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Structural Element Design Manual

Structural Element Design Manual

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Published by: nanaamoako on Oct 05, 2010
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12/07/2012

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T R U C T U R A L

E L E M E N T S
I G N
M A N U A L
F R E V O R D R A Y C O T T








































































5 1




















































C O N T E N T S V ii
3 . 1 1








































































































al thou g h













































































— specification

















— specification










method
— code

— code

— wind


— code


— stru ctu ral

— code


— code















































1 0 0 0 9 8 1 0




2 4 0 0 2 4




2 4 0 0 / 1 0 0 2 4 k N / m3















































































































































































* F ix ed
















J oist












t
j
4 m




I . 5 m






imposed





2 3 . 4 2 4 . 0








k N / m2





span



t







3 . 6 k N / m2




( 8 . 6
= 2 0 6 . 4 2 l O k N












2 . 4 k N / m2




2 . 5 m 2 . 5 m
p
'1
B eam

S l ab
p



7 1 . 5

I
3 5 . 7 5

1 '
3 5 . 7 5

sl ab

7 3 5 . 7 5


3 5 . 7 5
4 k N
( 3 5 . 7 5 1 9 . 8 8






C )





4 . 8




3 5 . 7 5
U D L = 4 k N

S m


1 )
,



i I
k



t
2 0 0 . 8

-L T
5




sl ab
= ( 9 . 8 1 9 6 2 0 5 . 6
2 0 5 . 6 / 2 1 0 2 . 8


sl ab

4 0 2 0 0 . 8



( 1 2 2 1 2 . 8 / 2 1 0 6 . 4 k N

( 1 0 0 / 1 0 0 )









_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B eam


1 0 2 . 8
'1 '
1 0 2 . 8

L
2 0 5 . 6 4 0 1 . 6
j .


I
1 0 6 . 4



l O m

m








U
B eam
C ol u mns




2 5 0
I S ection —



( 2 4 0 0 / 1 0 0 ) 4 . 2
3 . 0

U D L
( 7 . 2


( total 2 8 8 / 2 1 4 4 k N
beam
1 4 4 +
1 4 4 + 5 . 2 5 =






































( zero


+ iI
J W / 2



D efl ected




D efl ected


L oad,













W / 2 W / 2

W L / 8



ex ternal













diag ram
( b)






force

= force






x

x
= j -4 -



















U D L = 4 k N
t
4 . 5 w



5 0 mm
ex ternal



k N m






4
— 8

x
— 8 x 7 x 5 0
x 4 . 5 x 1 0 6 x 6 \

7 5 mm


6 ) + ( 5
1 8
2 8
2 8 / 8 3 . 5
8 — 3 . 5 4 . 5






ex ternal


x


x 1 0 6 x 6 \
d=


U se







ex ternal


1 6

— 8 x 1 6 5
Z 2 4 6 2 1 2 mm3 2 4 6 . 2 1











1 0 0 mm 2 0 0
ex ternal

8
1 0 0
2 0 0 2
— 4 S
— 8
6

3 . 7 5


— 5

E l

bd3
1 2
6 6 . 6 6


3 8 4

6 6 0 0
1 4 . 8 mm

0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 1 5 mm



















F ig u re



+






l oad
V ertical l oad
S u bj ected to a
S u bj ected to
combinatioo of
simpl e
cru shing and
l ateral bu ck l ing
F ig u re 1 . 2 0









area














L ateral
'S hort' col u mn




R ol l ed












l east


R ol l ed

W al l








W al l






second

area






































I I ' I















L I
F ix ed


A ctu al
E ffectiv e


















'S pecification





























































permissibl e



bending




mean

minimu m
G









=

L a/ b



a, par
appl ied
par
g rade

permissibl e




























































* M achine































5 4 0








* W hen




N ote

C l asses













1 . 1 )



T I M B E R E L E M E N T S 3 1






















































— —






















































— T I M B E R E L E M E N T S






— —


— —





































2 8 . 9 2 1 . 7
3 6 . 1

















































* B asic


























1 . 0 0









1



F or



















bd2 / 6







par
modified








































X X
C m,g . parK 2 K 3 K 7 K 8

T he













0 . 0 0 3

















produ ced


A G















— 1















( T abl e









T he



a

hrL
h
he
hE H _ _ _ _ _ _
F ig u re





M e.









bearing





T his























M





U m. g ,parK 3





0 . 0 0 3




+

= rg K 3 K 8



ti C S 2 2 9 4





































1 . 7 6 4 . 4 9

4 . 5

F ig u re



B ending


= 8
2 . 3 9




N / mm2
1 . 2 5
1 . 1

req u ired

=
= 3 2 7 3 2 7 . 9 6







1 . 0 4 6 .


req u ired
K
3 2 7 . 9 6 :
3 1 3 . 5 4





=
7 . 1 8

C m,g ,parK sK 7 K S 5 . 3 7 . 6 2

2 0 0 / 5 0 4




0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 1 2 . 7 5 mm

ö m

+

5
3 8 4

1 2 . 7 5


5







5

3 8 4

1 0 . 7 6





reaction = = 2 . 2 5 2 . 2 5
0 . 6 7
rg K 3 K g 0 . 6 7 0 . 9 2
= x 0 . 3








=
= 0 . 6 7

= rg K 3 K 8 K 5 0 . 9 2 0 . 6 2

5 0 x



2 2 5
B earing
reaction 2 . 2 5





bearing 1 0 0
0 . 4 5



2 . 2

C c,g ,perpK 3 K s
2 . 2
3 . 0 3 0 . 4 5






centres x 0 . 1
0 . 1
























4 . 1
1 . 8 S k N m= 1 . 8 5 x l O 6 N mm

for 5 . 3
1 . 0 ; 1 . 1 ;

M 1 . 8 5 1 0
3 1 7 3 2 4 mm3 = 3 1 7
1 . 1


= 3 3 3
1 . 0 4 6 :


3 1 7 x
3 0 3


0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 1 0 . 8 mm



3 8 4

= 2 . 0 5 2 . 0 5
0 . 6 7

=
x 0 . 3 0 8






. =
= 0 . 4 1


2 . 2
U cg perpK 3 K s 2 . 2 2 . 4 2 N / mm2







9

9



5 . 3
1 . 2 5




=
= 4 4 9 8 1 1 mm3 = = 4 5 0 x 1 0 3 mm3




5 3 2
6 3 3
1 . 0 3 2 :

