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Solid Waste Management

Writers
Aileen de Guzman
Joyce Reyes
Editors
Chay Florentino-Hofileña
Giselle Baretto-Lapitan
Project Management
Amihan Perez
Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA)
Technical and Editorial Team
Rene “Bong’Garrucho, LGSP
Mags Maglana, LGSP
Merlinda Hussein, LGSP
Gemma Borreros, LGSP
Myn Garcia, LGSP
Orient Integrated Development Consultants Inc.
Art Direction, Cover Design & Layout
Jet Hermida
Photography
Gil Nartea
Solid Waste Management
OPTIONS AND SOLUTIONS AT THE
LOCAL LEVEL
Solid Waste Management: Mapping out Solutions at the Local Level
Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government

Copyright @2003 Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program


(LGSP)

All rights reserved

The Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program encourages


the use, translation, adaptation and copying of this material for non-
commercial use, with appropriate credit given to LGSP.

Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this book,
the publisher and/or contributor and/or editor can not accept any liability
for any consequence arising from the use thereof or from any information
contained herein.

ISBN 971-8597-07-7

Printed and bound in Manila, Philippines

Published by:

Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)


Unit 1507 Jollibee Plaza
Emerald Ave., 1600 Pasig City, Philippines
Tel. Nos. (632) 637-3511 to 13
www.lgsp.org.ph

Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA)


ACSPPA, Fr. Arrupe Road, Social Development Complex
Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, 1108 Quezon City

This project was undertaken with the financial support of the Government
of Canada provided through the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA).
A JOINT PROJECT OF

Department of the Interior National Economic and Canadian International


and Local Government (DILG) Development Authority (NEDA) Development Agency

IMPLEMENTED BY

Agriteam Canada Federation of Canadian


www.agriteam.ca Municipalities (FCM)
www.fcm.ca
CONTENTS

FOREWORD i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
PREFACE v
ACRONYMS vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ix
INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 7


The Social Imperative 7
Guiding Principles of Solid Waste Management 8
The Hierarchy of Solid Waste Management 9
Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management 11
Implementation of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Program 12

CHAPTER 2: LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 19

CHAPTER 3: POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS 31


LGU Awareness of Existing Policies 31
Policy Issues 32
Financial Constraints 33
LGU SWM Plans and Ordinances 34
Technical and Organizational Issues 36
Community Involvement 37

CHAPTER 4: GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 41


Good Solid Waste Management Practices in the Philippines 41
Good Practices in Solid Waste Management Outside the Philippines 86

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
CONTENTS

CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES AND TOOLS 143


Study Tour Sites 143
References 152
Technical and Funding Assistance for LGUs in Solid Waste Management 162

ENDNOTES 165

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
FOREWORD

T
he Department of the Interior and Local Government is pleased to acknowledge the latest
publication of the Philippines Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), Service
Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government; a series of books on eight (8)
service delivery areas, which include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic
Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management.

One of the biggest challenges in promoting responsive and efficient local governance is to be able to
meaningfully deliver quality public services to communities as mandated in the Local Government Code.
Faced with continued high incidence of poverty, it is imperative to strengthen the role of LGUs in service
delivery as they explore new approaches for improving their performance.

Strategies and mechanisms for effective service delivery must take into consideration issues of poverty
reduction, people’s participation, the promotion of gender equality, environmental sustainability and
economic and social equity for more long- term results. There is also a need to acquire knowledge, create
new structures, and undertake innovative programs that are more responsive to the needs of the
communities and develop linkages and partnerships within and between communities as part of an
integrated approach to providing relevant and sustainable services to their constituencies.

Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government offer local government units and
their partners easy-to-use, comprehensive resource material with which to take up this challenge. By
providing LGUs with practical technologies, tested models and replicable exemplary practices, Service
Delivery with Impact encourages LGUs to be innovative, proactive and creative in addressing the real
problems and issues in providing and enhancing services, taking into account increased community
participation and strategic private sector/civil society organizational partnerships. We hope that in using
these resource books, LGUs will be better equipped with new ideas, tools and inspiration to make a

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T i
FOREWORD

difference by expanding their knowledge and selection of replicable choices in delivering basic services
with increased impact.

The DILG, therefore, congratulates the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)
for this milestone in its continuing efforts to promote efficient, responsive, transparent and accountable
governance.

HON. JOSE D. LINA, JR.


Secretary
Department of the Interior and Local Government

ii S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

iv S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
PREFACE

S
ervice Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government are the product of a series
of roundtable discussions, critical review of tested models and technologies, and case analyses
of replicable exemplary practices in the Philippines conducted by the Philippines-Canada Local
Government Support Program (LGSP) in eight (8) service sectors that local government units (LGUs) are
mandated to deliver. These include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic
Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management.

The devolution of powers as mandated in the Local Government Code has been a core pillar of
decentralization in the Philippines. Yet despite opportunities for LGUs to make a meaningful difference
in the lives of the people by maximizing these devolved powers, issues related to poverty persist and
improvements in effective and efficient service delivery remain a challenge.

With LGSP’s work in support of over 200 LGUs for the past several years came the recognition of the need
to enhance capacities in service delivery, specifically to clarify the understanding and optimize the role
of local government units in providing improved services. This gap presented the motivation for LGSP
to develop these resource books for LGUs.

Not a “how to manual,” Service Delivery with Impact features strategies and a myriad of proven
approaches designed to offer innovative ways for local governments to increase their capacities to better
deliver quality services to their constituencies.

Each resource book focuses on highlighting the important areas of skills and knowledge that contribute
to improved services. Service Delivery with Impact provides practical insights on how LGUs can apply
guiding principles, tested and appropriate technology, and lessons learned from exemplary cases to their
organization and in partnership with their communities.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T v
PREFACE

This series of resource books hopes to serve as a helpful and comprehensive reference to inspire and
enable LGUs to significantly contribute to improving the quality of life of their constituency through
responsive and efficient governance.

Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)

vi S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
ACRONYMS

AusAID Australian Agency for International Development


AWARE Associated Waste Administration and Recycling Enterprise
BIKBAP Balik Inang Kalikasan, Balik Amang Pabrika
BOT Build Operate Transfer
CEC Carmona Ecology Center
CRM Coastal Resource Management
CSO Civil Society Organizations
DA Department of Agriculture
DBL Design Build Lease
DENR Department of the Environment and Natural Resources
DILG Department of the Interior and Local Government
DTI Department of Trade and Industry
ECC Environmental Clearance Certificate
EcoGov Philippine Environmental Governance Project
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
ENRC Environment and Natural Resources Council
ENRO Environment and Natural Resources Office
FSSI Foundation for a Sustainable Society, Inc.
GOLD Governance and Local Democracy
GOP Government of the Philippines
IDEAS, Inc. Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc.
IEC Information, Education and Communication
IETC International Environmental Technology Centre
IRR Implementing Rules and Regulations
ISWM Integrated Solid Waste Management

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ACRONYMS

JBIC Japan Bank for International Cooperation


LBP Land Bank of the Philippines
LGSP Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program
LGUs Local Government Units
LOGOFIND Local Government Finance and Development Project
LRPs Local Resource Partners
MaCEA Makati Commercial Estates Association
MAT Municipal Action Team
MRF Materials Recovery Facility
NCR National Capital Region
PASTT Philippines-Australia Governance Facility
RA Republic Act
RTD Roundtable Discussion
SFM Sustainable Forest Management
SWAPP Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines
SWM Solid Waste Management
SZWAT Silang Zero Waste Action Team
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
USAID United States Agency for International Development
WMO Waste Management Office

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

THE SITUATION IN THE PHILIPPINES

Rapid population growth and industrialization have turned the Philippines’ waste situation into a
huge problem. With today’s lifestyle, it is estimated that one person can generate as much as half a kilo
of waste a day. The continuous stream into the market of new products that use the latest packaging
technology further heightens the problem because new kinds of garbage are produced. Not only is there
an increase in the amount of waste; there is also an increase in the variety of waste.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK

The Philippine government has recognized the severity of the garbage problem and has prioritized the
establishment of appropriate measures to address it. The most comprehensive piece of legislation is the
Republic Act (RA) 9003, known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, which assigns
the primary task of implementation and enforcement to LGUs. It emphasizes the importance of
minimizing waste by using techniques such as recycling, resource recovery, reuse, and composting.

WHAT LGUs HAVE TO DO

Solid waste disposal is proving to be a complex and controversial issue and LGUs are faced with limited
options to address it as the mandatory provisions in the law already spell out what they have to do. Their
biggest challenge is to come up with solid waste management and pollution control strategies that would
reduce the waste released to the environment.

LGUs can start the development of the required 10-year integrated solid waste management program
with waste appraisal to determine waste generation and the “waste profile”of their community and to
assess the solid waste management practices and systems already in place in their communities. With

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

the analysis of such data, LGUs should then be able to identify their waste management options and
draw up specific SWM measures, including the design of waste disposal facilities.

LGUs will need to support the engineering component of their SWM programs with education and
enforcement interventions. They have to provide the organizational support and systems for the
efficient and effective implementation of the SWM plan.

WHAT SOME LGUs HAVE DONE

There are many types of projects on solid waste management that an LGU can initiate, (even as it is yet
developing a long-term SWM plan). Some LGUs have concentrated on social preparation and networking,
particularly in the early stages of SWM planning and implementation. The municipality of Bustos,
Bulacan and the city of Manila, for instance, came up with solid waste management projects that
focused on social preparation and networking to improve the knowledge of their constituents and win
the support of the community. Other LGUs have focused on composting and recycling activities,
which require the establishment of the necessary facilities. Still others have started to work towards the
upgrading of their waste disposal facilities, in compliance with the law.

LGUs need to be in touch with the problems and demands of their communities. They need to
immediately address urgent SWM issues with projects that meet their needs yet match their resources
and capabilities.

x S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
INTRODUCTION

M
unicipal solid waste refers to food, paper, rubbish, packaging and ashes discarded by
households and commercial establishments; non-hazardous and non-toxic institutional or
industrial waste; street sweepings, construction debris, and agricultural waste. To the
ordinary Filipino, solid waste is anything that is considered “basura”and there is expectation, especially
in the more urban areas, that it is the responsibility of local government officials to reduce and control
the solid waste problem.

The problems of solid waste management confronting local government units are becoming more
complex as population and local economies grow. LGUs need to continually review and map out short-
term and long-term solutions to effectively deal with them.

The development of this resource book on solid waste management thus aims to: 1) provide local
government units (LGUs) and local resource personnel information on the development challenges,
working models, and good practices on solid waste management that can be studied, addressed, and
replicated where appropriate; 2) enhance LGUs’ understanding of the mandates that govern solid
waste management to help prepare them for more effective work and identify opportunities for
further policy development; and 3) guide LGUs in identifying sources of references, tools, and assistance
that can help them improve the delivery of the service.

The resource book puts together the work of many solid waste management advocates and practitioners.
Much of the information and lessons herein are derived from the experiences of two USAID-funded
projects: Governance in Local Democracy (GOLD) and the Philippines Environmental Governance
Project or EcoGov as well as information shared by the Solid Waste Management Association of the
Philippines (SWAPP).

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INTRODUCTION

The book consists of the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Overview of the Solid Waste Management Sector. This serves to introduce key concepts,
guiding principles, the hierarchy and functional elements of solid waste management. The chapter also
provides an outline of the steps or processes that should be undertaken to come up with an effective
waste management program.

Chapter 2: LGU Mandates on Solid Waste Management. This section presents a list of policies that
relate to waste management, particularly those that are relevant to LGUs, with a brief description of each.

Chapter 3: Policy and Implementation Issues and Recommendations. This chapter contains issues
and concerns, as well as recommendations in implementing LGU-run, private sector-managed, and NGO-
initiated programs.

Chapter 4: Good Practices in Solid Waste Management. This presents various projects that have been
successfully implemented here and around the world. It covers LGU experiences and concerns, as well
as good practices pertaining to waste management for residences, commercial and recreational areas,
and health care facilities, among others. The private sector in particular and civil society organizations
(CSOs) to a certain extent have a hard time finding options and workable models for solid waste
management. LGUs can share information in this chapter to their constituents coming from the private
sector and CSOs.

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter 5 - References and Tools. This section provides a list of available financial windows that can
be tapped to provide funding for various solid waste management projects. It also lists reference
materials to better understand solid waste management and lists LGUs and groups that have successfully
implemented solid waste management projects in their localities.

Much has been accomplished in sustaining the world through proper solid waste management
schemes. But much more remains to be done. LGUs need to do their part in their own localities to help
sustain the earth’s life support system.

There have been apprehensions about the readability of material on solid waste management offered
to LGUs in the past. This resource book tries to overcome this problem by selecting cases that are clear,
interesting, and relevant to real life situations and experiences on solid waste management in the country.
It is hoped that this resource book will help shape an efficient process of service delivery in the
community.

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CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT SECTOR
OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR

❙ THE SOCIAL IMPERATIVE


Rapid population growth and industrialization have turned the country’s
CHAPTER

Municipal solid waste


1
waste situation into a huge problem. With today’s lifestyle, it is estimated
that one person can generate as much as half a kilo of municipal solid refers to food, paper,
waste a day. In Olongapo City, it has been established that the waste rubbish, packaging and
generation rate is 340 grams per day per person.1 The continuous ashes discarded by
stream into the market of new products that use the latest packaging
technology further heightens the problem because new kinds of
households and commercial
garbage are produced. Not only is there an increase in the amount of establishments, non-
waste; there is also an increase in its variety. hazardous and non-toxic
institutional or industrial
Waste disposal is thus a major issue confronting LGUs. It has become
a high priority due to the health and environmental risks associated with waste, street sweepings,
waste. Waste likely contains pathogens, which commonly cause construction debris, and
infections. Garbage piles, besides being foul and unsightly, are breeding agricultural waste. In some
grounds of vermin and insects, which carry human diseases. Improperly
localities, most agricultural
discarded waste can contaminate sources of drinking water; they can
be carried by rivers to the sea and adversely affect fisheries, tourism, and waste are a waste stream all
the health of coastal communities. Solid waste disposal is proving to to themselves and are
be a complex and controversial issue—with LGUs facing limited generally not handled as
options for addressing this concern. Landfills are being promoted as
alternative means of disposal, but finding landfill sites has been difficult
part of the municipal waste
due to economic constraints, public health concerns, and social management system.
acceptability issues. There is a need, therefore, for other solid waste

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1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

management and pollution control strategies that can reduce waste released
Solid Waste to the environment. The government has recognized the severity of the
garbage problem and has given priority to establishing appropriate measures
Management (SWM) to address it. The most comprehensive piece of legislation dealing with this
includes all activities problem is Republic Act (RA) 9003, known as the Ecological Solid Waste
pertaining to the Management Act of 2000. It assigns the primary task of implementation
control, transfer and and enforcement to LGUs. It emphasizes the importance of minimizing waste
transport, processing, using techniques such as recycling, resource recovery, reuse, and composting.
Chapter 3 further describes the important features of RA 9003.
and disposal of solid
wastes in accordance ❙ GUIDING PRINCIPLES
with the best OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
principles of public
health, economics, Solid waste management practitioners have come up with seven guiding
engineering, principles in SWM planning2. Incorporating these principles into one’s way
of thinking is a good starting point when embarking on any solid waste
conservation, management initiative.
aesthetic and other
environmental 1. Waste is a resource. When waste is thrown away, it does not disappear
considerations. but ends up somewhere else or in some other form. When it is used or put
in the right place, it retains its value as a resource.

2. Waste prevention is better than waste regulation. Stopping waste from being produced is
much better than trying to manage it after a lot has already been generated.

3. There is no single management and technological approach to solid waste. An integrated


SWM system will best achieve SWM goals.There are different types of waste—biodegradable,
non-biodegradable, recyclable, non-recyclable, toxic, hazardous—and each requires specific
handling and disposal methods.

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OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 1

4. All elements of society are fundamentally responsible for solid waste management.
Although LGUs are primarily responsible for providing SWM services to their constituents,
their success requires the support of the national government and the involvement of the private
sector and the general public.

5. Those who generate waste must bear the cost of its management and disposal. Households
have enjoyed local government subsidy for garbage collection and disposal for far too long. This
subsidy has not helped develop a sense of responsibility among citizens for their habits. Those
who produce the waste should shoulder part of it, if not the full cost of waste management.

6. Solid waste management should be approached within the context of resource


conservation, environmental protection and health, and sustainable development. SWM
has evolved into a multidisciplinary effort requiring the expertise from the fields of engineering,
economics, sociology, bioscience, and environmental management.

7. SWM programs should consider the physical and socio-economic conditions of the
concerned communities and should be designed according to communities’ specific
needs. Communities vary in character and, thus, have different solid waste problems. SWM
programs should correspond to the unique needs of these communities.

❙ THE HIERARCHY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Experts agree that there will be no simple, single solution to the municipal solid waste problem
as long as there are physical and socio-economic differences among communities. There is,
however, an accepted hierarchy of waste management strategies that local governments can
conform with. This hierarchy represents an integrated approach to solid waste management that
is more efficient in terms of money, time, and disposal space.

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1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

SOURCE REDUCTION Turning something old into something new. Food and yard
waste can be composted. Aluminum cans can be melted and
pressed into new sheets that can be reused. Used papers can
be turned into pulp for making new paper. Glass bottles can
RECYCLING be crushed and melted to make new glass products.

Materials that cannot be recycled are processed to generate energy


and other sources. Biodegradable wastes can be converted to soil
TREATMENT OR conditioners or organic fertilizers through composting. Energy can be
RECOVERY recovered through incinerator systems that produce steam, or through
pyrolisis to extract methane gas.

DISPOSAL Reducing the amount of waste and the toxicity of the waste that is produced.
Manufacturers may come up with products containing fewer harmful materials
and requiring less packaging. Consumers may choose to buy more durable and
non-disposable products.

Discarding solid residues—ashes and slag—that result from treatment.

WHY RECYCLE?

1. It saves natural resources. All things used by humans have materials that come from the earth. The earth does
not have a never-ending supply of these precious materials.
2. It saves energy. Making new materials through recycling uses less energy than creating them from raw
materials.
3. It creates less pollution. Making new materials through recycling produces less pollution than creating them
from raw materials
4. It protects wildlife. The destruction of forests, rivers, and fields is reduced. These are the habitat of wildlife.
5. It helps out communities. By producing less garbage, the cost of garbage disposal is reduced. The money saved
by an LGU can be used for other essential facilities and services to communities.

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OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 1

❙ FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS
OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste management planning requires that LGUs recognize the functional elements of a well-
designed SWM system. Each element entails several basic requirements that have to be taken into
account.

