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(1938) Functions of the Executive, Harvard University ,Press, Cambridge, MA. Pugh, D. (1971) Organization Theory: Selected Readings, Penguin, Harmondsworth. Ivancevich, J. & Matteson, M. (1998) Organizational Behaviour and Management, 3rd edn, Irwin, Chicago and London. Wood, J. (1997) in Dickson, T. & Bickerstaffe, G. (eds.) Mastering Management: The Definitive Guide to the Foundations and Frontiers of Finance, FT/Pitman Publishing, London.
1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Management Functions Self Assessment Questions1 Management roles and skills Self Assessment Questions 2 Effective vs. Successful Managerial Activities Self Assessment Questions 3 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 1.1 Introduction
Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins, 2003). In recent times, we notice the following changes in the organizational set up:
1. Demise of traditional hierarchical structure 2. Emergence of workforce with different expectations form organizations 3. Advancement of information technology 4. Increasing importance on empowerment and teamwork 5. Concern for worklife balance
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An affective and efficient manager therefore, should focus on two key results. The first is task performance—the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by the work unit as a whole. The second is job satisfaction—how people feel about their work and the work setting. OB directs a manager’s attention to such matters as job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment, as well as measures of actual task performance. OB also recognizes the need for changing behavior, attitude and managerial styles in the context of the above. Hence, management processes and functions are vital to organizational effectiveness. An understanding of the basis management functions helps in comprehending the key roles managers need to play to run organizations effectively. Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Management Functions 2. Management roles and skills 1.2 Management Functions Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people".  One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Management functions are as follows (Fayol, 1949):
1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Commanding 4. Coordinating 5. Controlling
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However, in recent time, management functions have been regrouped into four categories, since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to a certain extend. The four functions are as follows:
1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Leading 4. Controlling
1. Planning – It involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Therefore, planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization's mission, overall goals, general strategies, and allocating resources. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. Thus, planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. The mission statement is broad, deconcise, summarizing what the organization does. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization's potential. The mission
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What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Are the facilities outdated? 3. Weaknesses. state. international). How skilled is our workforce? 4. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Are our rivals weak? Sikkim Manipal University 4 . Opportunities. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. suppliers. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. What is the strength of the economy? 4. professional. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. federal. What are the possible new markets? 3.Management Process Unit 1 statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. governments (local. Is research and development adequate? 4. customers (internal and external). What financing is available? 6. and trade). What is our market share? 5. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. journals and reports (scientific. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1.
necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. earnings per share. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Sikkim Manipal University 5 . Objectives are also called performance goals. return on investment. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or commonsense minimums. Are there new competitors? 3. In turn. as well as gap analysis. What are the emerging technologies? 6. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. tactical. Are market tastes changing? 5. etc. Strategic. operational plans are based on the organization's tactical plans. Generally. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. effectiveness. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization's strategic plan. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. What are the new regulations? 6. the best strategy is one that fits the organization's strengths to opportunities in the environment. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What substitute products exist? In general terms.Management Process Unit 1 5. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency.
who reports to whom. lines of authority. and where decisions are to be made. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. 2. procedures. shortterm standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the longrange estimates must be established. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Review plans 2. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. who is to do. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. working toward common goals. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. and goals are clearly stated. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. Organizational structure is the formal decisionmaking framework by which job tasks are divided. Assign work to individuals 6. with ideas and resources. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Organizing It involves designing. Sikkim Manipal University 6 . It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Organizations are groups of people.Management Process Unit 1 Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. and coordinated. structuring. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish a job 4. how the tasks are to be grouped. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization's resources to achieve organizational goals. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and relationships between departments. grouped. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization.
Supervisors can learn about leadership through research. Thus. as well as across national borders. Yet. When an individual works together with others. behavioral. Flexible networks of teambased structures are occurring within and between companies. contingency. contingency can't account for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to compete in today's global marketplace.Management Process Unit 1 3. Thus. Yet. and transformational. clarify role and task requirements for employees. the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Transactional leaders. Consensus Building Top performance demands the joint effort of many people. Yet. Leadership studies can be classified as trait.Teambuilding Rigid department boundaries and fixed teams are giving way to ad hoc squads whose membership changes with every project. who are charismatic and visionary. Newer transformational leadership studies have shown that leaders. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves. contingency theories of leadership studied leadership style in different environments. These behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the relationship between what the leader did and how the employees reacted. This collaboration is a revolution in the workplace. both emotionally and behaviorally. behavior can't always account for leadership in different situations. can inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterest for the good of the organization. working together toward a common goal. such as those identified in contingency theories. creating greater productivity for Sikkim Manipal University 7 . Leading An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. Competitive arenas require quick decisions by knowledgeable employees who work close to the source of problems. effectiveness grows. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others. Leading involves the following functions: 1. 2. later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness. Teams enable knowledge based and innovative decision making.
By focusing on strategy and examining sales forecasts and expected changes in production. Training starts with an organization analysis. 4. Controlling – It involves monitoring the employees’ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them. highperforming employees capable of sustaining their performance over the long run is a competitive advantage. 4. employers can determine which skills will be needed and to what degree. employees can do more than the collective efforts of each individual working alone. policies.Management Process Unit 1 all involved. recruiting candidates. distribution and support systems. and procedures. During orientation. and attitudes so that he or she can do the job. Training After employees are selected. and hiring employees. A comparison with current skill levels is used to estimate staff and training needs. so it is important that both parties agree to decisions about the training of employees. Specific duties and responsibilities and performance evaluation are clarified. Task analysis identifies the elements of current or future tasks to be done. Employees are informed about benefits. Cross training prepares an employee for a job normally handled by someone else. Orientation sets a tone for new employees' work by describing jobrelated expectations and reporting relationships. agreement between managers and employees tends to be low. Together. skills. Control is the process through which standards for performance Sikkim Manipal University 8 . they enter an orientation program to be formally introduced to their jobs. either in an interview or in a selfadministered questionnaire. 3. interviewing applicants. Also. Selecting Selecting competent. equipment or procedures are introduced into the workplace. In general. Training refers to improving an employee's knowledge. Personal needs analysis involves asking employees and managers. The selection process consists of forecasting employment needs. training is advisable when new processes. if needed. All new employees (or current employees in new jobs) should be trained. to analyze their training needs. the supervisor has the opportunity to resolve any unrealistic expectations held by the employee.
Sikkim Manipal University 9 . and information. Personal observation. If the source of variation in work performance is from a deficit in activity. Supervisors collect data to measure actual performance to determine variation from standard. While providing insight. Database programs allow supervisors to query. Management by walking around. Oral reports allow for fast and extensive feedback. this method might be misinterpreted by employees as mistrust. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action. or organizational unit. provides unfiltered information. Comparing results with standards determines variation. machine. production tallies. communicated. Written data might include time cards. Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. Deviations or differences that exceed this range would alert the supervisor to a problem. or observation of employees working. inspection reports.Management Process Unit 1 of people and processes are set. explicit statement of expected results from a product. Take Corrective Action. quantity. statistical reports. Computers give supervisors direct access to real time. and time. A standard is any guideline established as the basis for measurement. Management by exception lets operations continue as long as they fall within the prescribed control limits. Step 2. oral reports and written reports can be used to measure performance. Step 3. spend less time gathering facts. if necessary. It is a precise. It is usually expressed numerically and is set for quality. and the ability to read between the lines. Compare Measured Performance Against Established Standards. Tolerance is permissible deviation from the standard. Some variation can be expected in all activities and the range of variation the acceptable variance has to be established. Establish Performance Standards. Measure Actual Performance. and applied. then a supervisor can take immediate corrective action and get performance back on track. On line systems enable supervisors to identify problems as they occur. extensive coverage. They are as follows: Step 1. There are four steps in the control process. Step 4. Then. and sales tickets. individual. he or she takes action to remove or minimize the cause. unaltered data. service. and be less dependent on other people. The supervisor must find the cause of deviation from standard.
Planning Organizing Directing Controlling Goal achievement s Sikkim Manipal University 10 . or after it ceases (feedback). Supervisors can implement controls before the process begins (feed forward). Concurrent controls apply to processes as they are happening. inputs. Financial. and organizational quality programs. annual) reports so that almost instantaneous adjustments can be made. An example of feed forward control is scheduled maintenance on automobiles and machinery. 1972) Resources HR. during the process (concurrent). quarterly. The management process (adopted from Terry. Their goal is to prevent anticipated problems. Informational etc. Concurrent controls enacted while work is being performed include any type of steering or guiding mechanism such as direct supervision. Feed forward controls focus on operations before they begin. Examples of feedback controls include timely (weekly. and process designs. monthly. automated systems (such as computers programmed to inform the user when they have issued the wrong command). They guide future planning.Management Process Unit 1 Types of Control Controls are most effective when they are applied at key places. The following diagram represents an integrated model connecting all the abovementioned functions of management. Feedback controls focus on the results of operations.
Interpersonal roles 1. this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. and monetary resources d. which managers often perform: a. managerial roles are as follows: 1. 2. Spokesperson—representing the organization to outsiders 2. management functions have been regrouped into ____________ categories. In recent time. Following are the main subroles. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. physical.3 Management roles and skills Managerial Roles According to Mintzberg (1973). Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Resource allocators—allocating human. 1. Again. Monitor—collecting information from organizations. Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions. Disturbance handlers—taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. or any other stakeholders Sikkim Manipal University 11 . Training starts with an ___________________ analysis. Decisional roles 3. both from inside and outside of the organization b. Entrepreneur—initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disseminator—communicating information to organizational members c.Management Process Unit 1 Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Informational roles 2.
Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization. Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze. Vocational and on thejob training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. 2. and conceptual. It requires creative thinking. and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). People. Ceremonial and symbolic role of a manager is called __________________. it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others. diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. To acquire the Human Skill. Vocational and onthejob training programs can be used to develop _______________ skill. Sikkim Manipal University 12 . Management Skills Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical. This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns.Management Process Unit 1 3. Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise. Liaison—liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities. Leadership—leading organization in terms of recruiting. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. motivating etc. Figurehead—Ceremonial and symbolic role b. and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Human Skill : This is the ability to work with. who are proficient in technical skill. but not with interpersonal skills. c. ability to motivate others even in adverse situation. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings: a. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. human. generating options and choosing the best available option.
Successful Managerial Activities Luthans (1988). managing conflict. whereas successful managers spend 13% and effective managers spend 13% of their time in this activity. found that all managers engage in four managerial activities. 1988). and training. Traditional management— This activity consists of planning. 2. while successful manager spends 11% and effective managers spend 26% of their time in this activity. The average manager spent 29 percent of his or her time performing this activity while successful manager spends 28% and effective managers spend 44% of their time in this activity. Communication—This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork. staffing. They did not spend much time to the traditional management activities or to the human resource management activities (Luthans. 1. It was found that successful managers spent more time and effort in socializing. and controlling. while successful manager spends 48% and successful manages spend 11% of their time in this activity. Human resource management—This activity consists of motivating. on the basis of his study. and interacting with outsiders. Sikkim Manipal University 13 . 3. The average manager spent 32 percent of his or her time performing this activity. disciplining. politicking. The average manager spent 20 percent of his or her time performing this activity. Networking—This activity involves socializing. decision making.Management Process Unit 1 1. 4. The average manager spent 19 percent of his or her time performing this activity.4 Effective vs. interacting and networking.
procedures. The average manager spent __________ percent of his or her time performing traditional management. who is to do. 1. structuring. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. management functions have been grouped into four categories: planning. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. The formal organization can be Sikkim Manipal University 14 . how the tasks are to be grouped. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization's resources to achieve organizational goals. and structure have on behavior within an organization. who reports to whom. The second is job satisfaction—how people feel about their work and the work setting. grouped.4 Summary Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.Management Process Unit 1 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. and goals are clearly stated. Organizing involves designing. Organizational structure is the formal decisionmaking framework by which job tasks are divided. leading and controlling. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. working toward common goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. and where decisions are to be made. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. organizing. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. 2003). Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. 2. with ideas and resources. and coordinated. The first is task performance—the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by the work unit as a whole. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Effective managers spend __________percent of their time in human resource management. then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins. An affective and efficient manager should focus on two key results. Organizations are groups of people. groups.
seen and represented in chart form. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles, lines of authority, and relationships between departments. Leading involves team building, consensus building, selecting and training. An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Controlling involves monitoring the employees’ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them, if needed. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action, if necessary. According to Mintzberg ( 1973), managerial roles are: Informational roles, Decisional roles and Interpersonal roles. Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual. Luthans (1988) found that all managers engage in four managerial activities: (i) Traditional management— This activity consists of planning, decision making, and controlling, (ii) Communication—This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork, (iii) Human resource management—this activity consists of motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training, and (iv) Networking—this activity involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders. Terminal questions 1. Discuss the four management functions in brief. 2. What do you mean by SWOT analysis? Why is it required by a manager? 3. Discuss three leadership functions of a manager. 4. Based on Katz’s proposition, briefly discus the essential managerial skills. Answer to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Four 2. Organization
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Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Figurehead 2. Technical Self Assessment Questions 3 1. 32 2. 26 Answer to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 1.2 2. Refer section 1.2 3. Refer section 1.2 4. Refer section 1.3
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2.1 2.2 Introduction Objectives Definitions of OB Self Assessment Questions 1 2.3 2.4 Historical evolution of OB as a discipline Self Assessment Questions 2 Contributing Disciplines to the OB field Self Assessment Questions 3 2.5 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s
2.1 Introduction In order to be effective organizations need to develop their interpersonal or people skills According to Robbins( 2003), Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. An organization is more than a formal arrangement of functions, more than an organization chart, more than a vision statement, more than a set of accounts. An organization consists of people and so it is also a social system. The field of organizational behavior (OB) draws primarily from the behavioral science disciplines of psychology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology. The areas on which OB focuses are individuals who will often be working within groups, which themselves work within organizations, as well as all the interrelationships between them. Some of the specific themes embraced by OB are personality theory, attitudes and values, motivation and learning, interpersonal behavior, group dynamics, leadership and teamwork, organizational structure and design, decisionmaking, power, conflict, and negotiation. Some OB
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thinkers go further and suggest that the behavior within the organization has to be viewed partly in the wider context of the outside world’s effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives, and strategies. Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Historical evolution of OB as a discipline 2. Contributing Disciplines to the OB field 2.2 Definitions Of OB Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) have defined Organizations as “social arrangements, constructed by people who can also change them. Organizations can be repressive and stifling, but they can also be designed to provide opportunities for selffulfillment and individual expression. The point is that human consequences depend on how organizations are designed and run.’ Barnard (1938) defined Organizations “as system of cooperative activities – and their coordination requires something intangible and personal that is largely a matter of personal relationships”. There are a number of definitions that we can draw on to illuminate and deepen our understanding of the concept of organizational behavior. One of the earliest, and certainly one of the most succinct definitions, comes from Pugh, (1971) for whom, OB is concerned with ‘‘the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organizations, and the behavior of groups and individuals within them”. Ivancevich and Matteson, (1998) in their book Organizational Behavior and Management, offers a broader definition. They opine that OB is about ‘‘the study of human behavior, attitudes and performance within an organizational setting; drawing on theory, methods, and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and cultural anthropology to learn about individual perception, values, learning capabilities, and actions while working with groups and within the total organization; analyzing the external environment’s effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives and strategies”.
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In an organization. namely: 1. Seeing the external environment as critical 6. and then behave accordingly. Performance oriented 5.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 What emerges from these two definitions is a view of OB as: 1. Individual 2. He suggests that different levels of analysis can be applied when examining the significance of an organizational issue. International 8. determines the view of the causes of an event or problem. Having an applications orientation Levels of analysis: Wood (1997) provides a useful model for exploring behavioral events. and the solutions that one seeks. inappropriate intervention at the wrong level can make a problem worse rather than better. Societal 7. Intergroup 4. Sikkim Manipal University 19 . Having a distinctly humanistic outlook 4. The basic issue is that the level of explanation that one chooses. Team 3. This is often particularly true of external consultants brought in to perform a ‘quick fix’. Using scientific method 7. It also affects the actions that one takes. Global. An interdisciplinary field 3. Interorganizational 6. A way of thinking 2. Organizational 5. He proposes eight. Three points are important in this regard: People tend to pick their favorite level of analysis to explain events.
intergroup. Sikkim Manipal University 20 .3 Historical Evolution Of OB As A Discipline A large number of people have contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline. Barnard (1938) defined Organizations “as system of ________________ activities”. It may not solve organizational problems. Looking at a problem systemically will always yield a better understanding than simply leaping in with fixed preconceptions. any organizational problem can be usefully analyzed at an increasingly higher level of abstraction. inaccurate. The development of assembly line production process in the early 20 century was obviously stimulated by the economic advantages of work specialization (arising out of division of labor) as stated in the work of Smith. He concluded that division of labor increased productivity by raising each worker’s skill and dexterity. such explanations are often too simplistic. By considering a problem progressively at the individual. The most important ones have been described below: A. Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) have defined Organizations as “_________. a deeper understanding of its causes can be gained. As a general principle. Therefore a contingency approach is what is now preferred rather than any absolute solutions in OB. 3. OB is ________________ field. Early Theorists Adam Smith’s discussions in the Wealth of nations published in 1776 stated that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor. or incomplete. As a result. However. particularly in a competitive and volatile market. and often prefer. 2. and applied more effectively. group. the tools needed to tackle the problem can be chosen more precisely. and organizational levels. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. by saving time other wise lost in changing th tasks. arrangements” 2.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 People are most familiar with. Trying to change people by sending them on a training course is simpler than changing structures or upgrading technology. nor provide the base for creating self sufficiency and sustenance. explanations at the individual level of behavior.
Henri Fayol. He stressed on selecting the right people for the job . Mary parker Follet and Chester Barnard. Sikkim Manipal University 21 .Organizational Behavior Unit 2 The other significant work which influenced this philosophy was that of the work of Charles Babbage in 1832 titled On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 2. train them to do it precisely in one best way. Train the worker to do the work efficiently. Shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager; managers should do all the thinking relating to the planning and design of work. Select the best person to perform the job thus designed. The Classical Era We see this trend to continue in what is called as the classical era which covers the period between 1900 to mid 1930s. Very little were no consideration was given towards the human elements in the workplace. leaving the workers with the task of implementation. Reduced wastage of material during the learning process 3. Allowed attainment of increased skill levels 4. His scientific principles of management stressed the following principles: 1. He favored wage plans to motivate the workers. Frederick Taylor’s main emphasis was on finding one best way of doing each job. 3. Max Weber. B. Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work; assign the worker’s task accordingly. 4. Careful match of people’s skills and physical abilities with specific tasks Thus in the writings of these writers the benefits of division of labor were being highlighted where the maximum emphasis was on raising productivity and minimizing wastage of resources and time. He added the following to Smith’s list of advantages that can be accrued from division of labor: 1. specifying the precise way in which the work is to be done. the first general theories of management began to evolve and the main contributors during this era were Frederick Taylor. It reduces the time needed to learn a job 2.
Henri Fayol. 4. clear and fair arguments. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever. defined the nature and working patterns of the twentiethcentury organization in his book. new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. and stability are threatened. in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called ‘‘the one best way’’ to do each job. discipline. He insisted the use of timeandmotion study as a means of standardizing work activities. and the judicious application of penalties. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business. to find the optimum mode of performance. Of course. With passing time. 2. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased. 3. with productivity increasing significantly. the effect was to remove human variability. His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties; authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. 6. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. an employee should receive orders from one superior only; otherwise authority. published in 1916.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 5. Sikkim Manipal University 22 . General and Industrial Management. Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. order. a mining engineer and manager by profession. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be cocoordinated by a single plan under one head. The results were dramatic. In it. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership. 5. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century. The principles of the theory are: 1.
Technical 2. list these functions as the core of their activities. organizing. but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are kept informed. 12. Financial 4. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization. Management. and not lead to overpayment. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair. Fayol stated. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize a commercial organization’s activities into its basic components. Accounting 6. 13. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics. Many practicing managers. 9. 8. Security 5. Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent dissension and divisiveness. Sikkim Manipal University 23 . Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the requirements of authority and discipline. The management function. He suggested that organizations could be subdivided into six main areas of activity: 1. 11. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice. even today. 10. Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place; people must be suited to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel. co coordinating and controlling.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 7. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the time required for the development of expertise. 14. Commercial 3. such as size and the capabilities of the personnel. encourage effort. commanding. consisted of planning.
After a trial period they get tenure of position and are protected from arbitrary dismissal. Officials are selected on basis of technical qualifications. Rules are stable. 2. One of the Sikkim Manipal University 24 . 3. he described an ideal types of organization and called it a bureaucracy. Fayol laid down a blueprint that has shaped organization thinking for almost a century. exhaustive. appointed not elected. The Human Relations Movement Since the industrialists of the early decades of the twentieth century followed Taylor’s lead and put the emphasis on efficiency. The official is a fulltime employee and looks forward to a lifelong career. The detailed features of Weber’s ideal bureaucratic structure are a follows: 1. Personal property separated from office property. detailed rules and regulations and impersonal relationships. This was a system marked by division of labor. Max Weber developed a theory based on authority relations and was he a pioneer in looking at management and OB from a structural viewpoint. and compensated by salary. 4. Intention. it was some years before any significant attention was paid to the needs and motivations of that other major factor involved in the work process – the workers. abstract rules govern decisions and actions. but have right of appeal (in contrast to more diffuse structure in traditional authority). Means of production or administration belong to office. and can be learned. activities are distributed as official duties (unlike traditional form where duties delegated by leader and changed at any time). C. Organization follows hierarchical principle subordinates follow orders or superiors. He wanted this ideal types construct to be taken as a basis for creating organizations in real world. 2. Decisions are recorded in permanent files (in traditional forms few explicit rules or written records). His theory is also known as bureaucratic theory in management. Jurisdictional areas are clearly specified. a clearly defined hierarchy. 5. Employment by the organization is a career.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 In defining the core principles governing how organizations worked and the contribution of management to that process.
With this started the beginning of what may be termed as the Human relations Movement as contributor to the field of OB Follet believed that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than on individualism. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity. Thus in her writing one can trace the importance of motivation and group togetherness . People Sikkim Manipal University 25 .Organizational Behavior Unit 2 early pioneers of a view that actually people were central to the world of business was Mary Parker Follett. Elton Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement. and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies. Another major influence in the human relations movement came from the work of Chester Barnard. The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the significance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. it was not Mayo who conducted the practical experiments but his employees Roethlisberger and Dickinson. Where ever norms of cooperation and higher output were established it was due to a feeling of importance. Thus irrespective of excellent production systems. employees and others like customers. Barnard viewed organizational success in terms of fostering cooperation from various stakeholders such as. Barnard viewed organizations as consisting of people who have interacting social relationships. for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. This helped him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. Physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. Managers and workers need to look at each other as partners. However. investors. Barnard emphasized the need for boundary spanning activities and development of skills and motivation of employees for organizational effectiveness and success. suppliers and other external constituencies. The manager’s work was to harmonize and coordinate group efforts. so much required in modern day organizational situations. His findings were that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the workgroup. Therefore managers should rely more on workers’ expertise and knowledge than on formal authority of their position to lead their subordinates. and his book The Social Problems of an Industrialised Civilization (1933).
Change people by praising their good traits and giving chance to others to save their face The next contributor who influenced the human aspects of management in workplace was Abraham Maslow. His main theme centered on the idea that the way to success was through winning the cooperation of people. it no longer motivated an individual. being sympathetic and never telling others that they are wrong 4. He concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. but must be seen as members of a group. He formulated two sets of assumptions – Theory X and Theory Y about human nature. His book How to Win Friends and Influence people is a classic which is referred by management experts even today. Theory X posited a negative Sikkim Manipal University 26 . Self actualization was the ultimate goal of human existence. He advised: 1. Summary of Mayo's Beliefs: Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation. Managers who accepted this hierarchy theory attempted to alter the organization and management practices to reduce barriers to employees’ self actualization Douglas McGregor was another contributor to the human relations movement. safety.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 will form workgroups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization. Seek to make a good impression 3. Another contributor whose work revolutionized thinking about workplaces was Dale Carnegie. He suggested a tension between workers' 'logic of sentiment' and managers' 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict within organizations. social esteem and self actualization needs) and stated that each step in the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next can be activated and once a need was substantially satisfied. Monetary incentives and good working condition are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. To make others feel important through a sincere appreciation of their efforts 2. Maslow proposed the need hierarchy theory (physiological. Win people to your way of thinking by letting others do the talking.
initiate more new business ventures. Behavioral Science Theorists These theorists engaged in objective research of human behavior in organizations. Only providing the Sikkim Manipal University 27 . Skinner His research on conditioning (classical and operant) and behavior modification influenced the design of organization training programs and reward systems. people who have undergone achievement training in India. want to avoid responsibility and need to be closely directed at workplace. made greater investments in productive assets than those who did not undergo such training Fred Fiedler work in the field of leadership has contributed immensely to the growth of OB as a discipline. B. For example. His work on the subject is important since it emphasized the situational aspects of leadership and attempted to develop a comprehensive theory of leadership behavior Fredrick Herzberg his primary interest was in finding out answer to the question: what do individuals want from their jobs? He concluded from his study that people preferred jobs that provided opportunities for recognition. have been found to work longer hours. assume responsibility and considered work as a natural activity. Theory Y category on the other hand proposed a positive view of people stating that they can exercise self direction.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 view of people stating that this category have little ambition. Some of the major theorists who contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline are briefly given below. Managers should give freedom to their subordinates in order to unleash their full creative and productive potential D. achievement. F. dislike work. Behavior is a function of consequence according to Skinner and he stated that people engage in a desired behavior only if they are rewarded for it and less likely to be repeated if an individual is not rewarded or punished for it David McClelland his work has helped organizations to match people with jobs and in redesigning jobs for high achievers in order to maximize their motivation potential. responsibility and growth. McGregor personally believed that Theory Y described best the nature of people at work and therefore form the basis of all management practices in organizations.
OB is present times What is realized today is that no one theory by itself can improve organizational functioning and effectiveness. What. therefore. E.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 hygiene factors were insufficient to motivate people in work places. is suggested is a contingency approach. This work is significant to OB as it has helped in enriching jobs and the quality of work life in modern organizations. The emphasis today is on understanding the situational factors and how they influence a behavior pattern of individuals in organizational contexts. While the 1960s and 70s witnessed the development of new theories the efforts since then has been on refining existing theories. clarifying previous assumptions and identifying significant contingency variables. Landmark publications on organizational behavior » 1911: Frederick Taylor: Principles of Scientific Management » 1916: Henri Fayol: General and Industrial Management » 1924: MaxWeber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization » 1933: Elton Mayo: Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization » 1938: Chester Barnard: The Functions of the Executive » 1954: Abraham Maslow: Motivation and Personality » 1956: William Whyte: The Organization Man » 1959: Frederick Herzberg: The Motivation to Work » 1960: Douglas McGregor: The Human Side of Enterprise » 1964: Robert Blake and Jane Mouton: The Managerial Grid » 1973: Henry Mintzberg: The Nature of Managerial Work » 1978: Chris Argyris and Donald Schon: Organizational Learning » 1979: Reg Revans: Action Learning » 1981: Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos: The Art of Japanese Management » 1982: Tom Peters and Bob Waterman: In Search of Excellence » 1984: Meredith Belbin: Management Teams » 1985: Edgar Schein: Organizational Culture and Leadership » 1986: Gareth Morgan: Images of Organization Sikkim Manipal University 28 .
their contributions have been expanded to include learning. performance appraisals. Taylor has proposed ____________ principles of management. Psychology : Psychology is the science that attempts to measure. training. and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals. The main areas are psychology. decision making processes. Early industrial/organizational psychologists were concerned with problems of fatigue. social psychology.4 Contributing Disciplines To The OB Field Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. 3. boredom. emotions. Sikkim Manipal University 29 . and job stress. and political science.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 » 1989: Charles Handy: The Age of Unreason » 1990: Peter Senge: The Fifth Discipline » 1990: Richard Pascale: Managing on the Edge » 1993: James Champy and Mike Hammer: Reengineering the Corporation 1995: Karl Weick: Sensemaking in Organizations » 1997: Arie de Geus: The Living Company » 1997: Thomas Stewart: Intellectual Capital » 2000: Richard Pascale: Surfing the Edge of Chaos »2001: Daniel Pink: Free Agent Nation Self Assessment Questions 2 1. attitude measurement. Fayol has proposed _______________ theory. More recently. job satisfaction. needs and motivational forces. anthropology. and other factors relevant to working conditions that could disrupt/ impede efficient work performance. 2. explain. perception. leadership effectiveness. Adam Smith stated that organizations and society would reap from the __________ of labor 2. personality. employee selection techniques. sociology. work design.
Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a ________________ environment. The major challenge deals with the issue of how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. _______________ is the science that attempts to measure. and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 Sociology Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is. It focuses on areas. groups. An organization Sikkim Manipal University 30 . Their significant contribution to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations. intraorganizational politics and power. such as. 2. Specifically. they have aided in understanding differences in fundamental values. Political Science Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Social Psychology Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. _______________ blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings. 2. and structure have on behavior within an organization. then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. reduce absenteeism and turnover. explain. OB focuses on how to improve productivity. conflict. and behavior among people in different countries and within different organizations. Anthropology Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. particularly formal and complex organizations. attitudes. Anthropologists work on cultures and environments; for example.5 Summary Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals. 3.
and Global. What is Weber’s ideal bureaucratic structure? 4. An organization consists of people and so it is also a social system. Organizational. 2. Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. Team. A large number of people have contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline. Discuss Taylors’ scientific principles of management. Some of the most important works have been done by Adam Smith. Skinner. He proposes eight. Interdisciplinary Sikkim Manipal University 31 . it is performance oriented. decision making. and cultural anthropology. Summarize Mayo’ belief. Max Weber. attitudes and values. Henri Fayol. power. and negotiation. Some of the specific themes embraced by OB are personality theory. social psychology.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 is more than a formal arrangement of functions. namely: Individual. leadership and teamwork. it uses scientific method and it has an applications orientation. Explain Fayol’s administrative theory. Abraham Maslow. motivation and learning. Wood (1997) provides a useful model for exploring behavioral events. 3. Interorganizational. to name a few. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. as well as all the interrelationships between them. B. anthropology. Cooperative 3. group dynamics. more than a set of accounts. conflict. The areas on which OB focuses are individuals who will often be working within groups. more than an organization chart. International. more than a vision statement. He suggests that different levels of analysis can be applied when examining the significance of an organizational issue. it considers external environment as critical. social psychology. sociology. Intergroup. OB is an interdisciplinary field. The main areas are psychology. it has distinctly humanistic outlook. Social 2. which themselves work within organizations. interpersonal behavior. F. organizational structure and design. The field of organizational behavior (OB) draws primarily from the behavioral science disciplines of psychology. Frederick Taylor. and political science. Societal. Mary parker Follet. Terminal Questions 1.
Refer section 2.3 2. Refer section 2. Division 2.3 4.3 3.Organizational Behavior Unit 2 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Refer section 2. Psychology 2. Refer section 2.3 Sikkim Manipal University 32 . Political Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Administrative Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Social psychology 3. Scientific 3.
people are the indispensable human resources whose knowledge and performance advance the organization’s purpose. such as. and money. raw materials. A Fortune survey (1998) of America’s most admired firms reported that “the single best predictor of overall success was a company’s ability to attract. technology. and retain talented people.” Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. motivate. It recognizes that even in the age of high technology.1 Introduction Foundation Of Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by the sum total of knowledge.1 Introduction Objectives 3. and dedication of an organization’s workforce.4 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 3. mission.Foundation Of Organization Behavior Unit 3 Unit 3 Structure 3.3 Ability Self Assessment Questions 2 3. Biographic Characteristics 2. and strategies.2 Biographic characteristics Self Assessment Questions 1 3. information. Ability Sikkim Manipal University 33 . Only through human efforts can the great advantages be realized from other material resources of organizations. expertise.
analytical skills. Marital Status There are not enough studies to draw any conclusions about the effect of marital status on job productivity. tend to value older workers for their experience. learning ability.2 Biographic characteristics Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity. Gender Men and women exhibit no consistent differences in their problemsolving abilities. or sociability. or power. women are reported to be more conforming and to have lower expectations of success than men do. 2. and satisfaction is often complicated. Research is consistent with these preferences and also shows lower avoidable absences (Mayrand. undergo less turnover. Research consistently indicates that married employees have fewer absences. turnover. workers as young as age forty are considered to be “old” and complain that their experience and skills are no longer valued. motivation. However.Foundation Of Organization Behavior Unit 3 3. On the other hand. women’s absenteeism rates tend to be higher than those of men. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics. 3. And. In some cases. Age 3. stability and low turnover. Marital status 4. absence. Tenure. Gender 2. People 50 years old and older account for 85 percent of the projected labor force growth between 1990 and 2005 (American Association of Retired Persons. competitive drive. politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. small businesses in particular. such as: 1. 1. Many of the concepts—motivation. Older workers are susceptible to being stereotyped as inflexible and undesirable in other ways. and are more satisfied with their jobs than are their unmarried coworkers (Garrison & Sikkim Manipal University 34 . Age The research findings concerning age are important given the aging of the workforce. 1992). 1995).
3. Aptitude represents a person’s capability of learning something. Managers need to consider both ability and aptitude while selecting candidates for a job. 5. besides.Foundation Of Organization Behavior Unit 3 Muchinsky. In addition to mental aptitudes and abilities. such as. 1973). 2. Extensive reviews of the seniorityproductivity relationship have been conducted (Gordon & Fitzgibbons. single or married. Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover. divorce.3 Ability Ability reflects a person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job and includes both relevant knowledge and skills (Cummings & Schwab. The evidence indicates that tenure and satisfaction are positively related Self Assessment Questions 1 1. the StanfordBinet IQ Test). Some of these provide an overall intelligent quotient (IQ) score (e. 1977). etc 4. 1982): 1.g. whereas abilities are the knowledge and skills that an individual currently possesses.. 4. require tests for physical Sikkim Manipal University 35 . 2. Tenure The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject of misconceptions and speculations. Others provide measures of more specific competencies that are required of people entering various educational programs or career fields. Further research needs to be conducted on the other statuses. domestic partnering. firefighters and police. There is a _______ relationship between tenure to absence. Women’s absenteeism rates tend to be _________ than those of men. There is a negative relationship between tenure to absence. some jobs. In other words. aptitudes are potential abilities. Such tests are designed to facilitate the screening and selection of applicants for educational programs or jobs. Tenure has consistently been found to be negatively related to turnover and has been suggested as one of the single best predictors of turnover. There is a positive relationship between tenure and job productivity. Various tests used to measure mental aptitudes and abilities. such as. 3.
Foundation Of Organization Behavior
abilities. Muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance are two among the many physical ability dimensions (Hogan, 1991). There must be a fit between specific aptitudes and abilities and job requirements. If you want to be a surgeon, for instance, and cannot demonstrate good hand–eye coordination, there will not be a good ability–job fit. Such a fit is so important that it forms a core concept in managing human resources. Individuals overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical. Intellectual Abilities Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. Examples of such tests are popular college admission tests such as, the SAT, GMAT, and LSAT. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory (Dunnette, 1976). The abilities are categorized in the following table:
Description Dimension Number aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Verbal Communication Perceptual Speed Read write speaking ability Identify similarities and differences quickly and accurately Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Logical sequence drawing Ability to use logic and assess the implications of the argument Spatial Visualization Memory Ability to imagine Ability to retain and recall past experience
Senior managers Investigators
Market Researcher Supervisors
Interior decorator Sales person Remembering customer’s name
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Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. A review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. In this regard, the theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Gardner (1983, 1993). This theory suggests eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. It has been claimed that our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us is complex. Some people are better at understanding some things than others. For some, it is relatively easy to understand how an automobile works, but it is immensely difficult for some to understand and use a musical instrument. For others music might be easy but playing football is difficult. The several different intelligences are listed below: 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): 2. Logicalmathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. BodilyKinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") Physical Abilities Specific physical abilities gain importance in doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management matches the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and the employees’ abilities.
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Foundation Of Organization Behavior
Nine Basic Physical Abilities proposed by Fleishman (1979):
Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles
Ability to exert force against external objects
Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts
Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing Movements
Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance
Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time
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Foundation Of Organization Behavior
The AbilityJob Fit Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high abilityjob fit. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required depend on the ability requirements of the job. For example, pilots need strong spatialvisualization abilities. Directing attention at only the employee’s abilities, or only the ability requirements of the job, ignores the fact that employee performance depends on the interaction of the two. When the fit is poor employees are likely to fail. When the abilityjob fit is out of synchronization because the employee has abilities that far exceed the requirements of the job, performance is likely to be adequate, but there will be organizational inefficiencies and possible declines in employee satisfaction. Abilities significantly above those required can also reduce the employee’s job satisfaction when the employee’s desire to use his or her abilities is particularly strong and is frustrated by the limitations of the job Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic is called _________ aptitude. 2. Interpersonal intelligence means ____________ smart. 3. Ability to exert force against external objects is called as _________ strength. 3.4 Summary Organizational Behavior emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization’s workforce. It recognizes that even in the age of high technology, people are the indispensable human resources whose knowledge and performance advance the organization’s purpose, mission, and strategies. Only through human efforts can the great advantages be realized from other material resources of organizations, such as, technology, information, raw materials, and money. Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity, absence, turnover, and satisfaction is often complicated. Many of the concepts—motivation, or power, politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics, such as, gender, age, marital status, and tenure. Ability reflects a person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job and includes both relevant knowledge and skills (Cummings & Schwab, 1973). Aptitude represents a
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Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Refer to section 3. aptitudes are potential abilities. deductive reasoning. Individuals overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management matches the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and the employees’ abilities. Explain the significance of abilityjob fit. Static Answers to Terminal Questions 1. What is “ability”? explain the multiple intelligence theory.2 2. People 3. perceptual speed.Foundation Of Organization Behavior Unit 3 person’s capability of learning something. spatial visualization.3 3. In other words. Specific physical abilities gain importance in doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. 2. Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. verbal comprehension. Managers need to consider both ability and aptitude while selecting candidates for a job.Number 2. 3. Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high abilityjob fit. whereas abilities are the knowledge and skills that an individual currently possesses. Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required depend on the ability requirements of the job. and memory. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude. Briefly describe the relationship of biographic characteristics with organizational behavior.3 Sikkim Manipal University 40 . inductive reasoning. Higher 2. Terminal Questions 1. Negative Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. Refer to section 3. Refer to section 3.
learning involves change.1 Introduction Learning refers to a process that enhances the knowledge.4 Behavior modification Self Assessment Questions 3 4. the change must be relatively permanent. Such learning should be sustainable and comparatively stable for people and for the institutions that serves people. 2003). 3. Following are the characteristics of learning: 1. Learning definitely includes academic studies and occupational training through high school and beyond. learning is concerned with behavior. skill and attitude (KSA) of individuals. First. 2. to increase his/her willingness to adopt those newly acquired KSA and to implement them at the workplace.5 Specific organizational application 4. cognitive. Third. Learning can be defined as “any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience” (Robbins.2 Theories of learning Self Assessment Questions 1 4. Second.3 Shaping behavior Self Assessment Questions 2 4. Sikkim Manipal University 41 .1 Introduction Objectives 4.6 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 4. But it also encompasses the physical.Learning Unit 9 Unit 4 Structure Learning 4. emotional and social development of children in the earliest years of their lives.
When a particular StimulusResponse (SR) pattern is reinforced Sikkim Manipal University 42 . a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US – meat). operant conditioning. and social learning 1. Behavior modification 4. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. It is the Conditioned Response (CR).F. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. response. the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. after a few repetitions. Ivan Pavlov. Classical conditioning: Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Skinner (1953. Theories of learning 2. 2. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food unconditioned response). Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR). Thus. 1954). some form of experience is necessary for learning Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Finally.Learning Unit 9 4. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it.Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist. This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior.2 Theories of Learning There are three theories of learning namely classical conditioning. to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. respectively. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Significant stimulus evokes an innate. Operant Conditioning: The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B. often reflexive. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired.
Learning Unit 9 (rewarded). Social Learning The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. Reinforcement processes Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. For example. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur. the individual is conditioned to respond. and emotional reactions of others. and environmental influences. 2. Principles of operant conditioning are as follows: 1. the watching must be converted to doing. Attentional processes People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. the subordinate is likely to wear that attire and present himself in front of boss. 3. and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Motor reproduction processes After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model. 3. if a subordinate is praised by his boss for looking good in a certain attire. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. attitudes. behavioral. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 4. 5. 2. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. 3. Behavior is learned. According to Bandura (1977). It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors. Sikkim Manipal University 43 . Social learning has four processes: 1. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive. especially when he needs to please the boss. most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed. Retention processes A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the it is no longer readily available. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning. 4.
to strengthen the same behavior.3: Shaping behavior When a systematic attempt is made to change individuals’ behaviour by directing their learning in graduated steps. They are as follows: Positive reinforcement This is the process of getting something pleasant as a consequence of a desired behavior. it is called shaping behavior. For example. if it results in outcomes they value. For example. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior. he will stop doing it Sikkim Manipal University 44 . Example: having your pay docked for lateness Extinction—eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior. The operant conditioning theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in ___________ behavior 3. but gets no recognition for it. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value Self Assessment Questions 1 1. 2. So. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. scholarship is withdrawn from the student who has not done well on the examination Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior. 2. if a person puts in extra effort. 3. Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by _________. Social learning has __________ processes 4. one get a commission. Coding modeled behavior into words. if he/she achieves sales target Negative reinforcement This is the process of having a reward taken away as a consequence of a undesired behavior. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior. labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.Learning Unit 9 Principles of social learning are as follows: 1.
In an intermittent schedule. or varied.Learning Unit 9 Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. a reward is initiated. It is the traditional reinforcement schedule and is called a continuous reinforcement schedule. honesty pay is fixed interval reinforcement. Variableinterval reinforcements—rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. Each time the correct behavior is performed it gets reinforced. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. but reinforcement is given often enough to make the behavior worth repeating. A Continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated. 2. and piece rate is fixed ratio reinforcement scheme. Intermittent techniques be placed into following categories: Fixedinterval reinforcement schedule—rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals; the critical variable is time. When the reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual. form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous form. after a fixed or constant number of responses are given. he or she is said to be reinforced on a variableratio schedule For example. and it is held constant. In a fixedratio schedule. An Intermittent reinforcement schedule are fixed and variable categories. The intermittent. not every instance of the desirable behavior is reinforced. 1. Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency Schedules of reinforcement The two major types of reinforcement schedules are: 1) continuous and 2) intermittent. Sikkim Manipal University 45 .
Continuous reinforcers. 3. Continuous reinforcement schedules may lead to early satisfaction and behavior may weaken when reinforcers are withdrawn. or the task—with the goal of making highlevel performance more rewarding. They are appropriate for stable or highfrequency responses. Variable interval schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior because of a high correlation between performance and reward. Developing baseline data determines the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present conditions. Evaluating performance improvement 1.Learning Unit 9 In general. thus. variable schedules tend to lead to higher performance than fixed schedules. __________________is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior 2. _________________ is eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior 3. processes. Identifying behavior consequences 4. Identifying behavioral consequences tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences that are currently maintaining it. they also may lead to early satisfaction. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Intermittent reinforcers do not follow every response and thus. variable schedules tend to lead to __________ performance than fixed schedules. groups. are appropriate for newly desired. Sikkim Manipal University 46 . Developing baseline data 3. Identifying critical behaviors 2. technology. 4. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy will entail changing some elements of the performancereward linkagestructure. Critical behaviors make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance; 2. In general. unstable.4 Behavior modification The typical OB Modification program follows a fivestep problemsolving model: 1. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy 5. or low frequency responses. 4.
One of the Midwest organizations in USA implemented a well pay program. Continental Airlines has created a lottery that rewards its 40. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Well pay vs. then doubling the amount. sick pay Organizations with paid sick leave programs experience almost twice the absenteeism of organizations without such programs. Sikkim Manipal University 47 . Forbes cut its major medical and dental claims by over 30 percent (Robbins. Using lotteries to reduce absenteeism For example. 2003). OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee ____________. The typical OB Modification program follows a _________ step problemsolving model 2. 4. follows a variableratio schedule where management credits the lottery with significantly reducing the company’s absence rate (Robbins. By doing this. and improved employee satisfaction.Learning Unit 9 5. 6. This lottery system thus. OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee productivity and to reduce errors. tardiness. Continental holds a raffle and gives away eight new sport utility vehicles. 2003). Forbes magazine used the same approach to cut its health care costs. absenteeism. The wellpay program produced increased savings to the organization.000 employees for attendance. reduced absenteeism. Evaluating performance improvement is important to demonstrate that a change took place as a result of the intervention strategy. 2. Twice a year. increased productivity. It rewarded employees who stayed healthy and did not file medical claims by paying them the difference between $500 and their medical claims. Only employees who have not missed a day of work during the previous six months are eligible.5 Specific organizational application 1. It paid a bonus to employees who had no absence for any given fourweek period and then paid for sick leave only after the first eight hours of absence. and improve friendliness toward customers. accident rates.
Every manager will. g. Organizational applications of learning concepts can also be used to allow individuals to manage their own behavior. In practice. and temporary suspensions. Selfmanagement 1. 2003). 5. written warnings. Disciplining employees for undesirable behaviors gives them a message to what not to do. However. Sociallearning theory suggests that training should a. U. If the training has taken place off the job. it tends to be widely used because of its ability to produce fast results in the short run. It may provide only a short term solution and result in serious side effects. e. Help the trainee to file away what he or she has learned for later use and provide opportunities to practice new behaviors. at some time. c. and responses to achieve personal behavioral outcomes. the use of discipline carries costs. allow the trainee some opportunity to transfer what he/she learned to the job. it does not tell them what alternative behaviors are preferred. d. Offer a model to grab the trainee’s attention. Sikkim Manipal University 48 . Offer positive rewards for accomplishments. Managers will respond with disciplinary actions such as oral reprimands. have to deal with problem behaviors in his/her organization. b. d. Selfmanagement requires an individual to deliberately manipulate stimuli.3 million workers (Robbins. Most organizations have some kind of systematic training program. In one recent year. b. Developing training programs f. Employee discipline a. e. corporations with 100 or more employees spent in excess of $58 billion on formal training for 47. internal processes. 2. Discipline does have a place in organizations.S. a.Learning Unit 9 3. However. 4. Provide motivational properties c.
Continental Airlines’ lottery system follows a _______ schedule. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B. attitudes. Forbes magazine used the __________ to cut its health care costs. and emotional reactions of others. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. operant conditioning. When a particular StimulusResponse (SR) pattern is reinforced (rewarded). According to Bandura (1977).Learning Unit 9 The basic processes involve observing one’s own behavior. and social learning. Significant stimulus evokes an innate. Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors. When a systematic attempt is made to change Sikkim Manipal University 49 . response. often reflexive. respectively. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S R theory. the individual is conditioned to respond. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism.F. skill and attitude (KSA) of individuals. Characteristics of learning are: learning involves change; change must be relatively permanent; learning is concerned with behavior; and some form of experience is necessary for learning. Skinner. 4. There are three theories of learning namely classical conditioning. behavioral. Self Assessment Questions 4 1. and rewarding oneself if the behavior meets the standard. The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. to increase his/her willingness to adopt those newly acquired KSA and to implement them at the workplace. and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. 2. most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. comparing the behavior with a standard. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR). and environmental influences.6 Summary Learning refers to a process that enhances the knowledge. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive. It is the Conditioned Response (CR).
Terminal Questions 1. negative reinforcement. Describe the four methods of shaping behavior. Overt 3. Developing baseline data. Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency. Higher Self Assessing Questions 3 1. Explain the fivestep problemsolving model of typical OB modification.Learning Unit 9 individuals’ behavior by directing their learning in graduated steps. Pavlov 2. Punishment 2. 4. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. Identifying behavior consequences. Answers to Self Assessing Questions Self Assessing Questions 1 1. Briefly explain the different types of reinforcement schedules. 3. it is called shaping behavior. Four Self Assessing Questions 2 1. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. and Evaluating performance improvement. They are: positive reinforcement. and extinction. 2. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy. Explain the classical conditioning theory and social learning theory. Five 2. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. The typical OB Mod program follows a fivestep problemsolving model: Identifying critical behaviors. Productivity Sikkim Manipal University 50 . Extinction 3. punishment.
Refer section 4.4 Sikkim Manipal University 51 . well pay Answers to Terminal Questions 1.3 3.3 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4.2 2. Variableratio 2.Learning Unit 9 Self Assessing Questions 4 1.
1. Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute signifies that a mode of conduct or endstate of existence is important.6 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 5. ethical/moral values.5 Attitudes Self Assessment Questions 4 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5. 2. Ethics And Job Satisfaction 5.Value.4 National culture and values Self Assessment Questions 3 5. 3. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Unit 5 Structure Value. Sikkim Manipal University 52 . The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. and aesthetic values. when the value are prioritized in terms of their intensity. social values. doctrinal/ideological (political.3 Contemporary Work Cohort Self Assessment Questions 2 5.2 Types of Values Self Assessment Questions 1 5. it is called value system. 1973)..1 Introduction Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence” (Rokeach. Ranking an individual’s values in terms of their intensity equals that person’s value system. Types of values include.e. i. religious) values. When the values are ranked in terms of their intensity.
Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) 9. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. and choices. A significant portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early years—from parents. Family Security (taking care of loved ones) 5. and others. Pleasure (an enjoyable. An Exciting Life (a stimulating. Health (physical and mental wellbeing) 7. Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict) 8. They are :Terminal values and Instrumental values. Salvation (saved; eternal life) 12. SelfRespect (selfesteem) Sikkim Manipal University 53 . Each set contains 18 individual value items. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of an individual. friends. National culture and values 3. Attitudes 5. proposed two sets of values. Values shape relationships. The more positive our values. behaviors. teachers. Types of Values 2. more positive are people’s actions. since. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior. in his Value Survey (Rokeach Value Survey RVS).2 Types Of Values Rokeach. The terminal values and instrumental values proposed by RVS are listed below: Terminal values 1. A comfortable life (a prosperous life) 3. National Security (protection from attack) 10. Terminal values refer to desirable endstates of existence. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. or means of achieving the terminal values. This survey proposed that people in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values.Value. active life) 4. leisurely life) 11. Freedom (independence and free choice) 6. Equality (brotherhood and equal opportunity for all) 2. value has a great impact on perceptions.
Selfcontrolled (restrained; selfdisciplined) Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Independent (selfreliant; selfsufficient) 11. Logical (consistent; rational) 13. Ambitious (hardworking and aspiring) 2. Clean (neat and tidy) 5. 2. ___________ values refer to desirable endstates of existence. Loving (affectionate and tender) 14. True Friendship (close companionship) 16. Obedient (dutiful; respectful) 16. Broadminded (openminded) 3. A World at Peace (a world free of war and conflict) 18. Helpful (working for the welfare of others) 8. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 13. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Capable (competent; effective) 4. Honest (sincere and truthful) 9.Value. Forgiving (willing to pardon others) 7. Social Recognition (respect and admiration) 15. Imaginative (daring and creative) 10. Intellectual (intelligent and reflective) 12. A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Instrumental values 1. Loyal (faithful to friends or the group) 15. Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) 6. A Sense of Accomplishment (a lasting contribution) 14. Responsible (dependable and reliable) 18. Wisdom (a mature understanding of life) 17. Polite (courteous and wellmannered) 17. Social Recognition is ____________ value Sikkim Manipal University 54 .
Value. the Beatles. twocareer parents.3 Contemporary Work Cohort Robbins (2003) has proposed Contemporary Work Cohort. and computers 2. Organizations who employed them were vehicles for their careers 4. MTV. Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security 2. ___________ values refer to preferable modes of behavior. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 3. Their value orientations were: 1. Value flexibility. Distrusted authority. life options. Individuals’ values differ. Money was important. Kennedy. the civil rights and feminist movements. or means of achieving the terminal values 5. and babyboom competition 2. but tend to reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up. but would trade off for increased leisure time Sikkim Manipal University 55 . Influenced heavily by John F. Family and relationships were important and enjoyed teamoriented work 4. and achievement of job satisfaction 3. AIDS. Shaped by globalization. the Vietnam War.S. Boomers—Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid1980s belonged to this category. in which the unique value of different cohorts is that the U. Veterans—Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s. workforce has been segmented by the era they entered the workforce. They cherished the following values: 1. but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success 3. Believed in hard work 2. The cohorts and the respective values have been listed below: 1. Tended to be loyal to their employer 3. Xers—began to enter the workforce from the mid1980s. Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition 3. They exhibited the following value orientations: They were influenced by the Great Depression and World War II 1.
Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 5.e. have high expectation. gathered data from surveys with 116. 1. and pleasure 4.000 respondents working from IBM from more than 70 countries around the world. Neverending search for ideal job; see nothing wrong with jobhopping 3. Power distance: This dimension measures the 'social equality' i. 5.; to what extent a society accepts unequal distribution of power in families. The underlying concept of the four dimensions is described below (Hofsede 1991): 1. in order to find the common dimensions of culture across the countries. 2.4 National Culture And Values Following are the most important research with regard to establishing relationship between national culture and values. Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations · Terminal values: true friendship. Nexters—most recent entrants into the workforce.1991). Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Enjoy team work. and confident in their ability to succeed 2. _______________ began to enter the workforce from the mid1980s. believe in themselves. Hofstede’s research Hofstede (1980. Grew up in prosperous times. are called ________________.Value. Inequality of power in organizations is generally manifested in hierarchical superiorsubordinate relationships. Sikkim Manipal University 56 . Seek financial success 4. but are highly selfreliant 5. happiness. institutions and organizations.
3. Uncertainty avoidance: This is a representation of a society's tolerance for uncertain situations. collectivism: Individualism gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups. Some of the aspects of culture learned later have to do with conventions and ethics in your profession. Culture is about your fundamental assumptions of what it is to be a person and how you should interact with other persons in your group and with outsiders. 4. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 2. good and bad. or practices as opposed to fundamental assumptions about how things are. called ‘longterm orientation’. beautiful and ugly. Countries. the most difficult to change and will vary according to the culture in which we grow up. Sikkim Manipal University 57 . It was found that Asian countries like Hong Kong. which measures employees’ devotion to the work ethic and their respect for tradition. which score high in uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension (based on Confucian dynamism). It starts when a child learns basic values: what is right and wrong. It measures to what extent a society manages those situations by providing specific and conventional rules. Masculinity vs. through professional or craft training and in organization life. Hofstede (1991) further proposed that each person carries around several layers of cultural programming.Value. These layers are more of ways of doing things. Individualism vs. Individualistic society considers selfinterest as more important than the group goal. The first level of culture is the deepest. femininity: This dimension refers to what extent dominant values in a society emphasizes masculine social values like a work ethic expressed in terms of money. discourage risktaking behavior and innovation. Singapore. on the other hand. emphasizes on 'social ties or bonds' between individuals. South Korea and Taiwan are extremely strong in work ethic and commitment to traditional Confucian values. regulations and norms; by rejecting aberrant ideas or behavior; by accepting the possibility of absolute truths and the accomplishments of expertise. achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life. Collectivism. Other layers of culture are learned or programmed in the course of education. logical and illogical.
