barangay Created? (Sec. 384-386 of the LGC) A barangay may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, by law enacted by Regional Legislative Assembly upon consultation with the communities concerned, subject to approval by a majority of cast in a plebiscite to be conducted by the Commission on Elections in the local government unit or units affected thereby within such a period of time as may be determined by the law creating said barangay. 2. What are the Requisites for the Creation of a Barangay? a. A barangay may be created out of a contiguous territory which has a population of at least one thousand (1,000) inhabitants as certiﬁed by the National Statistics Office except in highly urbanized cities where such territory shall have a certiﬁed population of at least ﬁve thousand (5,000) inhabitants: provided, That the creation thereof shall not reduce the population of the original barangay or barangays to less than the minimum requirement prescribed herein. To enhance the delivery of basic services in the indigenous cultural com-
munities, barangays may be created in such communities by an act of the Regional Legislative Assembly, notwithstanding the above requirement. b. The territorial jurisdiction of the new barangay shall be properly identiﬁed by metes and bounds or by more or less permanent natural boundaries. The territory need not be contiguous if it comprises two (2) or more islands. c. The governor or city mayor may prepare a consolidation plan for barangays, based on the criteria prescribed in this Section, with his territorial jurisdiction. The plan shall be submitted to the sangguniang panlalawigan or sangguniang
panlungsod concerned for appropriate action.
Note: Barangays created after the effectivity of RA 7160 or after January 1, 1992 will no longer receive IRA from the National Government
B. ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BARANGAY
The provision of local autonomy and decentralization in the Local Government Code hopefully will lead to the development of self-reliant communities. The national government relies heavily on the performance of the smallest unit in the country – the barangay. The barangay provides the broad base upon which the majority of Filipinos can participate in governance. Most of the provisions given below are taken from the Barangay Administration Handbook (Jardiniano, 1993)
1. What is the Role of the Barangay? As the basic political unit, the barangay serves: ❋ As the primary planning and implementing unit of government policies, plans, programs, projects, and activities in the community, ❋ As a forum wherein the collective view of the people may be expressed, crystallized and considered, ❋ As a venue where disputes may be amicably settled. 2. What is the Power and Authority of the Barangay? To generate and apply resources, a barangay shall have the following power and authority:
❋ Establish an organization that shall be responsible for the efficient and effective implementation of their development plans, programs, objectives, and priorities; ❋ Create their own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges which shall accrue exclusively for
their use and disposition and which shall be retained by them; Have a just share in national taxes which shall be automatically and directly released to them without need of any further action; Have an equitable share in the proceeds from the utilization and development of the national wealth and resources within their respective territorial jurisdictions including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct beneﬁts; Acquire, develop, lease, encumber, alienate, or otherwise dispose of real or personal property held by them in their proprietary capacity; Apply their resources and assets for productive, developmental, or welfare purposes, in the exercise or furtherance of their governmental or proprietary powers and functions and thereby ensure their development into self-reliant communities and active participants in the attainments of national goals.
3. What are the Basic Services and Facilities to be Provided by the Barangay? The basic services and facilities for a barangay shall be funded from the share of LGUs in the proceeds of national taxes and other local revenue and funding support form the national government, its instrumentalities, and corporations. Any fund or resource available for the use of barangays shall be ﬁrst allocated for the provision of these basic services or facilities:
❋ Agricultural support services which include planting materials distribution system and operation of farm produce collection and buying stations; ❋ Health and social welfare services which include maintenance of barangay health center and day-care center; ❋ Services and facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation, beautiﬁcation, and solid waste collection;
❋ Maintenance of Katarungang Pambarangay; ❋ Maintenance of barangay roads and bridges and water supply systems; ❋ Infrastructure facilities such as multipurpose hall, multi-purpose pavement, plaza, sports center, and other similar facilities; ❋ Information and reading center; and ❋ Satellite or public market, where viable. The national government or the city/ municipal government may provide or augment the basic services and facilities assigned to a barangay when such services or facilities are not made available or, if made available, are inadequate to meet the requirements of its inhabitants. The SP or SB shall pass a resolution of commitment and support to the Barangay Development Plan and appropriate funds for the implementation of the approved development projects and activities if needed.
C. WHAT IS THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND STAFFING OF BARANGAYS?
There shall be in each barangay a punong barangay, seven (7) sangguniang barangay members, the sangguniang kabataan chairman, a barangay secretary, and a barangay treasurer. There shall also be in every barangay a lupong tagapamayapa. The sangguniang barangay may form a community brigade and create such other positions and offices as may be deemed necessary to carry out the purposes of the barangay government in accordance with the need of the public service, subject to the budgetary limitations on personal services prescribed under Title Five, Book II of this Code. For purposes of the Revised Penal Code, the punong barangay, sangguniang barangay members, and members of the lupong tagapamayapa in each barangay shall be deemed as persons in author-
ity in their jurisdiction, while other barangay officials and members who may be designated by law or ordinance and charged with the maintenance of public order, protection and security of life and property, or the maintenance of a desirable and balanced environment, and any barangay member who comes to the aid of persons in authority, shall be deemed agents of person in authority.
D. WHAT ARE THE POWERS, DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF BARANGAY OFFICIALS? The Punong Barangay The punong barangay as the chief executive of the barangay government, shall exercise such powers and perform such duties and functions, as provided by the Local Government Code of 1991 and other laws. For efficient, effective and economical governance, the purpose of which is the general welfare of the barangay and its inhabitants, the punong barangay shall:
1. Enforce all laws and ordinances which are applicable within the barangay; Negotiate, enter into, and sign contracts for and on behalf of the barangay, upon authorization of the Sangguniang Barangay; Maintain public order in the barangay and, in pursuance thereof, assist the municipal mayor and the Sanggunian members in the perfor-
What are the Provisions on Vacancies and Succession? If a permanent vacancy occurs in the ofﬁce of the punong barangay, the highest ranking sangguniang barangay member or, in case of his permanent inability, the second highest ranking sanggunian member, shall become the punong barangay; a tie between or among the highest ranking sanggunian members shall be resolved by the drawing of lots. The successors as deﬁned herein shall serve only the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
mance of their duties and functions. Call and preside over the sessions of the Sangguniang Barangay and the Barangay Assembly, and vote only to break a tie; Upon approval by a majority of all the members of the sangguniang barangay, appoint or replace the barangay treasurer, the barangay secretary, Barangay Planning and Development Coordinator and other appointive barangay officials; Organize and lead an emergency group whenever the same may be necessary for the maintenance of peace and order or on occasions of emergency or calamity within the barangay; In coordination with the barangay development council, prepare the annual executive and supplemental budgets of the barangay; Approve vouchers relating to the disbursement of barangay funds; Enforce laws and regulations relating to pollution control and protection of the environment;
10. Administer the operation of the katarungang pambarangay in accordance with the Code; 11. Exercise general supervision over the activities of the Sangguniang Kabataan; 12. Ensure the delivery of basic services as mandated under Sec. 14 of the Code; 13. Conduct an annual palarong barangay which shall feature traditional sports and discipline included in national and international games, in coordination with the Department of Education; 14. Promote the general welfare of the barangay; and 15. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance. In the performance of their peace and other functions, punong barangays shall be entitled to possess and carry the necessary ﬁrearm within their territorial
jurisdiction, subject to appropriate rules and regulations.
The Sangguniang Barangay Composition. – The sangguniang barangay, the legislative body of the barangay, shall be composed of the punong barangay as presiding officer, and the seven (7) regular sangguniang barangay members elected at large and sangguniang kabataan chairman, as members.
The sangguniang barangay, as the legislative body of the barangay, shall; 1. Enact ordinances for the general welfare of the inhabitants as well as tax and revenue ordinances and annual and supplemental budgets; 2. Provide for the construction and maintenance of the barangay facilities and other public works projects; 3. Assist in the establishment, organization, and promotion of cooperative enterprises that will improve the economic condition and well-being of the residents;
Regulate the use of barangay owned facilities and charge reasonable fees for their use. Solicit or accept monies, materials and voluntary labor for speciﬁc public works and cooperative enterprises of the barangay Provide compensation, reasonable allowances or per diems as well as travel expenses for sangguniang barangay members and other barangay officials, Authorize the punong barangay to enter into contracts in behalf of the barangay, subject to the provisions of the Code; Provide for the administrative needs of the Lupong Tagapamayapa and the Pangkat Tagapagkasundo;
Barangay Secretary Appointment and Qualiﬁcations, Powers and Duties: The barangay secretary shall be appointed by the punong barangay with the concurrence of the majority of all the sangguniang barangay members. The
appointment of the barangay secretary shall not be subject to attestation by the Civil Service Commission. The barangay secretary shall: 7. 1. Keep custody of all records of the sangguniang barangay and the barangay assembly meetings Prepare and keep the minutes of all meetings of the sangguniang barangay and the barangay assembly Prepare a list of members of the barangay assembly, and have the same posted in conspicuous places within the barangay; Assist in the preparation of all necessary forms for the conduct of barangay elections, initiatives, referenda or plebiscites, in coordination with the COMELEC; Assist the municipal civil registrar in the registration of births, deaths and marriages; Keep an updated record of all inhabitants of the barangay containing the following items of information:
name, address, place and date of birth, sex, civil status, citizenship, occupation, and such other items of information as may be prescribed by law or ordinances; Submit a report on the actual number of barangay residents as often as may be required by the sangguniang barangay; and Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance.
barangay but not exceeding Ten Thousand (P10,000.00) Pesos, premiums for which shall be paid by the barangay. The barangay treasurer shall: 1. 2. Keep custody of barangay funds and properties; Collect and issue official receipts for taxes, fees, contributions, monies, materials, and all other resources accruing to the barangay treasury and deposit the same in account of the barangay as provided under Title Five, Book II of the Code; Disburse funds in accordance with the ﬁnancial procedures provided in this Code; Submit to the punong barangay a statement covering the actual and estimates of income and expenditures for the preceding and ensuing calendar year, respectively, subject to the provisions of Title Five, Book II of the Code; Render a written accounting report of all barangay funds and property
Barangay Treasurer Appointment, Qualiﬁcations, Powers and Duties. The barangay treasurer shall be appointed by the punong barangay with the concurrence of the majority of all the sangguniang barangay members. The appointment of the barangay treasurer shall not be subject to attestation by the Civil Service Commission. The barangay treasurer shall be bonded in accordance with existing laws in amount to be determined by the sangguniang -8-
6. 7. 8.
under his custody at the end of each calendar year, and ensure that such report shall be made available to the members of the barangay assembly and other government agencies concerned; Certify as to the availability of funds whenever necessary; Plan and attend to the rural postal circuit within his jurisdiction; and Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance.
upon the semestral reports of the Sangguniang Barangay concerning its activities and ﬁnances.
E. WHAT ARE THE BASIC FEATURES OF BARANGAY LEGISLATION?
Regional and local legislative power shall be exercised by the Regional Legislative Assembly for the Autonomous Region; the sangguniang panlalawigan for the province; the sangguniang panlungsod for the city; the sangguniang bayan for the municipality; and the sangguniang barangay for the barangay. As provided for in Sec. 44, the Presiding Officers are as follows: (a) The Barangay Chair shall be the presiding officer of the Barangay Legislative Assembly. The Presiding Officer shall vote only to break a tie. (b) In the event of the inability of the regular presiding officer to preside at a Sanggunian session, the members present and constituting a quorom shall elect from among themselves a temporary
presiding officer. He shall certify within ten (10) days from the passage of ordinance enacted and resolutions adopted by the Sanggunian in session over which he temporarily presided.
1. What constitutes a quorum? A majority (50% + 1) of all the members of the Sanggunian who have been elected and qualiﬁed shall constitute a quorum to transact official business. Should a question of quorom be raised during a session, the presiding officer shall immediately proceed to call the roll of members and thereafter announce the results.
Where there is no quorom, the presiding officer may declare a recess until such time as a quorom is constituted, or a majority of the members present may adjourn from day to day and may compel the immediate attendance of any member absent without justiﬁable cause by designating a member of the Sanggunian, to be assisted by a member or members of the police force assigned in the territorial jurisdiction of the local
Barangay Assembly The barangay assembly shall: 1. Initiate legislative processes by recommending to the Sangguniang Barangay the adoption of measures for the welfare of the barangay and the city or municipality concerned; 2. Decide on the adoption of initiative as a legal process whereby the registered voters of the barangay may directly propose, enact, or amend any ordinance; and (c) Hear and pass
government unit concerned, to arrest the absent member and present him at the session. If there is still no quorom despite the enforcement of the immediately preceding subsection, no business shall be transacted. The presiding officer, upon proper motion duly approved by the members present, shall then declare the session adjourned for lack of quorom.
2. Review of Barangay Ordinances by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan 1. Within ten (10) days after its enactment, the sangguniang barangay shall furnish copies of all barangay ordinances to the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan concerned for review as to whether the ordinance is consistent with law and city or municipal ordinances. 2. If the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan, as the case may be, fails to take action on barangay ordinances within thirty (30) days
from receipt thereof, the same shall be deemed approved. If the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan, as the case may be, ﬁnds the barangay ordinances inconsistent with law or city or municipal ordinances, the sanggunian concerned shall, within thirty (30) days from receipt thereof, return the same with its comments and recommendation to the sangguniang barangay concerned for adjustment, amendment, or modiﬁcation; in which case, the effectivity of the barangay ordinances is suspended until such time as the revision called for its effected.
them to be in their proper seats. After that he or she should inform the Presiding Officer that everything is ready for the start of the session, or any words to that effect. Once the Presiding Officer has entered the session hall and while he or she is approaching his desk, the Secretary should make the following announcements: “Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, the session of this honorable Sanggunian is about to commence. Everybody is, therefore, requested to rise” Presiding Officer: (after holding his gavel and while he is still in standing position): “The session of this Sanggunian will please come to order”; or, “The Chair now calls the session of this Sanggunian to order”; or
3. Order of Business for the Sangguniang Barangay
CALL TO ORDER
About two (2) to three (3) minutes before the appointed time of the session, the Secretary should inform all the members of the Sangguniang Barangay that the session is about to commence and ask
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“The session of this Sanggunian is now officially declared open”; or “The session of this Sanggunian is now called to order”.
Chair: “There being no corrections offered, this minutes shall stand adopted without corrections.” (or, “as read”). If there are proposed corrections, the Presiding Officer should put the proposed corrections to a vote, thus: Chair: “As many as are in favor of the proposed corrections (also known as “amendments”) please say, “Yes”… Those opposed please say “No”. (If the “viva voce” method is being used). Or, if the “show of hand method is being used): “As many as are in favor of the proposed corrections (or amendments) please raise their right hand…Those opposed please do the same.” The affirmative side has it. The suggestion (or proposal, as the case may be) is hereby adopted.”
If “roll call” is to be made , the Presiding Officer should assign this task to the Secretary, thus: Presiding Officer: “The Secretary will please call the roll of members.” (The Secretary in turn reads aloud the names of the members who should answer either “Here” or “Present)
READING AND CONSIDERATION OF PREVIOUS MINUTES
period of time allotted for members to express the sentiments of their constituents or their own views, opinions, comments or position on various issues and affairs of public interests. The speech made on the ﬂoor is popularly known as “privilege speech”, usually in the form of constructive criticism or comments on the operation of the government including the provision of basic services to the people. Unlike their counterparts in Congress, however, the members of the local legislative bodies or Sanggunians are “not immune from suit” for statements they make on the ﬂoor during their privilege speech.
In submitting the minutes for consideration of the body, the Presiding Officer should ﬁrst ask for corrections, thus: Chair: “Are there corrections to be made on this minutes?” (Or, any words to that effect). If no corrections are offered, he or she adds:
This item in the “Order of Business” is ideal for local legislative bodies (Sanggunians). The “privilege hour” is the
The “question hour” is that period of time allotted for members of the legislative body to ask question from “invited resource persons” coming from either the government or private sectors. They are usually the heads of government offices, technical men and prominent individuals.
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During the “question hour” the invited resource persons are to be considered as “guests” and as such should not be insulted by questions that tend to “crossexamine” or “interrogate” them. Only questions in the form and manner of “interpellation” should be asked.
FIRST READING AND REFERRAL OF MEASURES OR COMMUNICATIONS
tion. If there is no “standing committee” having jurisdiction on the matter to be referred to, a special (also known as AdHoc) committee shall be created right then and there to handle it.
members; dissenting members; and abstained members 6. Appendices (minutes of the committee hearings and committee meetings;)
CALENDAR OF BUSINESS
At this stage of the Order of Business, the Secretary to the Sanggunian reads all the proposed measures which came from the members other than the members of the Committee concerned and also other kinds of communications that his or her office received on behalf of the Sanggunian such as petitions, manifesto, letters and the like. Only the title of the proposed measure and its author or authors, or the name of the member who introduced it, shall be read. In the case of communications, only its substance and the name of its sender shall be read. Thereafter, the Presiding Officer shall refer it to the “standing committee concerned” for study and appropriate ac-
A “committee report” is an official written account of the action taken by a committee relative to a particular task assigned to it, together with its ﬁndings or conclusions and the corresponding recommendations. Contents of Committee Reports 1. Name of the reporting committee 2. Brief statement of the subject matter referred to it and the action taken on it including information gathered during the conduct of committee hearings and other relevant information 3. Findings or conclusions 4. Recommendations (in the case of the Sanggunians, either to ﬁle it away or to calendar it for a “second hearing”) 5. Names and signatures of concurring
Calendar of Business – is the official list of speciﬁc proposals or measures intended to be acted upon during a session of a legislative body. It is synonymous to the term “Agenda” which refers to the list containing the items of business to be taken up at a meeting of a non-legislative body. The “calendar of business” is composed of three (3) parts: 1. 2. 3. unﬁnished business business for the day unassigned business
Unﬁnished Business – this refers to any kind of business including, but not limited to, proposals or measures that have been left unacted upon, postponed, or left unﬁnished during the previous meet-
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ing or session. This also includes items of business left unﬁnished or unacted upon at the end of the term of office of the previous legislative body (like the Sanggunians). Business for the day – In legislative bodies this refers to a list of items that have been reported out by committees and are ready for deliberation on “second reading” as determined by the Committee on Rules. It also includes those measures (resolutions or ordinances) which have passed the “second reading” stage and are ready for the body’s decision on “third and ﬁnal reading”. Under this item could also be included speciﬁc urgent matters requiring immediate action by the Sanggunian on that particular session. Unassigned Business – Applicable only in “legislative bodies”, this refers to pending matters or measures and new ones arising out during the deliberations but not yet assigned or referred to proper committees for appropriate action including the following:
Matters, proposals or measures usually in the form of resolutions or ordinances that have not yet been referred to any particular committee albeit they have been reported out during the period for committee reports, if there is any; Matters, proposals or measures already referred to a committee but for some reason or another was not acted upon and the body decided to discharge that committee from further handling it. Thus, it becomes imperative to assign it to another committee, or create a special (or AdHoc) committee for that purpose; Matters, proposals or measures which have been erroneously referred to a committee but, for some reason or another, was not corrected immediately during or after its “referral”. When the item “unassigned business” comes, that error could still be corrected thru the initiative of any of the following: • Presiding Officer; • Committee on Rules;
• Committee on claiming jurisdiction over it; • Committee to which it was erroneously referred. Expose, allegations, grievances or similar matters which were raised during the “privilege speech” of a member, or information which surfaced during the “question hour” but for some reason or another were not referred or assigned to the concerned commit-tee for a “fact-ﬁnding investigation in aid of legislation”. Other “unassigned business” that the Committee on Rules thru its Chairman, who is usually the Floor Leader; or the Presiding Officer, may decide to refer to a particular committee for appropriate action.
Adjournment is the time at which the meeting or session is officially closed or terminated. A meeting (or session) is properly adjourned if the Presiding Officer had officially declared its adjournment.
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4. What are the Guiding Principles in Local Legislation? a. Not oppressive b. Not discriminatory c. To regulate not to prohibit legal trade d. Clear not vague e. Legal, not contrary to law f. No rider (singit) 5. What are the Common Errors in Legislation? a. Motion or call for the division of the house to cut out the debate. This may result to stop a good discussion or debate b. Presenting a proposal/resolution/ ordinance with only the title, to the Sangguniang secretary. (It should be in ﬁnal form) c. No publicity or dissemination of an ordinance with penalty provision d. Not giving importance to oppositions’ proposal no matter how good or relevance to the development of the LGU e. Violation of certain provision of the ordinance being implemented- eg
increase of salary (supposedly for incoming or next set of Sangguniang Officials and not for the Sangguniang who approved the salary increase)
F. WHAT IS PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE?
(Taken from the “Primer on the Local Special Bodies and the Accreditation of People’s Organizations and Nongovernmental Organizations” by SALIGAN (Sentro ng Alternatibong Lingap Panligal) and the LGSP Guidelines for Accreditation of CSOs and PSOs).
1. What is the legal framework for participation of CSOs in local governance? The legal framework behind CSO participation can be found in the following provisions of the 1987 Constitution: • The State shall encourage nongovernmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation (Sec.23, Art.II). - 14 -
• The state shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspiration through peaceful and lawful means. CSOs are bona ﬁde associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identiﬁable leadership, membership, and structure (Sec.15, Art.XIII) • The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The state shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms (Sec.16, Art. XIII). In Sec. 34 of RA 7160 (The Local Government Code), “Local Government Units shall promote the establishment and operation of
people’s and nongovernmental organizations to become active partners in the pursuit of local autonomy”.
2. What are the modes of participation of CSOs in local governance? As provided by the Local Government Code, these are: • Mandatory consultation and public hearings • System recall • Local initiatives and referenda • Sectoral representation to the local legislative bodies or sanggunian • Membership in the Local Special Bodies. 3. What are the Local Special Bodies (LSBs)? Local Special Bodies are primary advisory and recommendatory bodies of the local governments. The Code speciﬁcally provides for the establishment of ﬁve LSBs:
• Municipal Development Council • Municipal Peace and Order Council • Municipal Health Board • Municipal School Board • Prequaliﬁcation Bids and Awards Committee
Modes of Participation Token participation or manipulation Passive Participation
At the barangay level, the primary LSB is the Barangay Development Council.
4. What are possible modes or levels of participation for citizens and CSOs in governance?
Characteristics or Examples
Token memberships in committees without any real voting power; inclusion of members in committees whose only task is to agree with the appointing authority People are mere recipients of information on policies, programs and projects. They are merely audiences for pronouncements on policy decisions, agenda or implemented programs. They become merely tools of the convening authority because they provide legitimacy to the decisions made or to the information provided. People are merely consulted on the development agenda; outsiders from the community gather data and identify problems and issues; outsiders also control the information and data gathered. Participation of citizens are limited only to contributing resources such as labor in exchange for material incentives (hal: food for work programs) but they do not have actual decision-making prerogatives. People participate only when requested to and when their interests are at stake. People participate actively and collectively analyze issues and problems and in implementing programs and projects. People themselves initiate action – from analysis of the situation onwards. There is no outside intervention. They themselves initiate coordination with the different agencies of government for needed resources and for technical assistance, but the citizens have control and decides over the use of resources.
Participation by Consultation Participation for Material Incentives Functional Participation Interactive Participation Se;f-mobilization
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5. What is the Barangay Development Council? Each local government unit shall have a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be initiated by its development council and approved by its sanggunian. For this purpose, the development council at the barangay level shall assist the corresponding sanggunian in setting the direction of economic and social development, and coordinating development efforts within its territorial jurisdiction.
The Barangay Development Council shall be headed by the Punong Barangay and shall be composed of the following members: Members of the sangguniang barangay Representatives of non-governmental organizations operating in the barangay who shall constitute not less than one fourth (1/4) of the members of the fully organized council; A representative of the congressman.
Within a period of sixty days from the start of organization of local development councils, the nongovernmental organizations shall choose from among themselves their representatives to said councils. The local sanggunian concerned shall accredit organizations subject to such criteria as may be provided by law. The Barangay Development Council shall exercise the following functions: ❋ Mobilize people’s participation in local development efforts ❋ Prepare barangay development plans based on local requirements ❋ Monitor and evaluate the implementation of nation or local programs and projects and ❋ Perform such other functions as may be provided by law The executive committee of the BDC shall be composed of the Punong Barangay as chairman, a representa-
tive of the Sanggunian Barangay to be chosen from among its members, and a representative of non-governmental organizations that are represented in the council as members. This committee formulates policies, plans, and programs based on the general principles laid down by the council. The local development councils may form sectoral or functional committees to assist them in the performance of their functions Each local development council has a secretariat which shall be responsible for providing technical support, documentation of proceedings, preparation of reports, and such other assistance as may be required in the discharge of its functions. The BDC may avail of the services of any NGOs , or education or research institutions for this purpose. The secretariat of the BDC shall be headed by the barangay secretary who shall be assisted by the MPDC concerned.
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The development plan approved by the Sangguniang Barangay may be integrated with the development plans of the city or municipal development council.
6. How is Planning and Programming Undertaken in Barangays? The Punong Barangay shall call a meeting of the BDC to discuss and plan their program of activities. The City/ Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (MPDC) with the technical assistance of the MLGOO shall assist the BDC thru the Punong Barangay in planning and implementing the capability building activities of the barangay. These shall include the following suggested training activities on the basis of their needs and priorities:
❋ Barangay Development Planning Group Dynamics and Human Relations ❋ Local Fiscal Management Leadership and Value Orientation Barangay Budgeting
❋ Cooperative Development ❋ Barangay Legislation Project Inventory and Monitoring ❋ Basic Parliamentary Procedures Specialized Training on Project Monitoring and evaluation ❋ KP (Mediation Skills) Project Development and Management Training ❋ Others
A Task Force organized under each of the sectoral/functional committees, shall be mobilized from time to time on the basis of needs and programs/projects to be implemented. The Punong Barangay shall establish linkages with NGAs and NGOs/POs in the implementation of programs and projects within the barangay.
7. How are Barangay Plans Implemented? The Punong Barangay, with the assistance of the BDC, shall mobilize their resources (ﬁnancial, material, and manpower) necessary for the implementation of their plans, programs, and activities as provided in their local development plans. To further improve their ﬁnancial capacities, the barangay can seek assistance from outside sources like grants and loans. It can likewise enter into Build Operate and Transfer (BOT), and Build and Transfer (BT) schemes with NGOs/POs, if necessary.
8. How is Program Monitoring and Evaluation Carried Out? The Barangay Development Council shall prepare, install, and implement their Programs and Projects Monitoring and Evaluation System (PPMES)
Monitoring of programs and projects shall follow an upward process from the barangay to higher LGUs, to DILG regional office and ﬁnally to the national office The Barangay Development Council shall be responsible for monitoring the implementation of programs and projects. Reports shall be submitted to the
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MPDC for integration and submission to the Provincial Planning and Development Office for consolidation and submission to the DILG Regional Office through the DILG Provincial and City/ Municipal Field Offices.
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Streamlining Barangay Governance
A Step-by-Step Guide in the Implementation of the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee
Department of the Interior and Local Government - CALABARZON Region
The preservation and maintenance of peace and order is the foundation for development, stability and national security. Yet, it can only be achieved if peace and order is ﬁrst attained at the barangay level. Consumed by the passion to maintain peace and order and bring development at the barangay level, the government created several barangay anti-crime bodies and
barangay-based development institutions. All these anti-crime bodies and barangaybased institutions were created with the ultimate vision of ensuring the maintenance of peace and order and development in the country. These different anti-bodies and institutions were created one after the other over a period of time and are being chaired in concurrent capacities by the Punong
Barangay, in addition to his other functions as the Local Chief Executive, Presiding Officer of the Sanggunian, and as Administrator of the Katarungang Pambarangay, among others. He is a person wearing too many clothes, who has become overwhelmed with the weight of his responsibilites. To boot, the compositions of these bodies are roughly the same resulting in overlap-
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ping of functions or gaps, uneconomical utilization of human, material and ﬁnancial resources, confusion as well as unduly overburdening the members, especially the Punong Barangay as he has to preside over too many resource- and time-consuming conferences and other related activities. It is undeniable that peace and development go hand in hand and should be pursued together in a synergetic manner. Thus, it is imperative to strengthen and consolidate the efforts of the anti-crime bodies under the Expanded Barangay Peace and Order Committee (BPOC) and the different barangay-based development institutions spearheaded by the Expanded Barangay Development Council (BDC) for a more effective and cost-efficient peace and development effort. Through the expanded BPOC and BDC that a system of coordinating efforts of the anti-crime bodies, different institutions and citizens’ participation can be established and maintained.