ELEMENT THINGS TO CONSIDER

Information has to be gathered about the sources of waste, the nature


Waste Generation
of waste produced by these sources, and their corresponding amounts.
Current practices at the source also need to be determined. The

▼ resulting baseline information is critical in the design and planning of


an integrated SWM system.

Solid waste must be stored first before they are collected. A good on-
On-Site Storage site storage facility must have the following features:
a. Keeps waste properly contained to avoid health hazards (e.g., does
not tip over easily with contents spilled out)
▼ b. Makes collection easy
c. Is aesthetically pleasing

This entails the regular and systematic gathering of waste from various
Collection storage sites and pick-up points, hauling them to transfer stations,
processing and recovery facilities, or to final disposal sites. Collection is

▼ the most expensive SWM element, usually accounting for 40 percent to


80 percent of waste management costs.

Intermediate collection sites called “transfer stations” are usually


Transfer and recommended if the final disposal site is located far from the waste
Transport collection points. They are also often more economical. These transfer
stations involve smaller collection trucks that haul waste to transfer


stations where they are then loaded into larger vehicles. These large
trucks convey waste to either processing and recovery facilities, or to
the final disposal site.

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1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Processing and This element refers to procedures that are designed to recover usable
Recovery materials such as raw materials for compost, or procedures that
transform waste to heat or electricity. Examples of the latter are


magnetic separation, density separation, and size reduction.

The nature and amount of waste should be considered when deciding


Disposal on an appropriate disposal method to avoid secondary environmental
problems such as groundwater contamination and air pollution. In
Canada and the United States, sanitary landfills are the most common
and most widely accepted of the final disposal methods. However, in
the Philippines, sanitary landfills—currently defined as engineered
landfill sites—are a relatively new phenomenon. Before the use of
sanitary landfills, uncontrolled or controlled dumps used to be more
prevalent. In addition, energy-from-waste is the most common disposal
option in Japan, France, Sweden, Denmark and other European nations.

❙ IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The implementation of an integrated SWM program should start with waste appraisal to determine
the waste generation and “waste profile”of the community and assess the solid waste management
practices systems already in place. The LGU can convene a task force that will undertake this
study. Based on collected information, the task force should be able to identify and assess their waste
management options (that are allowable under RA 9003) and then outline more concrete and doable
action steps and plans with corresponding budgets. The generated data will also help LGUs in the
design of the recovery and disposal facilities. It is useful for LGUs to look at good practices of other
LGUs because by doing so, they familiarize themselves with working modes and approaches that
can be applied to the community.

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OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 1

The LGU should encourage the broadest participation from the local citizenry. During planning,
the local government and its citizens can work together to formulate a common vision regarding
their solid waste situation and design strategic action plans to address the issue. Local participation
during the planning and design stage cultivates a sense of ownership, which, in turn, strengthens
the commitment to the program and increases the chances of its success.

It is crucial that an LGU designates an SWM officer at the planning stage and formally lodges SWM
responsibility with an office of the municipal or city government. The officer should oversee the
development of the SWM program and ensure that action steps are set into motion in plan
implementation.

Process Flow for Developing a City/Municipal Integrated Solid Waste Management Program3

WASTE APPRAISAL

® ²
Local government and volunteers conduct surveys and determine the waste
profile and existing solid waste management operations of a community.

VMGO SETTING
IMPLEMENTING THE DOABLES
With the help of a workshop facilitator, local leaders
The local government and citizens implement
and citizens agree on a vision, the strategies and first
designated roles to use SWM techniques.
steps to address the problem.

¯ MULTISECTORAL PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION


A multisectoral task force consisting of leaders and volunteers further reviews
technical options and draws up plans and budgets for “doable” actions.
«
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1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

LGUs are usually constrained by limited funds and personnel, and should thus start with small,
manageable activities. These small worthwhile activities allow waste management methods to be
tested for practicality and suitability. Successful experiences at this pilot level may then be tried
by other barangays or replicated at the municipal level.

While initial activities are underway, it is equally important to begin a plan to sustain the waste
management program. SWM practitioners have outlined five components, called the 5 Es for
achieving this objective:

◗ THE 5 Es

ENGINEERING component refers to the hardware requirements of any SWM system—collection


trucks, garbage receptacles, transfer stations, disposal sites, and necessary equipment. It also
refers to the establishment of operating systems and procedures—collection routes, waste
segregation requirements, and disposal facility operations.

EDUCATION is the information-dissemination component of any SWM system where all sectors
of society are informed of their roles and responsibilities in waste management. Public awareness
about SWM can be triggered by the tri-Media (TV, radio, and print media). Seminars, workshops,
and speakers’bureau are some other examples of how solid waste management can be promoted
to the public.

The ENFORCEMENT component ensures that the integrated SWM program can only be sustained
if a legal framework supports it. Ideally, ordinances should spell out the policies and procedures
for each SWM functional element, provide the mechanisms and administrative structures to
implement the program, and specify sanctions for violators.

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The creation of an ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION, a structure that “houses”the SWM program.


is important. The program must be assigned to an appropriate office or department within the local
government’s institutional machinery. The ideal scenario is for the LGU to create a SWM division
under the Environment and Natural Resources Office. The law requires the creation of an SWM Board
that has multisectoral representation. LGUs may invite into the Board other national government
and private organizations.

The EQUITY component pertains to the financial, technical, and manpower resources—required
by the other components. This includes local funds or outside financing, as well as local expertise
and citizen cooperation and involvement.

A sixth E may be added to stand for EXECUTIVE WILL, which seems to be the most important among
all these components. Executive will stands for the local executive’s ability to lead his colleagues,
as well as his ability to coordinate all involved agencies, in the execution and implementation of
a successful solid waste management program. Executive will also ensures allocation of adequate
resources to the program.

Sources:
Philippine Environmental Governance Program (EcoGov). LGU Solutions and Benefits from Good Integrated Solid Waste
Management practices (Briefing material for the EcoGov Interactive Assemblies with LGUs). n.p. 2002.

Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project. Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.
GOLD Occasional Papers (OP No. 98-06). n.p.1998 .

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 15
CHAPTER 2
LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT
LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

◗ THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES


CHAPTER

Article 11 of the Constitution provides that the State shall protect and advance the right of the people
2
to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT 9003 (2000) AND DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 2001-34

Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations
This Act empowers local government units to actively pursue their respective solid waste
management systems by providing them the needed policy and technical support. The salient
features of RA 9003 that apply to LGUs include:

€ Preparation of 10-year solid waste management plans by all LGUs (province, city, and
municipality). Such plans should: (a) place primary emphasis on the implementation of
feasible and environmentally sound techniques of minimizing waste (such as re-use, recycling,
and composting programs); and (b) identify the amount of landfill and transformation capacity
needed for solid waste that cannot be re-used, recycled, or composted. The content of solid waste
management plans is outlined in Section 17, Article 1, Chapter III. The law mandates that 25
percent of all solid waste must be diverted from disposal facilities, within a period of five years
from the time RA 9003 takes effect.

€ Creation of a Solid Waste Management Board in every city and municipality to prepare
and implement a plan for the safe and sanitary management of solid waste. A provincial
Solid Waste Management Board will likewise be formed by each province to develop a
comprehensive provincial SWM plan, taking off from the municipal/city SWM plans.

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2 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

€ Mandatory segregation of waste. LGUs are to evaluate alternative roles for the public and private
sectors in providing collection services, types of collection services, or a combination of systems
that best meet their needs. The collection and transport of solid waste must conform to the
minimum standards and requirements for collection of solid waste (e.g., use of protective
equipment by collectors, non-spillage of waste within collection vicinity, separate collection
schedules for specific types of waste, separate trucks/haulers or compartmentalized collection
vehicles).
€ Implementation of recycling programs, with support from the Departments of Trade
and Industry (DTI), Agriculture (DA), and Interior and Local Governments (DILG). The DTI
is to prepare an inventory of existing markets for processing and purchasing of recyclable
materials and implement a coding system for packaging materials and products to facilitate waste
recycling and re-use. The DA is to publish an inventory of existing markets and demand for
compost.
€ Setting up of a materials recovery facility (MRF) in every barangay or cluster of barangays.
MRFs will receive mixed waste for final sorting, segregation, composting, and recycling before
non-recyclable wastes are transferred to a storage or disposal facility.
€ Prohibition of open dumpsites as final disposal facility. Existing open dumpsites are to be
converted into controlled dumpsites within three years from the effectivity date of the law.
Sanitary landfills shall be developed and operated as final disposal sites for a municipality or
cluster of municipalities. The law provides guidelines for controlled dumps and criteria for the
location and establishment of sanitary landfills. The law encourages LGUs to consider the
setting up of common solid waste management facilities.
€ Promoting the establishment of multipurpose environmental cooperatives and associations
that will undertake SWM activities or projects.
€ Provision of monetary and other rewards and incentives to entities that have undertaken
outstanding and innovative SWM programs (e.g., tax credit and duty exemption to individuals
and private organizations; and grants to LGUs).
€ Encouragement of LGUs to impose fees sufficient to pay the cost of preparing and
implementing their solid waste management plans. LGUs are also to adopt specific revenue-
generating measures to ensure the viability of their plans.

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LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2

€ Creation of a local SWM fund from donations, collection of fines and fees, and allocation
from the development fund. This fund is to be used for activities to enhance the SWM
program: research, information, education and communications, and capability building.
€ Definition of prohibited acts, penalties, suits and other legal actions concerning RA
9003.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7160

Local Government Code of the Philippines (1991)


This Act enjoins LGUs to enforce sanitation laws, prepare a solid waste management program, and
other environmental functions. Section 17 mandates barangays and municipalities to provide services
for solid waste collection and management. Section 3, Article 1 encourages the participation of the
private sector in local governance.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 98-50

Adopting the Landfill Site Identification and Screening Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste
Disposal Facilities
This order defines the site selection criteria for sanitary landfill facilities, including screening
methodology.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 98-49

Technical Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Management


This Order provides the guidelines for the development of new municipal solid waste disposal sites,
and a phased schedule for the conversion and upgrading of existing dumpsites into more sanitary
and environmentally acceptable sites. The AO includes technical norms, environmental quality
requirements and operational standards, and timeframe for implementation.

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2 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 97-28

Amending Annex A of DAO 94-28


This Act includes used oil (spent oil such as waste oil or oil residues) as a separate category. It further
provides that no importation of tanker sludge will be allowed.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 94-28

Interim Guidelines for the Importation of Recyclable Materials Containing Hazardous


Substances
This AO requires all importers of recyclable materials containing hazardous substances to register
with the DENR. This also sets the registration and importation requirements, as well as the right of
the DENR to require the testing and sampling of the imported recyclable materials.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT 6969

Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990
This Act regulates, restricts, or prohibits the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, distribution,
use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or
injury to health or the environment. It also prohibits the entry, even in transit, of hazardous and
nuclear wastes and their disposal within Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose.

◗ DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 92-29

Implementing Rules and Regulations for RA 6969


This AO provides for an inventory of chemical substances and the classification of hazardous
waste; sets the limitations regarding their use, transport, storage and disposal; sets exemptions from
the nuclear waste requirements; prescribes the fees for registration, permitting and transport; and
establishes penalties for the violation of prohibited acts. An Inter-Agency Technical Advisory
Council is created to oversee the implementation of these IRR provisions.

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LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2

◗ RA 6957 AS AMENDED BY RA 7718 (BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER LAW)

This law states that infrastructure and development projects normally financed and operated by
the public sector (such as that for solid waste management) may be wholly or partially implemented
by the private sector.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 88

Amending Memorandum Circular No. 39-A, dated January 19, 1988, by Reconstituting the
Presidential Task Force on Waste Management
This identifies the members of the Task Force on Waste Management and defines their functions
and responsibilities.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 39-A OF JANUARY 19, 1988 FROM THE OFFICE
OF THE PRESIDENT

This enjoins local governments to establish integrated solid waste management systems that
include: management of waste generation; handling and on-site storage; collection, transfer and
transport; processing and recovery; and disposal.

◗ MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 30

Creating the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management (November 2, 1987)


This creates the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management for identifying an effective collection
and disposal system or technology that can be effectively sustained on a long-term basis. The Task
Force is tasked to identify the most appropriate government agency that would assume the lead
role in waste collection and disposal management with the corresponding accountability. It is also
tasked to identify the supporting and cooperating agencies, both public and private; and to
define their responsibilities.

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2 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

◗ SECTION 2388, REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE


This sets the general powers of city and municipal councils to enact ordinances and make such
regulations on health and safety for the comfort and convenience of the community and the
protection of property.

◗ EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 32


This Order establishes national and local beautification committees to undertake beautification and
cleanliness campaigns.

◗ PROCLAMATION 2146 December 14, 1981


This proclamation defines the scope and coverage of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
system. It mainly provides that infrastructure and solid waste disposal projects are considered
environmentally critical projects and thus subject to the EIS system.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1586 1978


This Decree establishes an EIS system, identifying the lead agencies, secretariat, management and
sources of financial assistance, rules and regulations, and penalties pursuant to PD 1151 (Philippine
Environmental Policy).

◗ EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 432

Ordering the Strict Enforcement of Presidential Decree No. 825 Providing Penalties for
Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms of Uncleanliness (October 23, 1990)
The Order calls for the strict implementation of PD 825 and designates the Barangay Tanod as sanitary
officers.

24 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
LGU MANDATES ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1160

Vesting Authority in Barangay Captains to Enforce Pollution and Environmental Control


Laws and for other Purposes (1977)
The Decree gives authority to barangay chairmen and the barangay council to enforce pollution
and environmental control laws.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 1152

Philippine Environmental Code (1977)


This Decree establishes specific environment management policies and prescribes environment
quality standards for air and water, land use management, natural resources management and
conservation, and enforcement and guidelines for waste management. Sec. 23 particularly states
that the “preparation and implementation of waste management programs shall be required of all
provinces, cities and municipalities. The Department of Local Governments and Community
Development shall promulgate guidelines for the formulation and establishment of waste
management programs.”

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 1151

Philippine Environmental Policy (1977)


This PD declares that it is government’s continuing policy to ensure an environment that is
conducive to a life of dignity and well being, and that it is part of government policy to ensure the
people’s right to such an environment. The policy requires all agencies and instrumentalities of the
national government, including government-owned and controlled corporations, private
corporations, firms, and entities to accomplish and submit Environmental Impact Statements for
every action, project or undertaking that significantly affects the quality of the environment.

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2 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

◗ LETTER OF INSTRUCTION NO. 588


This enjoins the commissioner of the National Pollution Control Commission, heads of Authorities,
city and municipal mayors, heads of government-owned or controlled corporations to appoint their
respective pollution control officers to enforce the rules and regulations implementing PD 984.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 984

Providing for the Revision of Republic Act No. 3931, commonly known as the Pollution
Control Law (1976)
This Decree provides for the strengthening and reorganization of the National Pollution Control
Commission. Chapter IV, Art. 2, Sec. 82a prescribes that “solid waste shall be stored, collected,
processed, transported and disposed of in such a manner as to control dust emission, windblown
material, odors and prevent harborage for vermin and insects. The solid waste shall be sorted in
such a way that it is not a health and safety hazard, unsightly and cannot be considered a public
nuisance.”

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 856

Code on Sanitation in the Philippines (1975)


This Decree includes, among others, public health laws and regulations. Sec. 82 of this Decree states
that “cities and municipalities shall provide an adequate and efficient system of collecting,
transporting and disposing of refuse in their areas of jurisdiction in a manner approved by the local
health authority.” Sec. 83 further provides additional requirements for refuse storage and disposal.

◗ THE IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR CHAPTER XVII OF


PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 856

Code on Sanitation, Chapter on Refuse Disposal


These rules provide specific guidelines for integrated solid waste management. It defines the
scope of segregation, recycling, and collection activities to support segregation.

26 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
OVERVIEW OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR 2

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 825

Providing Penalty for Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms of Uncleanliness and
for Other Purposes (1975)
This Decree provides rules and penalties covering sanitation of residences, commercial and
industrial establishments, institutions and their immediate premises.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 552


The Decree prescribes sanitation requirements for the operation of establishments and facilities
catering to the traveling public.

◗ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3931

Pollution Control Law (1976)


This Act penalizes the throwing, running, draining, or disposition into Philippine waters and/or
atmospheric air any matter or substance in gaseous or liquid form that shall cause the pollution
of such waters or atmospheric air.

◗ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 67

Water Code
This PD revives and consolidates laws governing the ownership, appropriation, utilization,
exploitation, development conservation and protection of water resources.

◗ COMMONWEALTH ACT 383

Water Pollution
This Act provides punishment for the dumping of refuse or substances of any kind that may
cause the rising or filling of river beds or the blockage of streams.

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CHAPTER 3
POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
AND CONCERNS
POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS

❙ LGU AWARENESS OF EXISTING POLICIES

◗ LOW LEVEL OF AWARENESS OR KNOWLEDGE OF LGUS OF RA 9003 AND DAO


CHAPTER
3
2001-34 (IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS)

To effectively implement and enforce RA 9003, LGU officials need to know or be familiar with the
law’s provisions and IRR. Unfortunately, this is presently not the case. Many LGU officials and even
LGU staff, who are directly responsible for solid waste management, remain unfamiliar with their
responsibilities because of insufficient or inadequate information dissemination.

Specific provisions of RA 9003 that are not commonly known by LGUs comprise the following:

Establishment of Solid Waste Management Boards. RA 9003 requires LGUs to perform this initial
act. The boards need to be constituted within six months from the effectivity date of the IRR. Although
the IRR took effect in January 2002, LGUs had only until July 2002 to create the boards. While there
are a number of LGUs that have actually established their respective boards, they comprise only
a small percentage and are often first- and second-class LGUs.

Creation of the Barangay Solid Waste Management Committee. RA 9003 provides that
segregation and collection of solid waste shall be conducted at the barangay level, specifically for
biodegradable and reusable waste. The said law also provides for the establishment of a materials
recovery facility (MRF) in every barangay or cluster of barangays. For these reasons, a Barangay Solid
Waste Management Committee is to be created.

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3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ POLICY ISSUES

◗ THERE ARE PROVISIONS IN THE LAW THAT DO NOT APPLY TO MANY LGUs

An example would be the establishment of the Solid Waste Management Boards, with the
prescribed membership. RA 9003 provides that the Solid Waste Management Boards at the
provincial, city, and municipal levels shall include the following, among others, as members:

€ A representative from NGOs whose principal purpose is to promote recycling and the protection
of air and water quality
€ A representative from the recycling industry
€ A representative from the manufacturing or packaging industry

The reality is that no such NGOs, recycling, manufacturing, or packaging industries exist within the
jurisdiction of some LGUs. Given this situation, questions arise regarding the composition of the
board. In particular, can these boards be established even without these representatives? RA
9003 and its IRR are silent on this matter.

