Solid Waste Management Writers Aileen de Guzman Joyce Reyes Editors Chay Florentino-Hofileña Giselle Baretto-Lapitan

Project Management Amihan Perez Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Technical and Editorial Team Rene “Bong’Garrucho, LGSP Mags Maglana, LGSP Merlinda Hussein, LGSP Gemma Borreros, LGSP Myn Garcia, LGSP Orient Integrated Development Consultants Inc. Art Direction, Cover Design & Layout Jet Hermida Photography Gil Nartea

Solid Waste Management
OPTIONS AND SOLUTIONS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

Solid Waste Management: Mapping out Solutions at the Local Level Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government Copyright @2003 Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP) All rights reserved The Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program encourages the use, translation, adaptation and copying of this material for noncommercial use, with appropriate credit given to LGSP. Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and/or contributor and/or editor can not accept any liability for any consequence arising from the use thereof or from any information contained herein. ISBN 971-8597-07-7 Printed and bound in Manila, Philippines Published by: Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP) Unit 1507 Jollibee Plaza Emerald Ave., 1600 Pasig City, Philippines Tel. Nos. (632) 637-3511 to 13 www.lgsp.org.ph Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) ACSPPA, Fr. Arrupe Road, Social Development Complex Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, 1108 Quezon City This project was undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada provided through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

A JOINT PROJECT OF

Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)

National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)

Canadian International Development Agency

IMPLEMENTED BY

Agriteam Canada www.agriteam.ca

Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) www.fcm.ca

CONTENTS
FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PREFACE ACRONYMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR The Social Imperative Guiding Principles of Solid Waste Management The Hierarchy of Solid Waste Management Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management Implementation of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Program CHAPTER 2: LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 3: POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS LGU Awareness of Existing Policies Policy Issues Financial Constraints LGU SWM Plans and Ordinances Technical and Organizational Issues Community Involvement CHAPTER 4: GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Good Solid Waste Management Practices in the Philippines Good Practices in Solid Waste Management Outside the Philippines i iii v vii ix 1 7 7 8 9 11 12 19 31 31 32 33 34 36 37 41 41 86

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES AND TOOLS Study Tour Sites References Technical and Funding Assistance for LGUs in Solid Waste Management ENDNOTES

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FOREWORD

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he Department of the Interior and Local Government is pleased to acknowledge the latest publication of the Philippines Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government; a series of books on eight (8) service delivery areas, which include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management. One of the biggest challenges in promoting responsive and efficient local governance is to be able to meaningfully deliver quality public services to communities as mandated in the Local Government Code. Faced with continued high incidence of poverty, it is imperative to strengthen the role of LGUs in service delivery as they explore new approaches for improving their performance. Strategies and mechanisms for effective service delivery must take into consideration issues of poverty reduction, people’s participation, the promotion of gender equality, environmental sustainability and economic and social equity for more long- term results. There is also a need to acquire knowledge, create new structures, and undertake innovative programs that are more responsive to the needs of the communities and develop linkages and partnerships within and between communities as part of an integrated approach to providing relevant and sustainable services to their constituencies. Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government offer local government units and their partners easy-to-use, comprehensive resource material with which to take up this challenge. By providing LGUs with practical technologies, tested models and replicable exemplary practices, Service Delivery with Impact encourages LGUs to be innovative, proactive and creative in addressing the real problems and issues in providing and enhancing services, taking into account increased community participation and strategic private sector/civil society organizational partnerships. We hope that in using these resource books, LGUs will be better equipped with new ideas, tools and inspiration to make a

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difference by expanding their knowledge and selection of replicable choices in delivering basic services with increased impact. The DILG, therefore, congratulates the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP) for this milestone in its continuing efforts to promote efficient, responsive, transparent and accountable governance.

HON. JOSE D. LINA, JR. Secretary Department of the Interior and Local Government

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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PREFACE

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ervice Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government are the product of a series of roundtable discussions, critical review of tested models and technologies, and case analyses of replicable exemplary practices in the Philippines conducted by the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP) in eight (8) service sectors that local government units (LGUs) are mandated to deliver. These include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management. The devolution of powers as mandated in the Local Government Code has been a core pillar of decentralization in the Philippines. Yet despite opportunities for LGUs to make a meaningful difference in the lives of the people by maximizing these devolved powers, issues related to poverty persist and improvements in effective and efficient service delivery remain a challenge. With LGSP’s work in support of over 200 LGUs for the past several years came the recognition of the need to enhance capacities in service delivery, specifically to clarify the understanding and optimize the role of local government units in providing improved services. This gap presented the motivation for LGSP to develop these resource books for LGUs. Not a “how to manual,” Service Delivery with Impact features strategies and a myriad of proven approaches designed to offer innovative ways for local governments to increase their capacities to better deliver quality services to their constituencies. Each resource book focuses on highlighting the important areas of skills and knowledge that contribute to improved services. Service Delivery with Impact provides practical insights on how LGUs can apply guiding principles, tested and appropriate technology, and lessons learned from exemplary cases to their organization and in partnership with their communities.

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This series of resource books hopes to serve as a helpful and comprehensive reference to inspire and enable LGUs to significantly contribute to improving the quality of life of their constituency through responsive and efficient governance. Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)

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ACRONYMS
AusAID AWARE BIKBAP BOT CEC CRM CSO DA DBL DENR DILG DTI ECC EcoGov EIS ENRC ENRO FSSI GOLD GOP IDEAS, Inc. IEC IETC IRR ISWM Australian Agency for International Development Associated Waste Administration and Recycling Enterprise Balik Inang Kalikasan, Balik Amang Pabrika Build Operate Transfer Carmona Ecology Center Coastal Resource Management Civil Society Organizations Department of Agriculture Design Build Lease Department of the Environment and Natural Resources Department of the Interior and Local Government Department of Trade and Industry Environmental Clearance Certificate Philippine Environmental Governance Project Environmental Impact Statement Environment and Natural Resources Council Environment and Natural Resources Office Foundation for a Sustainable Society, Inc. Governance and Local Democracy Government of the Philippines Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc. Information, Education and Communication International Environmental Technology Centre Implementing Rules and Regulations Integrated Solid Waste Management

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ACRONYMS
JBIC LBP LGSP LGUs LOGOFIND LRPs MaCEA MAT MRF NCR PASTT RA RTD SFM SWAPP SWM SZWAT UNEP USAID WMO Japan Bank for International Cooperation Land Bank of the Philippines Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program Local Government Units Local Government Finance and Development Project Local Resource Partners Makati Commercial Estates Association Municipal Action Team Materials Recovery Facility National Capital Region Philippines-Australia Governance Facility Republic Act Roundtable Discussion Sustainable Forest Management Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines Solid Waste Management Silang Zero Waste Action Team United Nations Environment Programme United States Agency for International Development Waste Management Office

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
THE SITUATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
Rapid population growth and industrialization have turned the Philippines’ waste situation into a huge problem. With today’s lifestyle, it is estimated that one person can generate as much as half a kilo of waste a day. The continuous stream into the market of new products that use the latest packaging technology further heightens the problem because new kinds of garbage are produced. Not only is there an increase in the amount of waste; there is also an increase in the variety of waste.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK
The Philippine government has recognized the severity of the garbage problem and has prioritized the establishment of appropriate measures to address it. The most comprehensive piece of legislation is the Republic Act (RA) 9003, known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, which assigns the primary task of implementation and enforcement to LGUs. It emphasizes the importance of minimizing waste by using techniques such as recycling, resource recovery, reuse, and composting.

WHAT LGUs HAVE TO DO
Solid waste disposal is proving to be a complex and controversial issue and LGUs are faced with limited options to address it as the mandatory provisions in the law already spell out what they have to do. Their biggest challenge is to come up with solid waste management and pollution control strategies that would reduce the waste released to the environment. LGUs can start the development of the required 10-year integrated solid waste management program with waste appraisal to determine waste generation and the “waste profile”of their community and to assess the solid waste management practices and systems already in place in their communities. With
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the analysis of such data, LGUs should then be able to identify their waste management options and draw up specific SWM measures, including the design of waste disposal facilities. LGUs will need to support the engineering component of their SWM programs with education and enforcement interventions. They have to provide the organizational support and systems for the efficient and effective implementation of the SWM plan.

WHAT SOME LGUs HAVE DONE
There are many types of projects on solid waste management that an LGU can initiate, (even as it is yet developing a long-term SWM plan). Some LGUs have concentrated on social preparation and networking, particularly in the early stages of SWM planning and implementation. The municipality of Bustos, Bulacan and the city of Manila, for instance, came up with solid waste management projects that focused on social preparation and networking to improve the knowledge of their constituents and win the support of the community. Other LGUs have focused on composting and recycling activities, which require the establishment of the necessary facilities. Still others have started to work towards the upgrading of their waste disposal facilities, in compliance with the law. LGUs need to be in touch with the problems and demands of their communities. They need to immediately address urgent SWM issues with projects that meet their needs yet match their resources and capabilities.

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INTRODUCTION

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unicipal solid waste refers to food, paper, rubbish, packaging and ashes discarded by households and commercial establishments; non-hazardous and non-toxic institutional or industrial waste; street sweepings, construction debris, and agricultural waste. To the ordinary Filipino, solid waste is anything that is considered “basura”and there is expectation, especially in the more urban areas, that it is the responsibility of local government officials to reduce and control the solid waste problem. The problems of solid waste management confronting local government units are becoming more complex as population and local economies grow. LGUs need to continually review and map out shortterm and long-term solutions to effectively deal with them. The development of this resource book on solid waste management thus aims to: 1) provide local government units (LGUs) and local resource personnel information on the development challenges, working models, and good practices on solid waste management that can be studied, addressed, and replicated where appropriate; 2) enhance LGUs’ understanding of the mandates that govern solid waste management to help prepare them for more effective work and identify opportunities for further policy development; and 3) guide LGUs in identifying sources of references, tools, and assistance that can help them improve the delivery of the service. The resource book puts together the work of many solid waste management advocates and practitioners. Much of the information and lessons herein are derived from the experiences of two USAID-funded projects: Governance in Local Democracy (GOLD) and the Philippines Environmental Governance Project or EcoGov as well as information shared by the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP).

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The book consists of the following chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of the Solid Waste Management Sector. This serves to introduce key concepts, guiding principles, the hierarchy and functional elements of solid waste management. The chapter also provides an outline of the steps or processes that should be undertaken to come up with an effective waste management program. Chapter 2: LGU Mandates on Solid Waste Management. This section presents a list of policies that relate to waste management, particularly those that are relevant to LGUs, with a brief description of each. Chapter 3: Policy and Implementation Issues and Recommendations. This chapter contains issues and concerns, as well as recommendations in implementing LGU-run, private sector-managed, and NGOinitiated programs. Chapter 4: Good Practices in Solid Waste Management. This presents various projects that have been successfully implemented here and around the world. It covers LGU experiences and concerns, as well as good practices pertaining to waste management for residences, commercial and recreational areas, and health care facilities, among others. The private sector in particular and civil society organizations (CSOs) to a certain extent have a hard time finding options and workable models for solid waste management. LGUs can share information in this chapter to their constituents coming from the private sector and CSOs.

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter 5 - References and Tools. This section provides a list of available financial windows that can be tapped to provide funding for various solid waste management projects. It also lists reference materials to better understand solid waste management and lists LGUs and groups that have successfully implemented solid waste management projects in their localities. Much has been accomplished in sustaining the world through proper solid waste management schemes. But much more remains to be done. LGUs need to do their part in their own localities to help sustain the earth’s life support system. There have been apprehensions about the readability of material on solid waste management offered to LGUs in the past. This resource book tries to overcome this problem by selecting cases that are clear, interesting, and relevant to real life situations and experiences on solid waste management in the country. It is hoped that this resource book will help shape an efficient process of service delivery in the community.

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OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR

OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR

CHAPTER

❙ THE SOCIAL IMPERATIVE
Rapid population growth and industrialization have turned the country’s waste situation into a huge problem. With today’s lifestyle, it is estimated that one person can generate as much as half a kilo of municipal solid waste a day. In Olongapo City, it has been established that the waste generation rate is 340 grams per day per person.1 The continuous stream into the market of new products that use the latest packaging technology further heightens the problem because new kinds of garbage are produced. Not only is there an increase in the amount of waste; there is also an increase in its variety. Waste disposal is thus a major issue confronting LGUs. It has become a high priority due to the health and environmental risks associated with waste. Waste likely contains pathogens, which commonly cause infections. Garbage piles, besides being foul and unsightly, are breeding grounds of vermin and insects, which carry human diseases. Improperly discarded waste can contaminate sources of drinking water; they can be carried by rivers to the sea and adversely affect fisheries, tourism, and the health of coastal communities. Solid waste disposal is proving to be a complex and controversial issue—with LGUs facing limited options for addressing this concern. Landfills are being promoted as alternative means of disposal, but finding landfill sites has been difficult due to economic constraints, public health concerns, and social acceptability issues. There is a need, therefore, for other solid waste

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Municipal solid waste refers to food, paper, rubbish, packaging and ashes discarded by households and commercial establishments, nonhazardous and non-toxic institutional or industrial waste, street sweepings, construction debris, and agricultural waste. In some localities, most agricultural waste are a waste stream all to themselves and are generally not handled as part of the municipal waste management system.

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Solid Waste Management (SWM) includes all activities pertaining to the control, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetic and other environmental considerations.

management and pollution control strategies that can reduce waste released to the environment. The government has recognized the severity of the garbage problem and has given priority to establishing appropriate measures to address it. The most comprehensive piece of legislation dealing with this problem is Republic Act (RA) 9003, known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. It assigns the primary task of implementation and enforcement to LGUs. It emphasizes the importance of minimizing waste using techniques such as recycling, resource recovery, reuse, and composting. Chapter 3 further describes the important features of RA 9003.

❙ GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste management practitioners have come up with seven guiding principles in SWM planning2. Incorporating these principles into one’s way of thinking is a good starting point when embarking on any solid waste management initiative. 1. Waste is a resource. When waste is thrown away, it does not disappear but ends up somewhere else or in some other form. When it is used or put in the right place, it retains its value as a resource.

2. Waste prevention is better than waste regulation. Stopping waste from being produced is much better than trying to manage it after a lot has already been generated. 3. There is no single management and technological approach to solid waste. An integrated SWM system will best achieve SWM goals.There are different types of waste—biodegradable, non-biodegradable, recyclable, non-recyclable, toxic, hazardous—and each requires specific handling and disposal methods.

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OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 1

4. All elements of society are fundamentally responsible for solid waste management. Although LGUs are primarily responsible for providing SWM services to their constituents, their success requires the support of the national government and the involvement of the private sector and the general public. 5. Those who generate waste must bear the cost of its management and disposal. Households have enjoyed local government subsidy for garbage collection and disposal for far too long. This subsidy has not helped develop a sense of responsibility among citizens for their habits. Those who produce the waste should shoulder part of it, if not the full cost of waste management. 6. Solid waste management should be approached within the context of resource conservation, environmental protection and health, and sustainable development. SWM has evolved into a multidisciplinary effort requiring the expertise from the fields of engineering, economics, sociology, bioscience, and environmental management. 7. SWM programs should consider the physical and socio-economic conditions of the concerned communities and should be designed according to communities’ specific needs. Communities vary in character and, thus, have different solid waste problems. SWM programs should correspond to the unique needs of these communities.

❙ THE HIERARCHY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Experts agree that there will be no simple, single solution to the municipal solid waste problem as long as there are physical and socio-economic differences among communities. There is, however, an accepted hierarchy of waste management strategies that local governments can conform with. This hierarchy represents an integrated approach to solid waste management that is more efficient in terms of money, time, and disposal space.

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SOURCE REDUCTION

RECYCLING

Turning something old into something new. Food and yard waste can be composted. Aluminum cans can be melted and pressed into new sheets that can be reused. Used papers can be turned into pulp for making new paper. Glass bottles can be crushed and melted to make new glass products.

TREATMENT OR RECOVERY

Materials that cannot be recycled are processed to generate energy and other sources. Biodegradable wastes can be converted to soil conditioners or organic fertilizers through composting. Energy can be recovered through incinerator systems that produce steam, or through pyrolisis to extract methane gas.

DISPOSAL

Reducing the amount of waste and the toxicity of the waste that is produced. Manufacturers may come up with products containing fewer harmful materials and requiring less packaging. Consumers may choose to buy more durable and non-disposable products. Discarding solid residues—ashes and slag—that result from treatment.

WHY RECYCLE? 1. It saves natural resources. All things used by humans have materials that come from the earth. The earth does not have a never-ending supply of these precious materials. 2. It saves energy. Making new materials through recycling uses less energy than creating them from raw materials. 3. It creates less pollution. Making new materials through recycling produces less pollution than creating them from raw materials 4. It protects wildlife. The destruction of forests, rivers, and fields is reduced. These are the habitat of wildlife. 5. It helps out communities. By producing less garbage, the cost of garbage disposal is reduced. The money saved by an LGU can be used for other essential facilities and services to communities.

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❙ FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste management planning requires that LGUs recognize the functional elements of a welldesigned SWM system. Each element entails several basic requirements that have to be taken into account.
ELEMENT THINGS TO CONSIDER Information has to be gathered about the sources of waste, the nature of waste produced by these sources, and their corresponding amounts. Current practices at the source also need to be determined. The resulting baseline information is critical in the design and planning of an integrated SWM system. Solid waste must be stored first before they are collected. A good onsite storage facility must have the following features: a. Keeps waste properly contained to avoid health hazards (e.g., does not tip over easily with contents spilled out) b. Makes collection easy c. Is aesthetically pleasing This entails the regular and systematic gathering of waste from various storage sites and pick-up points, hauling them to transfer stations, processing and recovery facilities, or to final disposal sites. Collection is the most expensive SWM element, usually accounting for 40 percent to 80 percent of waste management costs. Intermediate collection sites called “transfer stations” are usually recommended if the final disposal site is located far from the waste collection points. They are also often more economical. These transfer stations involve smaller collection trucks that haul waste to transfer stations where they are then loaded into larger vehicles. These large trucks convey waste to either processing and recovery facilities, or to the final disposal site.