4 5 0 x l 0 3
4 3 6

0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 7 . 9 5 mm








7 . 5 8 . 1 6 mm


3 8 4

6 . 2 9 6 . 9 8 mm


3 8 4

5 . 2 8 5 . 8 6 mm


4 . 5 4 . 5
0 . 6 7
= rg K 3 0 . 6 7 0 . 8 4

=
x = 0 . 4 8
3

= 2

0 . 4
B oth




=
0 . 7 1










































A


l aminations
I nternal













































section
T he

























5 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 4 0



0 . 3 8 5
6 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 1 0 9 0 . 0 8 9 0 . 0 7 4 0 . 0 6 3 0 . 0 5 8
1 . 0 0 0
8 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 ,9 7 5 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 3 0 . 8 5 1 0 . 7 9 2 0 ,7 2 4 0 . 6 4 9 0 . 5 7 2
9 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 4 0 . 8 5 3 0 . 7 9 7 0 . 7 3 4 0 . 6 6 5 0 . 5 9 3 0 . 5 2 2 0 . 4 5 6 0 . 3 9 7 0 . 3 0 4 0 . 2 3 7 0 . 1 8 8 0 . 1 5 3 0 . 1 2 7 0 . 1 0 6 0 . 0 9 1 0 . 0 8 4
1 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 ,9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 4 0 . 8 0 1 0 . 7 4 2 0 . 6 7 7 0 . 6 0 9 0 . 5 4 2 0 . 4 7 8 0 . 4 2 0 0 . 3 2 5 0 . 2 5 5 0 . 2 0 4 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 3 8 0 ,1 1 6 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 0 9 2
1 1 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 5 0 . 8 5 6

1 3 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 5 0 . 8 5 8 0 . 8 0 9 0 . 7 5 7 0 . 7 0 ! 0 . 6 4 3 0 . 5 8 4 0 . 5 2 7 0 . 4 7 2 0 . 3 7 8 0 . 3 0 3 0 . 2 4 7 0 . 2 0 3 0 . 1 7 0
1 4 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 6 0 . 8 5 9 0 . 8 1 1 0 . 7 6 0 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 6 5 1 0 . 5 9 5 0 . 5 3 9 0 ,4 8 6 0 . 3 9 2 0 . 3 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 0 . 2 1 4 0 . 1 8 0 0 . 1 5 3 0 . 1 3 1 0 . 1 2 2

1 6 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 6 0 . 8 6 ! 0 . 8 1 4 0 . 7 6 6 0 . 7 1 6 0 . 6 6 4 0 . 6 ! ! 0 . 5 5 9

1 8 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 6 0 . 8 6 2 0 . 8 1 6 0 . 7 7 0 0 . 7 2 2 0 . 6 7 3 0 . 6 2 4 0 . 5 7 4 0 . 5 2 6 0 . 4 3 8 0 . 3 6 3 0 . 3 0 2 0 . 2 5 4 0 . 2 1 5 0 . 1 8 4 0 . 1 5 9 0 . 1 4 8
1 9 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 7 6 0 . 9 5 2 0 . 9 0 7 0 . 8 6 2 0 . 8 1 7 0 . 7 7 2 0 ,7 2 5 0 . 6 7 7 0 . 6 2 9 0 . 5 8 1 0 . 5 3 4 0 . 4 4 7 0 . 3 7 3 0 . 3 1 2 0 . 2 6 2 0 . 2 2 3 0 . 1 9 1 0 . 1 6 5 0 . 1 5 4



effectiv e

— l east —
F or


effectiv e
L e
l east — b

= 1 8 0 5 2 .







T abl e



C e,





.
E nd

























— l . S C C ,a,parK l 2 / C e)



a












effectiv e
L e



.






g rade





. <





C c,adm,pa,



l oad
( h)



5 m,g ,

C al cu l ate

[ 1 . 5
C c. a. parK i2 ( L e/ 1 ) 2 / T h2 E mj fl ] }















effectiv e = 0 . 8 5
8 2 . 2 5

2 1 0 0







5 8 0 0
8 5 2
6 . 8
T he


6 . 8
C c, 6 . 8 3 . 3 7
permissibl e





2 . 7 5 2 7 5 0 1

g ,
6 . 8





=
= 4 3 . 6 5


5 8 0 0
2 3
6 . 8
— 5
0 . 1 6 8 .

C c. g ,parK 3 K i2 6 . 8 1 . 4 3 N / mm2


appl ied 1 2 . 5
l . 3 2 N / mm2 < 1 . 4 3 N / mm2




permissibl e
1 . 4 3 1 3 . 5 1 1 3 . 5 1


2 5 0
1 2 5
X











F e
from



7 3 . 5 3






7 . 9
6 6 0 0
8 3 5 . 4 4
g ,


0 . 5 5 3 .

C c,g ,parK sK l 2
7 . 9 4 . 3 6



A 2 5
1 . 6





7 . 5

U mg parK 3 K 7 7 . 5 7 . 6 5


1 0 4 0
2 . 8 9




[ l . 5 C c,a,parK l 2 ( L e/ i) 2 / T h2 E minl }

7 . 6 5 —

0 . 4 2 5 0 . 7 9 2




S heathing / cl adding material
6 1 0 mm max imu m
for 6 1 0 mm max imu m
3 /





— ax is














7 . 5
7 . 5 4 . 5

1 0 0 —
7 5



1 1 0 . 6 < 1 8 0
1 2 . 5 nm pl asterboard
6 0 0 mm centres of stu ds
L




= 3 . 5

4 5 0 0


1
T hu s 0 . 4 2 0 .

C c. g ,parK 3 K sK i2
3 . 5 1 . 6 2


1 . 5 8

































































0 .
0
0 .
0
0
C
V
0
0
0 .
0
0
0
cc






















0
0
p
C
I n
t0
Pl ait

su pporting





= 4 . 2 4
= 0 . 6 0 3

= 7 0 4 0





1 . 4
1 . 1

5


3 . 0
0 . 1
0 . 1 2





4 . 7 2 5 . 3 1




par = 4 . 2 4
1 . 0 6




= = 2 3 9 8 3 7 mm3 = 2 4 0 x 1 0 3 mm3




0 . 0 0 7 . 5 mm



5 1 5 1 . 2



5 1 . 2
4 7 . 4
5 3 2
5 9 . 8


im
3 8 4

= 2 . 6 6 k N 2 . 6 6
0 . 6 0 3

may

= 0 . 9 2 9 1 . 3 9

= 2 K I A 2 1 . 0 4 x 1 4 2 x 1 0 3
0 . 2 7




























































su bj ect









— sinG

[ 1


















— ax is.




























































characteristic














































spacing











































































S afety









L oads









T he












to

x




























y fG k
= l . 4 G k + l . 6 Q k










A


J
4 0 0 mmbeam
L i
1
A


— ' E nl arg ed —






2 4 4 . 2
3
1 . 4 1 0 . 6 8



U L iI N U K L I t tL E M E N T S

1 0 . 6 8 4 0 0 . 5


4 0 0 . 5 4 2 5 . 7







7 0 0
5 . 4
3 0 0

y fG k
= 1 . 4









for












M Pa)















( N / mm2 )




















for












=

= O . 8 7 L



in




































defines




















F or














* T hese













































I I I 4 B
C ov er
N ominal
C ov er

N ote:
F or to il l u strate























































oO b,
6 0 b,





— a— —









2 5 0
4 6 0
















7
5 7 2 5 5 2 8 3




1 2 5 6 1 5 7 0 1 8 8 4 2 1 9 8 2 5 1 2 2 8 2 6 3 1 4 0


5 0 2 7 6 2 8 3 7 5 4 0 8 7 9 6 1 0 0 5 3 1 1 3 1 0 1 2 5 6 6





hag g















3 0 0 mm
1 6 0 mm.
