4. 3. CollectivismII Ingroup collectivism: it is the degree to which individuals take pride. Power distance: it is the degree to which power is unequally shared in a society or an organization. Uncertainty avoidance: GLOBE project defined this dimension as the extent to which a society or an organization tries to avoid uncertainty by depending heavily on prevalent norms.Value. rituals and bureaucratic practices. Javidan. and recognizes collective performance. CollectivismI i. What is the effect of violating cultural norms that are relevant to leadership and organizational practices? 4. Gender egalitarianism: GLOBE has defined this as an extent to which a society or an organization minimizes gender differences and discrimination. Are leader behaviors. Assertiveness: it is the degree to which individuals. Sikkim Manipal University 58 . 2002: 310) 1. attributes and organizational practices universally accepted and effective across cultures? 2. 2. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 GLOBE research GLOBE project integrates the above –mentioned cultural attributes and variables with managerial behavior in organizations. Hanges and Dorfman. GLOBE project identified nine cultural dimensions (House.e. 5. assertive and confrontational. Are they influenced by societal and organizational cultures? 3. both in organizational and social context are. societal collectivism: it is the degree to which society and organization encourages. loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations and families. 6. Following are some of the questions asked in this project to prove that leadership and organizational processes were directly influenced by cultural variables: 1. Can the universal and culturespecific aspects of leadership behaviour and organizational practice be explained with the help of a theory accounting for systematic differences across cultures? From the above.
three Asian countries found distinctly different patterns for managers in common work situations. 8. 9. investing. China 82%. For example. every individual has a set of attitudes and beliefs – filters through which he/she views management situations within organizational context. Denmark. the second set of managers were from more Sikkim Manipal University 59 . U. Performance orientation: this dimension encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement. It was quite evident that U. altruistic. Hungary 83%.S. Managerial beliefs. friendly. Russia 78%). On the other hand. having an extremely task oriented culture.. generous and caring.Value. managers disagreed whereas. Latin American managers strongly agreed.S managers. It was found out that most managers from diffused cultures believed that company should provide such facility (former Yugoslavia 89%. Future orientation: it is the degree to which individuals are encouraged in long term future – orientated behaviors such as planning. there are different sets of attitudes and values which affect behavior.S. Work behavior across cultures In every culture. most U. France. etc. etc. believed more in flatter organizational structure to become more effective. Trompenaars and HampdenTurner (1998:86) have conducted a survey to find out whether the employees believe their companies should provide housing to the employees. attitudes and values can affect organizations positively or negatively. Similarly.. Australia. Humane orientation: it is the degree to which organizations or society encourage or reward for being fair. agreed on the same. managers from specific cultures tend to focus only on the behavior that takes place at work. Task and relationship: in response to the statement which states that the main reason for a hierarchical structure was to communicate the authority relationship. Laurent (1983: 7596). most Asian . This is a function of their own cultural backgrounds. Managers portray trust and respect in their employees in different ways in different cultures. as a result of his survey with managers from nine Western European countries. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 7. in contrast to managers from diffused cultures who focus on wider range of behavior including employees’ private and professional lives. whereas less than 20% managers from specific cultures such as UK.
but the two are interrelated. Managers as experts or problemsolvers: in the same study. differences were found across cultures. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. French managers believed that they should give precise answers to the questions in order to maintain their credibility and retain the subordinates’ sense of security.Value. or events. Behavior Sikkim Manipal University 60 . On the contrary. Affect 3. Laurent asked managers from various cultures whether it was important for them to have at hand. Power distance measures the _________________. in response to the statement which says that in order to have efficient work relationship it is often necessary to bypass the hierarchical line. Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension called __________________ 5. ______________ gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 relationship oriented cultures where the concept of authority is more important. 3. managers believed that a managers’ role should be to act as a mentor who would facilitate the employees to solve the problem. In contrast. Italian managers. U. Attitudes are not the same as values.5 Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects. Managers from Sweden (task oriented culture) projected least problem with bypassing since getting the job done is more important than expressing allegiance to their bosses. precise answers to most questions their subordinates might raise about their work. 2. Cognition 2. irrespective of culture. The above mentioned example is inevitably a caution signal to the universal management approach. considered bypassing the authority/boss as an act of in subordination. There are three components of an attitude: 1. Similarly. They also believe that providing direct answers to a problem actually discourages subordinates’ initiative and creativity and ultimately hampers performance. coming from a relationshiporiented culture.S. people.
Value. because. job involvement. by altering either the attitudes or the behavior. and problem solving. or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy. Job satisfaction 1. An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor. and organizational commitment. Behavior The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Attitudes and Consistency When there is an inconsistency. Research evidence has shown a negative relationship between organizational commitment and both absenteeism as well as turnover. 2. It is the measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to selfworth. Affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. 1. Sikkim Manipal University 61 . judging. Types of Attitudes Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction. 3. knowing. A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and viceaversa. remembering. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Cognition – It is the mental process involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension.It is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals. It is defined as an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent. it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction. including thinking. Organizational commitment 1. and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Job involvement 1.
Rewards: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards. Specificity: The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior. Though dissonance exists. The most powerful moderators are: 1. Importance: refers to fundamental values. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance. argued that. Due to moderating factors. Importance 2. or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger (1957). it is not possible for any individual to completely avoid dissonance. the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low. However. selfinterest. Direct experience 1. the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance Importance: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant. they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change. it is possible to rationalize and justify it. Contemporary research has shown that attitudes can significantly predict future behavior and has confirmed Festinger’s original view that relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables into account( Robbins. Specificity 3. 2. any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. Social pressures 5. while linking attitudes with behavior. Accessibility 4. individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance—or consistency. Sikkim Manipal University 62 . 2003).Value. Influence: If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result. the stronger the link between the two.
Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. or by certain groups of employees.Value. may be seen as inequitable by employees in general. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 3. While the traditional attitudebehavior relationship is generally positive. Measuring Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. In contrast to the cognitive dissonance theory. Direct experience: The attitudebehavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to an individual’s direct personal experience. What may be viewed by management as fair policies and practices. Selfperception theory Selfperception theory (Bem. The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys. satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and Sikkim Manipal University 63 . attitudes are just casual verbal statements and they tend to create plausible answers for what has already occurred. Attitude Surveys 1. Social pressures: Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur where social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power. and as objective. 1967) proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. 2003). For an organization. so that action can be taken to prevent repercussions (Robbins. and may result in negative attitudes about the job and the organization. Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. It provides with valuable feedback about the way employees perceive their working conditions. 4. The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions well in time. the behaviorattitude relationship is stronger especially when attitudes are unclear and ambiguous or little thought has been given to it earlier.
Creating Job Satisfaction Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Task variety and significance 3. Large companies that have used jobenrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include. and termination. AT&T. A supportive work environment 5. Competitive salary 6. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. turnover. and challenge in the work itself.Value. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances. Everett (1995) proposed the following questions which employees ask themselves in regard to job satisfaction at the workplace: Sikkim Manipal University 64 . Flexible work arrangements 2. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. and achievement. scope. Career opportunities Job enrichment It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. Organizations aspiring to create a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: 1. recognition. Workers’ role in job satisfaction A worker should also take some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction. thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown. 1996). absenteeism. 1997). it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. and opportunities for growth. learning. IBM. Job security 4. and General Motors (Daft.
2. discussing problems with superiors. 5. Neglect 1. 3. and some forms of union activity. Exit: Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. The ways of expressing job dissatisfaction There are a number of ways in which employees can express dissatisfaction (Robbins. Acquire job related skills and try to implement them. including suggesting improvements. 6. 2. Voice 3. What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? 4. Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. actions like looking for a new position as well as resigning.Value. What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? 5. Learn to destress. Exit 2. Improve team building and leadership skill. Sikkim Manipal University 65 . They are: 1. 2003). Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 1. 4. Loyalty 4. Develop communication skills. What did it look like? 3. When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? 2. Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: 1.
since. and others. Types of values include. but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. including chronic absenteeism or lateness. and aesthetic values. and choices. collectivism (individualism gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups and collectivism emphasizes on 'social ties or bonds' between individuals) and Masculinity vs. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 3. Loyalty: Passively. ________________ theory proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. doctrinal/ideological (political. femininity (this dimension refers to what extent dominant values in a society emphasizes masculine social values Sikkim Manipal University 66 . They are :Terminal values and Instrumental values. in his Value Survey (Rokeach Value Survey RVS). and reposing trust in the organization and its management to take the right decisions and set things in order. more positive are people’s actions. or means of achieving the terminal values.Value. 4. There are ____________ components of an attitude 2. Hofstede proposed four dimensions of national culture: Power distance (this dimension measures the 'social equality'). teachers. Uncertainty avoidance (this is a representation of a society's tolerance for uncertain situations). Individualism vs. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior. Terminal values refer to desirable endstates of existence. A significant portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early years from parents. social values. and increased error rate Self Assessment Questions 4 1. behaviors. proposed two sets of values. ethical/moral values. Rokeach. friends. Neglect: Passively allowing conditions to worsen. 5. Values shape relationships. value has a great impact on perceptions. reduced effort.6 Summary Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence. Festinger has proposed _________________________ theory. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Each set contains 18 individual value items. 3. The more positive our values. Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of an individual. including standing up for the organization in the face of external criticism/ crisis. religious) values.
Selfperception theory (Bem. or events.Value. Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 like a work ethic expressed in terms of money. people. attitudes are just casual verbal statements and they tend to create plausible answers for what has already occurred. 1967) proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. Explain Cognitive Dissonance Theory and self perception theory. but the two are interrelated. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance. Terminal Questions 1. Veterans 2. 4. 2. argued that. any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. In contrast to the cognitive dissonance theory. the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance. Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects. Xers Sikkim Manipal University 67 . Festinger (1957). Instrumental Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Affect (the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude) and Behavior (an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something). Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Explain Hofstede’s research. achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life). Terminal 2. Terminal 3. while linking attitudes with behavior. Attitudes are not the same as values. What is Rokeach Value Survey RVS? Explain the values described in this survey. Describe Laurent’s findings . 3. There are three components of an attitude: Cognition (the mental process involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension).
4 4. Social equality 2. Longterm orientation Self Assessment Questions 4 1.Value.5 Sikkim Manipal University 68 . Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Individualism 3.4 3. Cognitive Dissonance 3. Refer section 5. Refer section 5.2 2. Refer section 5. Selfperception Answer to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 5. Three 2.
Allport (1937) defined personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment”. The Latin word denotes the masks worn by actors in ancient Greece and Rome.Personality Unit 6 Unit 6 Structure Personality 6. Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological systemit looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. Personality Theories Sikkim Manipal University 69 .1 Introduction Objectives 6. Therefore. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1.5 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 6.3 Personality Theories Self Assessment Questions 2 6.4 Achieving personality fit Self Assessment Questions 3 6. Personality Determinants 2.2 Personality Determinants Self Assessment Questions 1 6.1 Introduction The term 'personality' has been derived from the Latin term 'persona' which means to 'speak through'. a very common meaning of the term personality is the role which the person (actor) displays in the public domain at large.
height. race. temperament. family. on the basis of culture. Some of the events and experiences. religion. Every individual goes through different type of experiences and events in his/her life. cooperation. Traits like physique. Robbins (2003) has argued that the three different streams of research lend some credibility to the argument that heredity plays an important part in determining an individual's personality. Heredity The relationship of heredity with personality is a wellaccepted fact. 2. aggression. The nature of such influence will depend upon the socioeconomic level of the family. can serve as Sikkim Manipal University 70 . eye color. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes. social and situational factors. 3. hair color. artistic talent. 4. People from different cultural groups have different attitudes towards independence. Environment Environment comprises of culture.Personality Unit 6 6. Situation Situational factors also play a crucial role in determining the personality of a person. The second addresses the study of twins who were separated at birth and the third examines the consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations. Family One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the immediate family. competition. located in the chromosomes. which an individual goes through in his/her life. both positive and negative. Culture Culture establishes norms. reflexes. since individuals within the same culture (but from different family and subcultural background) have been seen to differ in their behavior. parent's educational level and geographic location. energy level. However. etc. 5. The environmental factors influence personality of an individual since they provide the basis of certain experiences which determine the individual’s view about life. family size. are generally referred to describe the influence of heredity in developing personality.2 Personality Determinants The factors affecting personality development are illustrated below: 1. an individual’s personality cannot be always assessed. The first looks at the genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children. etc. attitudes and values that are passed on from generation to generation and create consistencies over time. intelligence. Families influence the behavior of a person especially in the early stages of life. Every culture expects and trains its members to behave in the ways that are acceptable to the group.
A trauma suffered by a person in the childhood can sometime change the structure of his/her own personality. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Warmth aloof (Sizothymia) Concrete thinking. One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the________ family 6. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as primary factors. Primary Factor Descriptors of High Range Warm. which made it impossible to predict behavior. thoughts. detached. Primary Factors and Descriptors in Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model (Adapted From Conn & Rieke. Some of the most important research works on personality traits are mentioned below: Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model Early research on personality traits resulted in isolating large numbers of traits. less intelligent. lower general mental capacity. attentive to others. distant. 1994).3 Personality Theories Traits are underlying tendencies to behave in a consistent and distinctive style and they describe the frequency or intensity of a person's feelings. participating. impersonal. unable to Sikkim Manipal University 71 . therefore. reserved. higher general mental capacity. where the number of traits have been reduced. impersonal. Descriptors of Low Range Reserve. likes people (Affectothymia) Reasoning Abstractthinking. easy going. cool. Cattell’s (1973) is one of the most important personality trait theory. outgoing.Personality Unit 6 important determinants of his/her personality. Possession of a trait is. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the ______________ 2. kindly. bright. or behaviors. more intelligent. formal. a matter of degree.
thick skinned. nononsense. nonconforming. adaptive. aesthetic. tough minded. assertive. objective. humble. introspective. tender minded. skeptical. spontaneous. avoids conflict. happy go lucky. sentimental. conventional (Praxernia) Forthright. steady. refined (Premsia) Vigilant. bossy (Dominance) Lively. selfreliant. uninhibited (Parmia) Sensitive. impulsive (Surgency) Rule Consciousness Ruleconscious. taciturn. obedient. unsuspecting. easily led. unsentimental. intuitive. hesitant. prudent. changeable. absent minded. distrustful. intimidated (Threctia) Utilitarian. genuine. easily upset (Lower Ego Strength) Deferential. silent (Desurgency) Expedient. stubborn. Social Boldness Sikkim Manipal University 72 . Privateness Abstractedness Vigilance Dominance Emotional Stability fast learner (Higher Scholastic Mental Capacity) Emotionally stable. suspicious. mature. conscientious. affected by feelings. animated. restrained. disregards rules. staid. prosaic. accommodating (Submissiveness) Serious. cooperative. cheerful. absorbed in ideas (Autia) Private. timid. Liveliness enthusiastic. accepting. easy (Alaxia) Grounded. unconditional. imaginative. discreet. venturesome. moralistic. rule bound (High Super Ego Strength) Socially bold. forceful. artless. nondisclosing. competitive. docile. conforming. aggressive. dutiful. self indulgent (Low Super Ego Strength) Shy. impractical. Sensitivity rough (Harria) Trusting. threatsensitive. submissive. open. oppositional (Protension) Abstract.Personality Unit 6 handle abstract problems (Lower Scholastic Mental Capacity) Reactive emotionally. emotionally less stable. solution orientated. practical. faces reality calm (Higher Ego Strength) Dominant. expressive.
patient. base on their psychological opposites. compulsive. self – sentimental (High SelfConcept Control) Tense. organized. time driven. solitary. critical. guilt prone. Sikkim Manipal University 73 . Perceiving or judging (P or J). selfdisciplined. naive. In MBTI. 1989) : a. high energy. involved (Artlessness) SelfAssured. diplomatic (Shrewdness) Apprehensive. attached to familiar. conservative. tranquil. impatient. d. experimental. Sensing or intuitive (S or N). (High Ergic Tension) The MyersBriggs Type Indicator The MBTI classifies human beings into four opposite pairs (dichotomies). composed low drive (Low Ergic Tension) Perfectionism Openness to Change Apprehension shrewd. driven. lax. uncontrolled (Low Integration) Relaxed. impulsive. confident. resourceful. These four opposite pairs result into 16 possible combinations. secure. socially precise. free thinking.Personality Unit 6 guileless. control. c. flexibility (Radicalism) Selfreliant. placid. SelfReliance individualistic. exacting will power. Individuals are classified as (McCrae and Costa. astute. worrying. worried. careless of social rues. selfconflict. unworried. self satisfied (Untroubled) Traditional. unexacting. analytical. liberal. self blaming (Guilt Proneness) Open to change. Thinking or feeling (T or F). b. self sufficient (Self Sufficiency) Perfectionistic. respecting traditional ideas (Conservatism) Grouporiented. free of guilt. Extroverted or introverted (E or I). polished. affiliative. worldly. a joiner and follower dependent (Group Adherence) Tolerated disorder. complacent. insecure. Tension frustrated. unpretentious. self doubting. undisciplined. flexible. over wrought. torpid.
timid. They like to organize and run activities. Low agreeableness people—cold. The big five model 1. Extraverts tend to be gregarious. critical. Individual’s propensity to defer to others. and trusting. Agreeableness. 2. 1990; Digman. and secure. INTJs are visionaries.Personality Unit 6 · These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. disagreeable. versatile. and persistent. ESTJs are organizers. High agreeableness people— cooperative. For example: a. and have a natural head for business or mechanics. assertive. Conscientiousness. individualistic. b. and often stubborn. disorganized. He or she is innovative. 1997). dependable. organized. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm. A person’s ability to withstand stress. A measure of reliability.g; McCrae and Costa. analytical. 3. warm. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. and sociable. They are realistic. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous. selfconfident. They are characterized as skeptical. logical. Extraversion. and insecure. c. determined. A high conscientious person is responsible. depressed. and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. The five basic dimensions are: 1. Introverts tend to be reserved. Many researchers argue that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions (e. and quiet. Emotional stability. Sikkim Manipal University 74 . 4. decisive. and antagonistic. independent. Comfort level with relationships. anxious. and unreliable.
Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. Individuals who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs. Individuals who are dependable. of absenteeism. Openness to experience. The range of interests and fascination with novelty. have higher absenteeism rates. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's (1954) social learning theory of personality. & Mount . and achievementoriented tend to have higher job performance. 1991). Employees higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge. curious. organized. not an either/or typology. For example. are more alienated from the work setting. Externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. For the other personality dimensions. Openness to experience is important in predicting training proficiency. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. able to plan. thorough. facing the same situation. and artistically sensitive. or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously; hence. Extraversion predicted performance in managerial and sales positions. hardworking.Personality Unit 6 5. Research suggested important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance (Barrick. For example. Rotter (1975) pointed out that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum. hence. attribute organizational outcomes to their own actions. predictability depended upon both the performance criterion and the occupational group. Sikkim Manipal University 75 . Locus of control A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. reliable. Internals believe that health is substantially under their own control through proper habits; their incidences of sickness and. Internals. conscientiousness predicted job performance for all occupational groups. and are less involved on their jobs than are internals. careful. they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades. college students with a strong internal locus of control may believe that their grades were achieved through their own abilities and efforts. those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck. whereas. are lower. persistent. Extremely open people are creative.
and make a greater attempt to control their environment. and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations. Internals are more suited to jobs that require initiative and independence of action and want autonomy and independence in their jobs. Christie and Geis (1970) developed a test for measuring a person's level of Machiavellianism. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic. This eventually became the MACHIV test. and persuade others more. High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors and flourish when they interact face to face with others. rather than indirectly. Sikkim Manipal University 76 . low SEs will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. internals do well on sophisticated tasks. Low SEs are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. a twentystatement personality survey that is now the standard self assessment tool of Machiavellianism. are more motivated to achieve. maintains emotional distance. Selfesteem ( SE) Selfesteem is defined as the degree to which people like or dislike themselves (Robbins. Externals are more compliant and willing to follow directions and be led. but one needs to consider differences in jobs. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. therefore. are persuaded less. Individuals with high selfesteem tend to take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs in contrast to people with low selfesteem. who wrote Il Principe (The Prince). Low SEs are more susceptible to external influence than are high SEs. High Machs manipulate more. The concept is named after Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli. Internals search more actively for information before making a decision.Personality Unit 6 Internals generally perform better on their jobs. In managerial positions. allowing room for improvisation. and hence. 2003). thus. High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning. and believes that ends can justify means. and do well on jobs that are well structured and routine and in which success depends heavily on complying with the direction of others. win more.
walking. High selfmonitors tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others. Type ‘A’s operate under moderate to high levels of stress. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. are impatient with the rate at which most events take place. 1974). work long hours. They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in almost every situation resulting in a high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. High selfmonitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers and receive more promotions. and are capable of behaving differently in different situations. Type Bs never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience and feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless otherwise demanded by the situation. 2. highly competitive. Type B personality is rarely hurried by the desire to obtain an increasing number of things or participate in events demanding an everdecreasing amount of time (Friedman & Rosenman. excessively time conscious. They can relax without guilt. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. insecure about one's status. give preference to quantity over quality. Low selfmonitors cannot disguise themselves in that way. They are highly sensitive to external cues. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as _____________ factors.Personality Unit 6 Selfmonitoring It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external. and are also rarely creative. and incapable of relaxation (Friedman & Rosenman 1974). and presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. They are obsessed with numbers. They expose themselves to continuous time pressure. are fast workers. hostile and aggressive. situational factors. They are always moving. Type A and Type B personality Type A personality is a set of characteristics that includes. Individuals high in selfmonitoring show considerable adaptability. are doing do two or more things at once and cannot cope with leisure time. High selfmonitor is capable of putting on different “faces” for different audiences. being impatient. The MBTI classifies human beings into _____________ opposite pairs Sikkim Manipal University 77 . and eating rapidly.
Social 5. Enterprising 6. Holland has proposed Six themes of people and work environments. Artistic 4. workers are not passive victims of their environments. Conventional Sikkim Manipal University 78 .4 Achieving PersonalityJob Fit According to Holland (1997). Investigative 3.Personality Unit 6 3. but actively seek potentially compatible work environments. within which all jobs can be classified: 1. Realistic 2. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's ___________ theory of personality 6. If an individual’s personality and the work environment “fit”—that is. if the personality is congruent with the work environment—the individual will most likely enjoy the work and develop and grow in the career. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover.
musician. energetic. economist. understanding Analytical. cooperative. corporate manager. clinical psychologist Accountant. drill press operator. inflexible Selfconfident. genuine. teacher. conforming. writer. domineering Sociable. independent Biologist. assemblyline worker. and unambiguous activities Enterprising: Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression Imaginative. news reporter Social workers. file clerk Lawyer. friendly. original. bank teller. and coordination Shy. curious. farmer Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking. interior decorator Sikkim Manipal University 79 . small business manager Painter. orderly. public relations specialist. stable. real estate agent. impractical Conforming. counselor. efficient. mathematician. ambitious. organizing.Personality Unit 6 The abovementioned classification is shown in more details in the following chart: Type Personality Characteristics Congruent Occupation Realistic: Prefers physical activities that require skill. practical Mechanic. persistent. and understanding Social: Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others Conventional: Prefers rule regulated. idealistic. practical. strength. unimaginative. emotional. disorderly.
Selfesteem is defined as the degree to which people like or dislike themselves (Robbins. Early research on personality traits resulted in isolating large numbers of traits. Emotional stability. where the number of traits have been reduced. 1997). These four opposite pairs result into 16 possible combinations. A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. The factors affecting personality development are Heredity. The five basic dimensions are Extraversion.Personality Unit 6 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Individuals with high selfesteem tend to take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs in contrast to people with low self esteem. a matter of degree. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's (1954) social learning theory of personality. or behaviors. Personality Traits are underlying tendencies to behave in a consistent and distinctive style and they describe the frequency or intensity of a person's feelings. Low SEs are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. thoughts. Family. Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. which made it impossible to predict behavior. and Situation. Cattell’s (1973) is one of the most important personality trait theory. being themes of people and work environments. Holland has proposed _________ jobs can be classified 2. 2003). situational factors. Possession of a trait is. and openness to experience. therefore. Agreeableness. The MBTI classifies human beings into four opposite pairs (dichotomies). Many researchers argue that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions (e. within which all Sikkim Manipal University 80 . Cattell referred to these 16 factors as primary factors.g; McCrae and Costa. 6. not an either/or typology. Selfmonitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external. Conscientiousness.5 Summary The term 'personality' has been derived from the Latin term 'persona' which means to 'speak through'. _____________ person prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power. Culture. Individuals high in selfmonitoring show considerable adaptability. 1990; Digman. Environment. base on their psychological opposites. Type A personality is a set of characteristics that includes. Low SEs are more susceptible to external influence than are high SEs. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. Rotter (1975) pointed out that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum.
4. explain personalityjobfit. insecure about one's status. and incapable of relaxation. hostile and aggressive. highly competitive. 2. If an individual’s personality and the work environment “fit”—that is. Explain the personality dimensions mentioned in big five model. Four 3. workers are not passive victims of their environments. Primary 2. Social learning Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Enterprising Sikkim Manipal University 81 . Immediate Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Explain The MyersBriggs Type Indicator. Answer to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. if the personality is congruent with the work environment—the individual will most likely enjoy the work and develop and grow in the career. According to Holland (1997). Genes 2. 3. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover. 1.Six 2. Based on Holland’s approach.Personality Unit 6 impatient. but actively seek potentially compatible work environments. Explain Type A and Type B personality. excessively timeconscious. Terminal questions Describe the determinants of personality. Type B personality is rarely hurried by the desire to obtain an increasing number of things or participate in events demanding an everdecreasing amount of time.
Personality Unit 6 Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. Refer section 6.3 4. Refer section 6.3 3.4 Sikkim Manipal University 82 .3 5.2 2. Refer section 6.
1 Introduction Emotions In general.3 Certain issues Self Assessment Questions 2 7." It is "distinguished from other mental states.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: · · Theories of emotion Emotional intelligence Sikkim Manipal University 83 . and awareness of physical sensation.4: Emotional intelligence Self Assessment Questions 3 7. from cognition.2 Theories of emotion Self Assessment Questions 1 7. the term ’emotion’ is used to designate "a state of consciousness having to do with the arousal of feelings (Webster’s New World Dictionary).5 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 7." Feeling refers to "any of the subjective reactions. pleasant or unpleasant" that one may experience in a situation.Emotions Unit 7 Unit 7 Structure 7. volition.
and astonishment depending on how the arousal is labeled. Once the initial evaluation has been made. Therefore. SchachterSinger theory (1962): Both feedback from peripheral responses and a cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. it is a cyclical process. These attributions of causality can modify the emotion felt. Then.2 Theories Of Emotion: There are many theories of emotion: I. JamesLange Theory (1890) [cited in Taylor. the individual looks at what caused the event. It can be fear. The brain perceives an event and. it leads to physiological arousal. IV. Through experiences. For example. III. Weiner's attribution theory (1986. This theory argues that physiological behaviors precede the emotion. which in turn. autonomic and endocrine responses. individuals begin to acquire certain expectations for every given situation. These responses elicit an emotional response. Lazarus' appraisal theory (1980): An individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide. How one interprets the peripheral response will determine the emotion he / she feels. This action ultimately produces motor. It is the interaction of the perceived internal and Sikkim Manipal University 84 . CannonBard theory (1927) [cited in Taylor. is perceived by the brain. sends messages down its neural circuitry to other areas of the brain. in turn. excitement. brain produces the emotion and corresponding physiological behaviors at the same time. 1992): Certain attributions produce specific emotions. These expectations provide a filter and every situation is processed through this filter. During this process. 1999]: Emotionprovoking events induce the subjective emotional experiences and physiological arousal simultaneously. surprise. if there is a threat; coping action is taken if necessary; and the individual takes a closer look and identifies the emotions he or she is feeling.Emotions Unit 7 7. Individuals label the emotional response depending on what we think is causing the response. when someone interprets a stimulus as dangerous. V. this physiological arousal is interpreted to a particular emotion. 1999]: Subjective emotional responses are the result of physiological changes within human bodies. II.
controllability and outcome that will determine the emotional responses.Emotions Unit 7 external causes. What are the basic emotions? Ortony and Turner (1990) collated a wide range of research as to what basic emotions are and the basis of including them as basic emotions and proposed a comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion : A comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion Sikkim Manipal University 85 .
joy. dejection. guilt. hope. contempt. J. distress. surprise Fear. fear. sadness Sikkim Manipal University 86 . happiness. fear. disgust. disgust. fear. desire. shame. surprise Desire. & Turner. subjection. joy Anger. despair. pleasure Basis for Inclusion Relation to action tendencies Universal facial expressions Forms of action readiness Hardwired Hardwired Bodily involvement Relation to instincts Unlearned emotional states Do not require propositional content Hardwired Relation to adaptive biological processes Density of neural firing Hardwired Attribution independent Mowrer Oatley and Johnson Laird Panksepp Plutchik Anger. rage Anger. happiness. sadness Anger. shame. disgust. sadness Expectancy. disgust. T. joy. rage Tomkins Watson Weiner and Graham Happiness. interest. surprise Fear. tender emotion. 3. anger. love. courage. (1990). rage. anxiety. interest. aversion. fear. surprise. joy. What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review. hate.Emotions Unit 7 Source: Ortony. disgust. elation. grief. panic Acceptance. 97. Friesen. A. distress. sadness. interest. disgust. 315331 Basic Emotions Arnold Ekman. and Ellsworth Frijda Gray Izard James McDougall Anger. sadness. love. wonder. wonder Pain. fear. fear. surprise Anger.. fear. joy. sorrow Rage and terror. July. anxiety. contempt. anticipation. love.
thrill. revulsion. jubilation. vengefulness. sentimentality Arousal. scorn. ecstasy. elation. astonishment Aggravation. happiness.4: Parrot’s classification of emotions Primary emotion Secondary emotion Affection Love Lust Longing Tertiary emotions Adoration. hate. pleasure Pride. ferocity. zeal. 1. Anger Rage bitterness. desire. surprise. joy. contempt Envy. jealousy Torment Agony. annoyance. frustration Anger. rapture Relief Amazement. resentment Disgust Envy Torment Sadness Suffering Disgust. fondness.4): Figure no. irritation. affection. tenderness. attraction. gaiety. hope. joviality. bliss. enjoyment. lust. loathing. satisfaction. liking. delight. grumpiness Exasperation. agitation. exhilaration Contentment. fury. hurt. hostility. gladness. wrath. 1. zest. compassion. glee. Cheerfulness jolliness. infatuation Longing Amusement. spite. love. dislike. caring. passion. rage. excitement. euphoria Zest Joy Contentment Pride Optimism Enthrallment Relief Surprise Surprise Irritation Exasperation Enthusiasm. cheerfulness. optimism Enthrallment. outrage. anguish Sikkim Manipal University 87 . triumph Eagerness. suffering. grouchiness.Emotions Unit 7 Parrot (2001) has categorized emotions as another classification (Figure no.
Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. where role demands and situations often require people to exhibit emotional behaviors that mask their true feelings. horror. Displayed Emotions (Hochschild. uneasiness. nervousness. fear. W. hopelessness. mortification Anxiety. hysteria. apprehension. 3. Philadelphia Felt vs. _____________ emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. They are learned. disappointment. 1979. 2. tenseness. Sadness sadness. distress. displeasure Guilt. Both feedback from peripheral responses and a ___________ appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. 1983) Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. shame. grief. glumness. This is particularly true in organizations. insult Sympathy Horror Fear Nervousness Pity. neglect. panic. humiliation. isolation. insecurity. Subjective emotional responses are the result of __________ changes within human bodies. melancholy Disappointment Shame Dismay. Sikkim Manipal University 88 . Neglect homesickness. embarrassment. shock. terror. fright. regret. Emotions in Social Psychology. (2001). dejection. sympathy Alarm. unhappiness. remorse Alienation. gloom.Emotions Unit 7 Depression. rejection. dread Source: Parrott. woe. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. misery. sorrow. Felt and displayed emotions may be different. despair. worry. defeat. Psychology Press. loneliness.
People. normative patterns and valueorientations are responsible for not only our personality development. may be effective performers in jobs where little or no emotional labor. People who suffer from alexithymia rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold. Ekman (1999) has found six emotions which are universally recognized and applicable. Alexithymia – emotional disorder Some people have difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. suffering from alexithymia. Surprise. and they are not able to discriminate among their different emotions. Certain brain injuries Sikkim Manipal University 89 . They are: 1. culture and traditions. and language of that culture . Happiness 5. This makes us functional entities in society. Posttraumatic stress disorder 2. but also appropriate social and emotional development. Based on his crosscultural research.Emotions Unit 7 7. Each culture has a unique set of emotions and emotional responses; the emotions shown in a particular culture reflects the norms. Psychologists call this alexithymia. Their own feelings make them uncomfortable. Disgust 6. Alexithymic symptoms may be seen in people who experience: 1. values.3 Certain Issues Culture and emotion There are two Views of Culture and Emotion: Universality Emotions are part of human nature and in all cultures universally the same set of basic emotions. Sadness 4. Anger 2. Fear 3. practices. In other words. Cultural specificity – Human beings are like a tabula rasa (clean tablet) on which society writes its script.
Vogel.. Bhagavad Gita is a specific conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna (third Pandava prince) in a specific situation of Kurukshetra battlefield. friends and respected 'gurus' in enemy's side. Pandavas were fighting against the Kauravas. he refused to join the battle. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Broverman. Sikkim Manipal University 90 . or bingeeating disorder) 4. Depression 6. Ekman (1999) has found _________ emotions which are universally recognized and applicable. Other mental health conditions Relationship of gender with emotion A number of research findings supports the view that women are more emotional than men (e. Substance use dependence 5. 2. researchers have argued that the stereotype of men as unemotional is more accurate for adult targets than for child targets because males learn to control their emotions as they get older (Fabes and Martin. women and men may experience happiness in a similar way.. People who suffer from _________ rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold 7.Emotions Unit 7 3. Eating disorders (i.4 Emotional Intelligence The importance of both emotion and intelligence in making decisions and achieving success in life was wellaccepted in ancient India. The impact of socialization practices accumulate over time. with deep sorrow and pity. Women are assumed to experience more frequent and intense emotions. and. these stereotypes are likely to apply more strongly to adult populations (Geer and Shields. 1972; Widiger & Settle. Broverman. To win the battle he was supposed to kill those beloved ones. similar to the concept of emotional intelligence. 1991). In this context. the cousin brothers to restore their kingdom from Kauravas in Kurukshetra. thus. whereas men are assumed to be emotionally inexpressive and to have less intense emotional experiences.e. However.g. Clarkson. Due to this hridaydurbalata (heartnonstrength). & Rosenkrantz. 1996). 1987). Arjuna. whereas men have been taught to control it. but women have been taught that they can strongly express the emotion of happiness. found his close relatives. Before the battle started. bulimia. He got confused about his rightful duty. anorexia. Likewise. A concept of “Sthithaprajna” (emotional stability). can be traced in the second chapter of ‘Srimad BhagavadGita' .
Emotional intelligence is a measure of the degree to which a person makes use of his/ her reasoning in the process of emotional responses (both positive and negative) in a given situation. interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence which in turn result in superior performance and better human relationship’ (Bhattacharya. and criticism because. poised and balanced. Gita. Radhakrishnan. whatever the older generation hold. in his book . Evidently. advises all to balance between intelligence and emotion. the concept of “Sthithaprajna” (the steadyminded person) talked about a unique interdependence between emotion and intelligence for effective decisionmaking which was most essential in excelling in every sphere of life. Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves. ‘Trust. because. Arjuna suffered from indecisiveness resulting from confusion and a false sense of insecurity. Dr. Personal competence: It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman (1995). whereas social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships. as mentioned in Bhagavad Gita. ‘The Hindu View of Life’ (1927) opined that the attitude of the Vedas is one of trust tempered by criticism. It does mean that he / she brings own feelings under control and channels them into productive behaviors. He also told that an individual achieved his/her goal only when the mind became steady. In particular. 2003). as a whole. feeling. selfregulation and motivation. The ability to bring outofcontrol emotions back into line results in what earlier generations called emotional maturity. ‘Emotional intelligence is an aggregate of individuals’ cognition of own and others' emotions. may be true. self awareness. Selfawareness is the ability of an individual to observe Sikkim Manipal University 91 . enlightened him about the eternal truth of life. He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences.Emotions Unit 7 Lord Krishna who played the role as the driver of Arjuna's chariot. According to Lord Krishna. This view aptly points out the need for emotional intelligence in everyday life to become more emotionally balanced and functional individuals in society. such as. Similar views on the role of emotional intelligence as a learning process for achieving a balanced personality in different stages of life on an intergenerational basis has been depicted in the Vedas. plausible the testimonies of the old views may be. So having high emotional intelligence doesn't mean that the person never panics or loses his/ her temper. it cannot deny the present of its right to enquire and sift the evidence’. Lord Krishna advised Arjuna to become 'Sthithaprajna' (the steady minded person). however.
take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. ‘Social skill’ is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence assuming that people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can understand and control their own emotion and can emphasize with the feelings of others. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. Trustworthiness. People having this skill are very effective in persuasiveness and team management. integrity. Goleman’s emotional intelligence model (1995) Emotional intelligence Personal competence social competence Selfawareness Empathy Selfregulation Social skills Motivation Sikkim Manipal University 92 . empathy and social skills. 1995). Motivation is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through selfcontrol and by moderating impulses as per the requirement of the situation. The hallmarks of this ability are selfconfidence.Emotions Unit 7 him/herself and to recognize 'a feeling as it happens' (Goleman. Social competence: It comprises of two dimensions namely. Empathy is the ability to feel and get concerned for others. tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accept change are some characteristics of this ability. People with this ability are experts in generating and motivating others. The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed towards organizational as well as individual goals. self assessment and openness to positive criticism. Selfregulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have negative impact.
controllability and outcome that will determine the emotional responses. the individual looks at what caused the event. proposes that certain attributions produce specific emotions. According to Lazarus' appraisal theory. Weiner. There are two Views of Culture and Emotion. JamesLange Theory proposes that subjective emotional responses are the result of physiological changes within human bodies. Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. it is believed that emotions are part of human nature and in all cultures universally the same set of basic emotions. How one interprets the peripheral response will determine the emotion he / she feels. They are: Anger. There are many theories of emotion. This is particularly true in organizations. in his theory. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. Sikkim Manipal University 93 . 2.5 Summary ‘Emotion’ is used to designate "a state of consciousness having to do with the arousal of feelings (Webster’s New World Dictionary). Once the initial evaluation has been made. and awareness of physical sensation. It is the interaction of the perceived internal and external causes. SchachterSinger theory proposes that both feedback from peripheral responses and a cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. They are learned. if there is a threat; coping action is taken if necessary; and the individual takes a closer look and identifies the emotions he or she is feeling. Personal competence comprises of ______________ dimensions of emotional intelligence." It is "distinguished from other mental states. Social competence comprises of _____________ dimensions 7. where role demands and situations often require people to exhibit emotional behaviors that mask their true feelings. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by ____________. Fear. from cognition. These attributions of causality can modify the emotion felt." Feeling refers to "any of the subjective reactions. In “Universality” view. 3. volition. pleasant or unpleasant" that one may experience in a situation. an individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide.Emotions Unit 7 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Ekman (1999) has found six emotions which are universally recognized and applicable. Felt and displayed emotions may be different. CannonBard theory proposes that emotionprovoking events induce the subjective emotional experiences and physiological arousal simultaneously. Based on his crosscultural research.
Felt Self Assessment Questions 2 1. 2. Explain Goleman’s emotional intelligence model. Alexithymia Sikkim Manipal University 94 . Cognitive 3. researchers have argued that the stereotype of men as unemotional is more accurate for adult targets than for child targets because males learn to control their emotions as they get older. result in superior performance and better human relationship. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. whereas men are assumed to be emotionally inexpressive and to have less intense emotional experiences. feeling. whereas social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships. Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves. Six 2. which in turn. Terminal Questions 1.Emotions Unit 7 Sadness. What is Alexithymia? What are the symptoms of this disease? 4. Disgust. What are universally recognized emotions? 3. What is the relationship of gender with emotion? 5. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman. interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence. However. Physiological 2. Happiness. Emotional intelligence is an aggregate of individuals’ cognition of own and others' emotions. Women are assumed to experience more frequent and intense emotions. and Surprise. Briefly explain Lazarus' appraisal theory and Weiner's attribution theory. He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences.
3 3.3 5. Three 3. Refer section 7. Goleman 2. Refer section 7.Emotions Unit 7 Self Assessment Questions 3 1.4 Sikkim Manipal University 95 . Two Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 7. Refer section 7.2 2.3 4. Refer section 7.
As a result of that.Perception Unit 8 Unit 8 Structure Perception 8. A supervisor may try to help his subordinates to achieve their target by advising and suggesting solutions.1 Introduction Individuals behave in a given manner based not on the way their external environment actually.1 Introduction Objectives 8.3 Attribution Theory Self Assessment Questions 2 8. the employee may continuously try to avoid the boss. Perception can be defined as s a process by which individuals organize and interpret their Sikkim Manipal University 96 . An employee may believe the supervisor is controlling and interfering.2 Factors influencing perception Self Assessment Questions 1 8.7 The DecisionMaking Process Self Assessment Questions 6 8.4 Shortcuts in Judging Others Self Assessment Questions 3 8. The same boss may be perceived as a ‘father figure’ to another employee for his helping attitude. the specific employee may acknowledge the supervisor and seeks his guidance.6 Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making Self Assessment Questions 5 8. These two employee’s perception about the supervisor that becomes the basis for their different behavior.5 Specific Applications in Organizations Self Assessment Questions 4 8. rather.8 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 8. As a result of that. is but. on what they see or believe it to be.
Target 3. past experiences. or intentions. Specific Applications in Organizations 8. Situation The context in which objects or events are seen by individuals also influence their attention. Therefore. interests.2 Factors Influencing Perception Three factors shape perception of an individual: 1. motives. Sikkim Manipal University 97 . or other situational factors. attractiveness.Perception Unit 8 sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived. heat. Attribution Theory 3. An individual makes inferences about the actions of people not the same way as they do for inanimate objects. Nonliving objects are subject to the laws of nature. Individuals differ in their perceptions with regard to people and inanimate objects. People have beliefs. and an individual’s tendency to group similar things together. This includes time. which are attitudes. not on reality itself. Perceiver 2. Since people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is. Target . gregariousness. This includes. an individual’s perception and judgment of another person’s actions are influenced by these assumptions. motives. Factors influencing perception 2. light. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. and expectations. Situation Perceiver – Refers to the most prevalent personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver.
There are three determining factors in this regard: · · · Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. 1972) suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior. one would be expected to give an external attribution to the employee’s tardiness. If this action is not unusual. the more the observer is inclined to attribute it to internal causes. the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. If it is. Consistency refers to the pattern that is reflected regularly in a person’s actions.3 Attribution Theory An important element in perception is attribution process. the causation for the same will be attributed to internal causation. Consensus occurs. What we attempt to know is whether the observed behavior is unusual. 2. Sikkim Manipal University 98 . _____________ factors shape perception of an individual. The ______________ in which objects or events are seen by individuals also influence their attention. if. it will probably be judged as internal. 8. we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused.Perception Unit 8 Selfassessment questions 1 1. Does the person respond the same way over time? The more consistent the behavior. Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is. If consensus is high. in case of other employees taking the same route and making it work on time. Attribution theory (Kelley. whereas. everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. the observer is likely to give the behavior an external attribution.
contrary to the selfserving bias. Attribution theory was proposed by __________ Kelley 2. such as. · Attribution theory was developed largely based on experiments with Americans and Western Europeans. luck. if. ___________ occurs. More studies are required to provide conclusive evidences in this regard.Perception Unit 8 Fundamental Attribution Error (Ross. Sikkim Manipal University 99 . there is some preliminary evidence that indicates cultural differences (Robbins. The question is whether or not these errors or biases that distort attribution are universal across different cultures? While exact answers may not exist. ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors. · The Korean study suggests caution in making attribution theory predictions in nonWestern societies. 3. Selfassessment questions 2 1. they tended to accept responsibility for group failure. 2003): · Korean managers found that. everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. This is called the “selfserving bias” and suggests that feedback provided to employees will be distorted by recipients. such as. The tendency of individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors is called__________________. especially in countries with strong collectivist traditions. There is also a tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors. 1977) Research evidence shows that individuals have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.
an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. but. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. Selective Perception Any characteristic that makes a person. 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. students may give prominence to a single trait. not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen . Sikkim Manipal University 100 . Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speedread” others. object. and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. such as. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms.4: Shortcuts In Judging Others Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. Contrast Effects Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. For example. enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person.Perception Unit 8 8. while appraising the lecturer. Halo Effect The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt. For example. when the traits have moral overtones.
thus. and even weight. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and. of course. Furthermore. is when we inaccurately stereotype. race. The ______________ occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people is called __________ 8. age. Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hippel. The problem. It is a means of simplifying a complex world. reach different conclusions about the applicant. if people expect to see these stereotypes. From a perceptual standpoint. we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender. Selfassessment questions 3 1. that is what they will perceive. and it permits us to maintain consistency. When managers engage in projection. 1996).5 Specific Applications In Organizations Employment Interview Evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate and they rarely agree while perceiving the candidates. Stereotyping Stereotyping—judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. In organizations. interviewers generally draw early impressions and most interviewers rarely change their decisions after the first Sikkim Manipal University 101 .Perception Unit 8 Projection This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people—which is called projection—can distort perceptions made about others. they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. ethnicity. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. 2. whether or not they are accurate. The process through which one’s reaction is influenced by other persons he has encountered recently is called ___________ 3.
judgmental. in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individual’s performance. and potential not known. Employee Effort An individual’s future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. Golem Effect: A negative instance of the selffulfilling prophecy. in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual’s performance. confirming the effect of a selffulfilling prophecy. what the evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characteristics or behaviors will significantly influence the outcome of the appraisal. Soldiers were randomly divided and identified as having high potential. even when those perceptions are not appropriate. 1976). Sikkim Manipal University 102 . Instructors were seemed to get better results from the high potential group because they expected it. A study was conducted on 105 soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces who were taking a fifteenweek combat command course. judgments of the same candidate can vary widely in an interview situatiion. Performance Expectations It is seen that individuals seek to validate their perceptions of reality. Subjective measures are. An assessment of an individual’s effort is a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias. many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. by definition. Selffulfilling prophecy is a very good example of this. Performance Evaluation An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process.Perception Unit 8 four or five minutes of the interview. Therefore. Although the appraisal can be objective. normal potential. It is the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations (Wilkins. To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employees. Self fulfilling prophecy can be of two types: Pygmalion Effect: A positive instance of the selffulfilling prophecy.
or where to locate a new manufacturing plant. Middle and lowerlevel managers determine production schedules. 8. ___________ is the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. Which data are relevant to the decision and which are not Alternatives will be developed. Decisionmaking occurs as a reaction to a ______________. and the strengths and weaknesses of each will need to be evaluated. · · Data are typically received from multiple sources. data are typically received from ____________ sources Sikkim Manipal University 103 . 2. Selfassessment questions 5 1. and decide how pay raises are to be allocated. Nonmanagerial employees also make decisions.6 Link Between Perception And Individual Decision Making Decisionmaking occurs as a reaction to a problem. how best to finance operations. needing attention for alternative courses of action. and whether or not to comply with a request made by the boss. 2. whether or not to come to work on any given day. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues. senior managers determine their organization’s goals. The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue. how much effort to put forward once at work. While making a decision. Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. select new employees. A negative instance of the selffulfilling prophecy is called _________________. Problem is defined as a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state.Perception Unit 8 Selfassessment questions 4 1. including. For example. what products or services to offer.
The rational decision making model This model proposes six steps. values. · The decision maker determines what is relevant in making the decision. Any factors not identified in this step are considered irrelevant to the decision maker.7 The DecisionMaking Process The optimizing decision maker is rational. Many poor decisions can be traced to the decisionmaker overlooking a problem or defining the wrong problem. Step 4: Generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem. valuemaximizing choices within specified constraints. The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become evident as they are compared with the criteria and weights established in the second and third steps. Step 6: The final step is to compute the optimal decision: Sikkim Manipal University 104 . He or she makes consistent. which are as follows: Step 1: Defining the problem · · A problem is a discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs. and similar personal preferences.Perception Unit 8 8. Step 5: Rating each alternative on each criterion. Step 3: Weight the previously identified criteria in order to give them the correct priority in the decision. This also includes the resource crunch and other limitations as well. · · Critically analyze and evaluate each alternative. Step 2: Identify the decision criteria important to solving the problem. · This brings in the decision maker’s interests.
1994): · Problem clarity. Specific decision criteria are constant and the weights assigned to them are stable over time. The potential for creativity is enhanced when individuals have abilities. but. A study of lifetime creativity of 461 men and women found that fewer than one percent were exceptionally creative. The rational decision maker can obtain full information about criteria and alternatives because it is assumed that there are no time or cost constraints. The rational decision maker will choose the alternative that yields the highest perceived value. Ten percent were highly creative. · No time or cost constraints. Criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance. and similar expertise in their field of endeavor. These are ideas that are not only different from what has been done before. · Maximum payoff. It is assumed the decision maker is aware of all the possible consequences of each alternative. and intrinsic task motivation. knowledge.Perception Unit 8 · Evaluating each alternative against the weighted criteria and selecting the alternative with the highest total score. People differ in their inherent creativity. Creativity in Decision Making Creativity is the ability to produce novel and useful ideas. · Constant preferences. · Clear preferences. The abovementioned model works with following assumptions (March. proficiencies. · Expertise is the foundation for all creative work. The decision maker is assumed to have complete information regarding the decision situation. Model of creativity This model proposes that individual creativity essentially requires expertise. and about sixty percent were somewhat creative. creativethinking skills. · Known options. Sikkim Manipal University 105 . that are also appropriate to the problem or opportunity presented.
· Intrinsic task motivation. 1947). as well as the talent to see the familiar in a different light. Two of the most important ways of decisionmaking in organizations are : · · Bounded Rationality Intuitive decision making Bounded rationality When faced with a complex problem. tend to be highly visible. the search for criteria and alternatives begins. Assuming that a problem has more than one potential Sikkim Manipal University 106 . Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative. which are easy to find. The decisionmaker will begin with alternatives that differ only in a relatively small degree from the choice currently in effect. Decisionmakers generally make limited use of their creativity. exciting. The decision maker will identify a limited list made up of the more conspicuous choices. The order in which alternatives are considered is critical in determining which alternative is selected. people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. How does bounded rationality work? Once a problem is identified. Once this limited set of alternatives is identified. involving. This is called bounded rationality (Simon.Perception Unit 8 · Creative thinking skills. most people respond by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood. It determines the extent to which individuals fully engage their expertise and creative skills Most decisions in the real world do not follow the rational model. the decision maker will begin reviewing it. the ability to use analogies. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features. The first alternative that meets the “good enough” criterion ends the search. due to limited informationprocessing capability. This encompasses personality characteristics associated with creativity. and they will represent familiar criteria and previously triedandtrue solutions. or personally challenging. This turns creativity potential into actual creative ideas. Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. The desire to work on something because it is interesting. satisfying. As a result.
Perception Unit 8 solution. some researchers consider it a form of extrasensory power or sixth sense. selfinterest tends to win out. If a decisionmaker faces a conflict between selecting a problem that is important to the organization and one that is important to the decisionmaker. On one hand. The decisionmaker’s self interest also plays a part. Visible problems are more likely to catch a decisionmaker’s attention. While selecting a decision to solve a problem. decision maker puts more importance to his/her selfinterest over the organizational interest. Problem Identification Problems that are visible tend to have a higher probability of being selected than ones that are important. the satisficing choice will be the first acceptable one the decisionmaker encounters. Alternatives that depart the least from the status quo are the most likely to be selected. Eight conditions when people are most likely to use intuitive decision making are: · · · · · · · when a high level of uncertainty exists when there is little precedent to draw on when variables are less scientifically predictable when “facts” are limited when facts do not clearly point the way to go when analytical data are of little use when there are several plausible alternative solutions to choose from. some believe it is a personality trait that a limited number of people are born with. It operates in complement with rational analysis. with good arguments for each · when time is limited. Intuitive decision making It is an unconscious process created out of distilled experience. Sikkim Manipal University 107 . and on the other hand. and there is pressure to come up with the right decision Decision making process A.
Evidence indicates that decisionmaking is incremental rather than comprehensive. Some people are logical and rational. C. They perceive things as a whole. Escalation of commitment It is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information. The picture that emerges is one of a decisionmaker who takes small steps toward his or her objective. Individual Differences: DecisionMaking Styles People differ along two dimensions. E. Each creates biases in judgment. Alternative Development Since decisionmakers seek a satisficing solution.” Events that evoke emotions. Some people are intuitive and creative. that are particularly vivid. Making Choices In order to avoid information overload. The other dimension is a person’s tolerance for ambiguity. They process information serially. There are two common categories of heuristics—availability and representativeness. The first is their way of thinking. Fore example. or that have occurred more recently tend to be more available in our memory. The availability heuristic – It is “the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them. decisionakers rely on heuristics or judgmental shortcuts in decision making. Some people have a Sikkim Manipal University 108 .Perception Unit 8 B. managers frequently predict the performance of a new product by relating it to a previous product’s success. D. there is a minimal use of creativity in the search for alternatives. Decisionmakers make successive limited comparisons. It has been well documented that individuals escalate commitment to a failing course of action when they view themselves as responsible for the failure. many more people suffer from fear of flying than fear of driving in a car. Efforts tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the current alternative. Representative heuristic To assess the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category.
Perception Unit 8 high need to minimize ambiguity. Sikkim Manipal University 109 . relying heavily on meetings for communicating · Tries to avoid conflict and seeks acceptance F. Others are able to process many thoughts at the same time. and they are very good at finding creative solutions to problems. Their performance in decision making will reflect expectation. Organizational Constraints Following are the organizational constraints that affect decisionmakers. These four decision making styles can be represented in the following way: Directive: · · · · Low tolerance for ambiguity and seek rationality Efficient and logical Decisions are made with minimal information and with few alternatives assessed. Performance evaluation Managers are strongly influenced in their decision making by the criteria by which they are evaluated. Behavioral: · · Characterizes decision makers who work well with others Concerned with the achievement of peers and subordinates and are receptive to suggestions from others. Analytic: · · · Greater tolerance for ambiguity Desire for more information and consideration of more alternatives Best characterized as careful decision makers with the ability to adapt to or cope with new situations Conceptual: · · Tend to be very broad in their outlook and consider many alternatives Their focus is long range. Make decisions fast and focus on the shortrun.
to free speech. Decisions made in the past are ghosts which continually haunt current choices. 2. There are three Ethical Decision Criteria: 1. This view tends to dominate business decision making. but the smallest of organizations create rules. Cultural Differences The cultural background of the decision maker can have significant influence on: Ethics in Decision Making Ethical considerations should be an important criterion in organizational decision making. It is common knowledge that the largest determining factor of the size of any given year’s budget is last year’s budget. Sikkim Manipal University 110 . policies. and to due process. Programmed routines – All. Historical Precedents Decisions have a context. Utilitarian criterion—decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. · An emphasis on rights means respecting and protecting the basic rights of individuals.Perception Unit 8 Reward systems The organization’s reward system influences decision makers by suggesting to them what choices are preferable in terms of personal payoff. The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. and other formalized regulations in order to standardize the behavior of their members. Individual decisions are more accurately characterized as points in a stream of decisions. procedures. such as the right to privacy. Focus on rights—calls on individuals to make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges as set forth in documents such as the Bill of Rights. Almost all important decisions come with explicit deadlines. Time constraints Decisions must be made quickly in order to stay ahead of the competition and keep customers satisfied.
This is called the “selfserving bias” and suggests that feedback provided to employees will be distorted by recipients. not on reality itself. Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. is but. Research evidence shows that individuals have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. on what they see or believe it to be. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen . There is also a tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors. Attribution theory (Kelley. Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is. People respond to a problem with a limited informationprocessing capability. Three factors that shape perception of an individual are perceiver. rather. people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. There is an equitable distribution of benefits and costs. Focus on justice—requires individuals to impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially. 2. object. This is called __________________ 8.8 Summary Individuals behave in a given manner based not on the way their external environment actually. such as. target and situation. ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors. An important element in perception is attribution process. Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others.Perception Unit 8 3. the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. luck. The rational decision making model proposes _______________ steps. Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. Perception can be defined as s a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have Sikkim Manipal University 111 . or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. As a result. Any characteristic that makes a person. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions. 1972) suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior. 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt. Selfassessment questions 6 1. such as. we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. Since people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is.