BARANGAY GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
The Barangay as the basic political unit serves as the primary planning and implementing unit of government policies, plans, programs, projects and activities in the community and as a forum wherein the collective views of the people may be expressed, crystallized and considered and where disputed may be amicably settled. Local Government Code of 1991
Prepare barangay development plans based on local requirements; Monitor and evaluate the implementation of national or local programs and projects; and Perform such other functions as may be provided by law or competent authority.
The Barangay Development Council shall be composed of the following members: 1. 2. Members of the Sangguniang Barangay Representatives of non-governmental organizations operating in the Barangay, who shall constitute not less than one-fourth (1/4) of the members of the fully organized council; Congressman representative.
COMPOSITIONS, FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITES OF BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND THE SUB-COMMITTEES OF THE EXPANDED BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL Functions and Responsibilites of the Expanded Barangay Development Council The Barangay Development Council shall exercise the following functions: 1. Mobilize people’s participation in local development functions efforts; - 20 -
The Executive Committee of the BDC shall be composed of the following members:
BARANGAY GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
Barangay Assembly Punong Barangay Sangguniang Kabataan Barangay Treasurer Barangay Peace And Order Committee Sangguniang Barangay Barangay Development Council
BPOC Executive Committee Secretariat Sub Committee On Crime Prevention/Drug Abuse Council Brgy Anti-Drug Abuse Council Brgy Against Narcotics Abusers And Trafﬁckers Brgy Human Rights Protection
BDC Executive Committee Secretariat Sub Committee On Nutrition And Environmental Protection Brgy Ecological Solid Waste Management Council Brgy Health Workers Brgy Nutrition Committee Sub Committee On Sectoral Concerns
Brgy Disaster Committee Brgy Council For Women Sub Committee On Community Assistance And Response Brgy-Based Volunteer Service Responders Network Barangay Tanods Lupong Tagapamayapa Sub Committee On Intelligence Information Brgy Information Network Brgy Physical Fitness and Sports Development Council Gabay sa Mamamayan Action Center Brgy Council For The Protection Of Children Senior Citizens Council Persons with Disability Sub Committee on Sports and Physical Fitness
Punong Barangay-Chairman; Heads of the Sub-Committees under BDC.
3. The Barangay Development Council Secretariat shall be composed of the following members: 1. 2. 3. Barangay Secretary; Barangay Treasurer; NGO Representative. 4. 5.
Functions and Responsibilities of the Expanded BDC In addition to the functions and responsibilities for which they were mandated, the barangay-based development institutions under each Sub committee shall coordinate with each other to perform the following:
Sub Committee on Health & Nutrition and Environmental Protection
Coordinates with NGAs/NGOs on health, nutrition and environmental protection programs; Evaluates effectiveness of feeding, weighing and children’s status; Organizes the Barangay network and create a spot map of the Barangay; Organizes speciﬁc groups to implement health and nutrition intervention activities and assess programs; Responsible for segregation and collection of biodegradable, compostable and reusable solid waste; Establishes Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF); Holds regular quarterly meeting to monitor program performance and submit report; Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee.
3. 4. 5. 6.
Barangay Health Workers; C/MHO Representative; Pres. Home Owners Association; Parents-Teachers Association President or representative; 7. Religious Organizations representative; 8. Pres. or Representative from the Association of Business Community (Commercial or Industrial Sector); 9. NGO Representative (concerned on environment); 10. President of Market Vendors Association and Junkyard owners; if any 11. School Principal (Public) or Representative; 12. Ex-O Tanod.
Sub Committee on Sectoral Concerns
Plans and implements heath, nutrition and environmental protection PPAs;
Composition: Barangay Kagawad – Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. SK Chairman or Representative; 2. Barangay Nutrition Scholars;
Law enforcement campaign on the protection of women and children against prostitution, child abuse and vagrancy; 1. Undertakes activities on health and sanitation in coordination with the barangay health workers, e.g. maternal care, child care, dengue control,
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rabies control, family planning, prevention and control of communicable diseases; prevention of HIV/ AIDS and other STDs; Initiates, develops and implements livelihood programs, productive activities and work schemes for women, senior citizens as well as persons with disability in order to provide income or otherwise supplement their earnings in the local community; Identiﬁes the needs, trainings and opportunities of children, women, senior citizens and persons with disability to enable them to maximize their potentials and contributions to the community; Promotes and maintains linkages NGAs/NGOs and other instrumentalities of government for the delivery of health care services, facilities, professional advice services, volunteer training and community self-help projects; Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee.
Composition: Barangay Kagawad – Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. SK Chairman or Representative; 2. DepEd Representative; 3. Barangay Nutrition Scholars; 4. Barangay Health Nurse/Midwife; 5. Barangay Health Workers; 6. Day Care Worker Representative; 7. Children's Representative; 8. PTA Representative; 9. Senior Citizen's Organization Representative; 10. Organization of Persons With Disability Representative; 11. Women Sector Representative to be chosen by; • NGOs • POs • Academe and Professional Associations • And Other Community Civil Society Organizations 12. Ex-O Tanod.
Sub committee on Sports and Physical Fitness
1. 2. 3. 4.
Plans and implements sports and physical ﬁtness development PPAs; Coordinates with NGAs/NGOs on sports and physical ﬁtness programs; Conducts local sports summit; Oversees and ensures the implementation of physical ﬁtness and sorts program and activities; Disseminates proper information on the national policy and program; Performs other functions deemed necessary to promote and implement the national policy and program; Assist in the identiﬁcation, recruitment and training of gifted and talented athletes; Plans and formulates a blueprint for the short, medium and long term for the sectoral sports including a wellsynchronized year round calendar of sports activities and competitions culmination in a National Palarong Pambansa; Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee.
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Composition: Barangay Kagawad - Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. DepED School Principal - Vice Chair; 2. Homeowners Association - Representative; 3. SK Chairman or Representative; 4. 2 NGO representatives.
Gabay sa Mamamayan Action Center
It is an information and action center; It is a facility to ensure people's immediate access to information ongovernment programs and service; It will serve as Barangay Human Rights Action Center; It is Barangay-based and Barangayfocused information and action center.
from the following; • Sangguniang Barangay Members; • Barangay Secretary; • Barangay Treasurer; • SK Chairman; • Lupong Tagapamayapa Members; • PTA representatives; • Members of Senior Citizens Organization; • Members of PO; • Members of NGO; • And other community-based civic groups.
2. 3. 4.
COMPOSITIONS, FUNCTIONS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BARANGAY PEACE AND ORDER COUNCIL AND THE SUB COMMITTEES OF THE EXPANDED BARANGAY PEACE AND ORDER COUNCIL Functions and Responsibilities of the Expanded BPOC 1. Monitor and coordinate the implementation of Peace and Order programs and projects at the Barangay level; - 24 -
Composition: Barangay Kagawad - Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. Information Action Officers will be appointed by the Punong Barangay
Serve as an information-gathering mechanism; Monitor and check the nefarious activities of criminal elements; Identify Barangay constituents with strong deviant behavior for referral to appropriate authorities; Maintain continuing dialogue, close coordination and rapport with the higher levels of peace and order and public safety in the area of responsibility; Formulate plans and recommend such measures which will improve or enhance peace and order and public safety in their area of responsibility; Monitor, coordinate and supervise the operation of all community based anticrime movements within the Barangay; Make periodic assessment of prevailing peace and order situation in their respective areas of responsibility and submit report with appropriate recommendations to the higher level Peace and Order Council; and Perform such other functions which may be assigned by higher level peace and order councils.
The Barangay Peace & Order Committee shall be composed of the following members: 1. 2. Punong Barangay -Chaiman; Chairman of the Sangguniang Kabataan; 3. Member of Lupon Tagapamayapa to be designated by the Punong Barangay; 4. Barangay Tanod to be designated by the Punong Barangay; 5. Public School Teacher to be designated by the school principal; 6. Representative of Interfaith Group; 7. A senior Citizen; 8. At least three (3) members of existing Barangay-Based anti-crime or 9. Neighborhood Watch Groups or NGO Representative well-known in his community; and 10. A PNP Officer (to be designated by the Chief of Police of the corresponding city/municipality); As may be necessary or depending upon the needs and situation in the area, the Punong Barangay, in his capacity as
Chairman of the Barangay Peace and Order Committee may appoint additional sectoral representatives to such committee. The Executive Committee of the BPOC shall be composed of the following members: 1. Punong Barangay-Chairman; 2. Heads of the Sub-Committees under BPOC; The Barangay Peace and Order Committee Secretariat shall be composed of the following members: 1. Barangay Secretary; 2. Barangay Treasurer; 3. NGO Representative.
Functions and Responsibilities of the Sub Committees of the Expanded BPOC In addition to the functions and responsibilities for which they were mandated, the anti-crime bodies under each Sub committee shall coordinate with each other to perform the following: - 25 -
Undertakes PPAs relative to crime prevention: • IEC on the anti-crime prevention efforts of the government; • Identiﬁcation of crime prone areas and intensiﬁcation of police and tanod visibility; • Mobilization of CVOs and NGOs; • Conduct of regular purok or sitio dialogue re peace and order; • Regular updating of the census on Barangay inhabitants or list of residents and household members; • Intensiﬁcation of the IEC on Patrol 117; • Coordinated with the PNP re establishment of checkpoints in identiﬁed crime prone areas. Law Enforcement Campaign against illegal gambling, illegal drugs, terrorism,kidnapping, bank and armored car robbery, private armed groups & loose ﬁrearms, recovery of explosives, and organized crime groups and criminal gangs; Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee.
Composition: Barangay Kagawad – Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. SK Chairman or Representative; 2. School Principal (Public) or Representative; 3. Ex-O Tanod 4. NGO/Civil Society Representative; 5. Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) Representative; 6. Pres. Homeowners Association or Representative; 7. Religious Organizations Representative; 8. Concerned Citizens; 9. Executives of Business/Commercial establishment in the area; 10. PNP Personnel assigned in the area.
IEC on programs for juvenile delinquents who are opting for diversion program; Other functions as may be assigned to sub committee.
Composition: Barangay Kagawad - Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. Barangay Human Rights Action Officer; 2. Lupong Tagapamayapa Member; 3. Member of NGO; 4. Member of PO; 5. And other community-based civic groups.
Sub committee on Human Rights Protection 1. Proper preparation for community re-immersion of Barangay residents who were convicted but were granted parole or have served their terms;
Sub committee on Crisis Management 1. Updating of disaster preparedness plan; 2. Creation and strengthening of search, rescue and evacuation brigades; 3. Skills training; 4. Identiﬁcation of evacuation areas;
11. 12. 13. 14.
Preparation of medical ambulance, medicines, staple food and water for at least three days; Collection of jute bags for use in cleaning of debris on the streets before the occurrence of typhoons and ﬂoods; Removal or condemnation of vehicle, carts and other unattended structures parked on the streets; Recommend for the enactment of ordinance imposing stricter ﬁnes and penalties to violators of anti littering laws; Formation of river/sea wall guards to monitor tide activity; Activation of Barangay Fire Fighters and Rescue and Evacuation Brigades; Strict implementation of PO 1185: Fire Code of the Philippines; Education Campaign on the Dos and Don'ts of prevention of ﬁre incidents; Identiﬁcation of ﬁre hazards materials; Conduct of dialogue with the ﬁre department personnel at least twice a year;
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15. Inclusion of ﬁre matters and its hazards in school within the Barangay (Public and Private Schools); 16. Identiﬁcation of ﬁre evacuation areas, conduct of ﬁre drills in office or houses in thickly populated areas; 17. Checks ﬁre hydrants and does not allow any vehicle to park near the hydrants; 18. Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee. Composition: Barangay Kagawad - Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. City/Municipal Social Welfare & Development Officer Representative; 2. Building Official Representative; 3. C/MHO-Representative 4. BFP Personnel; 5. Dep Ed Representative; 6. Executives of Business/Commercial establishment in the Area; 7. PTA Representative; 8. Ex-O Tanod.
Sub committee on Community Assistance and Response 1. Monitors ﬁre hazards/threats within the Barangay; 2. Identiﬁcation of traffic prone areas; 3. Provision of alternate routes in proper coordination with the residents and concerned agencies; 4. Manning of traffic (tanods); 5. Encourages speedy disposition of cases; 6. Other functions as may be assigned to the Sub committee.
Composition: Barangay Kagawad - Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. City/Municipal Social Welfare & Development Officer Representative 2. Building Official Representative: 3. All barangay tanods; 4. Lupong Tagapamayapa Member; 5. NGO representatives; 6. Other community-based civic groups.
Sub committee on Intelligence/ Information 1. Updates a list of wanted criminals and persons with derogatory records; 2. Establishment of database or records built up for analysis and networking; 3. Neutralization scheme (psywar operations to be conducted by police detective beat patrollers); 4. Rehabilitation of protected areas; 5. Other functions as may be assigned to this Sub committee.
Composition: Police Officer Assigned in the Area – Sub Committee Chair Members: 1. Barangay Kagawad – Head of Sub Committee on Crime Prevention/ Drug Abuse Control; 2. GMAC Information Action Officers appointed by the Punong Barangay; 3. Ex-O Tanod; 4. Other community-based civic groups.
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STEPS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EXPANDED BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL AND EXPANDED BARANGAY PEACE AND ORDER COMMITTEE
Step 1 The Barangay thru a resolution adopts the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee Step 2 The Punong Barangay issues an Executive Order designating Barangay Officials concerned to head the Sub Committees and their corresponding members under the Expanded Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee Step 3 The designated Barangay Official leads the conduct of the Sub Committee meeting to thresh out issues and concerns and to consolidate their priority concerns and PPAs for presentation to the Executive Committees.
*The Sub Committee will elect a secretary among its members Step 4 The two Executive Committees conduct monthly meetings to evaluate the status of implementation, issues and concerns of various programs, projects and activities of the sub committees for presentation to the Barangay Development Council and Barangay Peace and Order Committee. Step 5 The Barangay Peace and Order Committee (BPOC) and The Barangay Development Council (BDC) conduct Quarterly Meetings *The BPOC convenes its Sub committees to evaluate the status of implementation of their various programs, projects and activities and coordinate with the BDC to ensure that PPAs of the BPOC are integrated in the Barangay Development Plan for allocation of funds
*The BDC convenes its Sub committees and the BPOC’s Executive Committee to evaluate the status of implementation of their various programs, projects and activities Step 6 The Barangay Council conducts its regular session. Sub Committee heads report to the Barangay Council issues and concerns for information and appropriate action. Step 7 The Barangay Development Council and the Barangay Peace and Order Committee submits Quarterly Reports to the mayor through the secretariat of the Municipal Development Council and Municipal Peace and Order Council. The reports contain their accomplishments, issues and concerns with proper recommendations for information and appropriate action.
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Bridging Leadership For Barangay Governance
By Hannbal H. Bara, Ph.D
eaders are the ﬁnal factor of attaining peace elsewhere in the landscape of historical development. Shari’ah is there to provide guidance. Says the Qur’an, “Wherewith Allah guides all who seek His good pleasure to ways of peace and leads them out of darkness by Him unto the light – guides them to the path that is straight (5:18).” Peace is actually the ultimate goal of leadership in Islam.
Today, the breakdown of the social institution, the trespassing of civil liberty and the existence of poverty and armed conﬂict, are manifestations of the societal divides. This is a tough challenge and can be answered only by the bridging leaders. Under the human security framework, the leader seeks to protect the people against a broad range of threats and to empower them to act on their own behalf. Under the human security framework, the leaders seeks to protect the people against a broach range of threats and to empower them to act on their own behalf.
Fren Ginwala says the following: “Security is an all-encompassing condition in which individual citizens live in freedom, peace and safety and participate fully in the process of governance. They enjoy the protection of fundamental rights, have access to resources and the basic necessiTies of life including health and education, and inhabit an environment that is not injurious to their health and well-being.”
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I. BRIDGING LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK
OWNERSHIP OF THE PROBLEM
By knowing it is fardhu ayn to take part in the resolution of the issue and support the initiative of the leader
CO-OWNERSHIP OF THE PROBLEM
By realizing that solving societal divides is fardhu kifaya and help to promote collective will across society.
CO-CREATION OF THE NEW REALITY
By fulﬁlling the amanat and journeying towards new reality and working together like a block, which reinforce one another
II. DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership refers to the system that champions the cause of the organization. Thus, a leader is one who champions the needs of his/her people. Leadership is not a political power; it is a social responsibility to provide security and peace for the society to enable it to fulﬁll its divine purpose and goal. Leadership as a social responsibility originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community. It is closely associated and actually based on the principles of inviting what is right, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is wrong. In Islam, leadership is given to the community as a trust.
However, based on the operational deﬁnition, some scholars like Rejai, Sender and their associates (1988) deﬁned leadership as mobilization of group resources towards solving group problems and achieving group objectives. Similarly, Gardner (1986) deﬁned leadership as the process of persuasion by which, a leader or leadership group (such as the state), induce the followers to act in a manner that enhances the leader’s purpose or shared purposes. Leadership means to inspire others to undertake some form of purposeful action as determined by the leader. It is the art of controlling followers (Bailey, 1988). It is the total effect you have on the people and events around
you. The effect is your inﬂuence (Schatz and Schatz, 1986). Leadership also involves the process of inﬂuence between a leader and followers to attain group, organizational or societal goals.
What is Islamic leadership? The Prophet said: As-Sayyidul qawmi hadimuhum. “The leader is the servant of the people.” He/She is to serve the people like a servant who serves his/her master honestly. He/She should be dependable, sensitive and responsive to the call of his people. Imam Khumayni deﬁned a leader “as one who champions the needs of the society.” Championing the needs of the people means that the leader should be at the forefront in the affairs
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of the community. He/she always sees his/her power and authority as amanat or trust of Allah. Hazrat Umar said: “the best leader is that the people ﬁnd prosperity and the worst leader is that the life of the people becomes miserable.” Islamic leadership is the application of Islam in solving the problems of the Muslim Ummah. It is the rallying center of the Muslim solidarity. Ultimately, Islam is the source of power and the unity of the Muslims. The desire to advance the cause of Islam and desire to improve the comforts in human life are the inner force by which the unity of the Muslims can be solidiﬁed. The society indeed, can only accomplish its goals through the proper use of leadership. Where there is strong leadership society can surge to great height. It was the Islamic leadership that transformed the era of jahiliyyah in 23 years time; the forces of jahiliyyah crumbled to dust as soon as the leadership of the Muslims came to force.
There are two interlinked elements of the society. These are the ideology, the din al-Islam and leadership. Like a building, the society neither can withstand without foundation nor exist without guardianship. Mobedhan the great Persian minister argued that if you leave religion to the leader; religion becomes the foundation of the society, and the leader as its guard. Anything which has no foundation is destroyed, and anything which has no guard is also destroyed. We can see in this parable that the real foundation of the Muslim society is Islam, and the real guard is the leader. The leader should be a person who is conscious of the actual condition of the society; it is that consciousness that generates social responsibility and the courage to face the problems and to introduce social reforms. Thus, the Prophet said: “If the society deteriorates start to reform the leadership of the ulama and the umara.
Functions of leadership 1. Visioning. A leader has to strategically put his/her organization in the horizon of the past, present and future. The organization needs to be injected with new and fresh ideas for it to be dynamic. These ideas may come by looking at the past, evaluating the present and probing into the future. 2. Communicating. A leader should know how to communicate his/her vision through the use of metaphor in order to make his/her ideas concrete to the people. There should also be a standard channel in which information effectively ﬂows upward, downward and sideward. The people should be kept informed of the activities and development that are happening. Information sharing is very important. 3. Empowering and Transforming. A leader should put in place the whole mechanism in which the people can participate in decision-making. He/ She should freely allow the people to express their ideas, opinions and sug-
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gestions. It is important for the leader to set a broad policy and direction and allow the people to decide the details of its implementation. 4. Inspiring and Motivating. The leader should inspire people to strive their best in all their undertakings. He/ she should set himself as an example in good work. He/she should always be ready to appreciate good work and good advice from the people. He/she should, therefore, live a simple life and move away from luxury and vices. 5. Mobilizing. A leader needs to mobilize the use of resources in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. He should know how to integrate and put into optimum use the material and human resources of the organization or the community. It is important for the leader to inculcate the spirit of self-sufficiency and self-reliance among the people. The organization should be able to move forward without depending on outside resources.
III. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP A. Qualities of a Good Leader 1. Sincerity, Honesty and Truthfulness. Says the Qur’an: “And they are ordained naught else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for Him, as man by nature upright and to establish worship and to pay the poor-due. That is true religion. (98:5)
“Consume not each other’s property by false pretense, nor present (a part of) it to judges (as bribe) that you may consume unjustly a part of other men’s property, knowing full well (that it is wrong to do so).” (2:188) “And cloth not what is true with what is false and do not knowingly suppress the truth.” (2:42) 2. Ihsan. (Doing things in the best possible manner) Allah says: “And practice ihsan. Truly, Allah loves the doers of ihsan (2:195).” Verily, Allah enjoins justice and ihsan (16:90).”
3. Patience and Perseverance. Allah says: “O ye who believe! Endure, outdo all others in endurance, be ready and observe your duty to Allah in order that you ay succeed (3:200).” “O you who believe! Seek help in steadfastness and prayer. Lo! Allah is with the steadfast. 2:153).” “Verily, the steadfast will be paid their wages without stint (39:10) “So turn steadfastly to the right way before the Day comes which God will not avert … (30:43).” 4. Kindness, Generosity and Selﬂessness. Allah says: “Among men there are also some who sacriﬁce their personal interest to seek the pleasure of God, and God is ever gracious to those who are devoted to Him (2:207).” “You shall never attain goodness till you share with others (the poor or the needy) what you cherish (particularly
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your wealth). And whatever you give away, God surely will know it (3:92).” 5. Sense of Responsibility and Accountability. The Prophet says: “Behold each one of you is a guardian and each one of you will be asked about his subjects … (Sahih al-Bukhari) 6. Struggle (Mujahadah). Allah says: “O you who believe! Bow down, prostrate yourselves and adore your Lord, and do good that you may proper. And strive in His cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and under discipline) … (22:77).”
struggled for their own survival. The Arab nation at this period was weak and often brought under the inﬂuence of the Persian and the Roman Empire. Finally, when Muhammad at the age of 40 received the divine command to become a prophet and messenger of Allah, this was the time he started his mission to bridge the gap between his vision and the state of his people. The Prophet identiﬁed the real causes of the backwardness of his society and discovered the root cause of the stagnation and degeneration of his people. He, therefore, educated the jahiliyyah society with his vision for an Islamic society such that those who believed gave them the sense of a social responsibility and joined his mission. Dr. Ali Shariati described this person as an enlightened soul. He said: “the enlightened soul is a person who is self-conscious of his human condition in his time and historical setting and whose awareness inevitably and necessarily gives him a sense of social
responsibility. An enlightened soul is one who can generate responsibility and awareness and give intellectual and social direction to the masses.” In one occasion, the Prophet convened for the ﬁrst time his people at the heart of Mecca. He appealed for unity against all odds and for renewal of belief in the oneness of Allah. He said: “would you believe if I tell you that behind that mountain our enemy is poised to attack this city?” The people responded: Yes! We do believe because you are al-amin, meaning truthful. Then the Prophet said: my position today is like a tower watcher. Certainly, the tower watcher cannot afford to betray his people especially in the face of danger. In case he can detect danger, he should immediately alert the people so that they can prepare and suppress such danger right away. Thus, the Prophet said: Behold! Every leader is a shepherd, and each one of you is responsible for his subject. Now I tell you like a tower watcher - be afraid of the coming of the judgment day and the wrath of Allah.”
B. Prophet Muhammad: The First Bridging Leader Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) came to live at a time when his nation was in the state of jahiliyyah. There was no central leadership. Arab tribes fought each other for centuries; they observed no rules and laws. They worshipped 365 idols and disregarded morality. Arab leaders were concerned only with their own tribes and
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In other words, since at the start of the career of the Prophet, he acts as a bridging leader as he wanted to convey his vision and bridge the societal gaps, the individual life to God. The Prophet knew already the needs of his people; then he enlisted them to his vision – transforming the jahiliyyah into Islamic society. In his time, divine guidance was the needs of the people of Arabia. He made this divine guidance as the basis of unity and social transformation. The Prophet spent 13 years in Mecca to convey his vision of an Islamic society. He organized a core group and prepared them to face the tough challenge ahead. This core group was called qaidatus salba or strong foundation. This was the group who believed in the new divine message and wanted peace and unity of Arabia under the banner of Islam. Every hajj occasion, the Prophet always took the opportunity to meet leaders from distant places and conveyed to them his vision for an Islamic society.
In effect, the Prophet’s vision spread beyond the city of Mecca. The leaders of Madina were the ﬁrst to manifest their strong support to the Prophet’s vision. They sent a delegation to Mecca to talk with the Prophet, and arranged his migration and his followers to Madina. This event was called hijrah or migration, a training point in the history of Islam. At Madina, the ﬁrst action of the Prophet was to convene the various chiefs of the various tribes such as the Banu al-Harith, Sa’ida, Jasham, al-Nabit, Khasraj, Aws, the Muhajirin and also the Jewish tribes composed of Qaynuqa, Qurayza and Banu Nadir. The purpose of the assembly was to create a new institutional arrangement for the purpose of guarding the peace and security in Madina. The Prophet knew the fact that the new institutional arrangement was necessary in order to ensure peace, uniﬁed leadership and harmonious relationship. It was on this premise the Prophet presented
the idea to adopt a dustur or constitution so that a strong governance will become institutionalized. Under this new institutional arrangement a new society based on social contract, which later called Madina a state, became the standard bearer of a real civil society as such the social contract was made for guaranteeing the protection and safety of the right to life, right to liberty and full enjoyment of property. It was a contract entered into by the believers and the equals to create a just and peaceful society. The dustur starts with Article 1 – This is a document from Muhammad, the Prophet (S.A.W.) governing the relations between the believers and the Muslims of the Quraysh and Yathrib Madina and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them. Article 2 states that they are one Ummah to the exclusion of all men. Speciﬁcally, Article 16 provides that to the Jew who
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follows us belong help and equality. He/ she shall not be wronged nor shall his/ her enemies be aided. Article 39 states that Yathrib shall be sanctuary for the people of this document. Finally, under Article 42 the Prophet is accepted as the supreme leader. It says: If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble among the people of this document should arise, it must be referred to Allah and to Muhammad, Rasul Allah. Allah accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document. In matters of defense, Article 44 says: the contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib.