Waste Generation


On-Site Storage


Collection


Transfer and Transport

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Processing and Recovery


Disposal

This element refers to procedures that are designed to recover usable materials such as raw materials for compost, or procedures that transform waste to heat or electricity. Examples of the latter are magnetic separation, density separation, and size reduction. The nature and amount of waste should be considered when deciding on an appropriate disposal method to avoid secondary environmental problems such as groundwater contamination and air pollution. In Canada and the United States, sanitary landfills are the most common and most widely accepted of the final disposal methods. However, in the Philippines, sanitary landfills—currently defined as engineered landfill sites—are a relatively new phenomenon. Before the use of sanitary landfills, uncontrolled or controlled dumps used to be more prevalent. In addition, energy-from-waste is the most common disposal option in Japan, France, Sweden, Denmark and other European nations.

❙ IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The implementation of an integrated SWM program should start with waste appraisal to determine the waste generation and “waste profile”of the community and assess the solid waste management practices systems already in place. The LGU can convene a task force that will undertake this study. Based on collected information, the task force should be able to identify and assess their waste management options (that are allowable under RA 9003) and then outline more concrete and doable action steps and plans with corresponding budgets. The generated data will also help LGUs in the design of the recovery and disposal facilities. It is useful for LGUs to look at good practices of other LGUs because by doing so, they familiarize themselves with working modes and approaches that can be applied to the community.

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The LGU should encourage the broadest participation from the local citizenry. During planning, the local government and its citizens can work together to formulate a common vision regarding their solid waste situation and design strategic action plans to address the issue. Local participation during the planning and design stage cultivates a sense of ownership, which, in turn, strengthens the commitment to the program and increases the chances of its success. It is crucial that an LGU designates an SWM officer at the planning stage and formally lodges SWM responsibility with an office of the municipal or city government. The officer should oversee the development of the SWM program and ensure that action steps are set into motion in plan implementation.

Process Flow for Developing a City/Municipal Integrated Solid Waste Management Program3

WASTE APPRAISAL Local government and volunteers conduct surveys and determine the waste profile and existing solid waste management operations of a community.

IMPLEMENTING THE DOABLES The local government and citizens implement designated roles to use SWM techniques.

VMGO SETTING With the help of a workshop facilitator, local leaders and citizens agree on a vision, the strategies and first steps to address the problem.

MULTISECTORAL PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION A multisectoral task force consisting of leaders and volunteers further reviews technical options and draws up plans and budgets for “doable” actions.

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LGUs are usually constrained by limited funds and personnel, and should thus start with small, manageable activities. These small worthwhile activities allow waste management methods to be tested for practicality and suitability. Successful experiences at this pilot level may then be tried by other barangays or replicated at the municipal level. While initial activities are underway, it is equally important to begin a plan to sustain the waste management program. SWM practitioners have outlined five components, called the 5 Es for achieving this objective:

◗ THE 5 Es
ENGINEERING component refers to the hardware requirements of any SWM system—collection trucks, garbage receptacles, transfer stations, disposal sites, and necessary equipment. It also refers to the establishment of operating systems and procedures—collection routes, waste segregation requirements, and disposal facility operations. EDUCATION is the information-dissemination component of any SWM system where all sectors of society are informed of their roles and responsibilities in waste management. Public awareness about SWM can be triggered by the tri-Media (TV, radio, and print media). Seminars, workshops, and speakers’bureau are some other examples of how solid waste management can be promoted to the public. The ENFORCEMENT component ensures that the integrated SWM program can only be sustained if a legal framework supports it. Ideally, ordinances should spell out the policies and procedures for each SWM functional element, provide the mechanisms and administrative structures to implement the program, and specify sanctions for violators.

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The creation of an ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION, a structure that “houses”the SWM program. is important. The program must be assigned to an appropriate office or department within the local government’s institutional machinery. The ideal scenario is for the LGU to create a SWM division under the Environment and Natural Resources Office. The law requires the creation of an SWM Board that has multisectoral representation. LGUs may invite into the Board other national government and private organizations. The EQUITY component pertains to the financial, technical, and manpower resources—required by the other components. This includes local funds or outside financing, as well as local expertise and citizen cooperation and involvement. A sixth E may be added to stand for EXECUTIVE WILL, which seems to be the most important among all these components. Executive will stands for the local executive’s ability to lead his colleagues, as well as his ability to coordinate all involved agencies, in the execution and implementation of a successful solid waste management program. Executive will also ensures allocation of adequate resources to the program.

Sources: Philippine Environmental Governance Program (EcoGov). LGU Solutions and Benefits from Good Integrated Solid Waste Management practices (Briefing material for the EcoGov Interactive Assemblies with LGUs). n.p. 2002. Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project. Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management. GOLD Occasional Papers (OP No. 98-06). n.p.1998 .

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LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

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◗ THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

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Article 11 of the Constitution provides that the State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT 9003 (2000) AND DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 2001-34
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations This Act empowers local government units to actively pursue their respective solid waste management systems by providing them the needed policy and technical support. The salient features of RA 9003 that apply to LGUs include: Preparation of 10-year solid waste management plans by all LGUs (province, city, and municipality). Such plans should: (a) place primary emphasis on the implementation of feasible and environmentally sound techniques of minimizing waste (such as re-use, recycling, and composting programs); and (b) identify the amount of landfill and transformation capacity needed for solid waste that cannot be re-used, recycled, or composted. The content of solid waste management plans is outlined in Section 17, Article 1, Chapter III. The law mandates that 25 percent of all solid waste must be diverted from disposal facilities, within a period of five years from the time RA 9003 takes effect. Creation of a Solid Waste Management Board in every city and municipality to prepare and implement a plan for the safe and sanitary management of solid waste. A provincial Solid Waste Management Board will likewise be formed by each province to develop a comprehensive provincial SWM plan, taking off from the municipal/city SWM plans.

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Mandatory segregation of waste. LGUs are to evaluate alternative roles for the public and private sectors in providing collection services, types of collection services, or a combination of systems that best meet their needs. The collection and transport of solid waste must conform to the minimum standards and requirements for collection of solid waste (e.g., use of protective equipment by collectors, non-spillage of waste within collection vicinity, separate collection schedules for specific types of waste, separate trucks/haulers or compartmentalized collection vehicles). Implementation of recycling programs, with support from the Departments of Trade and Industry (DTI), Agriculture (DA), and Interior and Local Governments (DILG). The DTI is to prepare an inventory of existing markets for processing and purchasing of recyclable materials and implement a coding system for packaging materials and products to facilitate waste recycling and re-use. The DA is to publish an inventory of existing markets and demand for compost. Setting up of a materials recovery facility (MRF) in every barangay or cluster of barangays. MRFs will receive mixed waste for final sorting, segregation, composting, and recycling before non-recyclable wastes are transferred to a storage or disposal facility. Prohibition of open dumpsites as final disposal facility. Existing open dumpsites are to be converted into controlled dumpsites within three years from the effectivity date of the law. Sanitary landfills shall be developed and operated as final disposal sites for a municipality or cluster of municipalities. The law provides guidelines for controlled dumps and criteria for the location and establishment of sanitary landfills. The law encourages LGUs to consider the setting up of common solid waste management facilities. Promoting the establishment of multipurpose environmental cooperatives and associations that will undertake SWM activities or projects. Provision of monetary and other rewards and incentives to entities that have undertaken outstanding and innovative SWM programs (e.g., tax credit and duty exemption to individuals and private organizations; and grants to LGUs). Encouragement of LGUs to impose fees sufficient to pay the cost of preparing and implementing their solid waste management plans. LGUs are also to adopt specific revenuegenerating measures to ensure the viability of their plans.
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Creation of a local SWM fund from donations, collection of fines and fees, and allocation from the development fund. This fund is to be used for activities to enhance the SWM program: research, information, education and communications, and capability building. Definition of prohibited acts, penalties, suits and other legal actions concerning RA 9003.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7160
Local Government Code of the Philippines (1991) This Act enjoins LGUs to enforce sanitation laws, prepare a solid waste management program, and other environmental functions. Section 17 mandates barangays and municipalities to provide services for solid waste collection and management. Section 3, Article 1 encourages the participation of the private sector in local governance.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 98-50
Adopting the Landfill Site Identification and Screening Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Facilities This order defines the site selection criteria for sanitary landfill facilities, including screening methodology.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 98-49
Technical Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Management This Order provides the guidelines for the development of new municipal solid waste disposal sites, and a phased schedule for the conversion and upgrading of existing dumpsites into more sanitary and environmentally acceptable sites. The AO includes technical norms, environmental quality requirements and operational standards, and timeframe for implementation.

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◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 97-28
Amending Annex A of DAO 94-28 This Act includes used oil (spent oil such as waste oil or oil residues) as a separate category. It further provides that no importation of tanker sludge will be allowed.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 94-28
Interim Guidelines for the Importation of Recyclable Materials Containing Hazardous Substances This AO requires all importers of recyclable materials containing hazardous substances to register with the DENR. This also sets the registration and importation requirements, as well as the right of the DENR to require the testing and sampling of the imported recyclable materials.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT 6969
Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 This Act regulates, restricts, or prohibits the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment. It also prohibits the entry, even in transit, of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal within Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 92-29
Implementing Rules and Regulations for RA 6969 This AO provides for an inventory of chemical substances and the classification of hazardous waste; sets the limitations regarding their use, transport, storage and disposal; sets exemptions from the nuclear waste requirements; prescribes the fees for registration, permitting and transport; and establishes penalties for the violation of prohibited acts. An Inter-Agency Technical Advisory Council is created to oversee the implementation of these IRR provisions.
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◗ RA 6957 AS AMENDED BY RA 7718 (BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER LAW)
This law states that infrastructure and development projects normally financed and operated by the public sector (such as that for solid waste management) may be wholly or partially implemented by the private sector.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 88
Amending Memorandum Circular No. 39-A, dated January 19, 1988, by Reconstituting the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management This identifies the members of the Task Force on Waste Management and defines their functions and responsibilities.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 39-A OF JANUARY 19, 1988 FROM THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
This enjoins local governments to establish integrated solid waste management systems that include: management of waste generation; handling and on-site storage; collection, transfer and transport; processing and recovery; and disposal.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 30
Creating the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management (November 2, 1987) This creates the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management for identifying an effective collection and disposal system or technology that can be effectively sustained on a long-term basis. The Task Force is tasked to identify the most appropriate government agency that would assume the lead role in waste collection and disposal management with the corresponding accountability. It is also tasked to identify the supporting and cooperating agencies, both public and private; and to define their responsibilities.

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◗ SECTION 2388, REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE
This sets the general powers of city and municipal councils to enact ordinances and make such regulations on health and safety for the comfort and convenience of the community and the protection of property.

◗ EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 32
This Order establishes national and local beautification committees to undertake beautification and cleanliness campaigns.

◗ PROCLAMATION 2146 December 14, 1981
This proclamation defines the scope and coverage of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) system. It mainly provides that infrastructure and solid waste disposal projects are considered environmentally critical projects and thus subject to the EIS system.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1586 1978
This Decree establishes an EIS system, identifying the lead agencies, secretariat, management and sources of financial assistance, rules and regulations, and penalties pursuant to PD 1151 (Philippine Environmental Policy).

◗ EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 432
Ordering the Strict Enforcement of Presidential Decree No. 825 Providing Penalties for Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms of Uncleanliness (October 23, 1990) The Order calls for the strict implementation of PD 825 and designates the Barangay Tanod as sanitary officers.

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◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1160
Vesting Authority in Barangay Captains to Enforce Pollution and Environmental Control Laws and for other Purposes (1977) The Decree gives authority to barangay chairmen and the barangay council to enforce pollution and environmental control laws.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 1152
Philippine Environmental Code (1977) This Decree establishes specific environment management policies and prescribes environment quality standards for air and water, land use management, natural resources management and conservation, and enforcement and guidelines for waste management. Sec. 23 particularly states that the “preparation and implementation of waste management programs shall be required of all provinces, cities and municipalities. The Department of Local Governments and Community Development shall promulgate guidelines for the formulation and establishment of waste management programs.”

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 1151
Philippine Environmental Policy (1977) This PD declares that it is government’s continuing policy to ensure an environment that is conducive to a life of dignity and well being, and that it is part of government policy to ensure the people’s right to such an environment. The policy requires all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government, including government-owned and controlled corporations, private corporations, firms, and entities to accomplish and submit Environmental Impact Statements for every action, project or undertaking that significantly affects the quality of the environment.

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◗ LETTER OF INSTRUCTION NO. 588
This enjoins the commissioner of the National Pollution Control Commission, heads of Authorities, city and municipal mayors, heads of government-owned or controlled corporations to appoint their respective pollution control officers to enforce the rules and regulations implementing PD 984.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 984
Providing for the Revision of Republic Act No. 3931, commonly known as the Pollution Control Law (1976) This Decree provides for the strengthening and reorganization of the National Pollution Control Commission. Chapter IV, Art. 2, Sec. 82a prescribes that “solid waste shall be stored, collected, processed, transported and disposed of in such a manner as to control dust emission, windblown material, odors and prevent harborage for vermin and insects. The solid waste shall be sorted in such a way that it is not a health and safety hazard, unsightly and cannot be considered a public nuisance.”

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 856
Code on Sanitation in the Philippines (1975) This Decree includes, among others, public health laws and regulations. Sec. 82 of this Decree states that “cities and municipalities shall provide an adequate and efficient system of collecting, transporting and disposing of refuse in their areas of jurisdiction in a manner approved by the local health authority.” Sec. 83 further provides additional requirements for refuse storage and disposal.

◗ THE IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR CHAPTER XVII OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 856
Code on Sanitation, Chapter on Refuse Disposal These rules provide specific guidelines for integrated solid waste management. It defines the scope of segregation, recycling, and collection activities to support segregation.
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◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 825
Providing Penalty for Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms of Uncleanliness and for Other Purposes (1975) This Decree provides rules and penalties covering sanitation of residences, commercial and industrial establishments, institutions and their immediate premises.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 552
The Decree prescribes sanitation requirements for the operation of establishments and facilities catering to the traveling public.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3931
Pollution Control Law (1976) This Act penalizes the throwing, running, draining, or disposition into Philippine waters and/or atmospheric air any matter or substance in gaseous or liquid form that shall cause the pollution of such waters or atmospheric air.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 67
Water Code This PD revives and consolidates laws governing the ownership, appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development conservation and protection of water resources.

◗ COMMONWEALTH ACT 383
Water Pollution This Act provides punishment for the dumping of refuse or substances of any kind that may cause the rising or filling of river beds or the blockage of streams.

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CHAPTER

3

POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS

CHAPTER
❙ LGU AWARENESS OF EXISTING POLICIES

POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS

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◗ LOW LEVEL OF AWARENESS OR KNOWLEDGE OF LGUS OF RA 9003 AND DAO 2001-34 (IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS)
To effectively implement and enforce RA 9003, LGU officials need to know or be familiar with the law’s provisions and IRR. Unfortunately, this is presently not the case. Many LGU officials and even LGU staff, who are directly responsible for solid waste management, remain unfamiliar with their responsibilities because of insufficient or inadequate information dissemination. Specific provisions of RA 9003 that are not commonly known by LGUs comprise the following: Establishment of Solid Waste Management Boards. RA 9003 requires LGUs to perform this initial act. The boards need to be constituted within six months from the effectivity date of the IRR. Although the IRR took effect in January 2002, LGUs had only until July 2002 to create the boards. While there are a number of LGUs that have actually established their respective boards, they comprise only a small percentage and are often first- and second-class LGUs. Creation of the Barangay Solid Waste Management Committee. RA 9003 provides that segregation and collection of solid waste shall be conducted at the barangay level, specifically for biodegradable and reusable waste. The said law also provides for the establishment of a materials recovery facility (MRF) in every barangay or cluster of barangays. For these reasons, a Barangay Solid Waste Management Committee is to be created.

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❙ POLICY ISSUES
◗ THERE ARE PROVISIONS IN THE LAW THAT DO NOT APPLY TO MANY LGUs
An example would be the establishment of the Solid Waste Management Boards, with the prescribed membership. RA 9003 provides that the Solid Waste Management Boards at the provincial, city, and municipal levels shall include the following, among others, as members: A representative from NGOs whose principal purpose is to promote recycling and the protection of air and water quality A representative from the recycling industry A representative from the manufacturing or packaging industry The reality is that no such NGOs, recycling, manufacturing, or packaging industries exist within the jurisdiction of some LGUs. Given this situation, questions arise regarding the composition of the board. In particular, can these boards be established even without these representatives? RA 9003 and its IRR are silent on this matter.

◗ THERE ARE PROVISIONS IN THE LAW THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO COMPLY WITH WITHIN THE GIVEN TIMEFRAME
The law provides an insufficient period for the closure of controlled dumps. RA 9003 provides that within three (3) years after the law takes effect, every LGU shall convert its open dumps into controlled dumps, and that no controlled dumps shall be allowed five years after the said effectivity (Section 37). Note that RA 9003 took effect in year 2001. Therefore, in accordance with the said provision, all open dumps should have been converted to controlled dumps by the year 2004. Furthermore, by the year 2006, even controlled dumps shall be prohibited and these will be replaced by sanitary landfills. Due to the technical and financial requirements of these measures, many LGUs believe they will be unable to comply with the law.