Terminal questions 1. The optimizing decision maker is rational. This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people—which is called projection—can distort perceptions made about others. Problem is defined as a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state. Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. He or she makes consistent. This is called bounded rationality (Simon. they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. Three 2. 4. 2. When faced with a complex problem. 1947). 3. most people respond by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood. needing attention for alternative courses of action. What is bounded rationality? Answers To Self Assessment Questionss Self Assessment Questions 1 1. people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. Stereotyping is the process of judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. When managers engage in projection. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are.Perception Unit 8 encountered recently. Decisionmaking occurs as a reaction to a problem. Explain Halo effect and contrast effect with examples. As a result. The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue. Most decisions in the real world do not follow the rational model. Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features. This also includes the resource crunch and other limitations as well. due to limited informationprocessing capability. Decisionmakers generally make limited use of their creativity. 1996). Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative. Describe the rational decision making process. Context Sikkim Manipal University 112 . Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hippel. valuemaximizing choices within specified constraints. Explain Kelley’s attribution theory.
Consensus 3. Six 2. Selffulfilling prophecy 2. Bounded rationality Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 8. Golem Effect Self Assessment Questions 5 1. Multiple Self Assessment Questions 6 1. Selfserving bias.3 2.Perception Unit 8 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Refer section 8. Problem 2. Halo effect 2.7 Sikkim Manipal University 113 . Kelley 2. Refer section 8. Contrast effect 3.4 3.7 4. Projection Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Refer section 8.
2 Early Theories of Motivation Self Assessment Questions 1 9. Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal” (Robbins.3 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Self Assessment Questions 2 9. And Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.1 Introduction Motivation Many people incorrectly view motivation as a personal trait—that is. some have it and others do not. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity.4 Motivating employees in organizations Self Assessment Questions 3 9. Sikkim Manipal University 114 . direction.5 Motivational tools Self Assessment Questions 4 9. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation.7 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 9.6 Special Issues in Motivation Self Assessment Questions 5 9.Motivation Unit 9 Unit 9 Structure 9. 2003).1 Introduction Objectives 9.
and friendship Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. externally. Sikkim Manipal University 115 . and selfactualization are classified as higherorder needs. whereas. Special Issues in Motivation 9. sex. and attention Selfactualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour; only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. and selffulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.Motivation Unit 9 Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. The needs are arranged in order of importance. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. recognition. The further they progress up the hierarchy. autonomy. Social. and the TwoFactor theory. acceptance. status. thirst. from the basic to the complex.2: Early Theories Of Motivation In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. The five needs are: Physiological: Includes hunger. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. selfrespect. shelter. Physiological and safety needs are described as lowerorder. and other bodily needs Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social: Includes affection. Theories of Motivation 2. such as. and achievement; and external esteem factors. Higherorder needs are satisfied internally. belongingness. Theories X and Y. Lowerorder needs are predominantly satisfied. such as. proposed by Maslow (1943). esteem. the more individuality. satisfied needs cannot. humanness and psychological health a person will show. achieving one’s potential.
Motivation Unit 9 Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Herzberg’s Two Factor theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a twodimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. working conditions. such as. such as. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. selfdirection. and achievement. company policy. and salary are hygiene factors. responsibility. advancement. Extrinsic factors. selfmotivated. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. interpersonal relations. and exercise selfcontrol. It is also believed that. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation hygiene theory. recognition. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lowerorder needs dominate individuals. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Motivators are intrinsic factors. The Sikkim Manipal University 116 . if they can. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. supervision. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. From the above. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Theory Y In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. autonomy and empowerment. Theory Y assumes that higherorder needs dominate individuals.
In summary. In theory __________. When hygiene factors are adequate. and other bodily needs 2. _____________ needs include hunger. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. motivators are ____________ factors. Selfassessment questions 1 1. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors.Motivation Unit 9 absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. many related to the tasks being performed. thirst. management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work 3. Hygiene factors on the other hand. Sikkim Manipal University 117 . people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. 9. sex.3 Contemporary Theories Of Motivation The following theories are considered contemporary . have to do with a person's relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. since they represent the current state of the art in explaining employee motivation ERG Theory Alderfer (1972) classifies needs into three categories into hierarchical order. They are: The existence category Provides our basic material existence requirements. They include Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.According to Herzberg. shelter. motivators describe a person's relationship with what she or he does. In Maslow’s theory. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. To motivate people. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying.
ERG theory also contains a frustrationregression dimension. 3 ERG theory does not assume that there exists a rigid hierarchy. 3 They align with Maslow’s social need and the external component. ERG theory notes that when a higherorder need level is frustrated. A person can be working on growth even though existence or relatedness needs are unsatisfied. Growth category An intrinsic desire for personal development. the individual’s desire to increase a lowerlevel need takes place (Robbins. 2 If. the gratification of a higherlevel need is stifled. This theory is very similar to Maslow’s theory. 2 These social and status desires require interaction with others.Motivation Unit 9 Relatedness category 1 The desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. 2003). the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases. or all three need categories could be operating at the same time. ERG argues that multiple needs can be operating as motivators at the same time. Existence need corresponds with Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. Maslow argued that an individual would stay at a certain need level until that need was satisfied. Alderfer’s ERG theory differs from Maslow’s in the following arguments: 1 More than one need may be operative at the same time. Sikkim Manipal University 118 . and the characteristics included under selfactualization. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow’s esteem category. Relatedness need corresponds with Maslow’s social needs and Growth need corresponds with Maslow’s esteem and selfactualization needs.
Need for affiliation (nAff): The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. The needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success. They strive for influence over others and prefer to be placed into competitive and statusoriented situations. high achievers will be strongly motivated. High achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do things better. Sikkim Manipal University 119 . Based on this theory. and affiliation. Individuals high in need for power enjoy being “in charge” of any situation. 2003): Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility. They are defined as follow: Need for achievement (nAch) – The need to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards. and desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding. and an intermediate degree of risk. the following assumptions can be made (Robbins. to strive to succeed. This drive is the achievement need.Motivation Unit 9 McClelland’s Theory of Needs McClelland’s (1961) theory focuses on three needs: achievement. They are also more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance. otherwise. prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones. Need for power (nPow): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved. Individuals with high need for affiliation motive strive for friendship. People with high need for achievement have a compelling drive to succeed. feedback. People with a high achievement need are interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. The best managers are high in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation. They seek situations in which they can attain personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. A high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to being a good manager. power. When these characteristics are prevalent. especially in large organizations. They have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before.
are reduced. and independent. it causes people to compare their present capacity to perform with that required to succeed at the goal. Sikkim Manipal University 120 . People will do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals. The higher your selfefficacy. and many managerial and professional positions offer intrinsic rewards GoalSetting Theory Locke and Latham (1990) proposed that challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. which are derived from individuals doing what they like. There are four contingencies in goalsetting theory: 1 Goal commitment: Goalsetting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. A goal serves as a motivator. 1 Adequate selfefficacy: Selfefficacy refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 2 Task characteristics: Individual goal setting does not work equally well on all tasks.Motivation Unit 9 Cognitive Evaluation Theory This theory proposes (Deci & Ryan. 3 National culture: Goalsetting theory is culture bound and it is well adapted to North American cultures. the intrinsic rewards. The popular explanation is that the individual experiences a loss of control over his or her own behavior so that the previous intrinsic motivation diminishes. Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance when tasks are simple. 1985) that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance. the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task. because. the elimination of extrinsic rewards can produce a shift—from an external to an internal explanation—in an individual’s perception of causation of why he or she works on a task (Robbins. Therefore. because most lowlevel jobs are not inherently satisfying enough to foster high intrinsic interest. welllearned. Furthermore. This theory may have limited applicability to work organizations. the higher the level of performance will be. pay or other extrinsic rewards should be made contingent on an individual’s performance. More difficult the goal. 2003).
He/she perceives the situation as fair. they can be predicted to make one of six choices: Change their inputs. 1965). Change their outcomes. a state of equity is said to exist. behavior is a function of its consequences. When employees perceive an inequity. 1991) argues that reinforcement conditions human behavior. If the ratio appears to be unequal. According to this theory. al. the individual experience inequity. Equity Theory According to this theory (Adams. There are four referent comparisons that an employee can use: Selfinside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization Selfoutside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization Otherinside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization Otheroutside: Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization There are certain issues which are crucial regarding Equity theory. 2 Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on coworkers for comparison. It can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.Motivation Unit 9 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory (Komaki et. They are as follows: 1 Employees with short tenure in their current organizations tend to have little information about others. If.. an individual perceives the inputoutcome ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom he/she compares his/herself. Behavior is environmentally caused. 3 Upperlevel employees will make more otheroutside comparisons. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Sikkim Manipal University 121 . employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others.
are as follows: Avoid underpayment. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. 3 Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes. 1 Avoid overpayment. goals and linkage between effort and performance. 2 Procedural Justice : Perceptions of the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes. Choose a different referent.Motivation Unit 9 Distort perceptions of self. performance and reward. Sikkim Manipal University 122 . Leave the field. Determinants of motivation according to this theory are as follows: Expectancy: The belief that one’s efforts will positively influence one’s performance. 3 Explain outcomes thoroughly using a socially sensitive manner. Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory is one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation. Motivation is based on people’s beliefs. Victor Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory has its critics but most of the research is supportive. which may be important in this regard. Motivational tips Certain tips. 1 Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of the way rewards are distributed among people. 2 Give people a voice in decisions affecting them. Distort perceptions of others. consisting of perceptions of how decisions are made regarding the distribution of outcomes and the perceived fairness of those outcomes themselves. and reward and individual goal satisfaction. Organizational justice People’s perceptions of fairness in organizations.
Three key relationships in Expectancy theory are: Effortperformance relationship: the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance Performancereward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome Rewardspersonal goals relationship: the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. Alderfer classifies needs into __________ categories into hierarchical order 2. when an employee performs. role perceptions. Other Determinants: Skills and abilities.: The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes is called as ______________. Selfassessment questions 2 1. Sikkim Manipal University 123 . Performance formula A popular way of thinking about employee performance is as a function of the interaction of ability and motivation; that is. Performance = f (Ability x Motivation x Opportunity). Valence: The value a person places on the rewards he or she expects to receive from an organization. to strive to succeed is called need for ________________ . 3. opportunities to perform. If either of motivation or ability is inadequate. Furthermore. The need to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards. etc. he/she needs opportunity to be allowed to perform and prove his/her worth.Motivation Unit 9 Instrumentality: An individual’s beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance. performance will be negatively affected.
Selfassessment questions 3 1. effort. pay. Feedback should also be provided regularly to inform the employees about their performance in pursuit of those goals. Link rewards to performance Rewards should be contingent on performance and employees must perceive a clear linkage. choosing their own benefits packages and solving productivity and quality problems. 9. for example. skills. and measurable. job assignments. and performance feedback (Robbins. abilities. verifiable. Use goals and feedback Employees should have tangible and specific goals. Based on these theories. and other obvious inputs should explain differences in performance and. Management by Objective (MBO) Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible. Four ingredients common to MBO programs are: goal specificity. and other obvious rewards. This will allow to individualize goals.Motivation Unit 9 9. managers need to understand what is important to each employee. Sikkim Manipal University 124 . Maintain equity Rewards should be perceived by employees as equating with the inputs they bring to the job. Employees should have ____________ and specific goals. an explicit time period.4 Motivating Employees In Organizations A number of motivation theories have been discussed above. Include employees in decisionmaking Employees should be included in making decisions that affect them.5 Motivational Tools Some of the most important motivational tools have been discussed below. Rewards should be ___________ on performance. the following suggestions summarize the essence about motivating employees in organizations. 2003). i. level of involvement. hence. 2. Recognize individual differences Employees have different needs. Therefore. and rewards to align with individual needs. participative decision making.e; experience.
Recognition can take many forms. participative management.Motivation Unit 9 Goal specificity: The objectives in MBO should be concise statements of expected accomplishments. and appreciation for a job well done. such as. They can take numerous forms. and employee ownership. MBO and GoalSetting Theory is closely linked. personally congratulating an employee. sending a handwritten note or an email message or declaring the employee as a valuable contributor to the organizational objective. expressing interest. Goalsetting theory proposes that tangible goals result in a higher level of individual performance than do easy goals. Employees’ involvement in the decision making would positively affect them and by increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives. Employee Involvement Employee involvement includes. Both the concept advocate that rewarding a behavior with recognition would lead to its repetition. An explicit time period: Each objective has a specific time period in which it is to be completed. empowerment. employees will become Sikkim Manipal University 125 . MBO also directly advocates specific goals and feedback. workplace democracy. Employee Recognition Programs Employee recognition programs consist of personal attention. Employee Recognition Programs has close link with Reinforcement Theory. Performance feedback Continuous feedback on progress toward goals is provided so that workers can monitor and correct their own actions. approval. Participative decision making: 1 The manager and employee jointly choose the goals and agree on how they will be measured. Feedback on one’s performance leads to higher performance. implies that goals must be perceived as feasible and is most effective when the goals are difficult enough to require stretching.
and take corrective actions They take over the responsibility for solving quality problems and they generate and evaluate their own feedback. Board representatives they are employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of the firm’s employees. A review of the evidence indicates that they are likely to positively affect productivity.Motivation Unit 9 more motivated. investigate causes of the problems. Increased commitment to decisions d. Sikkim Manipal University 126 . and more satisfied with their jobs. Quality circles (QC): QC consists of a work group of eight to ten employees and supervisors who have a shared area of responsibility. Managers often do not know everything their employees do. Key components of QC are (Robbins. Works councils They are groups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions. Management typically retains control over the final implementation decision. they tend to show little or no effect on employee satisfaction. representative participation. Intrinsically rewarding employees makes their jobs more interesting and meaningful The two most common forms of participative management are: a. Participative management: The logic behind participative management is: a. b. . and employee stock ownership plans. quality circles. Some forms of employee involvement have been discussed here: participative management. recommend solutions. 2003): They meet regularly on company time to discuss their quality problems. more productive. however. more committed to the organization. Better decisions c. b.
Managerial Implications: Provide them with ongoing challenging projects. They generally have strong and longterm commitment to their field of expertise are perhaps more loyal to their profession than to their employer. Employee Recognition Programs has close link with ____________ Theory 9. an employee stock ownership trust is created. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs): In the typical ESOP. Employees usually cannot take physical possession of their shares or sell them as long as they are still employed at the company. Therefore. Also reward them with recognition. Companies contribute either stock or cash to buy stock for the trust and allocate the stock to employees. MBO and ____________Theory is closely linked 2. Reward them with educational opportunities.6 Special Issues In Motivation Some of the special issues in motivation are discussed below.Motivation Unit 9 The failure of many quality circle programs to produce measurable benefits has also led to a large number of them being discontinued. Motivating Professionals The professional employees likely to seek more intrinsic satisfaction from their work than bluecollar employees. They like to tackle problems and find solutions. extrinsic factors such as money and promotions would be low on their priority list. job challenge tends to be ranked high. They need to regularly update their knowledge. Selfassessment questions 4 1. and their commitment to their profession. Rather. Give them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work. Motivating temporary Workers Temporary workers may be motivated if: Sikkim Manipal University 127 .
Temporary workers may be motivated if they are provided with ___________ job opportunity. According to Maslow’s theory.Motivation Unit 9 · · They are provided with permanent job opportunity The opportunity for training is provided to them Motivating LowSkilled Service Workers One of the most challenging managerial tasks in to motivate lowskilled workers who are involved in repetitive physical work. which influence their behavior. people with high need for achievement have a compelling drive to succeed. Relatedness need corresponds with Maslow’s social needs and Growth need corresponds with Maslow’s esteem and selfactualization needs. This theory is very similar to Maslow’s theory. human beings have five needs. Esteem. They are: the existence category. Individuals high in need for power enjoy being “in charge” of any situation. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”. and affiliation. Social. Those five needs are Physiological. power. Individuals with Sikkim Manipal University 128 . The professional employees likely to seek more ____________satisfaction from their work than bluecollar employees 2. Herzberg (1959) constructed a two dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. where higher education and skills are not required. flexible work schedules and higher pay package may be proved effective motivational factors. McClelland’s theory focuses on three needs: achievement. Existence need corresponds with Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. Selfassessment questions 5 1. McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.7 Summary Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity. and Self actualization needs. For this category of people. 9. direction. In theory X and Y. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivationhygiene theory. According to this theory. Safety. the Relatedness category and the Growth category. Alderfer classified needs into three categories into hierarchical order.
According to Equity theory. the intrinsic rewards. 2. Achievement Sikkim Manipal University 129 . employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. Explain goal setting theory. According to this theory. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Three 2. Explain the concept of MBO and QC. the higher the level of performance will be. X 3. Cognitive Evaluation theory proposes that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance. a state of equity is said to exist. an individual perceives the inputoutcome ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom he/she compares his/herself. 4. and desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding. What is organizational justice? Discuss various tyoes of organizational justice. Terminal questions 1. More difficult the goal. GoalSetting Theory proposes that challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. If the ratio appears to be unequal. Reinforcement theory argues that reinforcement conditions human behavior. Compare Maslow’s hierarchy of needs with Alderfer’s ERG theory.Motivation Unit 9 high need for affiliation motive strive for friendship. prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones. Physiological 2. the individual experience inequity. are reduced. Behavior is environmentally caused. He/she perceives the situation as fair. behavior is a function of its consequences. 3. which are derived from individuals doing what they like. Intrinsic Answer to Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Answer to Self Assessment Questions 1 1. If.
3 4.3 3. Tangible 2. Refer section 9. Refer section 9. Reinforcement Answer to Self Assessment Questions 5 1.5 Sikkim Manipal University 130 .2 and 9. Refer section 9. Interactional Justice Answer to Self Assessment Questions 3 1.Motivation Unit 9 3. GoalSetting 2. Refer section 9.3 2. Intrinsic 2. Permanent Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Contingent Answer to Self Assessment Questions 4 1.
3 Models of Group Development Self Assessment Questions 2 10.2 Classification of groups Self Assessment Questions 1 10.6 Group Structure Self Assessment Questions 5 10.9 Techniques of Decision Making in Groups Self Assessment Questions 8 10.10 Understanding work teams Self Assessment Questions 9 10.7 Norms Self Assessment Questions 6 10.11 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s Group Behavior Sikkim Manipal University 131 .Group Behavior Unit 10 Unit 10 Structure 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.5 Group Member Resources Self Assessment Questions 4 10.8 Conformity Self Assessment Questions 7 10.4 External Conditions Imposed on the Group Self Assessment Questions 3 10.
Understanding work teams 10. 1961). service. In particular. Formal groups may be permanent or temporary in nature. In a group. They may be full fledged departments divisions or specific work teams created for particular projects of fairly long duration. or commodity (Likert. Models of Group Development 3. The organization creates such a group to perform a specific task. Though all members contribute to achieve group goals a leader does exist in this type of group to oversee and direct group members. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Sikkim Manipal University 132 .1 Introduction A group may be defined as a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals.Group Behavior Unit 10 10. they offer the potential for synergy—the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. groups accomplish more than the total of their members’ individual capabilities. members are mutually dependent on one another to achieve common goals.2 Classification Of Groups Groups can be of two types: Formal Informal Formal groups Formal groups come into existence for serving a specific organizational purpose. decision. When synergy occurs. which typically involves the use of resources to create a product such as a report. Effective groups help organizations accomplish important tasks. Classification of groups 2. and they interact with one another regularly to pursue those goals. Individuals’ behaviors in this type of group are aimed at achieving organizational goals. .
Self assessment questions 1 1. 3. Indeed. in today’s organizations the use of crossfunctional teams or task forces for special problemsolving efforts has goner up significantly. 1. It comprises of direct reports to a given manager. Informal groups may be subcategorized as : Command. interest. 2. Examples are the temporary committees and task forces that exist in an organization. task. or friendship groups. 2. Formal groups come into existence for serving a specific _________________ purpose. They may be dismantled after the assigned task has been accomplished. Command groups are dictated by the formal organization. Group of employees snacking together can be an example of such groups. Informal group An informal group is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. but the reverse may not be true. 3. An ______________ group is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. It can cross command relationships where the same member may be reporting to two or more authorities at the same time. All command groups are also __________ groups. Task groups—represent those working together to complete a job task. The organization hierarchy determines a command group. A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. They continue to exist until a decision is made to change or reconfigure the organization for some reason. All command groups are also task groups. Temporary work groups are task groups are specifically created to solve a problem or perform a defined task. Sikkim Manipal University 133 .Group Behavior Unit 10 Permanent work groups are officially created to perform a specific function on a regular basis. An interest group consists of people who affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.
and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals while also satisfying individual needs. membership expectations tend to get clarified. Performing: The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer them. Norming: From the norming stage of group development. and members are motivated by group goals and are generally satisfied. At this point. Group energy makes a transition from member’s focus on getting to know and understand each other to performing. The main concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members. The FiveStage Model 1. the acceptable normative and behavioral standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group member. Sikkim Manipal University 134 . close relationships develop and the group shows cohesiveness. their needed contribution the similarity in terms of their personal needs. Storming: This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. 3. Members also go through the process of identifying to their expected role requirements in relation to group requirements. goals and group goals. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage. Group members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage. Individuals begin to understand and appreciate each other’s interpersonal styles. In the process. performing is the last stage in their development. 4. the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit.Group Behavior Unit 10 10. Forming: In this stage the members are entering the group. and attention shifts toward hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. For permanent work groups. a. 2.3 Models Of Group Development The most important models of group development have been cited below. The structure is stable.
The group’s direction becomes fixed and is unlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of the group’s life. Adjourning: A wellintegrated group is able to disband. information. replacement old patterns. and adoption of new perspectives. The transition sets a revised direction for Phase 2. This stage is the first inertia phase. The group’s last meeting is characterized by a flurry of activities. This ends Phase 1 and is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes. and resources required for the group to perform. b. The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. For instance. and then adjourn—often to reconvene later. Another problem is that it ignores organizational context. as when groups are storming and performing. Groups may at times regress to earlier stages. The midpoint seems to set an alarm clock going increasing members’ awareness that their time is limited and that they need to move on fast. Punctuated equilibrium model Temporary groups with deadlines do not seem to follow the model explained above. Their pattern is called the punctuatedequilibrium model. if required. emotionally. within ten minutes.Group Behavior Unit 10 5. whenever required. effectively. The group is incapable of acting on new insights in Phase 1. three strangers assigned to fly together for the first time had become a highperforming group. Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. The group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action. the group executes plans created during the transition period. A structure of behavioral patterns and assumptions emerges. Phase 2 It is a new equilibrium and is also a period of inertia. a study of a cockpit crew in an airliner found that. In this phase. The punctuatedequilibrium model characterizes groups as demonstrating long periods of Sikkim Manipal University 135 . though in itself it may be a painful process for group members. A transition triggers off major changes. Sometimes several stages go on simultaneously. task definitions. do their jobs on a tight schedule. when its work is accomplished. Phase I—The first meeting sets the group’s direction. Members of these groups must be able to convene quickly. The rigid organizational context provides the rules. Transition Then a transition takes place when the group has used up almost half its allotted time.
4 External Conditions Imposed on the Group All work groups are part of larger systems and organizations and therefore cannot exist or work in isolation. rules and regulations.Group Behavior Unit 10 inertia interspersed with brief and rapid changes triggered mainly by their members’ awareness of time and targets . The __________________ stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. · Organizations create rules. · The more formal regulations that the organization imposes on all its employees. · The performance evaluation and reward system. access to resources. It is therefore influenced by mainly external factors which include organizational strategy. · Organizations have authority structures that define who reports to whom. · The presence or absence of resources such as money. and what decisions individuals or groups are empowered to make. policies. Robbins (2004) outlines the role of these factors as follows: · The strategy will influence the power of various work groups which will determine the resources that the organization’s top management is willing to allocate to it for performing its tasks. job descriptions. authority structures. physical work conditions and organizational culture and performance systems and reward structures. and other forms of formal regulations to standardize employee behavior. Group members’ behavior will be influenced by how the organization evaluates performance and what behaviors are rewarded. raw materials. procedures. time. Sikkim Manipal University 136 . In the ___________ stage the members are entering the group 2. Self assessment questions 2 1. 10. the more the behavior of work group members will be consistent and predictable. and equipment— which are allocated to the group by the organization—have a large bearing on the group’s behavior. who makes decisions.
A review of the evidence has shown that interpersonal skills play an important role for high work group performance. Knowledge. Organizations have ____________ structures that define who reports to whom. initiative. · Negatively evaluated characteristics such as authoritarianism. Sikkim Manipal University 137 . the more the behavior of work group members will be _________ and _________. B. dominance. · The physical work setting creates both barriers and opportunities for work group interaction. and Abilities The knowledge. who makes decisions. Self assessment questions 3 1. The more formal regulations that the organization imposes on all its employees. skills.Group Behavior Unit 10 · Every organization has an unwritten culture that defines standards of acceptable and unacceptable behavior for employees. 3. Skills. and flexibility. The general conclusions are as follows ( Robbins 2004): · Attributes that have a positive connotation in our culture tend to be positively related to group productivity. 10. and abilities of its individual members plays an important role in determining the group’s success and their ability to achieve set targets effectively and in synergistic manner. and effective communication skills. openness. No single personality characteristic is a good predictor of group behavior. They comprise of conflict management and resolution skills. 2. and cohesiveness. and what decisions individuals or groups are empowered to make. Personality Characteristics: A substantial larger body of research evidence is available with regard to the relationship between personality traits and group attitudes and behavior. These include: sociability. morale. Members of work groups have to accept the standards implied in the organization’s dominant culture if they are to remain in good standing.5 Group Member Resources A. and unconventionality tend to be negatively related to the dependent variables. collaborative problem solving abilities.
one’s view of how one is supposed to act in a given situation must be clear leading to clear role perception.6 Group Structure Work groups in order to function as a coordinated unit need to have a proper structure where there must be certain elements like formal leadership. Formal Leadership Almost every work group must have a formal leader. No ___________ personality characteristic is a good predictor of group behavior. Role perception For playing one’s role effectively in a group. 4.Group Behavior Unit 10 Self assessment questions 4 1. which is typically identified by a title. 3. By watching and imitating senior members of a group the new comers learn how to take on their roles effectively and also learn how to play them well. Role expectations Tuning oneself and behaving in a socially desirable manner is a part of fulfilling role expectations in a given situation in the context of achieving group goals and organizational goals. Attributes that have a positive connotation in our culture tend to be ____________ related to group productivity. 10. Roles All group members are actors. but also suffer from confusion. Each element is explained briefly below: 1. morale. In the absence of these factors groups not only become conflict ridden . and cohesiveness 2. where each is playing a role. Different groups impose different role requirements on individuals. The leader can play an important part in the group’s success. Sikkim Manipal University 138 . and function on a sub optimal level. While some of these roles may be compatible others create conflicts. 2. role clarity among group members.
Role conflict When a group member is faced with the challenge of playing multiple roles. When a group member is faced with the challenge of playing multiple roles. b. Role _________ is tuning oneself and behaving in a socially desirable manner is a part of fulfilling role expectations in a given situation in the context of achieving group goals and organizational goals. 3. Self assessment questions 5 1. Sikkim Manipal University 139 . loyalty to the work group or organization. and when it is acceptable to goof off. Though a work group’s norms are unique.7 Norms All groups have norms—“acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group’s members. role _______ may occur 10. 2. etc.Group Behavior Unit 10 1. appropriate levels of tardiness. By watching and imitating __________ members of a group the new comers learn how to take on their roles effectively and also learn how to play them well. Appearance norms include things like appropriate dress. Social arrangement norms come from informal work groups and primarily regulate social interactions within the group. their level of output.” Norms serve as a guideline for members detailing what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances. They are: Performance norms which comprise the following (Robbins 2003): a. role conflict may occur due to inability of the individual to balance all the roles effectively. how to get the job done. when to look busy. These norms are extremely powerful in affecting an individual employee’s performance. Explicit cues on how hard they should work. yet there are still some common classes of norms. thereby reducing role effectiveness. hampering the group and organizational goal attainment process.
The same is also true of groups where there is a hierarchy and all members do not enjoy the same status. All groups have ________ “acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group’s members 2. 10.8 Conformity Strong research evidence suggests that groups can place strong pressures on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the group’s standard. Inequality is the basis for any created social order where some are more powerful. enjoy greater benefits and also command access to resources differentially. Self assessment questions 6 1. or would like to be a member; and the person feels that the group members are significant to him/her.Group Behavior Unit 10 Allocation of resources norms can originate in the group or in the organization. Status and norms: Research shows the following with regard to relationship between status and norms(Robbins): Sikkim Manipal University 140 . This is also related to the risk taking ability of certain groups / individuals and by virtue of this calculated risk taking ability they amass greater wealth and have superior position (status) in the hierarchy. Status is a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. All groups do not have a equal sway over the members and those that have more influence are referred to as reference groups. __________ norms come from informal work groups and primarily regulate social interactions within the group. Status 1. The reference group is characterized as one where the person is aware of the others; the person defines himself or herself as a member.