◗ THERE ARE PROVISIONS IN THE LAW THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO COMPLY WITH
WITHIN THE GIVEN TIMEFRAME

The law provides an insufficient period for the closure of controlled dumps. RA 9003 provides that
within three (3) years after the law takes effect, every LGU shall convert its open dumps into
controlled dumps, and that no controlled dumps shall be allowed five years after the said effectivity
(Section 37). Note that RA 9003 took effect in year 2001. Therefore, in accordance with the said
provision, all open dumps should have been converted to controlled dumps by the year 2004.
Furthermore, by the year 2006, even controlled dumps shall be prohibited and these will be
replaced by sanitary landfills. Due to the technical and financial requirements of these measures,
many LGUs believe they will be unable to comply with the law.

32 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS 3

◗ THERE ARE GAPS IN THE LAW THAT COULD POSE SERIOUS PROBLEMS TO
LGUs AND COMMUNITIES.

RA 9003 requires a post-closure procedure for closed dumpsites and sanitary landfills, but there
is no prohibition on their potential use. Some LGUs are already planning to develop their closed
dumpsites into parks and aviaries. However, the biodegradable waste in these dumpsites will
generate methane gas for 30 to 50 years after closure. Methane gas, in small quantities (i.e., 5% of
air) is explosive and could be dangerous. There will also be significant differential settlement of the
landfill cap. Consequently, in countries such as Canada and the United States, a closed landfill site
cannot be used for 30 years after closure.

❙ LGU SWM PLANS AND ORDINANCES

◗ MANY LGUs POSSESS LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OF SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT.

Current solid waste management services being delivered by most LGUs are mainly the “collect and
dispose”type of system. That is, waste is collected from waste generators such as households and
businesses and disposed at disposal sites, which, more often than not, are open dumps. LGUs are
largely unaware of the concept of integrated SWM— its scope and the range of options they can
consider.

◗ MANY OF THE LGUs’ SWM-RELATED ORDINANCES ARE PIECEMEAL AND


GENERALLY NOT ENFORCED.

Most, if not all, LGUs have existing ordinances that deal with solid waste. Examples of these are anti-
littering and anti-dumping ordinances. In most cases, these ordinances deal with a single concern.
They do not address the solid waste management concerns of LGUs in an integrated manner mainly

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3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

because these ordinances are formulated without an overall framework for the management of
solid waste. Worse, these ordinances are seldom strictly enforced, primarily due to the lack of
enforcers and funds.

◗ MANY OF THE EXISTING LGU ORDINANCES ARE STILL INCONSISTENT WITH RA


9003

LGUs are required under the IRR (Rule XIX, Section 4) to legislate appropriate ordinances to aid them
in the implementation of their plans. A basic requirement for these ordinances, therefore, is that
they should be consistent and in accordance with the provisions of RA 9003. Since RA 9003 came
into effect only in 2000 and the IRR was issued only in January 2002, many LGUs have yet to
review their existing ordinances and legislations.

❙ FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS
◗ INSUFFICIENCY OF FUNDS TO IMPLEMENT AND ENFORCE RA 9003

Most LGUs allocate minimal budgets for solid waste management services, except perhaps for the
highly urbanized LGUs. Thus, LGUs are unable to hire the necessary personnel, acquire and
maintain equipment, maintain disposal sites, or even contract out solid waste management
services to private contractors. Consequently, LGUs are unable to provide the necessary and
appropriate solid waste management services.

RA 9003 requires LGUs to undertake the following:

(a) Establish a Solid Waste Management Board


(b) Formulate and/or develop a solid waste management plan
(c) Implement the plan

34 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
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(d) Establish a materials recovery facility in every barangay or cluster of barangays


(e) Convert open dumps to controlled dumps and subsequently close controlled dumps
(f ) Establish acceptable waste disposal facilities such as sanitary landfills

All these measures require funds. While some of these procedures may require small amounts, others
entail disbursements of big amounts by LGUs as required, for instance, by MRFs or sanitary landfills.
Most LGUs lack the skills and expertise in generating or sourcing funds to undertake the above
actions.

◗ LGUs VIEW SWM AS A COST CENTER

Many LGUs think that solid waste management services are a cost center that will take away
resources that could be used in other endeavors or projects. This perspective dampens their
enthusiasm in delivering SWM services. Only a few LGUs have realized that SWM can, in fact, be an
economic venture or enterprise as some have begun to earn revenue from delivering these
services. (Section 47 of RA 9003 and Rule 17 of its IRR authorize LGUs to collect solid waste
management fees.)

To address the financial aspect of implementing SWM activities, LGUs can tap private enterprises
to help set up and fund specific activities, as illustrated by the municipality of Midsayap, Cotabato
and the cities of Silang in Cavite and Makati.

LGUs can also see to it that there is strict compliance with the law—they can slap erring
establishments and residents with penalties, as did the province of Bulacan and the city of Puerto
Princesa in Palawan. The money collected from penalties can then be used to fund other SWM
projects.

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3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES

◗ LGUs’ INADEQUATE TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES

A number of the requirements of RA 9003 require a certain degree of technical expertise or


knowledge, such as the preparation and development of solid waste management plans, and the
setting up of materials recovery facilities and sanitary landfills. Sadly, most LGUs are not technically
equipped to undertake such activities and lack the information on sources of technical assistance.

One noteworthy example for LGUs is the experience of Sta. Maria, Bulacan. The town forged a
partnership with NGOs and private enterprises to set up a waste management scheme. To address
technical capability problems of the town, the group tapped the expertise of the Department of
Science and Technology.

◗ SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES ARE ASSIGNED TO MULTIPLE LGU


UNITS, OFTEN ON AN AD HOC BASIS

Most LGUs lack a single office in charge of solid waste management services. Often several
departments such as Engineering, General Services, and Municipal Planning and Development are
involved. This affects the effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery of solid waste management
services for several reasons:

(a) The principal or main function of each office is not the delivery of solid waste management
services. Each office has its own principal function and priorities, and the delivery of solid waste
management services is regarded as a secondary or added activity.
(b) The delivery of the services depends on not just one, but also several offices. Thus, if one
office fails to perform or has different priorities, the entire operation is affected.
(c) The coordination of activities among the different offices becomes a problem.
(d) When questions of responsibility and accountability arise, finger pointing commonly occurs.

36 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS 3

❙ COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

◗ SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IS MISTAKENLY PERCEIVED AS A FREE SERVICE


UNDER THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LGU.

Communities and businesses maintain this perception, which is reinforced by the belief that
electing officials and paying taxes makes the problem of solid waste the sole concern of LGUs.
Unfortunately, this attitude affects the effectiveness and efficiency of SWM.

However, communities need to realize that: (a) solid waste is a concern of all; (b) they have
important and necessary functions and responsibilities in solid waste management; and (c) they
have to pay for the service. Social preparation should thus be an important element of an SWM plan.

LGUs might find the information, education and communications activities of Bustos, Bulacan; Manila;
Passi City, Iloilo; Guimaras Province; Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental; and Sibulan, Negros Oriental
helpful in addressing the issue of community involvement in solid waste management. These
activities are briefly discussed in the next section, “Good Practices in Solid Waste Management.”

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 37
CHAPTER 4
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

T
CHAPTER

his chapter is divided into two parts. The first part presents examples of good practices in
solid waste management in the Philippines. The second part provides examples of good
practices done in other countries, particularly in Asia and the United States. These good
4
practices can inspire and motivate LGUs, as well as business establishments, in preparing their own
solid waste management programs.

In both parts, examples of good practices are given for the various aspects of solid waste
management, such as social preparedness and public awareness, networking activities for
fundraising, and technological solutions to the problem (e.g., recycling plants and composting).
The sources of these good practices as well as contact information people responsible for these
programs are also supplied in this chapter.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Social Preparation and Networking


THE BUSTOS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program, launched in 1993, has two
Contact Information major components: social preparation and actual implementation. An
Office of the Mayor extensive information and education campaign on proper waste disposal and
Bustos, Bulacan
Tel. No. (044) 766-2176 management prepared the community for the different waste management
activities. These activities included the following: (1) construction of compost
pits; (2) construction of storage bins for recyclable wastes; (3) maintaining
cleanliness in yards and streets; (4) planting vegetables, trees, and flowers in gardens; and
(5) motivating other residents to join the movement.

The municipality received the 1997-1998 Galing Pook Award for its “Community Mobilization
for Zero Waste Management Program,” as one of the Top 10 Outstanding Programs.

Source: “The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Social Preparation and Networking


THE DALAW KALINISAN PROGRAM

The Dalaw Kalinisan Program is an outreach type of information and


education campaign on solid waste management. It seeks to bring Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
information to different generators through visits, fora, seminars, and
Passi City, Iloilo
training. “Dalaw” targets are schools, subdivisions, barangays, people’s Tel. No. (033) 311-5087
organizations, institutions, and big business establishments.
Acting CENRO
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002. City Agriculture Office
Passi City, Iloilo
Tel. No. (033) 311-5686

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Social Preparation and Networking


MANILA ECOLOGICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT

The Ecological Waste Management Project of Manila was modeled after the
Contact Information Santa Maria, Bulacan experience. It was designed and implemented by a
Office of the Mayor
partnership of organized hawkers and vendors in cooperation with the
Manila City
Tel. (02) 527-4920 government and the private sector. The project’s major feature is its strong
Telefax (02) 527-4991 emphasis on training and community participation. Unilever Philippines
initiated the project when it became concerned about the clogging up of the
City Planning and
Paca Canal that runs through its facility. A study on the origin of the waste
Development Office
Manila City conducted by a university-based NGO showed that 40 percent of the waste
Tel. No. (02) 527- clogging the canal came from the local market, another 40 percent from local
4931/0980 low income and squatter communities, and the rest from uncontrolled
dumping upstream.
OIC Department Services
Manila City
Tel. No. (02) 527- The problem was compounded by an unreliable waste collection system and
9636/9638 the lack of sanitary infrastructure in the city. Community meetings were
held, which included the Hawkers Associations, the Vendors cooperative, the
LGU, Unilever, and the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). To
be effective, meetings were organized in all areas of work and residence, and many
concerned individuals attended. As a result, initial drafts on improved local environmental
management were formulated. Subsequently, a waste collectors’ cooperative was
established; local waste collection and segregation was organized. Today, non-biodegradable
materials are sold for recycling. Organic materials are being composted and sold as soil
conditioner. Members of the cooperative, which number over 1,000, will own the
composting plant currently being set up.
Source: http:/www.unilever.com.ph/env-external.asp

44 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Social Preparation and Networking


GUIMARAS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT

In 1997, the provincial government of Guimaras developed a project that


Contact Information
would integrate all solid waste management initiatives on the island by
Office of the Governor
involving the communities and business sector. The project is an innovation Guimaras Province
in three ways. First, it integrated the planning and implementation aspects
of solid waste management for the island. While an integrated approach to
planning already existed, integrated implementation was an innovation. Second, the
project showed an unprecedented partnership between government and business. And
third, this was the first time that an initiative proactively addressed a concern before it
became unmanageable.Project participants have gained an appreciation for the value of
teamwork.

Participants have said that with teamwork, they could now effectively deal with pertinent
concerns, which they could not address if working independently. Besides gaining
knowledge on waste management, participants have also learned the power of participation
and partnership on matters that affect their lives. Finally, community groups and provincial
businesses have used their newly acquired knowledge by starting small-scale community
recycling and composting projects that yield income.

Source: “Creating a Clean Environment: Engaging Communities in Waste Management Project (downloaded from
the Internet).”

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Social Preparation and Networking


METRO DUMAGUETE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

The cluster of Dumaguete City, Bacong, Sibulan, and Valencia decided to work
Contact Information towards an inter-LGU solid waste management program. The cluster aimed
Metro Dumaguete
to: (1) develop, through citizen collaboration, an effective and workable
Solid Waste
Management Program waste management program; (2) identify and implement strategic “doable”
Secretariat actions that LGUs and citizens can immediately undertake while long-range
City Planning and investments were being arranged; and (3) promote an inter-LGU sharing of
Development Office
resources and capabilities under the sponsorship of the Metro Dumaguete
Dumaguete City
Tel. No. (035) 225-0386 Development Council.

A coordinating office for solid waste management was created and an Action
Officer was appointed to oversee the implementation of the program.

Source: “The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and
Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Social Preparation and Networking


SIBULAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

In 1996, Sibulan joined the other towns that make up Metro Dumaguete Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
(Bacong, Valencia, and Dumaguete City) in a series of “sharing workshops”
Sibulan, Negros Oriental
that eventually gave birth to the Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Tel. No. (035) 225-0386
Program. Following the suggestions generated from the workshops, Sibulan
formed its Municipal Action Team (MAT) and Integrated Solid Waste Metro Dumaguete
Solid Waste Mgt.
Management Program.
Secretariat
Municipal Planning and
The program is integrated in the sense that it is geared toward enhancing Development Office
and complementing other municipal projects like sanitation and health. The Dumaguete City
Tel. No. (035) 225-0386
information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns of the
education team made people aware of their role in an integrated approach
to solving the garbage problem. The program enabled barangay leaders to take up the
crusade against trash. The MAT set the stage for key program actors by preparing training
modules for market vendors, teachers, and households.

Source: “The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and
Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


THE OPLAN DALUS TASK FORCE

The Oplan Dalus Task Force, through the Laoag City Agriculturist Office,
Contact Information required all farming barangays to set up their respective composting facilities.
Project Manager
Composting is hastened by the application of trichoderma, a compost fungus
Oplan Dalus Task Force
Laoag, Ilocos Norte activator produced at the Trichoderma Laboratory, City Agriculturist Office.
Tel. No. (077) 773-1767
The benefits of composting include the production of organic fertilizer for the
City Agriculturist Office
use of farmers, protection of soil from excessive application of chemical
Laoag , Ilocos Norte
Tel. No. (077) 772-0954 fertilizers, and reduction of waste.

Action Officer Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002.
Oplan Dalus Task Force
Laoag, Ilocos Norte
Tel. No. (077) 773-1992

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


MARILAO ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEM

The municipality of Marilao produces organic fertilizer by adapting and


improving the basic technology used in the Ecological Resource Recovery Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
System of Sta. Maria, Bulacan. Trucks collect biodegradable waste on Marilao, Bulacan
separate days from the non-biodegradable materials. DOST provides the Tel. No. (044) 711-3142
technology for producing a composting activator called trichoderma, which
eliminates foul odors and hastens the decay of biodegradable wastes. The
mayor has also identified a point person responsible for managing the composting facility.

Sources: “The Marilao Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999 “Helping Citizens Earn from Solid Waste.” Local Governance Technical Notes
4-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


STA. MARIA ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEM

The LGU forged partnerships to work out a viable waste management scheme
Contact Information for the town with a nongovernment organization, the Sta. Maria Economic
Office of the Mayor
Sta. Maria, Bulacan
Foundation, and a private enterprise, the Associated Waste Administration and
Tel Nos. (044) 641-0000 Recycling Enterprise (AWARE). Later, the partners invited the Department of
Fax: (+6344) 641-0000 Science and Technology to provide technical support for the project. The LGUs
Email: waste processing and recycling plant processes biodegradable materials
stamaria@mozcom.com
from public market waste into organic fertilizer. The sale of organic fertilizers
and recyclable materials provides funds for the plant’s operations.

The municipality received the 1995-1996 Galing Pook Award for their “Ecological Waste
Management Program,” as one of the Top 10 Outstanding Programs.

Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No.
98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


SAN FERNANDO CITY COMPOSTING CENTER

The local government of the city of San Fernando, Pampanga established


a composting center for processing waste from the slaughterhouse and two Contact Information
City Agriculturist
public markets in the city. Manure from the slaughterhouse is used to
Action Officer
enhance the decomposition of biodegradable wastes. Trichoderma spp. is City Solid Waste
also used as fungus activator for rapid composting. Management Board
San Fernando City,
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002. Pampanga
Tel. No. (072) 961-4054

Officer-in-Charge
Composting Center
Del Pilar San Fernando
City, Pampanga
Tel. No. (072) 961-5577

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


BALIK INANG KALIKASAN, BALIK AMANG PABRIKA (BIKBAP) PROGRAM

After the closure of the Carmona landfill, the LGU took bold steps to address
Contact Information its worsening garbage problem and came up with the Balik Inang Kalikasan,
Municipal Environment
Balik Amang Pabrika (BIKBAP) Program. At present, the SWM system is
and Natural Resources
Officer implemented in 10 out of 14 barangays in Carmona.
Rm. 208, J.M. Loyola St.,
Carmona, Cavite Activities of the BIKBAP
Tel. No. (046) 430-3004
Fax No. (046) 430-1001
€ Massive educational campaign through barangay seminars, house-to-
house campaigns, eco-tours, slogan-making contests, etc.
€ Organization of a BIKBAP Volunteers’ Group from different NGOs, religious groups,
and other institutions. These volunteers actively participate in all EWM activities.
€ Enforcement of the Comprehensive Ecological Solid Waste Management ordinance. The
Sangguniang Bayan has enacted a municipal ordinance imposing penalties on those
violating solid waste management ordinances. Half of the fine is an incentive, which goes
to the person who apprehended the violator, while the other half goes to the local
treasury.
€ Operation of the Carmona Ecology Center, a waste processing facility using a low-cost,
low-technology and modular system to produce high-quality compost from
biodegradable waste.
€ Enforcement of sorting biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes at source,
regular collection of sorted waste, recovery and selling of recyclable waste to junkshops
and recycling factories.
€ Creation of livelihood projects based on recycling such as paper crafts and other
indigenous materials.

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The Carmona Ecology Center (CEC)

The Carmona Ecology Center (CEC) houses a composting area that processes biodegradable waste
collected from all the 14 barangays of the municipality. It is equipped with four units of two-tonner
composters and a shredder. Manned by four “ecoboys,” the CEC receives about 3,000 kilograms of
materials for composting daily. The composting process takes approximately two to three weeks. The
CEC uses Happy Soil to hasten composting. Coconut shreddings are added to control the moisture and
minimize lycheate. The harvested organic compost is given to local farmers and sold to the public.As
an offshoot of the CEC, an organic demo farm has been set up by the LGU and managed by the local
Agriculturist’s Office. This farm uses the compost produced in the CEC and the produce is sold in the
Carmona public market.The CEC has become a major learning site in Cavite. Various LGUs from different
parts of the country, nongovernment organizations, private institutions, and individuals have visited the
center for a series of eco and lakbay-aral field trips. The LGU of Carmona, showcasing the operation of
the center, has also hosted international and local trainings.

Sources: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management. 2002.