N
E

S impl ified

0 . 5 1 . 0 1 . 5 2 . 0
4 0
3 5

2 5

S ing l y reinforced
2 . 0
1 0 0 A 5 / bd
beams
* E x ampl e


0 . 1 5 6 ,
d[ 0 . 5 K / 0 . 9 ) ]

F ig u re
































R ib








basic

basic
















5

s,prov
where








ratio




1 9 8 5



6 . 0 0















s,req
is

A
a













h = 3 5 0



3 0
4 6 0
5 5 0 5 5 0

d{ 0 . 5 K / 0 . 9 ) ] d[ 0 . 5 0 . 1 4 6 / 0 . 9 ) ]
0 . 7 9 6 d

0 . 8 7
2 8 7 8 mm


2 9 4 8



F ig u re

6 6 0 x
1 . 2 8







3 5 0


1 . 3 7



1 0 0
2 8 7 7






= 2 5 0
of










3 0
2 5 0
1 4 0 1 4 0

0 ,1 5 6 .


v
K ' 0 . 1 5 6 ,
d[ 0 . 5 — K / 0 . 9 ) ] d[ 0 . 5 0 . 1 5 6 / 0 . 9 ) ] 0 ,7 7 7 d








3 4 5 . 9 2



2 3 6 7

1 4 7 4 2 4 1 6

shou l d







4 1 0

















4 1 0
2 . 3 5


3 5
4 6 0

= = 3 2 0 . 2 5

0 . 8 7
1 3 8 5
1 4 7 4


'1 1 '
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
N ominal

h= 3 6 7 . 5













3 7 0 2 5 0
1 . 5 9 > 0 . 1 3 < 4
2 5 0




5 0 0



stress












9 6 3
1 1 1 1 7 7
2 4 2 1


( Y r
= 1 . 6 1 0 0 . 8
1 . 4 1 0 7 . 8 k N
( y r- 1 . 4 2 1 2 9 . 4 k N
2 3 8

W L 2 3 8 x

2 3 8

7 m
F ig u re





5 0 0 — 1 0 — 4 5 2 . 5 mm

2 5 0
0 . 1 3 6 < 0 . 1 5 6

d[ 0 . 5 — K / 0 . 9 ) ] d[ 0 . 5 0 . 1 3 6 / 0 . 9 ) ] 0 . 8 1 4 d



0 . 8 7
1 4 1 3
1 4 7 4


x 1 . 1 8 > 0 . 1 3 < 4






2 5 0

4 . 0 7

=
prov
T he

0 . 5 5


0 . 5 5

0 . 8 8 7

1 7 . 7 4 .

= 1 5 . 4 7













( a)









b,s,( v



































S econd,


































V ertical



L F /

M ax imu m
reaction





S hou l d


































[
M ain
. .
I
I

M ax imu m reaction



= A S b( O . 8 7 fY V ) ( cos -1 -
d — d












2
= 9 . 3

=
= 0 . 3 1

0 . 3 1 4



0 . 6 8
0 . 5 0 . 3 4 0 . 3 1
0 . 3 4 N / mm2 .








2
= 1 2 0
= = 0 . 9 6

0 . 9 6 4 . 3 8


— 1 0 0
1
2 5 0 x 5 0 0 —

0 . 6 3




1 . 0 6 2

0 . 6 3 0 . 6 6 9
0 . 5 0 . 6 6 9 0 . 3 3 5

( 0 . 6 6 9 1 . 0 6 9












2 5 0

= 1 7 2 . 4 1






bars
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
for —
— — •
2
( a) S ing l e l ink s ( b) D ou bl e l ink s
4
6
( c) D ou bl e l ink s
F ig u re D etail s of

= 9 3 . 7 mm

1 0 1



0 . 4
2 2 0 mm







2 0 1
( d) T ripl e l ink s






= 4 4 0


= 3 0 0
3 . 2 6

3 . 2 6 4 . 7 3



3 0 0

0 . 7 6


1 . 1 1 9

0 . 7 6 0 . 8 5
( 0 . 8 5 1 . 2 5








— —

T hu s of 2 5 0 N / mm2 ,
— 0 . 8 5 )

0 . 8 7
1 1 2 1 . 8 9 mm



4 6 0
6 0 9 . 7 2 mm



3 0 0 ( 3 . 2 6 — 0 . 8 5 )
9 4 mm



3 0 0 ( 3 . 2 6 —
1 7 3 . 8 1





















1 0 4 S T R U C T U R A L







. . . .
.
T ension
C ross-section











_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ihick nessj ,_
. J I I I L I E iI .
H ol l ow
reinforcement
F ig u re


sl ab


0 0 0 0 0 0
thick ness

• • • • • •
• • • • • • •
V oids




reinforcement

F l at












— I
u i, I ,
C ol u mn C ol u mn
F ig u re S ection

F l ared col u mn head
U
C ol u mn
F ig u re





















E


(
.

• • •

7
= 1 n
F ig u re 3 . 2 5
R einforcement areas
T he










1 2 5 1 5 0



2 2 5 2 5 0 2 7 5

8 6 7 0 5 0 3 4 0 2 3 3 5 2 8 7 2 5 1 2 2 3 2 0 1 1 8 3 1 6 8

7 5 4 6 4 6 5 6 5 4 5 2

2 5 1 3
2 5
— 3 5 7 4


main









• — • •
M ain













2 5 0 mm











1 0 8 S T R U C T U R A L



2 5 0

6 0 0




















=

















diameter main bars
J
\ \ •
mm
2 0 mm cov er
I m width
A '
F ig u re

ov eral l ( bar cov er 2 0 0 8 2 0
1 7 2


2 4 0
4 5





d[ 0 . 5 — K / 0 . 9 ) ] d[ 0 . 5 — 0 . 0 3 8 / 0 . 9 ) ] 0 . 9 5 6 d



0 . 8 7
1 2 6 6 mm2
1 1 0 S T R U C T U R A L



1 3 4 0



x 4 8 0


5 2 4

2 0 0 mm
2 5 0 mm

5 1 6 mm.


3 5
4 6 0



d[ 0 . 5 — 0 . 0 4 3 / 0 . 9 ) ] 0 . 9 5 d


0 ,8 7 4 6 0
6 8 8

7 3 1



x 2 6 0

2 6 2

2 0 0 mm





A








4 0 concrete H Y reinforcement
d1
h= 2 5 0 mm
. . S • •
M inimu m



4




6 . 5 3 2 . 5
1 . 6
1 . 4


7 7 . 5
3 8 . 7 5 k N
1 . -—
. S isi
F ig u re

1 0 0 0 x 2 2 4 2
0 . 0 2 4 < 0 . 1 5 6
d[ 0 . 5 K / 0 . 9 ) ]
d[ 0 . 5 — 0 . 0 2 4 / 0 ,9 ) ] 0 . 9 7 d>



0 . 8 7
5 6 9

6 4 6 mm2 ) .

x 3 2 5

3 4 9 mm2 ) .