The person who accepts the leadership is bound to obey and follow what the giver of trust has instructed to him/her. And God’s instruction is now reﬂected in the Qur’an. By all means the leader should strive to conform his/her actions and policies to the provisions of the Qur’an. He/She has to remember always that the paramount interest of the Islamic leadership is to make peace in the society. In all his/her actions, the leader should realize that he/she has to behave as representative of Allah and therefore lead the society as being watched from heaven. By this way the leader becomes conscious to strive hard to purify his/her mind, heart and his/her physical limbs from sins and other actions detrimental to the people. In effect, the leader is always ready to make himself/herself accountable to Allah and to the people whom he/she governs. The leadership as an amanat is a principle which promotes responsibility and accountability in the practice of governance and management. The leader should ponder on this
thought: Are my programs supportive to ibadah? Do I bring justice to the people? Do I provide the basic needs of the people? How far have I guarded peace in the community? Upholding the Qur’anic authority is the second dimension of Islamic leadership. The Qur’an is the source of authority for both the leader and the people. It is the highest amanat of Allah to the Muslims. The Qur’an was sent along with the Prophet so that mankind can stand up for justice, which is the core element of Islamic concept of peace. It is the beacon of the Muslims; it is the solution for the search of lasting peace. The Qur’an has laid down four functions for the leader to accomplish. These functions are the practical steps to attain a just and stable society. Says the Qur’an: “They are those who if we establish them in the land, establish regular prayer, give regular charity, enjoin right, and forbid wrong. With Allah rests the end and decision of all affairs (22:41).”
IV. DIMENSION OF ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP
The ﬁrst dimension of Islamic leadership is that leadership is an amanat to facilitate the spread of Islam, meaning peace. Leadership is beyond public trust as conceived by the Western concept of public administration. It is an amanat of Allah to those who exercise power and authority.
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The Qur’an underscores the importance of prayer because it is a ritual demonstration for worshipping Allah. Worship means acknowledging the Lordship of Allah. It is an act of expression of gratefulness for the bounties that God has provided to His creatures. Prayer is an instrument of disciplining man’s life. It restrains men from evil action. It is an act on daily basis that brings us closer to the will of Allah, and help us to attain inner peace. The Qur’an mentions prayer along with the zakat for sixteen times. Zakat has an important social function in the society. It is designed to address poverty and help to circulate the wealth to the entire parts of the society. It strengthens the economic foundation of every hapless family. It also strengthens love and brotherhood among the Muslims. Zealousness, envy and hatred shall be removed between the poor and the rich if zakat is observed and applied in the community. The Prophet (S.A.W.) described prayer as light, charity as proof, patience as illumination.
Payment of zakat is an expression of love to Allah. Wealth is the highest object of love among mankind. Anyone who can afford to spend and share freely his/her wealth can show proof of his/her genuine faith and love to Allah. The Muslims should also involve themselves in collective effort in constructing a good society. Enjoining ma’rufat and forbidding munkarat are authority imposed upon each family or the individual Muslim and the state, which is mentioned several times in the Qur’an. Family task on carrying out this Qur’anic authority is best illustrated by how Luqman gave instructions to his son. Says the Qur’an: “O my son! Establish regular prayer, enjoin what is just and forbid what is wrong, and bear with patience whatever betide you for there is ﬁrmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of affairs) (31:17). Islam recognizes the role of every individual person in the overall process of development of the society. It also recognizes social change to start from self to family then to the society. Fulﬁllment
of duties and obligations is emphasized by Islam rather than rights. If one fulﬁlls his/her duties others will no longer ask for their rights. The Qur’anic term ma’rufat denotes all virtues and good qualities that have been accepted as “good” by the human conscience. Ma’rufat implies regulatory power, which the Muslim rulers can exercise. It is an authority to regulate private conducts such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, family relations, all forms of legal business activities as well as on the observance of morality and religious rites. Munkarat, on the other hand, denotes all sins and evil condemned by human nature. This includes among others, graft and corruption in the bureaucracy, riba gambling, zina, transgression of law, oppression, unfair labor practices and shameful deeds. The third dimension of Islamic leadership is obedience to Allah, obedience to the Prophet and to those who are
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in authority. The Qur’an says: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the apostle and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His apostle if you believe in Allah and the last day. That is best and most suitable for ﬁnal determination (4:59).” The reason for obedience to Allah is that He is the highest ilaha who is Lawgiver and sustainer of the universe. His divine laws are for the good of the society. His way is the straight way. Deviation from it will only bring destruction and misguidance to the society. Allah is the Lord of the whole creation, and therefore, He is worthy of worship and obedience. We obey the Prophet for he is God’s messenger and model for mankind. The Prophet’s Sunnah is the standard path and turning back will lead to chaos and contradiction in social life. The Qur’an and the Sunnah are the guidepost for man’s search of truth, justice and true
worship. The Prophet said: “I have left two things. If you follow them you will not be misguided, and these are the Qur’an and my Sunnah. The Qur’an declares obedience to Allah and His messenger as the way to attain mercy (3:122). Those who refused this call will incur the wrath of Allah. Those who follow Allah and His messenger are in the rank of the salihin. These people will attain success both in this world and the hereafter. The Qur’an calls the Muslims to obey their rulers because they are the extension of the functions of the Prophethood. Muslim leaders have the role to guide the society and facilitate the development of the people. They are the symbol of Muslim unity and at the same time the restraining factor among the inhuman. People are by nature savage. Through the intervention of the leader, conﬂict can be prevented and paciﬁed.
The purpose of Islamic leadership is to secure peace, justice and human security for the entire mankind. These three goals sum up the meaning of peace in Islam. That is why Islam demands that the leader should be morally sound and intellectually capable to discharge his/ her power and duties. To construct the ediﬁce of peace requires strong leadership and political will. Obedience and support of the people to the Muslim leadership as well as the determination of the leaders to carry out their duties are the manifestation of the political will of the Muslim Ummah. But where there is wide gap between the ulama and the umara, between the people and leadership there can be no any political will necessary to build peace. Bridging leadership is the answer.
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Bridging Differences and Building Collaboration: The Critical Role of Leadership
today’s world, a new type of leadership is needed to confront extreme poverty, social injustice, devastating and often-violent conﬂict, severe environmental degradation and widespread disease such as HIV-AIDS. To achieve sustainable results in these and other areas, the combined efforts of many actors—from business, community organizations and government—are required to come up with innovative ideas, new types of resources and the will to work together. Bridging Leadership provides a model or an approach for doing just that. To make real progress on these issues, society must learn to get past the acrimony, mistrust, prejudice and the many divides that separate us, and establish trust and new types of relationships that make going forward together both possible and practical. By building upon the intellectual foundations of transformative leadership in the ﬁeld of leadership studies and drawing liberally from the concept of collaboration from the ﬁeld of development, Bridging Leadership offers an alternative approach that looks at the role of citizens
A Concept Paper by Steven D. Pierce Director, Bridging Leadership, The Synergos Institute June 2002
ridging Leadership, is an approach to leadership characterized by the capacity to initiate and sustain a collaborative process designed to achieve meaningful social change through the collective action of multiple and diverse stakeholders. A leadership style uniquely suited to confront the many challenges facing today’s societies, Bridging Leadership stands in contrast to many Western models of leadership, which today are often dominated by the ﬁeld of management. In
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within a partnership framework. Because it is based on the value of inclusion, Bridging Leadership easily incorporates traditional leadership ideas and practices. The bridging method offers insights into a process that begins with convening and relationship building, through the development of consensus, all the way to action. It is an attempt to add a holistic focus by considering the needs and potential impact of leadership at the level of the individual, the organization and society.
a local non-governmental organization. What is particularly remarkable about this momentous occasion is that the principals acknowledged that only a few short years earlier, they would have been aiming bullets and grenades at each other, rather than handshakes and heartfelt “abrazos” or hugs. Ernesto Barrientos, General Manager of of Embotelladora Salvadoreña, S.A. (Embosalva) and René Canjura, mayor of the municipality of Nejapa, once sworn enemies, are now partners on a ﬁrstname basis in the management of the LocalDevelopment Fund for Nejapa. Neither man hesitates to show the respect and admiration he has for the other and the cooperative spirit that joins them is reverberating throughout this community of 30,000. What made this improbable initiative possible? How did formerly avowed adversaries manage to cross the many divides that separate them to join together as partners? And, more importantly, can
this example of collaboration between unlikely allies be replicated to any meaningful degree throughout the world? These are complex questions with few easy or obvious answers. Of course, many contextual and institutional factors combined to make this collaborative initiative a reality—a huge effort on the part of many key actors to bring the violent civil war to an end; an understanding and ﬂexible donor organization, willing to risk its resources and reputation on this unprecedented undertaking; a progressive policy on social investment on the part of a major corporation; and the vision and tenacity of at least two nongovernmental organizations, to name but a few. But what is equally clear is that without the leadership of Barrientos and Canjura, the Local Development Fund for Nejapa would not be a reality today. Barrientos and Canjura brought to bear a unique style of leadership that the Synergos Institute has termed Bridging Leadership. This style of leadership is
THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN THE SOCIAL CHANGE PROCESS
Not long ago in the town of Nejapa, some 17 kilometers north of the Salvadoran capital of San Salvador, members of the community and several invited guests gathered in a community center to celebrate the signing of a cooperative agreement to establish a critically-needed local development fund supported by the Coca Cola company, a U.S.-based donor, the municipal government and
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particularly appropriate when a collaborative approach to solving complex social problems is required. Bridging is a method for harnessing and coordinating the energy, interests and resources of multiple and diverse actors/stakeholders in a way that builds relationship capital and trust, thereby maximizing each actor’s comparative advantage and making sustainable social change possible. And because bridging leadership is founded upon shared values, common understanding and mutual purposes, the approach is particularly useful to fostering inter-sectoral collaboration between business, civil society and government. Each sector has its own unique organizing culture, professional/technical language, norms and deﬁnitions of success. Each sector also has a perception of the other two that is frequently based on negative stereotypes, which tend to block mutual understanding and impede collective action. In order to bridge these sectors, the skills of bridging leaders-transcending differences by translat-
ing diverse organizational cultures and languages, making obvious overlapping strategic interests and interdependencies, stressing comparative advantages and building relationships—are essential. But before providing a detailed description of Bridging Leadership and the apparent common characteristics of bridging leaders, I will outline the conceptual and intellectual roots of this potential shift in paradigms. This task calls for beginning with a deﬁnition of leadership, which will then be expanded to include the concept of bridging.
1. Leadership is the process of getting followers to comply with the leader’s wishes. The Great Man/Woman theories and the recent emphasis on Charismatic Leadership are examples of this school of thought. It is a school of thought that received plenty of ammunition from dominant political ﬁgures such as Thatcher, Reagan and Gorbachev, as well as from the business leadership model featuring the likes of Lee Iacocca, etc. Leadership, under this deﬁnition, is not merely centered on the leader, but embodied by the leader him/herself. 2. Leadership is achieving group/organizational goals. Under this deﬁnition, leadership is equated with the leader’s ability to motivate a group of followers into reaching speciﬁc organizational goals and objectives. This category places a premium on group facilitation, human relations and interpersonal skills. It also lends itself to a focus on style and situational contexts, thus opening the way to the trait leadership and situational leadership approaches. Moreover, the
RECENT THOUGHTS ON LEADERSHIP
Leadership has long been a topic of interest to scholars and practitioners alike. During the twentieth century, many varying deﬁnitions of leadership were advanced. According to one eminent scholar, in the “boom” period for leadership studies that was the decade of the 80’s, these deﬁnitions seem to fall roughly into six distinguishable categories:
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concept of effectiveness is introduced in the sense that failure to achieve goals reﬂects negatively on the leader’s abilities. 3. Leadership is deﬁned as inﬂuence. Inﬂuence is the concept most commonly associated with leadership. Most scholars draw a distinction between noncoercive inﬂuence and coerced compliance and focus on the non-coercive type. As in the previous two, this deﬁnition emphasizes the leader’s capacity to exert will and employ various inﬂuence tools to get followers to behave in a certain way. 4. Leadership as the sum of the leader’s traits. Though this concept has enjoyed certain popularity for over 100 years, it became particularly prominent during the 80s. Fueled by the many recent books emphasizing leadership-as-excellence, trait leadership was, and remains, the source of some of the most popular publications on leadership.
5. Leadership is equivalent to “management”. Far and away the most dominant school of thought, the leadership as management approach, as the term suggests, focuses almost entirely on managers. This essentially relegates leadership role to those with authority or position. Leadership becomes the “exercise of authority” and the “inﬂuence attempt a superior makes towards his subordinates”, either individually or as a group. While several disciplines have advanced study in leadership—education, behavioral psychology and political science, to name a few—business administration is far and away the leader in research and thought production on leadership. Even a cursory perusal of the nearest bookstore would indicate that scholars and practitioners of the management sciences produce the greatest number of publications with leadership in the title. In fact, it dwarfs the combined number from all other ﬁelds. Thus, leadership is most often deﬁned as management and
good leadership as excellence in management. This should hardly surprise, given the dominance of business and industry in the twentieth century. Rost calls this approach the “industrial school of leadership”. 6. Leadership as transformation. Transformational leadership is central to the concept of bridging. The deﬁnitions range from leadership oriented towards social vision and change to transforming organizations to achieve higher levels of productivity and excellence. Most invoke the willful act of one person (the “leader”) to construct the social world for others (the “followers”). Bridging Leadership shares conceptual elements with transformational leadership in that it is normative, i.e., it is a leadership approach employed to address problems or conﬂict requiring signiﬁcant social change and seeks real, positive transformation in the lives of marginalized or disadvantaged populations. With few exceptions, each one of
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these deﬁnitional schools of leadership and the resulting theories and hypotheses spawned by each one, focuses on some type of inﬂuence relationship between leader and followers. Moreover, the “industrial school” of leadership, which essentially holds that leadership is good management, profoundly inﬂuences each group of deﬁnitions. So ubiquitous is its inﬂuence that it is not hard to conclude with Rost that leadership as good management is the leadership paradigm of the twentieth century. The industrial paradigm of leadership is clearly inadequate to the task of addressing the world’s critical concerns such as poverty, social injustice, all manner of conﬂict, etc. Real life rarely mirrors the corporate environment and real life problems cannot be isolated and manipulated with the same degree of internal control available within corporations. Because of the diverse and crosscutting nature and severity of today’s major social problems, a new leadership paradigm is required.
Bridging Leadership, the Synergos Institute’s response to this new paradigmatic need, begins with Rost’s deﬁnition, which builds on the work of noted transformationalists: Leadership is an inﬂuence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reﬂect their mutual purposes. The four essential elements of this deﬁnition are critical and necessary, though not sufficient, to the deﬁnition of bridging leadership. First, leadership is a relationship based on inﬂuence that is multidirectional and noncoercive. Second, the people in the relationship are leaders and followers; most likely multiples of both and in which the followers are active and inﬂuence leaders. Rost notes that this relationship is inherently unequal “because the inﬂuence patterns are unequal”. Bridging Leadership does not necessarily subscribe to that premise. Rather, it is patterned more closely to the Bantu concept of ubuntu or recognition of the other(s). In bridging situations,
position and authority are checked at the door. Furthermore, Bridging Leadership does not recognize “followership” in the same way evoked here; all people involved in bridging are involved in leadership. The bridging leader is distinguished, in part, from other leaders and followers by his bridging or collaborative behavior. Third, the notion of real intended change is central. There is an a priori, purposeful and speciﬁc change desired by all parties. The change is intended to transform a particular social problem. Multiple changes may be pursued simultaneously. Lastly, if not from the outset, then certainly over the course of the bridging activities, mutual purposes are developed, which may lead to a common cause or vision. Again, this happens within the conﬁnes of a noncoercive inﬂuence relationship. While Rost’s deﬁnition of leadership goes a long way towards describing the essential elements of Bridging Leader-
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ship, like other students of leadership, he leaves out or ignores the deﬁning characteristic of this potential new paradigm: the collectivity or collaborative framework, i.e., the interrelationship of people within and across groups and organizations banding together in pursuit of real intended changes that reﬂect their common purposes. Bridging Leadership, therefore, is not deﬁned by the relationship between leader and followers, but by the interaction between people within and across groups/organizations joined together in collective action. In sum, the bridging deﬁnition of leadership builds on that of Rost and other transformationalists by adding the dimension of community collaboration.
the concept of collaboration for social change to further distinguish Bridging Leadership from other leadership approaches. In “Leaders without Borders”, Mark Gerzon states, “Leadership is not only about what we do; it is about who we are. It is a metaphor for how we are trying to change ourselves as well as change the world around us.”7 Leadership, then, is more than a mere process, it is a relationship that speaks to our very core and reﬂects our essence. All leadership approaches are grounded in a set of principles or values, either explicitly or implicitly. The core values Gerzon details in his insightful work ﬁt Bridging Leadership like a tailor-made suit. He notes that these values are emerging from interwoven trends that reﬂect a new kind of leadership better suited to respond to global challenges. These trends and values are: ❋ Trend: from image to authenticity – Value: integrity
❋ Trend: from tradition to change – Value: learning; ❋ Trend: from nation-state to global economy – Value: inclusion; ❋ Trend: from homogeneity to diversity – Value: respect; and ❋ Trend: from solo to team – Value: collaboration. Gerzon further contrasts these emerging values with the values upon which command and control type of leadership styles are based, speciﬁcally: knowing, exclusion, fear, control and image. In contrast, each one of the emerging values is key to the bridging process precisely because it promotes openness and acceptance and lays the groundwork for a relationship based on real understanding and trust. These relationships based on trust and the core values, then, become the building blocks for collaboration. Collaboration, as applied here, is very similar to a concept known in Spanish as “concertación”, which connotes a process involving convening (of all relevant actors), consensus building
BRIDGING LEADERSHIP DEFINED
Bridging Leadership adds an emphasis on community collaboration to the study of leadership. However, to fully understand this approach, we must acknowledge the set of principles upon which it is founded and delve much deeper into
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(achieving a common understanding of problems, potential solutions and available resources), and action.
tive action. For example, the concept of “team approach” is gaining acceptance in business faster than any other sector. The concept of “partnership” has almost become axiomatic within the development community and elsewhere. And like the notion of “participation”, this trend is likely to become a mainstay in development thinking and strategy. The needs are simply too great and the available resources too scarce to ever return to the sector-driven approaches of the past. Even those theorists and policy makers that advocate “trade not aid” have come to recognize the essential roles of government and civil society. Indeed, the range of development actors and agencies preaching partnership and collaboration is startling. That there is such widespread agreement on the need for partnership is even more remarkable given the relative early stage of research substantiating the effectiveness of this approach.9 However, this pervasive conviction seems to be built more on
intuition and anecdote, than empirical evidence. Collaboration may not make sense as an approach for addressing every development need, but it is essential when two speciﬁc conditions are met, such as: 1. When a particular social problem is so complex that it exceeds the capacity of any one actor tosolve it by working in isolation; and when a speciﬁc problem issue cuts across thefundamental interests of multiple stakeholders.
Bridging Leadership is an inﬂuence relationship among people within and across groups, organizations and communities who agree to work together and intend real changes that reﬂect their mutual purposes.
THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF COLLABORATION IN SOCIAL CHANGE/TRANSFORMATION
The optimism that accompanied the end of the Cold War did not last long. Neither did the “end” of global strife between superpowers bring many measurable improvements to the human condition. In fact, we are no longer pining away for the much-anticipated peace dividend. A further irony is that years after this triumph of individualism over the collectivity, we are now realizing the real value of collec-
Furthermore, we have learned that for most development projects and programs to be successful, i.e., for the intended results/beneﬁts to be sustainable, the multiple dimensions of difference that afflict society, e.g., difference between the three sectors of society— business, community (also known as the Third Sector, Civil Society, non-governmental or non-proﬁt) and government must apply its comparative advantage to
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the initiative. For example, government offers legal structures, security, revenue collection and distribution and ﬁnancial and technical resources. Among essential business contributions are management capacity, research and development, execution know-how and ﬁnancial resources. Civil society, in turn, is the keeper of cultural norms and values, relationship capital, volunteer resources and creativity. As much as we might all agree that partnerships are needed, we must also recognize that collaboration is not natural to most individuals or organizations. There are real costs involved. In fact the old saying, “if you want something done, do it yourself” still rings true to many. And when we do partner, we frequently look to partner with others who look like us. However, this tendency towards compatibility actually limits the potential beneﬁts of the partnership. Effective collaboration places a premium on complimentarity over compatibility. After all,
at the heart of the rationale for collaboration is the need to enlist the diverse resources and attributes that we lack to address and tackle complex problems. There are a number of guiding principles that seem to make for effective collaboration: ❋ Collaboration requires a minimum of core competencies, at both the individual and institutional levels, in order to be effective. ❋ Learning should be constant as learning organizations are best able to adapt to dynamic conditions and situations. ❋ Key organizational components, such as leadership, governance and information systems have a high degree of interdependence with similar components in partner organizations. ❋ Similarly, changes in one partner almost always produce change in the other partner(s). Individuals and organizations exert mutual inﬂuence upon each other.
❋ Joint planning on a regular basis will help smooth the change process. ❋ Partnerships are most effective when grounded in the local realities of each ❋ partner. ❋ More important than a common mission and vision is agreement upon desired outcomes and impact. ❋ The above notwithstanding, each partner must have a working understanding of the organizational culture—the attitudes, structures and distribution of human resources—of the partner(s). ❋ The stronger each individual partner, the more effective the partnership. Partnerships would do well to include a capacity-building component to increase strategically important competencies. Of course, there are many different forms that collaboration can take. Available models range along a “formality” continuum. From very informal arrangements based largely on the exchange of information, to very structured partnerships formalized by written agreements,
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pooled resources and limited authority vested in the partnership structure. In general, partnerships vary according to the degree to which the partners share responsibility, resources and risk. In spite of all the attention the development community is now paying to the concept of partnership, relatively little effort and resources have been invested in Understanding the role of the person/individual within the partnership. Instead, we tend to talk in abstractions about cross-sectoral partnerships or interinstitutional partnerships. This reiﬁcation of structures, sectors and organizations intensiﬁes as we attribute speciﬁc behaviors to entire classiﬁcation types, complete with stereotypes that illustrate such behavior. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither sectors nor organizations establish and maintain partnerships— people do. However much we all agree on the importance of government, business and civil society working together, it is still
people, not organizations and sectors that create and sustain partnerships. And it is the individual within the organization and sector that must be prepared with the knowledge and skills to engage in collaborative efforts with people from other organizations and sectors. The concept of bridging leadership is built upon this fundamental tenet. Thus, how people behave within a collaborative framework, whether or not they possess the knowledge, skills and resources to operate effectively within and across groups, and how we can increase individual and group capacity to work together are of paramount concern. Whereas bridging leadership’s contribution to leadership studies is the introduction of the concept of the group dynamic and collective action, our contribution to the study of collaboration and partnership for development and social change is a focus on the person or individual leader and his/her role within the collaborative framework.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRIDGING LEADERS
Preliminary research conducted by the Synergos Institute and its partner organizations throughout Southeast Asia, Southern Africa and Latin America suggests that some people function especially comfortably and effectively within bridging situations. These bridging leaders would appear to share a somewhat common set of characteristics. Furthermore, it would seem that they possess certain knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable them to forge consensus among diverse stakeholders and use collaboration to address many complex social problems, even when a high degree of conﬂict is present. ❋ Bridging leaders seem to have very low ego needs. They are generally much more interested in bringing about change than garnering the credit for it. This characteristic probably makes this type of leader appear less threatening to other leaders.
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❋ Bridging leaders are skilled listeners. This ability translates into a capacity to understand and empathize with other points of view. This, of course, requires that the bridger be able to set aside or suspend his/her own interests long enough to really penetrate the interests of the rival or potential partner. ❋ Bridging leaders appear to have a bankable cache of credibility within their own groups or sectors. Not only does this enable them to effectively represent their constituencies, but it also allows them a wide degree of latitude in bringing new points of view home in the best possible light. Thus, if a bridging leader is able to develop trust and working relationships with diverse groups, he/she can connect the relationship to the constituent group. ❋ Bridging leaders tend to have welldeveloped networks and solid reputations beyond their own groups or organizations. These networks comprise valuable relationship capital and
represent the currency bridgers draw upon to make things happen. This process involves creating and linking chains of trust throughout the community/society. This is merely a preliminary list of the types of attributes associated with Bridging Leadership. Further research is needed to validate and conﬁrm initial assumptions and working hypotheses on bridging, as well as additional analysis to build practical insights on collaboration that go beyond the particular and approximate universal best practices.12 At play here is a general working assumption that bridging behavior can be studied and systematically learned from, and that insights gained from this research can then be developed and transferred through carefully designed training programs. In effect, the more people equipped with the bridging knowledge and skills, the greater the likelihood that collaboration will take hold, produce critical synergies and make inroads into
solving critical social problems and reducing conﬂict throughout the world. But of course, it’s not as simple as merely training people to collaborate. People work in organizations and organizations operate within the broader context that is society. Thus, bridging is not just a horizontal exercise; it is a process that begins with the individual leaders, working through groups or organizations, which, in turn, comprise the fabric of society. Figure 1 is a graphic representation illustrating how bridging can spark and carry forward a process of social transformation. Bridging Leadership attempts to increase society’s deposit of social capital by increasing levels of trust in the public space. The principal mechanism for accomplishing this is the bridging dialogue.15 The process of real dialogue can strengthen the enabling environment by establishing basic conditions for building trust and relationships among diverse stakeholders. Once a minimal
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level of trust exists and the chains of trust are extended across the public spaces, collaboration can begin and real progress made on solving complex problems. Over time, collaboration can evolve into what Waddell termssocietal learning or “a process of changing patterns of interactions within and between diverse organizations and social units to enhance society’s capacity to innovate.”16 This capacity to innovate is essential to coming up with sustainable solutions to our most critical problems. Unfortunately, too many dialogues advance without ﬁrst laying the critical foundation of trust and relationship. Moreover, dialogue often begins and ends as an exercise of and for elites, never involving other critical stakeholders— the real sustaining power of dialogue and collective action. One of the core tasks of bridging is building relationships the mortar that holds the relationship together is dialogue. Bridging Leadership attempts to initiate dialogue involving all the critical stakeholders. Initial activi-
ties are designed to develop trust and relationships, building from a foundation of “early, small successes”. As Figure 2 indicates, dialogue should involve a wide range of actors at the initial stages. As speciﬁc activities begin to take place and progress towards concrete goals is
made, the process may become more focused. Thus, from a bridging perspective, the initial stage of dialogue involves casting a wide net for potential stakeholders. The essential early objectives involve
Collective Action Objectives Strategic
Objectives Open Audience Targetted
Self-selected Stakeholders Building Relationships/ Trust
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building relationships and trust. Ideally, this stage would be centered upon small, low-risk activities that allow for immediate successes and for trust to take hold and grow. Over time, the objectives would tend towards more sophisticated types of collective action. As activities intensify and require increasing levels of commitment and investment, the participants would be targeted, in part, based upon potential contributions to the collaboration, in addition to speciﬁc interests.
creased polarization comes at a time when the problems we face as a global community have never been more critical. Just as apparent is the fact that concrete problems such as growing inequality between rich and poor, environmental degradation, and HIV-AIDs require the combined efforts of business, civil society and government. So far, we have not been up to the task. Meaningful collaboration is, to date, still beyond our reach. A homemaker and community leader in rural Zimbabwe sums up the current state of affairs in the following way: Current leadership is leading different sectors apart from each other, let alone from us at the grassroots level. Politics has political leaders. The economy or the business sector has its own leaders. Commercial farmers have leaders. The Church and the religious community have theirs. Academics, researchers, NGO’s etc have their own leaders. Each of these sectors
has different goals. Others—the politicians—want voters and followers. Business people want to make a proﬁt and they want us as their market and workers. Commercial farmers want us as farm workers and their market. The churches and NGOs want us in their membership and as project holders. All these leaders want us to follow them. As a result of this fragmented leadership the world is growing apart behind them as leaders. Jealousies and tensions grow. Confusion grows, and then conﬂicts and ﬁghts over resources and territories. We are tired of being led apart. We are not blind, only a blind person needs to be led. There is need for bridging leaders to put up bridges so that the current leaders of various sectors can cross to each other’s territories. The gaps between themselves and between them and us are growing each day.