Guinto, Ma. Bella A.. Paper presented during the August 6, 2002 RTD.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


DASMARIÑAS ECOLOGY CENTER

The Dasmariñas Ecology Center is a public-NGO-community partnership


Contact Information started in February 2001. The Citizen’s Brigade of Dasmariñas (CBD)
Citizen’s Brigade of
Dasmariñas spearheaded project, by making use of LGU resources. The Ecology Center
Dasmariñas, Cavite houses a composting facility with two units of two-tonner rotating drums, a
Tel. No. (046) 416-4457 shredder, vegetable presser, and redemption center for recyclables.

CBD’s counterpart covers the use of the site and the infrastructure costs, as well as food
allowance for the center’s three full-time workers. The LGU counterpart includes the
equipment, salaries, operating and maintenance costs of the center. The pedicabs used for
waste collection were donated by the LGU, the Homeowners’Association of the subdivisions,
and the barangay.

Source: CBD Brochure, April 2002

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


SILANG WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Started in 1997, the Silang Waste Management Program is a public-private Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
collaboration between an NGO, the Institute for the Development of
Silang, Cavite
Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc. (IDEAS, Inc.), a people’s Tel. No. (046) 414-
organization, the Silang Zero Waste Action Team (SZWAT) and the local 0202/414-0201
government of Silang.
Executive Director
IDEAS, Inc.
The program provides for the segregated collection of solid waste in the 3/F CI Main Building
poblacion’s barangays and the public market. The local government 192 J. Rizal St.,
manages the residual facility, the PO helps in information dissemination Silang, Cavite
Telefax: (046) 414-0297
among community members, while the NGO manages a materials recovery
E-mail:
facility where biodegradables are composted and recyclables are stored. ideas@philwebinc.com
Composting is done in a fermenting tank with a capacity to hold 100 cubic
meters of biodegradables.

Source: Silang Waste Management Program brochure, April 2002

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


LIPA CITY SIPAGLAKAS PROGRAM

The Sipaglakas Program of Lipa City evolved from mere street sweeping
Contact Information and cleaning the public market to household-level waste segregation,
Office of the Mayor
Lipa City, Batangas barangay-level waste collection, and dumpsite management improvement.
Tel No. (043) 561-1453 The city established an inter-agency working committee on sanitation and
environment protection system as the body responsible for program
management. Surprise visits to participating barangays and monthly meetings
by recycling movement groups of barangays ensure compliance with the program.

Lipa City collects substantial fees and demands strict enforcement of its program. By
achieving modest successes in collection efficiency, Lipa City has demonstrated that
discipline can be inculcated and reinforced among the city’s residents.

Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No.
98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


BRGY.TUNASAN ECO-CENTER

The establishment of Eco-Centers is a community-based project set up by


the Muntinlupa City Eco-Waste Management Board in 1999. It minimizes Contact Information
Chairman
waste through segregation, recycling and composting. The “3-in-1” Eco-
Committee on Health
Center inside Sto. Niño Village in Barangay Tunasan features not only a and Sanitation
Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) but also a livelihood component (paper Muntinlupa City
crafts and composting). Telefax (02) 543-0759

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management,2002 ECO-CENTER


Sto. Niño Village,
Brgy. Tunasan,
Muntinlupa City
Tel. No. (02) 773-4914

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


CALOOCAN CITY MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY

Caloocan City’s Materials Recovery Facility was launched by ECOSERVE in


Contact Information cooperation with the Environmental Sanitation Services. The facility, located
Office of the Mayor
in Barangay 171 District 1 shows how segregation, composting, and recycling
Caloocan City,
Metro Manila of waste can be done on a large scale.
Tel. No. (02) 364-9852
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


VALENCIA, NEGROS ORIENTAL

The municipal government organized and trained barangay trainers on


livelihood opportunities in waste recycling. The Municipal Engineer’s office Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
held initial discussions on establishing a materials recovery center and
Valencia, Negros Oriental
setting collection systems and schedules for recyclable materials. Tel. No. (035) 225-4875

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


BUTUAN CITY BARANGAY-BASED MRF

Butuan City has a pilot project for a barangay-based MRF in Barangay J.P. Rizal.
Contact Information
The project aims to minimize waste and generate income with the planned
Barangay Captain
Brgy. J. P. Rizal, installation of five MRFs. Income from the sale of recycled materials is used
Butuan City by the barangay in road repair and maintenance, urban greening, street
Tel. No. (085) 342-3205 lighting, and incentives for Eco-aides.
Environment and Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002
Natural Resources
Office
c/o CARBDP Building,
Doongan, Butuan City
Tel. No. (085) 225-2671

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Composting, Recycling, Operations of Materials Recovery Facility


ZAMBOANGA CITY MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY

In compliance with RA 9003, the city government of Zamboanga established


three MRFs to cover communities within a seven-kilometer radius. These Contact Information
Department Head
MRFs include facilities for segregation of non-biodegradables and
City General Services
composting of biodegradables. Office
Zamboanga City
The composting center at the Sta. Cruz market, which handles about 10 Tel. No. (082) 991-3221
Telefax (082) 991-3095
metric tons of biodegradables a day, is equipped with a conveyor system,
composter drums, hammermills/shredder/decorticator, rotary screeners, and
mechanized baggers. Forty-four contract workers do the unloading, segregation, and
processing of compost in the center.

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Garbage Collection
OLONGAPO CITY INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM

Launched in 1989, the distinctive features of the Integrated Solid Waste


Contact Information Collection System are the required use of prescribed plastic bags for collection,
Office of the Mayor the use of public address systems atop garbage trucks to air a program
Olongapo City
Tel. No. (047) 222-2565 jingle, strict collection schedules, and the billing and payment of garbage fees
together with electricity charges. The Waste Management System operates
Environmental on garbage fee collections; in fact, it has been generating a surplus from its
Sanitation and operations. Olongapo City’s waste management system is self-financing
Management Office
Olongapo City and is thus, sustainable.
Tel. No. (047) 223-4528/
224-9346 A social pricing system was adopted for the service fees: charges were based
Fax No. (047) 222-4777 on the ability to pay so that businesses, professionals, and other higher-
income groups paid more than ordinary residents. Garbage fee collection was
kept simple by synchronizing billing and collection with the electricity bill. Citation tickets
were issued if premises were unclean. The city received the “Award of Excellence, National
Winner for the Cleanest and Greenest LGU” (city category) in 1997 and the “Galing Pook”
Award in 1994 for its waste management program.

Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No.
98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Garbage Collection
MARIKINA CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT OFFICE

The Waste Management Office (WMO) administers the solid waste collection Contact Information
Waste Management
and disposal operations in the city. The city has at present 18 compactor and
Office
eight dump trucks. These trucks collect garbage from 14 barangays on a Marikina City
regular twice and week schedule. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable Tel No. (02) 948-1205
wastes are separately collected by compactor trucks. The waste is then
transported to a garbage transfer station where large dump trucks wait to
transport the garbage to the sanitary landfill site presently situated in San Mateo, Rizal. The
use of a garbage transfer station enables Marikina to boast of a garbage collection
efficiency of 98 percent. The operation of a garbage transfer station substantially reduced
the breakdown of equipment and increased the number of trips of garbage compactors,
resulting in reduced costs of garbage collection. The city’s initiatives on waste management,
earned Marikina the championship in the “Search for the Cleanest and Greenest Municipality
in the National and Capital Region”in 1994, 1995, and 1996, and thus placing it in the Hall
of Fame for the same contest. Apart from this recognition, the city also placed second in
the search for the “Cleanest and Greenest Municipality in the whole Philippines."

Source: Marikina City’s website ( www.marikina.com.ph )

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Garbage Collection
CRUZADA LABAN SA BASURA

The City ENRO was able to collect and dispose garbage efficiently by modifying
Contact Information schedules and rerouting all garbage trucks. This move resulted in reduced fuel
Chairman
costs and avoidance of traffic congestion because collection in the main
Commission on
Environment and Ecology streets was done at night up to early morning.Naga City launched the
Sangguniang Panlunsod “Cruzada Laban sa Basura” campaign and inaugurated a Materials Recovery
Naga City Center and Composting Area in Barangay Bagumbayan Sur.
Tel. (054) 473-2051 / 1898
Telefax: (054) 811-1286
This campaign is in line with the program to protect the environment through
City ENRO an effective and sustainable garbage disposal program. The city entered
Naga City into a joint venture agreement with a private company for the processing of
Tel: (054) 473-1479/0775
biodegradable waste into organic fertilizer.

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.Waste Matters Vol. 1 No. 1 (November
2001): 4. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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Garbage Collection
AMLAN WASTE SEGREGATION

The municipality of Amlan started implementing waste segregation at


source in 1999. It seemed impossible at first because of resistance from the Contact Information
Municipal Planning &
residents but the implementors encouraged them to adopt the scheme. After
Development
two years, 60 percent of the residents in three pilot barangays began Coordinator
practicing segregation at source. To support segregation at source, collection Municipality of Amlan,
and disposal of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste are done Negros Oriental
Telefax (035) 417-0034
separately.

Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Garbage Collection
GENERAL SANTOS GARBAGE COLLECTION

Strategies for improving garbage collection in General Santos


Contact Information included modifying routes and reducing the crew to a maximum of
Office of the Mayor
Tel No. (083) 553-5042 three, excluding the driver. The new procedures on garbage collection
also reduced waste collection trips (from six trips to two or three a
Solid Waste day). This improvement was complemented by simultaneous
Management Council campaigns for segregation and recycling. The city government also
General Santos City
Tel No. (083) 553-5042 improved the management of the dumpsite while preparing a new
landfill.

Source: “Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical
Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Enforcement
SINOP-KALAT, LUNTIANG KAPALIGIRAN

The provincial government of Bulacan launched “Sinop-Kalat, Luntiang


Kapaligiran,” one of its environmental management initiatives. By virtue of Contact Information
Department Head
Provincial Ordinance 98-03, provincial grounds and all lands owned by the
Provincial ENRO
provincial government were declared green zones. The ordinance penalizes PENRO, Province of
littering with fines and/or imprisonment. Bulacan
Tel. No. (044) 791-6365/
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002. 791-0209 loc. 110

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Enforcement
OPLAN LINIS PROGRAM

The Oplan Linis Program was set up to promote among its citizens a
Contact Information sense of urgency, concern, and responsibility for the cleanliness of the
Oplan Linis Project
Manager community. The program all its citizens in program monitoring and
New City Hall, evaluation, and involves volunteers in various components. Anti-littering
Sta. Monica, Puerto ordinances were enacted with sanctions for violations. Enforcement
Princesa City, Palawan efforts are truly serious—even the mayor and a visiting senator were
Tel. No. (048) 433-2028/
433-2249 fined. The city has repeatedly been adjudged the “Cleanest and Greenest
Components City in the Philippines.

”Source: “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers No.
98-06. . Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

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Enforcement
LANAO DEL NORTE INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

The Integrated Solid Waste Management Program of the province aims to


reduce and minimize its garbage problem. Through a series of workshops Contact Information
Office of the Provincial
and consultations, the framework on SWM was widely adopted in three
Governor
coastal municipalities. The implementation of the program has met standards Province of Lanao del
in terms of waste generation, collection, and disposal. Ordinances in the Norte
municipal levels have been passed and adopted. Continuing campaigns on Tel. No. (063) 341-524
Fax No. (063) 341-5345
waste segregation efforts have been sustained, especially among market
vendors and other groups. ENR Officer
Province of Lanao del
Source: SWAPP Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002. Norte
Tel. No. (063) 341-5925

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Enforcement
OPERATION PULOT BASURA

Kibawe observes strict implementation of an anti-littering policy, cleanliness


Contact Information program, and the proper collection and disposal of domestic waste and garbage.
Office of the Mayor
Locals have made “Operation Pulot Basura” a way of life. The municipal
Kibawe, Bukidnon
government, for its part, has installed sanitary rest rooms and has started to
privatize comfort rooms located in public places. It has been a consistent
regional winner/finalist and national finalist in the “Search for the Cleanest and Greenest
LGU in the Philippines.”

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Enforcement
KIAMBA SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Waste appraisal was a major factor in shaping the integrated solid waste
management program of the local government. Previously perceived as a Contact Information
Municipal Environment
purely government action, solid waste management of Kiamba has now
and Natural Resources
become a concern for all. Citizen’s participation helped the local government Office
make waste receptacles user-friendly, clarify pick-up points for solid waste, Kiamba, Sarangani
and challenge the lack of enforcement of pertinent legislation. The
municipality’s proactive approach also sustained the participation and
support of the private sector through payment of a polluters and garbage
collection fee from each household and business establishment.

Source: “Appraising the Nature of Solid Waste in the Locality.” Local Governance Technical Notes 2-1999. Makati:
Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.
“Improving Dumpsite Operations with Limited Budget.” Local Governance Technical Notes 7-1999. Makati:
Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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Enforcement
LINAMON INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE

In 1999, the Integrated Solid Waste Management Task Force was formed in
Contact Information Linamon to seek solutions to their garbage problem. By virtue of Special Order
Office of the Mayor
No. 02-25 Series of 1999, issued by the municipal mayor, the Order enhanced
Tel No. (063) 227-0221
multisectoral people’s participation in law enforcement of the integrated solid
waste management ordinance, market code, and the municipal revenue code.
Enforcers were chosen from the ranks of nominees submitted by NGOs, market vendor
associations, inland and coastal barangay captains, good organizations, and the business sector.
Enforcers were made to attend a workshop before being deployed as teams to specific
areas within the municipality (i.e., market places, jeepney terminals, commercial areas). PNP
officers detailed in these areas served as backup to the teams in implementing SWM
ordinances.

Linamon’s “Basura Atras, Linamon Abante Program”basically follows the 5 Es of solid waste
management:

Education – It took years and an aggressive information, education and communication


campaign (IEC) for the LGU to mobilize its constituents. One measure in place is the
integration of a three-hour Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) orientation into the
pre-marriage counseling seminar in barangays. All households are given a complete list of
penalties and fees imposed for every type of SWM violation. Billboards were also put up in
strategic locations.

Engineering – One example is the non-placement of garbage cans along highways. Instead,
these are put in public places.

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Enforcement – About 140 enforcers have now been deputized. For instance, households that do not have
compost pits are fined and their domestic garbage are not collected until they have constructed their own
compost pits.

Equity – The LGU has allocated P1.2 M for the implementation of the program.Environmental organization
– The LGU has created a Municipal Environment and Sanitation Office to manage its SWM program.

Source: “The Linamon Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local Democracy
(GOLD) Project. October 1999. Presentation of Mayor Cherlito Macas during the Aug. 6 RTD.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Disposal Facilities
SAN FERNANDO CITY SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

The City of San Fernando improved its solid waste facility while simultaneously
Contact Information promoting simple waste segregation among its citizens to ensure widespread
Office of the Mayor acceptability. A seven-hectare land was transformed from a dumpsite to a
San Fernando, La Union
Tel. Nos. (072) 252-5601/ covered garbage disposal in 1998. It is expected to provide the city with a
242-5605 sanitary landfill for the next 15 years. The present site has been recommended
Fax Nos. (072) 888-2003/ because there are few residents nearby; the ground is clayish (and will thus
242-3931 minimize the contamination of the groundwater and the aquifer caused by
leachate); and it is far from geologic faults, airports, and natural and historic
areas. The city has to maintain its ongoing clean and green program. The greening
program is planned not only for parks and other green areas but also for the city’s major
thoroughfares. A program to educate the community and thus facilitate its active
participation is also planned. The city provides information and technical assistance on waste
reduction through reuse and recycling, and composting opportunities.

Source: Official website of the City of San Fernando, La Union (www.sflu.com) The San Fernando City Solid Waste
Management Program: “Practices That Work.” October 1999.

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Disposal Facilities
ODIONGAN DUMPSITE

A four-hectare controlled dumpsite in Odiongan, Romblon is serving eight


poblacion barangays that generate 80 cubic meters of waste a day. The Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
controlled dumpsite includes a leachate collection system and uses natural
Odiongan, Romblon
clay as liner. The Odiongan’s Ecological Waste Management Program also
includes the setting up of a composting facility and a redemption center for
recyclables.

Source: Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2001): 7. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management
Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Disposal Facilities
BROOKE’S POINT DUMPSITE

The open dumpsite of Brooke’s Point was converted into a controlled dumpsite
Contact Information in 1999 with the help of the GOLD Project. After waste is delivered, a bulldozer
Office of the Mayor
regularly pushes and covers the trash with a thin layer of soil or rice hull and
Brooke’s Point, Palawan
Environmentally then compacts it. A green buffer strip was installed and is being maintained
Sustainable jointly by the local government and the families engaged in waste recovery.
Development Office The area was fenced off and scavengers are not allowed to live in it. Squatters
Brooke’s Point, Palawan
on some portions of the land within the dumpsite were even asked to move
Tel. No. (048) 423-1141 to
43 out.

Source: “The Brooke’s Point Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Governance
and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

76 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Disposal Facilities
LINGUNAN CONTROLLED DUMPSITE

The 15-hectare Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite in Valenzuela City was opened


in 1998. Since then, the city’s Solid Waste Management Office has integrated Contact Information
Office of the Mayor
several innovations in its management—using carbonized rice hulls as cover,
Tel. No. (02) 292-
spraying the site with deodorizer and insecticide whenever necessary, 1311/0211
regularly cleaning trucks, maintaining a nursery for greening the controlled Fax (02) 292-93-49
dump and the city, reducing waste in every barangay, and monitoring illegal
Planning and
dumping activities.
Development
Coordinator
Source: Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1, (November 2001): 7. Official Publication of the Solid Waste
Management Association of the Philippines., Makati.
Valenzuela City,
Telefax (02) 293-4592

Solid Waste
Management Office
Valenzuela City
Tel. No. 294-4856

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Disposal Facilities
DUMAGUETE CITY DUMPSITE

The city government worked with various civic groups to improve the
Contact Information dumpsite by converting it into a controlled dumping facility with a park
Office of the Mayor
and nursery. An integrated solid waste management ordinance was enforced,
Dumaguete City
Tel. No. (035) 422-6336/ resulting in the establishment of composting and barangay materials recovery
420-1274 centers, waste segregation and recycling at household and residential
subdivision levels, improved waste collection routes, and imposition of more
City Planning and
realistic collection fees. This integrated solid waste management program won
Development Office
Dumaguete City a Galing Pook award in 1999-2000.
Tel. (035) 225-0386
In compliance with RA 9003, the existing dumpsite is scheduled for closure.
Environment and
The plan is to close the open dumpsite and convert the whole area into an
Natural Resources
Management Division ecological park once an alternative disposal site has been established.
Provincial Capitol
Tel. No. (035) 225-1601 At present, the existing dumpsite is undergoing surface rehabilitation. An
aviary was constructed in the site through the Environment and Natural
ENRO
Dumaguete City, Negros Resources Council (ENRC), the city government, and other non-government
Oriental agencies, with ornamental plants and trees planted in the aviary’s
Tel.No. (035) 422-6336/ surroundings. (With reports from the office of Engr. Josephine M. Antonio of
420-1274
the Dumaguete City Government.)