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◗ THERE ARE GAPS IN THE LAW THAT COULD POSE SERIOUS PROBLEMS TO LGUs AND COMMUNITIES.
RA 9003 requires a post-closure procedure for closed dumpsites and sanitary landfills, but there is no prohibition on their potential use. Some LGUs are already planning to develop their closed dumpsites into parks and aviaries. However, the biodegradable waste in these dumpsites will generate methane gas for 30 to 50 years after closure. Methane gas, in small quantities (i.e., 5% of air) is explosive and could be dangerous. There will also be significant differential settlement of the landfill cap. Consequently, in countries such as Canada and the United States, a closed landfill site cannot be used for 30 years after closure.

❙ LGU SWM PLANS AND ORDINANCES
◗ MANY LGUs POSSESS LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT.
Current solid waste management services being delivered by most LGUs are mainly the “collect and dispose”type of system. That is, waste is collected from waste generators such as households and businesses and disposed at disposal sites, which, more often than not, are open dumps. LGUs are largely unaware of the concept of integrated SWM— its scope and the range of options they can consider.

◗ MANY OF THE LGUs’ SWM-RELATED ORDINANCES ARE PIECEMEAL AND GENERALLY NOT ENFORCED.
Most, if not all, LGUs have existing ordinances that deal with solid waste. Examples of these are antilittering and anti-dumping ordinances. In most cases, these ordinances deal with a single concern. They do not address the solid waste management concerns of LGUs in an integrated manner mainly

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because these ordinances are formulated without an overall framework for the management of solid waste. Worse, these ordinances are seldom strictly enforced, primarily due to the lack of enforcers and funds.

◗ MANY OF THE EXISTING LGU ORDINANCES ARE STILL INCONSISTENT WITH RA 9003
LGUs are required under the IRR (Rule XIX, Section 4) to legislate appropriate ordinances to aid them in the implementation of their plans. A basic requirement for these ordinances, therefore, is that they should be consistent and in accordance with the provisions of RA 9003. Since RA 9003 came into effect only in 2000 and the IRR was issued only in January 2002, many LGUs have yet to review their existing ordinances and legislations.

❙ FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS
◗ INSUFFICIENCY OF FUNDS TO IMPLEMENT AND ENFORCE RA 9003
Most LGUs allocate minimal budgets for solid waste management services, except perhaps for the highly urbanized LGUs. Thus, LGUs are unable to hire the necessary personnel, acquire and maintain equipment, maintain disposal sites, or even contract out solid waste management services to private contractors. Consequently, LGUs are unable to provide the necessary and appropriate solid waste management services. RA 9003 requires LGUs to undertake the following: (a) Establish a Solid Waste Management Board (b) Formulate and/or develop a solid waste management plan (c) Implement the plan

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(d) Establish a materials recovery facility in every barangay or cluster of barangays (e) Convert open dumps to controlled dumps and subsequently close controlled dumps (f ) Establish acceptable waste disposal facilities such as sanitary landfills All these measures require funds. While some of these procedures may require small amounts, others entail disbursements of big amounts by LGUs as required, for instance, by MRFs or sanitary landfills. Most LGUs lack the skills and expertise in generating or sourcing funds to undertake the above actions.

◗ LGUs VIEW SWM AS A COST CENTER
Many LGUs think that solid waste management services are a cost center that will take away resources that could be used in other endeavors or projects. This perspective dampens their enthusiasm in delivering SWM services. Only a few LGUs have realized that SWM can, in fact, be an economic venture or enterprise as some have begun to earn revenue from delivering these services. (Section 47 of RA 9003 and Rule 17 of its IRR authorize LGUs to collect solid waste management fees.) To address the financial aspect of implementing SWM activities, LGUs can tap private enterprises to help set up and fund specific activities, as illustrated by the municipality of Midsayap, Cotabato and the cities of Silang in Cavite and Makati. LGUs can also see to it that there is strict compliance with the law—they can slap erring establishments and residents with penalties, as did the province of Bulacan and the city of Puerto Princesa in Palawan. The money collected from penalties can then be used to fund other SWM projects.

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❙ TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES
◗ LGUs’ INADEQUATE TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES
A number of the requirements of RA 9003 require a certain degree of technical expertise or knowledge, such as the preparation and development of solid waste management plans, and the setting up of materials recovery facilities and sanitary landfills. Sadly, most LGUs are not technically equipped to undertake such activities and lack the information on sources of technical assistance. One noteworthy example for LGUs is the experience of Sta. Maria, Bulacan. The town forged a partnership with NGOs and private enterprises to set up a waste management scheme. To address technical capability problems of the town, the group tapped the expertise of the Department of Science and Technology.

◗ SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES ARE ASSIGNED TO MULTIPLE LGU UNITS, OFTEN ON AN AD HOC BASIS
Most LGUs lack a single office in charge of solid waste management services. Often several departments such as Engineering, General Services, and Municipal Planning and Development are involved. This affects the effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery of solid waste management services for several reasons: (a) The principal or main function of each office is not the delivery of solid waste management services. Each office has its own principal function and priorities, and the delivery of solid waste management services is regarded as a secondary or added activity. (b) The delivery of the services depends on not just one, but also several offices. Thus, if one office fails to perform or has different priorities, the entire operation is affected. (c) The coordination of activities among the different offices becomes a problem. (d) When questions of responsibility and accountability arise, finger pointing commonly occurs.

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❙ COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
◗ SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IS MISTAKENLY PERCEIVED AS A FREE SERVICE UNDER THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LGU.
Communities and businesses maintain this perception, which is reinforced by the belief that electing officials and paying taxes makes the problem of solid waste the sole concern of LGUs. Unfortunately, this attitude affects the effectiveness and efficiency of SWM. However, communities need to realize that: (a) solid waste is a concern of all; (b) they have important and necessary functions and responsibilities in solid waste management; and (c) they have to pay for the service. Social preparation should thus be an important element of an SWM plan. LGUs might find the information, education and communications activities of Bustos, Bulacan; Manila; Passi City, Iloilo; Guimaras Province; Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental; and Sibulan, Negros Oriental helpful in addressing the issue of community involvement in solid waste management. These activities are briefly discussed in the next section, “Good Practices in Solid Waste Management.”

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER

T

his chapter is divided into two parts. The first part presents examples of good practices in solid waste management in the Philippines. The second part provides examples of good practices done in other countries, particularly in Asia and the United States. These good practices can inspire and motivate LGUs, as well as business establishments, in preparing their own solid waste management programs.

4

In both parts, examples of good practices are given for the various aspects of solid waste management, such as social preparedness and public awareness, networking activities for fundraising, and technological solutions to the problem (e.g., recycling plants and composting). The sources of these good practices as well as contact information people responsible for these programs are also supplied in this chapter.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Social Preparation and Networking THE BUSTOS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program, launched in 1993, has two major components: social preparation and actual implementation. An extensive information and education campaign on proper waste disposal and management prepared the community for the different waste management activities. These activities included the following: (1) construction of compost pits; (2) construction of storage bins for recyclable wastes; (3) maintaining cleanliness in yards and streets; (4) planting vegetables, trees, and flowers in gardens; and (5) motivating other residents to join the movement. The municipality received the 1997-1998 Galing Pook Award for its “Community Mobilization for Zero Waste Management Program,” as one of the Top 10 Outstanding Programs.
Source: “The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Bustos, Bulacan Tel. No. (044) 766-2176

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Social Preparation and Networking THE DALAW KALINISAN PROGRAM
The Dalaw Kalinisan Program is an outreach type of information and education campaign on solid waste management. It seeks to bring information to different generators through visits, fora, seminars, and training. “Dalaw” targets are schools, subdivisions, barangays, people’s organizations, institutions, and big business establishments.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Passi City, Iloilo Tel. No. (033) 311-5087 Acting CENRO City Agriculture Office Passi City, Iloilo Tel. No. (033) 311-5686

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Social Preparation and Networking MANILA ECOLOGICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT
The Ecological Waste Management Project of Manila was modeled after the Santa Maria, Bulacan experience. It was designed and implemented by a partnership of organized hawkers and vendors in cooperation with the government and the private sector. The project’s major feature is its strong emphasis on training and community participation. Unilever Philippines initiated the project when it became concerned about the clogging up of the Paca Canal that runs through its facility. A study on the origin of the waste conducted by a university-based NGO showed that 40 percent of the waste clogging the canal came from the local market, another 40 percent from local low income and squatter communities, and the rest from uncontrolled dumping upstream.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Manila City Tel. (02) 527-4920 Telefax (02) 527-4991 City Planning and Development Office Manila City Tel. No. (02) 5274931/0980 OIC Department Services Manila City Tel. No. (02) 5279636/9638

The problem was compounded by an unreliable waste collection system and the lack of sanitary infrastructure in the city. Community meetings were held, which included the Hawkers Associations, the Vendors cooperative, the LGU, Unilever, and the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). To be effective, meetings were organized in all areas of work and residence, and many concerned individuals attended. As a result, initial drafts on improved local environmental management were formulated. Subsequently, a waste collectors’ cooperative was established; local waste collection and segregation was organized. Today, non-biodegradable materials are sold for recycling. Organic materials are being composted and sold as soil conditioner. Members of the cooperative, which number over 1,000, will own the composting plant currently being set up.
Source: http:/www.unilever.com.ph/env-external.asp

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Social Preparation and Networking GUIMARAS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT
In 1997, the provincial government of Guimaras developed a project that Contact Information would integrate all solid waste management initiatives on the island by Office of the Governor involving the communities and business sector. The project is an innovation Guimaras Province in three ways. First, it integrated the planning and implementation aspects of solid waste management for the island. While an integrated approach to planning already existed, integrated implementation was an innovation. Second, the project showed an unprecedented partnership between government and business. And third, this was the first time that an initiative proactively addressed a concern before it became unmanageable.Project participants have gained an appreciation for the value of teamwork. Participants have said that with teamwork, they could now effectively deal with pertinent concerns, which they could not address if working independently. Besides gaining knowledge on waste management, participants have also learned the power of participation and partnership on matters that affect their lives. Finally, community groups and provincial businesses have used their newly acquired knowledge by starting small-scale community recycling and composting projects that yield income.
Source: “Creating a Clean Environment: Engaging Communities in Waste Management Project (downloaded from the Internet).”

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Social Preparation and Networking METRO DUMAGUETE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The cluster of Dumaguete City, Bacong, Sibulan, and Valencia decided to work towards an inter-LGU solid waste management program. The cluster aimed to: (1) develop, through citizen collaboration, an effective and workable waste management program; (2) identify and implement strategic “doable” actions that LGUs and citizens can immediately undertake while long-range investments were being arranged; and (3) promote an inter-LGU sharing of resources and capabilities under the sponsorship of the Metro Dumaguete Development Council.

Contact Information Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program Secretariat City Planning and Development Office Dumaguete City Tel. No. (035) 225-0386

A coordinating office for solid waste management was created and an Action Officer was appointed to oversee the implementation of the program.
Source: “The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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Social Preparation and Networking SIBULAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

In 1996, Sibulan joined the other towns that make up Metro Dumaguete (Bacong, Valencia, and Dumaguete City) in a series of “sharing workshops” that eventually gave birth to the Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program. Following the suggestions generated from the workshops, Sibulan formed its Municipal Action Team (MAT) and Integrated Solid Waste Management Program.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Sibulan, Negros Oriental Tel. No. (035) 225-0386 Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Mgt. Secretariat Municipal Planning and Development Office Dumaguete City Tel. No. (035) 225-0386

The program is integrated in the sense that it is geared toward enhancing and complementing other municipal projects like sanitation and health. The information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns of the education team made people aware of their role in an integrated approach to solving the garbage problem. The program enabled barangay leaders to take up the crusade against trash. The MAT set the stage for key program actors by preparing training modules for market vendors, teachers, and households.
Source: “The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility THE OPLAN DALUS TASK FORCE
The Oplan Dalus Task Force, through the Laoag City Agriculturist Office, required all farming barangays to set up their respective composting facilities. Composting is hastened by the application of trichoderma, a compost fungus activator produced at the Trichoderma Laboratory, City Agriculturist Office. The benefits of composting include the production of organic fertilizer for the use of farmers, protection of soil from excessive application of chemical fertilizers, and reduction of waste.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002.

Contact Information Project Manager Oplan Dalus Task Force Laoag, Ilocos Norte Tel. No. (077) 773-1767 City Agriculturist Office Laoag , Ilocos Norte Tel. No. (077) 772-0954 Action Officer Oplan Dalus Task Force Laoag, Ilocos Norte Tel. No. (077) 773-1992

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility MARILAO ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEM
The municipality of Marilao produces organic fertilizer by adapting and Contact Information improving the basic technology used in the Ecological Resource Recovery Office of the Mayor System of Sta. Maria, Bulacan. Trucks collect biodegradable waste on Marilao, Bulacan separate days from the non-biodegradable materials. DOST provides the Tel. No. (044) 711-3142 technology for producing a composting activator called trichoderma, which eliminates foul odors and hastens the decay of biodegradable wastes. The mayor has also identified a point person responsible for managing the composting facility.
Sources: “The Marilao Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999 “Helping Citizens Earn from Solid Waste.” Local Governance Technical Notes 4-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility STA. MARIA ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEM
The LGU forged partnerships to work out a viable waste management scheme for the town with a nongovernment organization, the Sta. Maria Economic Foundation, and a private enterprise, the Associated Waste Administration and Recycling Enterprise (AWARE). Later, the partners invited the Department of Science and Technology to provide technical support for the project. The LGUs waste processing and recycling plant processes biodegradable materials from public market waste into organic fertilizer. The sale of organic fertilizers and recyclable materials provides funds for the plant’s operations.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Sta. Maria, Bulacan Tel Nos. (044) 641-0000 Fax: (+6344) 641-0000 Email: stamaria@mozcom.com

The municipality received the 1995-1996 Galing Pook Award for their “Ecological Waste Management Program,” as one of the Top 10 Outstanding Programs.
Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No. 98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility SAN FERNANDO CITY COMPOSTING CENTER
The local government of the city of San Fernando, Pampanga established a composting center for processing waste from the slaughterhouse and two public markets in the city. Manure from the slaughterhouse is used to enhance the decomposition of biodegradable wastes. Trichoderma spp. is also used as fungus activator for rapid composting.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002.

Contact Information City Agriculturist Action Officer City Solid Waste Management Board San Fernando City, Pampanga Tel. No. (072) 961-4054 Officer-in-Charge Composting Center Del Pilar San Fernando City, Pampanga Tel. No. (072) 961-5577

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility BALIK INANG KALIKASAN, BALIK AMANG PABRIKA (BIKBAP) PROGRAM
After the closure of the Carmona landfill, the LGU took bold steps to address its worsening garbage problem and came up with the Balik Inang Kalikasan, Balik Amang Pabrika (BIKBAP) Program. At present, the SWM system is implemented in 10 out of 14 barangays in Carmona. Activities of the BIKBAP

Contact Information Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Officer Rm. 208, J.M. Loyola St., Carmona, Cavite Tel. No. (046) 430-3004 Fax No. (046) 430-1001

Massive educational campaign through barangay seminars, house-tohouse campaigns, eco-tours, slogan-making contests, etc. Organization of a BIKBAP Volunteers’ Group from different NGOs, religious groups, and other institutions. These volunteers actively participate in all EWM activities. Enforcement of the Comprehensive Ecological Solid Waste Management ordinance. The Sangguniang Bayan has enacted a municipal ordinance imposing penalties on those violating solid waste management ordinances. Half of the fine is an incentive, which goes to the person who apprehended the violator, while the other half goes to the local treasury. Operation of the Carmona Ecology Center, a waste processing facility using a low-cost, low-technology and modular system to produce high-quality compost from biodegradable waste. Enforcement of sorting biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes at source, regular collection of sorted waste, recovery and selling of recyclable waste to junkshops and recycling factories. Creation of livelihood projects based on recycling such as paper crafts and other indigenous materials.

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The Carmona Ecology Center (CEC) The Carmona Ecology Center (CEC) houses a composting area that processes biodegradable waste collected from all the 14 barangays of the municipality. It is equipped with four units of two-tonner composters and a shredder. Manned by four “ecoboys,” the CEC receives about 3,000 kilograms of materials for composting daily. The composting process takes approximately two to three weeks. The CEC uses Happy Soil to hasten composting. Coconut shreddings are added to control the moisture and minimize lycheate. The harvested organic compost is given to local farmers and sold to the public.As an offshoot of the CEC, an organic demo farm has been set up by the LGU and managed by the local Agriculturist’s Office. This farm uses the compost produced in the CEC and the produce is sold in the Carmona public market.The CEC has become a major learning site in Cavite. Various LGUs from different parts of the country, nongovernment organizations, private institutions, and individuals have visited the center for a series of eco and lakbay-aral field trips. The LGU of Carmona, showcasing the operation of the center, has also hosted international and local trainings.
Sources: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002. Guinto, Ma. Bella A.. Paper presented during the August 6, 2002 RTD.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility DASMARIÑAS ECOLOGY CENTER
The Dasmariñas Ecology Center is a public-NGO-community partnership started in February 2001. The Citizen’s Brigade of Dasmariñas (CBD) spearheaded project, by making use of LGU resources. The Ecology Center houses a composting facility with two units of two-tonner rotating drums, a shredder, vegetable presser, and redemption center for recyclables.

