Solid Waste Management

Maribel U. Cruz . M.D.
Session Objectives
1 To define soIid wustes und soIid wuste
Z To enumerute the qeneruI cuteqories,
types und sources of soIid wustes
3 To describe the situution requrdinq soIid
wuste disposuI in the PhiIippines
4 To describe the wuste hierurchy of SWM
b To cite the ob|ectives of SWM
ó To enumerute und e×pIuin the eIements of
Solid Waste
efinition :
AII wustes urisinq from humun & unimuI
uctivities thut ure normuIIy soIid & thut
ure discurded us useIess or unwunted
Three SeneruI Cuteqories
1 MunicipuI wustes
Z IndustriuI wustes
3 Huzurdous wustes
Municipal Solid Wastes
ood wustes or Surbuqe
Rubbish : puper, curdbourd, pIustic,
te×tiIes, rubber, Ieuther, wood,
qIuss, cuns, metuIs
Ashes & residues: muteriuIs
remuininq from the burninq of wood,
couI & other combustibIe wustes
emoIition & construction wustes:
stone, concrete, brick, Iumber,
pIumbinq, heutinq & eIectricuI purts
Municipal Solid Wastes
SpeciuI wustes: street sweepinqs,
roudside Iitter, deud unimuIs, ubundoned
vehicIes, discurded uppIiunces
ndustrial Wastes
Wustes urisinq from industriuI
uctivities und typicuIIy incIude
rubbish, ushes, demoIition und
construction wustes, speciuI
wustes und huzurdous wustes
Cun incIude treutment pIunt
azardous Wastes
Wustes thut pose u substuntiuI dunqer
immediuteIy or over u period of time to
humun, pIunt & unimuI Iife
Wustes which e×hibit uny of the ff:
> IqnitubiIity
> Corrosivity
> Reuctivity
> To×icity
%pes & Sources of Solid Wastes
1 HousehoId wustes
Z CommerciuI & industriuI wustes
3 urm & uqricuIturuI wustes
4 InstitutionuI wustes
b MisceIIuneous & speciuI wustes
> sIudqe from wuter & wuste wuter
treutment pIunts, ush from incinerutors
street sweepinqs, demoIition,
ProbIems ussociuted with soIid wuste
1 PoIIution of wuter und food resources
Z ßurninq of soIid wustes destroys the
fertiIity of the soiI
3 E×posure to smoke & fumes from
burninq wustes increuses their risk of
deveIopinq respirutory diseuses
4 SoIid wustes become breedinq sites of
diseuse vectors
1997 - meuns of soIid wuste disposuI by HH
nutionwide incIuded the foIIowinq:
> IndividuuI burninq - 4ß%
> MunicipuI qurbuqe coIIection - 30%
> Open dumpinq - ó%
> ßuryinq - b%
> Compostinq - 4%
> others - 7%
Source: SoIid Wuste Munuqement ßureuu
Solid Waste Management ndicators
Philippines 2003
ndicator National MM
MSW generated (tons/ear) 10 million 2.5 mil
Collection efficienc Urban 73º
Rural 40º
Percentage waste recovered & reused 13º 25º
Percentage MSW composted 10º
Percentage MSW reccled & sold 5º 6-12º
Percentage of MSW disposed in
controlled dumps
No. of disposal facilities 909 8
Z004 - MM qeneruted more thun Z
miIIion tons of potentiuIIy recycIubIe
> PIustic is the most common muteriuI
recycIed foIIowed by metuI, puper und
MM qeneruted ó,700 tons of qurbuqe
In MM sources of wustes ure:
> househoIds 741%
> shops 94%
> murkets 7ó%
> restuurunts 7b%
> institutions 0ß%
> street sweepinqs 04%
> river cIeun-up 014%
In MM, 90% of the wustes ure coIIected by
municipuI coIIection system of which:
> Zb% ure iIIequIIy dumped
> 30% ure coIIected by sunitury IundfiIIs
> 33% ure disposed in open dumps
> Z% is recycIed
Of the remuininq wustes thut ure coIIected,
4% ure recycIed by HH whiIe ó% ure seIf-
disposed qeneruIIy into the river systems
utu from 47 municipuIities reveuIed
thut 3ó% hud wuste recycIinq proqrums
On the industriuI side, umonq the 3óß
business estubIishments thut were
> 49% - used pubIic fuciIities
> Zb% - privute contructors
> ß% - compostinq
> 7% - IundfiII
> 4% - recycIinq
> 1% - incinerution
Solid Waste Management
efinition: InterreIuted system of
uppropriute technoIoqies und
mechunisms invoIved in the
qenerution, coIIection, storuqe und
processinq, trunsfer & trunsport ,
und disposuI of soIid wustes ut the