Source: “Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance
Technical Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD), Project 1999 Duran, Elvira D. On
Pollution:http://mozcom.com/~mels/2/pollution.htm

78 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
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❙ GOOD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


IN THE PHILIPPINES
◗ LGU-MANAGED PROGRAMS

Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


AMADO DIAZ DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (ADDEF)

An organic fertilizer processing plant in Midsayap, Cotabato was jointly undertaken by the
ADDEF and Likas-Kayang Kaunlaran Foundation, with technical and financial assistance from
the Foundation for Sustainable Society, Inc. and the Philippine Business for Social Progress.
Waste materials came from the slaughterhouse, coconut farmers in the barangays of
Midsayap, vegetable and peanut vendors in the market, banana cue vendors, banana cracker
producers, and restaurants. Organic fertilizer was produced after shredding and mixing the
different materials. The project aims to improve on the environmental, health, and
economic dimensions of development.

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


AYALA FOUNDATION/ MAKATI COMMERCIAL ESTATES ASSOCIATION

The commercial and residential establishments in the Central Business District


Contact Information of Makati set up compartmentalized garbage depositories and receptacles
Makati Commercial
to ensure waste segregation at source, a basic requirement of the Solid
Estates Association
Mini-Park, Legazpi Waste Management Program being implemented by the Makati Commercial
Village, Makati Estates Association (MaCEA).The condo-residential donor beneficiary scheme
Tel. No. (02) 813-2446/ of Ayala Foundation organized people’s organizations to collect recyclable
810-3054 materials. Households are encouraged to segregate at home. Recyclable
materials are collected from residential areas and business establishments and
Center for Social
sold to junk shops. Materials such as paper and glass bottles are sold to
Development
Ayala Foundation, Inc. recycling plants of paper mills and bottling companies.
3/F Garden Square
Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance
Building, Greenbelt Technical Notes 3-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999. SWAPP
Drive cor. Legazpi St., Inventory of Exemplary Practices in Waste Management, 2002.
Makati
Tel. No. (02) 894-
5620/92-4141

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


CENTER FOR ECOZOIC LIVING AND LEARNING (CELL)

The Center sits on a 1.2-hectare farm in Silang, Cavite. Started in July 1999,
the Zero Waste Program began as a simple segregation of biodegradables Contact Information
CELL
and non-biodegradables. Biodegradables were recycled in the farm and non-
Barrio Malaking Tatyaw,
biodegradables were either sent to the junk shop or given to the garbage Silang, Cavite
truck. But after the Payatas garbage slide tragedy in July 2000, CELL adopted Tel. No. (046) 8651140
the “Basura Ko, Pananagutan Ko”principle. Since then, it has achieved and
maintained its goal of 100 percent solid waste diversion. At present, 70
percent of its discards are recycled or reused in the farm, 20 percent are recycled outside
the farm, while 10 percent are kept in the central warehouse, its final disposal facility for
items with still unclear recycling value.

Source: CELL Brochure, April 2002.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


METRO MANILA LINIS GANDA, INC.

Linis Ganda Project was initiated by Ms. Leonarda Camacho of the Women’s
Contact Information Balikatan Movement in Metro Manila. The Balikatan Movement organized
President
scavengers into teams of “eco-aides” to collect recyclable materials from
123 Domingo St., Cubao,
Quezon City households. At present, there are thousands of eco-aides under the supervision
Tel. No. (02) 725-7232 of more than 800 junkshop owners. Each junkshop received green-painted
pushcarts or bicycles with sidecars, green T-shirts for the eco-aides and ID cards
for both the junkshop owner and the eco-aides. Eco-aides are provided a daily
capital to allow them to purchase recyclable materials and earn P100 to P300 a day as
compensation.

Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 3-
1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


PHILIPPINE RECYCLERS, INC. (PRI)

Philippine Recyclers, Inc. operates a recycling plant in Marilao, Bulacan


that can recover lead metal and plastic from spent batteries. Its “Balik- Contact Information
Balik-Baterya Hotline
Baterya” Program offers fund-raising opportunities to organizations or
Tel. Nos. (044) 711-
communities that set up collection stations from where PRI can pick up and 2236/711-2262
buy junk batteries.

Source: Phil. Recyclers, Inc. brochure

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Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


UP AKKAP CENTER FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

The entry of the University of the Philippines AKKAP Center for Solid Waste
Contact Information Management into paper recycling is both a positive and timely initiative, given
AKKAP Center for Solid
Waste Management
that paper constitutes a large percentage of academic, commercial, and
Balagtas St. cor. Laurel St.
residential waste in UP Diliman. AKKAP, through its livelihood program, has
Area 2, UP Diliman,
employed five out-of-school youths since 1998 with collection routes in
Quezon City
select establishments within the university.

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Private And NGO-Initiated Programs


ZKK FOUNDATION

ZKK Foundation started with the Dagat-Dagatan Polymedic Foundation’s


Zero Kalat sa Kaunlaran Project, which encouraged households to segregate Contact Information
President
their waste. It organized community volunteers to collect waste daily with
Tel No. (02) 285-3278
the use of pushcarts. Biodegradable waste is shredded and composted.
Compost is used in vegetable gardens and nurseries that are part of the
project. Reusable and recyclable waste is stored in the redemption center where junk dealers
buy them. A cooperative was organized to operate the redemption center and oversee
livelihood activities such as papermaking and crafts. To address a booming demand for
recovered recyclable materials, ZKK has set up other recovery centers in Taytay (Rizal),
Novaliches (Quezon City), and San Jose del Monte in Bulacan.

Source: “Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes 3-
1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999 Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November
2001): 4. Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines, Makati.

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❙ BEST PRACTICES IN SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Residential Programs
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN

In fiscal year 1996, Ann Arbor (pop. 112,000) achieved a 52 percent recovery
Contact Information rate of residential waste through curbside recycling, yard trimmings collection
Recycling Coordinator and composting, and the state’s bottle return law. Recycle Ann Arbor (RAA),
City of Ann Arbor
100 N. Fifth Ave. a non-profit organization, runs the city’s recycling program. City crews
Ann Arbor, MI 48107 provide yard trimmings collection and composting services. RAA picks up 23
(313) 994-6581 different recyclable materials weekly on the same day the city collects trash.
RAA also runs a drop-off station. City crews collect curbside grass, leaves and
Solidwaste Department
http://www.ci.ann- brush, which have been banned from the landfill, April 1 through November
arbor.mi.us/framed/solw as well as collecting Christmas trees in January. The city-owned compost site
ste/index.html generates $40,000 or PhP2,120,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per year from the sale
of compost and mulch. Closing the loop, the Ann Arbor has adopted policies
Recycle Ann Arbor
E-Mail: to encourage the use and purchase of recycled content products.
info@recycleannarbor.org
Web site:
www.recycleannarbor.org

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GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Residential Programs
BELCHERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS

Belchertown (pop. 2,339) does not provide curbside collection services for
either trash or recyclables. Residents who choose to participate are required Contact Information
Director of Public
to purchase a permit to use the town’s transfer station and recycling center.
Works
The town has a pay-as-you-throw system for trash disposal. Residents must Town of Belchertown
pay a per-bag fee for trash disposal and a per item fee for special items such 290 Jackson Street
as tires and appliances. Source separated recyclables can be left at the Belchertown, MA 01007
Tel (413) 323-0415
transfer station. Materials collected include mixed paper; cardboard; glass
Fax (413) 323-0470
bottles and jars; milk, juice, and drink cartons; steel and aluminum cans;
aluminum trays and foil; and #1, #2, and #3 plastic bottles. The town also Department of Public
provides chipping of brush at the transfer station and a composting area for Works
http://www.belchertown
leaves. Belchertown’s reported 1996 waste reduction was 63 percent.
.org/departments/dpw/d
pwhome.htm

Solid Waste/Transfer
Station and Recycling
Center
http://www.belchertown
.org/departments/Select
men/solid_waste_transfe
r_station_and.htm

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Residential Programs
BELLEVUE, WASHINGTON

Bellevue (pop. 104,000) instituted recycling in 1989. The following year the
Contact Information city restructured trash fees to provide an incentive to lower disposal levels.
Solid Waste Program
Residents have responded to the incentive programs so that in 1996, 62
Administrator
Resource Management & percent of served households subscribed to the trash service of one 30-
Technology Utilities gallon-can or less of trash per week. Bellevue residents recovered 60 percent
Department of their discards through recycling and composting in 1996 (26 percent
City of Bellevue 301
through recycling and 34 percent through composting). A contractor provides
116th Avenue Southeast,
Suite 320 trash, recycling, and composting services. Residents receive weekly curbside
P.O. Box 90012 collection of recyclable materials and year-round collection of yard debris.
Bellevue, WA 98009-9012
Tel (425) 452-6964
Fax (425) 452-7116

Utilities Department
http://www.ci.bellevue.w
a.us/page.asp?view=1057

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Residential Programs
BERGEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

Bergen County (pop. 845,189) consists of 70 small, heavily populated


municipalities in northeastern New Jersey. The area is largely suburban Contact Information
Recycling Program
and home to many individuals who commute to New York City. Each
Manager
community in Bergen County administers its own waste management Bergen County
program. The Bergen County Utilities Authority provides technical assistance, Utilities Authority
educational programs, financial assistance, and promotional materials to Department of Solid
Waste Planning and
support the communities with their efforts. Areas of assistance include
Development
backyard composting, vermicomposting, waste reduction, household P.O. Box 9
hazardous waste collection, marketing assistance, and business waste Foot of Mehrhof Road
audits. Bergen County’s reported municipal solid waste recycling/composting Little Ferry, New Jersey
07643
rate for 1995, the most recent year for which data are available, was 62
Tel (201) 641-2552 x5822
percent. Fax (201) 641-3509

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BLUEWATER RECYCLING ASSOCIATION, ONTARIO

The Bluewater Recycling Association is a non-profit organization serving


Contact Information more than 125,000 people in some 60 municipalities in Southwestern Ontario.
Director
The Association offers several services to its members including an expanded
Bluewater Recycling
Association blue box curbside recycling program, backyard composter sales and
P.O. Box 547 troubleshooting support, educational curriculum, household hazardous
Huron Park, waste days, promotional materials, processing at its 43,000 square feet
Ontario N0M 1Y0
material recovery facility, and the latest co-collection program serving 19
(519) 228-6678
http://www.bra.org communities. The co-collection program uses a three-compartment vehicle
designed by the Association where waste is kept separate from paper fibers
and mixed containers. The Association has achieved a diversion rate of as high
as 73.8 percent in some of its 28 communities on “user pay.”

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BOWDOINHAM, MAINE

In 1996, Bowdoinham (pop. 2,192) recovered 62 percent of its municipal solid


waste. Recycling participation is voluntary but a volume-based fee is Contact Information
Solid Waste Manager
charged for waste disposal. Trash disposed at the Bowdoinham landfill
PO Box 85
dropped by 50 percent in the first six months after introducing the volume- Bowdoinham, ME 04008
based fees in 1989. Bowdoinham introduced municipally contracted curbside (207) 666-3228
recycling and trash collection in 1994. Material for recycling is also collected http://www.bowdoinha
m.com/recycling.htm
at the town’s drop-off center. Materials accepted include food discards,
newspaper, cardboard, magazines, glass, aluminum and ferrous cans, and
all plastic resins. An area of the recycling center is also used to display reusable materials,
such as furniture, books, and clothing, available free to residents. Leaves, grass clippings,
wood waste, and brush are collected free of charge at the town landfill.

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CHATHAM, NEW JERSEY

Chatham (pop. 8,289) residents achieved a 65 percent recovery rate in 1996.


Contact Information Chatham charges a base rate of $75 or PhP3,975 (at $1.00: PhP53) per
Administrator/Clerk
household per year for solid waste and recycling services. The borough
Borough of Chatham
54 Fairmount Avenue imposes an additional charge of $1.45 or PhP76.85 (at $1.00: PhP53) for a 30-
Chatham, NJ 07928 gallon bag or $0.75 or PhP39.75 (at $1.00: PhP53) for a 15-gallon bag for trash
(201) 635-0674 x108 collection. The change to a per-bag charge was a hard sell for town officials
but the program has worked well. The Chatham recycling program accepts
Public Works
Department a wide range of materials including cereal boxes, paper juice and milk cartons,
http://www.chatham- metal clothing hangers, aerosol cans, and mixed paper. Leaves, brush, and
nj.com/ other yard debris are diverted through composting and account for 66
percent of the material Chatham residents divert.

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Residential Programs
CLIFTON, NEW JERSEY

Through Clifton’s mandatory recycling programs for residents and businesses,


the city (pop. 71,742) diverted from disposal 56 percent of its municipal solid Contact Information
Recycling Coordinator
waste in 1996. Residents are offered curbside collection of old newspapers,
City of Clifton
magazines, mixed paper, glass, aluminum cans, and steel cans once every Department of Public
three weeks. Residents must segregate and place each type of material in Works
a separate container at the curb. Even glass is sorted by color. This method 307 East 7th
StreetClifton, NJ 07011
allows Clifton to deliver materials directly to market without having to pay
Tel (201) 470-2237
an intermediate processor. Clifton’s drop-off recycling center accepts Fax (201) 340-7049
additional materials such as cardboard, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, and
aluminum plates and trays. Grass clippings, leaves, brush, and other yard and Recycling Guide
http://www.cliftononline
garden debris are collected seasonally by the curbside and account for 32
.com
percent of total materials recovery. Businesses are required to recycle and
are provided technical assistance by the recycling coordinator. Small
businesses are eligible to receive city trash and recycling services, but large businesses
privately contract.

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CROCKETT, TEXAS

Prior to 1992, Crockett contracted with a private company to collect and


Contact Information dispose of all waste generated in the city. No materials were recovered for
Solid Waste Director
recycling or composting. The city took over trash management in 1992 in the
City of Crockett
200 North Fifth belief that it could provide trash, recycling, and composting services at a lower
Crockett, TX 75835 cost than it had been paying for trash collection and disposal. In 1996,
Tel (409) 544-5156 Crockett recycled 20 percent and composted 32 percent of its residential waste
Fax (409) 544-4976
stream. Crockett’s mandatory, weekly curbside recycling and composting
Texas Commission on
Environmental Quality programs and the use of clear bags for trash, composting, and recycling
http://163.234.20.106/in have contributed to the city’s high diversion level. Through a local ordinance,
dex.html Crockett requires all residents to recycle 22 categories of materials and
collect four others for composting. All residents have weekly, year-round
collection service for recyclables and yard debris. The use of clear bags allows city staff to
readily identify trash that contains recyclables and improperly prepared materials for
recovery. City staff do not collect improperly segregated materials.

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Residential Programs
DOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE

Dover (pop. 27,000) did not offer any recycling program to its residents until
1990 when it opened a drop-off recycling center. The next year it started Contact Information
Recycling Coordinator
curbside recycling and a month later a pay-as-you-throw system for trash
Solid Waste and
collection. Before the beginning of these programs, Dover’s residents Recycling Division
disposed approximately 11,000 tons of solid waste. In 1996, only 4,500 City of Dover
tons of residential waste was disposed. This strictly voluntary recycling 288 Central Avenue
Dover, NH 03820
program and the pay-as-you-throw trash system resulted in the town’s
Tel (603) 743-6073
residents recycling 52 percent of their residential solid waste in 1996. Dover Fax (603) 743-6096
residents are offered the opportunity to recycle mixed paper, HDPE, PET, glass
beverage containers, corrugated cardboard, used motor oil, tires, batteries, Talking Trash In Dover:
Community Services
aluminum and steel cans, and aseptic packaging. Leaves, clean wood, and
Department
yard trimmings are collected for composting at Dover’s drop-off recycling http://www.ci.dover.nh.u
station. s/community/Environme
ntal/talking.htm

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FALLS CHURCH, VIRGINIA

In 1996, Falls Church (pop. 9,845) recycled 65 percent of its residential waste
Contact Information through its curbside and drop-off programs, both of which are voluntary.
Coordinator
The city provides collection of magazines, catalogs, corrugated cardboard,
Recycling and Litter
Prevention newspaper, phone books, glass, cans, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, brush,
City of Falls Church leaves, other yard trimmings, and appliances. Each fall, approximately
Department of Public Works 2,000 tons of leaves are collected curbside, processed into mulch, and
Harry E. Wells Building
delivered back to citizens upon request, free of charge. In 1996, Falls
300 Park Avenue
Falls Church, VA 22046-3332 Church diverted 31 percent of its residential waste through its leaf program.
Tel (703) 241-5176 The city’s 100 volunteer recycling block captains deliver a quarterly
Fax (703) 241-5184 newsletter to residents.
Northern Virginia Regional
Commission
Northern Virginia Waste
Management Board
http://www.novaregion.org
/waste.htm

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Residential Programs
FITCHBURG, WISCONSIN

Fitchburg (pop. 15,648) borders Madison to the north and contains both rural
farmland and urban areas. Its mandatory recycling program, the first in Contact Information
Project Manager
Wisconsin, began in 1988 and has evolved into a program that is both
Public Works Department,
cost-effective and efficient. Fitchburg’s waste management program includes City of Fitchburg
volume-based trash collection fees (begun in 1994), weekly collection of 2377 S. Fish Hatchery Road
recyclables, monthly collection of reusable items, subsidized sales of home Madison, WI 53711
Tel (608) 275-7141
compost bins, and yard trimmings drop-off. In 1996, the city diverted 50
Fax (608) 275-7154
percent of its residential solid waste—29 percent through recycling, and 21
percent through composting. Solid Waste and
Recycling Program
http://www.city.fitchburg.
wi.us/SolidWaste/sw&r.htm

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LEBANON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

With 13 curbside collection programs and seven drop-off centers in its 26


Contact Information municipalities, Lebanon County (pop. 116,789) recycled 51 percent of its
Lebanon County
solid waste in 1995. The county accepts newspaper; corrugated cardboard;
Recycling Coordinator
Greater Lebanon Refuse aluminum and bimetal cans; glass; plastic milk, soda, and detergent bottles;
Authority phone books; magazines; office paper; metals; car batteries; tires; and
1610 Russell Road yard trimmings. In 1995, the county recycled over 43,000 tons of material.
Lebanon, PA 17046
Of the 13 municipalities with curbside collection, five have mandatory
Tel (717) 867-5790, ext. 307
Fax (717) 867-5798 recycling while eight have voluntary programs. County officials credit its
high recovery rate to waste haulers’cooperation in picking up recyclables
Greater Lebanon Refuse on their routes, voluntary recycling coordinators in each community, and
Authority
public and private organizations and citizens who have all enthusiastically
http://www.dep.state.pa.us
/dep/deputate/enved/go_ embraced recycling.
with_inspector/landfill/Gre
ater_Lebanon_Refuse_Aut
hority.htm

98 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
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Residential Programs
LEVERETT, MASSACHUSETTS

Leverett, a rural town (pop. 1,965) in western Massachusetts, has achieved


a 56 percent recovery rate through reuse, recycling, composting, and Contact Information
Recycling Coordinator
deposit container redemption. Recycling is mandatory; residents bring
Town of Leverett Town Hall
their recyclables to a local drop-off station. Among the materials accepted Leverett, MA 01054
for recycling and composting are: aluminum cans, steel cans, glass containers, Tel (413) 367-9683
mixed paper, paperboard, textiles, auto and button batteries, plastics, scrap Fax (413) 367-9683
metal, waste oil, tires, paint, egg crates, leaves, and other yard debris.
Leverett has an active swap shop, called “Take it or Leave it,” where residents can leave and/or
take reusable items such as books, clothes, and bed frames. Residents pay a flat fee for
recycling and a per-bag fee for trash pick-up. The town sells home composters and reports
that almost everyone composts on their own. Leverett’s total solid waste management
budget has decreased as a result of its waste reduction programs. The total waste stream
has also decreased.