THE DIVIDES THAT SEPARATE US
One of the most salient effects of the tragic events of September 11 has been to highlight the myriad of ways in which the world is divided. Throughout and across societies it is apparent that the many chasms that separate us—rich and poor, black and white, liberal and conservative, Muslim and Christian, etc.—are deep and, in some cases, appear to be widening. This in-
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Some bridging in leadership may get them talking and hopefully close their differences and bring us peace, cash in our pockets and development to our homes. [Daisy Ncube-Gwanda, Zimbabwe] The concept of Bridging Leadership is our way of expressing Daisy’s simple, yet eloquent aspiration. On the one hand, it is a contribution to the ﬁeld of leadership; a partial answer to the paradigmatic search for an alternative to the industrial model.
Yet on other, it merely gives form to the quest of civic leaders all across the world who are attempting to transform their societies by looking for the latent synergies in their communities and forging new types of relationships. While the form it takes may vary according to language and culture, what we have in common is the need to work together to solve complex problems and the need for practical, viable tools and strategies to help us along the way.
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Structured Learning Exercise: Review Quiz on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law
1. Maraming sangkot sa isang away. Ang mga inireklamo ay nakatira sa ibaibang barangay ng iba-iba ring bayan at lungsod. Ano ang maaaring gawin ng taong gustong magreklamo? a. Magsampa ng reklamo sa barangay kung saan siya (nagreklamo) nakatira. b. Magsampa ng reklamo sa barangay ng isa sa mga gusto niyang ireklamo. c. Magsampa ng reklamo sa lahat ng barangay kung saan may nakatirang inirereklamo. d. Dumeretso na sa korte at duon isampa ang reklamo. Sagot: D. Hindi na sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kasong ito dahil ang mga inirereklamo ay nakatira sa iba-ibang barangay ng iba-ibang lungsod o bayan. 2. Ang inireklamo ay nakatira sa isang apartment sa Barangay Poblacion, Bustos, Bulacan. Pero pag Sabado at Linggo, umuuwi siya sa kanyang bahay sa Manila. Nasangkot siya sa isang gulo at gusto siyang ireklamo ng isang taga-Tanawan, Bustos, Bulacan. Ano ang maaaring gawin ng taong gustong magreklamo? a. Magsampa ng reklamo sa barangay Poblacion, Bustos, Bulacan.
b. Magsampa ng reklamo sa barangay sa Manila kung saan may bahay ang inirereklamo. c. Magsampa ng reklamo sa barangay Tanawan, Bustos, Bulacan. d. Dumeretso na sa korte at duon isampa ang reklamo. Sagot: A. Para sa pagpapatupad ng Katarungang Pambarangay, itinuturing na tirahan ng inireklamo ang Poblacion, Bustos, Bulacan dahil dito siya aktuwal na nakatira. Iba ang patakaran dito sa patakaran sa halalan kung saan ang itinuturing na tirahan ay ang “domicile” o legal na tirahan.
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3. Sangkot bilang mga inirereklamo sa isang kaso tungkol sa lupa ang Municipality of Daraga, Albay at isang residente ng bayan. Ang nagreklamo ay isa ring residente ng nasabing bayan. Sa unang paghaharap ng mga partido, sinabi ng inireklamo na hindi sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso dahil sangkot ang gobyerno. Ano ang dapat gawin ng Punong Barangay? a. A. Idismis ang kaso dahil hindi ito sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay. b. Ituloy ang kaso sa ilalim ng Katarungang Pambarangay kasama ang lahat ng partido pati na ang Municipality of Daraga. c. Ituloy ang kaso sa ilalim ng Katarungang Pambarangay pero hindi kasama ang Municipality of Daraga. d. Ipasa sa Department of Justice ang kaso. Sagot: C. Kung ang gobyerno lamang ang inireklamo, hindi sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso, pero kung may iba pang inireklamo, dapat na ituloy
pa rin ang paghaharap sa ilalim ng Katarungang Pambarangay sa pagitan ng ibang partido. 4. Sangkot sa isang kaso ang isang pirasong lupa sa Municipality of La Castellana, Negros Occidental. Ang nagreklamo at ang inireklamo ay parehong hindi residente ng nasabing bayan, at nakatira sa magkalayong bayan. Isinampa ng nagreklamo sa Katarungang Pambarangay sa barangay na kinaroonan ng lupa sa La Castellana ang usapin. Ano ang dapat gawin ng Punong Barangay? a. Idismis ang kaso dahil hindi ito sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay. b. Ituloy ang kaso sa ilalim ng Katarungang Pambarangay. c. Ipasa ang kaso sa barangay kung saan nakatira ang nagreklamo. d. Ipasa ang kaso sa barangay kung saan nakatira ang inireklamo. Sagot: A. Hindi na sakop ito ng Katarungang Pambarangay dahil hindi nakatira sa parehong bayan o lungsod ang mga
partido. Kahit pa nga ang lupang sangkot sa usapin ay sakop ng barangay La Castellana, walang jurisdiction ang barangay na kinapapalooban ng lupa sa nasabing usapin. 5. Nagharap sa Punong Barangay ang mga partido sa isang usapin. Walang naabot na kasunduan sa kabila ng pagsisikap ng Punong Barangay na makatulong sa pag-aayos ng usapin. Sa halip na buoin ang Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo, naglabas agad ng Certiﬁcation to File Action ang Punong Barangay. Nagsampa ng kaso sa korte ang nagreklamo. Ano ang dapat gawin ng Korte? a. Idismis ang kaso dahil hindi ito dumaan nang maayos sa Katarungang Pambarangay. b. Tanggapin ang kaso dahil nagharap naman sa Punong Barangay ang mga partido. c. Ibalik ang kaso sa barangay. d. Ipakulong ang Punong Barangay.
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Sagot: B. Kahit na hindi dumaan sa Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo ang usapin, itinuturing itong “substantial compliance” at sapat na para matupad ang kondisyon na inilatag ng batas. Maari nang dinggin ng korte ang usapin. 6. Hindi dumalo sa paghaharap sa Punong Barangay ang nagreklamo sa isang usapin. Nagpadala lang siya ng kinatawan. Pagkatapos ay dinala niya sa korte ang kaso. Ano ang dapat gawin ng Korte? a. Idismis ang kaso dahil hindi ito dumaan nang maayos sa Katarungang Pambarangay. b. Tanggapin ang kaso dahil nagkaroon naman ng paghaharap sa Punong Barangay. c. Ibalik ang kaso sa barangay. d. Ipakulong ang Punong Barangay. Sagot: A. Mahalagang bahagi ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang paghaharap ng mga taong sangkot mismo sa usapin. Hindi maaring magpadala lamang ng ki-
natawan sa paghaharap. Ang sinumang nagreklamo na hindi humarap sa Katarungang Pambarangay ay hindi maaring magsampa ng reklamo sa korte batay sa parehong usapin 7. Ang Punong Barangay ay sangkot sa isang away na dinala sa Katarungang Pambarangay. Matapos hilingin ng isang partido na huwag ang Punong Barangay ang humawak sa kaso, tumanggi ang Punong Barangay at ipinilit na makikialam pa rin siya sa kaso. Ano ang maaaring gawin ng taong kalaban ng Punong Barangay? a. Isumbong kay Mayor ang Punong Barangay. b. Humarap pa rin sa Punong Barangay. c. Huwag nang humarap sa Punong Barangay. d. Suntukin ang Punong Barangay. Sagot: B. Dapat pa ring humarap sa Punong Barangay ang taong sangkot sa problema. Gayunpaman, maaari niyang sabihin, sa magalang na paraan, na
hindi siya magiging handa sa anumang pag-uusap para sa kasunduan kung ang Punong Barangay na sangkot sa problema ang siyang hahawak sa usapin. Dapat tandaang kung walang pagkakasundo sa harap ng Punong Barangay, dadalhin ang problema sa Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo. Maliban dito, maaari ring sampahan ng kasong administratibo ang Punong Barangay dahil sa pag-abuso sa tungkulin. 8. Ilang beses nang nagpatawag ng paghaharap ang Punong Barangay o Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo pero hindi humaharap ang isa sa dalawang partidong nag-aaway. Kahit na ganito ang nangyari, wala pa ring ginagawang pagkilos ang Punong Barangay o ang Pangkat. Ano ang gagawin ng taong humaharap sa Punong Barangay o sa Pangkat? a. Umuwi na lang nang luhaan. b. Huwag na ring humarap at hindi na magpakita muli sa Punong Barangay o Pangkat.
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c. Humingi ng kaukulang sertipikasyon sa Punong Barangay o sa Pangkat. d. Suntukin ang Punong Barangay o ang Chairperson ng Pangkat. Sagot: C. Maaaring sumulat ang taong ito sa Punong Barangay o sa Pinuno (Chairperson) ng Pangkat para pormal na hilingin ang pagkilos ng Punong Barangay o ng Pangkat. Kung ang taong hindi humaharap ay ang nagreklamo, dapat na hilingin ng kabilang panig na i-dismiss na ang kaso matapos mabigyan ng pagkakataon ang nagreklamo na ipaliwanag ang kanyang hindi pagharap at maglabas na ng sertipikasyon na hindi na pwedeng magsampa ng reklamo sa korte ang nagreklamo. Kung ang inirereklamo ang hindi humarap sa Punong Barangay, ayon sa Implementing Rules, dapat nang buoin ang Pangkat. Kung sa Pangkat naman hindi humarap ang inireklamo, dapat hilingin ng nagrereklamo na bigyan na siya ng sertipikasyon na maaari nang dalhin ang
kaso sa korte at sertipikasyon na hindi na maaring magsampa sa korte ng kanyang kontra-reklamo ang inirereklamo. Kung wala pa ring ginawang pagkilos ang Punong Barangay o ang Pangkat, matapos ang pagkatanggap ng sulat, ipinapalagay na maaari nang magsampa ng kaso sa korte ang nagreklamo kung ang inirereklamo ang hindi humaharap. Kailangan lang sabihin sa korte na nagdaan na sa Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso at tumangging gumawa ng tamang pagkilos ang Punong Barangay o ang Pangkat. Kung ang nagrereklamo naman ang hindi humaharap, maaari nang ituring ng inirereklamo na hindi na itutuloy ng nagrereklamo ang pagrereklamo.
b. Tatawagin ang barangay tanod at ipahuhuli ang dalawang nag-aaway. c. Kakausapin ang mga partido at magpapanggap na lang na sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso. d. Kakausapin ang mga partido at ipaliliwanag sa kanila na hindi sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso nila. Sagot: D. Kailangang ipaliwanag ng tagapagkasundo na hindi na sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay ang kaso. Gayunpaman, dapat pa ring subukin ng tagapagkasundo kung magagawa niyang tulungan ang dalawang partido, kung gugustuhin nila, na mag-usap at maghanap ng solusyon sa kanilang pag-aaway. 10. Nagkaroon ng kasunduan ang dalawang partido sa kanilang pag-uusap sa harap ng tagapagkasundo. Sa tingin ng tagapagkasundo, agrabyado o lugi ang isang partido sa nabuong kasunduan. Ano ang dapat gawin ng tagapagkasundo?
9. Dinala sa tagapagkasundo ang isang pag-aaway na hindi naman sakop ng Katarungang Pambarangay. Ano ang gagawin ng tagapagkasundo. a. Hindi kakausapin ang mga partido dahil hindi naman niya ito trabaho.
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a. A. Ipaliwanag lang sa magkabilang panig ang epekto ng kasunduan. b. Tumutol sa kasunduan dahil hindi ito makatarungan. c. Manahimik na lamang. d. Tawanan na lamang ang agrabyadong partido pagkaalis nila. Sagot: A. Dapat na ipaliwanag ng tagapagkasundo ang tunay na kahulugan at epekto ng kasunduan sa dalawang panig, lalo na ang posibleng masamang epekto nito sa isa. Pero hindi dapat na lumabas na pinipigil niya ang taong ito na tanggapin ang kasunduan. Kung matapos ang kanyang paliwanag, gusto pa rin ng taong agrabyado sa kasunduan na tanggapin ang kasunduan, walang magagawa ang tagapagkasundo kung hindi igalang ang pasya ng mga partido 11. Sa pag-uusap ng magkabilang partido, nalaman ng tagapagkasundo na magkaiba ang sinasabing impormasyon ng dalawang partido sa parehong bagay. Ano ang dapat gawin ng tagapagkasundo?
a. A.Pagalitan ang dalawang partido at pauwiin na lang sila. b. Iwan muna ang dalawa at sabihin sa kanilang kailangan muna silang magkasundo sa impormasyon bago ipagpatuloy ang pag-uusap sa harap ng tagapagkasundo. c. Tapusin na ang pag-uusap dahil wala ring mangyayari. d. Ipagpatuloy ang pag-uusap at alamin kung alin ang tamang impormasyon. Sagot: D. Kailangang tulungan ng tagapagkasundo ang mga partido na malaman kung ano ang tamang impormasyon tungkol sa bagay na pinag-uusapan. Maaaring humingi ng ebidensiya ang tagapagkasundo para malaman talaga ng mga partido at ng tagapagkasundo kung ano ang tamang impormasyon. Kung malaman na niya ito, dapat tulungan ng tagapagkasundo na matanggap ng partidong may maling impormasyon kung ano ang tamang impormasyon.
12. May mag-asawa na nag-aaway. Binubugbog ng lalaki ang babae. Sinabihan ng lalaki na huwag makialam ang tagapagkasundo dahil usapang mag-asawa lamang ang nagaganap. Ano ang dapat gawin ng Punong Barangay? a. A.Manahimik at huwag makialam dahil tama ang sinabi ng lalaki. b. Kausapin ang dalawa at subukang mamagitan para magkasundo ang mag-asawa. c. Sabihan ang babae na magsumbong na lamang siya sa pulis. d. Magpalabas ng Barangay Protection Order. Sagot: D. Sa ilalim ng Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act, hindi dapat isinasailalim sa conciliation o mediation ang mga kasong sakop ng batas. Binigyan ng batas na ito ng kapangyarihan ang mga Punong Barangay na magpalabas ng Protection Order na nag-uutos sa lalaki na itigil ang paggawa ng karahasan o pananakot ng karahasan sa biktima.
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13. Pagkatapos magkasundo ang dalawang partido at naisulat na ng tagapagkasundo ang kasunduan, biglang nagbago ang isip ng isa sa mga partido at tumangging lumagda sa kasunduan. Ano ang dapat gawin ng tagapagkasundo? a. Iwan na lang ang dalawang partido dahil binalewala rin nila ang paguusap. b. Pagalitan ang taong nagbago ang isip at pilitin siyang tanggapin ang nauna nang kasunduan. c. Punitin sa harap ng dalawa ang nakasulat na kasunduan. d. Muling kausapin ang dalawa at ipagpatuloy ang paghahanap ng kasunduang matatanggap ng dalawang partido. Sagot: D. Kailangang bumalik ang tagapagkasundo sa proseso ng pamamagitan at alamin ang dahilan ng pagbabago ng isip ng isa sa mga partido. Nangangahulugan ito na babalik ang tagapagkasundo sa unang hakbang. Kung matapos nito ay ayaw pa ring tanggapin ng isang
panig ang nauna nang nabuong kasunduan at wala nang iiba pang kasunduang matatanggap ng dalawang panig, wala nang magagawa ang tagapagkasundo kung hindi ang balewalain ang naunang kasunduan. 14. Dumating ang isang partido na may kasamang abogado. Ano ang dapat gawin ng tagapagkasundo? a. Pauwiin agad ang abogado dahil bawal ito. b. Paliwanagan ang abogado na gusto niyang makausap ang mga partidong nag-aaway lang na walang kasamang abogado. c. Pakiusapan ang abogado na bumili ng meryenda sa malayong tindahan. d. Pabayaan na lang na nandoon ang abogado. Sagot: B. Dapat na magalang na sabihan ng tagapagkasundo na gusto niyang makausap ang mga partido nang walang kasamang abogado o kinatawan. Hindi dapat sabihin na, “Bawal ang abogado rito!,” dahil baka masamain ito ng taong nagsama sa abogado.
15. Sa pag-uusap ng dalawang partido, lumalabas na may magkaiba silang paniniwala tungkol sa isang bagay at mukhang hindi na mababago ang paniniwalang ito. Ano ang dapat gawin ng tagapagkasundo? a. Sabihin sa dalawa na pareho silang mali at bigyan sila ng tamang paniniwala. b. Tulungan ang dalawa na maigalang ang paniniwala ng bawat isa. c. Pauwiin na lang ang dalawang panig dahil wala ring mangyayari sa usapan. d. Ipakausap sila sa abogado kung nakabalik na ito mula sa malayong tindahan. Sagot: B. Dapat na tulungan ng tagapagkasundo ang bawat partido na maigalang ang paniniwala ng kabila at mula rito ay maghanap ng solusyon na hindi naman kontra sa paniniwala ng magkabilang panig. Hindi kailangang magkasundo ang mga partido sa lahat ng bagay.
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Lecture on the Katarungang Pambarangay Law
1. NATURE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY
he Katarungang Pambarangay (or KP) is a community-based dispute resolution mechanism that is mandated by the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 25 or the Local Government Code of ARMM. The provisions of MMAA 25 on Katarungang Pambarangay are also found in Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code of the Philippines. The precursor of KP provisions in the Local Government Code is Presidential Decree 1508 or the Katarungang Pambarangay Law. Said law set down the objectives of KP, to wit:
a. Provide for speedy administration of justice; b. Discourage indiscriminate ﬁling of cases in the regular courts; c. Prevent clogging of the court dockets, and consequently increase the quality of the administration of justice; and d. Continue the tradition of settling disputes through peaceful means.
2. SCOPE OF KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY
As a general rule, ALL disputes between and among residents of the same municipality or town should be processed ﬁrst through the Katarungang Pambarangay.
Otherwise, the dispute cannot be brought to the regular court. However, there are some kinds of disputes that are not covered by the general rule and can therefore be brought directly to the courts or government agencies. This is in accordance with the Local Government Code and other laws (e.g., Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law), Implementing Rules of the Katarungang Pambarangay, and Supreme Court decisions. In addition, the dispute should be brought to the barangay that has jurisdiction over the dispute. This refers to the issue of venue.
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Disputes that need not go through the Katarungang Pambarangay In accordance with the Local Government Code, the following are not included in the Katarungang Pambarangay: ❋ When one of the parties is the government or any its agencies; ❋ When one of the parties is a public ofﬁcial and the dispute refers to his/her performance of duties as such; ❋ Crimes where the penalty is imprisonment of one (1) year o a ﬁne of Five Thousand Pesos (P5,000.00); ❋ Crimes where there is no private offended party (e.g., jaywalking) ❋ Disputes over real property (land, buildings, etc.) that are located in another town or city, unless the parties agree to bring the dispute to a barangay; ❋ Disputes between parties who live in different barangays in different cities, unless the barangays are contiguous and the parties agree to bring the dispute to one of the barangay; ❋ When the respondent is already detained;
❋ When the respondent is already detained and a petition for habeas corpus can be ﬁled ❋ Cases where provisional remedies such as preliminary injunction, support pendente lite, attachment, delivery of personal property is proper ❋ Where the right to ﬁle a case may prescribe because of the statute of limitations Other disputes that are not covered by the Katarungang Pambarangay are the following: ❋ Where one of the parties is a corporation, partnership, cooperative or other juridical person; ❋ Employer-employee disputes; ❋ Disputes that arise from agrarian relations between the parties (e.g., tenancy); ❋ Disputes where a party seeks to annul a decision of a court based on an amicable settlement If a dispute is one of the exempted cases as provided above, the parties may go
directly to court or to the appropriate government agency, unless under other laws the dispute should be brought for mediation processes other than Katarungang Pambarangay, such as, for example, agrarian cases that shall be brought to the Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee (BARC).
Cases Falling within the Jurisdiction of Barangay Justice A. All criminal offenses which are penalized by arresto menor or arresto mayor are clearly within the competence of the Katarungang Pambarangay. Speciﬁcally these are enumerated under the Revised Penal Code, to wit: • Article 154 – Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances • Article 155 – Alarms and scandals • Article 175 – Using false certiﬁcates • Article 178 – Using ﬁctitious names and concealing true names • Article 179 – Illegal use of uniforms or insignias
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• Article 252 – Physical injuries inﬂicted in a tumultuous affray • Article 253 – Giving assistance to unconsummated suicide • Article 260 – Responsibility of participants in a duel if only physical injuries are inﬂicted or no physical injuries have been inﬂicted • Article 265 – Less serious physical injuries • Article 266 – Slight physical injuries and maltreatment • Article 269 – Unlawful arrest • Article 271 – Inducing a minor to abandon his home • Article 275 – Abandonement of person in danger and abandonment of one’s own victim • Article 276 – Abandoning a minor ( a child of under seven years old) • Article 277 – Abandonement of minor by person entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents • Article 280 – Qualiﬁed trespass to dwelling (without the use of violence or intimidation)
• Article 281 – Other forms of trespass • Article 283 – Light threats • Article 285 – Other light threats • Article 286 – Grave coercion • Article 287 – Light coercion • Article 288 – Other similar coercions (compulsory purchase of merchandise and payment of wages by means of tokens) • Article 289 – Formation, maintenance and prohibition of combination of capital or labor through violence or threats • Article 290 – Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence • Article 291 – Revealing secrets with abuse of office • Article 309 – Theft (if the value of property stolen does not exceed P50.00) • Article 310 – Qualiﬁed theft (if the amount does not exceed P5.00) • Article 312 – Occupation of real property or usurpation of real rights in property
• Article 313 – Altering boundaries or landmarks • Article 315 – Swindling or estafa (if the amount does not exceed P200.00) • Article 316 – Other forms of swindling • Article 317 – Swindling a minor • Article 318 – Other deceits • Article 319 – Removal, sale or pledge of mortgaged property • Article 328 – Special cases of malicious mischief (if the value of the damaged property does not exceed 200.00) • Article 329 – Other mischiefs (if the damaged property does exceed P1,000.00) • Article 338 – Simple seduction • Article 339 – Act of lasciviousness with the consent of the offended party • Article 356 – Threatening to publish and offer to prevent such publication for a compensation • Article 357 – Prohibited publication of acts referred to in the
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course of official proceedings • Article 363 – Incriminating innocent persons • Article 364 – Intriguing against honor • Sec. 1, B.P. 22 – Issuing checks without sufficient funds (if the amount is not more than P2,500.00) • Pres. Decree No. 1612 – Fencing of stolen properties of not more than P50.00 B. Other cases which are subject to amicable settlement The court in which noncriminal cases not falling within the authority of the lupon may, at any time before trial, motu propio or at its initiative refer the case to the barangay for amicable settlement (Sec. 408). The compromise agreements decided upon by the parties before the lupon or pangkat on such cases must be submitted to and approved by the court before they become effective (Sec. 416).
The venue of a dispute is the place (barangay) where it should be brought for mediation/ arbitration under the Katarungang Pambarangay. The rules pertaining to venue are the following: ❋ When both parties live in the same barangay, the dispute should be brought to the barangay where they both reside; ❋ If the parties live in different barangays, the dispute shall be brought to the barangay where the respondent lives. Should there be more than one (1) respondent, the complainant may choose which among the barangays where the different respondents live to which s/he shall bring the dispute; ❋ If the dispute is about a real property, the dispute should be brought to the barangay where the property is situated; and ❋ If the dispute stated in a workplace where the parties work or in a school or institution where they study or train, the dispute shall be brought to
the barangay where the workplace/ school/ institution is located. Any question as to venue should be raised with the Punong Barangay at the time that the dispute is brought to him/ her. If the question is not raised at that time, no contest as to the venue can be raised at any other time. The Punong Barangay shall resolve all questions pertaining to venue. If the Punong Barangay needs help in resolving the matter, he/she may seek the assistance of the Secretary of Justice or any of the latter’s representative and his/her resolution shall be ﬁnal.
4. PROCEDURE FOR SETTLEMENT
There are two different modes of settling disputes under the Katarungang Pambarangay: (1) amicable settlement through mediation; at (2) arbitration. Successful mediation results in a written agreement which is the amicable settlement, while arbitration results in a decision by the arbitrator called the arbitration award.
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The more common and preferred mode is mediation, rather than arbitration.
Mediation for Amicable Settlement The following are the steps in mediation: ❋ Filing of the complaint, together with payment of fees, if any; ❋ The day after the ﬁling, the Punong Barangay shall issue the summons, which gives notice to the respondent that a complaint had been ﬁled against him/her and that s/he needs to present him/herself before the Punong Barangay, together with his/ her witnesses, for mediation; ❋ Conference before the Punong Barangay, where the parties are present and the Punong Barangay acts as mediator; ❋ If the parties are able to settle their dispute in the mediation before the Punong Barangay, the latter shall make a written agreement or amicable settlement in a language understood by the parties. This shall be signed by the parties and certiﬁed by the Punong Barangay.
❋ If no settlement is arrived at in the mediation conferences before the Punong Barangay within ﬁfteen (15) days from the ﬁrst conference, the Punong Barangay shall set a date for the constitution of the Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo. ❋ The parties shall meet to choose from among the list of members of the Lupon the three (3) people who shall be members of the Pangkat. If the parties are not able to agree on who should be the 3 members of the Pangkat, the matter shall be resolved by drawing of lots. ❋ Within three (3) days from the time the Pangkat is constituted, it shall meet and hear the parties and their witnesses. The Pangkat shall issue summons to call the parties to a conference and to bring their witnesses. The Pangkat shall have ﬁfteen (15) days from the time it ﬁrst met to mediate between the parties, which period can be extended by the Pangkat for another ﬁfteen (15) days, except for extra-ordinary cases.
Arbitration Arbitration can take place at any stage of the Katarungang Pambarangay, i.e. at any point of the mediation efforts of the Punong Barangay or of the Pangkat. This happens if and when the parties agree in writing to change the mode of dispute settlement from mediation to arbitration. The same procedure as that in mediation also happens in arbitration, except that the parties are given the opportunity to present their evidence, which shall be made the bases for the Arbitration Award by the Punong Barangay or the Pangkat, as the case may be.
Even though evidence plays a much more important role in arbitration, still the processes shall be free from legal and technical rules of procedure. The arbitrators are not bound by the provisions of law with respect to the subject matter at hand. Note also that there is no appeal of the Arbitration Award to the courts. The only way to question the matter is through repudiation of the Agreement to Arbitrate
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by reason of vitiated consent through fraud, intimidation, violence.
5. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY
The following are the officials and structures involved in the conduct of KP
Punong Barangay Accept all written or verbal complaints. In the case of the latter, the PB should write down the the complaint. ❋ Give a notice to the complainant setting the date of the ﬁrst hearing o conference ❋ Give to the respondent Summons, or a notice that the respondent should present him/herself before the Punong Barangay within ﬁve (5) days for the ﬁrst conciliation session ❋ Administer oaths on any matter related to the implementation of KP ❋ Make a resolution on any protest to the venue where the KP is being conducted and to certify that the protest
has been resolved or that there is no such protest ❋ Conduct mediation on any complaint covered by KP within his/her jurisdiction ❋ Reduce into writing any agreement arrived at by the parties in a language that is understood by them, have it signed by the parties, and certify the agreement ❋ Arbitrate on the complaint, if and when the parties have a written agreement that they are amenable to having the complaint arbitrated. In relation to this, the Punong Barangay can call for a hearing for the presentation of evidence by the parties which shall serve as bases for the Decision. The Decision shall be written in a language understood by the parties.