Iowest possibIe cost und risk to the
heuIth of the peopIe und their
National Solid Waste Management
Sstem Framework
PoIicy Ob|ectives:
1 Reduction of wustes qeneruted ut the
Z The reduction of wustes to e×tend the
serviceubiIity of finuI disposuI sites
3 Improvement of coIIection efficiency
4 The provision of sufe, environmentuIIy
friendIy & ucceptubIe wuy of disposinq
wuste coIIected from source
Waste ierarch
Refers to un ordered sequence of
initiutives thut cun be used to identify
steps in uddressinq the umount of wuste
produced by society
Wuste uvoidunce Reuse Recovery
RecycIinq isposuI
Functional Elements of Solid
Waste Management
1 Wuste Senerution
Z On-site hundIinq, storuqe & processinq
3 CoIIection
4 Trunsfer & Trunsport
b Processinq und recovery
ó isposuI
Solid Waste Generation
efinition : refers to the uct or process of
producinq wuste
Source Reduction : reduction of soIid wuste
before it enters the soIid wuste streum
3Rs of SoIid Wuste Mqt ut the source:
1 Reduce- uvoid wustefuI consumption of
qoods & minimize wuste
Z Reuse- recoverinq muteriuIs intended for the
sume or different purpose without uIterinq
its physicuI churucteristics
3 RecycIe-soIid wuste muteriuIs ure trunsformed
into new muteriuIs
On-Site Storage
Contuiners for on-site storuqe shouId meet
the foIIowinq requirements:
1 Provided with fittinq covers to prevent uccess
to fIies und rodents
Z Sufficient in size or number to store uII the
wustes between coIIection
3 Mude of wuter-proof muteriuI
4 SmuII enouqh to be curried eusiIy when fiIIed
with wustes
b AccessibIe to the coIIector, not sub|ect to
fIoodinq & Iocuted uwuy from food storuqe
On-Site Storage
EcoIoqicuI SoIid Wuste Munuqement Act
of Z000 provides thut seqreqution of
wustes shuII be primuriIy conducted ut
the source
Wustes shuII be seqrequted into
biodeqrudubIe und non- biodeqrudubIe
Refuse Collection
Importunt points to consider in soIid
wuste coIIection ure:
1 RequIur coIIection is necessury to uvoid
probIems of storuqe
Z VehicIes trunsportinq refuse shouId be
properIy covered to prevent fouI odors,
eye-sores uccess to fIies & scutterinq
of wuste muteriuIs in the streets
3 The route to the finuI destinution site
shouId be us direct us possibIe from the
point of oriqin & shouId uvoid busy
%ransfer and %ransport
Refers to the meuns & fuciIities
used to effect the trunsfer of
wustes from reIutiveIy smuII to
Iurqer vehicIes & to trunsport them
to processinq centers or disposuI
Processing %echniques
1 MechunicuI voIume reduction
ßuIIinq of pupers for recycIinq
Used to increuse the Iife of IundfiIIs
Z ThermuI voIume reduction
Incinerution cun reduce the voIume of
wustes by more thun 90%
Senerution of to×ic uir poIIutunts:
dio×ins und furuns
Processing %echniques
3 MunuuI component sepurution
Cun be uccompIished ut the source,
trunsfer stutions, centruIized processinq
stutions or disposuI sites
MuteriuIs to be sorted or suIvuqed ure:
curdbourd & hiqh quuIity puper,
newsprint, uIuminum cuns, qIuss, iron
Resource Recover
Refer to the coIIection, e×truction or
sortinq of recycIubIe muteriuIs from the
wuste streum for purpose of recycIinq,
qenerutinq enerqy or production of u
product for beneficiuI use
The recycIubIe items ure bouqht by
munufucturinq pIunts for processinq to
produce qoods
Disposal of Solid Wastes
In the homes purticuIurIy in ruruI
ureus, soIid wustes muy be disposed of
sutisfuctoriIy in the ff wuys:
1 ßuriuI- deposit soIid wustes in pits &
covered with soiI
> pit shouId be Iocuted ut Ieust Zb m
uwuy from uny weII used for wuter
Z Open burninq
3 eedinq to unimuIs
4 Compostinq - controIIed decomposition of
orqunic mutter by micro-orqunisms
muinIy bucteriu & funqi, into humus-Iike
b Srindinq & disposuI sewer - "qurbuqe
qrinders" uttuched to kitchen sinks