Contact Information Citizen’s Brigade of Dasmariñas Dasmariñas, Cavite Tel. No. (046) 416-4457

CBD’s counterpart covers the use of the site and the infrastructure costs, as well as food allowance for the center’s three full-time workers. The LGU counterpart includes the equipment, salaries, operating and maintenance costs of the center. The pedicabs used for waste collection were donated by the LGU, the Homeowners’Association of the subdivisions, and the barangay.
Source: CBD Brochure, April 2002

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility SILANG WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Started in 1997, the Silang Waste Management Program is a public-private collaboration between an NGO, the Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc. (IDEAS, Inc.), a people’s organization, the Silang Zero Waste Action Team (SZWAT) and the local government of Silang. The program provides for the segregated collection of solid waste in the poblacion’s barangays and the public market. The local government manages the residual facility, the PO helps in information dissemination among community members, while the NGO manages a materials recovery facility where biodegradables are composted and recyclables are stored. Composting is done in a fermenting tank with a capacity to hold 100 cubic meters of biodegradables.
Source: Silang Waste Management Program brochure, April 2002

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Silang, Cavite Tel. No. (046) 4140202/414-0201 Executive Director IDEAS, Inc. 3/F CI Main Building 192 J. Rizal St., Silang, Cavite Telefax: (046) 414-0297 E-mail: ideas@philwebinc.com

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility LIPA CITY SIPAGLAKAS PROGRAM
The Sipaglakas Program of Lipa City evolved from mere street sweeping and cleaning the public market to household-level waste segregation, barangay-level waste collection, and dumpsite management improvement. The city established an inter-agency working committee on sanitation and environment protection system as the body responsible for program management. Surprise visits to participating barangays and monthly meetings by recycling movement groups of barangays ensure compliance with the program. Lipa City collects substantial fees and demands strict enforcement of its program. By achieving modest successes in collection efficiency, Lipa City has demonstrated that discipline can be inculcated and reinforced among the city’s residents.
Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No. 98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Lipa City, Batangas Tel No. (043) 561-1453

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility BRGY.TUNASAN ECO-CENTER
The establishment of Eco-Centers is a community-based project set up by the Muntinlupa City Eco-Waste Management Board in 1999. It minimizes waste through segregation, recycling and composting. The “3-in-1” EcoCenter inside Sto. Niño Village in Barangay Tunasan features not only a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) but also a livelihood component (paper crafts and composting).
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management,2002

Contact Information Chairman Committee on Health and Sanitation Muntinlupa City Telefax (02) 543-0759 ECO-CENTER Sto. Niño Village, Brgy. Tunasan, Muntinlupa City Tel. No. (02) 773-4914

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility CALOOCAN CITY MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY
Caloocan City’s Materials Recovery Facility was launched by ECOSERVE in cooperation with the Environmental Sanitation Services. The facility, located in Barangay 171 District 1 shows how segregation, composting, and recycling of waste can be done on a large scale.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Caloocan City, Metro Manila Tel. No. (02) 364-9852

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility VALENCIA, NEGROS ORIENTAL
The municipal government organized and trained barangay trainers on livelihood opportunities in waste recycling. The Municipal Engineer’s office held initial discussions on establishing a materials recovery center and setting collection systems and schedules for recyclable materials.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Valencia, Negros Oriental Tel. No. (035) 225-4875

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility BUTUAN CITY BARANGAY-BASED MRF
Contact Information Barangay Captain Brgy. J. P. Rizal, Butuan City Tel. No. (085) 342-3205 Environment and Natural Resources Office c/o CARBDP Building, Doongan, Butuan City Tel. No. (085) 225-2671

Butuan City has a pilot project for a barangay-based MRF in Barangay J.P. Rizal. The project aims to minimize waste and generate income with the planned installation of five MRFs. Income from the sale of recycled materials is used by the barangay in road repair and maintenance, urban greening, street lighting, and incentives for Eco-aides.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility ZAMBOANGA CITY MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY
In compliance with RA 9003, the city government of Zamboanga established three MRFs to cover communities within a seven-kilometer radius. These MRFs include facilities for segregation of non-biodegradables and composting of biodegradables.

The composting center at the Sta. Cruz market, which handles about 10 metric tons of biodegradables a day, is equipped with a conveyor system, composter drums, hammermills/shredder/decorticator, rotary screeners, and mechanized baggers. Forty-four contract workers do the unloading, segregation, and processing of compost in the center.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002

Contact Information Department Head City General Services Office Zamboanga City Tel. No. (082) 991-3221 Telefax (082) 991-3095

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Garbage Collection OLONGAPO CITY INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM
Launched in 1989, the distinctive features of the Integrated Solid Waste Collection System are the required use of prescribed plastic bags for collection, the use of public address systems atop garbage trucks to air a program jingle, strict collection schedules, and the billing and payment of garbage fees together with electricity charges. The Waste Management System operates on garbage fee collections; in fact, it has been generating a surplus from its operations. Olongapo City’s waste management system is self-financing and is thus, sustainable.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Olongapo City Tel. No. (047) 222-2565 Environmental Sanitation and Management Office Olongapo City Tel. No. (047) 223-4528/ 224-9346 Fax No. (047) 222-4777

A social pricing system was adopted for the service fees: charges were based on the ability to pay so that businesses, professionals, and other higherincome groups paid more than ordinary residents. Garbage fee collection was kept simple by synchronizing billing and collection with the electricity bill. Citation tickets were issued if premises were unclean. The city received the “Award of Excellence, National Winner for the Cleanest and Greenest LGU” (city category) in 1997 and the “Galing Pook” Award in 1994 for its waste management program.
Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No. 98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Garbage Collection MARIKINA CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT OFFICE

Contact Information The Waste Management Office (WMO) administers the solid waste collection Waste Management and disposal operations in the city. The city has at present 18 compactor and Office eight dump trucks. These trucks collect garbage from 14 barangays on a Marikina City regular twice and week schedule. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable Tel No. (02) 948-1205 wastes are separately collected by compactor trucks. The waste is then transported to a garbage transfer station where large dump trucks wait to transport the garbage to the sanitary landfill site presently situated in San Mateo, Rizal. The use of a garbage transfer station enables Marikina to boast of a garbage collection efficiency of 98 percent. The operation of a garbage transfer station substantially reduced the breakdown of equipment and increased the number of trips of garbage compactors, resulting in reduced costs of garbage collection. The city’s initiatives on waste management, earned Marikina the championship in the “Search for the Cleanest and Greenest Municipality in the National and Capital Region”in 1994, 1995, and 1996, and thus placing it in the Hall of Fame for the same contest. Apart from this recognition, the city also placed second in the search for the “Cleanest and Greenest Municipality in the whole Philippines."
Source: Marikina City’s website ( www.marikina.com.ph )

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Garbage Collection CRUZADA LABAN SA BASURA
The City ENRO was able to collect and dispose garbage efficiently by modifying schedules and rerouting all garbage trucks. This move resulted in reduced fuel costs and avoidance of traffic congestion because collection in the main streets was done at night up to early morning.Naga City launched the “Cruzada Laban sa Basura” campaign and inaugurated a Materials Recovery Center and Composting Area in Barangay Bagumbayan Sur. This campaign is in line with the program to protect the environment through an effective and sustainable garbage disposal program. The city entered into a joint venture agreement with a private company for the processing of biodegradable waste into organic fertilizer.

Contact Information Chairman Commission on Environment and Ecology Sangguniang Panlunsod Naga City Tel. (054) 473-2051 / 1898 Telefax: (054) 811-1286 City ENRO Naga City Tel: (054) 473-1479/0775

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.Waste Matters Vol. 1 No. 1 (November 2001): 4. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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Garbage Collection AMLAN WASTE SEGREGATION
The municipality of Amlan started implementing waste segregation at source in 1999. It seemed impossible at first because of resistance from the residents but the implementors encouraged them to adopt the scheme. After two years, 60 percent of the residents in three pilot barangays began practicing segregation at source. To support segregation at source, collection and disposal of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste are done separately.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Municipal Planning & Development Coordinator Municipality of Amlan, Negros Oriental Telefax (035) 417-0034

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Garbage Collection GENERAL SANTOS GARBAGE COLLECTION
Strategies for improving garbage collection in General Santos included modifying routes and reducing the crew to a maximum of three, excluding the driver. The new procedures on garbage collection also reduced waste collection trips (from six trips to two or three a day). This improvement was complemented by simultaneous campaigns for segregation and recycling. The city government also improved the management of the dumpsite while preparing a new landfill.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Tel No. (083) 553-5042 Solid Waste Management Council General Santos City Tel No. (083) 553-5042

Source: “Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Enforcement SINOP-KALAT, LUNTIANG KAPALIGIRAN
The provincial government of Bulacan launched “Sinop-Kalat, Luntiang Kapaligiran,” one of its environmental management initiatives. By virtue of Provincial Ordinance 98-03, provincial grounds and all lands owned by the provincial government were declared green zones. The ordinance penalizes littering with fines and/or imprisonment.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Department Head Provincial ENRO PENRO, Province of Bulacan Tel. No. (044) 791-6365/ 791-0209 loc. 110

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Enforcement OPLAN LINIS PROGRAM
The Oplan Linis Program was set up to promote among its citizens a sense of urgency, concern, and responsibility for the cleanliness of the community. The program all its citizens in program monitoring and evaluation, and involves volunteers in various components. Anti-littering ordinances were enacted with sanctions for violations. Enforcement efforts are truly serious—even the mayor and a visiting senator were fined. The city has repeatedly been adjudged the “Cleanest and Greenest Components City in the Philippines.

Contact Information Oplan Linis Project Manager New City Hall, Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan Tel. No. (048) 433-2028/ 433-2249

”Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No. 98-06. . Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Enforcement LANAO DEL NORTE INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The Integrated Solid Waste Management Program of the province aims to reduce and minimize its garbage problem. Through a series of workshops and consultations, the framework on SWM was widely adopted in three coastal municipalities. The implementation of the program has met standards in terms of waste generation, collection, and disposal. Ordinances in the municipal levels have been passed and adopted. Continuing campaigns on waste segregation efforts have been sustained, especially among market vendors and other groups.
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Office of the Provincial Governor Province of Lanao del Norte Tel. No. (063) 341-524 Fax No. (063) 341-5345 ENR Officer Province of Lanao del Norte Tel. No. (063) 341-5925

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Enforcement OPERATION PULOT BASURA
Kibawe observes strict implementation of an anti-littering policy, cleanliness Contact Information program, and the proper collection and disposal of domestic waste and garbage. Office of the Mayor Locals have made “Operation Pulot Basura” a way of life. The municipal Kibawe, Bukidnon government, for its part, has installed sanitary rest rooms and has started to privatize comfort rooms located in public places. It has been a consistent regional winner/finalist and national finalist in the “Search for the Cleanest and Greenest LGU in the Philippines.”

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Enforcement KIAMBA SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
Waste appraisal was a major factor in shaping the integrated solid waste management program of the local government. Previously perceived as a purely government action, solid waste management of Kiamba has now become a concern for all. Citizen’s participation helped the local government make waste receptacles user-friendly, clarify pick-up points for solid waste, and challenge the lack of enforcement of pertinent legislation. The municipality’s proactive approach also sustained the participation and support of the private sector through payment of a polluters and garbage collection fee from each household and business establishment.

Contact Information Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office Kiamba, Sarangani

Source: “Appraising the Nature of Solid Waste in the Locality.” Local Governance Technical Notes 2-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Improving Dumpsite Operations with Limited Budget.” Local Governance Technical Notes 7-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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Enforcement LINAMON INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE
In 1999, the Integrated Solid Waste Management Task Force was formed in Contact Information Linamon to seek solutions to their garbage problem. By virtue of Special Order Office of the Mayor No. 02-25 Series of 1999, issued by the municipal mayor, the Order enhanced Tel No. (063) 227-0221 multisectoral people’s participation in law enforcement of the integrated solid waste management ordinance, market code, and the municipal revenue code. Enforcers were chosen from the ranks of nominees submitted by NGOs, market vendor associations, inland and coastal barangay captains, good organizations, and the business sector. Enforcers were made to attend a workshop before being deployed as teams to specific areas within the municipality (i.e., market places, jeepney terminals, commercial areas). PNP officers detailed in these areas served as backup to the teams in implementing SWM ordinances. Linamon’s “Basura Atras, Linamon Abante Program”basically follows the 5 Es of solid waste management: Education – It took years and an aggressive information, education and communication campaign (IEC) for the LGU to mobilize its constituents. One measure in place is the integration of a three-hour Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) orientation into the pre-marriage counseling seminar in barangays. All households are given a complete list of penalties and fees imposed for every type of SWM violation. Billboards were also put up in strategic locations. Engineering – One example is the non-placement of garbage cans along highways. Instead, these are put in public places.

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Enforcement – About 140 enforcers have now been deputized. For instance, households that do not have compost pits are fined and their domestic garbage are not collected until they have constructed their own compost pits. Equity – The LGU has allocated P1.2 M for the implementation of the program.Environmental organization – The LGU has created a Municipal Environment and Sanitation Office to manage its SWM program.
Source: “The Linamon Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project. October 1999. Presentation of Mayor Cherlito Macas during the Aug. 6 RTD.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Disposal Facilities SAN FERNANDO CITY SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The City of San Fernando improved its solid waste facility while simultaneously promoting simple waste segregation among its citizens to ensure widespread acceptability. A seven-hectare land was transformed from a dumpsite to a covered garbage disposal in 1998. It is expected to provide the city with a sanitary landfill for the next 15 years. The present site has been recommended because there are few residents nearby; the ground is clayish (and will thus minimize the contamination of the groundwater and the aquifer caused by leachate); and it is far from geologic faults, airports, and natural and historic areas. The city has to maintain its ongoing clean and green program. The greening program is planned not only for parks and other green areas but also for the city’s major thoroughfares. A program to educate the community and thus facilitate its active participation is also planned. The city provides information and technical assistance on waste reduction through reuse and recycling, and composting opportunities.
Source: Official website of the City of San Fernando, La Union (www.sflu.com) The San Fernando City Solid Waste Management Program: “Practices That Work.” October 1999.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor San Fernando, La Union Tel. Nos. (072) 252-5601/ 242-5605 Fax Nos. (072) 888-2003/ 242-3931

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Disposal Facilities ODIONGAN DUMPSITE
A four-hectare controlled dumpsite in Odiongan, Romblon is serving eight poblacion barangays that generate 80 cubic meters of waste a day. The controlled dumpsite includes a leachate collection system and uses natural clay as liner. The Odiongan’s Ecological Waste Management Program also includes the setting up of a composting facility and a redemption center for recyclables.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Odiongan, Romblon

Source: Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2001): 7. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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Disposal Facilities BROOKE’S POINT DUMPSITE
The open dumpsite of Brooke’s Point was converted into a controlled dumpsite in 1999 with the help of the GOLD Project. After waste is delivered, a bulldozer regularly pushes and covers the trash with a thin layer of soil or rice hull and then compacts it. A green buffer strip was installed and is being maintained jointly by the local government and the families engaged in waste recovery. The area was fenced off and scavengers are not allowed to live in it. Squatters on some portions of the land within the dumpsite were even asked to move out.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Brooke’s Point, Palawan Environmentally Sustainable Development Office Brooke’s Point, Palawan Tel. No. (048) 423-1141 to 43

Source: “The Brooke’s Point Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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Disposal Facilities LINGUNAN CONTROLLED DUMPSITE
The 15-hectare Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite in Valenzuela City was opened in 1998. Since then, the city’s Solid Waste Management Office has integrated several innovations in its management—using carbonized rice hulls as cover, spraying the site with deodorizer and insecticide whenever necessary, regularly cleaning trucks, maintaining a nursery for greening the controlled dump and the city, reducing waste in every barangay, and monitoring illegal dumping activities.
Source: Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1, (November 2001): 7. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines., Makati.

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Tel. No. (02) 2921311/0211 Fax (02) 292-93-49 Planning and Development Coordinator Valenzuela City, Telefax (02) 293-4592 Solid Waste Management Office Valenzuela City Tel. No. 294-4856

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Disposal Facilities DUMAGUETE CITY DUMPSITE
The city government worked with various civic groups to improve the dumpsite by converting it into a controlled dumping facility with a park and nursery. An integrated solid waste management ordinance was enforced, resulting in the establishment of composting and barangay materials recovery centers, waste segregation and recycling at household and residential subdivision levels, improved waste collection routes, and imposition of more realistic collection fees. This integrated solid waste management program won a Galing Pook award in 1999-2000. In compliance with RA 9003, the existing dumpsite is scheduled for closure. The plan is to close the open dumpsite and convert the whole area into an ecological park once an alternative disposal site has been established. At present, the existing dumpsite is undergoing surface rehabilitation. An aviary was constructed in the site through the Environment and Natural Resources Council (ENRC), the city government, and other non-government agencies, with ornamental plants and trees planted in the aviary’s surroundings. (With reports from the office of Engr. Josephine M. Antonio of the Dumaguete City Government.)

Contact Information Office of the Mayor Dumaguete City Tel. No. (035) 422-6336/ 420-1274 City Planning and Development Office Dumaguete City Tel. (035) 225-0386 Environment and Natural Resources Management Division Provincial Capitol Tel. No. (035) 225-1601 ENRO Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental Tel.No. (035) 422-6336/ 420-1274

Source: “Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD), Project 1999 Duran, Elvira D. On Pollution:http://mozcom.com/~mels/2/pollution.htm

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS Private And NGO-Initiated Programs AMADO DIAZ DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (ADDEF)
An organic fertilizer processing plant in Midsayap, Cotabato was jointly undertaken by the ADDEF and Likas-Kayang Kaunlaran Foundation, with technical and financial assistance from the Foundation for Sustainable Society, Inc. and the Philippine Business for Social Progress. Waste materials came from the slaughterhouse, coconut farmers in the barangays of Midsayap, vegetable and peanut vendors in the market, banana cue vendors, banana cracker producers, and restaurants. Organic fertilizer was produced after shredding and mixing the different materials. The project aims to improve on the environmental, health, and economic dimensions of development.