Barangay Secretary As mentioned earlier, the Barangay Secretary shall also serve as the Secretary of the Lupon. As such, his/her particular duties are the following:
❋ Keep and maintain a record book in which shall be recorded a list of all complaints that had been ﬁled with the Office of the Punong Barangay. Each complaint shall be recorded in accordance with the date of ﬁling and to list down the names of the parties, the date and time of the ﬁling of the complaint, and the type of complaint, as well as the result of the KP process ❋ Document the result of the mediation that was conducted before the Punong Barangay and to submit a report thereon to the local court ❋ Record intentional absence of a witness after s/he was issued and given a subpoena ❋ Record intentional absence of a party after s/he was issued and given a summons and to issue a certiﬁcation to bar action or counterclaim as a result thereof ❋ Receive and record all activities and proceedings of the organized Pangkat ❋ Submit any written agreement or arbitration award to the appropriate court
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❋ Issue a certiﬁcation necessary for the ﬁling of a case in court or government office for adjudication after parties gone through mediation under KP and an Amicable Settlement was in fact arrived at, but the same had been repudiated by one of the parties ❋ Issue a certiﬁcation to bar action or counterclaim as a result of the intentional absence of one of the parties in a conference called under KP ❋ Give a copy of the Amicable Settlement or Arbitration Award to all the parties and to the Punong Barangay ❋ Issue certiﬁed true copy of any document in his/her custody which has not been categorized by law as conﬁdential
comprising of not less than ten (10) and not more than twenty (20). Anyone serving as member of the Lupon should actually reside or work in the barangay where s/he is serving as such. S/he should also have integrity, impartiality, independence of mind, reputation for probity and other considerations. The following are disqualiﬁed from being members of the Lupon: ❋ Those who are less than 18 years of age ❋ Those who have been declared incompetent under the law ❋ Those sentenced for commission of a crime that carries with it the penalty of temporary or permanent disqualiﬁcation to hold any public office of position ❋ Anyone elected as a public official, except for those whose positions are allowed by law to have another position
❋ Any member of the Armed Forces of the Philippines who are in active service While serving as Lupon members, they are considered as “persons in authority”. Consequently, they should be accorded respect. They can request assistance from residents of the barangay if and when help is needed in the performance of their duty. Most importantly, if anyone assaults them, the responsible person shall be meted out with a heavier penalty compared to if the assault was done against an ordinary person. There is no salary to be given to the members of the Lupon but they can be given by allowance or other beneﬁts by law or ordinance. While in the performance of their duty, public or private employees who are members of the Lupon are considered on “official time” and no deductions from their salaries or allowance should be made. Constitution of the Lupon:
Lupong Tagapamayapa Composition of the Lupon The Lupon is the group of citizens responsible for helping settle disputes of parties, or, in appropriate situation, arbitrate disputes brought before the barangay. It is composed of the Punong Barangay, as chairperson, and members
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The Lupon is constituted in the following manner: ❋ Within ﬁfteen (15) days from his assumption to his position, the Punong Barangay shall issue a notice for the constitution of the Lupon with a list of the recommended members thereof, which shall be not less than ten (10) and not more than twenty (20). In making the list and in the actual appointmen, the Punong Barangay shall be guided by the size of the population of the barangay and the previous number of the Lupon or the number of complaints that had been ﬁled with the barangay. ❋ The notice shall be posted in three (3) conspicuous places in the barangay for a period not shorter than three (3) weeks. Included in the notice is the invitation to the residents of the barangay to support or contest the recommendees or to add additional names in the list. ❋ Within ten (10) days from the last day of the posting of the notice, the Punong Barangay shall appoint the
members of the Lupon, which shall be not less than (10) and not more than twenty (20). The appointment shall be in writing and certiﬁed by the Barangay Secretary. The list of appointees shall be posted in three conspicuous places until after the term of the Lupon. ❋ Once appointed, the members of the Lupon shall take their oath before the Punong Barangay. Their term shall be three (3) years, except if it is interrupted by death, resignation, transfer of residence or work to another barangay, or withdrawal of appointment by the Punong Barangay concurred in by a majority of the members of the Lupon. ❋ If there is vacancy in the Lupon, the Punong Barangay shall immediately appoint a replacement and the new member shall serve only for the unexpired term of the previous member s/ he has replaced.
Powers and duties of the Lupon The primary duties and/or powers of the Lupon are the following: ❋ Exercise administrative supervision over the Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo; ❋ Conduct regular meetings once a month for the exchange of ideas and experiences that could improve and hasten mediation and arbitration; ❋ Discuss and decide on the withdrawal of appointment of a member of the Lupon by the Punong Barangay after due notice and heating; ❋ Execute, through the Punong Barangay, all amicable settlements or arbitration award; and ❋ Carry out all other tasks and responsibilities provided by law or ordinance. Pangkat Tagapagkasundo When there is no amicable settlement made before the Punong Barangay, the parties choose three members from the Lupon, who then constitute the Pangkat Tagapagkasundo. If the parties do not agree on who shall constitute the Pangkat, the latter shall still be constituted
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but only by drawing lots. The primary duty of the Pangkat is to continue to mediate between the parties, after they have failed to arrive at a settlement before the Punong Barangay. After its constitution, the Pangkat shall choose the chairperson and the secretary from among its members. The particular tasks of the Pangkat Chairperson are the following: ❋ Preside over all the conferences between the parties and administer oaths on any matter related to the processes of the Katarungang Pambarangay; ❋ Issue summons to ensure the personal appearance of the parties and their witnesses; ❋ Certify as to the authenticity and the due execution of all settlements entered into before it; ❋ Preside over all hearings conducted in relation to the arbitration when there is a written agreement among the parties to shift the mode from mediation to arbitration
❋ Authenticate the certiﬁcation to be issued by the Pangkat Secretary in order for the parties to be allowed to ﬁle a case in the regular courts ❋ The tasks and responsibilities of the Pangkat Secretary are the following: ❋ Issue a Notice of Hearing and deliver the same to the parties concerned and their witnesses; ❋ Record all processes undertaken by the Pangkat in relation to the case and have the documentation certiﬁed by the Pangkat Chairperson; ❋ Document intentional absences of a party in the minutes, after s/he was issued and had received Summons; ❋ Immediately send to the Lupon Secretary all the amicable settlements or arbitration award; ❋ Send all the minutes of the processes to the Lupon Secretary and to the local court; ❋ Issue certiﬁcation to ﬁle action that states that the parties had appeared before the Pangkat under the Katarungang Pambarangay but that no settlement was arrived at, or that
the parties did not appear before the Pangkat for reasons not attributable to the complainant; and ❋ Issue a certiﬁcation that prevents the complainant from ﬁling a case in court, or the respondent from ﬁling a counter-complaint in court, if any of these parties intentionally refused to appear before the Pangkat. In many cases, the conﬂict-resolving mechanisms also use mediation as a mode for settling disputes, but some also provide leeway for arbitration. These practices have proven to be effective in many communities, as they provide an alternative to the regular court system, which has proven to be inaccessible. Hence, rather than spend time, money and effort in ﬁling and following a case in court, parties to a dispute would rather go through mediation or even arbitration before their local datus and ustadzes. This way, they are not burdened with excessive costs for lawyers’ fees, ﬁling fees, transportation,
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and income foregone. Furthermore, they are able to understand the processes which are based on their own customs and religious teachings, and not on laws that they do not understand. Unfortunately, there are no clear guidelines yet on how these practices interface with the judicial system that is supposed to be in the forefront of the administration of justice and conﬂict-resolution. Hence, issues of jurisdiction over what kinds of conﬂicts can be mediated and/ or arbitrated under the local dispute mechanisms remain unresolved. In the meantime, many LGUs are making use of these local practices to pursue peace-building in their communities.
The mediator is a person (or a body, as in the case of the Pangkat) who has the responsibility to try to settle disputes between parties through the use of his/her capabilities as a go-between and facilitator of these parties. The mediator has a different role from a judge who adjudicates over disputes. The mediator does not give a judgment or decision. S/he has no power to make and impose his opinion on the resolution of the issue at hand. S/he merely acts as a facilitator of sorts so that the disputing parties are able to talk about the issue in a more orderly manner. S/he helps the parties look for solutions where both will be satisﬁed. It is important for the mediator to acknowledge and appreciate his/her special role. S/he should put him/herself in the position where s/he is able to discharge his tasks. S/he should bear in mind that the disputing parties are the ones who should take on more decisionmaking functions in seeking of an ac-
ceptable solution to the problem, and not him/herself. For the above reason, the mediator should always take note of the following: ❋ Recognize that each of the disputing parties think that their position is the correct one and that the other is wrong. Hence, the mediator should never belittle the position of each of the parties. For example, s/he should never say that “Oh, is that the only thing you are after?! That’s not even important! Why don’t you just give it up?” ❋ Respect the needs of the parties for adequate time to think and make a decision. A rash judgment will not do anyone any good. For example, the mediators should not say “Think about it now, so that we won’t have to spend too much time into your case.” ❋ Show the parties that the process if for the good of the parties and not for the mediator. For example, s/ he should not say “Please, make an agreement. Take pity in me.”
Basic Skills for the Mediator Since both the KP and the local conﬂict resolution mechanisms make use of mediation as a primary mode, it may be worthwhile to review the basics of mediation.
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❋ Never forget that s/he should be impartial. S/he is not part of the dispute. Should any of the parties lose his/her cool, the mediator should not be offended and should not join the dispute. ❋ Listen very well to what the parties are saying and try to sincerely understand their position. It is not right for the mediator to be doing all the talking. Rather, the parties should be given all opportunities to talk and explain their position and interest. For this purpose, the mediator should also be attentive to non-verbal communication. ❋ Always be gracious at all times. A rogue and cocky mediation will not be trusted by the parties and mediation will be greatly affected.
look for possible options that may lead to a resolution of their conﬂicting positions. The mediator should therefore be able to recommend these options. S/he should be able to make these options as acceptable to both parties as possible. The mediators should be impartial at all times. This does not mean that s/he should always be neutral in position. In certain stages of the mediation, s/he may agree with the ideas of a party, should s/he assess these ideas as right. S/he should be able to balance the conﬂicting positions. This may mean that s/he may sometimes agree with a party, and then with the other party. All these should be geared towards arriving at a settlement of the dispute. In making recommendations for options, timing is important. The mediator should be able to determine if the recommendation is timely, i.e., if it is the most opportune time for the parties to listen to possible options and be open to think about them.
The mediator as facilitator of the discussion
The settlement of the dispute rests on the quality and quantity of communication between the parties, among others. Communication is very necessary in settling disputes. If communication bogs dows, no settlement will be forged. Because of this, the mediator should ensure that there is no bog down. In any communication, there should be a direction and orderly exchange of ideas. This is the responsibility of the mediator. S/he should be able to put a direction to the discussion. This can be possible only if the mediator is able to identify the issue that is the source of the conﬂict. If the discussion between the parties have no direction, they may turn out worse than before the mediation. In giving direction to the discussion, there are two important questions that the mediator should consider:
The Role of the Mediator Even though the mediator does not make a decision, his/her role is not limited to being a “referee” to the disputing parties. S/he is not there to facilitate the boxing match, so to speak, but to help parties
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❋ What is the root cause of the conﬂict? ❋ What do the parties want as a resolution for the conﬂict? Discussion of matters that do not pertain to the above questions may only exacerbate the conﬂict. It is likewise important for the mediator to identify the interest of the parties. What a party may say may not reﬂect his/her true interest. The “interest” of a party is what is found behind his/ her “position,” and the mediator should be able to decipher this amidst all the words that are exchanged. The mediator should be able to surface the interest by asking the right questions. In order to ensure that the communication is unhampered, the mediator should prevent the parties from going into the details that triggered the conﬂict and are not relevant to the presentation of interest of the parties. The mediation is done to look for a mutually acceptable solution, and not to return to the conﬂict
and make it worse. The mediator should be able to show each party the interest of the other. The mediator should also be able to help lay ground rules for the discussion of interests As facilitator of the discussion, the mediator should be able to explain the position of one party to the other in a clear, non-threatening and acceptable manner. The mediator should not “fan the ﬁre” and to inject un-peaceful messages of a party to the other. Sometimes, it is wise for the mediator to call for a “break” in the discussion. During the break, the mediator may opt to meet and discuss with one party ﬁrst, without the presence of the other. Thereafter, s/he may do the same with the other party. The purpose of the “break” is to stop a heated discussion that goes nowhere. The mediator should be able to call these “breaks” whenever necessary. These interruption in the discussion may even end the session for the day. A new day for discussion may provide the
parties with a breather. Rushing a settlement is not a good move. A sense of humor is one other trait that the mediator may put into good use. But humor should be interjected sparingly and at the right time only. Parties to a dispute should never feel that the mediator is making fun of them or their dispute. But a joke, when made appropriately, may ease the tension in a discussion.
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Guide Questions for the Video on Mediation
Note to facilitators: Depending on your audience and the time you have for the module, it may not be necessary to ask all the guide questions. Select questions that are particularly suited to your audience, and based on the time you have. 1. The video did not dwell on pre- and post-mediation steps. What are steps that were not discussed at the road map? • Discuss preparatory activities (preparing the venue, ocular inspection, interview of witnesses, familiarization with complaint, materials, etc.). • Discuss monitoring of implementation of agreements. Mediation does not end with written agreements! It is important to ensure that parties to a dispute follow the agreements. Remind the participants that violation of agreements may resort to another case ﬁled before the KP and/or the courts. It is incumbent upon the concerned mediator to follow up on the implementation of agreements. • Dscuss healing and reconciliation. Remind the participants of the vignettes at the end of the video that showed healing and reconciliation. These are healing and reconciliation activities that may or may not neces-
sarily involve the Lupong Tagapamayapa. Why are these aspects of the mediation important? What could the Lupong Tagapamayapa do to ensure healing and reconciliation take place? The video provided only four examples of disputes commonly experienced in communities. What other disputes are commonly ﬁled before the KP and provided for by the law? The video cited “maliitang nakawan”. Up to what amount is considered “maliitan” within the jurisdiction of the KP? Please take note that the LGC was written in 1991.
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Mediation is translated in the video as “Pamamagitan”, the mediator, Tagapamagitan”, and disputes, Sigalot”. What words are used in your barangay equivalent to these terms? The video only covered Mediation. What characteristics of mediation differentiates it from Arbitration, in terms of the process (Mediation vs. Arbitration), and in terms of the roles and characteristics of the neutral third party (mediator vs. arbitrator)? The video showed a Punong Barangay mediating. This assumes that the disputes have not been referred to the Pangkat Tagapagkasundo. What would have happened differently if the cases reached the Pangkat Tagapagkasundo? • Stress that one important characteristic of mediation is its voluntary, participatory and empowering characteristics. While the KP Law states that disputes should ﬁrst be mediated by the Punong Barangay,
disputants do have a say in who they prefer to mediate them. When the PB refers the mediation to the Lupong Tagapamayapa, the disputants can choose who among the roster of LT members they would prefer to mediate. The mediator stated in her opening remarks that the mediation is private and conﬁdential. Is this currently being practiced in your barangay? For those who say this is not being practiced, ask why? • Participants will likely say that the KP law states that the mediation session in the barangay should be open to the public. Ask the participants why this might be problematic? • Stress that mediation practices all over the world and part of the ethics of the profession of mediation is conﬁdentiality of mediation processes. Inform the participants that current efforts to revise the KP law will include making the
process private and conﬁdential. Also, inform the participants that the Philippines’ Alternative Disapute Resolution Act of 2005 also stresses the importance of privacy and conﬁdentiality of mediation sessions. 8. The mediator stated in her opening remarks that the parties to the dispute may opt to talk privately. What does this mean? • Explain the function and importance of Caucuses. 9. The video mentions INTERESTS of each party. What do interests mean? • Remind the participants that in the session on Negotiation, INTERESTS had been differentiated from POSITIONS • Invite the participants to identify the interests of each disputant in each of the case. Write these on the board. 10. In the case of the child accidentally damaging the plant of a neighbor, what laws and treatment in this case
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that the mediator has to keep in mind? • Remind the participants that domestic violence and child abuse are not within the jurisdiction of the KP. However, what differentiates this case that this could be handled by the KP? • What are the various ways with which rights of women and children were protected by the mediator? What more could the Punong Barangya, this time not necessarily acting as part of the Lupong Tagapamayapa, could have done?
11. When all steps have been covered and all reﬂection questions have been answered, ask up to two participants from each group for questions on the Mediation Road Map. Answer each question to the best of your knowledge. When unsure, park each question to e corner of the board, and tell the participants that the question will be answered before the workshop ends.
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L G SP A Survey on Local Conﬂict Resolution Mechanisms in ARMM
ecognizing the important role of local structures that facilitate the resolution of conﬂicts or prevent their recurrence, LGSPA has been giving trainings and coaching support to strengthen and mainstream these LCRMs. In particular, the knowledge and skills of community leaders in conﬂict mapping, conﬂict resolution (transformation through effective communication, negotiation and mediation), culture of peace and human rights promotion, and documentation and reporting of incidents of human rights violations including violence against women and children have been enhanced. The LCRM(s) will be linked
EXPERIENCES IN STRENGTHENING CAPACITIES OF LOCAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION MECHANISMS: ARMM
to the Lupong Tagapamayapa (LT) and the Municipal Peace and Order Council (MPOC).
LANAO DEL SUR Calanogas Calanogas has an existing Executive Order (EO) in 2004 creating the Arbitration Committee (AC) of Calanogas as a conﬂict resolution body. This project’s output successfully put two women in the Arbitration Committee. They were chosen because they are respected in their community, they are available, they are knowledgeable of customary laws and practices and they
have a certain degree of educational attainment. Although it was the Local Chief Executive (LCE) who chose the women, the MPOC members were the ones who deliberated on the women’s qualiﬁcations. Now the women regularly attend AC’s meetings on Sundays and receive the same beneﬁts as the other members.
Masiu In 2000, the LCE of Masiu issued an EO for the formal creation of its Council of Elders (CoE), which has been functioning as such since the 1990s. Masiu’s CoE consists mainly of datus, sultans and former LGU officials.
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Wao An executive order as issued by the LCE creating the Wao Council of Elders as a municipal level conﬂict resolution body. The council is composed of 10 members chaired by the former mayor of the municipality. Calanogas, Marogong & Picong In Calanogas, there is an existing Arbitration Committee (AC) composed of 15 members coming from the religious elders (imam, ustadz) and traditional leaders (datu, sultan) who serve as the conﬂict resolution mechanism of the locality. The group regularly reports for duty at the municipal hall on Sundays regardless if there is a case to settle or not.
A one-day Skills Enhancement Seminar was conducted with the LCRMs of Calanogas, Marogong and Picong in Malabang on February 25, 2008. The topics of the seminars included LCRM rationale, conﬂict mapping, mediation and negotiation and roles in peacebuilding.
During the seminars, the collective concerns raised by Calanogas, Marogong and Picong included two aspects - the link of Council of Elders with the Philippine National Police and formal courts, as well as the council vis-à-vis court shopping of litigants. Despite these concerns, LCRM members are still able to effectively perform their tasks with commitment and dedication. However, they are convinced that the existing LCRM structure has to be strengthened by soliciting community participation through respecting the right process of submitting conﬂict cases (which is that cases have to be attended to ﬁrst by the barangay captains before they are raised to the office of the CoE). In relation to this, participants pointed out the need to set up policies with the barangay captains so that the community will be guided. Printing excerpts from the Q’uran was also found to be facilitative in the settlement of cases because experience has shown that disputants’ anger are softened with words from Allah.
Members of identiﬁed local conﬂict resolution mechanisms in these municipalities have enhanced skills and competencies in mapping, resolving/settling conﬂicts (i.e., effective communication, negotiation and mediation, etc.), and documentation towards peaceful, nonviolent ways of transforming conﬂicts. Key LGU staff (i.e., Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (MPDC), Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer (MSWDO), Municipal Engineer (ME), Municipal Health Officer (MHO), etc.) have improved levels of appreciation of the Culture of Peace (CoP) and improved competence in Peace and Conﬂict Impact Assessment (PCIA) in planning and implementing programs and projects.
LGSPA is orienting and following through with members of identiﬁed LCRMs in Maguindanao.
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South Upi In particular, the LCRM in South Upi was an output of the peacebuilding program in 2005 and formalized through an EO. The community of South Upi calls their LCRM, Bleye Kitab, a Teduray term meaning, “hall of justice”. Bleye Kitab has 13 members representing the tri-people that include three women members and an assigned secretary from the LGU.
The community in South Upi has formally established systems and procedures in resolving conﬂict from the barangay to the municipal levels. Often, even very light disputes are lodged to the Bleye Kitab. To address this issue, Bleye Kitab is conceptualizing the conduct of a barangay information drive about its systems and policies. In 2008, Bleye Kitab faced a controversy when its members did not receive their honorarium for several months. During a conversation with South Upi’s Mayor in Davao City, the Local Resource Persons
(LRPs) commissioned by LGSPA felt that Bleye Kitab was starting to have political color. Seeing this tension as an opportunity to advocate the Culture of Peace and non-violence when dealing with conﬂicts and controversy, the LRPs held a dialogue with the community to answer queries and clarify issues.
been conducted by Task Force Kalakib since there has been no major conﬂict or problem yet. Enhancement of skills on conﬂict resolution, management and negotiation were identiﬁed and the training was held on February 19 to 21, 2008. The different LCRMs of the four LGUs gathered to share and learn from each other’s experiences. Key staff (i.e. Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer (MSWDO), Municipal Health Officer (MHO), etc.) have been oriented to improve levels of appreciation of PCIA and a coaching/ mentoring strategy per key office has been planned by on-site coaches (OSCs). During the Municipal Peace and Order Council (MPOC) training in General SK Pendatun from February 11-12 and in Upi and South Upi from February 13-15, participants learned to apply the PCIA tool in three different projects.
Upi In Upi, a neighboring municipality, the Mayor’s Council is very active and has the Mayor’s full support. This LCRM meets regularly. General SK Pendatun On the other hand, the organized LCRM in General SK Pendatun during Phase I of the Peacebuilding Project is no longer functional since the Mayor is new. Buluan In Buluan, the recognized LCRM is Task Force Kalakib, composed of heads of offices and members from civil society organizations (CSOs). To date, however, there has been no major activity that has - 77 -
Tawi-Tawi Recognizing the important role of local structures that facilitate the resolution of conﬂicts or prevent their recurrence, LGSPA conducted a four-day intensive training and follow through coaching support to strengthen and mainstream LCRMs in Simunul and Sitangkai. In particular, the knowledge and skills of community leaders in conﬂict mapping, conﬂict resolution (i.e., transformation through effective communication, negotiation and mediation), culture of peace and human rights promotion, and documentation and reporting of incidents of human rights violations including violence against women and children were enhanced. The LCRMs were linked to the Lupong Tagapamayapa and the MPOC.
Speciﬁc in this regard, the project implemented the following:
Conducted LCRM Strengthening Training • Trained 16 religious leaders and elders from Simunul on COP, Conﬂict Resolution and PCIA. • Trained 14 religious leaders and elders from Sitangkai on COP, Conﬂict Resolution and PCIA. Established (Mainstreamed) LCRMS • Established LT in 15 barangays of Simunul. • Organized Pondohan Peace and Development Management Committee (PPDMC) in Sitangkai. Mobilized CSOs to organize/ strengthen LCRMs and peacebuilding • The Teachers Association in Simunul implemented the Community Big Book Project. • The Simunul Barangay Justice Advocates (SBJA) implemented the Katarungang Pambarangay Project.
• Sitangkai Association for Islamic Development, Inc. (SAIDI) of Sitangkai implemented formation and training of Pondohan Conﬂict Resolution Bodies. • Local leaders implemented “Pagmimitingan” project in one Pondohan cluster. In Sitangkai and in Simunul, mechanisms were established by which LCRMs can be formed and strengthened. In Simunul, the Municipal Local Government Unit (MLGU) commissioned the Simunul Barangay Justice Advocate (SBJA) as its auxiliary unit to form, train and strengthen the LT in all 15 barangays. In Sitangkai, the LCE established the Pondohan Peace and Development Management Committee (PPDMC) as a special body under the Office of the Mayor in order to address the conﬂicts and development concerns in the Pondo-
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han. These are the two breakthroughs in peacebuilding in both municipalities. 1. Mainstreamed the Simunul Barangay Justice Advocates into the MLGU operational structure. • Established 15 Katarungang Pambarangay in 15 barangays in Simunul. • A breakthrough in the functionality of the Barangay Local Government Unit (BLGU). • Impacts on “conﬂict avoidance” nature of Simunul residents. 2. Established Pondohan Peace and Development Management Committee (PPDMC). • The PPDMC is multi-disciplinary. Its members are experts in the
ﬁeld of a) planning and development b) conﬂict resolution and transformation c) community development and organizing d) seaweeds production and e) public safety and peace and order. • CSOs and leaders from the Pondohan are represented in the composition of the PPDMC along with the Chief of Police, Marine Team Leader, and the Office of the Mayor. • The PPDMC presents an opportunity to address the problem of drug trafficking, sea pollution, declining agar-agar productivity and violence in the Pondohan.