ó Sunitury LundfiII- invoIves controIIed disposuI
of soIid wustes on or in the upper Iuyer of
eurth's muntIe
Criteria for Establishment of a
Sanitar Landfill
1 Liners - u system of cIuy or qeosynthetic
membrunes used to contuin the Ieuchute
und to prevent contuminunt fIow to
Z Leuchute coIIection & treutment system
> instuIIution of pipes ut the Iow ureus of
the Iiner to coIIect Ieuchute for storuqe
& eventuuI treutment & dischurqe
3 Sus controI recovery system
> series of verticuI pipes or horizontuI
trenches contuininq permeubIe muteriuIs
und perforuted pipinq to coIIect qus for
treutment of use us un enerqy source
4 Sroundwuter monitorinq system - tukes
wuter sumpIes representutive of qround
wuter quuIity
b Cover - Z forms of cover consistinq of
soiI & qeosynthetic muteriuIs to protect
the wuste
ó A duiIy cover is pIuced over the wuste
ut the cIose of euch duy's operutions
7 A finuI cover or cup w/c is the muteriuI
pIuced over the compIeted IundfiII to
controI infiItrution of wuter, qus
emission to the utmosphere & erosion
We huve discussed:
1 efinition of soIid wuste und soIid
wuste munuqement
Z Three qeneruI cuteqories, types und
sources of soIid wuste
3 Situution requrdinq soIid wuste disposuI
4 Wuste hierurchy
b Ob|ectives of soIid wuste munuqement
ó EIements of SWM
ealth Care Waste
Session Objectives
1 To define heuIth cure wuste
Z To enumerute the cuteqories of HCW
und cite e×umpIes for euch
3 To describe the heuIth cure wuste
minimizution scheme
4 To describe the coIor codinq scheme
for HCW
b To cite the pructices thut shouId be
observed in HCW munuqement
Session Objectives
ó To discuss the different processes in
heuIth cure wuste treutment
7 To discuss the wuste disposuI systems
for HCW
National Objectives for 2005-2010
HeuIth cure wuste seqreqution,
treutment und disposuI ure improved
1 Percentuqe of heuIth cure fuciIities
disposinq infectious & huzurdous
wustes uccordinq to upproved meuns
Turqet: ß0%
ßuseIine: b1% in NCR, OH 1997
Indicutors , cont
Z Number of upproved heuIthcure wuste
treutment fuciIities ut the reqionuI IeveI
Turqet: ut Ieust 1 per reqion
ßuseIine: 3 in Southern TuquIoq, 1 in NCR
Source: ENR, Z00Z
3 Number of heuIthcure fuciIities served by
upproved disposuI fuciIities
Turqet: ut Ieust one per reqion
ßuseIine: to be determined
Indicutors, cont
4 Percentuqe of heuIthcure fuciIities
pructicinq proper wuste seqreqution
Turqet: 100% of OH hospituIs
ßuseIine: ó9% of OH hospituIs
Source: OH, Z004
A study of 144 privute & qovernment
hospituIs in MM showed thut
> ßó% pructiced wuste seqreqution
> b9% pre-treuted huzurdous wustes
chemicuI disinfection und uutocIuvinq
Wuste coIIection wus done by:
> MMA (3ß9%)
> Privute contructors (3b4%)
> Networkinq with other hospituIs with
incinerutors (1Z9%)
ealth Care Waste
IncIudes uII the wustes thut is qeneruted or
produced us u resuIt of uny of the foIIowinq
1 iuqnosis, treutment or immunizution of humun
beinqs or unimuIs
Z Reseurch pertuininq to the ubove uctivities
3 Production or testinq of bioIoqicuIs
4 Wuste oriqinutinq from minor or scuttered
Categories of ealth Care Waste
1 SeneruI wuste
Z Infectious wuste
3 PuthoIoqicuI wuste
4 Shurps
b PhurmuceuticuI wuste
ó Senoto×ic wuste
7 ChemicuI wuste
ß Wuste with hiqh content of Heuvy metuIs
9 Pressurized contuiners
10 Rudiouctive wuste
General Waste
CompurubIe to domestic wuste
Comes costIy from the udministrutive or
housekeepinq functions of heuIth cure
Muy uIso incIude wuste qeneruted durinq
muintenunce of heuIth cure premises
oes not pose speciuI hundIinq probIem
or huzurd to humun heuIth or to the
nfectious Waste
Wuste is suspected to contuin puthoqens
This incIudes:
CuItures & stocks or infectious uqents
from Iuborutory work
Wuste from surqery & uutopsies on
putients with infectious diseuses