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LOVELAND, COLORADO

In 1996, Loveland residents (pop. 46,940) diverted 56 percent of their


Contact Information residential solid waste from the landfill. Loveland offers residential curbside
Solid Waste
recycling coupled with a volume-based rate for trash disposal. April through
Superintendent
City of Loveland November, the community collects yard trimmings from residents for a
Solid Waste Division nominal fee. Since the initiation of these programs, per household waste
500 E. Third Street generation has dropped and much of the material is now captured for
Loveland, CO 80537
recycling and composting. In 1996, per household disposal levels were
Tel (970) 962-2609
Fax (970) 663-8047 less than half of the 1989 levels. The city’s waste diversion program, carried
out through dual-collection of recyclables and trash, saves it more than
Recycling/Trash $100,000 or PhP5,300,000 (at $1.00: PhP53) per year in avoided capital
Services
and operating costs.
http://www.ci.loveland.co
.us/PublicWorks/SolidWas
te/SolidWasteMain.htm

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Residential Programs
MADISON, WISCONSIN

The curbside recycling program in Madison (pop. 200,814) collects glass,


metal cans, #1 and #2 plastics, glossy magazines, newspapers, corrugated Contact Information
Recycling Coordinator
cardboard, brush, leaves, large items such as tires and white goods, and
City of Madison
phone books. Residents pay a flat fee for waste management, except for 1501 W. Badger Road
appliance pick-up for which residents must purchase a sticker. In 1996, the Madison, WI 53705-1423
city recovered 49 percent of its residential waste (32.6 percent through Tel (608) 226-4681
composting and 16.6 percent through recycling). In 1992, the city began a
City Environmental
home composting program and distributed composting bins to residents Initiatives
at no charge. Since then, the city has sold almost 5,000 bins to residents at, http://www.ci.madison.w
or below, cost. The city’s goal is to have one-third of residents in single-family i.us/Environment/default
.htm
homes composting their food discards.

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MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

In 1995, Morris County (1995 pop. est. 444,990) surpassed New Jersey’s
Contact Information statewide recycling goal of 60 percent, by recycling 63 percent of its total
Recycling Specialist
Municipal Utilities solid waste. Morris County mandates 15 materials to be source separated
Authority and recycled by the residential, commercial, and institutional sectors. The
County of Morris list of materials includes mixed paper, yard debris, tires, batteries, white
P.O. Box 370 goods and stumps, in addition to the “traditional” recyclables. The county
Morris Plains, NJ 07945-0370
Tel (973) 285-8392 offers a curbside recycling collection program to municipalities for a cost
Fax (973) 285-8397 of $0.85 or PhP45.05 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per household per pick-up. Small
businesses pay $5.00 or PhP265 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per pick-up for “back door”
Morris County Municipal service. Currently 12 of 39 municipalities and approximately 70 small
Utilities Authority
http://www.mcmua.com/s businesses in the county subscribe to these services. Morris County also
olidwaste operates a recycling consolidation center for materials. This center accepts
source-separated materials from municipalities, recycling collectors, and
small businesses and processes the material for market. Most municipalities
operate both a curbside recycling program and their own drop-off site. Drop-off is free. Four
times each year, the county sponsors Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Days and
collects items such as paints, pesticides, antifreeze, and asbestos. The county promotes a
“Cut It and Leave It” program for grass clippings and backyard composting for other
vegetative waste. Many of its municipalities likewise promote these programs and, as a result,
some are eliminating curbside collection of yard debris.

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Residential Programs
NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, ONTARIO

In April 1996, Northumberland County (pop. 75,000) implemented a wet/dry


curbside collection program in its 15 municipalities. Collection costs have Contact Information
Director
been cut in half and the county is diverting more material. The county
Northumberland County
uses 10 split dual-collection compactors. The trucks keep bags of wet Waste Management
discards separated from bags of dry discards. Currently the dry waste is sorted 860 William Street
at a materials recovery facility (MRF), while the wet waste is landfilled. Plans Cobourg, Ontario K9A 3A9
Tel (905) 372-3329
are in the works to also process the wet waste for composting. About 43
Fax (905) 372-1696
percent of the residential waste stream arrives at the MRF as dry waste. Of
this, 80 percent is captured and recycled. Four municipalities have Waste Services
implemented variable rates for discard collection. About 57 percent of http://www.northumberl
and.ca/cgi-
their residential waste is coming in as wet waste.
bin/Colours/colourChang
e.cgi?category=7&level=2
&subcat=1000208&positi
on=1000213

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PASSAIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

According to preliminary 1996 data, Passaic County (pop. 453,060) met its
Contact Information 60 percent recycling goal for overall solid waste. The county documented
Solid Waste Programs
recycling 48 percent of its municipal solid waste in 1995. Aside from
Coordinator
Passaic County Planning mandatory recycling, key elements of Passaic County’s waste reduction
Board success include an information packet about source reduction and recycling
Office of Recycling and distributed to new county residents, a yard debris program which
Solid Waste Programs
encourages composting and the use of mulching mowers, and the
1310 Route 23
NorthWayne, NJ 07470 implementation of “Wiser Ways,” a program aimed at reducing waste at the
Tel (201) 305-5738 source by encouraging citizens to make environmentally sound decisions.
Fax (201) 305-5737 According to 1995 data, Passaic County residents each recycled almost a
ton of material (1,893 pounds) on average.
Office of Recycling and
Solid Waste Programs
http://www.pcnjwaste.com

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Residential Programs
PEPIN COUNTY, WISCONSIN

Pepin County (1996 pop. est. 7,180) is a remote sparsely populated rural
county in the Big Woods of Western Wisconsin. The county’s recycling Contact Information
Coordinator
success has depended largely on source separation and proper preparation
Pepin County Recycling
and handling of solid waste by citizens. The county’s residents achieved 53 and Solid Waste
percent residential waste diversion in 1996. The county operates drop-off PO Box 39740
sites, curbside pick-up of recyclables in its three incorporated communities, 7th Avenue West
Durand, WI 54736
and a weekly mobile collection station in Albany township, located 20
Tel (715) 672-5709
miles from the nearest permanent drop-off site. Materials collected for Wisconsin
recycling by Pepin County residents are corrugated cardboard, appliances,
motor oil, Kraft paper, chipboard, glass bottles and jars, #1 and #2 plastics, Department of Natural
Resources – Waste
aluminum and steel containers, newspapers, and scrap metal. Yard and
Management Program
garden debris are also composted. The cost of collection, hauling, and http://www.dnr.state.wi.
processing of recyclables was $49/ton in 1995, compared to $96/ton for us/org/aw/wm
collection, hauling, and disposal of the remainder of the waste stream.

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PORTLAND, OREGON

Portland (pop. 497,600) revamped its trash collection service in 1992 to


Contact Information respond to public demand and state requirements for increased recycling.
Solid Waste & Recycling
Volume-based trash rates, weekly curbside collection of a wide variety of
Specialist
City of Portland materials, a bottle bill, yard debris recovery, and mandatory commercial
Environmental Services recycling resulted in a total municipal solid waste recovery rate of 50 percent
1120 S.W. Fifth Avenue, in 1996. Private companies franchised to serve areas of the city offer waste
Room 400
management services to Portland residents. According to Portland
Portland, OR 97204-1972
Tel (503) 823-5545 Environmental Services, the residential disposal rate of 1,468 pounds of
Fax (503) 823-4562 solid waste per household is the lowest among large American cities.

Bureau of Environmental
Services
http://www.cleanrivers-
pdx.org/index.htm

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Residential Programs
SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA

In its fiscal year 1996, San Jose (pop. 849,363) diverted 43 percent of its
municipal solid waste from disposal: 45 percent of its residential waste Contact Information
Program Manager
stream and 41 percent of its commercial/ institutional waste stream. The
City of San Jose
diversion level for single-family households was 55 percent. The city Environmental Services
contracts with two private companies (the Green Team of San Jose and Department
Western/USA Waste) to provide residential trash and recycling services on Integrated Waste
Management Program
a weekly basis to 186,000 single-family dwellings and 79,000 multi-family
777 N. First Street, Suite
dwellings. Single-family households pay volume-based rates for trash 450 San Jose, Californa
service. Two other contractors collect yard trimmings once a week on the 95112-6311
same day as trash and recycling pick-up. In all, the city collects more than Tel (408) 277-5533 fax
(408) 277-3669
24 different categories of materials for recycling and composting. The city
encourages waste reduction in the commercial/institutional sector by Environmental Services
assessing fees on trash collection but not on recycling or composting http://www.sjrecycles.org
collection. This provides a direct economic incentive for businesses to
recycle and reduce their solid waste.

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SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA

Recycling is mandatory for both residents and businesses in Sarasota County


Contact Information (pop. 301,528). The current recovery rate is 43 percent; 50 percent in the
Recycling Manager
commercial sector and 38 percent in the residential sector. Successful recycling
Sarasota County Solid
Waste Department in Sarasota County’s commercial sector has been achieved through aggressive
1660 Ringling Boulevard education campaigns aimed at local businesses. Businesses must contract
Fourth Floor independently for trash and recycling collection services; the county programs
Sarasota, FL 34236
serve residences only. The county has offered on-site waste assessments,
Tel (941) 364-4663
Fax (941) 364-4377 technical advice, workshops, presentations, training, awards programs, and
http://www.co.sarasota.fl other educational information to encourage commercial sector recycling. As
.us/solid--waste/ a last resort, the county’s Code Enforcement has the authority to make sure
that businesses comply with the mandatory recycling program.

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Residential Programs
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

Seattle (pop. 534,700) was a pioneer in charging variable rates for trash
disposal, with the city’s program implemented in 1981. The city continues Contact Information
Solid Waste Utility
to lead in waste diversion and has provided its residents with a convenient
710 Second Avenue #505
recycling system and a financial incentive to encourage its use. City Seattle, WA 98104
contractors provide residential curbside recycling and yard trimmings Tel (206) 684-7808
collection (by subscription). Seattle’s multi-family recycling program serves Fax (206) 684-8529
60 percent of households in this sector. Businesses contract privately for their
Seattle Public Utilities
trash and recycling services. Businesses and residents can also choose to self- http://www.cityofseattle.
haul trash, recyclables, and yard trimmings to city-owned transfer stations. net/util
Seattle set a goal of recovering 60 percent of its municipal solid waste
stream by 1998 as an alternative to building an incinerator. No other large US city has
centered its waste management approach on material recovery, rejecting traditional
disposal facilities in its long-term planning. In 1996, waste diversion levels in Seattle were
47 percent in the residential sector, 49 percent in the commercial sector, and 17 percent
of self-haul materials. The city’s total waste diversion level was 44 percent.

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Residential Programs
VISALIA, CALIFORNIA

Visalia (pop. 91,792) began its first pilot route in 1991 to test the feasibility of
Contact Information implementing an automated dual-collection of residential trash and
City of Visalia Solid
recyclables. This pilot was completed in 1992. Citywide implementation of the
Waste Fleet Services
366 North Ben Maddox dual collection program started on 1994 and was completed in April 1996.
Way The city formed a public/private partnership with the Heil truck company to
Visalia, CA 93292 study equipment configurations and improve service productivity. At the same
Tel (209) 738-3569
time, the city also implemented separate curbside yard trimmings collection.
Fax (209) 738-3576
In the few years since the program began, Visalia’s residential diversion rate
Public Works has climbed to 50 percent. Visalia staff attribute their success to their
Department aggressive public education program and the partnership with Heil that
Household Hazardous
allowed them to determine equipment needs before making large equipment
Waste Collection
http://www.ci.visalia.ca.us purchases.

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Residential Programs
WEST LINN, OREGON

In 1996 West Linn (pop. 16,557) recovered 52 percent of its municipal solid
waste. Residents can recycle in the city’s curbside collection program, or they Contact Information
West Linn Department
can bring materials to the city’s recycling center. The city collects newspaper,
of Public Works
cardboard, glass, plastics, tin, aluminum, milk cartons, office paper, and 4100 Norfolk Street
magazines. Yard trimmings are accepted at the drop-off center and collected P.O. Box 4 SWest Linn,
curbside. OR 97068
Tel (503) 656-6081
Fax (503) 657-3237

Department of Public
Works
Environmental Services
http://www.ci.west-
linn.or.us/PublicWorks/ht
mls/Environmentalperce
nt20Servicespercent20te
rtiary1.htm

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Residential Programs
WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS

Worcester’s curbside recycling program began in November 1993 along


Contact Information with a pay-as-you-throw system for the collection of trash. Materials collected
Assistant to the
for recycling include newspapers and inserts, mixed paper, corrugated
Commissioner
Department of Public cardboard, paperboard, milk and juice cartons, drink boxes, glass bottles
Works and jars, beverage cans, food cans, aluminum trays, and all plastic bottles, jars,
20 E. Worcester Street, tubs, and microwave trays/containers. The city also offers a drop-off site for
Worcester, MA 01604
yard debris and leaves, which are then composted. Although the program has
Tel (508) 799-1430
Fax (508) 799-1448 only been in effect a short time, Worcester (pop. 165,387) achieved 54 percent
diversion of residential solid waste in 1996.
Department of Public
Works
Recycling and Disposal
http://www.ci.wellesley.
ma.us/dpw/rdf.html

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Multi-Family Residential
LEISURE WORLD RETIREMENT COMMUNITYLAGUNA HILLS, CA

Leisure World is a retirement community of 18,000 residents. The residents


of this community recycle newspaper, glass, and aluminum. The Contact Information
Leisure World
management runs a green waste composting operation and construction PO Box 2220
debris and metals recycling programs. They have also changed landscaping Laguna Hills, CA 92654
techniques to reduce the amount of green waste produced. As a result of Tel (714) 597-4652
these programs, Leisure World diverts more than 50 percent of their waste.
They have saved nearly $249,000 or PhP13,197,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in
tipping fees and received revenues of $343,000 or PhP18,179,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) for
recyclable materials.

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Multi-Family Residential
VILLAGE APARTMENTS, SAN ANSELMO, CA

The recycling in this apartment complex is not the result of the installation
Contact Information of expensive recycling equipment but rather the result of an education
Village Apartments
program about the environmental and financial benefits of recycling.
36 Ross Ave.
#9 San Anselmo, Recovered items are donated to a thrift store, food bank, dry cleaner, farmers’
CA 94960 market, and packaging store. Resulting waste sent to a disposal facility has
Tel (415) 459-6370 been reduced by 65 percent (by volume).

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Retail Shopping Complexes


DUFFERIN MALL, TORONTO, ONTARIO

The Dufferin Mall recycling program began in 1992. Corrugated cardboard,


glass, cans, newspaper, fine paper, polystyrene, and coat hangers are Contact Information
Dufferin Mall
collected through 64 common area receptacles and specially designed Toronto, Ontario
containers in the Food Court. Each store in the mall also has a blue box. Pre- Tel (416) 532-1152
consumer food discards are collected from the loading dock of the Food
Court restaurants and are composted. The Mall is diverting 42 percent of the
waste it generates.

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Retail Shopping Complexes


PLAZA CAMINO REAL, CARLSBAD, CA

The Plaza Camino Real started recycling in 1993. Currently its recycling
Contact Information program captures cardboard, mixed paper, cans, bottles, green waste,
Plaza Camino Real
construction metals, fixtures, food discards, and plastics. This 1.12 million
l2525 El Camino Real,
Suite 100 square feet enclosed shopping center, with five major department stores and
Carlsbad, CA 92008 150 specialty shops, has decreased waste by more than 60 percent and
TEl (619) 729-6183 saves more than $42,000 or PhP2,226,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in hauling and
Fax: (760) 729-0497
tipping fees annually.
Email:
plazacaminoreal@westfi
eld.com

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Office Buildings
THE GREEN WORKPLACE MANAGEMENT BOARD SECRETARIAT, TORONTO, ONTARIO

The “Green Workplace” program was introduced to Ontario government


offices in 1991. This program set waste reduction targets of 35 percent by Contact Information
The Green Workplace
1992 and 50 percent by 1995. The new Maximum Green Program attempts
900 Bay Street,
to reduce waste by a further 50 percent with the introduction of the Room M2-59
following new programs: Toronto, Ontario M7A 1N3
Tel (416) 585-7541
a. Recyclable material is source-separated;
b. Individual trash cans are removed and replaced with small, desk-top receptacles and a
large centralized trash bin;
c. Where possible, food discard collection is established. As of spring 1998, more than 70,000
Ontario Provincial civil servants in 760 buildings recycled approximately 4,326 tons per
year. Some buildings divert 90 percent of their solid waste stream.

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Office Buildings
WELLINGS & COMPANY, MENLO PARK, CA

Wellings & Company is a full-service accounting firm in Menlo Park, California.


Contact Information The company aggressively recycles as part of its commitment to create a better
770 Menlo Ave., #100
environment. Waste disposal costs are included in the building lease so
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Tel (415) 321-0622 Wellings reaps no direct benefit from reduced tipping fees because of
http://www.wellingscpa. recycling. The company has realized an 80 percent reduction in trash through
com/bio.htm recovery of white and colored papers, newspapers, magazines, cardboard,
Email:
aluminum cans, glass, and toner cartridges. The company also works to
bruce@wellingscpa.com
“close the loop” through the purchase of recycled content office products.