Status is a _________ defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Status and culture: · · Cultural differences affect status. The trappings of formal positions are also important elements in maintaining equity. topperforming salespeople. · · Groups generally agree within themselves on status criteria. Countries differ on the criteria that create status: o Status for Latin Americans and Asians tends to be derived from family position and formal roles held in organizations. it tends to be bestowed more on accomplishments. The _________ group is characterized as one where the person is aware of the others 2. Self assessment questions 7 1. Individuals can find themselves in a conflict situation when they move between groups whose status criteria are different or when they join groups whose members have heterogeneous backgrounds. it creates disequilibrium that results in corrective behavior. Employees expect what an individual has and receives to be congruent with his/her status. etc. famous actors. the French are highly status conscious. Status equity: · · When inequity is perceived. Sikkim Manipal University 141 . For example. For example: pay. office space. o In the United States and Australia. · · Highstatus people also are better able to resist conformity pressures. The previous findings explain why many star athletes. and outstanding academics seem oblivious to appearance or social norms.Group Behavior Unit 10 · Highstatus members of groups often are given more freedom to deviate from norms than other group members. · It is necessary to understand who and what holds status when interacting with people from a different culture other than our own.
all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation. ideas are forwarded without any discussion taking place. Decision by consensus One alternative is accepted by most members and the other members agreeing to support it. with or without discussion. Information—more knowledge and expertise is applied to solve the problem. This is a “logically perfect” group decision method that is extremely difficult to attain in actual practice. Decision by majority rule Here. In Decision by_________. Decision by unanimity All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken. it creates ______________ that results in corrective behavior. Group productivity: the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making The potential advantages of group decision making include (Maier. viewpoint of the majority is considered as the group’s decision. When the group finally accepts an idea. Self assessment questions 8 1. Schein observes that groups may make decisions through _________ methods. two or three people are able to dominate the group into making a decision to which they agree. Decision by minority rule Two or three people are able to dominate the group into making a decision to which they agree.Group Behavior Unit 10 3. Decision by authority rule The leader makes a decision for the group. 2.9 Techniques Of Decision Making In Groups Schein (1988) observes that groups may make decisions through any of the following six methods: Decision in lack of response In this type of decision making. When status inequity is perceived. Sikkim Manipal University 142 . 10. 1967): 1.
Team building is a collaborative way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork (Schermerhorn et al 2002). 3. Sikkim Manipal University 143 . Commitment—there is more commitment among all group members to make the final decision work. who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable (Katzenbach & Smith. Understanding and acceptance—the final decision is better understood and accepted by all group members. 2. Time demands—with more people involved in the dialogue and discussion. Alternatives—a greater number of alternatives are examined. Ø Teams use employee talents better. 3. avoiding tunnel vision.10 Understanding Work Teams A team is a small group of people with complementary skills. 2003): Ø Teams typically outperform individuals. 1993). 10. group decisions usually take longer to make than individual decisions. 4. Team has following advantages (Robbins. Types of Teams The various types of teams have been described below: Problem solving teams – small groups from same department who meet regularly to discuss ways of improving quality and efficiency. Ø Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation. The potential disadvantages of group decision making include: 1 Social pressure to conform—individuals may feel compelled to go along with the apparent wishes of the group.Group Behavior Unit 10 2. Ø Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Minority domination—the group’s decision may be forced by one individual or a small coalition. Ø Teams facilitate employee involvement. Selfmanaged teams – small groups who take responsibilities of their own targets.
use computer technology to connect with each other. Though a work group’s norms are unique. Formal groups come into existence for serving a specific organizational purpose. come together to accomplish a task. 1993). access to resources. who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable (Katzenbach & Smith. 2. Rather. Storming. rules and regulations. Sikkim Manipal University 144 . Team building is a collaborative way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork (Schermerhorn et al 2002). It is therefore influenced by mainly external factors which include organizational strategy. Performing and Adjourning. Virtual team – team members. In ___________________ team – Employees from different work areas but from same hierarchical level. 10.” Norms serve as a guideline for members detailing what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances. yet there are still some common classes of norms. Punctuated equilibrium model of group development proposes that temporary groups with deadlines do not seem to follow the model explained above. A team is a small group of people with complementary skills. authority structures. All groups have norms—“acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the group’s members. All work groups are part of larger systems and organizations and therefore cannot exist or work in isolation. An informal group is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. The FiveStage Model of group development has five stages: Forming. Individuals’ behaviors in this type of group is aimed at achieving organizational goals. Self assessment questions 9 1. Groups can be of two types: Formal and Informal. physical work conditions and organizational culture and performance systems and reward structures. who are physically dispersed. Team building is a ____________ way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork. they follow it Phase I.Group Behavior Unit 10 Crossfunctional team – Employees from different work areas but from same hierarchical level. 11 Summary A group may be defined as a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals. transition and Phase II. come together to accomplish a task. Norming.
Describe the techniques on group decision making. Organizational 2. Senior 2. Authority 2. 3. Conflict Self Assessment Questions 6 1. Consistent. Adjourning Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Norms 2. Social arrangement Sikkim Manipal University 145 . Explain the fivestage model of group development. Explain the external conditions imposed on groups. Single Self Assessment Questions 5 1. Positively 2. Expectations 3. Forming 2.Group Behavior Unit 10 Terminal questions 1. Task Self Assessment Questions 2 1. 2. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. predictable Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Informal 3.
Group Behavior Unit 10 Self Assessment Questions 7 1.4 3. Socially 3. Disequilibrium Self Assessment Questions 8 1. Six 2. Refer section 10. Refer section 10.3 2. Crossfunctional Answers to Terminal Questions 1.9 Sikkim Manipal University 146 . Reference 2. Collaborative 2. Refer section 10. Minority rule Self Assessment Questions 9 1.
1962).6 Empowerment Self Assessment Questions 3 Power in Groups: Coalitions Self Assessment Questions 4 Politics: Power in Action Self Assessment Questions 5 11.3 Power Tactics Self Assessment Questions 2 11.1 Introduction Objectives 11. The greater B’s dependence on A. 7 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 11.2 Bases of Power Self Assessment Questions 1 11. Power also refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B. Contrasting Leadership and Power Sikkim Manipal University 147 .4 11.5 11. 2003). respectively.1 Introduction Power And Politics Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants. power is a function of dependency (Robbins. so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. Therefore. the greater is A’s power in the relationship. These sources are called position power and personal power. The essence of power is control over the behavior of others (French & Raven.Power And Politics Unit 11 Unit 11 Structure 11. either by self or by the subordinates.
merely dependence whereas leadership. Politics: Power in Action 11. The availability of coercive power also varies across organizations. Evidence of the same is gained from insights into research on power that has tended to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. demote. In other words. Power in Groups: Coalitions 3. requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and the followers. For example. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Power is used by leaders as a means to attain group goals. Formal Power: It is based on the position of an individual in an organization. What are differences between leadership and power? The first is in the area of goal compatibility which is as follows: · Power does not require goal compatibility. or even recommend the firing of a subordinate who does not act as desired. · The second factor is related to the direction of influence: Whereas leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers.Power And Politics Unit 11 In an organizational context leadership and power are related to each others. power is a means of facilitating their achievement of goals and objectives that they have set for themselves in view of organizational requirements. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/ her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. or to transfer. a manager may threaten to withhold a pay raise. Such coercive power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people. power does not minimize the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns.2 Bases Of Power Power can be categorized into two types: Formal and informal A. The presence of unions and organizational policies on Sikkim Manipal University 148 . Bases of Power 2.
of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. or enriched jobs. 2. Thus this type of power has the following elements: · · · It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. Reward Power: The opposite of coercive power is reward power. In an organization one can exercise power over another if they have the power to dismiss. compliments. Although all managers have some access to rewards. success in accessing and utilizing rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager. Legitimate Power: The third base of “position” power is legitimate power.Power And Politics Unit 11 employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly. demote another assuming that the job is valuable to the person on whom power is being unleashed. personal time off. It is based on the application. Sikkim Manipal University 149 . or the threat of application. the boss may have the formal authority to approve or deny such employee requests as job transfers. Reward power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. It encompasses the acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization. Legitimate power. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by subordinates. Formal power may be categorized into four types which are as follows: 1. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager has because subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right to command. Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. is not limited to the power to coerce and reward. however. or overtime work. suspend. 3. equipment purchases. Coercive Power: The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. promotions.It stems from the extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior. For example. Examples of such rewards include money. the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. or formal authority .
Followership is not based on what the subordinate will get for specific actions or specific levels of performance. the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. Three bases of personal power are expertise. the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the juniors for technologically oriented support. Sikkim Manipal University 150 . through the individual’s efforts. Expert power is relative. B. but needs. or judgment that the other person lacks. (For example. because the subordinate likes the boss personally and therefore tries to do things the way the boss wants them done. . others become dependant on them. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily knows more about what is to be done or how it is to be done than does the subordinate. the subordinate attempts to avoid doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss–subordinate relationship. This obedience may occur. Referent power is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. or believe as the boss does. Information Power: This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. In this age of technology driven environments. but on what the individual represents—a path toward lucrative future prospects. rational persuasion. Expert power is the ability to control another person’s behavior by virtue of possessing knowledge.Power And Politics Unit 11 4. experience. In this case. and reference. When people have needed information. Personal Power Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. for example. perceive. Normally the higher the level. a subordinate obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave. In a sense. Rational persuasion is the ability to control another’s behavior. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes. However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills than his/ her boss. the more information would be accessed by managers. managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). not absolute. since.
the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. which are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. When an individual possess anything that others require but that which alone the individual controls. Thus scarcity in supply of certain types of skilled people can give them power to bargain over compensations and other benefits. is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. Dependency: The Key to Power The General Dependency Equation is as follows: · The greater B’s dependency on A. etc. Organizations actively seek to avoid uncertainty and hence. They are as follows: · Importance To create dependency. Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions. he / she can make others dependent and. Three factors are responsible for dependency. take personal risks. It also explains why individuals in general aspire to financial independence. those individuals or groups who can absorb an organization’s uncertainty will be perceived as controlling an important resource. Sikkim Manipal University 151 . therefore. the greater the power A has over B. then. gain power over them. demonstrate follower sensitivity. · Scarcity A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency. · Dependency. lowranking members in an organization who have important knowledge unavailable to highranking members gain power over the highranking members. This is one of the reasons why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather using just one. Individuals in occupations in which the supply of personnel is low relative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages. The scarcitydependency relationship is also important in the power of occupational categories. For example.Power And Politics Unit 11 Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style.
acting humble.3 Power Tactics Using position and personal power well to achieve the desired influence over other people is a challenge for most managers. The most common strategies involve the following (Kipinis et. Depending on the situational factors.Power And Politics Unit 11 · Nonsubstitutability The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. Expert power is relative. The opposite of coercive power is __________ power 3. Formal power may be categorized into___________ types. the more power that control over that resource provides. 1984): · · · · · · · Reason—Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas Friendliness—Use of flattery. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Sikkim Manipal University 152 . creation of goodwill. There are many useful ways of exercising relational influence. Al. 2. The manager’s relative power impacts the selection of tactics in two ways. not ______________. and being friendly Coalition—Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request Bargaining—Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors Assertiveness—Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance Higher authority—Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests Sanctions—Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments Employees rely on the seven tactics variably. individuals tend to use the above strategies accordingly to the suitability and the likelihood of the success to be achieved by employing the same. 11.
For example in US people prefer use of reason in contrast to China where coalition as a tactic is preferred. · Resistance leads to managers using more directive strategies. Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to obtain favors. The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence causes them to vary their power tactics. The organization itself will influence which subset of power tactics is viewed as acceptable for use by managers. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. The objectives may be as follows: · · · When seeking benefits from a superior. use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. · Second. Where success is less predictable. When past experience indicates a high probability of success.Power And Politics Unit 11 · First. managers who control resources that are valued by others. Where success is less predictable. managers are more likely to use assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. The organization’s culture also plays an important role in deciding the use of power tactics. they use friendliness. When they are in need to make superiors accept new ideas. managers use simple requests to gain compliance. The organizational culture in which a manager works. will have a significant bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. they usually rely on reason. Research evidence also supports the following with regard to use of tactics and the choice used by managers with regard to power: The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply is an important factor. or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance. managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency than do those with less power. Differences are consistent with values among countries—reason is consistent with American’s preference for direct confrontation and coalition is consistent with the Chinese preference for using indirect approaches. managers are more likely to use __________ and sanctions to achieve their objectives Sikkim Manipal University 153 .
4 Empowerment Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power required to make decisions affecting both themselves and their work. The need clearly is towards having fewer managers who must share more power as they go about their daily tasks. Corporate staff is being cut back; layers of management are being eliminated; the number of employees is being reduced as the volume of work increases. today. The trend clearly is towards creating leaner and more responsive organizations which are flexible and capable of taking faster decisions with minimum bottlenecks created out of power struggles. All too often. this concept views power to be shared by all working in flatter and more collegial structures. management assumes that its directive for empowerment will be followed; management may fail to show precisely how empowerment will benefit the individuals involved. typical of bureaucratic tall structures. Hence. The concept of empowerment is part of the decentralized structures which are found in today’s corporations. For the empowerment process to set in and become institutionalized. US people prefer use of reason in contrast to China where _____________ as a tactic is preferred 11. management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move to expand it. The following are important in this context: Changing Position Power: When an organization attempts to move power down the hierarchy. it must also alter the existing pattern of position power. Moreover. Rather than concentrating power only at higher levels as found in the traditional “pyramid” of organizations. empowerment is a key foundation of the increasingly popular self managing work teams and other creative worker involvement groups. Changing this pattern raises some important issues · · Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and sanctions based on task accomplishment? Has their new right to act been legitimized with formal authority? Expanding the Zone of Indifference: When embarking on an empowerment program. managers in progressive organizations are expected to be competent at empowering the people with whom they work. power in the organization will be changed. Sikkim Manipal University 154 .Power And Politics Unit 11 2. however.
· In such an event. can combine their resources to increase rewards for themselves. coalitions in organizations often seek to maximize their size. or impossible. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. but require to be implemented. When an organization attempts to move power down the ________. 2. Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership and are able to form swiftly. efforts are directed towards forming a coalition of two or more “outs” who.Power And Politics Unit 11 Thus in empowerment the basic issues which should be addressed are: Training people in lower ranks how to function in the new empowered position. Decisionmaking in organizations does not end just with selection from among a set of alternatives. responsibility and the accountability process should be clearly outlined so as not to upset organizational power equations.5 Power In Groups: Coalitions Individuals who lose power or are out of power seek to increase their power individually. by coming together. _____________ is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power required to make decisions affecting both themselves and their work. risky. it must also alter the existing pattern of position power 11. Using or unleashing power correctly is also an issue and most importantly the authority. then the alternative is to form a coalition—an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue. costly. and quickly disappear disintegrate. The natural way to gain influence is to become a power holder but this may be difficult. achieve their target issue. Just apportioning power at lower levels without giving the knowledge of how to use it can actually create havoc in the organizations. If they fail to do so. The implementation of an commitment to the decision is as important as the Sikkim Manipal University 155 . They are as follows: · First. There are a couple of predictions about coalition formation.
Successful coalitions have been found to contain ___________ membership.6 Politics: Power In Action Politics is defined as those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization. coalition formation will be influenced by the actual tasks that workers perform. the greater the likelihood that coalitions will form. · Finally. 11. 3. there will be less interdependence among subunits and less coalition formation activity where subunits are largely selfcontained or resources are in plenty. More coalitions are likely be created where there is a great deal of task and resource __________________. spreading rumors. 2. criteria. Self Assessment Questions 4 1. or attempt to influence. Coalition formation will be influenced by the __________ tasks that workers perform. c. whistleblowing. etc. More coalitions are likely be created where there is a great deal of task and resource interdependence. withholding vital information from decision makers.Power And Politics Unit 11 decision. In contrast. the more routine the task of a group. In general. but that influence. Political behavior fall outside the ambit of one’s specified job requirements. It includes efforts to influence the goals. It includes a variety of political behaviors such as. b. or processes employed for decisionmaking. Sikkim Manipal University 156 . leaking confidential information. Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned means and the art of creative compromise among competing interests. It is essential for coalitions within organizations to seek a broad constituency and there may be expansion in coalition to help in consensus building · Another prediction relates to the degree of interdependence within the organization. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. The above definition clearly points out the following: a.
it is necessary to make a distinction between legitimate and illegitimate power dimensions within organizational contexts. therefore. and coexist together. The second tradition treats politics as a necessary function resulting from differences in the self interests of individuals. bypassing the chain of command. The first tradition builds on Machiavelli’s philosophy and defines politics in terms of selfinterest and the use of nonsanctioned means. etc. · The vast majority of all organizational political actions are legitimate. forming coalitions. In a heterogeneous society. where individuals join. such as sabotage. There are two quite different schools of thought found existing in the analysis of literature on organizational politics. and stay together because of their selfinterests being served. work. The same holds true in organizations. Here. It is equally important to remember that the Sikkim Manipal University 157 . In this tradition. organizational politics may be formally defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means. · Illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game. Where there is uncertainty or ambiguity. etc. avoid confrontation. and symbolic protests. Managers are often considered political when they seek their own goals or use means that are not currently authorized by the organization or that push legal limits. 1981). The “LegitimateIllegitimate” Dimension may be explained in terms of the following (Farrell & Peterson. whistle blowing. individuals will disagree as to whose self interests are most valuable and whose concerns should.Power And Politics Unit 11 In this context. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behavior pose a very real risk of loss of organizational membership or extreme sanction. organizational politics is viewed as the art of creative compromise among competing interests. it is often extremely difficult to tell whether a manager is being political in this selfserving sense (Pfeffer. be bounded by collective interests. Politics come into play as individuals need to develop compromises. 1988): · Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics—complaining to your supervisor.
A low expectation of success in using illegitimate means reduces the probability of its use. Individual factors: Researchers have identified certain personality traits. The more that a person has invested and the more a person has to lose.. Employees who are high selfmonitors. Thus. perceived alternatives. They are as follows: a. The Machiavellian personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her self interest and does not see it as an unethical action. needs.Power And Politics Unit 11 goals of the organization and the acceptable means are established by organizationally powerful individuals in negotiation with others. or influential contacts outside the organization. the less likely he/she is to use illegitimate means. Sikkim Manipal University 158 . Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 1. b. b. the more likely he/she will risk illegitimate political actions. organizational politics is also the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests. c. The more alternative job opportunities an individual has. and expectations of success will influence the tendency to pursue illegitimate means of political action. possess an internal locus of control. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. A person’s investment in the organization. a prominent reputation. The following alternatives are possible in this context: a. The high selfmonitor is more sensitive to social cues and in all probability be more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low selfmonitor. Individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. d. and other factors that are likely to be related to political behavior. c.
The less trust there is within the organization. high pressures for performance. role ambiguity. · Top management may set the climate for politicking by engaging in certain behaviors. zerosum reward allocation practices. the higher the level of political behavior and the more likely it will be illegitimate. Organizational factors: Political activity has got to do more with the organization’s characteristics than of individual difference variables. and selfserving senior managers will create fertile grounds for politicking. the more one may engage in political activity since there is little chance of it being visible. Certain important findings in this regard are: · Cultures characterized by low trust. people may engage in political actions to safeguard their existing statusquo. and the existing pattern of resources is changing. Internally if the managers believe in autocracy they would use the required committees. · Role ambiguity means that the prescribed behaviors of the employee are not clear. unclear performance evaluation systems. individuals may use three strategies : Sikkim Manipal University 159 . · When organizations downsize to improve efficiency. To counter the effects of politicking and protect oneself in organizational contexts. conferences. democratic decisionmaking. politics is more likely to come into play and surface. a climate is created that supports politicking.Power And Politics Unit 11 1. · Making organizations less autocratic by asking managers to behave more democratically is not necessarily embraced by all individual managers. · · Promotion decisions have consistently been found to be one of the most political in organizations.. as also when there is opportunity for promotions. When an organization’s resources are declining. thereby giving a signal to people below in the order that is alright to engage in such behavior. The greater the role ambiguity. When employees see top management successfully engaging in political behavior. and group meetings in a superficial way as arenas for maneuvering and manipulating.
The effect of politics is moderated by the knowledge the individual has of the decision making system and his/her political skills. Avoidance: Avoidance is quite common in controversial areas where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. There are certain other interesting findings regarding people’s responses to organizational politics Research evidence indicates strong points out that perception of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. Redirecting Responsibility: Politically sensitive individuals will always protect themselves from accepting blame for the negative consequences of their actions. the organization may be seen as a collection of competing interests held by various departments and groups. The perception of politics results in anxiety or stress. policies. a variety of wellworn techniques may be used for redirecting responsibility.Power And Politics Unit 11 (1) Avoid action and risk taking (2) Redirect accountability and responsibility (3) Defend their turf. Defending Turf : Defending turf is a timehonored tradition in most large organizations. Again. In this regard the following observations have been made: · High political skills individuals often have improved performance. employees leave the organizations. employees are protected when they adhere strictly to all the rules. and procedures or do not allow deviations or exceptions. it starts to encroach on the activities of other groups. And when it gets too much to handle. The trick here is to define the task in such a way that it becomes someone else’s formal responsibility. This results form the coalitional nature of organizations. That is. It may thus be a demotivating force and performance may suffer as a result. As each group tries to increase its influence. The most common reaction is to “work to the rules.” That is. “Passing the buck” is a common method employees and managers use. Sikkim Manipal University 160 .
In countries that are more unstable politically. workers will tolerate higher levels of politicking than more politically stable counties Self Assessment Questions 5 1.. Reward Power. possess an internal locus of control 3. The essence of power is control over the behavior of others (French & Raven. Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to acquire Sikkim Manipal University 161 . The most common strategies involve: Reason. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/ her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. Organizational politics is viewed as the art of creative _____________ among competing interests 2. Employees who are ___________ selfmonitors. The ______________ personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her self interest and does not see it as an unethical action. Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. and Sanctions. and reference. Using position and personal power well to achieve the desired influence over other people is a challenge for most managers. In other words. either by self or by the subordinates. 1962). Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. change. . respectively. Higher authority. There are many useful ways of exercising relational influence. Power is used by leaders as a means to attain group goals. These sources are called position power and personal power. Legitimate Power.Power And Politics Unit 11 · Low political skills individuals often respond with defensive behaviors—reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. In an organizational context leadership and power are related to each others. 11. Power can be categorized into two types: Formal and informal. Formal Power: is based on the position of an individual in an organization. Assertiveness. or blame. rational persuasion.7 Summary Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants. Coalition. Formal power may be categorized into four types: Coercive Power. Friendliness. Information Power. Reaction to organizational politics is also influenced by culture. Three bases of personal power are expertise. power is a means of facilitating their achievement of goals and objectives that they have set for themselves in view of organizational requirements. Bargaining.
today.Assertiveness 2. or attempt to influence. Coalition Sikkim Manipal University 162 . risky. but that influence. Individuals who lose power or are out of power seek to increase their power individually. 3. Describe various types of formal and informal power. costly. Terminal questions 1. Politics is defined as those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Four 2. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Rather than concentrating power only at higher levels as found in the traditional “pyramid” of organizations. Reward 3. The natural way to gain influence is to become a power holder but this may be difficult. Contrast leadership and power. managers in progressive organizations are expected to be competent at empowering the people with whom they work. Moreover. or impossible. What do you mean by organizational politics? Explain the “LegitimateIllegitimate” dimension in organizational politics. Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned means and the art of creative compromise among competing interests. Absolute Self Assessment Questions 2 1. 2. this concept views power to be shared by all working in flatter and more collegial structures. If they fail to do so then the alternative is to form a coalition—an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue.Power And Politics Unit 11 and use the power required to make decisions affecting both themselves and their work.
Machiavellian Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Actual Self Assessment Questions 5 1. Refer section 11.2 3. Refer section 11. Empowerment 2. Refer section 11.6 Sikkim Manipal University 163 .Power And Politics Unit 11 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Fluid 2. Interdependence 3.1 2. Compromise 2. High 3. Hierarchy Self Assessment Questions 4 1.
Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. something that the first party cares about (Thomas.1 Introduction Objectives 12.Conflict Management Unit 12 Unit 12 Structure 12.1 Introduction Conflict Management Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues (work related or personal). allows tensions to be released. Constructive conflict prevents stagnation.5 Negotiation Self Assessment Questions 4 12. lessens satisfaction of group members. stimulates creativity. Conflict can be either constructive or destructive. lowers productivity. or is about to negatively affect.6 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 12. increases absence and turnover rates.4 Conflict management approaches Self Assessment Questions 3 12.2 Levels of conflict Self Assessment Questions 1 12. and. Sikkim Manipal University 164 . 1992).3 The Conflict Process Self Assessment Questions 2 12. excessive levels of conflict can hinder the effectiveness of a group or an organization. However.
tranquil. The Interactionist View: This approach encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. The Conflict Process 3. Conflict management approaches Negotiation The most important views about conflict are as follows: The Traditional View: This approach assumes that all conflict is dysfunctional and hinders performance. Lowtomoderate levels of task conflict are functional and consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion. Conflict is seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication. selfcritical. and the failure of managers to be responsive to their employees. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. These conflicts are almost always dysfunctional and the friction and interpersonal Sikkim Manipal University 165 . Functional vs. improving group performance. The Human Relations View: This view believes that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. Group leaders should maintain enough conflict to keep the group viable. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Since it was natural and inevitable it should be accepted. constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. It cannot be eliminated and may even contribute to group performance. and creative. Levels of conflict 2. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. Dysfunctional Conflict Functional. a lack of openness and trust between people.Conflict Management Unit 12 Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. peaceful.
It may be substantive or emotional or both. 12.Conflict Management Unit 12 hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding. It can be of three types (Schermerhorn et al. Sikkim Manipal University 166 . Intrapersonal conflict Some conflicts that affect behavior in organizations involve the individual alone. people may encounter conflict at the intrapersonal level (conflict within the individual). the intergroup level. Approach–avoidance conflict occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences. Intergroup conflict occurs among members of different teams or groups.2 Levels Of Conflict At workplace. An example is having to choose between a valued promotion in the organization or a desirable new job with another firm. An example is being offered a higher paying job whose responsibilities entail unwanted demands on one’s personal time. the interpersonal level (individual to individual conflict). Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. An example is being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organization terminated. Avoidance–avoidance conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. 2002): Approach–approach conflict occurs when a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives. or the inter organizational level. Interorganizational conflict occurs as the competition and rivalry that characterizes firms operating in the same markets.
Size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. jurisdictional clarity. _____________________ conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. __________ conflict occurs among members of different teams or groups 4. 2002): Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility This stage concludes the conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. misunderstandings. the greater the likelihood of conflict. and “noise” (distortion) in the communication channels. reward systems. insufficient exchange of information. Conflict occurs whenever ____________ exist in a social situation over issues 5. The larger the group and more specialized its activities. membergoal compatibility. The ___________ View of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. Communication Communication becomes a source of conflict due to semantic difficulties. Sikkim Manipal University 167 . 2. Intrapersonal conflict may be of _________ types. The greater the ambiguity in responsibility for actions lies. leadership styles. Structure The term structure includes variables such as size. ___________ conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. tranquil. 12. degree of specialization. jargon. The conditions are as follows: 1. 2. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation 6.3 The Conflict Process The process of conflict management has the following steps (Schermerhorn et al. 3. peaceful. and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedents to conflict. the greater the potential for conflict. and the degree of dependence. The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are younger and turnover is high. Differing word connotations.Conflict Management Unit 12 Selfassessment questions 1 1.