2 5 0


1 0 0 0
0 . 2 8 8 < 0 . 3

3 6 7 2 mm



u l timate




1 0 0 0



0 . 2 8 8
is

0 . 5 6
0 . 1 7 3 0 . 5 6







1 0 0 0



=
x
pros

3 1 . 2 ,
2 2 . 3 2






































t—
F l oor
B eams









I f





and




from

1 3 1 0
T abl e

: 1 .
F ig u re














A

















0 . 0
E

. 5

0 .
I
( a)













A g

A ,,



hh

A g

6 %











N
ties





























I f
I I

















0 . 0 5 or






A x ial l y





0 . 4 L U A C


1 2 2 S T R U C T U R A L

characteristic

characteristic

A g — A 5 0 ,


0 . 4 fcu ( A g
A 5 0 )






A 5 0 )

u l timate

B S

C ol u mn
C ol u mn
B eam B eam B eam
> <
B eam
Pl an Pl an
B eam
F ig u re
C ol u mn
B eam

1 2 3
r
E l ev ation
shorter l ong er —
Percentag e
E d/ L i
1 5 %




O . 3 5 fcu ( A g






C ol u mn
B eam


= shorter l ong er L , — L 1
L d/ L l



H
L
P
L













= M ,,

h'
B eam spans
by
B eam


B eam

X
C ol u mn

n
M y












0 . 6
/ 3











0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6
7 8 9 1 0 1 1
M / bh2

E x ampl e 3 . 1 5 co-ordinates for u sing this chart
1 2 6 S T R U C T U R A L






or
































E x ampl e






O . 4 fcu ( A g —
0 . 4 —
7 5 0 0 0 0 —



1 7 5 . 5
1 4 2 4 . 5


1 9 6 6


6 . 2 5
3 0 0








2 5





0 . 4 0 . O 2 A g )

mm





8 5


2
5 0
1 7 1 1
1 8 8 4









0 . 3 5 L



0 . O l A g
1 2 . 2 5 A g O . l 2 2 S A g l S . 2 l A g




3 1 4 . 0 4


1 = 9 9 2 . 2 5
1 2 5 6




= 2 5 0
r
4
U l timate 6 0 0


M inimu m
3 0




F ig u re




S

3 0 0 — 4 0 =

= 0 . 2 3 1

= 0 . 1 7



— 2 5 0
— 0 . 2
= 0 . 7 7 . —




2 6 0 / 3 0 0 0 . 8 7


2 5 0
8
2 5 0

4 . 1 5
1 . 6 .

1 2 5 6



































eccentricity













effectiv e


ov eral l

thick ness
1 3 2 S T R U C T U R A L








4 1 = col u mn


4 . 4



















































2 1 5 x x
1 9 0 x x 9 0 2 0 0 x x
1 9 0 x x 2 0 0 x 1 0 0 x
























3 9 0 1 9 0 x x x x x x x x x
1 4 0

2 1 5
2 9 0
5 9 0 1 4 0

5 9 0 2 1 5













































1 3 6 S T R U C T U R A L











































(
#
2
0 z r

1

m
o
i
s
t
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1 3 8 S T R U C T U R A L







































C haracteristic T he





















l . 4 G k

l . 6 Q k







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of
to








( N / mm2 )




























































is





















— 1 0 0 —





is





1 4 2 S T R U C T U R A L


















( L — ( area



F ig u re






fk from

M odification



0 . 7





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1 4 4 S T R U C T U R A L



















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t

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T I
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t
t A

if if
0
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-o


0
A t
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h


2 h











0 . 7 5
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1 4 8 S T R U C T U R A L
'4

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;

times



d


L

A '
A t
A t A '

. I I 1 '

t L ) J A ' / / 7 / / 7 / 7 I




parameters




t

the

( c) the

/ /
thick ness
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
width
/ / / / /
/ / / / / / 1 "
F ig u re





the





L oadhearing

/ 7 1 /
thick ness
W al l
Pier
Pier spacing Pier spacing
F ig u re
1 5 0 S T R U C T U R A L




city which



from

( B S







W I
I

t/ 2 — h/ 3

= t/ 2 — t/ 6 = t/ 3






1 5 2 S T R U C T U R A L












W h/ c W a/ c





mm

( 4 . 1 )

where








( 4 . 2 )
where
























from

















1 0 2 . 5














0 . 7 5 h 0 . 7 5 2 2 5 0




=
= 2 1 . 9 5 < 2 7



is
1 . 0 2 5




Y m




may

$ tfk
1 . 1 5

from

0 . 6 2
= 1 1 . 9 7


1 2 . 2
l ong
0 . 1 0 2 5

( 0 . 7 0 . 8 5 4






req u ired
fit 0 . 6 2
1 4 . 0 2

1 5
1 5 . 1









0 . 7 5 h 0 . 7 5 1 8 7 5

=
= 1 8 . 7 5

is
0 . 5






fk req u ired
= 0 . 7 4 > <
5 . 2 4


3 . 9 .
5 . 6

1 5 6 S T R U C T U R A L



2 . 8 ; 1 . 4 ;
1 . 6 .

characteristic dead l oad = 4 . 8 k N / m2
characteristic imposed l oad = 5 k N / rn2
2 5 0 k N u l timal e ax ial l oad
from u pper
7 . 5 rn span . S l ab 7 . 5 m span
. 4 '
4 0 0 0 l ong brick wal l
3 5 0 0
= 2 1 5 sel f weig ht 2 2 0 0 k g / rn3
F ig u re





1 6 . 5 6


5 3 7 . 5

Y fG k t. 4 7 3 . 5 8 t3 3 . 5 8 k N


2 5 0 3 8 3 . 5 8 3 8 3 . 5 8
0 . 7 5 h 0 . 7 5 2 6 2 5



= = 1 2 . 2 < 2 7

is

0 . 8 6







5 . 3 7

req u ired
= 0 . 9 3

= 5 . 8





0 . 7 5 h 0 . 7 5 3 0 0 0
= 2 ( 1 0 2 . 5 t3 6 . 7 1 0 2 . 5
1 0 2 . 5
= = 2 1 . 9 5 < 2 7


— =
= 0 . 1 6 7 t

is


X 1 . 1 5


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
7 5

req u ired = 4 . 7
0 . 4 7 3

S N / mm2 ) .
1 H








1 5 0

the

T he

as

l eav es


T abl e is


1 5 0 7


0 . 6 2
I t

instance

= 4 . 4







5

M ainwal l 1 1 2 . 5
/
/
F ig u re
= h 2 4 0 0



— 8
4 4 0
Pier
— 1
— t 2 1 5
T herefore, 1 . 1 5 1 .
tK 2 1 5 2 4 7 . 4 7


2 4 7 . 4 7
9 . 7 < 2 7



1 5
2 . 8 .