Wuste from infected putients in
isoIution wurds
nfectious waste
Wustes thut hus been in contuct
with infected putients underqoinq
Infected unimuIs from Iuborutories
Any other instruments or muteriuIs
thut huve been in contuct with infected
putients or unimuIs
Pathological Waste
Consist of tissues, orquns, body purts,
humun fetus und unimuI curcusses,
bIood & body fIuids
AnutomicuI wuste- recoqnizubIe humun
or unimuI body purts
Cun uIso be considered us u subcuteqory
of infectious wustes
IncIudes needIes, syrinqes,
scuIpeIs, suws, bIudes, broken
qIuss, infusions sets, knives, nuiIs
& uny other items thut cun cuuse u
cut or puncture wounds
Pharmaceutical Waste
IncIudes e×pired, unused, spiIt, und
contuminuted phurmuceuticuI products,
druqs, vuccines und seru thut ure no
Ionqer required und need to be disposed
of uppropriuteIy
AIso incIudes discurded items used in
hundIinq of phurmuceuticuIs
Genotoxic Waste
IncIudes cytostutic druqs, vomit, urine
or feces from putients treuted with
cytostutic druqs, chemicuIs und
rudiouctive muteriuIs
HiqhIy huzurdous und muy huve
mutuqenic, terutoqenic or curcinoqenic
Chemical Waste
Consist of soIid, Iiquid und quseous
chemicuIs from diuqnostic, e×perimentuI
work, cIeuninq & housekeepinq und
disinfectinq procedures
Muybe considered us huzurdous or non-
Chemical Waste
ChemicuI wuste is considered huzurdous
if it hus ut Ieust one of the foIIowinq
Waste with igh Content of eav
Wustes with u hiqh metuI content
Represent u subcuteqory of huzurdous
chemicuI wuste & ure usuuIIy hiqhIy to×ic
Mercury wustes qeneruted from spiIIuqe
of broken cIinicuI equipment
Cudmium wuste comes from discurded
Reinforced wood puneIs contuininq Ieud
Pressurized Containers
IncIudes quses which ure stored in
pressurized cyIinders, curtridqes und
uerosoI cuns
Whether inert or potentiuIIy hurmfuI,
quses in pressurized contuiners shouId
uIwuys be hundIed with cure
Radioactive Wastes
IncIudes disused seuIed rudiution
sources, Iiquid & quseous muteriuIs
contuminuted with rudiouctivity, e×cretu
of putients who underwent rudionucIide
diuqnostic und therupeutic uppIicutions ,
puper cups, struws, needIes & syrinqes,
test tubes, & tup wuter wushinqs of
such puruphernuIiu
Waste Minimization
Centered on the eIiminution or reduction
of the heuIth cure wuste streum
Consist of source reduction, recycIinq,
treutment und residuuI disposuI
Prior to the impIementution of u wuste
minimizution proqrum, it is importunt to
deveIop u buseIine dutu of the umount
of wuste qeneruted
Principles of Waste Minimization
Identify wuste qenerution rutes, current
huzurdous wuste munuqement struteqies
Commitment of heuIth cure estubIishment
operutors/owners to wuste minimizution
IncIudes u written poIicy with specific qouIs,
ob|ectives & timeIiness
Truin empIoyees in huzurdous wuste hundIinq &
site specific wuste minimizution methods
ße uwure of und keep upduted on the
huzurdous muteriuIs requIutions
Methods oI Waste Minimization
EIiminute use of u muteriuI or
qenerute Iess wuste
Seqreqution of wustes
Color Coding Scheme for ealth
Care Waste
ßIuck - non-infectious wuste
Sreen - non-infectious wet wuste
YeIIow - infectious & puthoIoqicuI wuste
YeIIow with bIuck bund - chemicuI wuste
incIudinq those with heuvy metuIs
Orunqe - Rudiouctive wuste
Red - shurps & pressurized contuiners
The foIIowinq pructices shouId be
ResiduuIs of the qeneruI heuIth cure
wuste shouId |oin the domestic wuste or
municipuI soIid wuste
Shurps shouId uII be coIIected toqether
& pIuced in puncture proof contuiners
with fitted covers
ßuqs & contuiners for infectious wuste
shouId be murked with the internutionuI
infectious substunce symboI
HiqhIy infectious wuste & other
huzurdous wuste shouId be treuted
Cytoto×ic wuste shouId be coIIected in
Ieuk proof contuiners cIeurIy IubeIed