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Participation and Development
he importance of participation has been recognized for a long time Aristotle said that it was essential for the development and fulﬁllment of the human personality. The centrality of participation as a human right in development was highlighted at the FAO Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in 1979, and in publications such as Crowley (1985) and Nyerere (1973). The importance of participation was strengthened by a number of case studies, like those of Sibanda, Morss and Alzimir (all quoted in Brehony, 1989) and Cernea, 1985. Nelson and Wright (1994) note that
a call for participatory development was made at the UN Economic Commission Conference for Africa in "Economic CoOperation and Transformation" at Arusha, Tanzania, in 1990. Even though the centrality of participation is widely accepted there is no common understanding of it. Williams (quoted in Nelson and Wright 1994) notes that participation is a warmly persuasive word, while Oakley et al. (1991) note that participation deﬁes any single attempt at deﬁnition or interpretation, and Cernea (1985) refers to participation as a "cloud of rhetoric". Turrbayne (in Nelson and Wright, 1994)
refers to a case study from Guatemala and notes "Organizations with very different ideologies (military and popular movements) both use the language of participation and empowerment". As such the term participation can be used in a variety of contexts and can imply a variety of meanings. Brehony (1989) refers to agreement among commentators, such as Oakley (1987) and Cohan and Uphoff (1980), that it is impossible to establish a universal deﬁnition of participation. Lee (Community Workers' Cooperative, 1996) states that the deﬁnition of participation is unclear. Platt
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(1996, p 10) points out that "a common understanding of the concept is often assumed" and goes on to say that, in practice, "development actions are often based on differing perceptions of participation...[and on the] level and quality of participation being sought". This clearly can give rise to problems. Platt's comments are supported by Cullen (1996, p 108) who asserts that fundamental differences exist among those who are most closely associated with advocating participation, "reﬂecting the varying intentions of it's different proponents". Lee (Community Workers' Cooperative, 1996) states that participation is an idealized notion, like parenthood, and that there is a lack of experience of effective participation practice. The literature gives a series of deﬁnitions of participation ranging from “token involvement of people” to “autonomous decision making by popular organizations at local level” (Brehony, 1989, p 26). According to Martin and Quinney
(quoted in Platt, 1996), participation is "to take part" - this is very simplistic and implies that everyone is participating at some level in every action. If we are to understand participation we need to explore beyond "taking part" and look to other commentators who have explored the extent and nature to which people “take part”. Platt (1996) refers to the three types of participation of local communities and individuals as proposed by Astorga. These are: ❋ physical participation - being present, using one's skills and efforts; ❋ mental participation - conceptualizing the activity, decision making, organization and management; ❋ emotional participation - assuming responsibility, power and authority. "Taking part" must involve all three types, physical, mental and emotional. But as a deﬁnition, Astorga's types of participation do not provide us with a means of analysing its quality. Brehony,
in his thesis (1989), quoted Castillo who suggests four levels of participation: ❋ in implementing a project; ❋ in deciding what a project should be; ❋ in evaluation; ❋ in control over long term direction. By combining these elements it is possible to assess the level of participation in any given activity. Using this ordering Bryant and White (1980, p.15) have developed an equation which suggests that the value of participation may be analysed thus: P=(B x Pr) - C where participation (P) equals the beneﬁts (B) one hopes to gain by the probability (Pr) that they will actually be achieved, less the cost off achieving them (C). This equation makes possible a cost beneﬁt analysis of participation. Nelson and Wright (1995) refer to three models giving the extent of people's participation: • cosmetic participation - we pretend that they are participating in our project;
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• co-opting participation - they are incorporated into our project; • empowering participation - we are incorporated into their project. • Brehony (1989) quotes from Wanyande who identiﬁes three further models: • collaboration - people are involved only in implementation; • community development - grassroots participation only after needs, priorities and programmes are developed; • empowerment - people identify their own needs with no external assistance. Brehony (1989) also refers to Oakley (1987) who identiﬁes four types of participation similar to those suggested by Wanyande: empowerment, organization, community development and collaboration. Nelson and Wright (1995) go on to point out that participation can be top down or bottom up, uniform or diverse, simple or
complex, static or dynamic, controllable or uncontrollable, predictable or unpredictable. By introducing professionals, controls, bureaucracy and systems, participation can loose its spontaneity, its ﬂexibility and its usefulness. An accurate deﬁnition of participation needs to accommodate the complexity inherent in participation and the power relationships that enable or hinder participation. As Chambers says, in Chapter 2 of Nelson and Wright (1994), reversing power is the key to participation, and Brehony (1989) notes that power is central to participation. Cernea (1985, p 10) remarks that "Putting people ﬁrst in development projects is not just about organizing people but it means empowering them to be social actors rather than passive subjects and take control over the activities that affect their lives." Any deﬁnition of participation must take social factors into account. "People cannot be developed" according to Nyerere (1968), "they can only develop themselves by participation in decisions
and co-operative activities which affect their well-being." The Combat Poverty Agency (1995, p 2) brings in the value of power and voice, and deﬁnes community participation as "being able to have an input into structures in which decisions are made". It is in this way that "Participation gives a voice (op. cit. p 4). " An OECD Report, produced in 1991 and quoted in Nelson and Wright (1994), deﬁnes participation as combining effective economic policies, equitable access to basic social and economic services and broader participation in the orientation of government policies and programmes. Nelson and Wright (1994, p 7) refer to a deﬁnition, produced in 1991 by GTZ, that participation is "Co-determination and power sharing throughout the programme cycle". Collins (1988) noted that participation has an inherent value in itself by enhancing personal wellbeing and political power. Martin and Quinnney (quoted in Platt 1996), refer to a deﬁnition proposed by Forss in which participation is "a process in which the target group members take an active
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part in planning and decision making, implementation and evaluation" which leads to a sense of control over resources and responsibility for the future. Faughnan and Kellagher deﬁne participation as "taking part in activities in a way designed to inﬂuence events whether in areas of policy formulation, implementation or evaluation" (Reynolds and Healy, 1993, p 91). Deﬁnitions of participation range from taking part in projects to self-development through full participation. From the literature we can see that the deﬁnition of development itself has also evolved over time as the deﬁnition of participation has matured into a more holistic and empowering concept. However, even if we have the right words, do we have the right practice? Chambers, in Nelson and Wright (1995), remarks that development practice lags behind development language. To explore participation as it is deﬁned by practice, this paper now looks at typologies of participation.
TYPOLOGY OF PARTICIPATION
There is a wide range of literature relating to the typology of participation. Some authorities describe the types of participation, whereas others refer to its mechanisms and to the limitations on the implementation of participatory
Table 1.; Typology of Participation
Typology Passive Participation Consultation
development. The following review summarizes the relevant literature. Concern Worldwide, in a document guiding the production of project proposals, identiﬁes the following types of participation:
Characteristics of each type Unilateral information sharing in which people are informed of what is to happen. Although people are consulted problems are still deﬁned and analyzed by outsiders who make all the decisions. People contribute resources, such as labour, in return for food, cash or other incentive, but have no ownership of the project and no stake in continuing when the incentives end. Participation is encouraged as a means to achieve ends which are often predetermined. People participate jointly in the analysis, development of action plans, and monitoring of impact. Participation is inter-active and structured to allow groups to take over decision making and control of the resources, such that they have a stake in maintaining structures and practices. People take initiatives independently of outside assistance and have control of resources. Agencies may provide support to enable the formation and spread of such groups.
(Source: Concern Worldwide 1995, pp4-5).
Participation For Material Incentives Functional Participation Interactive Participation
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Brian Wall, Irish Aid (APSO, 1996) presented a seven-category typology of participation which is closely linked to that presented by Concern:
Table 2. Typology of Participation
Typology Passive Contributing Information Consultative Participation for Material Incentives Functional Interactive Self Mobilisation Characteristics of each type People or communities participate passively as a result of a unilateral directive to do so, without any inter-action or involvement in the decisionmaking process. Participation is conﬁned to answering questions for surveys and information questionnaires, the results of which are never made available to the contributing community. People participate by being consulted at workshops, forums etc., where they can express views and opinions, but are still excluded from any decision-making. Communities participate by providing resources in return for food, kind or cash. When the incentives end people have no interest in continuing activities Communities form groups to meet pre-determined objectives of participation projects and programmes. This involvement may be at the early stages of a project cycle and they may be excluded from major decisions. People take control and inﬂuence the local decision-making process. They are actively involved in community development and planning. They monitor the implementation of and evaluate the impact of their own projects and programmes. This confers a sense of project ownership. Communities plan and execute their own initiatives independent of mobilization from external institutions. The only limitation is the ﬁnancial resource gap, the development burden and the extent to which donors may accept a "hands off" role.
(Source: APSO, 1996)
CARE presents a typology of ﬁve levels of participation, again ranging from passive to active: Table 3. Typology of Participation
Typology Passive Participation Non Participatory Participation Negotiated Participation Spontaneous Participation Active Participation Characteristics of each type The community has no decision making role and is asked , or forced, to participate. There is a minimum level of involvement, with mandatory instructions, planned in advance from above. Mutual dependency is recognized, most activities are shared, based on joint contracts. There are voluntary contributions by people and self sustainable activities with minimal external inputs. The community voluntarily partners with the outsiders and is actively involved in decision making.
(Source: CARE, 1994)
Pretty(1995) presents a seven level typology of participation:
Table 4. Typology of Participation
Typology Manipulative Participation Passive Participation Participation by Consultation Characteristics of each type Participation is a pretence with people's representatives on ofﬁcial boards but who are unelected and have no power. People participate by being told what has been decided and has already happened. It involves unilateral announcements by an administration or project management who do not listen to people's responses. The information offered belongs only to external professionals. People participate by being consulted or by answering questions. External agents deﬁne problems and information gathering processes and so control analysis. This process does not concede any share in decision making and professionals are under no obligation to adopt people's views. People participate by contributing resources, e.g. labour, in return for food , cash or other material incentives. People's participation is seen by external agents as a means of achieving project goals, especially reductions in costs. People may form groups to meet pre-determined objectives. This participation may be inter-active and may involve shared decision making, but tends to arise only after major decisions have been made by external agents. Local people may only be co-opted to serve external goals. People participate in joint analysis, development of action plans and the formation, or strengthening, of local institutions. Participation is seen as a right, not just as a means of achieving project goals. The process involves inter-disciplinary methodologies that seek multiple perspectives and make use of structured and systematic learning processes. As groups take control over local decisions and determine how local resources are used, so they have a stake in maintaining structures and practices.
Participation For Material Incentives Functional Participation
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In 1989, Norad described participation as a series of different levels from passivity to complete responsibility. This was subsequently described in a diagram by Platt (1996):
Figure 1. Levels of Participation
Shared leadership responsibility Real participation in planning & problem solving Meaningful exchange of ideas Partner dialogue in performing situation analysis Carrying out assigned tasks
Adapted From Platt(1996)
In summary, the Concern Worldwide typology describes participation as ranging from providing information and permitting limited consultation to participation for different outcomes, and to self-mobilization (table 1). Wall describes similar types of participation, describing them as running from passive to selfmobilisation (table 2). CARE's typology refers to passive participation, but also describes negotiated, spontaneous and active participation (table 3). Pretty presents a typology that introduces the concept of manipulative participation as a stage before passive participation (table 4) and then describes six other types of participation concluding in self mobilization as in tables 1 and 2. Norad (Fig. 1) presents the types of participation as steps leading from passive participation to taking complete responsibility. Participation, in this typology, ranges from passivity and completing assigned tasks (co-option) to a process of dialogue and exchange. It presents participation as an ongoing and dialogic model and the steps lead to "real" participation as
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a result of dialogue and exchange. They also lead to shared responsibility and hence the typology addresses control and responsibility. Clearly Norad, in this typology, presents optimum participation as taking complete responsibility. Cullen (1996, pp 116-18, and table 5) builds on the previous typologies (tables 1-4 and ﬁgure 1) and presents a four types of community participation, all identiﬁed from Irish based, communitydevelopment funded projects. Cullen's typology is in keeping with the ethos of partnership and participation within the partnership development model.2 An Taoiseach3, John Bruton, in his address opening the EU Anti-Poverty Programme in April, 1995, described this ethos as "You have got to, to some degree at least, remove the control features in your thinking...[and] apply a different approach...[that] allows people to master their own destiny, make their own mis2
Table 5. Typology of Participation
Learning Participation Disadvantaged groups are perceived as being unable fully to participate without ﬁrst acquiring the techniques (knowledge and skills) and gaining the capacity (conﬁdence and collective spirit) for doing so. This form of participation exists where those who are direct beneﬁciaries have ongoing opportunities to participate in deciding the aims, objectives, policies and methods of working. Various groups and organizations are involved in advocacy and mediating roles in the community. This approach advocates the founding of new community structures to mediate between the external agencies and the community.
Advocates & Mediators Consumer Participation Structures Participation
takes and learn from them" (OECD, 1996, Annex 1, p 95). Cullen (1996) distils four types of participation from the grounded experience of partnership programmes that seek to address social exclusion through a "more ﬂexible, decentralized and participative" approach: he identiﬁes learning participation, end-users/ consumer participation, advocates and mediators consumer participation, and structures participation. In this, he captures the wider integratedness and
wholeness of participation. The previous typologies (tables 1-4 and ﬁgure 1) are part of the wider learning, consumer and structures-participation typology. There is a natural crossover and interrelatedness between the four forms of participation as described by Cullen. In some projects all four are evident whereas in others there is a signiﬁcant absence of any of them, that is, minimum participation.
The implementation of the Global Grant (1992-5) programme involved a model of local development that was relatively new in Ireland and Europe and was piloted in the Third EU Anti-poverty programme(1989-4) and the area based initiative of the PESP(1991-3). This model had the four core principles of “ ... Partnership, participation, planning and multidimensionality ...” (ADM, 1996b, p.VI)
The term for prime minister in The Government of the Republic of Ireland
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Towards a Peace and Human-Security Focused Barangay Development Planning
ISABELO JULIO CESAR BENITEZ WHAT IS PEACE?
n the context of Mindanao, where violent conﬂicts still occur in many areas, peace is an articulated need of many sectors even as peacebuilding programs are currently being implemented by the government and non-government organizations.
discern, understand, analyze, and regulate all human relationships in order to create an integrated, holistic, and humane social order”. To make this philosophy or paradigm more useful for development work, Assefa proposed to tackle peace as a process of transformation. Here, peace is seen as “the transformation of conﬂicting and destructive interactions into more cooperative and constructive relationships. In this view, peace is not simply a state of general tranquility or an imposed order that suppresses discord, but is rather a network of relationships full of energy and differ-
Hizkias Assefa, a peacebuilding practitioner working to facilitate conﬂict transformation and governance in Africa, deﬁnes peace as “a philosophy, and in fact a paradigm, with its own values and precepts, which provides a framework to
ences.” This perspective of peace as a process of transformation recognizes that along side with overt violence like wars, riots, murders, vandalism and kidnapping, exists another form of violence called as structural violence. “Structural violence has been deﬁned as social and personal violence arising from unjust, repressive, and oppressive national or international political and social structures. According to this view, a system that generates repression, abject poverty, malnutrition, and starvation for some members of a society while other members enjoy opulence and unbridled power inﬂicts covert violence
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with the ability to destroy life as much as overt violence, except that it does it in more subtle ways.” This deﬁnition maintains that “peace is achieved only when the root causes of the differences is or conﬂicting relationships are explored and resolved” or transformed. Applying this perspective of peace to barangay governance would mean that peace governance is a process of transformation that addresses both overt and structural violence in a given milieu to create an integrated, holistic, and humane social order. Dr. Toh Swee-hin, considered as the Father of Peace Education in Asia, proposed six areas for peacebuilding in the current world. This is currently being popularized as the “Six Pathways to Peace” by the United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). These six areas for peacebuilding includes:
The dismantling of the culture of war, Living with justice and compassion, which includes the issues of deprivation, hunger, disease and child mortality, Building cultural respect, reconciliation, and solidarity, which involves respect for and pride in historical roots, cultural identity, multiculturalism, justice and healing, Promotion of human rights and responsibilities, Living in harmony with earth and concerns with the issues of environmental sustainability and ecological balance, and, Cultivation and nurturing of inner, personal peace, which includes questions about meaning, alienation and spirituality.
WHAT IS HUMAN SECURITY?
Human security, on the other hand is a concept that emerged from a post-Cold War that tries to understand the global practice of national security. The concept of human security was brought to the fore of development paradigms in 1994 with the publication of the United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report. This report argued that the best path to address the problem of global insecurity is by insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons. Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability.
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Matrix 1: Differentiation of Traditional Security and Human Security
Traditional Security Referent Traditional security policies are designed to promote demands ascribed to the state. Other interests are subordinated to those of the state. Traditional security protects a state's boundaries, people, institutions and values. Traditional security seeks to defend states from external aggression. State security is about a state's ability to deter or defeat an attack. It makes uses of deterrence strategies to maintain the integrity of the state and protect the territory from external threats. The state is the sole actor, to ensure its own survival. Decision making power is centralized in the government, and the execution of strategies rarely involves the public. Traditional security assumes that a sovereign state is operating in an anarchical international environment, in which there is no world governing body to enforce international rules of conduct. Traditional security relies upon building up national power and military defense. The common forms it takes are armament races, alliances, strategic boundaries etc. Human Security Human security is people-centered. Its focus shifts to protecting individuals. The important dimensions are to entail the well-being of individuals and respond to ordinary people's needs in dealing with sources of threats. In addition to protecting the state from external aggression, human security would expand the scope of protection to include a broader range of threats, including environmental pollution,, infectious diseases and economic deprivation. The realization of human security involves not only governments, but a broader participation of different actors, viz. regional and international organizations, non-governmental organizations and local communities.
Human security not only protects, but also empowers people and societies as a means of security. People contribute by identifying and implementing solutions to insecurity.
Source: Wikepedia, 2007
The UNDP's 1994 Human Development Report's deﬁnition of human security proposed that the scope of global security should be expanded to include threats in seven areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. Economic Security Food Security Health Security Environmental Security
5. Personal Security 6. Community Security 7. Political Security Going by the human security paradigm, the seven global security threats is viewed from the perspective of the individual rather than the state. Following UNDP’s Report, Wikepedia explored the various concerns across these threats, to wit :
Economic security Economic security requires an assured basic income for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly ﬁnanced safety net. In this sense, only about a quarter of the world’s people are presently economically secure. While the economic security problem may be more
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serious in developing countries, concern also arises in developed countries as well. Unemployment problems constitute an important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence.
Food security Food security requires that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. According to the United Nations, the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. In the past, food security problems have been dealt with at both national and global levels. However, their impacts are limited. According to UN, the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured income (related to economic security). Health security Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. In developing countries, the major causes of death are
infectious and parasitic diseases, which kill 17 million people annually. In industrialized countries, the major killers are diseases of the circulatory system, killing 5.5 million every year. According to the United Nations, in both developing and industrial countries, threats to health security are usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is mainly due to malnutrition and insufﬁcient supply of medicine, clean water or other necessity for healthcare.
Personal security Personal security aims to protect people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults. For many people, the greatest source of anxiety is crime, particularly violent crime. Community security Community security aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence. Traditional communities, particularly minority ethnic groups are often threatened. About half of the world’s states have experienced some inter-ethnic strife. The United Nations declared 1993 the Year of Indigenous People to highlight the continuing vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a widening spiral of violence.
Environmental security Environmental security aims to protect people from the short- and long-term ravages of nature, man-made threats in nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. In industrial countries, one of the major threats is air pollution. Global warming, caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, is another environmental security issue.
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Political security Political security is concerned with whether people live in a society that honors their basic human rights. According to a survey conducted by Amnesty International, political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment or disappearance was still practiced in 110 countries. Human rights violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over ideas and information.”
Applying the concept of human security to barangay governance, this would mean that human security governance is the empowerment of the people in the community as means of securing the well-being of individuals and responding to the threats and violent conﬂicts faced by ordinary people. These threats and sources of violent conﬂicts may include economic problems, food security, health, personal and political security, community security and environmental concerns.
Peace and Human Security: Similarities and Differences For purposes rendering these two concepts to development work on the ground, there is need to further clarify. The matrix on the next page is an initial attempt to this by highlighting current notions of peace and human security in terms of:
❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ ❋ Scope Mechanism General Approach Focus Intentions
Matrix 2: Comparison of the Peace and Human Security Paradigms
Categories SIMILARITIES Scope Peace Human Security
Broad in Scope: Peace paradigm follows the six paths to peace popularized by UNESCO while Human Security Paradigm follows the Seven Threats to Humans. Both cover basically the same areas of development. Both anchors on the empowerment of the people towards participation in their implementation. Inductive Approach: Context-speciﬁc and looks into the Roots of Conﬂicts and links to the macro level. Local and Regional Conﬂicts with a slant towards violent conﬂicts. Transform violent conﬂicts Deductive Approach: Tackles the manifestations of the problem from the global perspective towards local applications. General Well-being of Individuals with a slant on basic social services. Improve quality of life
Mechanisms Approach Focus Intention
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Hizkias Assefa, Peace and Reconciliation as a Paradigm: A Philosophy of Peace and its Implications on Conﬂict Governance, and Economic Growth in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya: Nairobi Peace Initiative, 1993) 2-5. 2 ibid 3 ibid 4 From the GOP-UNMDP3 CO-CD Peace-Based Framework for PDC Strengthening, 2002 United Nations Development Programme (1994): Human Development Report
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Participatory Rural Appraisal
articipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a label given to a growing family of participatory approaches and methods that emphasize local knowledge and enable local people to make their own appraisal, analysis, and plans. PRA uses group animation and exercises to facilitate information sharing, analysis, and action among stakeholders. Although originally developed for use in rural areas, PRA has been employed successfully in a variety of settings. The purpose of PRA is to enable development practitioners, government officials, and local people to work together to plan context appropriate programs.
Participatory rural appraisal evolved from rapid rural appraisal-a set of informal techniques used by development practitioners in rural areas to collect and analyze data. Rapid rural appraisal developed in the 1970s and 1980s in response to the perceived problems of outsiders missing or miscommunicating with local people in the context of development work. In PRA, data collection and analysis are undertaken by local people, with outsiders facilitating rather than controlling. PRA is an approach for shared learning between local people and outsiders, but the term is somewhat misleading. PRA techniques are equally applicable in urban settings and
are not limited to assessment only. The same approach can be employed at every stage of the project cycle and in country economic and sector work.
KEY TENETS OF PRA
Participation. Local people's input into PRA activities is essential to its value as a research and planning method and as a means for diffusing the participatory approach to development. Teamwork. To the extent that the validity of PRA data relies on informal interaction and brainstorming among those involved, it is best done by a team that includes local
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people with perspective and knowledge of the area's conditions, traditions, and social structure and either nationals or expatriates with a complementary mix of disciplinary backgrounds and experience. A wellbalanced team will represent the diversity of socioeconomic, cultural, gender, and generational perspectives. Flexibility. PRA does not provide blueprints for its practitioners. The combination of techniques that is appropriate in a particular development context will be determined by such variables as the size and skill mix of the PRA team, the time and resources available, and the topic and location of the work. Optimal ignorance. To be efficient in terms of both time and money, PRA work intends to gather just enough information to make the necessary recommendations and decisions. Triangulation. PRA works with qualitative data. To ensure that information is
valid and reliable, PRA teams follow the rule of thumb that at least three sources must be consulted or techniques must be used to investigate the same topics.
A typical PRA activity involves a team of people working for two to three weeks on workshop discussions, analyses, and ﬁeldwork. Several organizational aspects should be considered: 1. Logistical arrangements should consider nearby accommodations, arrangements for lunch for ﬁeldwork days, sufficient vehicles, portable computers, funds to purchase refreshments for community meetings during the PRA, and supplies such as ﬂip chart paper and markers. 2. Training of team members may be required, particularly if the PRA has the second objective of training in addition to data collection. 3. PRA results are inﬂuenced by the length of time allowed to conduct the exercise, scheduling and assignment of report writing, and critical analysis of all data, conclusions, and recommendations. 4. A PRA covering relatively few topics in a small area (perhaps two to four
PRA is an exercise in communication and transfer of knowledge. Regardless of whether it is carried out as part of project identiﬁcation or appraisal or as part of country economic and sector work, the learningbydoing and teamwork spirit of PRA requires transparent procedures. For that reason, a series of open meetings (an initial open meeting, ﬁnal meeting, and followup meeting) generally frame the sequence of PRA activities. Other tools common in PRA are: ❋ Semi-structured interview ❋ Focus group discussions ❋ Preference ranking ❋ Mapping and modeling ❋ Seasonal and historical diagramming
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communities) should take between ten days and four weeks, but a PRA with a wider scope over a larger area can take several months. Allow ﬁve days for an introductory workshop if training is involved. Reports are best written immediately after the ﬁeldwork period, based on notes from PRA team members. A preliminary report should be available within a week or so of the ﬁeldwork, and the ﬁnal report should be made available to all participants and the local institutions that were involved.
deal with noncontroversial information. Maps and models may lead to transect walks, perhaps accompanied by some of the people who have constructed the map. Wealth ranking is best done later in a PRA, once a degree of rapport has been established, given the relative sensitivity of this information. The current situation can be shown using maps and models, but subsequent seasonal and historical diagramming exercises can reveal changes and trends, throughout a single year or over several years. Preference ranking is a good icebreaker at the beginning of a group interview and helps focus the discussion. Later, individual interviews can follow up on the different preferences among the group members and the reasons for these differences
community. It also helps the community members to focus their attention on the particular information being discussed by the group. The community members can collectively analyze their situation and problems through the aid of visual tools. BDP facilitators are encouraged to devise and modify existing participatory planning tools that are suitable in the context of the community. The following are the common visual tools used in the participatory planning process: ❋ Resource and Social Map ❋ Venn Diagram ❋ Service Map ❋ Seasonality Diagram ❋ Pie Chart ❋ Historical Transect There are still other participatory tools that can be used in facilitating the planning process. Modern mapping technologies can also be used in highly urbanized areas such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), and Geographic Infor-
SEQUENCE OF TECHNIQUES
PRA techniques can be combined in a number of different ways, depending on the topic under investigation. Some general rules of thumb, however, are useful. Mapping and modeling are good techniques to start with because they involve several people, stimulate much discussion and enthusiasm, provide the PRA team with an overview of the area, and
SAMPLE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING TOOLS
Visual tools are used in the data gathering to facilitate faster analysis by the
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mation System (GIS). The facilitators prepare the visual presentation of the information so that it can be validated by the community ﬁrst before analyzing the situation and identify community problems and opportunities. It is important to gather all the available necessary information from the different sources and present these to the community by using different visual tools. However, there are information that can only be gathered from the community. Modern mapping technologies are of great help in this planning process. They also shorten the time needed for data gathering and let the planning sectors proceed with the interpretation of data, analysis and identiﬁcation of community problem situations. Participatory tools are used for gathering relevant information that are not yet available from different sources. The participatory planning tools that will be presented here are some of the toolscommonly used in barangay planning
processes. However, some of the tools used on some barangays may not be applicable in other barangays. Here are some of the more commonlyused PRA Tools:
Data that can be generated: ❋ Inventory of the different resources of the community; ❋ Problems with the management of resources; ❋ Suggested solutions of the community on their current problems.
1. Resource and Social Map The resource and social map illustrates the physical features of the community such as the natural resources, infrastructures, public buildings, residential areas, commercial areas, industrial areas at each estimated location.
Resource mapping is the process of making a visual presentation of the resources, infrastructures, and other information that have economic and social relevance in the community. It provides information on the physical features of the community that is important in identifying the potentials and limitations that could be a reference in planning for future improvement.
2. Seasonality Diagram The seasonality diagram is a tool used to see seasonal patterns that occur in the community such as common illnesses, changes in income or expenditures of the people in the community and other information that have trends in the previous years. It also looks at the trends and changes as a year passes. The seasonality diagram can be made with anything that has a regular pattern in a year (income, expenses, rainfall, desease attacks, etc).
This is done to visualize the pattern of occurrences. This information is necessary to identify what times are support highly needed by the community. This diagram may tell us when are medicines urgently needed in the community, what
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particular month that community residents have no regular source of income, and other relevant information. It also provides information on the time of the year when community activities should be properly undertaken. Data that can be generated: ❋ Income, expenditures, and credit; ❋ Food availability; ❋ Production patterns of industries in the barangay.
❋ Kinds of commercial and industrial products; ❋ Expenditures/credits; ❋ Sources of income.
3. Pie Charts A Pie Chart is a visual representation of percentages. People can readily analyze the data if it is presented graphically. It is much easier for the community to understand graphic presentation rather than presenting the data in numerical ﬁgures. It facilitates easier gathering of problems and opportunities.
Data that can be generated: ❋ Current land use; ❋ Land ownership; ❋ Percentage of population according to sources of income;
4. Historical Transect The Historical Transect is a tool that compares the previous and the present status of resources. It also looks at the trends and changes as years or decades pass (water resources, population, etc) and review the reasons for the changes and how these changes can be stopped or enhanced.
With the historical transect we can analyze and see the changes as time passes, and identifying the causes of such changes. Data that can be generated: ❋ Changes in resources; ❋ Change in population; ❋ Change in economic employment; ❋ Change in the number of houses; ❋ Reasons for such changes.
5. Venn Diagram The Venn Diagram is a tool that can be used to analyze groups, organizations, and institutions that are in conﬂict or may have inﬂuence over the others or over the community.
The use of the Venn Diagram helps the community represent the power relationships and inﬂuences of the groups in the community. The use of the Venn Diagram helps the community identify possible threats or sources of strengths in peace-related issues. It helps the barangay analyze the impacts of different groups in peace and security issues. Data that can be generated: ❋ List of groups or organizations that help or hinder the maintenance of peace and order in the barangay; ❋ The kinds of inﬂuence or impact wielded by different organizations in the barangay’s peace and order and human security;
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Gender and Development
WHAT IS GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT?
ender is different from sex (being female or male) which is a biological attribute that is determined at birth and does not change through time except through a sex-change operation. Gender refers to roles, attitudes, and values assigned by a culture and society to women and men. It is a logical and useful dimension of development. Gender and Development (GAD) is an approach to or paradigm of development focusing on social, economic, political and cultural forces that determines how differently women and men participate in, beneﬁt
from, and control resources and activities. It examines the relationship of men and women in terms of dividing resources and responsibilities, not concerned with women per se but with the assignment of gender roles, responsibilities, and expectations. It analyzes the nature of women’s contribution within the context of work done both inside and outside the household. It is a continuous search for new and innovative means of transforming unequal relations between women and men so they could become equal partners in their pursuit of a full and satisfying life.