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs AYALA FOUNDATION/ MAKATI COMMERCIAL ESTATES ASSOCIATION
The commercial and residential establishments in the Central Business District of Makati set up compartmentalized garbage depositories and receptacles to ensure waste segregation at source, a basic requirement of the Solid Waste Management Program being implemented by the Makati Commercial Estates Association (MaCEA).The condo-residential donor beneficiary scheme of Ayala Foundation organized people’s organizations to collect recyclable materials. Households are encouraged to segregate at home. Recyclable materials are collected from residential areas and business establishments and sold to junk shops. Materials such as paper and glass bottles are sold to recycling plants of paper mills and bottling companies.
Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 3-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

Contact Information Makati Commercial Estates Association

Mini-Park, Legazpi Village, Makati Tel. No. (02) 813-2446/ 810-3054
Center for Social Development

Ayala Foundation, Inc. 3/F Garden Square Building, Greenbelt Drive cor. Legazpi St., Makati Tel. No. (02) 8945620/92-4141

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs CENTER FOR ECOZOIC LIVING AND LEARNING (CELL)
The Center sits on a 1.2-hectare farm in Silang, Cavite. Started in July 1999, Contact Information the Zero Waste Program began as a simple segregation of biodegradables CELL and non-biodegradables. Biodegradables were recycled in the farm and nonBarrio Malaking Tatyaw, biodegradables were either sent to the junk shop or given to the garbage Silang, Cavite truck. But after the Payatas garbage slide tragedy in July 2000, CELL adopted Tel. No. (046) 8651140 the “Basura Ko, Pananagutan Ko”principle. Since then, it has achieved and maintained its goal of 100 percent solid waste diversion. At present, 70 percent of its discards are recycled or reused in the farm, 20 percent are recycled outside the farm, while 10 percent are kept in the central warehouse, its final disposal facility for items with still unclear recycling value.
Source: CELL Brochure, April 2002.

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs METRO MANILA LINIS GANDA, INC.
Linis Ganda Project was initiated by Ms. Leonarda Camacho of the Women’s Contact Information Balikatan Movement in Metro Manila. The Balikatan Movement organized President scavengers into teams of “eco-aides” to collect recyclable materials from 123 Domingo St., Cubao, households. At present, there are thousands of eco-aides under the supervision Quezon City of more than 800 junkshop owners. Each junkshop received green-painted Tel. No. (02) 725-7232 pushcarts or bicycles with sidecars, green T-shirts for the eco-aides and ID cards for both the junkshop owner and the eco-aides. Eco-aides are provided a daily capital to allow them to purchase recyclable materials and earn P100 to P300 a day as compensation.
Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 31999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs PHILIPPINE RECYCLERS, INC. (PRI)
Philippine Recyclers, Inc. operates a recycling plant in Marilao, Bulacan that can recover lead metal and plastic from spent batteries. Its “BalikBaterya” Program offers fund-raising opportunities to organizations or communities that set up collection stations from where PRI can pick up and buy junk batteries.
Source: Phil. Recyclers, Inc. brochure

Contact Information Balik-Baterya Hotline Tel. Nos. (044) 7112236/711-2262

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs UP AKKAP CENTER FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
The entry of the University of the Philippines AKKAP Center for Solid Waste Management into paper recycling is both a positive and timely initiative, given that paper constitutes a large percentage of academic, commercial, and residential waste in UP Diliman. AKKAP, through its livelihood program, has employed five out-of-school youths since 1998 with collection routes in select establishments within the university.

Contact Information AKKAP Center for Solid Waste Management Balagtas St. cor. Laurel St. Area 2, UP Diliman, Quezon City

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs ZKK FOUNDATION
ZKK Foundation started with the Dagat-Dagatan Polymedic Foundation’s Contact Information Zero Kalat sa Kaunlaran Project, which encouraged households to segregate President their waste. It organized community volunteers to collect waste daily with Tel No. (02) 285-3278 the use of pushcarts. Biodegradable waste is shredded and composted. Compost is used in vegetable gardens and nurseries that are part of the project. Reusable and recyclable waste is stored in the redemption center where junk dealers buy them. A cooperative was organized to operate the redemption center and oversee livelihood activities such as papermaking and crafts. To address a booming demand for recovered recyclable materials, ZKK has set up other recovery centers in Taytay (Rizal), Novaliches (Quezon City), and San Jose del Monte in Bulacan.
Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 31999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999 Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2001): 4. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Residential Programs ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
In fiscal year 1996, Ann Arbor (pop. 112,000) achieved a 52 percent recovery rate of residential waste through curbside recycling, yard trimmings collection and composting, and the state’s bottle return law. Recycle Ann Arbor (RAA), a non-profit organization, runs the city’s recycling program. City crews provide yard trimmings collection and composting services. RAA picks up 23 different recyclable materials weekly on the same day the city collects trash. RAA also runs a drop-off station. City crews collect curbside grass, leaves and brush, which have been banned from the landfill, April 1 through November as well as collecting Christmas trees in January. The city-owned compost site generates $40,000 or PhP2,120,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per year from the sale of compost and mulch. Closing the loop, the Ann Arbor has adopted policies to encourage the use and purchase of recycled content products.

Contact Information Recycling Coordinator City of Ann Arbor 100 N. Fifth Ave. Ann Arbor, MI 48107 (313) 994-6581 Solidwaste Department http://www.ci.annarbor.mi.us/framed/solw ste/index.html Recycle Ann Arbor E-Mail: info@recycleannarbor.org Web site: www.recycleannarbor.org

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Residential Programs BELCHERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS
Belchertown (pop. 2,339) does not provide curbside collection services for either trash or recyclables. Residents who choose to participate are required to purchase a permit to use the town’s transfer station and recycling center. The town has a pay-as-you-throw system for trash disposal. Residents must pay a per-bag fee for trash disposal and a per item fee for special items such as tires and appliances. Source separated recyclables can be left at the transfer station. Materials collected include mixed paper; cardboard; glass bottles and jars; milk, juice, and drink cartons; steel and aluminum cans; aluminum trays and foil; and #1, #2, and #3 plastic bottles. The town also provides chipping of brush at the transfer station and a composting area for leaves. Belchertown’s reported 1996 waste reduction was 63 percent.

Contact Information Director of Public Works Town of Belchertown 290 Jackson Street Belchertown, MA 01007 Tel (413) 323-0415 Fax (413) 323-0470 Department of Public Works http://www.belchertown .org/departments/dpw/d pwhome.htm Solid Waste/Transfer Station and Recycling Center http://www.belchertown .org/departments/Select men/solid_waste_transfe r_station_and.htm

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Residential Programs BELLEVUE, WASHINGTON
Bellevue (pop. 104,000) instituted recycling in 1989. The following year the city restructured trash fees to provide an incentive to lower disposal levels. Residents have responded to the incentive programs so that in 1996, 62 percent of served households subscribed to the trash service of one 30gallon-can or less of trash per week. Bellevue residents recovered 60 percent of their discards through recycling and composting in 1996 (26 percent through recycling and 34 percent through composting). A contractor provides trash, recycling, and composting services. Residents receive weekly curbside collection of recyclable materials and year-round collection of yard debris.

Contact Information Solid Waste Program Administrator Resource Management & Technology Utilities Department City of Bellevue 301 116th Avenue Southeast, Suite 320 P.O. Box 90012 Bellevue, WA 98009-9012 Tel (425) 452-6964 Fax (425) 452-7116 Utilities Department http://www.ci.bellevue.w a.us/page.asp?view=1057

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Residential Programs BERGEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
Bergen County (pop. 845,189) consists of 70 small, heavily populated municipalities in northeastern New Jersey. The area is largely suburban and home to many individuals who commute to New York City. Each community in Bergen County administers its own waste management program. The Bergen County Utilities Authority provides technical assistance, educational programs, financial assistance, and promotional materials to support the communities with their efforts. Areas of assistance include backyard composting, vermicomposting, waste reduction, household hazardous waste collection, marketing assistance, and business waste audits. Bergen County’s reported municipal solid waste recycling/composting rate for 1995, the most recent year for which data are available, was 62 percent.

Contact Information Recycling Program Manager Bergen County Utilities Authority Department of Solid Waste Planning and Development P.O. Box 9 Foot of Mehrhof Road Little Ferry, New Jersey 07643 Tel (201) 641-2552 x5822 Fax (201) 641-3509

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Residential Programs BLUEWATER RECYCLING ASSOCIATION, ONTARIO
The Bluewater Recycling Association is a non-profit organization serving Contact Information more than 125,000 people in some 60 municipalities in Southwestern Ontario. Director The Association offers several services to its members including an expanded Bluewater Recycling blue box curbside recycling program, backyard composter sales and Association troubleshooting support, educational curriculum, household hazardous P.O. Box 547 Huron Park, waste days, promotional materials, processing at its 43,000 square feet Ontario N0M 1Y0 material recovery facility, and the latest co-collection program serving 19 (519) 228-6678 communities. The co-collection program uses a three-compartment vehicle http://www.bra.org designed by the Association where waste is kept separate from paper fibers and mixed containers. The Association has achieved a diversion rate of as high as 73.8 percent in some of its 28 communities on “user pay.”

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Residential Programs BOWDOINHAM, MAINE
In 1996, Bowdoinham (pop. 2,192) recovered 62 percent of its municipal solid Contact Information waste. Recycling participation is voluntary but a volume-based fee is Solid Waste Manager charged for waste disposal. Trash disposed at the Bowdoinham landfill PO Box 85 dropped by 50 percent in the first six months after introducing the volumeBowdoinham, ME 04008 based fees in 1989. Bowdoinham introduced municipally contracted curbside (207) 666-3228 http://www.bowdoinha recycling and trash collection in 1994. Material for recycling is also collected m.com/recycling.htm at the town’s drop-off center. Materials accepted include food discards, newspaper, cardboard, magazines, glass, aluminum and ferrous cans, and all plastic resins. An area of the recycling center is also used to display reusable materials, such as furniture, books, and clothing, available free to residents. Leaves, grass clippings, wood waste, and brush are collected free of charge at the town landfill.

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Residential Programs CHATHAM, NEW JERSEY
Chatham (pop. 8,289) residents achieved a 65 percent recovery rate in 1996. Chatham charges a base rate of $75 or PhP3,975 (at $1.00: PhP53) per household per year for solid waste and recycling services. The borough imposes an additional charge of $1.45 or PhP76.85 (at $1.00: PhP53) for a 30gallon bag or $0.75 or PhP39.75 (at $1.00: PhP53) for a 15-gallon bag for trash collection. The change to a per-bag charge was a hard sell for town officials but the program has worked well. The Chatham recycling program accepts a wide range of materials including cereal boxes, paper juice and milk cartons, metal clothing hangers, aerosol cans, and mixed paper. Leaves, brush, and other yard debris are diverted through composting and account for 66 percent of the material Chatham residents divert.

Contact Information Administrator/Clerk Borough of Chatham 54 Fairmount Avenue Chatham, NJ 07928 (201) 635-0674 x108 Public Works Department http://www.chathamnj.com/

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Residential Programs CLIFTON, NEW JERSEY
Through Clifton’s mandatory recycling programs for residents and businesses, Contact Information the city (pop. 71,742) diverted from disposal 56 percent of its municipal solid Recycling Coordinator waste in 1996. Residents are offered curbside collection of old newspapers, City of Clifton magazines, mixed paper, glass, aluminum cans, and steel cans once every Department of Public three weeks. Residents must segregate and place each type of material in Works 307 East 7th a separate container at the curb. Even glass is sorted by color. This method StreetClifton, NJ 07011 allows Clifton to deliver materials directly to market without having to pay Tel (201) 470-2237 an intermediate processor. Clifton’s drop-off recycling center accepts Fax (201) 340-7049 additional materials such as cardboard, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, and Recycling Guide aluminum plates and trays. Grass clippings, leaves, brush, and other yard and http://www.cliftononline garden debris are collected seasonally by the curbside and account for 32 .com percent of total materials recovery. Businesses are required to recycle and are provided technical assistance by the recycling coordinator. Small businesses are eligible to receive city trash and recycling services, but large businesses privately contract.

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Residential Programs CROCKETT, TEXAS
Prior to 1992, Crockett contracted with a private company to collect and Contact Information dispose of all waste generated in the city. No materials were recovered for Solid Waste Director recycling or composting. The city took over trash management in 1992 in the City of Crockett belief that it could provide trash, recycling, and composting services at a lower 200 North Fifth cost than it had been paying for trash collection and disposal. In 1996, Crockett, TX 75835 Tel (409) 544-5156 Crockett recycled 20 percent and composted 32 percent of its residential waste Fax (409) 544-4976 stream. Crockett’s mandatory, weekly curbside recycling and composting Texas Commission on programs and the use of clear bags for trash, composting, and recycling Environmental Quality have contributed to the city’s high diversion level. Through a local ordinance, http://163.234.20.106/in dex.html Crockett requires all residents to recycle 22 categories of materials and collect four others for composting. All residents have weekly, year-round collection service for recyclables and yard debris. The use of clear bags allows city staff to readily identify trash that contains recyclables and improperly prepared materials for recovery. City staff do not collect improperly segregated materials.

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Residential Programs DOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE
Dover (pop. 27,000) did not offer any recycling program to its residents until 1990 when it opened a drop-off recycling center. The next year it started curbside recycling and a month later a pay-as-you-throw system for trash collection. Before the beginning of these programs, Dover’s residents disposed approximately 11,000 tons of solid waste. In 1996, only 4,500 tons of residential waste was disposed. This strictly voluntary recycling program and the pay-as-you-throw trash system resulted in the town’s residents recycling 52 percent of their residential solid waste in 1996. Dover residents are offered the opportunity to recycle mixed paper, HDPE, PET, glass beverage containers, corrugated cardboard, used motor oil, tires, batteries, aluminum and steel cans, and aseptic packaging. Leaves, clean wood, and yard trimmings are collected for composting at Dover’s drop-off recycling station.

Contact Information Recycling Coordinator Solid Waste and Recycling Division City of Dover 288 Central Avenue Dover, NH 03820 Tel (603) 743-6073 Fax (603) 743-6096 Talking Trash In Dover: Community Services Department http://www.ci.dover.nh.u s/community/Environme ntal/talking.htm

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Residential Programs FALLS CHURCH, VIRGINIA
In 1996, Falls Church (pop. 9,845) recycled 65 percent of its residential waste through its curbside and drop-off programs, both of which are voluntary. The city provides collection of magazines, catalogs, corrugated cardboard, newspaper, phone books, glass, cans, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, brush, leaves, other yard trimmings, and appliances. Each fall, approximately 2,000 tons of leaves are collected curbside, processed into mulch, and delivered back to citizens upon request, free of charge. In 1996, Falls Church diverted 31 percent of its residential waste through its leaf program. The city’s 100 volunteer recycling block captains deliver a quarterly newsletter to residents.

Contact Information Coordinator Recycling and Litter Prevention City of Falls Church Department of Public Works Harry E. Wells Building 300 Park Avenue Falls Church, VA 22046-3332 Tel (703) 241-5176 Fax (703) 241-5184 Northern Virginia Regional Commission Northern Virginia Waste Management Board http://www.novaregion.org /waste.htm

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Residential Programs FITCHBURG, WISCONSIN
Fitchburg (pop. 15,648) borders Madison to the north and contains both rural farmland and urban areas. Its mandatory recycling program, the first in Wisconsin, began in 1988 and has evolved into a program that is both cost-effective and efficient. Fitchburg’s waste management program includes volume-based trash collection fees (begun in 1994), weekly collection of recyclables, monthly collection of reusable items, subsidized sales of home compost bins, and yard trimmings drop-off. In 1996, the city diverted 50 percent of its residential solid waste—29 percent through recycling, and 21 percent through composting.

Contact Information Project Manager Public Works Department, City of Fitchburg 2377 S. Fish Hatchery Road Madison, WI 53711 Tel (608) 275-7141 Fax (608) 275-7154 Solid Waste and Recycling Program http://www.city.fitchburg. wi.us/SolidWaste/sw&r.htm

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Residential Programs LEBANON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA
With 13 curbside collection programs and seven drop-off centers in its 26 municipalities, Lebanon County (pop. 116,789) recycled 51 percent of its solid waste in 1995. The county accepts newspaper; corrugated cardboard; aluminum and bimetal cans; glass; plastic milk, soda, and detergent bottles; phone books; magazines; office paper; metals; car batteries; tires; and yard trimmings. In 1995, the county recycled over 43,000 tons of material. Of the 13 municipalities with curbside collection, five have mandatory recycling while eight have voluntary programs. County officials credit its high recovery rate to waste haulers’cooperation in picking up recyclables on their routes, voluntary recycling coordinators in each community, and public and private organizations and citizens who have all enthusiastically embraced recycling.