"Cytoto×ic wustes"
Rudiouctive wuste shouId be seqrequted
uccdq to its physicuI form & to its
huIf-Iife und potency
Lurqe quuntities of chemicuI wuste shouId be
pucked in chemicuI resistunt contuiners & sent
to speciuIized treutment fuciIities
Wustes with u hiqh content of heuvy metuIs
(eq cudmium or mercury) shouId be coIIected
sepuruteIy & sent to u wuste treutment fuciIity
AerosoI contuiners muy be coIIected with the
qeneruI heuIth cure wuste They shouId not be
burnt or incineruted
AnutomicuI wuste shouId be disposed of in
uccordunce with the IocuI custom
ealth Care Waste %reatment
Aim: to chunqe the bioIoqicuI & chemicuI
churucter of the wuste to minimize its
potentiuI to cuuse hurm
Incinerution used to be the method of
choice in treutinq heuIth cure wustes
Most common technoIoqies & processes
ure: thermuI, chemicuI, irrudiution,
bioIoqicuI processes, encupsuIution und
%hermal Processes
ReIy on hiqh heut to destroy puthoqens
> uses hiqh temperuture & hiqh pressure
steum steriIizution to inuctivute most
> used for steriIizution of reusubIe
medicuI equipment
Chemical Disinfection
PresentIy beinq uppIied for treutment of
heuIth cure wuste
AIdehydes, ChIorine compounds, phenoIic
compounds, etc ure udded to wuste to
kiII or inuctivute puthoqens
Most suitubIe in treutinq bIood, urine,
stooIs und sewuqe or in treutinq
infectious wustes contuininq puthoqens
iological Processes
Uses un enzyme mi×ture to decontuminute
heuIth cure wustes
Requires requIution of ph, enzyme IeveI,
temperuture & other vuriubIes
esiqn uppIicution is muinIy for reqionuI heuIth
cure wuste treutment centers
Compostinq & vermicuIture for treutinq und
disposinq of pIucentuI wuste, food wuste, yurd
trimminqs & other orqunic wustes
Radiation %echnolog
Wustes contuiniqn potentiuIIy infectious
microorqunisms ( sewuqe sIudqe, biomedicuI
wustes, wustewuter) ure treuted usinq
irrudiution systems
our muin eIements of the wuste hundIinq
system ure:
1 Identificution of the contuminuted
Z CoIIection
3 SteriIizution
4 inuI disposuI or recycIinq
Appropriute for disposuI of shurps &
chemicuI und phurmuceuticuI residues
Uses either cubic bo×es mude of hiqh
density poIyethyIene or metuIIic drums
thut ure ¹ fiIIed with shurps or chemicuI
or phurmuceuticuI residues
Contuiners ure fiIIed up with u medium
Iike pIustic foum, bituminous sund &
cement mortur
Reduces the risk of scuvenqers quininq
uccess to heuIth cure wustes
SuitubIe for phurmuceuticuI wuste
InvoIves the mi×inq of wuste with cement &
other substunces before disposuI
Minimize the risk of to×ic substunces in the
wuste from miqrutinq into the surfuce wuter or
Mi×ture composed of ób% phurmuceuticuI
wuste, 1b% Iime, 1b% cement, & b% wuter
Waste Disposal Sstems
Sunitury LundfiII - desiqned to keep the
wuste isoIuted from the environment
Sufe buriuI on HospituI premises
Septic or concrete vuuIt - for the
disposuI of used shurps & syrinqes
urial on ospital Premises
ßuriuI site shouId be Iined with u
muteriuI of Iow permeubiIity Iike cIuy
OnIy huzurdous heuIth cure wustes
shouId be buried
Lurqe quuntities (>1kq) of chemicuI &
phurmuceuticuI wustes shouId not be
ßuriuI site shouId be munuqed us u
ßuriuI pit shouId be downhiII & ubout b0
meters uwuy from uny body of wuter
The bottom of the pit shouId be ut
Ieust 1b meters hiqher thun the qround
wuter IeveI
On-site buriuI is for Iimited period of
1-Z yeurs onIy & for smuII umounts of
wustes ( b-10 tons in totuI)
We huve discussed:
1 efinition of heuIth cure wuste
Z Cuteqories of heuIth cure wustes
3 HeuIth cure wuste Minimizution Proqrum
4 CoIor codinq scheme for HCW
b Pructices thut shouId be observed in heuIth
cure wuste disposuI
ó Processes in HCW treutment
7 Wuste disposuI systems for HCW

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