Value differences are the best explanation for differences of opinion on various matters. Sikkim Manipal University 168 . C. Emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions. 2003). sharing occurs. B. · Compromising: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something.” Assertiveness—“the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns.Conflict Management Unit 12 3.” Competing: When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests. Certain personality types lead to potential conflict. Stage III: Intentions The primary conflicthandling intentions are represented as follows: · · · Cooperativeness—“the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Antecedent conditions lead to conflict only when the parties are affected by and aware of it. Personal variables Personal variables include individual value systems and personality characteristics. and the solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns. to take a broader view of the situation. reductions in trust. regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict · Collaborating: When the parties to conflict each desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties. Positive feelings increase the tendency to see potential relationships among the elements of a problem. · Avoiding: A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. Negative emotions produce oversimplification of issues. resulting in a compromised outcome. and to develop more innovative solutions (Robbins. There is no clear winner or loser. and negative interpretations of the other party’s behavior. · Accommodating: When one party seeks to appease an opponent. that party is willing to be self sacrificing. Conflict is personalized when it is felt and when individuals become emotionally involved. The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating.
2003): a. The demise of an organization as a result of too much conflict is not as unusual as it might first appear. Conflict is constructive when it (Robins. which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are __________ and turnover is __________ . Encourages interest and curiosity. b. Conflict intensities escalate as they move upward along the continuum until they become highly destructive. or dysfunctional in hindering it. 2. They are as follows: Uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent. Communication becomes a source of conflict due to __________ in the communication channels. d. Fosters an environment of selfevaluation and change. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions. actions. and highly controlled forms of tension. e. reductions in group cohesiveness.Conflict Management Unit 12 Stage IV: Behavior The behavior stage includes the statements. conflicts are characterized by subtle. Conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group’s survival. indirect. c. Outcomes may be dysfunctional as well. and reactions made by the conflicting parties. 3. Stage V: Outcomes Outcomes may be functional—improving group performance. Improves the quality of decisions. Functional conflicts are typically confined to the lower range of the continuum. Sikkim Manipal University 169 . It is a dynamic process of interaction with a continuum. Undesirable consequences include a retarding of communication. Selfassessment questions 2 1. At the lower part of the continuum. Provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. Personal variables include individual value systems and _________________ characteristics. subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members. Stimulates creativity and innovation.
As a result of no one getting its full desires. Collaboration – it involves a recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention. This is a case of win lose situation and as a result. Competition – here a victory is achieved through force. superior skill. whereby a formal authority simply dictates a solution and specifies what is gained and what is lost by whom. the antecedent conditions for future conflicts are established. This peaceful coexistence ignores the real essence of a given conflict and often creates frustration and resentment.Conflict Management Unit 12 12. or domination by one party. Accommodation involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. Compromise it occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other. It stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. Indirect conflict management approaches Sikkim Manipal University 170 . future conflicts over the same issues are likely to occur. It may also occur as a result of authoritative command. They are as follows: Avoidance – it is an extreme form of inattention; everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. They are based on the relative emphasis on cooperativeness and assertiveness in the relationship between the conflicting parties.4 Conflict Management Approaches There are two types of conflict management approaches: · · Direct Indirect Direct conflict management approaches There are five approaches to direct conflict management.
hierarchical referral. or buffer. contact between conflicting parties may be reduced. ____________ occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other.Conflict Management Unit 12 Indirect conflict management approaches include reduced interdependence. There are ___________ direct approaches to conflict management. To reduce the conflict. Appeals to Common Goals An appeal to common goals can focus on the mutual interdependence of the conflicting parties to achieve the common goal of an organization. Buffering is another technique to build an inventory. appeals to common goals. between the two groups so that any output slowdown or excess is absorbed by the inventory and does not directly pressure the target group.5 Negotiation Negotiation is a “process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them (Robbins. managers can adjust the level of interdependency among units or individuals (Walton & Dutton. There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Distributive bargaining Sikkim Manipal University 171 . ___________________ is a process where conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. Hierarchical Referral – Here conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. 3. and each can be provided separate access to resources. The conflicting units can then be separated from one another. SelfAssessment Questions 3 1. 2. 2008). and alterations in the use of mythology and scripts (Schermerhorn et al 2002). 12. 1969). Reduced Interdependence When workflow conflicts exist.
or to compromise in which each party gives up something of value in order to reach agreement. one’s tactics focus on trying to get one’s opponent to agree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. time will be decided. Following conditions are necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed (Robbins. 2003): · · · · Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns A sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs The ability to trust one another A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility The Negotiation Process A model of the negotiation process is as follows: Preparation and planning: · At this stage. Based on the information. Definition of ground rules: · At the stage. Integrative bargaining builds longterm relationships and facilitates collaborative work. concerned parties of the conflict. Integrative bargaining This strategy is adopted to create a winwin solution. takes place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with.Conflict Management Unit 12 When engaged in distributive bargaining. Sikkim Manipal University 172 . the venue. a strategy is developed. A soft approach leads to accommodation in which one party gives in to the other. “Hard” distributive negotiation takes place when each party holds out to get its own way. history. Both the parties Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)needs to be determined. the negotiators. homework needs to be done in regard to the nature. The hard approach may lead to a win–lose outcome in which one party dominates and gains. BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement for both the parties. “Soft” distributive negotiation.
Bargaining and problem solving: · The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. __________ bargaining strategy is adopted to create a winwin solution Sikkim Manipal University 173 . Closure and implementation: · This is the final step. The role of personality traits in negotiation Overall assessments of the personalitynegotiation relationship finds that personality traits have no significant direct effect on either the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes (Wall & Blum. Cultural differences in negotiations Negotiating styles clearly vary across national cultures (Adler. 3. Proper documentation is required at this stage to support each of the parties position. (Stuhlmacher & Walters. etc. 1. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. the emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships.Conflict Management Unit 12 Clarification and justification: · When initial positions have been exchanged. 1999). The belief that women are “nicer” is probably due to confusing gender and the lack of power typically held by women. A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative. The evidence does not support this. 2. the origal demands of both the parties sneed to be explained and justified. 1991). where the agreement is formalized and procedures to implement the agreement will be developed. pleasant. 2002). Gender differences in negotiations Men and women do not negotiate differently. the tactics used. Issues in Negotiation Some of the most important issues have been discussed below. There are __________ general approaches to negotiation 2. and relationshiporiented in negotiations than are men. Self Assessment Questions 4 1. The cultural context of the negotiation significantly influences the amount and type of preparation for bargaining.
Constructive conflict prevents stagnation. lowers productivity. Briefly explain the different views about conflict. the intergroup level. Lowtomoderate levels of task conflict are functional and consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion. constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. 2.Conflict Management Unit 12 3. Negotiation is a “process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them (Robbins. increases absence and turnover rates. There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. 2008). stimulates creativity. improving group performance. 1992). allows tensions to be released. However. something that the first party cares about (Thomas. 4.6 Summary Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues (work related or personal). or is about to negatively affect. People at work may encounter conflict at the intrapersonal level (conflict within the individual). Explain the difference between distributive and integrative bargaining. the interpersonal level (individual to individual conflict). Sikkim Manipal University 174 . Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. What are the levels of conflict that people may experience at the workplace? 3. or the interorganizational level. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. personality traits have no significant ________ effect on the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes 12. lessens satisfaction of group members. These conflicts are almost always dysfunctional and the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding. excessive levels of conflict can hinder the effectiveness of a group or an organization. Explain the process of conflict management. Terminal questions 1. Functional. and. Conflict can be either constructive or destructive.
Two 2. Interactionist 3. Younger.Conflict Management Unit 12 Answer to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Disagreements 2.5 Sikkim Manipal University 175 . Refer section 12.1 2.2 3. Avoidance–avoidance 6.3 4. Task 4. Refer section 12. Three 5. Noise 2. Integrative 3. high 3. Five 2. Direct Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Intergroup Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Compromise 3. Personality Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Hierarchical Referral Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Refer section 12. Refer section 12.
it would cause mental and physical imbalance in the person. If it exceeds in proportion to a person’s abilities to cope with it.5 13.4 13. a major challenge for every one today is to make stress work for you as a productive force rather than as a deterrent which can cause imbalance in an individual.2 13.3 13. mental or emotional response to events which cause mental or bodily tension.7 13. Therefore.6 13.8 Types of Stress Self Assessment Questions 1 Potential Sources of Stress Self Assessment Questions 2 Consequences of Stress Self Assessment Questions 3 Managing Stress Self Assessment Questions 4 A suggested framework for stress management Self Assessment Questions 5 Crisis management Self Assessment Questions 6 Summary Terminal Questions Answers to SAQ’s and TQ’s 13. Sikkim Manipal University 176 . At the same time. it should not exceed the capacity of an individual to handle it.1 Introduction Objectives 13. In the modern day life stress is a part and parcel of our lives.1 Introduction Stress Management Stress has been defined as a physical.Stress Management Unit 13 Unit 13 Structure 13.
excessive sweating. Physical – This happens when the body as a whole suffers due to stressful situation. the brain signals the release of stress hormones. Emotional – These responses are due to stress affecting the mind and include. high blood pressure. anxiety. ulcers. The blood supply is diverted away from the gut to the extremities to help the body deal with the situation at hand. There are many symptoms like. forehead. Types of Stress 2. These chemical substances in turn trigger a set of responses that provides the body with extra energy: bloodsugar levels rise. headaches. if not kept in check. frustration. depression. as certain symptoms. Sikkim Manipal University 177 . the heartbeat speeds up and blood pressure increases. heart ailments. tension in the neck. The muscles tense for action. memory loss and a lack of concentration for any task. emotionally and / mentally.2 Types Of Stress Stress can manifest itself in a number of ways depending upon the suddenness of an even to be dealt with and types of stressors to be handled by an individual. Crisis management 13. fatigue. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. anger. overreaction to everyday problems. nervousness. and shoulder muscles. strokes and hair loss as well. failure.Stress Management Unit 13 While handling a stressful situation. Depression is frequently seen as an emotional response to upsetting situations. danger or a fear of the unknown. It may manifest itself either physically. illness and failure. the death of a loved one. Anxiety is exhibited as a response to loss. Managing Stress 3. Long periods of stress can cause other serious symptoms like digestive problems. such as. irritability. insomnia (sleeplessness). Anger is a response to frustration or social stress and can become a danger to other individuals.
even death of an individual. This beneficial element in stress has been defined by Selye (1974) as Eustress (EU meaning – good). However. an overload of stress resulting from a situation of either over arousal or under arousal for long periods of time causes the following: first an unpleasant feeling. fatigue and in extreme cases. such as. 13. Negative stress is called ___________. excitement and so on. Changes in the business cycle create economic uncertainties. Insomnia is __________. The following may be seen to be the potential sources of stress: 1. Together or singly they may create a tense and volatile working environment which can cause stress for organizational members because the inability of individuals to handle the pressures arising out of these sources. satisfaction. compulsive behaviors. followed by physical damage. Moderate and manageable levels of stress for a reasonable period of time can be handled by the body through mobilization of resources and is accompanied by positive emotions. 2. which may act as potential sources of stress due to uncertainties and threats that they create for any organization and its members.Stress Management Unit 13 Psychological – Longterm stress can cause psychological problems in some individuals.3 Potential Sources Of Stress While environmental factors are forces outside the organization. Environmental factors: · · Environmental uncertainty influences stress levels among employees in an organization. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. eating disorders and night terrors. Stress may be classified into two types: positive stress (Eustress) and negative stress (Distress). factors within organization can also act as potential source of stress. enjoyment. This has been termed by Selye as distress (dys meaning – bad). phobias. Sikkim Manipal University 178 . Symptoms may include social isolation. 3. Positive stress is called ________.
and the physical work layout. working conditions. task variety. c.Stress Management Unit 13 · · Political uncertainties can be stress inducing. degree of automation). and unpleasant coworkers are a few examples. the degree of rules and regulations. Sikkim Manipal University 179 . Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organization’s senior executives. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization. Organizational factors: · Pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time period. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decisions might be potential sources of stress. They overemphasize tight control. and inherent personality characteristics. 2. Primarily. fear. · Role demands relate to pressures that are a function of the role an individual plays in an organization. a. CEOs. Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. b. a demanding and insensitive boss. and where decisions are made. Individual factors: · These are factors in the employee’s personal life. Technological uncertainty can cause stress because new innovations can make an employee’s skills and experience obsolete in a very short period of time. 3. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. · · Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. by virtue of their managerial styles create an organizational culture which reflects tension. work overload. hire and fire policies which keep organizational members on hot seat and create stress among them. They include the design of the individual’s job (autonomy. · Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. personal economic problems. and anxiety. these factors are family issues.
Five individual difference variables moderate the relationship between potential stressors and experienced stress: a.Stress Management Unit 13 · Broken families. Selfefficacy e. Stressors are additivestress builds up. Perception b. Perception: Moderates the relationship between a potential stress condition and an employee’s reaction to it. Job experience c. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. Locus of control d. · Economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources. Job experience: The evidence indicates that experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. Sikkim Manipal University 180 . These individuals with high level of mistrust for others also cause stress for themselves. First is the idea of selective withdrawal. Spending more than earnings stretches financial positions. wrecked marriages and other family issues may create stress at workplace as well. Stress potential doesn’t lie in objective conditions; it lies in an employee’s interpretation of those conditions. b. Over suspicious anger and hostility increases a person’s stress and risk for heart disease. · A significant individual factor influencing stress is a person’s basic dispositional nature. create debt situation leading to stress among individuals. Hostility a. 4. Individual Differences 1.
4 Consequences Of Stress Stress shows itself in three ways—physiological. Those with an external locus believe their lives are controlled by outside forces. Collegial relationships with coworkers or supervisors can buffer the impact of stress. Externals are more likely to be passive and feel helpless. people eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress. Internals are likely to believe that they can have a significant effect on the results. e. 13. 2. Hostility: People who are quick to anger.Stress Management Unit 13 Second. and behavioral symptoms. psychological. and project a cynical mistrust of others are more likely to experience stress in situations. 3. · Physiological symptoms have the least direct relevance to students of OB. ______________ The confidence in one’s own abilities appears to decrease stress. c. d. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Selfefficacy: The confidence in one’s own abilities appears to decrease stress. Locus of control: Those with an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny. Physiological symptoms: · Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms due to the fact that specialists in the health and medical sciences researched the topic. Internals perceive their jobs to be less stressful than do externals. Sikkim Manipal University 181 . Those with an ____________ locus of control believe they control their own destiny. maintain a persistently hostile outlook. 1. ______________is created when role expectations are not clearly understood.
thus. 3.Stress Management Unit 13 2. 2003). · The less control people have over the pace of their work. making daily lists of activities to be accomplished. rapid speech. absence. Sikkim Manipal University 182 . require action by management. and responsibilities—increase stress and dissatisfaction. Behavioral symptoms: · Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity. 1. and expanding the social support network. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. can lead to reduced employee performance and. Individual approaches: · Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques. Stress shows itself in _________ ways 2. ____________________ is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress.5 Managing Stress High or low levels of stress sustained over long periods of time. Psychological symptoms: · · Jobrelated stress can cause jobrelated dissatisfaction. · Practicing time management principles also leaves as an important element in managing stress. 13. the greater the stress and dissatisfaction. relaxation training. as well as changes in eating habits. Job dissatisfaction is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress (Robbins. increasing physical exercise. and turnover. fidgeting. authority. such as: a. increased smoking or consumption of alcohol. · Multiple and conflicting demands—lack of clarity as to the incumbent’s duties. and sleep disorders.
· Having friends. Sikkim Manipal University 183 . thereby decreasing stress level at work. meditation. such as.Stress Management Unit 13 b. c. e. c. ______________physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress levels 2. such as. b. commitment. 2. family. d. f. Use of realistic goal setting. morale. knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive. redesigning of jobs can help in aligning the individuals and job effectively and reduce stress. Self assessment questions 4 1. hypnosis. scheduling activities according to the priorities set. d. Increased employee involvement improves motivation. · Noncompetitive physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. Improved organizational communication helps in creating transparency in organizations and reduces confusion. Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through _____________ techniques. Organizational approaches · Strategies that management might want to consider include: a. and biofeedback. Improved personnel selection and job placement leading to right personjobfit thereby reducing chances of nonperformance and stress level. · Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques. prioritizing activities by importance and urgency. Establishment of corporate wellness programs is an important component in managing stress among organizational members by rejuvenating and refreshing them from time to time leading to increased productivity with renewed energy. and leads to better role integration and reduction in stress. or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet for excessive stress. Training in stress management techniques can be helpful. meditation.
The person who enjoys arbitrating disputes and moves from job site to job site would be stressed in a job which was stable and routine. there is no requirement to eliminate stress form one’s life. upbringing and cultural factors can be important elements that my influence our abilities to handle stress. mental strength. Managing stress should be given importance rather than elimination. 3. 13. drive. excitement and motivation for individuals to push themselves to achieve more in their lives in the fulfillment of their set goals. whereas the person who thrives under stable conditions would very likely be stressed on a job where duties were highly varied. Our personal stress requirements and the amount which we can handle before we succumb to stress changes with age. How much resilience a person can exhibit while handling stressful situations would vary across individuals as they are likely to differ in their physiological responses to it.6 A Suggested Framework For Stress Management As there is a positive side to stress and provides. It has also been found that many illnesses are related to unrelieved stress. If one is experiencing stress symptoms. Age. one has gone beyond the optimal stress level; then it is necessary to reduce the stress in the individual’s life and/or improve the ability to manage it. 2. We are all motivated or distressed by different levels of stimulations in a given situation. The goal should be to find the optimal level of stress that can be handled effectively by an individual which will motivate the person and not overwhelm and distress an individual. Sikkim Manipal University 184 .Stress Management Unit 13 3. Improved personnel selection and job placement leading to right ______________ thereby reducing chances of nonperformance and stress level. Researches have shown the following regarding our capabilities to handle stress: 1. How can one find out what is optimal stress for an individual? There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people.
Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to stress. Notice what causes distress. What does an individual tell himself/ herself about the meaning of these events? Determining how the body responds to the stress. time management techniques may be used)? 3. There are two choices in this regard either change the source of stress and / change your reaction to it. The stress reaction is triggered by our perception of danger: physical danger and/or emotional danger. Is it possible to change the stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? Can their intensity be reduced? Is it possible to shorten an individual’s exposure to stress? Can one devote the time and energy necessary to make a change (for example. Does the individual become nervous or physically upset? If so. Listing out all the events that cause distress is important.Stress Management Unit 13 How Can One Manage Stress Better? Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on an individual’s life is insufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Sikkim Manipal University 185 . internally. What is the path for doing so? 1. Are we viewing your stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a disaster? Are we trying to please everyone? Are we overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Do we feel you must always prevail in every situation? Work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as something you can cope with rather than something that overpowers us is a solution for reducing stress. there are many possibilities for its management. Just as there are many sources of stress. Become aware of the stressors and the emotional and physical reactions. in what specific ways? 2. Recognizing what can be changed. goal setting. Ignoring them is not a solution.
such as walking. The stress reaction is triggered by our __________________ of danger 2. Avoiding nicotine. Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension; heart rate.Stress Management Unit 13 4. prolonged rhythmic exercise is best. failures. 5. Build our physical reserves. rather than goals others have for set for us which we do not identify with can help in reducing stress. Expecting some frustrations. 4. when needed and prescribed by a doctor can help in moderating the physical reactions. Medications. and sorrows as apart of life can make us gear up mentally in handling stressful situations rather than succumb to them. Eating wellbalanced and nutritious meals are a must. Learning to moderate our physical reactions to stress. cycling. or jogging). and blood pressure. excessive caffeine. Slow. Mixing leisure with work and taking breaks from routine work can relax and reduce stress in a person. Pursuing realistic goals which are meaningful to. deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal. Exercising for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate. However. swimming. Maintaining our emotional reserves. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain __________________ control over such things as muscle tension Sikkim Manipal University 186 . these alone cannot do the job. Maintaining the ideal weight is essential. Being consistent with the sleep schedule helps in reducing stress to a large extent. Self assessment questions 5 1. Getting adequate sleep is of utmost importance. and other stimulants can be a great help in reducing stress. Learning to moderate these reactions on our own is a desirable solution in the long run. Developing some mutually supportive friendships and stable relationships help in sharing bottledup emotions and reduce stress.
2002). (Smith & Millar. a oneofakind crisis; and. Compliance with regulatory and ethical requirements. 3. unpredictable event that threatens to harm an organization and its stakeholders. natural disasters. 5.Stress Management Unit 13 13.g. problems or issues that start out small and could be fixed or averted if someone was paying attention or recognized the potential for trouble; Bizarre. the main benefits of crisis management would encompass the following: 1. calling for boycotts of P&G products. A crisis is a major. 9. 10. Increased ability. such as the longrunning problem Proctor & Gamble used to have with their former corporate logo. 1998) There are four types of organizational crises: Sudden Crises. Irrespective of the size of an organization affected. 2. Three elements are common to most definitions of crisis: (a) a threat to the organization. Sikkim Manipal University 187 . Sellnow & Ulmer. explosions. Enhanced risk management insofar that obvious risks will be identified. Much better management of serious incidents or any incident that could become serious. Better organizational resilience for all stakeholders. corporate social responsibility.7 Crisis Management It Is the systematic attempt to avoid organizational crises or to manage those crises events that do occur (Pearson & Clair. etc; Smoldering Crises. Techniques to direct action(s) to contain the likely or perceived damage spread. A more effective way to rapidly trigger that part or parts of business continuity management. Improved staff awareness of their roles and expectations within the organization. 6. 7. such as fires. (b) the element of surprise. Perceptual Crises. and (c) a short decision time (Seeger. e. mitigated (where possible) and through crisis and business continuity management as prepared for. workplace violence. 1998). 4. Protected and often enhanced reputation a much reduced risk of post event litigation. confidence and morale within the organization. which critics would claim were symbols of devilworship. that included a halfmoon and stars. 8. like the finger in the Wendy's Restaurant Chili. Ability to assess the situation from inside and outside the organization as all stakeholders might perceive it.
This beneficial element in stress has been defined by Selye as Eustress (EU meaning – good).Stress Management Unit 13 An example of crisis management: Bhopal: The Bhopal disaster in which poor communication before. Self Assessment Questions 6 1. It may manifest itself either physically. However. According to American University’s Trade Environmental Database Case Studies (1997).8 Summary Stress has been defined as a physical. Operating manuals printed only in English is an extreme example of mismanagement but indicative of systemic barriers to information diffusion. enjoyment. mental or emotional response to events which cause mental or bodily tension. and after the crisis cost thousands of lives. during. _________ elements are common to most definitions of crisis. Stress can manifest itself in a number of ways depending upon the suddenness of an even to be dealt with and types of stressors to be handled by an individual. In the modern day life stress is a part and parcel of our lives. local residents were not sure how to react to warnings of potential threats from the Union Carbide plant. Symbolic intervention can be counter productive; a crisis management strategy can help top management in taking more calculated decisions in how they should respond to disaster scenarios. According to Union Carbide’s own depiction of the incident (2006). 2. such as. is an apt example of the role of crosscultural communication in crisis management plans. a day after the crisis Union Carbide’s upper management arrived in India but was unable to assist in the relief efforts because they were placed under house arrest by the Indian government. Moderate and manageable levels of stress for a reasonable period of time can be handled by the body through mobilization of resources and is accompanied by positive emotions. as certain symptoms. an overload of stress resulting from a situation of either over arousal or under arousal for long periods of time causes the Sikkim Manipal University 188 . excitement and so on. Stress may be classified into two types: positive stress (Eustress) and negative stress (Distress). satisfaction. There are __________ types of organizational crises 13. emotionally and / mentally. The Bhopal incident illustrates the difficulty in consistently applying management standards to multinational operations and the blame shifting that often results from the lack of a clear management plan.
A crisis is a major. factors within organization can also act as potential source of stress. Managing stress should be given importance rather than elimination. fatigue and in extreme cases. Explain various types of stress. Discus the individual and organizational approaches to managing stress. Discuss the various types of organizational crises Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Together or singly they may create a tense and volatile working environment which can cause stress for organizational members because the inability of individuals to handle the pressures arising out of these sources. 3. excitement and motivation for individuals to push themselves to achieve more in their lives in the fulfillment of their set goals. Terminal questions 1. and behavioral symptoms. drive. 2. The goal should be to find the optimal level of stress that can be handled effectively by an individual which will motivate the person and not overwhelm and distress an individual. Eustress 3. As there is a positive side to stress and provides.Stress Management Unit 13 following: first an unpleasant feeling. 5. While environmental factors are forces outside the organization. which may act as potential sources of stress due to uncertainties and threats that they create for any organization and its members. This has been termed by Selye as distress (dys meaning – bad). What are the consequences of stress? 4. Sleeplessness 2. psychological. Describe the potential sources of stress. even death of an individual. unpredictable event that threatens to harm an organization and its stakeholders. there is no requirement to eliminate stress form one’s life. followed by physical damage. Stress shows itself in three ways—physiological. It is the systematic attempt to avoid organizational crises or to manage those crises events that do occur. Distress Sikkim Manipal University 189 . Define stress.
3 3. Selfefficacy Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Internal 3.5 5.7 Sikkim Manipal University 190 . Noncompetitive 2. Role ambiguity 2.Stress Management Unit 13 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Voluntary Self Assessment Questions 6 1. Three 2. Three 2. Refer section 13.4 4. Relaxation 3.1 and 13. Job dissatisfaction Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Refer section 13. Perception 2. Refer section 13. Refer section 13.2 2. Four Answer to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 13. Personjobfit Self Assessment Questions 5 1.
4 Responses to change Self Assessment Questions 3 14.3 Resistance to change Self Assessment Questions 2 14. economic shocks and technological innovations.Organizational Change Unit 14 Unit 14 Structure 14. regulatory norms.6 Theories of change Self Assessment Questions 5 14.2 Forces of changes Self Assessment Questions 1 14.9 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s 14.1 Introduction Organizational Change Organizational change may be defined as the adoption of a new idea or a behavior by an organization (Daft 1995). Successful organizational change must continually focus on making organizations responsive to major developments like changing customer preferences.5 Characteristics of organizational change Self Assessment Questions 4 14.1 Introduction Objectives 14.8 Toolkit for managing change Self Assessment Questions 7 14. It is a way of altering an existing organization to increase organizational effectiveness for achieving its objectives. Only those organizations that are Sikkim Manipal University 191 .7 Strategies for change management Self Assessment Questions 6 14.
Change in size of the organization Change in the organization’s size leads to change in the internal structure and complexity of the operations in the organization. challenging assignments. Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Theories of change 14. For example. vertical growth opportunities and autonomy at work may be provided in an organization to attract and retain its effective employees. structure and processes.Organizational Change Unit 14 able to undertake suitable change programs. organizations face the forces to change and reduce the gap. employee productivity and profit) is identified. Internal forces Change in the top management Change in the top management and consequent change in the ideas to run the organization also leads to change in the system. Resistance to Change 3. Forces of changes 2. Performance gaps When a gap between set target and actual results (in terms of market share.2 Forces Of Changes Forces for change are of two types: · · Internal forces External forces. Employee needs and values With changing needs and values of the employees. attractive financial incentives. organizations change their policies. Sikkim Manipal University 192 . can sustain and survive in a changing and demanding economic order in their bid to remain ahead of others in the race.
3. therefore. demand of the nongovernment organizations and changing economic conditions of a country. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1 1 Forces for change are of _____________ types. Environmental factors Environmental factors such as economic. Individual resistance Sikkim Manipal University 193 . Business scenario Due to rapid changes in the business scenario with increasing competition and global economy. therefore. ______________. forced to change their operational methods to meet the demands of the stakeholders. Organizations are. and _____________ factors play a vital role in devising organizational policies and strategy 14.Organizational Change Unit 14 External forces Technology Technological changes are responsible for changing the nature of the job performed at all levels in an organization. Organizations are. Environmental factors such as ___________.3 Resistance To Change Resistance to change may be of two types: · · Individual resistance Organizational resistance. organizations may have to change their employment policies in accordance with the government policy. forced to change their operational methods to meet the demands of the _____________. For example. political and demographic factors play a vital role in devising organizational policies and strategy. suppliers and other stakeholders. the needs and demands are also changing among the customers.