Contact Information Lebanon County Recycling Coordinator Greater Lebanon Refuse Authority 1610 Russell Road Lebanon, PA 17046 Tel (717) 867-5790, ext. 307 Fax (717) 867-5798 Greater Lebanon Refuse Authority http://www.dep.state.pa.us /dep/deputate/enved/go_ with_inspector/landfill/Gre ater_Lebanon_Refuse_Aut hority.htm

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Residential Programs LEVERETT, MASSACHUSETTS
Leverett, a rural town (pop. 1,965) in western Massachusetts, has achieved Contact Information a 56 percent recovery rate through reuse, recycling, composting, and Recycling Coordinator deposit container redemption. Recycling is mandatory; residents bring Town of Leverett Town Hall their recyclables to a local drop-off station. Among the materials accepted Leverett, MA 01054 for recycling and composting are: aluminum cans, steel cans, glass containers, Tel (413) 367-9683 Fax (413) 367-9683 mixed paper, paperboard, textiles, auto and button batteries, plastics, scrap metal, waste oil, tires, paint, egg crates, leaves, and other yard debris. Leverett has an active swap shop, called “Take it or Leave it,” where residents can leave and/or take reusable items such as books, clothes, and bed frames. Residents pay a flat fee for recycling and a per-bag fee for trash pick-up. The town sells home composters and reports that almost everyone composts on their own. Leverett’s total solid waste management budget has decreased as a result of its waste reduction programs. The total waste stream has also decreased.

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Residential Programs LOVELAND, COLORADO
In 1996, Loveland residents (pop. 46,940) diverted 56 percent of their residential solid waste from the landfill. Loveland offers residential curbside recycling coupled with a volume-based rate for trash disposal. April through November, the community collects yard trimmings from residents for a nominal fee. Since the initiation of these programs, per household waste generation has dropped and much of the material is now captured for recycling and composting. In 1996, per household disposal levels were less than half of the 1989 levels. The city’s waste diversion program, carried out through dual-collection of recyclables and trash, saves it more than $100,000 or PhP5,300,000 (at $1.00: PhP53) per year in avoided capital and operating costs.

Contact Information Solid Waste Superintendent City of Loveland Solid Waste Division 500 E. Third Street Loveland, CO 80537 Tel (970) 962-2609 Fax (970) 663-8047 Recycling/Trash Services http://www.ci.loveland.co .us/PublicWorks/SolidWas te/SolidWasteMain.htm

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Residential Programs MADISON, WISCONSIN
The curbside recycling program in Madison (pop. 200,814) collects glass, metal cans, #1 and #2 plastics, glossy magazines, newspapers, corrugated cardboard, brush, leaves, large items such as tires and white goods, and phone books. Residents pay a flat fee for waste management, except for appliance pick-up for which residents must purchase a sticker. In 1996, the city recovered 49 percent of its residential waste (32.6 percent through composting and 16.6 percent through recycling). In 1992, the city began a home composting program and distributed composting bins to residents at no charge. Since then, the city has sold almost 5,000 bins to residents at, or below, cost. The city’s goal is to have one-third of residents in single-family homes composting their food discards.

Contact Information Recycling Coordinator City of Madison 1501 W. Badger Road Madison, WI 53705-1423 Tel (608) 226-4681 City Environmental Initiatives http://www.ci.madison.w i.us/Environment/default .htm

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Residential Programs MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
In 1995, Morris County (1995 pop. est. 444,990) surpassed New Jersey’s statewide recycling goal of 60 percent, by recycling 63 percent of its total solid waste. Morris County mandates 15 materials to be source separated and recycled by the residential, commercial, and institutional sectors. The list of materials includes mixed paper, yard debris, tires, batteries, white goods and stumps, in addition to the “traditional” recyclables. The county offers a curbside recycling collection program to municipalities for a cost of $0.85 or PhP45.05 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per household per pick-up. Small businesses pay $5.00 or PhP265 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per pick-up for “back door” Morris County Municipal service. Currently 12 of 39 municipalities and approximately 70 small Utilities Authority businesses in the county subscribe to these services. Morris County also http://www.mcmua.com/s operates a recycling consolidation center for materials. This center accepts olidwaste source-separated materials from municipalities, recycling collectors, and small businesses and processes the material for market. Most municipalities operate both a curbside recycling program and their own drop-off site. Drop-off is free. Four times each year, the county sponsors Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Days and collects items such as paints, pesticides, antifreeze, and asbestos. The county promotes a “Cut It and Leave It” program for grass clippings and backyard composting for other vegetative waste. Many of its municipalities likewise promote these programs and, as a result, some are eliminating curbside collection of yard debris.
Contact Information Recycling Specialist Municipal Utilities Authority County of Morris P.O. Box 370 Morris Plains, NJ 07945-0370 Tel (973) 285-8392 Fax (973) 285-8397

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Residential Programs NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, ONTARIO
In April 1996, Northumberland County (pop. 75,000) implemented a wet/dry curbside collection program in its 15 municipalities. Collection costs have been cut in half and the county is diverting more material. The county uses 10 split dual-collection compactors. The trucks keep bags of wet discards separated from bags of dry discards. Currently the dry waste is sorted at a materials recovery facility (MRF), while the wet waste is landfilled. Plans are in the works to also process the wet waste for composting. About 43 percent of the residential waste stream arrives at the MRF as dry waste. Of this, 80 percent is captured and recycled. Four municipalities have implemented variable rates for discard collection. About 57 percent of their residential waste is coming in as wet waste.

Contact Information Director Northumberland County Waste Management 860 William Street Cobourg, Ontario K9A 3A9 Tel (905) 372-3329 Fax (905) 372-1696 Waste Services http://www.northumberl and.ca/cgibin/Colours/colourChang e.cgi?category=7&level=2 &subcat=1000208&positi on=1000213

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Residential Programs PASSAIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
According to preliminary 1996 data, Passaic County (pop. 453,060) met its 60 percent recycling goal for overall solid waste. The county documented recycling 48 percent of its municipal solid waste in 1995. Aside from mandatory recycling, key elements of Passaic County’s waste reduction success include an information packet about source reduction and recycling distributed to new county residents, a yard debris program which encourages composting and the use of mulching mowers, and the implementation of “Wiser Ways,” a program aimed at reducing waste at the source by encouraging citizens to make environmentally sound decisions. According to 1995 data, Passaic County residents each recycled almost a ton of material (1,893 pounds) on average.

Contact Information Solid Waste Programs Coordinator Passaic County Planning Board Office of Recycling and Solid Waste Programs 1310 Route 23 NorthWayne, NJ 07470 Tel (201) 305-5738 Fax (201) 305-5737 Office of Recycling and Solid Waste Programs http://www.pcnjwaste.com

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Residential Programs PEPIN COUNTY, WISCONSIN
Pepin County (1996 pop. est. 7,180) is a remote sparsely populated rural county in the Big Woods of Western Wisconsin. The county’s recycling success has depended largely on source separation and proper preparation and handling of solid waste by citizens. The county’s residents achieved 53 percent residential waste diversion in 1996. The county operates drop-off sites, curbside pick-up of recyclables in its three incorporated communities, and a weekly mobile collection station in Albany township, located 20 miles from the nearest permanent drop-off site. Materials collected for recycling by Pepin County residents are corrugated cardboard, appliances, motor oil, Kraft paper, chipboard, glass bottles and jars, #1 and #2 plastics, aluminum and steel containers, newspapers, and scrap metal. Yard and garden debris are also composted. The cost of collection, hauling, and processing of recyclables was $49/ton in 1995, compared to $96/ton for collection, hauling, and disposal of the remainder of the waste stream.

Contact Information Coordinator Pepin County Recycling and Solid Waste PO Box 39740 7th Avenue West Durand, WI 54736 Tel (715) 672-5709 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources – Waste Management Program http://www.dnr.state.wi. us/org/aw/wm

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Residential Programs PORTLAND, OREGON
Portland (pop. 497,600) revamped its trash collection service in 1992 to respond to public demand and state requirements for increased recycling. Volume-based trash rates, weekly curbside collection of a wide variety of materials, a bottle bill, yard debris recovery, and mandatory commercial recycling resulted in a total municipal solid waste recovery rate of 50 percent in 1996. Private companies franchised to serve areas of the city offer waste management services to Portland residents. According to Portland Environmental Services, the residential disposal rate of 1,468 pounds of solid waste per household is the lowest among large American cities.

Contact Information Solid Waste & Recycling Specialist City of Portland Environmental Services 1120 S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 400 Portland, OR 97204-1972 Tel (503) 823-5545 Fax (503) 823-4562 Bureau of Environmental Services http://www.cleanriverspdx.org/index.htm

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Residential Programs SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA
In its fiscal year 1996, San Jose (pop. 849,363) diverted 43 percent of its municipal solid waste from disposal: 45 percent of its residential waste stream and 41 percent of its commercial/ institutional waste stream. The diversion level for single-family households was 55 percent. The city contracts with two private companies (the Green Team of San Jose and Western/USA Waste) to provide residential trash and recycling services on a weekly basis to 186,000 single-family dwellings and 79,000 multi-family dwellings. Single-family households pay volume-based rates for trash service. Two other contractors collect yard trimmings once a week on the same day as trash and recycling pick-up. In all, the city collects more than 24 different categories of materials for recycling and composting. The city encourages waste reduction in the commercial/institutional sector by assessing fees on trash collection but not on recycling or composting collection. This provides a direct economic incentive for businesses to recycle and reduce their solid waste.

Contact Information Program Manager City of San Jose Environmental Services Department Integrated Waste Management Program 777 N. First Street, Suite 450 San Jose, Californa 95112-6311 Tel (408) 277-5533 fax (408) 277-3669 Environmental Services http://www.sjrecycles.org

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Residential Programs SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA
Recycling is mandatory for both residents and businesses in Sarasota County (pop. 301,528). The current recovery rate is 43 percent; 50 percent in the commercial sector and 38 percent in the residential sector. Successful recycling in Sarasota County’s commercial sector has been achieved through aggressive education campaigns aimed at local businesses. Businesses must contract independently for trash and recycling collection services; the county programs serve residences only. The county has offered on-site waste assessments, technical advice, workshops, presentations, training, awards programs, and other educational information to encourage commercial sector recycling. As a last resort, the county’s Code Enforcement has the authority to make sure that businesses comply with the mandatory recycling program.

Contact Information Recycling Manager Sarasota County Solid Waste Department 1660 Ringling Boulevard Fourth Floor Sarasota, FL 34236 Tel (941) 364-4663 Fax (941) 364-4377 http://www.co.sarasota.fl .us/solid--waste/

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Residential Programs SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Seattle (pop. 534,700) was a pioneer in charging variable rates for trash Contact Information disposal, with the city’s program implemented in 1981. The city continues Solid Waste Utility to lead in waste diversion and has provided its residents with a convenient 710 Second Avenue #505 recycling system and a financial incentive to encourage its use. City Seattle, WA 98104 contractors provide residential curbside recycling and yard trimmings Tel (206) 684-7808 Fax (206) 684-8529 collection (by subscription). Seattle’s multi-family recycling program serves 60 percent of households in this sector. Businesses contract privately for their Seattle Public Utilities trash and recycling services. Businesses and residents can also choose to selfhttp://www.cityofseattle. haul trash, recyclables, and yard trimmings to city-owned transfer stations. net/util Seattle set a goal of recovering 60 percent of its municipal solid waste stream by 1998 as an alternative to building an incinerator. No other large US city has centered its waste management approach on material recovery, rejecting traditional disposal facilities in its long-term planning. In 1996, waste diversion levels in Seattle were 47 percent in the residential sector, 49 percent in the commercial sector, and 17 percent of self-haul materials. The city’s total waste diversion level was 44 percent.

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Residential Programs VISALIA, CALIFORNIA
Visalia (pop. 91,792) began its first pilot route in 1991 to test the feasibility of implementing an automated dual-collection of residential trash and recyclables. This pilot was completed in 1992. Citywide implementation of the dual collection program started on 1994 and was completed in April 1996. The city formed a public/private partnership with the Heil truck company to study equipment configurations and improve service productivity. At the same time, the city also implemented separate curbside yard trimmings collection. In the few years since the program began, Visalia’s residential diversion rate has climbed to 50 percent. Visalia staff attribute their success to their aggressive public education program and the partnership with Heil that allowed them to determine equipment needs before making large equipment purchases.

Contact Information City of Visalia Solid Waste Fleet Services 366 North Ben Maddox Way Visalia, CA 93292 Tel (209) 738-3569 Fax (209) 738-3576 Public Works Department Household Hazardous Waste Collection http://www.ci.visalia.ca.us

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Residential Programs WEST LINN, OREGON
In 1996 West Linn (pop. 16,557) recovered 52 percent of its municipal solid waste. Residents can recycle in the city’s curbside collection program, or they can bring materials to the city’s recycling center. The city collects newspaper, cardboard, glass, plastics, tin, aluminum, milk cartons, office paper, and magazines. Yard trimmings are accepted at the drop-off center and collected curbside.

Contact Information West Linn Department of Public Works 4100 Norfolk Street P.O. Box 4 SWest Linn, OR 97068 Tel (503) 656-6081 Fax (503) 657-3237 Department of Public Works Environmental Services http://www.ci.westlinn.or.us/PublicWorks/ht mls/Environmentalperce nt20Servicespercent20te rtiary1.htm

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Residential Programs WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS
Worcester’s curbside recycling program began in November 1993 along with a pay-as-you-throw system for the collection of trash. Materials collected for recycling include newspapers and inserts, mixed paper, corrugated cardboard, paperboard, milk and juice cartons, drink boxes, glass bottles and jars, beverage cans, food cans, aluminum trays, and all plastic bottles, jars, tubs, and microwave trays/containers. The city also offers a drop-off site for yard debris and leaves, which are then composted. Although the program has only been in effect a short time, Worcester (pop. 165,387) achieved 54 percent diversion of residential solid waste in 1996.

Contact Information Assistant to the Commissioner Department of Public Works 20 E. Worcester Street, Worcester, MA 01604 Tel (508) 799-1430 Fax (508) 799-1448 Department of Public Works Recycling and Disposal http://www.ci.wellesley. ma.us/dpw/rdf.html

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Multi-Family Residential LEISURE WORLD RETIREMENT COMMUNITYLAGUNA HILLS, CA
Leisure World is a retirement community of 18,000 residents. The residents Contact Information of this community recycle newspaper, glass, and aluminum. The Leisure World management runs a green waste composting operation and construction PO Box 2220 debris and metals recycling programs. They have also changed landscaping Laguna Hills, CA 92654 Tel (714) 597-4652 techniques to reduce the amount of green waste produced. As a result of these programs, Leisure World diverts more than 50 percent of their waste. They have saved nearly $249,000 or PhP13,197,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in tipping fees and received revenues of $343,000 or PhP18,179,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) for recyclable materials.

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Multi-Family Residential VILLAGE APARTMENTS, SAN ANSELMO, CA
The recycling in this apartment complex is not the result of the installation of expensive recycling equipment but rather the result of an education program about the environmental and financial benefits of recycling. Recovered items are donated to a thrift store, food bank, dry cleaner, farmers’ market, and packaging store. Resulting waste sent to a disposal facility has been reduced by 65 percent (by volume).

Contact Information Village Apartments 36 Ross Ave. #9 San Anselmo, CA 94960 Tel (415) 459-6370

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Retail Shopping Complexes DUFFERIN MALL, TORONTO, ONTARIO
The Dufferin Mall recycling program began in 1992. Corrugated cardboard, glass, cans, newspaper, fine paper, polystyrene, and coat hangers are collected through 64 common area receptacles and specially designed containers in the Food Court. Each store in the mall also has a blue box. Preconsumer food discards are collected from the loading dock of the Food Court restaurants and are composted. The Mall is diverting 42 percent of the waste it generates.

Contact Information Dufferin Mall Toronto, Ontario Tel (416) 532-1152

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Retail Shopping Complexes PLAZA CAMINO REAL, CARLSBAD, CA
The Plaza Camino Real started recycling in 1993. Currently its recycling program captures cardboard, mixed paper, cans, bottles, green waste, construction metals, fixtures, food discards, and plastics. This 1.12 million square feet enclosed shopping center, with five major department stores and 150 specialty shops, has decreased waste by more than 60 percent and saves more than $42,000 or PhP2,226,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in hauling and tipping fees annually.

Contact Information Plaza Camino Real l2525 El Camino Real, Suite 100 Carlsbad, CA 92008 TEl (619) 729-6183 Fax: (760) 729-0497 Email: plazacaminoreal@westfi eld.com

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Office Buildings THE GREEN WORKPLACE MANAGEMENT BOARD SECRETARIAT, TORONTO, ONTARIO
The “Green Workplace” program was introduced to Ontario government offices in 1991. This program set waste reduction targets of 35 percent by 1992 and 50 percent by 1995. The new Maximum Green Program attempts to reduce waste by a further 50 percent with the introduction of the following new programs:

Contact Information The Green Workplace 900 Bay Street, Room M2-59 Toronto, Ontario M7A 1N3 Tel (416) 585-7541

a. Recyclable material is source-separated; b. Individual trash cans are removed and replaced with small, desk-top receptacles and a large centralized trash bin; c. Where possible, food discard collection is established. As of spring 1998, more than 70,000 Ontario Provincial civil servants in 760 buildings recycled approximately 4,326 tons per year. Some buildings divert 90 percent of their solid waste stream.

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Office Buildings WELLINGS & COMPANY, MENLO PARK, CA
Wellings & Company is a full-service accounting firm in Menlo Park, California. The company aggressively recycles as part of its commitment to create a better environment. Waste disposal costs are included in the building lease so Wellings reaps no direct benefit from reduced tipping fees because of recycling. The company has realized an 80 percent reduction in trash through recovery of white and colored papers, newspapers, magazines, cardboard, aluminum cans, glass, and toner cartridges. The company also works to “close the loop” through the purchase of recycled content office products.

Contact Information 770 Menlo Ave., #100 Menlo Park, CA 94025 Tel (415) 321-0622 http://www.wellingscpa. com/bio.htm Email: bruce@wellingscpa.com

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Motels / Hotels BOSTON PARK PLAZA HOTEL BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
The Hotel instituted a comprehensive environmental program in 1991. It Contact Information has recycling programs for cans, bottles, white paper, cardboard, shipping Boston Park Plaza Hotel pallets, plastics, and glass. Waste reduction efforts have included eliminating Arlington Street at Park individually packaged toiletries in guest rooms, replacing plastic disposable Plaza Boston, MA 02117 Tel (617) 457-2274 dinnerware with china, glass, and flatware in the employee dining facilities, switching to rechargeable batteries from disposables, and recycling of printer cartridges. The hotel also directs an educational program for guests, employees, and vendors to make sure that everyone is involved in waste reduction efforts.