0 . 9 7 5 1 5
= 1 1 2 2 . 9 9 I







d= 9 0 0
t = 2 1 5
1 5 7 5
h 3 4 5 0
to





1 5 7 5
= 1 0 2 . 5
1 5 . 3 7
3 t 3 6 4 5 mm


ç
6 4 5
2 1 5

tK 2 1 5 2 5 5 . 8 5




is


1 6 0 S T R U C T U R A L
7 . 1
= 3 . 5 .
0 . 9
3 9 2 . 5 3 3 9 2 . 5 3






7 /
/
/
/ /
/
/
d= 2 7 0 0
/
/
/
/
M etal



0 . 7 5 h 0 . 7 5 2 5 8 7 . 5
1 0 2 1 5 0
2 1 5



L — = 2 2 5 0 — 2 1 5 2 0 3 5





— 1 0 4 7
— 2 1 5 —

3 t = 3 6 4 5
6 4 5
W al l t 2 1 5 —
T herefore,
= tK 2 1 5 2 9 6 . 7



effectiv e t,1 2 9 6 . 7 —
T his is withou t

= 8 . 5
3 . 5 .
l . O x 2 l S x 8 . 5

ç
= 5 2 2 . 1 4 5 2 2 . l 4 k N

4 . 1 1



























5 S teel




S tru ctu ral




T here
Part





C ode
















































































eq u iv al ent





















ratio





defl ection


) . sl enderness,







































1 6 6 S T R U C T U R A L













S teel
























D esig n





U l timate











































1 6 8 S T R U C T U R A L







S afety











5 . 7 L oads










Y r





manu al ,


x
1 . 4


may the










M aterial
















for

1 7 0 S T R U C T U R A L





















1 3 8




























D esig nation D epth W idth T hick ness R oot D epth R atios for D imensions for detail ing S u rface area
of of radiu s between l ocal bu ck l ing
S erial M ass section section W eb F l ang e fil l ets F l ang e W eb E nd N otch Per per
size per B r cl earance metre tonne
metre
( mm) ( k g ) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm) ( mm)
( m2 ) ( m2 )

























4 3 . 7











5 3 . 6
1 7 2 S T R U C T U R A L











— —









— —




— —


( cm2 )












2 6 . 7
3 0 . 1
8 8 . 7
7 5 . 7
1 7 3 0
1 1 9 0
4 9 4
4 3 7



2 0 1


1 1 2 0 0
3 2 6 0 0 0


6 . 2 7
3 5 . 6


7 3 8
7 2 1 0


1 1 6 0
8 3 6 0






























6 6 5 0



6 8 1 0

















1 4 7




3 0 . 5
3 0 . 0





















6 8 6 x 2 5 4 1 7 0
1 5 2


1 7 0 0 0 0 6 6 2 0
1 5 0 0 0 0


2 8 . 0 5 . 5 3





















5 . 7 2



1 6 9



1 7 9



1 4 9

1 1 4 0 0

2 6 . 1 7 . 2 2
2 5 . 8 7 . 0 8
2 5 . 6

7 4 3
4 0 9 0

1 1 4 0
4 5 7 0


0 . 8 8 6
2 1 . 1

3 2 . 5


8 . 0 9


2 0 0


1 9 0
6 1 0 x 2 2 9 1 4 0
1 2 5


1 1 2 0 0 0 4 5 1 0
9 8 6 0 0


2 5 . 0 5 . 0 3
2 4 . 9


3 6 3 0 3 9 2
3 2 2 0 3 4 4


4 1 5 0 6 1 2
3 6 8 0


0 . 8 7 5
0 . 8 7 3
0 . 8 7
0 . 8 6 3
3 0 . 5
3 4 . 0
3 7 . 9
4 3 . 0
3 . 9 9
3 . 4 5
2 . 9 9
2 . 5 1
2 1 7
1 5 5
1 1 2
7 7 . 2
1 7 8
1 6 0











2 0 1 0




4 . 3 8

2 4 7 0

2 0 8 0
1 9 2


4 0 0
2 3 7 0 3 5 6




0 . 8 7 2




3 6 . 4




1 . 6 0




7 6 . 2




1 1 8




7 4



1 8 7 0
3 3 4 0 0
1 4 5 0


4 . 2 3
1 8 . 7


1 7 7 0
1 9 6
1 4 6 0
1 5 3
2 2 3 0 3 7 8
2 0 1 0 3 3 8
3 0 4
1 6 6 0
2 3 7
0 . 8 8
0 . 8 7 9

0 . 8 7 6

2 5 . 8
2 8 . 3

3 3 . 9

1 . 1 7
1 . 0 4

0 . 8 1 9

1 2 1
9 0 . 5

5 2 . 0

1 2 5
1 1 4



4 5 7 x 1 5 2 8 2
7 4
6 7


3 6 2 0 0 1 1 4 0
3 2 4 0 0


3 0 0 6 4 5
1 8 . 6 3 . 3 1
1 8 . 5


3 . 1 1
1 5 6 0 1 4 9
1 4 1 0


8 4 . 6
1 8 0 0 2 3 5
1 6 2 0


1 3 3
0 . 8 7 2
0 . 8 7



2 7 . 3
3 0 . 0



0 . 5 6 9
0 . 4 9 9



8 9 . 3
6 6 . 6









T abl e









T
( mm) ( mm)

( mm)


( mm)





























































































































5 . 3





— — — — — —






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































prov ided










C ross-sections









S hel f






F ig u re










N



D / 2
A J D ,2

B eam

1 7 8 S T R U C T U R A L




( 2 7 5 / 2 7 5 ) 1 / 2
1
1 . 0 2








= =









T herefore

py S x
1 8 0 S T R U C T U R A L



py






S l ab


S m


t
L
6 m






0 . 1 5 3 . 6 k N / m2


5
5 6 5 1 5 0
x
1 . 4 1 5 6 . 8 3 9 6 . 8 k N


= 8


N / mm2




2 7 5
1 0 8 2 1 0 8 2 cm3




























rig orou s — for










Pb3 x







nu v A
























py









































1 8 4 S T R U C T U R A L



















































mM A ,

5 9 5 0 ,



Point l oad oppl ied by col u mn
C ol u mn





( b) S tabil ized



I
1 . 0



shou l d


































* S ee











1 6 2 0 cm3 ) .