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Motels / Hotels
BOSTON PARK PLAZA HOTEL BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

The Hotel instituted a comprehensive environmental program in 1991. It


has recycling programs for cans, bottles, white paper, cardboard, shipping Contact Information
Boston Park Plaza Hotel
pallets, plastics, and glass. Waste reduction efforts have included eliminating Arlington Street at Park
individually packaged toiletries in guest rooms, replacing plastic disposable Plaza Boston, MA 02117
dinnerware with china, glass, and flatware in the employee dining facilities, Tel (617) 457-2274
switching to rechargeable batteries from disposables, and recycling of
printer cartridges. The hotel also directs an educational program for guests,
employees, and vendors to make sure that everyone is involved in waste reduction efforts.

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Motels / Hotels
HIGHLANDS INN CARMEL, CALIFORNIA

The Highlands Inn and Pacific’s Edge Restaurant strives to be a green hotel.
Contact Information In the past year, the hotel has maintained 100 percent room waste recycling.
Highlands Inn
Waste reduction is also hotel-wide in the offices and restaurant. In addition
PO Box 1700
Carmel, CA 93921 to recycling, the hotel and reduced hauling costs by chipping its landscape
Tel (408) 624-3801 waste and using it, saving $4,000 or PhP212,000 (at $1.00 : PhP 53) annually.

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Motels / Hotels
ITT SHERATON HOTELS & RESORTS WAIKIKI, HAWAII

The ITT Sheraton Hotels and Resorts group operates the largest recycling
program in the Hawaii hotel industry. The hotels recycle corrugated Contact Information
Tel (808) 922-4422
cardboard, paper, and glass. Food discards are either donated to charitable
http://www.sheraton-
organizations or sent to farmers. In their resource conservation program, waikiki.com
the hotels also buy from local producers and buy recycled materials Email
when possible. michael.troy@sheraton.com

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities


AUTRY MUSEUM OF WESTERN HERITAGE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

The museum’s recycling program recovers traditionally recovered items and


Contact Information unique items such as trees and waste water. Trash pick-up has been
Autry Museum of Western reduced from five times a week to just once. The money raised from
Heritage
4700 Western Heritage Way recycling is used to fund an employee recreation program.
Los Angeles, CA 90027-
1462
Tel (213) 667-2000

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities


DEL MAR FAIRGROUNDS DEL MAR, CALIFORNIA

The Del Mar Fairgrounds hosts more than 200 events a year including a three-
week Del Mar County fair and the 49 day Del Mar Race Meet. In 1995, Del Contact Information
Del Mar Fairgrounds
Mar Fairgrounds estimated a waste reduction rate of 86 percent. This was
2260 Jimmy Durante
achieved through aggressive programs to recycle (aluminum, cardboard, Boulevard
white paper, concrete/asphalt, glass, metal, mixed paper, newsprint, plastics, Del Mar, CA 92014-2216
animal bedding, wood) and compost (landscape trimmings, food discards). Tel (619) 755-1161
Fax (619) 755-7820
Source reduction activities at Del Mar include using electronic mail, refilling
printer toner cartridges, using double-sided copying, and reusing shipping
and storing supplies. The financial benefit of this waste reduction program was calculated
to be $863,976 in avoided disposal fees and revenue from material sales.

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Recreational and Cultural Facilities


SAN DIEGO WILD ANIMAL PARK SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA

The San Diego Wild Animal Park works to preserve not just endangered plants
Contact Information and animals but also their habitats. The Park reduces the use of natural
Buildings and Grounds
resources derived from wild areas such as trees, mined ore, and water. The
Supervisor
15500 San Pasqual Valley Park’s staff practices wise use of office supplies, recycles containers and paper
Road products, and composts huge amounts of organic waste. Park visitors can
Escondido, CA 92027-7017 use recycling containers located throughout the facility. Waste disposed at
Tel (619) 738-5054
landfills represents only four percent of the Park’s waste stream. This saves
over $1 million or PhP53 million (at $1.00 : PhP53) in tipping and hauling fees
each year.

124 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Government Facilities
GEORGIA DIAGNOSTIC AND CLASSIFICATION CENTER JACKSON, GA

The Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Center, a 1,600-inmate facility, was


chosen as a solid waste management pilot project for the Georgia Contact Information
Vice President
Department of Corrections in 1992. The facility implemented a combination Community
of recycling and composting to reduce the waste it sent to the landfill. The Environmental
compost program combines food scraps from the prison kitchen with Management, Inc.
local yard trimmings and cardboard. The compost is then used to enhance 770 Wesley Drive, NW
Atlanta, GA 30305
soil at Corrections farm operations. Monthly trips to the landfill have been TEl (404) 355-8770
reduced from 13 to three; waste costs at the facility have dropped 63 Fax (404) 355-8799
percent. Because the pilot project at this facility has been so successful, the http://www.dcor.state.ga.
Georgia Department of Corrections has expanded the program to other us/default.html
correctional facilities.

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Government Facilities
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS

The Department of Corrections began its composting project in 1990. In


Contact Information 1997, 47 sites were composting 6,200 tons per year, or 90 percent of their
New York State Eastern
food discards. In addition, cotton from used mattresses is used as a
Correctional Facility
Sullivan, NY bulking agent in the compost. The facilities also recycle corrugated
Tel (914) 647-1653 cardboard, office and computer paper, newsprint, bi-metal cans, plastic
www.docs.state.ny.ushttp:// containers, and styrofoam. Participating facilities recycle, including
www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non
compost, 80 percent of their solid waste.
-hw/reduce/food/food7.pdf

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Health Care Facilities


SAINT JOSEPH MEDICAL CENTER FORT WAYNE, INDIANA

The Saint Joseph Medical Center has achieved an 80 percent reduction in


waste through source reduction and recycling. The Medical Center Contact Information
Saint Joseph Medical
eliminated the use of single use food service items and instituted electronic Center
office procedures. Recycled materials include cardboard, plastics, glass, Fort Wayne, IN
aluminum, bi-metal cans, paper, and X-ray film. Tel (616) 457-2413

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WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES

Manufacturing
MAD RIVER BREWING COMPANY BLUE LAKE, CA

Mad River Brewing Company’s commitment to the principles of


Contact Information conservation has allowed the company to grow at an annual rate of 50
Mad River Brewing percent a year while reducing its potential solid waste production by 97
Company
195 Taylor Way percent. The company engages in diverse reduction, reuse,
Blue Lake, CA 95525 remanufacture, and recycling efforts. These efforts have resulted in job
Tel (707) 668-5409 production, energy savings, and reduced waste management costs.
http://www.madriverbrewing.
com

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VIRCO MANUFACTURING CORPORATION CONWAY, ARKANSAS

Eight years ago, Virco manufacturing generated 260 cubic yards of waste a
day at its Conway plant. The company has reduced that to only 30 cubic yards Contact Information
Virco Manufacturing
daily, a reduction of 88 percent. Materials recovered include corrugated
Corp.
cardboard, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, hydraulic oil, mixed office paper, Highway 65, SouthP.O.
three types of plastics, foam rubber, tires, batteries, wood scraps, and Box 5000
newspapers. The company closes the loop by purchasing recycled content Conway, AR 72032(501)
329-2901
items whenever economically feasible and available. Virco also sponsors
http://www.virco.com/
recycling programs with many area schools. In 1994 Virco won the prestigious Pages/set7.htm
NRC Fred Schmitt Award for Outstanding Corporate Leadership.

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Wholesalers
JC PENNEY CATALOG FULFILLMENT CENTER MANCHESTER, CONNECTICUT

The JC Penney Manchester Catalog Fulfillment Center, which began its recycling
Contact Information efforts in 1982, is currently diverting 87 percent of its potential waste. The facility
JC Penney Catalogue recycles 13 items (eight mandated by the state: white office paper, glass and
Fulfillment Center
Manchester, CT metal food containers, newspapers, scrap metal, leaves, crankcase oil, and
Tel (680) 647-4280 storage batteries. Five additional items: low-density plastics, polystyrene,
pallets, catalogs, and magazines.) The Center also incorporates recycling into
all maintenance and construction projects, buys many recycled content supplies, and has
environmental action council monitors who constantly work to maintain and upgrade the
recycling program.

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Specific Waste Streams


MINNESOTA POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCY, TIRE RECOVERY PROGRAM

In 1990 the state began giving grants to clean up tire piles and spur
development of markets for used tires. Since then, 14 million tires have been Contact Information
Website
cleaned up from 320 sites. Currently, the Minnesota Pollution Control http://www.pca.state.mn.
Agency estimates that 98 percent of all scrap tires generated in Minnesota us/industry/ts-
are handled through the state’s management and recycling system. links.html#tires
Seventy-five percent of these are used as tire-derived fuel. The remainder
are processed into crumb rubber, used as fill material in road and building projects, or used
in livestock and agricultural applications.

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Specific Waste Streams


DEL MAR FAIRGROUNDS, DEL MAR, CALIFORNIA

In 1996 Del Mar Fairgrounds, a 375-acre site, diverted 38 tons, or


Contact Information approximately 75 percent of its food discards from landfill. The fairgrounds
Concessions Coordinator
achieved this through a comprehensive waste reduction program that
Del Mar Fairgrounds
22nd District Agricultural includes off-site composting of food discards from its annual 20-day fair
Association (1996 attendance was over 1 million), vermin-composting of food discards
Concessions Department from its Satellite Wagering Facility, and sending used cooking oil to a
P.O. Box 2668
rendering company. Vendors at the fair are contractually required to
Del Mar, CA 92014
Tel (619) 792-4218 participate in the waste reduction program. In 1996, Del Mar Fairgrounds
Fax (619) 792-4236 realized a net savings of $17 to $23 or PhP901 to PhP1,219 per ton
http://www.epa.gov/epaos composted.
wer/non-
hw/reduce/food/food1.pdf

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Specific Waste Streams


FLETCHER ALLEN HEALTH CARE

As part of a total waste reduction program, the Medical Center Hospital


of Vermont (MCHV) Campus of Fletcher Allen Health Care delivers Contact Information
Waste Specialist
approximately 90 percent of its food preparation scraps and steam table
Office of Community
leftovers, 90 tons in 1997, to an off-site composting facility. Hospital Health Improvement
kitchen staff at the 585-bed facility prepare 4,000 meals a day for cafeteria c/o Fletcher Allen Health
patrons and patients. The hospital housekeeping staff’s waste team Care Community Health
Improvement
collects food discards Monday through Friday and takes them to a farm
UHC Campus Arnold 4410
where they are windrow composted. In turn, the hospital receives organic Burlington, VT 05401
produce at wholesale prices from the farm. A rendering company picks up Tel (802) 660-2825
used kitchen grease. Fletcher Allen also donates edible fruit and vegetables http://www.epa.gov/epaos
wer/non-hw/reduce/food/
to a local food bank. As one of 6,000 hospitals in the United States, which
food2.pdf
in total produce one to two percent of the country’s solid waste, Fletcher
Allen Health Care staff regard composting as part of the hospital’s mission
to provide for the health of the community.

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Specific Waste Streams


FROST VALLEY YMCA, CLARYVILLE, NEW YORK

In the late 1980s, as waste disposal costs steadily rose, Frost Valley sought
Contact Information alternatives to landfilling its waste. When a waste assessment found food
Executive Director for
to be the greatest contributor to the waste stream, Frost Valley decided
Programs
2000 Frost Valley Road to implement a composting program. This 6,000-acre residential
Claryville, NY 12725 educational and recreational facility in the Catskill Mountains now composts
Tel (914) 985-2291 100 percent of the food discards from its kitchen and dining room. From
Fax (914) 985-0056
1990—when Frost Valley began its comprehensive waste reduction
http://www.epa.gov/epaos
wer/non- program—to 1997, the facility reduced its total solid waste by 53 percent
hw/reduce/food/food3.pdf (by weight). Through food recovery, Frost Valley now realizes a net savings
of $5,200 annually and provides a unique educational opportunity to
thousands of visitors per year.

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Specific Waste Streams


GREEN WORKPLACE PROGRAM ONTARIO, CANADA

In 1991, the Government of Ontario created the Green Workplace Program


(GWP) to facilitate waste reduction, resource conservation, and Contact Information
Manager
environmentally responsible purchasing in provincial facilities. As an
The Green Workplace
integral part of the GWP’s waste reduction programs, composting diverted Program
approximately 1,500 metric tons (1,650 U.S. tons) of food discards from Ontario Realty Corporation
landfills in fiscal year 1996. Seventy percent of pre- and post-consumer 777 Bay Street, 15th Flr.
Toronto, Ontario M5G 2E5,
food discards from four correctional facilities and three government
Canada
office buildings and restaurants are composted. Staff and clients from a Tel (416) 585-7541
local detention center collect food discards and bring them to an in- Fax (416) 585-6681
vessel composter at the Ontario Science Center. The Toronto Parks http://www.epa.gov/epaos
wer/non-
Department uses finished compost instead of buying fertilizer.
hw/reduce/food/food4.pdf

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MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE, VERMONT

Middlebury College (student population 2,000) has been composting


Contact Information since 1993. In 1996, it composted approximately 288 tons (an estimated
Environmental Coordinator
75 percent of the college’s total food discards) from its five dining halls and
Service Building
Middlebury College three snack bars. The college composts both pre- and post-consumer
Middlebury, VT 05753 food discards as well as waxed cardboard in on-site aerated static piles.
Tel (802) 443-5043 Middlebury also composts food discards from special events. In 1996,
Fax (802) 443-5753
composting cost the college $42 or PhP2,226 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton,
http://www.epa.gov/epaos
wer/non- including trucking, labor, fuel, and supplies. Recycling other materials
hw/reduce/food/food6.pdf cost $145 or PhP7,685 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton; trash, $137 or PhP7,261
(at $1.00 : PhP53). As a result of its high food recovery rate, Middlebury
realized a net savings of $27,000 or PhP1,431,000 (at $1.00 : PhP 53) in 1996.

136 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Specific Waste Streams


NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES, NEW YORK

In fiscal year 1997, inmates and staff of 47 correctional facilities in the


New York Department of Correctional Services (DOCS) composted Contact Information
Resource Management
6,200 tons, representing 90 percent of their food discards. They collect
Director
dining room leftovers and kitchen preparation scraps for windrow NY State Department of
composting. Thirty facilities have on-site windrows; inmates in 17 Correctional Services
facilities haul their discards to one of these 30 sites. Three facilities Eastern Correctional Facility
601 Berne Rd.Napanoch,
offer technical training in composting to inmates. DOCS uses finished
NY 12458
compost in inmate horticulture programs and prison landscaping, and TEl (914) 647-1653
provides neighboring communities with free compost as a community http://www.epa.gov/epaosw
service. The composting program allows DOCS to save an average of $91 er/non-hw/reduce/food/
food7.pdf
or PhP4,823 (at $1.00 : PhP53) per ton on disposal costs. In fiscal year
1997, the 47 facilities realized a net savings of $564,200 or PhP29,902,600
(at $1.00 : PhP53) in avoided disposal costs.

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4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Specific Waste Streams


SAN FRANCISCO PRODUCE RECYCLING PROGRAM, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

From June 1996 through August 1997, the San Francisco Produce
Contact Information Recycling Program donated and composted 1,500 tons of food. As of
Organics Recycling Coodinator
fall 1997, over 40 businesses participated in this program, a collaborative
Solid Waste Management
Program effort among government agencies and private companies in and
1145 Market Street,Suite 410 around San Francisco. The program recovers both edible and non-
San Francisco, CA 94121 edible produce discards from the San Francisco Produce Terminal and
Tel (415) 554-3423
from area supermarkets. The San Francisco Food Bank collects an
http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer
/non- average of 60 tons of food a month and distributes the edible food, over
hw/reduce/food/food8.pdf 37 tons per month, to member service agencies. A local farmer takes
the remaining non-edible produce, which he uses as animal feed or sells
to other farmers. Since August 1996, non-edible produce that the Food
Bank does not collect has been windrow composted at a nearby composting facility.

138 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
GOOD PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4

Specific Waste Streams


SHOP RITE SUPERMARKETS, NEW JERSEY

Since 1995, 25 of the New Jersey Shop Rite Supermarkets have composted
80 percent, or 3,000 tons per year, of their organics discards. The stores Contact Information
Manager
compost floral and produce trimmings and spoils, out-of-date bakery
Environmental Affairs
items, old seafood, soiled paper products, food spills, and out-of-date Wakefern Foods Corp/Shop
dairy and deli products. Typically, staff in each department collect Rite Supermarkets
compostables in waxed corrugated cardboard boxes and put the whole 33 Northfield
AvenueEdison, NJ 08818
box in an on-site compactor. A hauling company takes the compacted
Tel (908) 906-5083
organics to a composting site where they are ground with yard trimmings http://www.epa.gov/epaos
and windrow composted. The nutrient-rich finished compost is screened wer/non-
to remove contaminants and sold to farmers, golf courses, and people hw/reduce/food/food9.pdf
involved in land reclamation. Through diversion, each store avoids $15,000-
$40,000 or PhP795,000 to PhP2,120,000 (at $1.00 : PhP53) in disposal
costs per year, depending on store size and location.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 139
CHAPTER 5
REFERENCES AND TOOLS
❙ STUDY TOUR SITES
REFERENCES AND TOOLS

There are already a number of LGUs, communities, businesses, and CSOs that are successfully
CHAPTER
5
applying solid waste management. The Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines
(SWAPP) has suggested these study tour sites. Interested LGUs may visit these identified sites to
expand their know-how.