Due to organizational redesign. Resistance to change may be of _________ types. Change may bring some potential _________to the organizational power to some people. the employees may have to work with other set of people than their existing coworkers with whom they have direct relationship. resource constraints play a vital role in resistance to change. people try to resist change. and it is generally not welcome by most of the employees. 3. Organizational resistance Change may bring some potential threat to the organizational power to some people. Therefore. less wages and losing the job. because of technological change people may feel threatened due to the fear of obsolescence of skills. Employees do not know for certain whether the change will bring in better prospects. 2. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. one important task of the management of an organization is to understand and create a positive attitude among employees regarding change. The structural inertia in the bureaucratic organizations also hinders change.Organizational Change Unit 14 Change leads to insecurity among the employees because of its unknown consequences. Furthermore. Sikkim Manipal University 194 . For example.4 Responses To Change The responses to change depend upon the employees’ perception about the change. Different individuals differ in their attitudes and hence. Therefore. Change sometimes leads to new dimensions of work relationships. Change leads to _______________ among the employees because of its unknown consequences. the perceptions towards change. 14.
move from anger to acceptance. but one can also accept the situation as having a negative impact and choose to leave the organization. Overcoming Resistance to Change Some approaches can be taken to reduce the resistance to change. many times. they will begin to blame the management or talk ill about management. if not addressed. Hunt. Sikkim Manipal University 195 . Either way. Some of them are listed below (Schermerhorn. there are a significant number of people who go through a denial phase. It is important to understand that not only can an individual accept the situation and begin to work towards the new vision. the individual accepts the fact that the new environment exists. A person going through this phase will make up excuses why he or she should not be held accountable for anything that goes wrong with the organization as a result of the change. Such attempts to disassociate from the new situation often cause the person to alienate oneself from the group. implication. most people who view the change as having a negative impact on their personal situation. This agitation and anger. he or she begins to rationalize his or her role in the new situation. However. may lead to some people actually trying to sabotage the change process by taking stances varying between active noncooperation and passive resistance. purpose and reason for change. For that. and Osborn 2000): Education and communication Open communication and proper education help employees to understand the significance of change and its requirement. proper initiative should be taken to provide the information regarding the type. depending on their basic values and beliefs.Organizational Change Unit 14 Reactions to Change Three major reactions to change are: Anger After employees have passed over the shock of the new situation. Acceptance Once the person has accepted the change as real and that it is going to happen. timing. Denial Many people.
as all the contending parties would fight for power and recognition. Reaction can be both positive and negative. if they are directly involved in the change process. Empathetic and considerate listening can reduce employees’ fear and anxiety towards change. Status quo is challenged. The management also gets the chance to identify the potential problems that may occur in the workplace and the chance to prevent it. Facilitation and support Change agent can offer a range of supportive measures to reduce resistance. Velocity of change depends on the degree or level of significance. Many people. as all the contending parties would fight for power and recognition. move from anger to ___________. 14. trauma. etc. they have the opportunity to clarify their doubts and understand the perspective and requirement of change for the organization. This way. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Counselling sessions to reduce stress. This can be a costly proposition when there is more than one _____________ union in the organization. this can be a costly proposition when there is more than one dominant union in the organization. can defuse the resistance by involving them directly in the change process. They should be properly briefed about the need and value of change.. can be an effective measure. Negotiation and agreement Organizations which have a fair chance to face potential resistance from the union representatives. systematic and well thought of. depending on their basic values and beliefs. 2. ___________ and considerate listening can reduce employees’ fear and anxiety towards change 3. Sikkim Manipal University 196 . However.Organizational Change Unit 14 Employee participation and involvement People generally get more committed towards the change.5 Characteristics Of Organizational Change Characteristics: · · · · It is deliberate.
Focuses on longterm change.
The forces for change: Organizationenvironment relationship (merger, strategic alliances, etc.) where organizations attempt to redefine their relationships with changing social and political environment.
Organizational life cycle (changes in culture and structure of organization’s evolution from birth through growth towards maturity). Political nature of organization (changes in internal control structures, etc.) to deal with shifting political current. Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Organizational change focuses on ________ change. 2. In Organizationenvironment relationship, organizations attempt to redefine their relationships with changing _________ and ____________ environment. 14.6 Theories Of Change
Force field analysis theory
Lewin (1951) proposed a three step sequential model of change process: Unfreezing At this stage, the forces, which maintain the status quo in the organizational behavior, are reduced by refuting the present attitude and behavior to create a perceived need for something new. It is facilitated by environmental pressure such as increased competition, declining productivity and performance, felt need to improve the style of work, etc.
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Moving/changing This stage involves a shift in behavior of organizations by modifying system, process, technology and people. This phase can be explained in terms of compliance, identification and internalization (Rao and Hari Krishna 2002). Compliance or force occurs when individuals are forced to change whether by reward or by punishment. Internalization occurs when individuals are forced to encounter a situation that calls for new behavior. Identification occurs when individuals recognize one among various models provided in the environment that is most suitable to their personality.
Refreezing At this stage, actions are taken to sustain the drive for change and to facilitate the institutionalization process of the change even in a daytoday routine of the organizations. Here, the desired outcomes are positively reinforced and extra support is provided to overcome the difficulties. Action research model Action research model is another model of planned change. According to this model, planned change is a cyclical process in which initial research about organizations provides the data to guide the subsequent action to bring the required changes. It emphasizes on the significance of data collection and diagnosis prior to action planning and implementation and careful evaluation of the actions. This model describes change in eight steps: Problem identification It starts with the identification of one or a combination of problems in the organization and consequent requirement of bringing change in organizational practices. Consultation with the expert It is the phase where the organization consults with the experts in the same field to generate the ideas for improvement of the situation. At this stage an open and collaborative atmosphere is intended to be set up. Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis This stage is usually completed by the expert often with the organizational members’ help. The four basic modes of data gathering are interview, process observation, questionnaires and organizational performance data.
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Feedback to key client or group Because action research is a collaborative activity, the diagnostic data is fed back to the client usually with a group or work team meeting. The consultant provides the client with all the necessary data. Joint diagnosis of the problem At this point, the clients and the expert jointly decide whether they want to work on the identified problems. Joint action planning The consultant and the client then jointly decide on the further action. This is the beginning of the movement process (refer to Lewin’s model). At this stage, specific actions are taken depending on the culture, technology and the environment of the organization. Action This stage involves actual change from one organizational state to another. It may include new methods and procedures, reorganizing structures and work designs, and new behaviors. Data gathering after action Since action research is a cyclical process, data must also be gathered after the action has taken place. Dimensions of Planned Change
Though the models of change describe how to implement change, steps of planned change may be implemented in a variety of ways, depending on the clients’ needs and goals, the change agents’ skills and values, and the organizational context. Planned change can be contrasted across situations on two key dimensions: the magnitude of organizational change and the degree to which the client system is organized (Cummings and Worley 1997).
Magnitude of change Planned change can range from incremental change, which involves minute alterations in the operations, to quantum change i.e. fundamental change in organizational operations including structure, culture, reward system, information processes, etc.
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Degree of organization In highly mechanistic and bureaucratic organizational dimensions, structure, job design, leadership styles, policies are too rigid and inflexible. In this type of organizations, communication is suppressed, conflicts are avoided and employees are apathetic. In contrast, flexible organizations have loose task definition, communication is fragmented and job responsibilities are ambiguous. In bureaucratic organizations, change through loosening the control on behaviour is attempted. Self Assessment Questions 5 1. Lewin (1951) proposed a ___________ step sequential model of change process. 2. Action research model is another model of __________ change. 3. Planned change can range from ____________ change to _________ change. 14.7 Strategies For Change Management
According to Bennis, Benne and Chin (1969), four basic strategies can be adopted to manage change: EmpiricalRational People are rational and will follow their selfinterest once a change is revealed to them. Change is based on the communication of information and the proffering of incentives. NormativeReeducative People are social beings and adhere to cultural norms and values. Change is based on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms and values, and developing people’s commitments to new ones. PowerCoercive People are basically compliant and will generally do what they are told or can be made to do. Change is based on the exercise of authority and the imposition of sanctions. According to Nicklos (2004), there can be a fourth strategy in adapting to changes, i.e. environmentaladaptive.
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Benne and Chin. Some of the more important ones are: Degree of resistance Strong resistance argues for a coupling of powercoercive and environmental adaptive strategies. Longer time frames argue for a mix of empiricalrational. The time frame Short time frames argue for a powercoercive strategy. i. Target population Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies. Which of the preceding strategies to use in your mix of strategies is a decision affected by a number of factors. Change is based on building a new organization and gradually transferring people from the old one to the new one.According to Nicklos (2004). 14. Weak resistance or concurrence argues for a combination of empiricalrational and normativereeducative strategies. The stakes High stakes also argue for a mix of all four strategies because when the stakes are high. Sikkim Manipal University 201 . According to Bennis. One can adopt a general or what is called a ‘grand strategy’ but for any given initiative some mix of strategies serves best.Organizational Change Unit 14 EnvironmentalAdaptive People oppose loss and disruption.e. Generally.8 Toolkit For Managing Change According to Nicklos (2004). but they adapt readily to new circumstances. environmentaladaptive. nothing can be left to chance. some of the factors to select an effective change strategy and some tips to manage change are described as follows. _______ basic strategies can be adopted to manage change: 2. there is no single change strategy. Self Assessment Questions 6 1. normativereeducative and environmentaladaptive strategy. there can be a ________ strategy in adapting to changes.
Conversely. The responses to change depend upon the employees’ perception about the change. Different individuals differ in their attitudes and hence. management’s ability to command or demand is limited. and environmental factors. performance gaps and employee needs and values. such as. Facilitation and support. 3.9 Summary Organizational change may be defined as the adoption of a new idea or a behavior by an organization. Change leads to insecurity among the employees because of its unknown consequences. Change may bring some potential threat to the organizational power to some people. Resistance to change may be of two types: Individual resistance and Organizational resistance. Internal forces are: change in the top management. Denial and Acceptance. This leads to organizational resistance. business scenario. systematic and well thought of. 14. Short time frames argue for a _____________strategy. _________________ populations argue for a mix of all four strategies. Not having the expertise argues for reliance on the powercoercive strategy. the perceptions towards change. and Negotiation and agreement. Three major reactions to change are: Anger. if people are dependent upon the organization. change in size of the organization. Some approaches can be taken to reduce the resistance to change. Forces for change are of two types: Internal forces and external forces. Dependency This is a classic doubleedged sword. Employees do not know for certain whether the change will bring in better prospects. If the organization is dependent on its people. their ability to oppose or resist is limited. Self Assessment Questions 8 1. External forces are technology. 2. Velocity of change depends on the degree or level of significance and the status quo in the Sikkim Manipal University 202 . Employee participation and involvement.Organizational Change Unit 14 Expertise Having adequate expertise at making change argues for some mix of the strategies outlined above. ______________resistance argues for a coupling of powercoercive and environmentaladaptive strategies. Education and communication. Organizational change is deliberate. (Mutual dependency almost always signals a requirement for some level of negotiation). It is a way of altering an existing organization to increase organizational effectiveness for achieving its objectives. This results into individual resistance.
4. Two 2. political and demographic Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Longterm 2. Terminal questions 1. Based on the toolkit forwarded by Nicklos stated in this chapter. planned change is a cyclical process in which initial research about organizations provides the data to guide the subsequent action to bring the required changes in eight steps. 3. Answer to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1 Two 2. Social and political Sikkim Manipal University 203 .Organizational Change Unit 14 organization is challenged with a longterm focus. 2. 2. According to Action Research Model. Two major theories of change are (i) Force field analysis theory and (ii) Action Research Model. Stakeholders 3. moving and refreezing” as the change process in Force Field Analysis Theory. Dominant Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Threat Self Assessment Questions 3 1.Empathetic 3. Lewin proposed a three steps sequence of “unfreezing. Describe the force field analysis model and action research model. explain how one can manage change. Explain the different types of resistance to change. Acceptance. Insecurity 3. What are the forces of change? Explain. Economic.
Refer to section 14. Incremental. Refer to section 14. quantum Self Assessment Questions 6 1. Four 2. Refer to section 14.3 3.8 Sikkim Manipal University 204 .2 2.Strong 2. Three 2. Planned 3. Refer to section 14.Organizational Change Unit 14 Self Assessment Questions 5 1.Large 3. Powercoercive Answer to Terminal Questions 1. Fourth Self Assessment Questions 7 1.6 4.
6 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s Organization Development 15. primary focus was on human as well as the process aspect of the organizations with a view to improve trust. communication. Sikkim Manipal University 205 . using behavioural science knowledge. teamwork and interpersonal relationship (Friedlander and Brown 1974).3 History of organization development Self Assessment Questions 2 15.5 OD interventions Self Assessment Questions 4 15. to increase organizational effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organizational processes.2 Characteristics of Organization development Self Assessment Questions 1 15. OD is an organizationwide planned effort.Organization Development Unit 15 Unit 15 Structure 15. In the initial phase of the development of OD.1 Introduction Objectives 15.4 Process of organization development Self Assessment Questions 3 15. managed from the top. and Singh 1998). Rao.1 Introduction Organization development (OD) is a planned approach to improve employee and organizational effectiveness by conscious interventions in those processes and structures that have an immediate bearing on the human aspect of the organization (Ramanarayan.
Normative approach to organizational change OD is a normative process grounded in valueladen assumption of what constitutes ideal individual and organizational growth. selfactualization. While all the social systems. Behavioural science base It is primarily concerned with improving the organization by focusing on aspects that have a bearing on human and social improvement. Deliberate intervention in the organization OD implies deliberate intervention in the ongoing processes of an organization. etc. Characteristics of Organization development 2. Sikkim Manipal University 206 . they may fail to optimize their capabilities due to an inability to recognize their potential or to anticipate and effectively cope with internal and external crisis. OD interventions 15. Its principles have been drawn largely from the field of organizational behavior and social sciences. Development implies planning and action to ensure that growth takes place consistent with values.Organization Development Unit 15 Learning objectives: The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. in the ordinary course of events. Development for the OD practitioners means the movement of individuals and organizations in certain directions consistent with democratic and humanistic values and ideals such as autonomy. History of organization development 3.2 Characteristics Of Organization Development A number of special characteristics together distinguish organizational development from other approaches to managing and improving organizational function. tend to grow in predictable patterns.
Normative deductive strategy – It is based on the assumptions that the social norms are one of the strong reinforcers of behaviour (Chin and Benne 1976). The culture of the organization is affected by those norms and hence, to change the existing organizational culture prevalent norms have to be reduced, modified and replaced by more effective ones. This approach talks about the change in the organization, which looks forward to a longterm improvement through internalization of new norms of behavior. Systems approach to change Leavitt (1972) has viewed an organization as a social system consisting of different subsystems such as task, structure, technology and human resource, interlinked by various processes. Any change in one part or process has implications for other parts or processes relevant to the system. OD techniques are used to change or modify the processes to change the system consequently. Using actionresearch model – Actionresearch model is a “data based, problem solving model that replicated the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry” (French and Bell 1991). OD, using this model, involves a systematic process of diagonising organizational problems through data collection and analysis, feeding the data back to the organizational client group, discussing the findings, planning collaborative action and implementing proposed solutions. Use of external consultant Here, the assumption in OD is that the presence of a qualified behavioural scientist as an external consultant can help the process of OD in the following manner: · · The specialized knowledge of that consultant becomes available to the organization. The consultant, as a neutral outsider, is likely to face lesser resistance during the process of change. · He is less likely to have a personal stake in implementation of proposed change.
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Self Assessment Questions 1 1. OD implies ____________________ intervention in the ongoing processes of an organization 2. It is based on the assumptions that the social norms are one of the strong ________________ of behaviour 3. Leavitt (1972) has viewed an organization as a ___________system 15.3 History Of Organization Development The concept of OD has emerged from four stems. They are described below: Laboratory training background This is popularly known as Tgroup or Sensitivity Training conducted in the National Training Laboratory (NTL). Kurt Lewin was the pioneer of this research. In this training, a small unstructured group of participants, unknown to each other, learnt about issues such as interpersonal relations, personal growth, leadership and group dynamics from their own interactions. The experiment concluded: · · Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience. The process of groupbuilding had potential for learning that could be transferred to backhome situation. Actionresearch/surveyfeedback background It was observed that a collaborative effort between the organizational members and the scientists was required to gather data about an organization’s functioning to analyze the causes of problems, and to devise and implement solutions. Further work in this area was conducted by Likert (1967) and Mann (1962). Data was required to assess the degree of effectiveness of those solutions. This approach, today, is as one of the most important methods for OD interventions in organizations.
Participative management background
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Following the beliefs proposed by the two stems discussed earlier, Likert (1967) proposed another framework to enhance organizational effectiveness. This framework proposed organizations as having one of the four types of management systems:
Exploitive authoritative system (system 1) which exhibits an autocratic topdown approach to leadership.
Benevolent authoritative system (system 2) which is more paternalistic than system 1. Consultative system (system 3) which is characterized by increased employee interaction, open communication and decisionmaking.
Participative group (system 4) which nurtures high degree of employee involvement, participation and open work culture.
Using system management, through a surveyfeedback process, Likert experimented with several interventions. The open culture and employee involvement facilitated the implementation process of the solutions provided for the problems. Quality of work life (QWL) background Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of workdesigning, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of selfmanaging work groups which consist of multiskilled workers. Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Laboratory training is popularly known as __________ training. 2. Exploitive authoritative system exhibits an autocratic ______________ approach to leadership. 3. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of __________________ work groups which consist of multiskilled workers.
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15.4 Process Of Organization Development
A typical OD process can be divided into the following phases: Problem identification: The first step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organization. The awareness of the problem includes knowledge of the possible organizational problems of growth, human satisfaction, the usage of human resource and organizational effectiveness. Data collection: Having understood the exact problem in this phase, the relevant data is collected through personal interviews, observations and questionnaires. Diagnosis: OD efforts begin with diagnosis of the current situation. Usually, it is not limited to a single problem. Rather a number of factors like attitudes, assumptions, available resources and management practice are taken into account in this phase. According to Rao and Hari Krishna (2002), four steps in organizational diagnosis can be identified: Structural analysis: Determines how the different parts of the organization are functioning in terms of laid down goals. Processes analysis: Process implies the manner in which events take place in a sequence. It refers to the pattern of decisionmaking, communication, group dynamics and conflict management patterns within organizations to help in the process of attainment of organizational goals. Function analysis: This includes strategic variables, performance variables, results, achievements and final outcomes. Domain analysis: Domain refers to the area of the organization for organizational diagnosis. Planning and implementation: After diagnosing the problem, the next phase of OD, with the OD interventions, involves the planning and implementation part of the change process.
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leadership and interpersonal relationships. The __________ step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organization. Tgroups Tgroups are designed to provide members with experiential learning about group dynamics. The basic Tgroup training or sensitivity training is to change the standards. OD interventions can be categorized as under: · · · · Human process interventions Technostructural interventions Human resource interventions Strategic interventions Human Process Interventions These interventions are aimed at the social processes occurring within organizations. 15. After critiquing others and being critiqued.5 OD Interventions OD intervention refers to an activity that is carried on in an organization with the help of an internal or external OD consultant for achieving a given goal or objective (Prasad 1970). which in turn tries to find a solution. Sensitivity training involves group confession where the individual’s problems become the problems of the group. Any OD activity is incomplete without proper _____________. Some of the important human process interventions are discussed below. 2. Self assessment questions 3 1. Feedback is a process of relaying evaluations to the client group by means of specific report or interaction. attitudes and behavior of individuals by using psychological techniques and programs. The objectives of Tgroup training are: Sikkim Manipal University 211 . doubt is introduced into the mind of each individual as to whose standards are really proper. Broadly.Organization Development Unit 15 Evaluation and feedback: Any OD activity is incomplete without proper feedback.
Interpersonal issues such as differences in personality. understand and act upon the process of events that occur in the client’s environment in order to improve the situation as defined by the client (Schein 1987: 11). Sikkim Manipal University 212 . confusion about assignments. lack of innovation and initiation. low participation in meetings. increasing complaints from those outside the group about the quality. Increased ability to transfer learning into action. which helps the group members to enhance their interpersonal and problemsolving skills. · · Increased diagnostic skills. completion over scarce resources. Conflicts can arise from two sources: · · Substantive issues like work methods. · Better understanding about the group and intergroup processes (facilitating and inhibiting group function). task orientations. Third party interventions It focuses on interpersonal or intergroup conflicts. Team building It is an effective approach to develop and nurture a team culture in an organization. The development and growth of group norms. loss of productivity. increasing complaints within the group. insight and selfawareness about one’s own and others’ behavior and its impact on self and others. pay rates and conditions of employment. The functional roles of group members. The use of leadership and authority. Process consultation It has been defined as a set of activities on the part of the consultant that helped the client to perceive. It also helps group members to develop a higher level of motivation to carry out the group decisions by overcoming specific problems like apathy. perceptions among group members. The ways in which the group solves problems and makes decisions. general lack of interest among members. It deals primarily with five important group processes: · · · · · Communication.Organization Development Unit 15 · Increased understanding.
the technostructural interventions help the organizations in structural redesigning aiming at reorganizing organizational structure. The permanence of the teams. Groups involving people with common organizational goals. This intervention can be used for the following types of teams: · · · · · Groups reporting to the same supervisor. dealing with setting performance goals for groups and Sikkim Manipal University 213 . Groups consisting of people whose work roles are interdependent. In this context. Technostructural Interventions Due to increasing global competition and rapid technological and environmental changes. The length of time the team has been working together. for example.Organization Development Unit 15 timeliness. These interventions are traditionally associated with the human resource management function and are increasingly becoming an integral part of the change management activities. self contained and matrix structure) to more flexible structures (processbased and networkbased structures). there are a number of factors that affect the outcome of a specific teambuilding activity: · · · · The length of time allocated to the activity. etc. but whose collective purpose is to achieve task they can achieve as individuals. Temporary group formed to perform a specific. This involves streamlining of workflows through structural adjustments by breaking down functional barriers. onetime task. Depending on the types of teams. the organizations are forced to move away traditional bureaucratic structures (functional. The team’s willingness to look at the way in which it operates. Groups whose members have no formal links in the organization. effectiveness of services and products. manager/executive. Human Resource Interventions These are concerned with methods of managing people in a more effective and efficient way while ushering in the change process in an organization. the alternative methods of organizing work activities and integrating people in a better way.
the thrust in this process is mainly on identifying the external sources of change and developing internal capabilities to address them. problem identification and diagnosis Throughout the OD programme. Specific goals are set and the specific approaches for attaining these goals are also specified sequentially. selfrenewal and learning. felt by the top management or the new strategic decisions of top management. other organizational members and OD specialist take active part in these activities. through alliances with other organizations possessing the same. Planning strategy for change At this stage. Activities such as career planning. Thus. interventions such as organizational culture change programme and organizational learning helps organizations to gain the internal capacity to institute their change management process successfully through continuous awareness. The basic philosophy of this approach lies in developing core competencies or getting access to larger market share and technology. Data collection. Both. external or internal. managing employee wellness also come under this category. 3. Abad Ahmed (1972) has proposed six steps in an OD process: 1. the diagnosis of problem is transformed into a proper action plan. these activities should be acted upon through interviews. Motivation for change The motivation for change emerges from pressures. especially at the outset. surveys and meetings. Sikkim Manipal University 214 . 2. top management. managing workforce diversity.Organization Development Unit 15 individuals. These generally adopt the topdown management of change approach and require a thorough and indepth environmental scanning and awareness. hitherto absent in the organization. performance appraisal and reward management. On the other hand. Strategic Interventions These interventions focus on organizing the resources of the organization to gain a competitive edge in the market.
Establishing task force. remove hurdles and give momentum to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Dwivedi 2001). 6. which have been discussed earlier in this chapter. generally face the following difficulties (Dwivedi 2001): The perception of the entrepreneurs about OD The owners of the organization. the role of an OD consultant is of a guru (teacher) who needs to possess the knowledge. Intervening in the system It aims to resolve difficulties. In this respect. he may advise the client (organization) to implement certain changes. 5. Monitoring and evaluation A need for careful monitoring to get feedback regarding the effectiveness of the OD programme is always felt. wisdom and sensitivity visàvis the problems of an organization. comparative analysis of control groups.Organization Development Unit 15 4. project teams and temporary systems in the organization can be created to perform the responsibility to implement and monitor the plans defined in the OD programme. On the basis of his wisdom. OD consultants. Role of OD Consultant According to Maheswari (1979). appraisal of the change efforts. in India. Some examples of these interventions are: job enlargement. they generally do not trust consultants fully. Sikkim Manipal University 215 . Here the OD specialists. process consultation and other laboratory methods. convinces the client for the required changes and helps it to modify the mindset. pre and postintervention assessments are some of the methods to get the feedback in this regard. They also feel uncomfortable in discussing about their operational methods with their managers or consultants. The consultant intends to advise the client to take appropriate actions. Moreover. in Indian organizations. it has to be remembered that effective implementation of the advices are sole responsibility of the client. and/or the top management take active part in the process. Reinforcement and followup A possibility of regression to the earlier behavioural pattern does exist if adequate care is not taken to adapt mechanisms for reinforcement and followup of the planned change. and it would be difficult to discipline people. However. feel threatened that their power would be reduced if the OD interventions are applied.
6 Summary Organization development (OD) is a planned approach to improve employee and organizational effectiveness by conscious interventions in those processes and structures that have an immediate bearing on the human aspect of the organization (Ramanarayan. problem solving model that replicated the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry” (French and Bell 1991). interlinked by various processes. discussing the findings. Abad Ahmed has proposed ___________ steps in an OD process. Leavitt (1972) has viewed an organization as a social system consisting of different subsystems such as task. and Singh 1998). Any change in one part or process has implications for other parts or processes relevant to the system.Organization Development Unit 15 Role of the OD consultants There is confusion about the role of the OD consultant. using this model. managed from the top. planning collaborative action and implementing proposed solutions. The concept of OD has emerged from four stems: (i) Laboratory training Sikkim Manipal University 216 . involves a systematic process of diagonising organizational problems through data collection and analysis. Tgroups are designed to provide members with _________ learning about group dynamics. using behavioral science knowledge. technology and human resource. structure. A number of special characteristics together distinguish organizational development from other approaches to managing and improving organizational function. It is commonly believed that the role of the OD consultant is to diagnose all organizational problems. to increase organizational effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organizational processes. put these all in a report and leave it to the anagement to take actions on it. Deliberate intervention in the organization implies deliberate intervention in the ongoing processes of an organization. OD. Rao. Actionresearch model is a “data based. Self Assessment Questions 4 1. 15. 2. OD is an organizationwide planned effort. suggest proper solutions. Behavioral science base approach is primarily concerned with improving the organization by focusing on aspects that have a bearing on human and social improvement. Normative approach to organizational change is a normative process grounded in valueladen assumption of what constitutes ideal individual and organizational growth. feeding the data back to the organizational client group. Normative deductive strategy is based on the assumptions that the social norms are one of the strong reinforcers of behavior.
Diagnosis. A typical OD process can be divided into phases. First 2. Structural analysis. Effective implementations of the advices are sole responsibility of the client. Technostructural interventions. in Indian organizations. 3. Planning and implementation. and Evaluation and feedback. Tgroup 2. The consultant intends to advise the client to take appropriate actions. and (iv) Quality of work life (QWL) approach. Domain analysis. Data collection. Processes analysis. Broadly.Organization Development Unit 15 background. and Strategic interventions. Deliberate 2. Feedback Sikkim Manipal University 217 . Terminal Questions 1. OD consultants. (ii) Actionresearch/surveyfeedback background. Human resource interventions. What is OD? Discuss the characteristics of OD. What do you mean by Tgroup training? Briefly explain Likert’s framework. Selfmanaging Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Topdown 3. generally face the following difficulties (Dwivedi 2001). Describe a typical OD process. Function analysis. OD interventions can be categorized as Human process interventions. Reinforcers 3. Social Self Assessment Questions 2 1. such as. Problem identification. convinces the client for the required changes and helps it to modify the mindset. 2. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. (iii) Participative management.
Refer section 15.Organization Development Unit 15 Self Assessment Questions 4 1. Refer section 15.3 3. Six Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Experiential 2.1 and 15.2 2.4 Sikkim Manipal University 218 . Refer section 15.
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