T he
= mM A = PbS X
T he



which




= 3 4 9

u nrestrained l eng th
F ig u re


l arg er — 3 4 9
T herefore



mM A 0 . 5 7 1 9 8 . 9 3



2 6 5

nu v ) .
1 . 0 , 0 . 8 7 L E / rY .
3 . 2 6
3 . 2 6



3 0 1 2 2 . 7 / 3 0 4 . 0 9 . 0 . 8 5 6


titi 1 . 0 9 1 . 3 8
1 3 8 . 2 4

2 2 3 . 9 5 2 2 3 . 9 5









4 2 9 2 2 3







f




8


1 8 3 0



T abl e






4 5 7 x 1 9 1 x 8 2 0 . 4 5 0 3 5 0 3 5 0 3 5 0 3 5 0 3 4 9 6 4 7 2 4 5 1 4 1 3 3 9 5 3 7 9
0 . 6 5 0 3 5 0 3 5 0 0 4 7 8 4 5 7 4 3 6 4 1 7 3 7 9 3 4 6 3 1 7 2 9 1 2 6 9 2 4 9
Pl astic 0 . 8 5 0 3 4 8 0 4 4 9 2 8 9 2 5 2 2 2 3 1 9 9 1 8 0 1 6 4
4 7 8 4 3 7 3 9 6 3 5 7 3 2 1 2 8 9 2 6 1 2 1 7 1 8 4 1 5 9 1 4 0 1 2 6 1 1 4
4 5 7 x 1 9 1 x 7 4 0 . 4 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 0 3 3 8 4 3 6 6 3 4 9 3 3 3
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 1 4 3 0 4 1 0 3 9 1 3 7 2 3 3 7 3 0 5 2 7 7 2 5 3 2 3 2 2 1 4
Pl astic 0 . 8 4 5 6 4 3 3 4 0 4 3 7 5 3 4 8 3 2 1 2 9 6 2 5 3 2 1 9 1 9 2 1 7 1 1 5 4 1 4 0
1 . 0 4 3 1 3 9 3 3 5 5 3 1 9 2 8 5 2 5 5 2 3 0 1 8 9 1 5 9 1 3 7 1 2 0 1 0 7 9 6
4 5 7 x 1 9 1 x 6 7 0 . 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 2 3 9 1 3 7 0 3 5 0 3 3 2 3 1 4 2 9 8 2 8 3
0 . 6 4 0 4 4 0 4 3 9 7 3 7 8 3 5 9 3 4 1 3 2 3 2 9 0 2 6 0 2 3 4 2 1 2 1 9 4 1 7 8
Pl astic 0 . 8 4 0 4 3 8 1 3 5 4 3 2 8 3 0 2 2 7 7 2 5 4 2 1 5 1 8 4 1 6 0 1 4 2 1 2 7 1 t4
1 . 0 3 8 0 3 4 5 3 1 0 2 7 7 2 4 6 2 1 9 1 9 5 1 5 9 1 3 2 1 1 3 9 8 8 7 7 8
4 5 7 x 1 5 2 x 8 2 0 . 4 4 7 7 4 7 7 4 7 7 4 7 7 4 7 5 4 6 2 4 5 0 4 2 7 4 0 7 3 8 8 3 7 0 0 0
4 7 7 0 . 6 4 7 7 4 7 1 4 4 7 4 0 2 3 8 1 3 6 2 3 2 7 2 9 7 2 7 2 2 5 0 0 0
Pl astic 0 . 8 4 5 7 4 2 2 3 8 8 3 5 6 3 2 6 3 0 0 2 7 7 2 3 8 2 0 8 1 8 5 1 6 7 0 0
1 . 0 4 1 6 3 7 0 3 2 7 2 9 0 2 5 7 2 3 1 2 0 8 1 7 4 1 4 9 1 3 1 1 1 6 0 0
4 5 7 x 1 5 2 x 7 4 O A 4 2 9 4 2 9 4 2 9 4 2 9 4 2 3 4 1 1 3 9 9 3 7 7 3 5 7 3 3 9 3 2 2 0 0
0 . 6 4 2 9 4 2 1 3 9 8 3 7 6 3 5 5 3 3 5 3 1 7 2 8 4 2 5 6 2 3 2 2 1 2 0 0
Pl astic 0 . 8 4 0 9 3 7 5 3 4 3 3 1 3 2 8 5 2 6 0 2 3 9 2 0 4 1 5 6 1 4 0 0 0
1 . 0 3 7 1 3 2 8 2 8 8 2 5 2 2 2 3 1 9 8 1 7 8 1 4 7 1 2 5 1 0 9 9 7 0 0
4 5 7 x 1 5 2 x 6 7 0 . 4 3 9 6 3 9 6 3 9 6 3 9 6 3 8 4 3 7 2 3 6 0 3 3 8 3 1 8 2 9 9 2 8 3 0 0
0 . 6 3 9 6 3 8 3 3 6 1 3 3 9 3 1 8 2 9 9 2 8 0 2 4 7 2 2 0 1 9 8 1 7 9 0 0
Pl astic 0 . 8 3 7 2 3 4 0 3 0 8 2 7 8 2 5 1 2 2 7 2 0 7 1 7 4 1 4 9 1 3 0 1 1 6 0 0
1 . 0 3 3 6 2 9 4 2 5 5 2 2 1 1 9 3 1 7 0 1 5 2 1 2 4 1 0 5 9 0 7 9 0 0
4 5 7 x 1 5 2 x 6 0 0 . 4 3 5 2 3 5 2 3 5 2 3 5 1 3 3 9 3 2 8 3 1 7 2 9 6 2 7 6 2 5 9 2 4 3 0 0
3 5 2 0 . 6 3 5 2 3 4 0 3 1 9 2 9 9 2 8 0 2 6 1 2 4 4 1 8 8 1 6 7 1 5 1 0 0
Pl astic 0 . 8 3 3 0 3 0 1 2 7 2 2 4 4 1 9 7 1 7 8 1 4 8 1 2 6 1 0 9 9 6 0 0
1 . 0 2 9 8 2 6 0 2 2 4 1 9 3 1 6 8 1 4 7 1 3 0 1 0 5 8 7 7 5 6 6 0 0
4 5 7 x 1 5 2 x 5 2 0 . 4 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 9 5 2 8 4 2 7 4 2 6 3 2 4 3 2 2 5 2 0 8 1 9 4 0 0
0 . 6 3 0 0 2 8 6 2 6 7 2 4 9 2 3 1 2 1 4 1 9 8 1 7 0 1 4 8 1 3 0 1 1 6 0 0
Pl astic 0 . 8 2 7 8 2 5 1 2 2 5 2 0 0 1 7 8 1 5 8 1 4 2 1 1 6 9 7 8 3 7 3 0 0
1 . 0 2 4 9 2 1 5 1 8 3 1 5 6 1 3 4 1 1 6 1 0 2 8 1 6 7 5 7 5 0 0 0
4 0 6 x 1 7 8 x 7 4 0 . 4 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 0 4 3 8 6 3 6 9 3 5 4 3 3 9 3 2 6 3 1 3
M 0 1 = 4 1 2 0 . 6 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 0 5 3 8 7 3 7 0 3 5 4 3 3 8 3 0 9 2 8 3 2 6 0 2 4 0 2 2 3 2 0 8
Pl astic 0 . 8 4 1 2 3 8 8 3 6 2 3 3 7 3 1 3 2 9 1 2 7 0 2 3 5 2 0 6 1 8 3 1 6 5 1 5 0 1 3 7
1 . 0 3 8 5 3 5 1 3 1 7 2 8 6 2 5 7 2 3 2 2 1 0 1 7 5 1 5 0 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 0 5 9 5
4 0 6 x 1 7 8 x 6 7 0 . 4 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 0 3 6 0 3 4 3 3 2 7 3 1 2 2 9 8 2 8 5 2 7 3
3 7 1 0 . 6 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 6 3 3 4 6 3 3 0 3 1 4 2 9 9 2 7 1 2 4 6 2 2 5 2 0 6 1 9 0 1 7 6
Pl astic 0 . 8 3 7 1 3 4 7 3 2 3 3 0 0 2 7 7 2 5 6 2 3 6 2 0 3 1 7 7 1 5 6 1 3 9 1 2 6 1 1 5
1 . 0 3 4 5 3 1 3 2 8 2 2 5 2 2 2 6 2 0 2 1 8 2 1 5 1 1 2 8 1 1 1 9 7 8 7 7 9
M 5 obtained u sing an eq u iv al ent sl enderness = nu rL ,/ r5 .