THE LEGAL MANDATES GOVERNING GAD
The local government units (LGUs) are duty-bound to implement the law and carry out their mandates according to what the law prescribes. The fundamental law of the land – the 1987 Constitution – says that “the State recognizes the role of women in nation building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before law of women and men.” (Art. II, Sec. 14). Further, “the State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthy working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, such as facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to
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realize their full potential in the service of the nation (Art. XII, Sec. 14). These provisions have been made operational through various executive actions and legislations. RA 7192 directs all government agencies to institute measures that would eliminate gender biases in government policies, programs and projects, and to ensure that women are given means to participate fully in development and nation building. It also requires the allocation of a substantial portion of all Official Development Assistance (ODA) to women and development projects starting with at least 5% in the ﬁrst year of the implementation of the law, and gradually increasing in subsequent years. Government with the help of civil society groups also formulated the Philippine Plan for Gender Responsive Development (PPGD) 1995-2025, a 30-year perspective plan for integrating women in the development process. Adopted through Executive Order No. 273, the PPGD gives
substance to RA 7192 and other laws beneﬁting women, by laying out speciﬁc goals and strategies that will make gender equality a given in development processes and in public service and governance. RA 7160 or the Local Government Code also puts emphasis on the role of women in community development. It has a provision for women’s representation in local policy making in the provincial, city, and municipal councils. In Sections 16 and 17, the Code requires LGUs to promote general welfare and provide basic services and facilities for their constituents, including the discharge of devolved responsibilities pursuant to the Code. To make this operational, the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) has joined the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW) and the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) in issuing Joint Memorandum Circular 2001-01 giving guidelines on how the GAD approach can be incorporated into the local planning and budgeting system through
the formulation of GAD plans. Recently, a time-slice of the PPGD was devised into a Framework Plan for Women (2001-2004). This plan gives ﬂesh to the policy on women and development and guides government agencies and LGUs in preparation of their GAD Plans and budgets.
WHAT IS A GAD PLAN?
A GAD Plan is a set of programs, projects, and activities systematically designed, implemented and monitored/ evaluated by the LGU over a given period of time to address the gender issues of their respective localities. The Plan must be consistent with the LGU mandate reﬂecting therein the GAD-related programs, projects and activities (PPAs) of concerned LGU department/offices. All PPAs are contextualized in the GAD-related issue they address, the expected output and target beneﬁciaries, the implementation period, indicators, responsible office/unit/person, and the allocated budget (Source: JMC 2001-01, DILG-DBM-NCRFW).
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THE PRACTICE OF GOOD LOCAL GOVERNANCE
The performance of LGUs is measured in terms of how they practice good governance. The Code deﬁnes local governance as “the process by which communities address their own needs, problems and priorities through more responsive and accountable local governments.” Given this deﬁnition, LGUs cannot achieve good local governance without being transparent, participatory, equitable, and gender responsive.
WHAT IS A GENDER-RESPONSIVE LGU (GERL)?
Gender concerns and issues in local governance work are often overlooked, simply because the officials and leaders think that their work has nothing to do with gender. Often, the argument is that the policies they introduce apply equally to men and women, and that their work relate to the economic or technical aspects of governance and not to women in particular.
On the contrary, every program, activity, or intervention has potential gender concerns and issues. ❋ All development work eventually aims at serving people, women and men. ❋ Each activity of a development project or plan can affect women and men differently because their roles in community differ. ❋ Development interventions can change gender relations by creating (the same or different) opportunities and conditions for women and men. ❋ Projects that ignore 50% of the economically active population will not lead to development, much less equitable development. A gender-responsive LGU, therefore, takes into consideration how its programs, policies, and other development initiatives affect both women and men. It consciously generates support and involves women and men in these development processes and speciﬁcally identiﬁes their roles in these undertak-
ings. This is the essence of being genderresponsive.
WHAT ARE WAYS TO MAKE AN LGU GENDER-RESPONSIVE?
Speciﬁcally, the LGU’s gender responsiveness is manifested in 1.) the types of services it provides to address the speciﬁc needs of women and men; and 2.) the processes and mechanisms it installs as well as 3.) the capabilities it develops and builds within the organization to deliver such services.
PROVIDING BASIC SERVICES THAT ADDRESS GENDER CONCERNS
One clear manifestation of genderresponsiveness in an LGU is its delivery of the mandated basic services and facilities to its constituents with particular attention on the differential needs of women and men (Refer to Annex A). A gender-responsive LGU addresses both the PRACTICAL gender and STRATEGIC gender needs of women
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constituents in delivering basic services. Responses to practical gender needs pertain to those that improve the living conditions of women and address their lack of resources. Hence, the LGU’s basic services would consist mainly of food and shelter provision, health services and education of children, and programs that increase income. At the same time, they address strategic gender needs, i.e., those that pertain to improving the women’s position in the community. Thus, a gender-responsive LGU should provide the means for women to have greater access to resources and have an equal say in decision-making. Services addressing strategic gender needs would include those that aim to reduce the incidence of exploitation and violence against women, backed by programs that make women more economically independent. Such basic services are characterized by the active participation of women and provide encouragement for them to organize for collective action.
MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN LGU PROCESSES
To ensure that gender-responsive services are delivered, an LGU has to “mainstream gender” in its development processes and strategies. Gender or GAD mainstreaming is an approach that situates gender equality issues at the center of broad policy decisions, institutional structures and resource allocations, and includes women’s views and priorities in making decisions about development goals and processes. It is a set of proceses and strategies to integrate women’s and men’s concerns and experiences in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, programs in all political, economic and social agenda. Below are speciﬁc manifestations and practices of GAD mainstreaming in the LGU: ❋ Establishing enabling structures and mechanisms • Representation and participation of women in decision making
• Access to and use of information • Allocation of resources ❋ Gender-responsiveness through policies and ordinances ❋ Building capacities to address gender issues and concerns • Identifying GAD Champions • Creating a critical mass of competent advocates and GAD Focal Points • Networking among LGU-GO-CSO GAD Advocates The following are some key gender concerns in local governance: ❋ Equitable and responsive distribution of the beneﬁts of development. • How many women actually beneﬁt from your local government programs and projects? • Are women employees offered equal opportunities in terms of developing themselves? ❋ Effective cooperation between government and civil society. • Do existing structures and mechanisms promote LGU-civil society cooperation?
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• Are there policies that support the actual representation of women in tehse processes? • Are women’s concerns actually articulated and considered through these mechanisms? ❋ Freedom of expression/right to information. • Is vital information accessible to women? • Do current information mechanisms enable women to actively lobby their agendas in the processes of local governance? ❋ Rule of Law and independent judiciary • Are there legal frameworks that promote equality and the protection of women’s rights? • Are women equally represented in the formulation, enforcement, and administration of laws? ❋ Effectiveness and Efficiency • Are governance mechanisms able to deliver services that meet the needs of constituencies, particularly women?
❋ Accountability and Decision-Making • Are decisions made in consultation with the internal and external stakeholders? • Are accountabilities clearly stated? • What are the roles of women constituents in monitoring and enforcing these accountabilities? • Are women employees also given tasks and accountabilities? • Are they also part of decision-making bodies in the LGUs? ❋ Strategic Vision • Do LGUs have speciﬁc long term plans or visions to maximize the potentials of women? • Does the government allocate enough resources to allow women to become active participants and beneﬁciaries of its development plan?
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Checklist of Data to be Gathered
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED Barangay population Number of males Number of females Number of male children Number of girl children Senior citizens Persons with disabilities List down basic services in the barangay OBJECTIVE Know the total population of the barangay and its distribution based on the said categories FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the population of the barangay? How many percent are females? How many percent are males? Percent of male/girl children? Percent of senior citizens? Percent of PWDs? TOOLS Social Census Map or Pie Chart (information to be collected from secondary data)
Know the basic services available in and outside the barangay
What are the basic services available in the barangay? What are the basic services available outside the barangay (that could be accessed by brgy members)?
Know the quality of basic services identiﬁed
Are these basic services being offered by government agencies? Are there any other organizations offering these basic services (e.g., church, NGOs, POs, etc.)
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS What can you say about these basic services? Note to facilitators: In getting the information on each of the basic services, list down all services like health center, day care center, school, water source/water system, etc and ﬁnd out their state and quality. QUESTIONS FOR HEALTH SERVICES
Know the health services in the barangay health center Know what other medical help are needed by barangay residents children, men, women, senior citizens, and the handicapped GENDER RELATED Health services for women Know if there are RH programs and of what kind are they Know the particular services for women, men, children, and other special sectors
What are the health services that are given by the health center? To whom are these services open to? What are the particular programs for children? Babies? (e.g., nutrition programs, vaccinations, check-ups, etc. ) Are there Reproductive Health Programs given by the barangay? What are the health services for women? How many are pregnant? Lactating? On and after pregnancy, are there any health services open to them? Where do pregnant mothers go during labor? (Hospital, komadrona, Lying-in clinic) Are there family planning programs in the barangay? Discuss one by one the health services for the following: What are the health programs for men? (e.g. prostate checkups) What are the health programs for children? What are the health programs for LGBT? What are the health programs for the Elderly? Are there medicines given by the health center? Are these enough? Where do the residents get the medicine?
Service Map A Health Services Pie Chart may be made out of the services given by the health center and the quanity of those beneﬁtted Health Services Pie Chart
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Common illnesses, diseases, and other health problems
OBJECTIVE Know the medical status of the barangay population Know the reasons why diseases occur and what the barangay does for this
FOCUS QUESTIONS Know the common diseases of the barangay population. You may start to identify from the illnesses of children and move up to the illnesses of the elderly. What are the most common illnesses of children? Ready the Seasonality Chart. Discuss one by one the diseases mentioned. When does this disease most commonly occur in a year? What are the common reasons for the disease to occur? Does the barangay have medicines available for this disease? How do health service providers counter this? How do residents counter this? Then, know the common sicknesses of the elderly, with the same procedure.
TOOLS Seasonality Chart on the Illnesses of Children Seasonality Chart on the Illnesses of the Elderly
Status of the barangay’s rest areas
Know the status of the yards of the barangay residents to know how clean exactly the barangay is.
What kind of rest areas do houses in the barangay have? How many use a water sealed toilet, an open pit toiled and an antipolo type toilet? Are there any houses without their own rest areas?
Service Map You may want to have a Social Census Map and Pie Chart on Kinds of Rest Areas Service Map Social Census Map and Pie Chart on Kinds of Rest Areas
Potable water resources
Know if the barangay has access to clean and safe water.
Note: Parallel the questions to what kind of water system the barangay has. Where do the barangay residents get their drinking water? If there is no water system From what kind of source do residents get their drinking water? Do all residents have access to drinking water? How many use the same source of water? How far is this source to the homes of the residents? Who usually goes to get the water? Are there any speciﬁc times when water is taken? Is this source still available during the rainy season?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS If there is a water system What kind of water system does the barangay have? Where does the water come from? Do all the houses have faucets? Since when has the water system been functional? Who manages the water system? Who collects the bill? How much is the bill? When is it paid?
Proper waste management
Know the ways by which the barangay disposes of its waste.
How do the barangay residents dispose of their wastes? Is there waste segregation? Recycling? Do residents have compost pits? Where do recyclable materials go? Is there any income earned out of this? Of the said ways in disposing garbage, what percent of people use which way? Discuss each one. Then, basing on the results of the pie chart, know the reason residents prefer the most used system of garbage disposal. QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart on Garbage Disposal
Different kinds of schools (Daycare, elementary, highschool, college, vocational)
Know the educational need of residents. Know how many children have been educated. Know if the number of teachers are sufﬁcient. See if facilities are enough.
What educational institutions are in the barangay? What are the conditions of these? Are these educational institutions in good condition? What facilities are there in the barangay schools? (e.g., classrooms, chairs, tables, library, toilet, playground, etc.) How many of the residents are studying? How many of them are males? Females? What grades / levels are there in the schools? How many students are there in each grade and section?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS How many teachers are there? Are there enough teachers for all the students? Are there enough classrooms? Are there drop-outs? Are they mostly males or females? What grade levels are most prone to drop out?
Education level of the barangay residents Number of residents without education / unﬁnished education
Know the literacy level of the residents. Know if facilities are enough or not. Know the reasons why residents have unﬁnished education.
What is the highest educational level of residents? How many women have ﬁnished education? Men? What are the common jobs of residents with ﬁnished education in the barangay? Of the residents with unﬁnished education, what is the most common reason for this? For those with no education, what is the most common reason for this? QUESTIONS FOR HOUSING SERVICES
Kinds of housing in the barangay
Know the current condition of housing in the barangay. Know if this is temporary or permanent.
What kinds of housing are there in the barangay? Are there any housing programs in the barangay?
Discussion from Social / Resource Map
GENDER RELATED Information on who has access, beneﬁt on basic services on times of calamity
Know who gets primary access to beneﬁts in times of calamity.
Who has access to the services mentioned? Note to facilitators: For each item mentioned, know if this is open to men, woen, children, etc. If it is, have symbols to show if it is open to men / young males, women / young females
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE GENDER RELATED
Know the opinions of residents on the roles of men and women in the family and community. Know the potential of men and women in different roles, activities, and jobs.
What are the characteristics of men and women? What are their speciﬁc roles in their families, their communities? What are the common roles of men and women in the barangay? Who usually does the decision-making in the family? What are the reasons why (men / women) always make the decisions? Why are they followed? Work Division Matrix
Workload of men and women Decision-making
Cases of abuse
Know and see cases of abuse in the barangay. Find a solution to counter this this abuse.
Have there been any cases of abuse in this barangay that the residents know of? What are these? To whom does this happen? When and where does this happen? How is it being answered?
Focus Group Discussion
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED Sources of income for the barangay residents Farming, ﬁshing, trade, sewing, employment, OCW. Discuss each and start from the primary source of income. OBJECTIVE Know the sources of income for the barangay residents. FOCUS QUESTIONS Write the answers on the metacard. Segregate the answers of men and women, since their ideas of sources of income may differ (especially for women). Note to Facilitators: When matrix ranking, be sure to segregate answers of male and female participants. One column must be for females and another for males. Then take the summary and rank them. This is done because the idea of sources of income for men and women may vary. What are the major sources of income for the barangary residents inside and outside the barangay? / What jobs, products, or services give income to the barangay residents? What are the major sources of income for the male residents inside and outside the barangay? Of all the sources of income given, rank the sources out of the number of men and women with the same source of income. Answers here may be used in an IncomeExpenditure Tree TOOLS Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart of Barangay Income Sources
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE Gather sex disaggregated data on income. Find the percentage of men and women whose income source from inside and outside the barangay.
FOCUS QUESTIONS For each source of income, rank them by the percentage of how many other men and women have the same source of income. Example: • What percent of men have farming as their source of income? • What percent of women have farming as their source of income? • What percent of men have selling as their primary source of income? • What percent of women have selling as their primary source of income? What are the skills and capabilities of the barangay residents?
Find the potential of the residents.
Discuss from the Matrix Ranking/ Pie Chart of Barangay Sources of Income
Major and secondary crops in the barangay
Know the major crops that the barangay residents use as income.
If farming is the major source of income, then discuss the major crop used as an income source. • What major and secondary crops are planted in the barangay? In livestock raising, know the major animals raised for income.
Matrix Ranking/Pie chart of Major Crops in the Barangay
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Farming months Seasonal effects on farming Preparations needed by farmers; Agri-facilities the barangay holds
OBJECTIVE Find the cropping cycles of major crops. Find the necessary preparations for farming. Know what agri-technical support the barangay requires. Know the different effects of different seasons on farming.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Out of the Pie Chart of Major Crops, pick crops to be used for the Seasonality Diagram. Make a diagram for each subject crop. What are the cropping cycles of the major/minor crops? Which months are they planted/harvested? For rice crops… • How many times are the crops planted? • Are the crops irrigated? • Is the water sufﬁcient even in dry seasons? For coconuts… • During which months are the coconuts harvested? Which months are expected to be rainy? Which months are dry? Do the rainy and dry seasons affect farming? Which months are most likely to bring storms? Do storms affect farming and other sources of income? What preparations must be done for the storm months? For the rainy season? For the dry season?
TOOLS Seasonality Diagram of Major Crops
Find possible alternative livelihoods for the barangay. Find out what times are community activities most effective.
When farms are not requiring much work, what are the other activities of barangay residents? Find alternative livelihoods in the barangay. • What are these? • Where do the materials come from? • Where do the jobs come from? • How long does the work take? • Who are usually doing the job? • Who oversees the work? • Where do the products go? • How much is the income?
Seasonality Diagram of Major Crops
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Months when income, expenditures, and loans are high
OBJECTIVE Find the months when income, expenditures, and debt are at their highest.
FOCUS QUESTIONS The Seasonality Diagram on Income, Expenditures and Debt may be patterned after the Seasonality Diagram on Major Crops The said diagram may follow the Seasonality Diagram on Major Crops directly, simply by adding rows for income, expenditures, and loans. Find ﬁrst which months are income, expenditure and loan are high. Which months hold the highest income? Which months have the least income? Which months commonly require farming to loan?
TOOLS Seasonality Diagram on Income, Expenditures and Loans
Elements that help increase income/expenditure
Find elements help increase income. Find other sources of income for barangay residents. Find sources of expenditure. Find if income is enough to cover expenditure. See who is responsible for budget decision-making .
Answers here may be written on a metacard: Where does the high capital come from during these months? • Is farming the only source of income? • What are other factors that help increase income? What are the reasons why expenses are high during these months? • Who oversees the decisions on expenses? • Who oversees the budget? • Where are the expenses commonly focused?(family (e.g., family expenses, trade, farming, etc.) Are there times when the residents in the barangay have no income? • When? • What is done when this happens? • How do people pay for their expenses? • Who usually ﬁnds the additional budget?
Find the roles of men and women in the ﬁnances of the family.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Credit facilities
OBJECTIVE Find why residents require to loan. Find if there are credit facilities in the barangay and the process of loans.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Why are loans high during certain months? Where/from whom do residents commonly get credit? Usually, how much is the interest? What is the process of returning the loan? Are government credit facilities (e.g., Land Bank) loaned from?
TOOLS Seasonality Diagram on Income, Expenditures, and Loans You may also employ the AgriService Map and Venn Diagram
See if women have access to credit facilities
Are the said credit facilities open to women? (Put symbols to show if credit facilities are open to men or women). Is the loaning system any different with women as with men?
Discuss from Seasonality Diagram on Income, Expenditure, and Loan Flow Chart
Steps in planting major crops/ production of major products Income, expenses for each step
Analyze each step in planting major crops or creating products to have a recommendation on improving the process required. Find the problems encountered for each step and give recommendations as to how to avoid these. Find the income, expenses for every step.
From the Major Crops Pie Chart / Products, ﬁnd which subjects can be used for a ﬂow chart Find the steps required: Example: Major Crop – Rice • Describe each step in the process - from planting to selling rice? • How many farmers are currently planting rice? The steps below are only examples. Add to them as the participants mention. Discuss the steps one by one and start at the beginning. Land Preparation • What are the activities for each step? • What are the farming practices used? • What technologies are used, and where do these come from? • What are the for each step?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS Planting • What cropping practices are commonly used? e.g., relay cropping and intercropping • What problems are encountered? (e.g., pests) Production • How much of the product is harvested per hectare? • How much, in percent, is sold? How much is paid through a loan? • How much is reserved for consumption? • At what price per sack is the rice sold? • What are the expenses in this step? • What is the usual income per harvest? Market • How is the product sold? • Where is the product sold? • Who buys the product? • Are there parties who help in the selling of the product? • When are prices high? When are the prices low? At what price? • Are there expenses in this step? • Usually, how much is the income?
GENDER RELATED Roles of men, women and children in the farm
Find out the different roles of men, women and children for in each step of farming. See the participation of women and children in farm work.
See the participation of men and women in every step of farming. What are the roles of men in farming? What are the roles of women in farming? Do children participate as well? If yes, at what age are they usually allowed to work? In what work are they involved? Do they still get to study? Are children paid to work? How much?
Part of the discussions in the Flow Chart For deeper analysis, you may also employ a Work Division Matrix.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Livestock / animals that are sources of income
OBJECTIVE Find out which animals are being used for income. Find out what kind of livestock raising is being employed. Find out how many barangay residents have livestock raising as income. Know which months are best suited for raising animals. See the effect of climate on livestock. Find what preparation is needed for raising livestock. Find out which months are the prices of animals highest or lowest.
FOCUS QUESTIONS If one of the primary sources of income is livestock raising What are the major animals being raised? How many residents are raising each kind of livestock? What kind of livestock raising is used? e.g., backyard raising, medium scale, or large scale) How long does it take from raising to selling animals? During what months are commonly the start of animal raising? When are animal prices high? Low? What months / seasons have the most effect on livestock? What are the most common problems in livestock raising? During which months are animals most likely to get sick? What is being done about this? What technology are being used? Where do the technology come from? Are there cages for the animals? What are they made of? How is animal waste disposed of? Are there any ordinances regarding animal raising? Are they being followed? What are the steps in raising livestock? For each step, know the following: Are there expenses? How much? What problems are ecountered?
TOOLS Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart of Livestock
Technologies used in livestock raising Support services needed Capital and expenses for each livestock raising
Know the ways in raising livestock. Know the ways that could improve livestock raising. Know the income and expenses for each step in raising.
Know which animals are best sources of income.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE Know what support services are needed by the barangay for raising livestock. Know if the disposal of animal wastes has an effect on the barangay environment.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Selling • How are animals sold? • Where? • Who buys the animals? Where do they come from? • Are there any parties that help in the marketing of the animals? • What percent of the animals are bought? • What percent goes to loans? • What percent goes to consumption? • At how much are the animals sold? • How much is the capital per animal sold? Remember that in making an Agri-Service Map, answers must be placed on paper ﬁrst. Have the participants place them in a circle written on a manila paper to symbolize the barangay, and indicate whether the service should be “inside” or “outside” the barangay. The rating for each service may also be placed in each paper. What facilities and agri-services does the barangay have? • Where are their locations in the barangay? • What are the conditions of these facilities? • Are these facilities enough to supply the farmers? • What agri-services are open to farmers? • Are there programs/seminars about planting/farming? • Who facilitates the seminars? Who are the participants?
Agriculture Facilities / Services
Know the available agri-services available in the barangay. Know what other agriinfrastructure the farmers require.
Agri service Map
These questions are also present in the Flow Chart. These are discussed in the Agri Service Map.
GENDER RELATED Control, access and management of agricultural facilities Farmers Organizations
Find out who has control, access, management, and beneﬁts from the agri-services in the barangay. Find out the farmer groups / farmer organizations in the barangay.
• Are these facilities private or barangay-owned? • Who owns and operates them? • To whom are these facilities open? Are there farmer groups in the barangay? What are they? (e.g., farmer organizations and irrigation organizations) • How many members are there in these groups? • What are their programs?
Can be part of Venn Diagram of Barangay Organizations.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED GENDER RELATED
OBJECTIVE Find out the number of female residents that are part of these organizations. Find out the participation of women in the barangay.
FOCUS QUESTIONS • Are there any female members? • How many? • Do female participants hold any positions in the farming organizations? What positions are these?
An urban/urbanizing community would have different sources of income and infrastructures. The barangay should point these out since they will help in income generation. Point out the different businesses in the barangay. See which entrepreneurial undertaking have the most potential. Find out which factors help or quagmire these businesses. From the Resource and Social Map, place a plastic sheet and start a Business Map. If the businesses are in the market, place them on paper and round them up later on. What businesses does the barangay have? Where are they located? Draw their locations in the barangay. Why are they located in those speciﬁc areas? What businesses make the most income? Why? (e.g. ideal location of business or the high demand from consumers) What businesses make least money? Why? Business Map
Enterprises in the barangay Potential livelihood/enterprise activities
What factors keep businesses from improving? What do you think is the role of the barangay/municipality in improving these businesses? What businesses can improve? Why?
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Environmental Concern
OBJECTIVE Know the process of waste disposal used by various businesses. Find out if there are recycling centers or waste disposal management systems and ﬁnd out how these are operated/implemented. Know which businesses have recyclable wastes.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Which of these businesses generate waste? How is the waste disposed? Is there recycling involved? Segregation? Where are wastes disposed? Are there ordinances in the barangay or municipality regarding waste disposal? Are there recycling centers? What businesses have waste that can be recycled? Note that waste disposal can be a source of income for the barangay (e.g., collection, recycling, and as fertilizers).
TOOLS Discuss from Business Map
Kinds and number of businesses
Know the kinds of businesses the barangay has. Know where these businesses are coming from. Know if the barangay or municipality could possibly export products to outside parties.
From the Business Map, one may create a Business Matrix which shows the number of businesses inside the barangay. Write down the businesses on paper, and round up similar businesses together. • What businesses are similar? • What kinds/classiﬁcations of businesses are there? What businesses sell products that come from the barangay? What businesses sell products from outside the barangay? Where do these products come from? (e.g. municipality or province) Are there products that could be supplied by the barangay instead? Is the municipality/barangay capable of supplying these? What should be done to do this?
Business matrix / Pie Chart of Barangay Businesses
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DATA TO BE GATHERED Total income and expenditures
OBJECTIVE Know what are the sources of income and expenditure, visually. See if income is enough to cover expenses. Find recommendations so as to increase income. Know if sources of expenditure are of importance.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Get the results of the Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart of Income in the barangay. Get the expenses from the Seasonality Diagram of Income and Expenditure. Write these on paper and gave them validated by the barangay. Tell the participants that the following are according to the Matrix Ranking/ Pie Chart of Income in the Barangay and Seasonality Diagram of Income and Expenditure. The sources of income are ranked, but the expenses are not. Make a Matrix Ranking on the expenses of residents The following are the said expenses of the barangay… • Are there any other items that could be added? • What things create the most expenses for the barangay? • And the least? Distribute the pebbles (or any other materials used in creating the matrix ranking) at those with highest and lowest expenses. Let the participants distribute the pebbles. Write the corresponding percent. While they are distributing, you may start a discussion. • Are the pebbles enough for the expenses? • Does everyone agree with the ranking of expenses? • Are men and women both in agreement?
TOOLS Income-Expenditure Tree
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS Once everyone agrees, you may now have an Income-Expenditure Tree. Place the income at the roots, the expenses at the leaves. The size of the roots and leaves should be appropriate with the source. • Is the income enough to cover expenses? Why? • Why are expenses high in certain areas? • What is done to increase income? • Who makes the decision about what to do with the expenses? • What areas usually are given higher budget? • What is done when there is no income? • Who usually ﬁnds ways to add to the budget at these times?
INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED OBJECTIVE FOCUS QUESTIONS Note: The Organizational Rating Matrix (ORM) is not only made to see the decision-making of barangay ofﬁcials, but also of the role of individual residents in the local government. Responsibilities of barangay ofﬁcials Programs being done by barangay ofﬁcials See how ofﬁcials do their roles in decision-making. What do you think are the responsibilities of barangay ofﬁcials? What, in your knowledge, have the barangay ofﬁcials done during their terms in ofﬁce? Note: Before starting the rating, put together similar answers on the questions above. If participants are not informed of the responsibilities of barangay ofﬁcials, have a manila paper with a list of the responsibilities of those in ofﬁce, with free space to add the ideas of the participants. Organizational Rating Matrix (ORM) TOOLS
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS Detailed questions on the ORM
Know the sources of funding for the barangay. Know where these funds go.
Where does the barangay funding come from? To where is this funding used? Is the barangay funding enough?