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Motels / Hotels HIGHLANDS INN CARMEL, CALIFORNIA
The Highlands Inn and Pacific’s Edge Restaurant strives to be a green hotel. In the past year, the hotel has maintained 100 percent room waste recycling. Waste reduction is also hotel-wide in the offices and restaurant. In addition to recycling, the hotel and reduced hauling costs by chipping its landscape waste and using it, saving $4,000 or PhP212,000 (at $1.00 : PhP 53) annually.

Contact Information Highlands Inn PO Box 1700 Carmel, CA 93921 Tel (408) 624-3801

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Motels / Hotels ITT SHERATON HOTELS & RESORTS WAIKIKI, HAWAII
The ITT Sheraton Hotels and Resorts group operates the largest recycling program in the Hawaii hotel industry. The hotels recycle corrugated cardboard, paper, and glass. Food discards are either donated to charitable organizations or sent to farmers. In their resource conservation program, the hotels also buy from local producers and buy recycled materials when possible.

Contact Information Tel (808) 922-4422 http://www.sheratonwaikiki.com Email michael.troy@sheraton.com

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities AUTRY MUSEUM OF WESTERN HERITAGE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
The museum’s recycling program recovers traditionally recovered items and unique items such as trees and waste water. Trash pick-up has been reduced from five times a week to just once. The money raised from recycling is used to fund an employee recreation program.

Contact Information Autry Museum of Western Heritage 4700 Western Heritage Way Los Angeles, CA 900271462 Tel (213) 667-2000

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities DEL MAR FAIRGROUNDS DEL MAR, CALIFORNIA
The Del Mar Fairgrounds hosts more than 200 events a year including a threeContact Information week Del Mar County fair and the 49 day Del Mar Race Meet. In 1995, Del Del Mar Fairgrounds Mar Fairgrounds estimated a waste reduction rate of 86 percent. This was 2260 Jimmy Durante achieved through aggressive programs to recycle (aluminum, cardboard, Boulevard white paper, concrete/asphalt, glass, metal, mixed paper, newsprint, plastics, Del Mar, CA 92014-2216 Tel (619) 755-1161 animal bedding, wood) and compost (landscape trimmings, food discards). Fax (619) 755-7820 Source reduction activities at Del Mar include using electronic mail, refilling printer toner cartridges, using double-sided copying, and reusing shipping and storing supplies. The financial benefit of this waste reduction program was calculated to be $863,976 in avoided disposal fees and revenue from material sales.

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities SAN DIEGO WILD ANIMAL PARK SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
The San Diego Wild Animal Park works to preserve not just endangered plants and animals but also their habitats. The Park reduces the use of natural resources derived from wild areas such as trees, mined ore, and water. The Park’s staff practices wise use of office supplies, recycles containers and paper products, and composts huge amounts of organic waste. Park visitors can use recycling containers located throughout the facility. Waste disposed at landfills represents only four percent of the Park’s waste stream. This saves over $1 million or PhP53 million (at $1.00 : PhP53) in tipping and hauling fees each year.

Contact Information Buildings and Grounds Supervisor 15500 San Pasqual Valley Road Escondido, CA 92027-7017 Tel (619) 738-5054

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Government Facilities GEORGIA DIAGNOSTIC AND CLASSIFICATION CENTER JACKSON, GA
The Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Center, a 1,600-inmate facility, was chosen as a solid waste management pilot project for the Georgia Department of Corrections in 1992. The facility implemented a combination of recycling and composting to reduce the waste it sent to the landfill. The compost program combines food scraps from the prison kitchen with local yard trimmings and cardboard. The compost is then used to enhance soil at Corrections farm operations. Monthly trips to the landfill have been reduced from 13 to three; waste costs at the facility have dropped 63 percent. Because the pilot project at this facility has been so successful, the Georgia Department of Corrections has expanded the program to other correctional facilities.

Contact Information Vice President Community Environmental Management, Inc. 770 Wesley Drive, NW Atlanta, GA 30305 TEl (404) 355-8770 Fax (404) 355-8799 http://www.dcor.state.ga. us/default.html

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Government Facilities NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS
The Department of Corrections began its composting project in 1990. In 1997, 47 sites were composting 6,200 tons per year, or 90 percent of their food discards. In addition, cotton from used mattresses is used as a bulking agent in the compost. The facilities also recycle corrugated cardboard, office and computer paper, newsprint, bi-metal cans, plastic containers, and styrofoam. Participating facilities recycle, including compost, 80 percent of their solid waste.

Contact Information New York State Eastern Correctional Facility Sullivan, NY Tel (914) 647-1653 www.docs.state.ny.ushttp:// www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non -hw/reduce/food/food7.pdf

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Health Care Facilities SAINT JOSEPH MEDICAL CENTER FORT WAYNE, INDIANA
The Saint Joseph Medical Center has achieved an 80 percent reduction in waste through source reduction and recycling. The Medical Center eliminated the use of single use food service items and instituted electronic office procedures. Recycled materials include cardboard, plastics, glass, aluminum, bi-metal cans, paper, and X-ray film.

Contact Information Saint Joseph Medical Center Fort Wayne, IN Tel (616) 457-2413

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Manufacturing MAD RIVER BREWING COMPANY BLUE LAKE, CA
Mad River Brewing Company’s commitment to the principles of conservation has allowed the company to grow at an annual rate of 50 percent a year while reducing its potential solid waste production by 97 percent. The company engages in diverse reduction, reuse, remanufacture, and recycling efforts. These efforts have resulted in job production, energy savings, and reduced waste management costs.

Contact Information Mad River Brewing Company 195 Taylor Way Blue Lake, CA 95525 Tel (707) 668-5409 http://www.madriverbrewing. com

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VIRCO MANUFACTURING CORPORATION CONWAY, ARKANSAS
Eight years ago, Virco manufacturing generated 260 cubic yards of waste a day at its Conway plant. The company has reduced that to only 30 cubic yards daily, a reduction of 88 percent. Materials recovered include corrugated cardboard, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, hydraulic oil, mixed office paper, three types of plastics, foam rubber, tires, batteries, wood scraps, and newspapers. The company closes the loop by purchasing recycled content items whenever economically feasible and available. Virco also sponsors recycling programs with many area schools. In 1994 Virco won the prestigious NRC Fred Schmitt Award for Outstanding Corporate Leadership.

Contact Information Virco Manufacturing Corp. Highway 65, SouthP.O. Box 5000 Conway, AR 72032(501) 329-2901 http://www.virco.com/ Pages/set7.htm

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Wholesalers JC PENNEY CATALOG FULFILLMENT CENTER MANCHESTER, CONNECTICUT
The JC Penney Manchester Catalog Fulfillment Center, which began its recycling efforts in 1982, is currently diverting 87 percent of its potential waste. The facility recycles 13 items (eight mandated by the state: white office paper, glass and metal food containers, newspapers, scrap metal, leaves, crankcase oil, and storage batteries. Five additional items: low-density plastics, polystyrene, pallets, catalogs, and magazines.) The Center also incorporates recycling into all maintenance and construction projects, buys many recycled content supplies, and has environmental action council monitors who constantly work to maintain and upgrade the recycling program.

Contact Information JC Penney Catalogue Fulfillment Center Manchester, CT Tel (680) 647-4280

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES
Specific Waste Streams MINNESOTA POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCY, TIRE RECOVERY PROGRAM
In 1990 the state began giving grants to clean up tire piles and spur Contact Information development of markets for used tires. Since then, 14 million tires have been Website cleaned up from 320 sites. Currently, the Minnesota Pollution Control http://www.pca.state.mn. Agency estimates that 98 percent of all scrap tires generated in Minnesota us/industry/tslinks.html#tires are handled through the state’s management and recycling system. Seventy-five percent of these are used as tire-derived fuel. The remainder are processed into crumb rubber, used as fill material in road and building projects, or used in livestock and agricultural applications.

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Specific Waste Streams DEL MAR FAIRGROUNDS, DEL MAR, CALIFORNIA
In 1996 Del Mar Fairgrounds, a 375-acre site, diverted 38 tons, or approximately 75 percent of its food discards from landfill. The fairgrounds achieved this through a comprehensive waste reduction program that includes off-site composting of food discards from its annual 20-day fair (1996 attendance was over 1 million), vermin-composting of food discards from its Satellite Wagering Facility, and sending used cooking oil to a rendering company. Vendors at the fair are contractually required to participate in the waste reduction program. In 1996, Del Mar Fairgrounds realized a net savings of $17 to $23 or PhP901 to PhP1,219 per ton composted.

Contact Information Concessions Coordinator Del Mar Fairgrounds 22nd District Agricultural Association Concessions Department P.O. Box 2668 Del Mar, CA 92014 Tel (619) 792-4218 Fax (619) 792-4236 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/nonhw/reduce/food/food1.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams FLETCHER ALLEN HEALTH CARE
As part of a total waste reduction program, the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont (MCHV) Campus of Fletcher Allen Health Care delivers approximately 90 percent of its food preparation scraps and steam table leftovers, 90 tons in 1997, to an off-site composting facility. Hospital kitchen staff at the 585-bed facility prepare 4,000 meals a day for cafeteria patrons and patients. The hospital housekeeping staff’s waste team collects food discards Monday through Friday and takes them to a farm where they are windrow composted. In turn, the hospital receives organic produce at wholesale prices from the farm. A rendering company picks up used kitchen grease. Fletcher Allen also donates edible fruit and vegetables to a local food bank. As one of 6,000 hospitals in the United States, which in total produce one to two percent of the country’s solid waste, Fletcher Allen Health Care staff regard composting as part of the hospital’s mission to provide for the health of the community.

Contact Information Waste Specialist Office of Community Health Improvement c/o Fletcher Allen Health Care Community Health Improvement UHC Campus Arnold 4410 Burlington, VT 05401 Tel (802) 660-2825 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/non-hw/reduce/food/ food2.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams FROST VALLEY YMCA, CLARYVILLE, NEW YORK
In the late 1980s, as waste disposal costs steadily rose, Frost Valley sought alternatives to landfilling its waste. When a waste assessment found food to be the greatest contributor to the waste stream, Frost Valley decided to implement a composting program. This 6,000-acre residential educational and recreational facility in the Catskill Mountains now composts 100 percent of the food discards from its kitchen and dining room. From 1990—when Frost Valley began its comprehensive waste reduction program—to 1997, the facility reduced its total solid waste by 53 percent (by weight). Through food recovery, Frost Valley now realizes a net savings of $5,200 annually and provides a unique educational opportunity to thousands of visitors per year.

Contact Information Executive Director for Programs 2000 Frost Valley Road Claryville, NY 12725 Tel (914) 985-2291 Fax (914) 985-0056 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/nonhw/reduce/food/food3.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams GREEN WORKPLACE PROGRAM ONTARIO, CANADA
In 1991, the Government of Ontario created the Green Workplace Program (GWP) to facilitate waste reduction, resource conservation, and environmentally responsible purchasing in provincial facilities. As an integral part of the GWP’s waste reduction programs, composting diverted approximately 1,500 metric tons (1,650 U.S. tons) of food discards from landfills in fiscal year 1996. Seventy percent of pre- and post-consumer food discards from four correctional facilities and three government office buildings and restaurants are composted. Staff and clients from a local detention center collect food discards and bring them to an invessel composter at the Ontario Science Center. The Toronto Parks Department uses finished compost instead of buying fertilizer.

Contact Information Manager The Green Workplace Program Ontario Realty Corporation 777 Bay Street, 15th Flr. Toronto, Ontario M5G 2E5, Canada Tel (416) 585-7541 Fax (416) 585-6681 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/nonhw/reduce/food/food4.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE, VERMONT
Middlebury College (student population 2,000) has been composting since 1993. In 1996, it composted approximately 288 tons (an estimated 75 percent of the college’s total food discards) from its five dining halls and three snack bars. The college composts both pre- and post-consumer food discards as well as waxed cardboard in on-site aerated static piles. Middlebury also composts food discards from special events. In 1996, composting cost the college $42 or PhP2,226 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton, including trucking, labor, fuel, and supplies. Recycling other materials cost $145 or PhP7,685 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton; trash, $137 or PhP7,261 (at $1.00 : PhP53). As a result of its high food recovery rate, Middlebury realized a net savings of $27,000 or PhP1,431,000 (at $1.00 : PhP 53) in 1996.

Contact Information Environmental Coordinator Service Building Middlebury College Middlebury, VT 05753 Tel (802) 443-5043 Fax (802) 443-5753 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/nonhw/reduce/food/food6.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES, NEW YORK
In fiscal year 1997, inmates and staff of 47 correctional facilities in the New York Department of Correctional Services (DOCS) composted 6,200 tons, representing 90 percent of their food discards. They collect dining room leftovers and kitchen preparation scraps for windrow composting. Thirty facilities have on-site windrows; inmates in 17 facilities haul their discards to one of these 30 sites. Three facilities offer technical training in composting to inmates. DOCS uses finished compost in inmate horticulture programs and prison landscaping, and provides neighboring communities with free compost as a community service. The composting program allows DOCS to save an average of $91 or PhP4,823 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton on disposal costs. In fiscal year 1997, the 47 facilities realized a net savings of $564,200 or PhP29,902,600 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in avoided disposal costs.

Contact Information Resource Management Director NY State Department of Correctional Services Eastern Correctional Facility 601 Berne Rd.Napanoch, NY 12458 TEl (914) 647-1653 http://www.epa.gov/epaosw er/non-hw/reduce/food/ food7.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams SAN FRANCISCO PRODUCE RECYCLING PROGRAM, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
From June 1996 through August 1997, the San Francisco Produce Contact Information Recycling Program donated and composted 1,500 tons of food. As of Organics Recycling Coodinator fall 1997, over 40 businesses participated in this program, a collaborative Solid Waste Management effort among government agencies and private companies in and Program around San Francisco. The program recovers both edible and non1145 Market Street,Suite 410 San Francisco, CA 94121 edible produce discards from the San Francisco Produce Terminal and Tel (415) 554-3423 from area supermarkets. The San Francisco Food Bank collects an http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer average of 60 tons of food a month and distributes the edible food, over /non37 tons per month, to member service agencies. A local farmer takes hw/reduce/food/food8.pdf the remaining non-edible produce, which he uses as animal feed or sells to other farmers. Since August 1996, non-edible produce that the Food Bank does not collect has been windrow composted at a nearby composting facility.

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Specific Waste Streams SHOP RITE SUPERMARKETS, NEW JERSEY
Since 1995, 25 of the New Jersey Shop Rite Supermarkets have composted 80 percent, or 3,000 tons per year, of their organics discards. The stores compost floral and produce trimmings and spoils, out-of-date bakery items, old seafood, soiled paper products, food spills, and out-of-date dairy and deli products. Typically, staff in each department collect compostables in waxed corrugated cardboard boxes and put the whole box in an on-site compactor. A hauling company takes the compacted organics to a composting site where they are ground with yard trimmings and windrow composted. The nutrient-rich finished compost is screened to remove contaminants and sold to farmers, golf courses, and people involved in land reclamation. Through diversion, each store avoids $15,000$40,000 or PhP795,000 to PhP2,120,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in disposal costs per year, depending on store size and location.

Contact Information Manager Environmental Affairs Wakefern Foods Corp/Shop Rite Supermarkets 33 Northfield AvenueEdison, NJ 08818 Tel (908) 906-5083 http://www.epa.gov/epaos wer/nonhw/reduce/food/food9.pdf

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5

REFERENCES AND TOOLS

REFERENCES AND TOOLS

CHAPTER

❙ STUDY TOUR SITES

5

There are already a number of LGUs, communities, businesses, and CSOs that are successfully applying solid waste management. The Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) has suggested these study tour sites. Interested LGUs may visit these identified sites to expand their know-how.