1 9 0 S T R U C T U R A L

mM A PbS X


for




2 7 5

T he


M / M Q .
3 8 0
W L / 8 .
4 0 / 2 2 0 span/ 2 4

— —



S econdl y ,
smal l er — 0


l arg er 3 8 0 —
T herefore, 0 . 7 8 2 .
0 . 8 7 7 .

2 k N m
L 2 m

4 m u nresl rained
M = 3 8 O k N m


N ex t L E / rY , where l . O L
= 4 . 2 3 cm


H ere 3 0 . 9 9 4 . 5 6 / 3 0 . 9 3 . 0 6 ,
0 . 9 1

nu t') . 0 . 7 8 2 5 9

2 1 5 . 6







5 0 3 3 8 9



























1 9 2 S T R U C T U R A L
l oad
T su pport
U nrestrained l eng thj
( a) Portion of beam between ( b) C orresponding bending
l ateral restraints moment diag ram
F ig u re



where







3 8 0










3 0 . 9 . 2 1 0














tD
























1 9 4 S T R U C T U R A L


1 9 8 . 4 1 9 8 . 4













1 9 8 . 4 k N

0 . 6 6 0 0







9 . 9 mm
4 6 1 . 3





k N








8 5 3 4 9

0 . 6 7 2 6

0 . 6 4 3 5 . 6
8 5 k N 4 3 5 . 6 k N



8 9 . 5 0
7 2 6







or









1

=
2 0 5 2 0 5


E x ampl e 5 . 7

k N
2 5

4 m 4 m
S m





=
= 2 2 . 2 2 mm




2 . 1 9 1 7 . 0 6

<



















F ig u re
















2 2 7 . 3 5
A


h1
=
n1








— 1 2 7 . 5
2 7 5 8 8 . 5

7 5 mm, D / 2 2 2 7 . 3 5
2 1 4 0 6 4 N 2 1 4 k N >










F ig u re




2 . 5 fr


desig n

E x ampl e 5 . 9








7 5 mm
2 . 5 ( r 2 . 5 ( 1 0 . 2 5 8 . 7 5 mm
2 0 0 S T R U C T U R A L


T = 1 3 . 3
J
1 P1 2 = 5 8 . 7 5
F ig u re

= ( b1 2 9 4 2 9 4 k N >










( e)





= mM A PbS X




S hear

































3 0
1 1

5 O k N ; 3 O k N

1 . 4 l 2 . 6 k N




1 2 . 6




R a
1 1 2 . 9 7







( c)


F or




— — — x — =


U l timate x



=



is

— smal l er M — 2 8 6 . 5 9
0
— l arg er — M —
T herefore



















0 . 6 4 1 2
1 0 8 . 7 7



1 1 2 . 9 7 0








T he •
2 7 5
nu v A
1 . 0 , 0 . 8 7 6
L E / rY ,




4 . l 9 x l O
7 1 . 6 / 3 3 . 9




















9





= 3 8 4 3 8 4 > <
1 5 . 9 4 mm


= =
= 2 5 mm

< and

L


3 7
( b) S hear force diag ram
( c) B ending

2 0 6 S T R U C T U R A L














B asic






















t
W el ded
L ine of cu t













r
1 . 5

F l ang e




2 0 8 S T R U C T U R A L
























I



W arren g irder


ax es.



















A g Pc



where
is






2 1 0 S T R U C T U R A L















or









































A g Pc,







1 4 0 0

L E = L

l 4 0 0 k N
1 . O L 5 0 0 0



2 0 . 5 mm
1 1 0 l iO x
= 9 . 2 7 cm 9 2 . 7 mm
= 5 . 3 2 5 3 . 2






2 0 . 5 mm> 2 6 5

= 5 4 <



— —

5 4 2 6 5 2 2 3
= 9 4 2 6 5 1 3 3















l 4 0 0 k N



T abl e

F / P, from the S teel work D esig n G u ide to







M c.


= 6 5


M c,


=




p5 Z 5 =





x 1 5 2 x 3 7

M ,, 8 5


x

6 7

p5 Z 5 =
x 1 5 2 x
Pc


=
2 8 7 0 2 8 1 0 2 7 5 0 2 6 8 0 2 6 1 0 2 4 5 0 2 2 6 0 2 0 4 0 1 8 1 0 1 5 8 0 1 3 7 0 1 1 9 0
2 5 7 0 2 4 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 3 0 1 8 3 0 1 4 6 0 1 1 5 0 9 1 6 7 4 0 6 0 7 0 0
M b
2 5 9 2 5 3 2 4 4 2 3 5 2 2 0 2 0 6 1 9 4 1 8 2 1 7 2 1 6 3 1 5 5
M b,
2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 4 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 9 0 1 6 8 1 4 8 1 3 0 1 1 5
M ,, 2 5 3 2 4 5 2 3 5 2 2 1 2 0 7 1 9 4 1 8 0 1 6 6 1 5 2 1 3 8 1 2 3 1 0 8
M ry
9 0 8 2
P 2 3 8 0 2 3 3 0 2 2 7 0 2 2 2 0 2 1 6 0 2 0 2 0 1 8 6 0 1 6 8 0 1 4 8 0 1 2 9 0 1 1 2 0 9 7 0
2 1 3 0 1 9 8 0 1 8 3 0 1 6 7 0 1 5 1 0 1 2 0 0 9 4 3 7 5 0 6 0 5 4 9 6 0 0
M 5

2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 0 7 1 9 0 1 7 2 1 5 4 1 3 7 1 2 0 1 0 6 9 3
M rx



2 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 9 5 0 1 9 0 0 1 8 5 0 1 7 3 0 1 5 8 0 1 4 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 0 6 0 9 1 4 7 8 9
1 8 2 0 1 7 0 0 1 5 6 0 1 4 1 0 1 2 7 0 9 9 5 7 7 8 6 1 5 4 9 4 4 0 4 0 0
M 5 1 7 9 1 7 6 1 6 8 1 6 0 1 5 2 1 3 8 1 2 6 1 1 6 1 0 7 9 9 9 2 8 6
M 5 , 1 7 9 1 7 9 1 7 9 1 7 9 1 7 3 1 5 8 1 4 3 1 2 7 1 1 2 9 8 8 5 7 5
M m
1 7 8 1 7 5 1 7 0 1 6 2 1 5 3 1 4 4 1 3 4 1 2 4 1 1 4 1 0 5 9 4 8 4 7 4
M ry