ORM Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart Sources of Barangay Fund Matrix Ranking / Pie Chart of Barangay Expenses ORM
Ordinances/programs in the barangay
Know the ordinances present in the barangay.
What ordinances are enacted in the barangay? Are there any speciﬁc ordinances for residents? Men, women, children, senior citizens, handicapped?
GENDER RELATED Composition of the Barangay Council
Know the idea of the residents to what a leader should be. Know their opinion with the participation of women in politics and in decision-making in the barangay council.
What is the composition of the barangay council? If there are female councilors • What are the ideal characteristics of a leader? • What are the common roles of a female ofﬁcial? If there are no female councilors • Have any women run for ofﬁce? • Why were they not elected? • What are the characteristics of an ideal leader? How is participation of citizens ensured in the barangay? Are there special bodies/committees organized in the barangay? What are these special bodies/committees? What were the functions of these local special bodies/committees? What is the composition of these special bodies/committees? How many are males? How many are females? Are there also youth members?
Local Special Bodies/Committees in the Barangay.
Identify the local special bodies / committees existing/organized in the barangay. Know the extent of participation of women in the local special bodies.
Discuss in the ORM A Venn Diagram may also be constructed that will illustrate the different structures that assist each other in the barangay
GENDER RELATED Number of women participating at the local special bodies.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE Know if there are programs in the barangay that promote issues relating to gender.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Note to facilitators: It is important that we already know the different local special bodies as provided for in the Local Government Code of 1991 Is there a local gender council in the barangay? What are their programs? Are there enough funds for these programs?
Identify major organizations and individuals that contribute to barangay development. Identify and demonstrate the importance of the different organizations, agencies, individuals, based on perception of women and men in the barangay.
What /Who are the organizations/institutions and individuals in and out of the barangay that you think are important and contribute to the barangay’s development? Write the responses in a manila paper. Assign color codes for the organizations that can be found in and out of the barangay
Venn Diagram Reminder: Facilitators should prepare round papers. Small circles represent organizations/ institutions/individuals of little importance. Large circles represent organizations/institutions/individuals with greater importance/inﬂuence or impact in the barangay.
After listing these down, ﬁnd out the programs of each organizations and their membership • What are the programs of these organizations and individuals for the barangay? • How big are the membership of these organizations? • Who are typical members of these organizations (e.g., males, females, youths, etc.)? • Are there groups that are related to each other? If there are groups/individuals that are related to each other, this could be demonstrated by overlapping or pasting them together. After accomplishing this, show to the group the results of each group’s efforts. Let them discuss and identify the differences in their responses, and ﬁnd out for themselves the reasons for the differences.
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS Find out the reasons behind the differences in size, distance from the barangay of the circles. Distances and sizes may differ because of the differences in perspectives of the participants. Clarify ﬁrst with the group before changing the size and distance of the circles. Why do you think are there differences in your size of the circles assigned to the organizations that were identiﬁed by the women and men? Ask the participants if they have recommendations on how to strengthen cooperation among organizations and individuals. What do you think are the possible steps to increase and strengthen cooperation and coordination among groups/individuals in the barangay?
ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED Natural Resources of the barangay, potential and limitation Different uses of land OBJECTIVE Know the physical properties of the barangay. Know the condition of the natural resources in the barangay. Know the opinion of the residents about their natural resources. Know the situation of land use and ownership in the barangay. Know the condition of forestry (if there are). FOCUS QUESTIONS Note to facilitators: before starting the map, ask the participants if they have a community map. If there is, that may be used instead, and change whatever is needed. Find out if any of the participants know how to make a community map. Note that in making the map, one must start with the barangay landmarks like roads. Where is the barangay located? Where is the north, south, east, and west? Where are the boundaries of the barangay? How big is the barangay community? May be part of the Transect Mapping later on TOOLS Land Use Map
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE Know the potential of tourism in the area (if possible) Know the effect of mining sites or quarry sites in the barangay (if any)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the natural resources in the barangay? Where are these in the map? (mountain, slope, cave, plain, river, waterfall, sea, lake, etc) What can we say about the condition of our mountains, rivers, etc? What is the major use of land in the barangay? (agriculture, settlement, forest, or special use: quarrying, mining, tourism) Note: discuss each kind of land use before asking the participants the item above.
Kinds of land ownership Situation of the CARP implementation in the barangay
Know the situation of land ownership in the barangay territory Know if there are any territories which need to be distributed under the CARP Know the situation of the CARP in the barangay
Settlement Where are the homes in the barangay? Agriculture What are the major crops? Where are these in the barangay? What kinds of soil are there in the barangay? How big is agricultural land? What kind of ownership is there? (private, agrarian-reform beneﬁciaries-EP: Emancipation Patents / CLOAs: Certiﬁcates of Land Ownership Awards) Is there any land that has to be distributed under the CARP? How big? How many beneﬁciaries are waiting? What is the most standing relation between land owners and farmers? What is the most common division of products between farmers and landlords? Who usually owns land? To whom is the land commonly named to? Is it to men or women? What percent is to women? Men?
Land Use Transect Map
Land Transect Map, Matrix Ranking / Pebbles and Pie Chart on kinds of Land Ownership
GENDER RELATED Information on the number of women who own land (the land title is of women)
Know the number of women who own land Know the reason why it is the men that own the land as common
Pie Chart on Land Ownership Between Men and Women
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
OBJECTIVE Know the condition of the forests. Know the beneﬁts from forests. Know the reason why some live in forests.
FOCUS QUESTIONS Forests/Protected Forests What is the situation of forests? What kind of trees and animals are there in the forests? Are there residences in the forests? What products are being made/taken from forests? Are there programs for those who live in forests? What are these? Who are given the opportunity in these programs? Men or women?
TOOLS Land Use/Transect Map
GENDER RELATED Programs on forest management. If women have access on these programs Characteristics of the location as to why it is called a tourist site
Know if there are programs on forest management and who are those who have access.
Land Use/Transect Map
Know the condition of the tourist site or potential site. See if there could be any way to protect or conserve the location.
Are there any special land uses in the area? How’s the tourism in the area? Are there tourist sites in the barangay or potential tourist sites? Where are they in the map? What is the situation of the site? Why do you say it is a potential site? How will you protect or conserve this site? Are there any mining or quarrying operations in the barangay? If so, when have the operations started? What can you say about the quarrying site/mining site? What is the situation of the site? What about those who live around the site? How are those that work in the site? Does the site have any effects on the people in and around it? If the site would ever suffer a calamity, would the residents of the barangay be safe? (e.g., Would the site collapse? How far is the quarry site from the residences?)
Land Use Map/Transect Map
Description of the quarry/ mining site
See the condition of the mining site. See the effects of the mining site on the nearby environment of the barangay.
Land Use/Transect Map
Know the effects of the mining/ quarry site in times of calamity.
Land Use/Transect Map
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DATA TO BE GATHERED
FOCUS QUESTIONS Note to facilitators: In making a resource and Social Map, use the earlier Land Use Map. Have a plastic sheet over it and there make the Resource and Social Map.
Know the location of different barangay infrastructure Know the condition of each infrastructure in the barangay, if they are sufﬁcient or not, and possible ways to improve them.
Where are the barangay infrastructures located? (e.g., barangay hall, health center, school, roads, etc). Does the barangay have access to electricity? Do all structures have electricity? Does the barangay have access to drainage systems? Example: What kind of elementary schools are there? How big are they? How many rooms do they have? How many students and teachers do the schools have? What facilities are there in the schools? (e.g., tables, chairs, libraries, etc.) With what materials are the schools made of?
Resource and Social Map
Condition of the infrastructures
Recreational facilities for special sectors
Know if there are facilities that would serve the elderly, people with disability (DWB), out of school youth (OSY) Know the (gender relations) of men and women in the barangay in terms of access, control, and management of resources.
What recreational facilities are there in the barangay? Are there facilities that would serve the said sectors? As with the barangay infrastructure and resources Who has ownership, access, control, and management of these resources? Know the reasons why such answers show up in the barangay. What are the roles of men, women, young males, females in access, ownership, and management on these resources?
Resource and Social Map
GENDER RELATED Information on who has access, control, and management in the barangay between men and women
Land Use and Resource/Social Map, and from this Gender Mapping
Know the information on access, control, and management on resources in the barangay.
Show where the symbols showing men and women inside and outside the barangay and compare them with as to where they are in access, control, and management.
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PEACE AND CULTURE SECTOR
DATA TO BE GATHERED Ways of resolving conﬂicts OBJECTIVE Identify ways of resolving conﬂicts FOCUS QUESTIONS What are your ways of resolving conﬂicts and problems among residents in your barangay? Is the Katarungang Pambarangay organized? What are the types of problems typically resolved at the Katarungang Pambarangay? What is the composition of the Katarungang Pambarangay? How many are men and women? What other local conﬂict resolution mechanisms are used in your area? What types of cases are resolved in these other local conﬂict resolution mechanisms? Identify other peace-related issues What groups/individuals/institutions create impact on peace and security of barangay residents? What cultural or religious practices in the barangay help in resolving conﬂicts? ORM TOOLS Discuss from the ORM
Identify culture-related factors that help or hinder in resolving conﬂicts
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Structured Learning Exercise: Basketball Game
1. Divide the participants into three groups. Each group should assign 1 member acts as the basketball goal, 1 member is the coach, 1 guard (player #1), 1 forward (#2), 1 center (#3), and so on (player #4, #5 etc..). When the assignments are clear, tell the members of the group to form a line. The three groups should then form three lines. In front of the line, around four meters from the ﬁrst person is another person forming a basketball goal with her/his arms (see ﬁgure below). This is a contest. Hence, the group 4. 5. which shoots the ball the most number of times, and gets the highest number of points, wins the game. Give each group a paper ball. Explain to the group that you, as the facilitator (i.e. referee), will say who among the members (player #1, #2, etc..) of each team will hold the ball and what this member is going to do with it (e.g., dribble the ball, pass the ball, do an exhibition, shoot the ball, etc.). Whoever is called to shoot the ball can either go behind the three-point line or the two-point line depending on the instructions of the referee. If from the two-point line, then 6.
the team earns two points; if from the three-point line, then three points. Hence the members of the group will follow the instructions of the facilitator. For example: “Number 1 has the ball, dribbles, dribbles, dribbles, exhibition, passes to No. 4, dribbles, dribbles, exhibition, makes a three-point shot.” The coach has to make sure that all of the players of his/her team play effectively When the instructions are clear to everyone, facilitate the game for 15 minutes. Make sure that all members of the team get to shoot, dribble, pass or do an exhibition. At the end of 15 minutes, determine who won the game.
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Basketball Goal 2-point line 3-point line line Guard (#1)
Player #4 2-point line Coach 3-point line line Guard (#1)
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Municipal and Barangay Development Planning Interface Points
o operationalize the principle emphasized in the Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act (MMAA) #25 and the Local Government Code (LGC) that, “higher-level plans must be formed out of the aggregation of lover level-plans,” participatory development planning at the barangay level must be fed into the municipal (or city) level. Conversely, barangay level planning must beneﬁt from inputs and processes being undertaken at the higher municipal or city levels. This also supports the principle of automatic review by higher levels of government of the actions of lower-LGU levels (Sec. 3(e) of the LGC) and this deﬁnitely includes
the planning function, as well as the plan documents as subject to this arrangement. Consistent with these principles, the following points for interface should be mutually pursued or explored by both the barangay and municipal LGUs as relevant or applicable.
and what level of government may it be optimally maintained? As it is, the participatory data gathering methods through PRA and similar tools being promoted at the barangay level offer a very rich set of information based on personal and historical account of community events and developments, as experienced, observed or “recalled” by the memberparticipants in the BDP process. The stock knowledge and intuition of the residents who are represented in the sectoral groupings however, may not be adequate to draw a fairly accurate and complete picture of the barangay as a planning area. The
DATABASE BUILD-UP AND MANAGEMENT
The preparation of vertically integrated development plans requires a database that can also be vertically integrated. What then is the relationship of datasets at the barangay, municipal and provincial levels
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following sources of information can be further explored and maximized for the purpose of not only getting the “current reality” of the barangays but also to provide more reliable or validate further the highly intuitive information generated from FGDs and PRAs.
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE
The most readily available database at the local level is the socio-economic proﬁle (SEP) which most LGUs conscientiously compile and regularly update. Traditionally, the SEP describes mainly the social, economic and infrastructure components or aspects of the area. Following the adoption of the Philippine Agenda (PA 21) and the renewed concern for sustainable development, there has been growing effort towards natural resource assessments. These new data when added to the usual contents of the SEP expand the SEP coverage and the enhanced version has been renamed Ecological Proﬁle.
The SEP or EP is best maintained at the municipal/city and provincial levels given the difficulty of maintaining the same at the barangay level due to the absence of technically competent barangay officials. However, the municipal proﬁle makers must strive to disaggregate their data at the barangay level. The basic building blocks of the data base system is the barangay. With barangay data available, characterization of any area is possible, given the nested pattern of territorial units in the Philippines, including the ARMM LGU territories.
that allows one to have access to raw data in semi-processed form at the HH and barangay levels.
Sources of data for SEP that are disaggregated at the barangay level The National Statistics Ofﬁce Census data are captured at the barangay level and are reﬂected in most municipal SEPs but very few census items ﬁnally get reported at the barangay level. The municipal LGU through the MPDO is in the position to share these information to its component barangays. Speciﬁcally, of late, the “Public Use File” - 136 -
Other national government agencies (NGAs) National government agencies with ﬁeld offices in provinces/regions normally generate barangay-based data. Through the LCE, these agencies should be required to furnish the municipal LGU with barangay-based raw data as part of maintaining barangay-level data in municipalities. These barangay-level data should be shared with the barangays through the Municipal Development Council (MDC) and the Punong-Barangay members of the MDC. Below are examples of NGAs and the type of information they regularly generate. The District Supervisor (DECS) Has data on enrollment of students their grade levels and where they live.
The City/Municipal Census Ofﬁcer (NSO) Has information on demographic behavior - number of establishments in an area, family income and expenditures, and so on. The District Engineer (DPWH) Has an inventory of the condition of roads and other public infrastructures those already ﬁnished or ongoing or to be constructed - of the national government that are likely to have an impact on local areas. Local Election Registrar (COMELEC) Has barangay-level information on the voting-age population, registered voters by precincts, and the voting record of registered voters. The Municipal Planning and Development Ofﬁce (MPDO) The local planning and development office is the repository of practically all planning data in the locality. Barangaybased data entries have to be systemati-
cally and consistently stored for easy retrieval and cross-referencing. The MPDO takes the lead in setting up a workable database for local planning.
The Rural Health Unit (RHU/DOH) This office has information on basic health indicators such as infant mortality rate, extent of malnutrition by degree, crude birth and death rates, LGU Departments, extent of coverage of primary health care, and condition of domestic water supply. Treasurer’s Ofﬁce This office has a rich source of barangay data, particularly those relevant to barangay budgeting. Barangay treasurers can be trained by the Municipal Treasurer to update their respective ledgers at the Treasurer’s Office on a regular basis. This way, ﬁnancial records and transactions of barangays are regularly monitored, updated and made transparent.
Assessor’s Ofﬁce This office holds a wealth of planning information that is unfortunately not being utilized. The Assessor’s Office stores information on real property tax. Out of this information, this office can give an accurate proﬁle of the land use pattern of the barangay and the municipality, the structure of land ownership, changes in land values and land uses over time, among others.
The municipal LGU can initiate the process of aggregating property records by barangay so that all these information can be stored and retrieved at the barangay level and for barangay planning purposes.
Mayor’s Permit and Licenses Ofﬁce This office contains an inventory of business activities, big and small, but these are not necessarily stored systematically. Information such as capitalization, place of business (barangay), number of employees, etc. are not supplied despite the fact that these information are required
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in the application forms to be ﬁlled up by those seeking a permit to operate.
NGOs NGOs generate micro-level information which they use for very speciﬁc purposes. Many development NGOs have made signiﬁcant interventions at the barangay level. The widespread application of various participatory techniques such as the rapid rural appraisals have generated a wealth of information that would be most valuable to barangay planning as exempliﬁed in the BDP annual. Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) Database To complement the somewhat general but highly perceptive description of the barangay as a result of the application of PRA tools, other tools such as the household surveys using the CBMS indicators can be maximized. CBMS datasets will be most useful in establishing the incidence of poverty using 13 critical indicators. It is highly desired that the municipal LGU anchor this process of
generating the CBMS-datasets of all barangays under its jurisdiction. Using CBMS-generated database implies then that enough time is allotted in order that the municipal LGU is able to complete the data generated from its component barangays. This also requires some investment on the part of the municipal LGU in terms of conducting surveys at the household level and completing the analysis of the data generated from the survey. With the CBMS-generated database in place, barangays covered in the survey can now avail of the information for their own planning purposes.
toral, temporal and spatial. The spatial dimension of the LDI allows one to compare the situation of the barangay with the municipality, between the clustered barangays and among the component barangays (of the municipality). The spatial dimension of the data allows one to compare an LGU (e.g. barangay) with higher level LGUs (municipality) in the same region. The LDIs is an attempt to consolidate the various indicators that are relevant to planning but it is by no means exhaustive. The municipality should maintain a LDIs to be furnished. For starters, the core local poverty indicators (CLPI) being espoused in the CBMS can be used to capture the status of poverty in the barangays using the 13 core poverty indicators. These information organized in the LDI format, if readily available, can be immediately used for barangay and municipal planning purposes. The municipality should maintain its LDIS to be furnished to each barangay to enable the latter to make
Local Development Indicators System (LDIS) Organizing information from the SEP into the LDIs is a major important step that the municipality can initiate to facilitate the building of a database that would be useful for planning. (Please refer to the CDP-ELA Manual for the more complete description of the LDIs). The LDI Matrix or LDI table portrays information in three dimensions: sec- 138 -
comparisons with other barangays and with the municipality/city. Data generated at the municipality level should be disaggregated to help barangays update their barangay proﬁles. The preparation of vertically integrated development plans requires a database that is similarly structured. For all intent and purposes, and given the realities on the ground especially in ARMM where there is a dearth of information and where database building has been
neglected and considered as the least priority of most LGUs, it is important that between the municipality and its component barangays, they are able to determine and agree on the common set of indicators that each barangays has to establish and maintain, for integration into the municipal database. It is very important then that data gathering is organized in such a way that data originating from the barangays can be aggregated at the municipal level and vice-versa.
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How to Formulate A Barangay Budget
(Note: The Sectoral Planning Groups may not need to know these details, as the task of formulating the barangay budget is assigned to the Punong Barangay and the Barangay Development Council) 2. 50,000) or less at a rate not exceeding one percent (1%) of such gross sales or receipts. Service Fees and Charges – barangays may collect reasonable fees or charges for services rendered in connection with the regulation or the use of barangay-owned properties or service facilities such as palay, copra, or tobacco dryers. Barangay Clearance – for such clearance, the Sanguniang Barangay may impose a reasonable fee. Other Fees and Charges – the barangay may levy reasonable fees and charges: • On commercial breeding of ﬁghting cocks, cockﬁghts, and cockpits; • On places of recreation which charge admission fees • On billboards, signboards, neon signs, and outdoor advertisements
SOURCES OF BARANGAY FUNDS
The barangay may levy taxes, fees and charges, as provided in the Code, which shall exclusively accrue to them: 1. Taxes – on stores or retailers with ﬁxed business establishments with gross sales or receipts of the preceding calendar year of ﬁfty thousand pesos (Php
The proceeds of the tax on sand and gravel and other quarry resources shall be distributed as follows (Note: Do not discuss if not applicable): Province – 30% Component City or Municipality – 30% Barangay where quarry resources are extracted – 40%
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The proceeds of the community tax collected through the barangay treasurers shall be apportioned as follows: For the city or municipality concerned: 50% To the barangay where the tax is collected: 50%
Statutory Allocations Local government budgeting should strictly comply with the following requirements as provided in Section 24 of the Local Government Code as well as other recent legislation ((e.g., Gender and Development (GAD) allocation): 1. The aggregate amount appropriated must not exceed the estimates of income; 2. Full provisions should be made for all statutory and contractual obligations. In no case shall the appropriation for debt servicing exceed twenty percent (20%) of the total estimated regular income of the local government unit;
A lump sum equivalent to ﬁve percent (5%) of the estimated regular revenues from regular sources will be appropriated to cover unforeseen expenditures arising form the occurrence of calamities within the locality or in other areas declared by the President as being in a state of calamity; Ten percent (10%) of the general fund of the barangay should be set aside for the Sangguniang Kabataan. The utilization of SK funds is suggested to augment SK-related development plans/programs and activities e.g. Peacepeace and order, anti-illegal drug programs, sports, etc. Five percent (5%) of the general fund of the barangay should be set aside for the Gender and Development (GAD) Fund, as provided for in RA 7192 or the “Women in Development and Nation Building Act”. The utilization of the GAD fund is suggested to augment programs and projects beneﬁting women and children.
An amount of not less than twenty percent (20%) of the Internal Revenue Allotment shares of the local government units for each ﬁscal year must be appropriated for development projects; and Provision of Liga fee as per DILG Memorandum Circular # 98-194.
General limitations on the use of local funds (Sec. 325 of the Local Government Code) 1. Appropriation for Personnel Services. Total appropriations, whether annual or supplemental, for personnel services of a local government for one year must not exceed: forty-ﬁve percent (45%) in the case of ﬁrst to third class cities and municipalities; and ﬁfty-ﬁve percent (55%) in the case of the fourth class or lower, of the total annual income from regular sources realized in the next preceding ﬁscal year. 2. The annual appropriations for discretionary purposes of the barangay chairperson must not exceed two
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percent (2%) of the actual receipts derived from basic real property tax in the next preceding calendar year.
Barangay Expenditures Classiﬁcation 1. Personnel Services (PS) – expenditures relative to the salaries of regular personnel, wages of casual employees, and other forms of compensation • Salaries and wages • Honoraria • Cash gift 2. Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) –expenditures to support operations of government programs/projects/activities • Traveling expenses • Communication services • Water/power service • Repair and maintenance of government facilities – eg barangay hall, vehicle • Seminar/training • Other services
Capital Outlay – expenditures relative to goods and services whose life expectancy extend beyond the budget year and add to the assets of the barangay. • Land and land improvement • Building and structure outlay • Equipment outlay
budget preparation, the Department of Budget and Management should provide local governments information on their share of the IRA for the budget year.
Budget Forecasting Time Frame Deﬁnitions: Budget Year (BY) - the year for which the budget is being prepared
Current Year (CY) – the year immediately preceding the Budget Year Next Preceding Year of Past Year (NPY) – the year immediately preceding the Current Year Example: BY- 2010, CY – 2009 and NPY – 2008
Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) estimates from the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) IRA refers to the share of local governments in the collection of national revenue taxes imposed and administered by the central government, the proceeds of which accrue substantially to the latter. It is a system of sharing national internal revenue collections of the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) with local government units following a pre-determined formula. Local governments are entitled to a 40% share of the BIR collections of the third preceding year. For purposes of
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Table 1. Summary Of Actual And Estimated Barangay Income And Barangay Expenditure
Sources of Barangay Revenues/Income 1.0 Beginning Balance 2.0 Income 2.1 TAX REVENUE Share of Real Property Tax Share of Community Tax Share of Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) Share from Sand and Gravel Share from National Wealth 2.2OPERATING/ MISCELLANEOUS REVENUES Business Permit Barangay Clearance Fees Operations of Barangay Facilities Fines/penalties Subtotal of Regular Income (2.1 + 2.2) 2.3 GRANTS/SUBSIDIES/ LOANS Subsidy from Municipality/ Province Borrowings from Banks Other Donations TOTAL REGULAR INCOME (2.1+2.2+2.3) Total Available Resources (1.0 +2.0) 3.0 Less: Continuing Appropriation 4.0 Net Available Resources for Appropriation R NR NR R R R R R R R R R Income Classiﬁcation NR Actual Past Year Estimated Current Year Budget Year
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Legend: R- Regular/Recurring; NR- Non Regular/Non-Recurring
Formula for Average Growth
Step 1: Determine Total Income for Three Years Past Year = ______________ Next Preceding Year (NPY) =_________ Current Year (CY) =_______________ Step 2: Determine the Average Growth using the barangay Income Proﬁle Average Growth (AG) = PY –NPY x 100% Total Income- CY AG = ________%
Step 3: Determine Income for Budget Year using Average Growth Budget Year (BY) = CY (AG-1) Income for BY = ______________ Summary of Actual and Estimated Barangay Expenditure (continuation of Table 1). Discuss each source of revenue and expenditures and provide explanations on how this is computed. Ask participants to pay attention to the remaining balance for appropriation.
SUMMARY OF ACTUAL AND ESTIMATED BARANGAY EXPENDITURE Particular Expenses
5.0 Expenditures 5.1 CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES 5.1.1 Personnel Services Salaries and Wages Honoraria Cash Gift 5.1.2 MAINTENANCE AND OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES Traveling Expenses Communication Services Supplies and Materials Water/Power Service Repair and Maintenance of Government Facilities Seminars/Training Other Services 5.1.3 OTHER BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS 20% Barangay Development Fund 10% SK Fund 5% GAD Fund 2% Discretionary Fund Election Reserve (every 3rd year) LIGA fee (DILG MC 98-194) 5.2 CAPITAL OUTLAY Land and Land Improvement Building and Structure Outlay Equipment Outlay 6.0 Total Obligation (5.1 + 5.2) 7.0 Unappropriated Balance (4.0 – 6.0)
Actual Past Year
Estimated Current Year
Computation of Barangay Expenditure
ESTIMATED BARANGAY EXPENDITURE FOR BUDGET YEAR ____________ CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES PARTICULARS Personnel Services TE 1. Expenditure for Executive and Legislative Services 2. Barangay Basic Services Barangay Nursery Day Care Center Health Center Information Center Infrastructure Facilities Lupon Tagapamayapa Solar Dryer Satellite Market 3. Expenditure for the Barangay Development Projects 4. Allocation for Sangguniang Kabataan 5. Allocation for GAD Fund 6. Subsidy for Calamity 7. Subsidy for Discretionary Fund TOTAL EXPENDITURE (1+2+3+4+5+6+7)
Legend: TE – Travel Expenses CS- Communication Services S&M – Supplies and Materials W& P - Water, Illumination and Power R& M – Repair and Maintenance S&T – Seminars and Training OS – Other Services
Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses CS S&M W&P R&M S&T OS
Other Budget Reqmts
TOTAL BUDGET COST
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From the Barangay Development Plan, how to compute for the budget entries for the following: • Ongoing/routine functions; • MOOE-based basic services; and • Projects/activities that are developmental in nature
How to compute for Mandatory Allocations
MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR BUDGET YEAR__________ CURRENT OPERATING EXPENSES PARTICULARS Personnel Services (PS) Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) Other Budget Requiremnents (OBR) CAPITAL OUTLAY TOTAL BUDGET COST PERCEN-TAGE
1. Expenditure for Executive and Legislative Services 2. 20% of IRA for Barangay Development Projects 3. 10% of Total Income for SK Fund 4. 5% of Total Income for GAD Fund 5. 5% of Regular Income for Calamity Reserve Fund 6. LIGA Fee per DILG MC 9-194 TOTAL OBLIGATION
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How to compute for fund allocation for priority projects
Computation of Budget Allocation from 20% IRA for Barangay Development Fund
ALLOCATION OF 20% IRA FOR BARANGAY DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECT/ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Available Resources from 20% IRA for Development Projects Less: (Priority Projects/Activities) 1. 2. 3. 4…….. TOTAL PROJECT/ACTIVITY COST UNAPPROPRIATED BALANCE FOR 20% IRA TOTAL AMOUNT RUNNING BALANCE
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