LUZON
IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Batangas City

AREAS OF INTEREST
Garbage Recovery Program, Zero Waste Management, Garbage Recycling Project, Solid Waste Management Campaign Project Technical and Capability Building Training, Information and Education Campaign, Provision of Facilities and Equipments, Waste Collection, Sorting, Processing and Recovery, and Disposal

CONTACT/S
Executive Assistant/ Designated City ENRO Tel (043) 723-8844 Fax (043) 723-1558

Pandacan Shell Petroleum Corporation

Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation Pandacan Installation, Manila Tel (02) 563-3156

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Barangay Guadalupe Nuevo, Makati City

AREAS OF INTEREST
Recycling

CONTACT/S
SWM Officer MMDA-SIDA-Jaakko Poyry Tel (02) 882-0902 Barangay Project Coordinator Brgy. Guadalupe Nuevo, Makati City Tel: (02) 883-1771 or 72

The Twin Towers, Ayala Avenue, Makati City

Waste Segregation, Composting, Collection

Building Administrator The Makati Twin Towers Ayala Avenue, Makati City Tel (02) 813-3035 / 843-9132 Shell House Building 156 Valero St., Salcedo Vill, Makati City Tel (02) 814-6313 Building Administrator The Urdaneta Apartments Ayala Avenue cor. EDSA Tel (02) 844-5319 Building Administrator Ayala Life – FGU Center 6811 Ayala Avenue cor. EDSA Tel (02) 728-0170 /729-7040 /887-1812

The Shell House Building, Ayala, Makati City

Waste Segregation, Collection and Disposal

The Urdaneta Apartments, Makati City

Waste Segregation, Waste Collection and Disposal

Ayala Life – FGU Center, Makati City

Segregation and Systematic Waste Collection

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Forbes Park, Makati City

AREAS OF INTEREST
Composting, Segregating, Recycling and Garden Waste Management Composting

CONTACT/S
Gardener 18 Ipil Road, Barangay Forbes Park, Makati City Barangay Chairman Brgy. Sun Valley, Paranaque City Tel (02) 823-0230 Barangay Captain Ugong Hall, F. Legaspi St., Ugong Pasig Tel (046) 416-4479 Fax (046) 416-4481 Executive Director 2/F Far East Bank Building 3, Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila Tel (02) 527-4339Fax (02) 527-4186 Email spm@pacific.net.ph President Miriam College Katipunan Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City Tel (02) 920-5093/ 435-9240 loc. 348 Fax (02) 920-5093 Email eerc@psdn.org.ph

Barangay Sun Valley, Paranaque City

Brgy. Ugong, Pasig City

Waste Segregation, Recycling

Sagip Pasig Movement (SPM), Pasig City

Segregation, Composting, and Recycling

Miriam Public Education and Awareness Campaign for the Environment (PEACE)

Recycling, Segregation, and Composting

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Golden Egg Farm, Silang, Cavite

AREAS OF INTEREST
Composting of Chicken Manure

CONTACT/S
Golden Egg Farm Barangay Balubad, Silang, Cavite Mobile 0917-9770988 Cavite Aluminum Recycling Plant Barangay Orsorio, Trece Martirez City, Cavite Tel (046) 419-2287 Fax (046) 419-2307 Bureau of Plant Industry Los Baños, Laguna Provincial Health Officer Provincial Health Office Emilio Aguinaldo Memorial Hospital Trece Martires City, Cavite Tel (046) 419-0124 Municipal Mayor Rodriguez, Rizal Tel (02) 649-1187 Fax: (02) 941-6785

Cavite Aluminium Recycling, Trece Martirez City, Cavite

Recycling

Bureau of Plant Industry, Los Banos, Laguna Emilio Aguinaldo Memorial Hospital, Trece Martirez City, Cavite

Vermicomposting

Eco-Center, Recycling, Composting, Hospital Waste Management

Rodriguez, Rizal

Controlled Waste Disposal Facility

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE

AREAS OF INTEREST

CONTACT/S
Head Landfill Project Rodriguez, Rizal Tel (02) 649-1187 Fax: (02) 941-6785

Antipolo City

Controlled Waste Disposal Facility

Mayor Antipolo City Tel/Fax (02) 697-1021 Head City Environment Office Antipolo City Tel/Fax (02) 697-1021

International Rice Research Institute Clark Field, Pampanga

Recycling, Segregation, Hazardous Waste Management Sanitary Landfill

The Deputy Director IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna Field Officer Metro Clark Waste Management Corporation Clark , PampangaTel/Fax: (045)5996317/18

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Pasig-Mangahan Material Recovery Facility

AREAS OF INTEREST
Recycling, Material Recovery Facility

CONTACT/S
EVP and COO Basic Environmental Systems and Technologies 8/F Ortigas Bldg., Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City Tel (02) 633-4372 Fax (02) 633-4143 Municipal Mayor Los Banos, Laguna Tel (049) 536-0050 / 536-827-0583 Quezon City Parks Development Foundation, Inc. Quezon Memorial Circle Tel (02) 924-3395 Zero Waste Recycling Movement of the Philippines Brgy. Ugong, PasigTel 671-4071 Owner Constant Batteries Tel (02) 363-8832

Los Banos, Laguna

Collection, SWM Ordinance

Quezon City Memorial Circle

Recycling, Composting

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VISAYAS
IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Siliman University Medical Center

AREAS OF INTEREST
Waste Segregation, Barrier Precautions, Pretreatment of Wastes, Waste Collection, Transport, and Disposal Waste Collection and Disposal

CONTACT/S
ENRO 2nd Floor, City Hall, Dumaguete City Tel (035) 225-3066

Bais City

ENRO City Hall, Bais City ENRMD Capitol Area, Dumaguete City Tel (035) 422-6985 Fax (035) 225-5563

Province of Negros Oriental

Waste Management in Coastal Resource Management

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MINDANAO
IMPLEMENTOR / SITE
Misamis Oriental

AREAS OF INTEREST
Waste Segregation, Collection

CONTACT/S
Provincial Administrator Province of Misamis Oriental Tel (08822) 729-898 Fax (08822) 721-112 Program Action Officer City Health Office Dipolog City Tel (065) 212-3400 City Mayor Bislig City, Surigao del Sur Tel (086) 853-6089 City Planning and Development Coordinator Tel (086) 853-2452 Fax (086) 853-5355 Email bispaic@panabo.philcom.com.ph

Dipolog City

Sanitation and Waste Collection

Bislig City, Surigao del Sur

Schools and Offices Waste Paper Recycling

Davao City

Composting

Davao City ENRO City Administrator Tel (082) 224-2028 / 228-2029 / 2274526

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IMPLEMENTOR / SITE

AREAS OF INTEREST

CONTACT/S
Officer-In-Charge CENRO Davao City Tel (082) 227-2655 Fax (082) 225-0744

Maitum, Sarangani

Waste Segregation and Recycling Segregation, Recycling, IEC

Municipal Mayor Maitum, Sarangani Province City Mayor Garden City of Samal Island Fax (082) 227-0964 City General Services Officer GSO, IGaCoS Tel 0917-7008826 Fax (082) 227-0964

Garden City of Samal Island

Kibawe, Bukidnon

“Operation Pulot Basura”, Collection, Disposal

Municipal Mayor Kibawe, Bukidnon

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❙ REFERENCES
◗ BOOKS
Bureau of Environment. Environment Protection in Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolitan Government, March 2000. Clemente, Abel R. Zero Waste Disposal “Walang Basurang Itatapon”: Conceptual Framework on Solid Waste Management Vol. I, Series I. Ecology Learning Center for Waste Management. Manila, 1997. Development Academy of the Philippines, DENR-EMB, and SIRD. Sourcebook on Community Resource Management for Sustainable Development. April 1995. DENR-Environmental Management Bureau. Solid Waste Management for Local Governments, 2nd Edition. Manila. 1998. Haan, Hans Christian, et. al. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Involving Micro- and Small Enterprises – Guidelines for Municipal Managers. n.p. ,1998. International Environmental Technology Centre/United Nations Environment Programme (IETC/UNEP). International Source Book on Environmentally-Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management. Book 6 of Technical Publication Series. n.p. ,1996. International Environmental Technology Centre/United Nations Environment Programme (IETC/UNEP). Training Needs in Utilizing Environmental Technology Assessment (ETA) for DecisionMaking. Book 1 of Technical Publication Series. n.p., 1995. Lardinois, Inge and Christine Furedy. Source Separation of Household Waste Materials: Analysis of Case Studies from Pakistan, the Philippines, India, Brazil, Argentina and the Netherlands. Book 7 of Urban Waste Series. 1999.
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Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Environment of Sweden. A Swedish-Asian Forum on the Future of Asia’s Urban Environment. n.p. , November 2000. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Waste Management: The Swedish Experience. 1999. Pacific Consultants International. Main Report 1 (Main Report) in The Study on Solid Waste Management for Metro Manila in the Republic of the Philippines. Final Report. March 1999. Papa, Ana V. and Jose C. Papa. From Waste to Wealth: On Reducing, Recycling, Composting, Landfilling, and Other Means of Managing Garbage in Barangays. Manila: Mary Jo Publishing House, Inc., 1998. Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. Plastics & the Environment. Manila, July 2000. Solid Waste Association of North America. Compendium of Solid Waste Management Terms and Definitions. September 1991. Solid Waste Association of North America. Part 1 – Case Study on Improved Routing in Getting More or (for?) Less: Cost Cutting Collection Strategies. City of Charlotte, North Carolina. , 1998. Texas Water Commission. Municipal Solid Waste Groundwater Protection Cost Study. November 1992. US Environmental Protection Agency. An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. April 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency. Best Practices for EPA’s International Capacity-Building Programs. November 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Business Guide for Reducing Solid Waste. November 1993.

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US Environmental Protection Agency. Collection Efficiency: Strategies for Success. December 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Compost – New Applications for an Age-Old Technology. October 1997. US Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Guide for Owners/Operators. March 1993. US Environmental Protection Agency. Catalogue of Hazardous Waste Database Reports. February 1993. US Environmental Protection Agency. Disposal Tips for Home Health Care. November 1993. US Environmental Protection Agency. Does Your Business Produce Hazardous Waste? Many Small Businesses Do. January 1990. US Environmental Protection Agency. Don’t Throw Away That Food. September 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency. Full Cost Accounting for Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Handbook. September 1997. US Environmental Protection Agency. Full Cost Accounting in Action: Case Studies of Six Solid Waste Management Agencies. December 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency. Getting More for Less: Improving Collection Efficiency. November 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Management of Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Waste. September 1998.

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US Environmental Protection Agency. In Situ. Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chromium, Technical Resource Guide. October 2000. US Environmental Protection Agency. Managing Used Oil: Advice for Small Businesses. November 1996. US Environmental Protection Agency. National Source Reduction Characterization in the United States. November 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Organic Materials Management Strategies. July 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Park and Recreation Products Containing Recovered Materials. July 1996. US Environmental Protection Agency. Safer Disposal for Solid Waste: A Quick Reference Guide, 1999 Update. 1999. US Environmental Protection Agency. Safer Disposal for Solid Waste: The Federal Regulations for Landfills. March 1993. US Environmental Protection Agency. Trash and Climate Change. July 2000. US Environmental Protection Agency. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Recovery Seminar. July 1999. Van de Klundert, Arnold, et.al. Integrated Sustainable Waste Management: A Set of Five Tools for Decision-Makers (Experience from the Urban Waste Expertise Programme 1995-2001). - Nadine Dulac. The Organic Waste Flow in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. 2001. - Anne Scheinberg. Micro- and Small Enterprises in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. 2001.

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- Anne Scheinberg. Financial and Economic Issues in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. 2001. - Arnold van de Klundert and Justine Anschutz. Integrated Sustainable Waste Management – The Concept. 2001. - Maria Muller and Lane Hoffmann. Community Participation in Integrates Sustainable Waste Management. 2001. Vogler, Jon. Work From Waste: Recycling Wastes to Create Employment. Great Britain: Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd. and Oxfam, 1981. Waste Management Council of Tokyo 23 Cities. Waste and Recycling Management of Tokyo 23 Cities. January 2001. World Bank Organization. Action Plan for the Development of National Programme for Sound Management of Hospital Wastes. November 1996. World Bank Organization. Suggested Guiding Principles and Prectices for the Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes. World Bank Organization. Survey of Hospital Wastes Management in Southeast Asia Region. September 1995. World Bank. Solid Waste Ecological Enhancement Project. Sector Assessment Report. May 1998.

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◗ HANDBOOK/SOURCEBOOK/BROCHURE/PRIMER/SPECIAL REPORTS
The Canadian Construction Association. A Report on Waste Management for the Construction Industry. Canada, August 1992. Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc. Basurang Yaman: Isang Praymer. Silang, Cavite, November 1999. Integrated Solid Waste Management Sourcebook. n.p. : Associates in Rural Development – Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD), n.d. The Makati Central Business District Solid Waste Management Program. Implementing a Solid Waste Management Program in your Building. Makati, n.d. Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. How to Handle Polystyrene Plastic Waste: A polystyrene plastic waste management primer. Manila, n.d.. Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. Understanding “Styro” Recycling: Q & A. Manila. Recycling Movement of the Philippines. Ecological Waste Management Series (for community-wide implementation, for households, for schools, for offices, for markets). Quezon City: Department of Environment and Natural Resources, n.d.. Sabas, Luz E. Handbook on Zero Waste Technology Featuring the “Four-Fs” – Total Recycling Scheme for Domestic Solid Wastes Vol. 1, No. 1 in Zero Waste Management System. Copyright 1992. Santiago, Lina Araneta. Solid Waste Management for the 21st Century. Malabon, Metro Manila: Sahara Heritage Foundation, Sahara Foundation for Shelter and Environment, and Caritas Manila, Inc., 1993.

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World Bank and the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program. Mag-Recycle Tayo: A HowTo Guide for Recycled Products. Manila: Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1999.

◗ NEWSLETTERS/NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES
Balikas: Balitang Kabuhayan, Kalikasan at Pamayanan sa CALABARZON. Babilonia Wilner Foundation. Manila. Business and Environment. A Publication of the Philippine Business for the Environment. Pasig City. Industry Environews Vol. 5, No. 3 (December 2001). Environmental Management Bureau-Department of Environment and Natural Resources. MACEA News Vol. 9, No. 2 (Year 2001). Special Issue on Solid Waste Management Program. Official Publication of the Makati Commercial Estate Association, Inc. Makati. SWAPP Notes Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2000). Official Newsletter of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines. Tao-Kalikasan. n.d. Newsletter of Lingkod Tao-Kalikasan (Secretariat for an Ecologically Sound Philippines, Manila. Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2001). Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

◗ OCCASIONAL PAPERS
“Waste Matters: Towards Local Government Excellence in Solid Waste Management”. GOLD Technical Notes No. 98-01. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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“LGU Solutions and Benefits from Good Integrated Solid Waste Management Practices.” Philippine EcoGovernance Program: 2001 (Prepared as reference material for the LGU Interactive Assemblies). “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No. 98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998. “Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Appraising the Nature of Solid Waste in the Locality.” Local Governance Technical Notes 2-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 3-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Helping Citizens Earn from Solid Waste.” Local Governance Technical Notes 4-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Promoting Programs to Convert Solid Waste to Organic Fertilizer.” Local Governance Technical Notes 5-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Introducing Measures to Improve Garbage Collection Efficiency.” Local Governance Technical Notes 6-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Improving Dumpsite Operations with Limited Budget.” Local Governance Technical Notes 7-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. “Preparing for a Sanitary Landfill: The First Steps.” Local Governance Technical Notes 8-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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“The Brooke’s Point Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Linamon Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Maitum Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Marilao Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The San Fernando City Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999. “The Sibulan Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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◗ ARTICLES
Lumbao, Lisa Kircher and Stacy Bonnaffons. “The Garbage Crisis: Everyone’s Responsibility.” Manila Women’s Forum. February 2001. Aftab, M. P. “Plan for Solid Waste Collection and Disposal.” Municipal Management Issues in South Asia. VanDoren, Peter M. “Time to Trash Government Intervention in Garbage Service.” Policy Analysis No. 331 (January 21, 1999).

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❙ TECHNICAL AND FUNDING ASSISTANCE FOR LGUS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
◗ TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Programs/Projects/Institutions Philippine Environmental Governance Project(EcoGov) US Agency for International Development Type of Assistance Available to LGUs Technical assistance to LGUs on three sectors sustainable forest management (SFM), coastal resource management (CRM), integrated solid waste management (ISWM). The project highlights the importance of governance elements thus the emphasis given to enhancing the transparency, accountability and participatory decision-making mechanisms in the various planning and implementation processes. The ISWM component seeks to improve the delivery of services of LGUs. The focus of the assistance will then be on: 1. Strengthening LGUs’ ability to implement ISWM (planning to implementation) 2. Improving ISWM systems for procurement and contracting Participating LGUs will be provided technical assistance, which will include training, cross visits, and technical advice. Local service providers will be tapped to provide LGUs with the required assistance. Requirements/Availment Procedure The project is limited to the following regions: Mindanao: ARMM, Region 9, Region 12 and Lanao del Norte. Visayas: Central Visayas Luzon: Northeastern Luzon

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LGUs are invited to attend Interactive Assemblies on the different themes. Interested LGUs are to submit a Letter of Interest, clearly indicating the particular sector of their interest and their commitment to provide counterpart resources. Recycling Movement of the Philippines, Inc. Training and information services on waste management systems especially on biogas production and composting. Executive Director RMPI21 Sao Paulo St.Better Living Subdivision, Paranaque City, Metro Manila Tel. (02) 824-1117 Phil. Recyclers, Inc. Assistance in organizing a Balik-Baterya collection station; buys junk batteries for recycling in its plant. Liaison Officer Tel 711-2220, 711-2236, 711-2262 Philippine Business for the Environment Environment information (for business and industry); environmental technology referral; training and publications Executive Director G/F DAP, San Miguel Ave.Pasig City Tel 635-3670, 635-2650 Fax 631-5714

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Pollution Control Association of the Philippines President Rms. 245-247, Cityland Pioneer, Pioneer St., Mandaluyong City Philippine Pollution Prevention Roundtable President PPPR1901-A West Tower, Tektite Towers, Phil. Stock Exchange Center, Ortigas Center, Pasig City Tel 637-9537, 638-5070 to 72 Email: aprep@info.com.ph Ecological Society of the Philippines (ESP) Executive Director 53 Tamarind Road, Forbes Park, Makati City Tel 631-7351 to 56631-7357 (Fax)

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ENDNOTES
1 Based on input from Todd R. Pepper, General Manager of the Essex-Windsor Solid Waste Authority. Mr. Pepper is involved in a solid waste management project in Olongapo on behalf of the City of Windsor. Windsor and Olongapo are partners in the FCM International Partnership Program which links Canadian and Filipino cities for them to work on common municipal governance issues. This program is funded by CIDA. 2 Governance and Local Democracy Project, Final Report, Associates in Rural Development. Solid Waste Management Manuals and Workbooks (2001). 3 Governance and Local Democracy Project, Final Report, Associates in Rural Development. The Local Governance Technical Notes: Moving Towards Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management, Notes 1 (October 1999).

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