1 5 6 1 5 2 1 4 4 1 3 7 1 3 0 1 1 7 1 0 6 9 6 8 7 8 0 7 4 6 9
M b,
1 5 6 1 5 6 1 5 6 1 5 6 1 5 0 1 3 7 1 2 4 1 1 0 9 6 8 4 7 4 6 4
M rx
1 5 2 1 4 8 1 4 1 1 3 3 1 2 5 1 1 6 1 0 8 9 9 9 0 8 1 7 3 6 4
M ry

1 5 8 0 1 5 5 0 1 5 1 0 1 4 7 0 1 4 3 0 1 3 3 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 7 0 9 3 4 8 0 4 6 9 1 5 9 5
5 9 0 4 6 5 3 7 4 3 0 5 0 0
1 3 7 1 3 2 1 2 5 1 1 8 1 1 1 9 9 8 8 7 9 7 2 6 6 6 0 5 6
M 5 , 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 7 1 3 1 1 2 0 1 0 8 9 5 8 3 7 3 6 4 5 5
M r, 1 3 3 1 2 9 1 2 4 1 1 6 1 0 9 1 0 2 9 4 8 6 7 9 7 1 6 3 5 5
M ry

1 2 8 0 1 2 4 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 6 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 6 0 9 2 8 7 8 3 6 4 7 5 3 2 4 4 1 3 6 9 3 1 2
9 1 0 7 8 7 6 7 1 5 6 8 4 1 1 3 0 6 0 0 0 0 0
M b
8 2 7 7 7 2 6 8 6 4 5 7 5 2 4 7 4 3 3 9 3 6 3 4
M b,
8 5 8 5 8 5 8 2 7 7 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 4 3 7 3 1 2 6 2 2
M m,
8 1 7 7 7 3 6 8 6 4 5 9 5 4 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5
M ry
3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 2 9 2 6
P,, 1 0 0 0 9 6 9 9 3 3 8 9 3 8 4 7 7 4 0 6 2 2 5 1 2 4 2 0 3 4 7 2 9 0 2 4 6
7 2 7 4 5 0 3 . 2 5 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 0
M b
6 7





8 0 2
7 0 6








with 1 . 0 .

and







1 . 0 L 5 0 0 0 mm

=
= 2 5 0 0 mm



6 6 . 4 6 6 . 4
= 8 . 9 cm 8 9 mm
= 5 . 1 6 5 1 . 6
1 2 . 5 mm 2 7 5


8 9


1 4 0 0

ir
L E Y = L / 2

5 6 2 7 5


4 8 2 7 5 2 2 4

— ax is, wil l




>

g iv en








— —
2 1 6 S T R U C T U R A L















( c)


( a) B eam spanning at rig ht
ang l es to the x — x ax is
( b) B eam spanning at rig ht
ang l es to the y — y ax is



F e


C ol u mn x — x ax is y — y ax is

C ol u mn
connection to
I fl ang e



( b) B eam
col u mn























































has





= 1





= Pb
where






where
is














obtain





PbS X .













_ _ B eam




,,
I
E ffectiv el y






2 0 9 . 6 2 0 5 . 2 mm

9 . 3
7 5 . 8 7 5 . 8
8 . 9 6 cm 8 9 . 6 mm
= 5 . 1 9 cm 5 1 . 9




+ — i--- +

beam
2 8 5 5 8 3 6 8 5 8 . 3 6 8

0 .






1 4 . 2 mm
2 7 5






— —

5 7 2 7 5 2 2 5
9 8 2 7 5 1 2 9








N ex t, Pb =
2 1 8




































5 0 mm.
7 5
F ig u re













( A g


( A g




characteristic

5 0 mm.
7 5




3 5 5







1 " C y
( b)


T he









R = 2 0 8 . 8
5 0

k g / rn




3 0 8 . 8 9 9 5 2 6 mm
1 1 0 cm2 1 1 0



Pinned

9 . 2 7 cm 9 2 . 7 mm
5 . 3 2 cm 5 3 . 2 mm
0 . 2 6 1 . 8 mm
L 5 0 0 0 mm


1 2



2 5 0 1 3
2 0 . 5 mm> 1 6 mm. T herefore 2 6 5



=
= 8 1



— — ax is

5 4 2 6 5 2 2 3




( A g A C )

= ( 1 1 0 0 0 -j -3 3 8 0 ) 1 5 5 = 1 4 3 8 0 x 1 5 5 = 2 2 2 8 9 0 0 N = 2 2 2 9 k N




















-
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
-
- a

Pl an
F ig u re



— .
_ _ _ _ _ _


is





— — w( a2 — O . 3 b2 )





pressu re








( N / mm2 )


( N / mm2 )
C 3 0









3 0
1 2

. = = 1 1 6 6 6 7 mm


,J ( l 3 4 2





2 0 . 5

E E E E s
D
6 3 . 8 5 6 3 . 8 5




— — w( a2 — 0 . 3 b2 )



3 5 0 3 5 0






[
x


2 0 . 1 4








S T E E L
T he
















S tru ctu ral


























perpendicu l ar


























g l u ed









































































































































I N D E X 2 3 1




























































































































































































































































































W et






S tru ctu ral E l ements D esig n M anu al is the stru ctu ral eng ineer's
'companion v ol u me' to the l atest editions of the fou r B ritish
S tandards on the stru ctu ral u se of timber, concrete, masonry and
steel work .
F or the stu dent at hig her technician or first deg ree l ev el it prov ides a
sing l e sou rce of information on the behav iou r and practical desig n
of the main el ements of the bu il ding stru ctu re.
W ith pl enty of work ed ex ampl es and diag rams, it is a u sefu l
tex tbook not onl y for stu dents of stru ctu ral and civ il eng ineering ,
bu t al so for those on cou rses in rel ated su bj ects su ch as
architectu re, bu il ding and su rv ey ing whose stu dies incl u de the
desig n of stru ctu ral el ements.
T rev or D ray cott is A ssistant Proj ect S erv ices M anag er with
L ancashire C ou nty C ou ncil 's D epartment of Property S erv ices and
for mary y ears has been part-time l ectu rer in stru ctu res at
L ancashire Pol y technic.
'S tu dents wil l find this an essential su pport tex t to the C odes of
Practice n their stu dy of el ement sizing . '
T he S tru ctu ral E ng ineer
'Prov ides simpl e theory combined with practical desig n, back ed u p
with a g ood sel ection of work ed ex ampl es . . . a wel come addition to
the recommended reading l ist. '
fV A T F H E J ou rnal
U T T E R W O R T H

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