LUZON

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Batangas City Garbage Recovery Program, Executive Assistant/


Zero Waste Management, Designated City ENRO
Garbage Recycling Project, Solid Tel (043) 723-8844
Waste Management Campaign Fax (043) 723-1558
Project

Pandacan Shell Petroleum Technical and Capability Pilipinas Shell Petroleum


Corporation Building Training, Information Corporation
and Education Campaign, Pandacan Installation, Manila
Provision of Facilities and Tel (02) 563-3156
Equipments, Waste

Collection, Sorting, Processing


and Recovery, and Disposal

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 143
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Barangay Guadalupe Recycling SWM Officer


Nuevo, Makati City MMDA-SIDA-Jaakko Poyry
Tel (02) 882-0902

Barangay Project Coordinator


Brgy. Guadalupe Nuevo, Makati City
Tel: (02) 883-1771 or 72

The Twin Towers, Ayala Waste Segregation, Building Administrator


Avenue, Makati City Composting, Collection The Makati Twin Towers
Ayala Avenue, Makati City
Tel (02) 813-3035 / 843-9132

The Shell House Building, Waste Segregation, Collection Shell House Building
Ayala, Makati City and Disposal 156 Valero St., Salcedo Vill, Makati City
Tel (02) 814-6313

Building Administrator
The Urdaneta Apartments, Waste Segregation, Waste The Urdaneta Apartments
Makati City Collection and Disposal Ayala Avenue cor. EDSA
Tel (02) 844-5319

Ayala Life – FGU Center, Segregation and Systematic Building Administrator


Makati City Waste Collection Ayala Life – FGU Center
6811 Ayala Avenue cor. EDSA
Tel (02) 728-0170 /729-7040 /887-1812

144 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Forbes Park, Makati City Composting, Segregating, Gardener


Recycling and Garden Waste 18 Ipil Road, Barangay Forbes Park,
Management Makati City

Barangay Sun Valley, Composting Barangay Chairman


Paranaque City Brgy. Sun Valley, Paranaque City
Tel (02) 823-0230

Brgy. Ugong, Pasig City Waste Segregation, Recycling Barangay Captain


Ugong Hall, F. Legaspi St., Ugong Pasig
Tel (046) 416-4479
Fax (046) 416-4481

Sagip Pasig Movement Segregation, Composting, and Executive Director


(SPM), Pasig City Recycling 2/F Far East Bank Building 3,
Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila
Tel (02) 527-4339Fax (02) 527-4186
Email spm@pacific.net.ph

Miriam Public Education Recycling, Segregation, and President


and Awareness Campaign Composting Miriam College
for the Environment Katipunan Avenue,
(PEACE) Diliman, Quezon City
Tel (02) 920-5093/ 435-9240 loc. 348
Fax (02) 920-5093
Email eerc@psdn.org.ph

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5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Golden Egg Farm, Silang, Composting of Chicken Manure Golden Egg Farm
Cavite Barangay Balubad, Silang, Cavite
Mobile 0917-9770988

Cavite Aluminium Recycling Cavite Aluminum Recycling Plant


Recycling, Trece Martirez Barangay Orsorio,
City, Cavite Trece Martirez City, Cavite
Tel (046) 419-2287
Fax (046) 419-2307

Bureau of Plant Industry, Vermicomposting Bureau of Plant Industry


Los Banos, Laguna Los Baños, Laguna

Emilio Aguinaldo Eco-Center, Recycling, Provincial Health Officer


Memorial Hospital, Trece Composting, Hospital Waste Provincial Health Office
Martirez City, Cavite Management Emilio Aguinaldo Memorial Hospital
Trece Martires City, Cavite
Tel (046) 419-0124

Rodriguez, Rizal Controlled Waste Disposal Municipal Mayor


Facility Rodriguez, Rizal
Tel (02) 649-1187
Fax: (02) 941-6785

146 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Head
Landfill Project Rodriguez, Rizal
Tel (02) 649-1187
Fax: (02) 941-6785

Antipolo City Controlled Waste Disposal Mayor


Facility Antipolo City
Tel/Fax (02) 697-1021

Head
City Environment Office
Antipolo City
Tel/Fax (02) 697-1021

International Rice Research Recycling, Segregation, The Deputy Director


Institute Hazardous Waste Management IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna

Clark Field, Pampanga Sanitary Landfill Field Officer


Metro Clark Waste Management
Corporation
Clark , PampangaTel/Fax: (045)599-
6317/18

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 147
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Pasig-Mangahan Material Recycling, Material Recovery EVP and COO


Recovery Facility Facility Basic Environmental Systems and
Technologies
8/F Ortigas Bldg.,
Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City
Tel (02) 633-4372
Fax (02) 633-4143

Los Banos, Laguna Collection, SWM Ordinance Municipal Mayor


Los Banos, Laguna
Tel (049) 536-0050 /
536-827-0583

Quezon City Memorial Recycling, Composting Quezon City Parks Development


Circle Foundation, Inc.
Quezon Memorial Circle
Tel (02) 924-3395

Zero Waste Recycling Movement of


the Philippines
Brgy. Ugong, PasigTel 671-4071

Owner
Constant Batteries
Tel (02) 363-8832

148 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

VISAYAS

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Siliman University Medical Waste Segregation, Barrier ENRO


Center Precautions, Pretreatment of 2nd Floor, City Hall, Dumaguete City
Wastes, Waste Collection, Tel (035) 225-3066
Transport, and Disposal

Bais City Waste Collection and Disposal ENRO


City Hall, Bais City

Province of Negros Oriental Waste Management in Coastal ENRMD


Resource Management Capitol Area, Dumaguete City
Tel (035) 422-6985
Fax (035) 225-5563

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 149
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

MINDANAO

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Misamis Oriental Waste Segregation, Collection Provincial Administrator


Province of Misamis Oriental
Tel (08822) 729-898
Fax (08822) 721-112

Dipolog City Sanitation and Waste Collection Program Action Officer


City Health Office
Dipolog City
Tel (065) 212-3400

Bislig City, Surigao del Sur Schools and Offices Waste Paper City Mayor
Recycling Bislig City, Surigao del Sur
Tel (086) 853-6089

City Planning and Development


Coordinator
Tel (086) 853-2452
Fax (086) 853-5355
Email bispaic@panabo.philcom.com.ph

Davao City Composting Davao City ENRO


City Administrator
Tel (082) 224-2028 / 228-2029 / 227-
4526

150 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

IMPLEMENTOR / SITE AREAS OF INTEREST CONTACT/S

Officer-In-Charge
CENRO
Davao City
Tel (082) 227-2655
Fax (082) 225-0744

Maitum, Sarangani Waste Segregation and Municipal Mayor


Recycling Maitum, Sarangani Province

Garden City of Samal Island Segregation, Recycling, IEC City Mayor


Garden City of Samal Island
Fax (082) 227-0964

City General Services Officer


GSO, IGaCoS
Tel 0917-7008826
Fax (082) 227-0964

Kibawe, Bukidnon “Operation Pulot Basura”, Municipal Mayor


Collection, Disposal Kibawe, Bukidnon

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 151
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ REFERENCES

◗ BOOKS

Bureau of Environment. Environment Protection in Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolitan Government, March


2000.

Clemente, Abel R. Zero Waste Disposal “Walang Basurang Itatapon”: Conceptual Framework on Solid
Waste Management Vol. I, Series I. Ecology Learning Center for Waste Management. Manila, 1997.

Development Academy of the Philippines, DENR-EMB, and SIRD. Sourcebook on Community


Resource Management for Sustainable Development. April 1995.

DENR-Environmental Management Bureau. Solid Waste Management for Local Governments, 2nd
Edition. Manila. 1998.

Haan, Hans Christian, et. al. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Involving Micro- and Small
Enterprises – Guidelines for Municipal Managers. n.p. ,1998.

International Environmental Technology Centre/United Nations Environment Programme


(IETC/UNEP). International Source Book on Environmentally-Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid
Waste Management. Book 6 of Technical Publication Series. n.p. ,1996.

International Environmental Technology Centre/United Nations Environment Programme


(IETC/UNEP). Training Needs in Utilizing Environmental Technology Assessment (ETA) for Decision-
Making. Book 1 of Technical Publication Series. n.p., 1995.

Lardinois, Inge and Christine Furedy. Source Separation of Household Waste Materials: Analysis of
Case Studies from Pakistan, the Philippines, India, Brazil, Argentina and the Netherlands. Book 7 of Urban
Waste Series. 1999.

152 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Environment of Sweden. A Swedish-Asian Forum on the Future
of Asia’s Urban Environment. n.p. , November 2000.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Waste Management: The
Swedish Experience. 1999.

Pacific Consultants International. Main Report 1 (Main Report) in The Study on Solid Waste Management
for Metro Manila in the Republic of the Philippines. Final Report. March 1999.

Papa, Ana V. and Jose C. Papa. From Waste to Wealth: On Reducing, Recycling, Composting, Landfilling,
and Other Means of Managing Garbage in Barangays. Manila: Mary Jo Publishing House, Inc., 1998.

Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. Plastics & the Environment. Manila, July 2000.

Solid Waste Association of North America. Compendium of Solid Waste Management Terms and
Definitions. September 1991.

Solid Waste Association of North America. Part 1 – Case Study on Improved Routing in Getting
More or (for?) Less: Cost Cutting Collection Strategies. City of Charlotte, North Carolina. , 1998.

Texas Water Commission. Municipal Solid Waste Groundwater Protection Cost Study. November 1992.

US Environmental Protection Agency. An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation


Technology. April 1998.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Best Practices for EPA’s International Capacity-Building


Programs. November 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Business Guide for Reducing Solid Waste. November 1993.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 153
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

US Environmental Protection Agency. Collection Efficiency: Strategies for Success. December 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Compost – New Applications for an Age-Old Technology.


October 1997.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Guide for
Owners/Operators. March 1993.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Catalogue of Hazardous Waste Database Reports. February


1993.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Disposal Tips for Home Health Care. November 1993.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Does Your Business Produce Hazardous Waste? Many Small
Businesses Do. January 1990.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Don’t Throw Away That Food. September 1998.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Full Cost Accounting for Municipal Solid Waste Management:
A Handbook. September 1997.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Full Cost Accounting in Action: Case Studies of Six Solid Waste
Management Agencies. December 1998.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Getting More for Less: Improving Collection Efficiency.
November 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Management of Selected


Materials in Municipal Solid Waste. September 1998.

154 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

US Environmental Protection Agency. In Situ. Treatment of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with
Chromium, Technical Resource Guide. October 2000.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Managing Used Oil: Advice for Small Businesses. November
1996.

US Environmental Protection Agency. National Source Reduction Characterization in the United States.
November 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Organic Materials Management Strategies. July 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Park and Recreation Products Containing Recovered Materials.
July 1996.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Safer Disposal for Solid Waste: A Quick Reference Guide, 1999
Update. 1999.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Safer Disposal for Solid Waste: The Federal Regulations for
Landfills. March 1993.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Trash and Climate Change. July 2000.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Recovery Seminar. July 1999.

Van de Klundert, Arnold, et.al. Integrated Sustainable Waste Management: A Set of Five Tools for
Decision-Makers (Experience from the Urban Waste Expertise Programme 1995-2001).
- Nadine Dulac. The Organic Waste Flow in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. 2001.
- Anne Scheinberg. Micro- and Small Enterprises in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management.
2001.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 155
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

- Anne Scheinberg. Financial and Economic Issues in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management.
2001.
- Arnold van de Klundert and Justine Anschutz. Integrated Sustainable Waste Management – The
Concept. 2001.
- Maria Muller and Lane Hoffmann. Community Participation in Integrates Sustainable Waste
Management. 2001.

Vogler, Jon. Work From Waste: Recycling Wastes to Create Employment. Great Britain: Intermediate
Technology Publications, Ltd. and Oxfam, 1981.

Waste Management Council of Tokyo 23 Cities. Waste and Recycling Management of Tokyo 23
Cities. January 2001.

World Bank Organization. Action Plan for the Development of National Programme for Sound
Management of Hospital Wastes. November 1996.

World Bank Organization. Suggested Guiding Principles and Prectices for the Sound Management of
Hazardous Wastes.

World Bank Organization. Survey of Hospital Wastes Management in Southeast Asia Region.
September 1995.

World Bank. Solid Waste Ecological Enhancement Project. Sector Assessment Report. May 1998.

156 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

◗ HANDBOOK/SOURCEBOOK/BROCHURE/PRIMER/SPECIAL REPORTS

The Canadian Construction Association. A Report on Waste Management for the Construction
Industry. Canada, August 1992.

Institute for the Development of Educational and Ecological Alternatives, Inc. Basurang Yaman: Isang
Praymer. Silang, Cavite, November 1999.

Integrated Solid Waste Management Sourcebook. n.p. : Associates in Rural Development – Governance
and Local Democracy Project (GOLD), n.d.

The Makati Central Business District Solid Waste Management Program. Implementing a Solid
Waste Management Program in your Building. Makati, n.d.

Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. How to Handle Polystyrene Plastic Waste: A
polystyrene plastic waste management primer. Manila, n.d..

Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines. Understanding “Styro” Recycling: Q & A. Manila.

Recycling Movement of the Philippines. Ecological Waste Management Series (for community-wide
implementation, for households, for schools, for offices, for markets). Quezon City: Department of
Environment and Natural Resources, n.d..

Sabas, Luz E. Handbook on Zero Waste Technology Featuring the “Four-Fs” – Total Recycling Scheme
for Domestic Solid Wastes Vol. 1, No. 1 in Zero Waste Management System. Copyright 1992.

Santiago, Lina Araneta. Solid Waste Management for the 21st Century. Malabon, Metro Manila: Sahara
Heritage Foundation, Sahara Foundation for Shelter and Environment, and Caritas Manila, Inc., 1993.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 157
5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

World Bank and the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program. Mag-Recycle Tayo: A How-
To Guide for Recycled Products. Manila: Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1999.

◗ NEWSLETTERS/NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES

Balikas: Balitang Kabuhayan, Kalikasan at Pamayanan sa CALABARZON. Babilonia Wilner Foundation.


Manila.

Business and Environment. A Publication of the Philippine Business for the Environment. Pasig City.

Industry Environews Vol. 5, No. 3 (December 2001). Environmental Management Bureau-Department


of Environment and Natural Resources.

MACEA News Vol. 9, No. 2 (Year 2001). Special Issue on Solid Waste Management Program. Official
Publication of the Makati Commercial Estate Association, Inc. Makati.

SWAPP Notes Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2000). Official Newsletter of the Solid Waste Management
Association of the Philippines.

Tao-Kalikasan. n.d. Newsletter of Lingkod Tao-Kalikasan (Secretariat for an Ecologically Sound


Philippines, Manila.

Waste Matters Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2001). Official Publication of the Solid Waste Management
Association of the Philippines, Makati.

◗ OCCASIONAL PAPERS

“Waste Matters: Towards Local Government Excellence in Solid Waste Management”. GOLD
Technical Notes No. 98-01. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

158 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

“LGU Solutions and Benefits from Good Integrated Solid Waste Management Practices.” Philippine
EcoGovernance Program: 2001 (Prepared as reference material for the LGU Interactive Assemblies).

“Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management.” GOLD Occasional Papers
No. 98-06. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1998.

“Moving Towards an Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical
Notes 1-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Appraising the Nature of Solid Waste in the Locality.” Local Governance Technical Notes 2-1999. Makati:
Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Organizing Joint Action on Integrated Solid Waste Management.” Local Governance Technical Notes
3-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Helping Citizens Earn from Solid Waste.” Local Governance Technical Notes 4-1999. Makati:
Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Promoting Programs to Convert Solid Waste to Organic Fertilizer.” Local Governance Technical Notes
5-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Introducing Measures to Improve Garbage Collection Efficiency.” Local Governance Technical


Notes 6-1999. Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Improving Dumpsite Operations with Limited Budget.” Local Governance Technical Notes 7-1999.
Makati: Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

“Preparing for a Sanitary Landfill: The First Steps.” Local Governance Technical Notes 8-1999. Makati:
Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, 1999.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 159
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“The Brooke’s Point Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance
and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Bustos Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Linamon Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and
Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Maitum Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Marilao Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Metro Dumaguete Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance
and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The San Fernando City Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance
and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

“The Sibulan Solid Waste Management Program.” Practices That Work! Makati: Governance and Local
Democracy (GOLD) Project, October 1999.

160 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

◗ ARTICLES

Lumbao, Lisa Kircher and Stacy Bonnaffons. “The Garbage Crisis: Everyone’s Responsibility.”
Manila Women’s Forum. February 2001.

Aftab, M. P. “Plan for Solid Waste Collection and Disposal.” Municipal Management Issues in South Asia.

VanDoren, Peter M. “Time to Trash Government Intervention in Garbage Service.” Policy Analysis No.
331 (January 21, 1999).

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5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

❙ TECHNICAL AND FUNDING ASSISTANCE


FOR LGUS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
◗ TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Programs/Projects/Institutions
Philippine Environmental Governance Project(EcoGov)
US Agency for International Development

Type of Assistance Available to LGUs


Technical assistance to LGUs on three sectors sustainable forest management (SFM), coastal
resource management (CRM), integrated solid waste management (ISWM). The project highlights
the importance of governance elements thus the emphasis given to enhancing the transparency,
accountability and participatory decision-making mechanisms in the various planning and
implementation processes. The ISWM component seeks to improve the delivery of services of LGUs.
The focus of the assistance will then be on:

1. Strengthening LGUs’ ability to implement ISWM (planning to implementation)


2. Improving ISWM systems for procurement and contracting

Participating LGUs will be provided technical assistance, which will include training, cross visits, and
technical advice. Local service providers will be tapped to provide LGUs with the required
assistance.

Requirements/Availment Procedure
The project is limited to the following regions:
Mindanao: ARMM, Region 9, Region 12 and Lanao del Norte.
Visayas: Central Visayas
Luzon: Northeastern Luzon

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REFERENCES AND TOOLS 5

LGUs are invited to attend Interactive Assemblies on the different themes. Interested LGUs are to
submit a Letter of Interest, clearly indicating the particular sector of their interest and their
commitment to provide counterpart resources.

Recycling Movement of the Philippines, Inc.


Training and information services on waste management systems especially on biogas production
and composting.

Executive Director
RMPI21
Sao Paulo St.Better Living Subdivision, Paranaque City, Metro Manila
Tel. (02) 824-1117

Phil. Recyclers, Inc.


Assistance in organizing a Balik-Baterya collection station; buys junk batteries for recycling in its
plant.

Liaison Officer
Tel 711-2220, 711-2236, 711-2262

Philippine Business for the Environment


Environment information (for business and industry); environmental technology referral; training
and publications

Executive Director
G/F DAP, San Miguel Ave.Pasig City
Tel 635-3670, 635-2650
Fax 631-5714

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5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Pollution Control Association of the Philippines

President
Rms. 245-247, Cityland Pioneer, Pioneer St., Mandaluyong City

Philippine Pollution Prevention Roundtable

President
PPPR1901-A West Tower, Tektite Towers, Phil. Stock Exchange Center, Ortigas Center, Pasig City
Tel 637-9537, 638-5070 to 72
Email: aprep@info.com.ph

Ecological Society of the Philippines (ESP)

Executive Director
53 Tamarind Road, Forbes Park, Makati City
Tel 631-7351 to 56631-7357 (Fax)

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ENDNOTES

1 Based on input from Todd R. Pepper, General Manager of the Essex-Windsor Solid Waste Authority.
Mr. Pepper is involved in a solid waste management project in Olongapo on behalf of the City
of Windsor. Windsor and Olongapo are partners in the FCM International Partnership Program
which links Canadian and Filipino cities for them to work on common municipal governance issues.
This program is funded by CIDA.

2 Governance and Local Democracy Project, Final Report, Associates in Rural Development. Solid
Waste Management Manuals and Workbooks (2001).

3 Governance and Local Democracy Project, Final Report, Associates in Rural Development. The Local
Governance Technical Notes: Moving Towards Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management,
Notes 1 (October 1999).

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