# AUTOMATED LAYOUT DESIGN PROGRAM (ALDEP) Now we will examine Automated Layout Design Program (ALDEP).

ALDEP is basically a construction algorithm but it can also be used to evaluate two layouts. The algorithm uses basic data on facilities and builds a layout by successively placing the layout using relationship information between the departments. The basic inputs to ALDEP are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Length and width of facility. Area of each department. Minimum closeness preference (MCP) value. Sweep width. Relationship chart showing the closeness rating. Location and size of any restricted area.

The procedures adopted for using ALDEP are: Step 1: Input the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Length and width of facility. Area of each department. Minimum closeness preference (MCP) value. Sweep width. Relationship chart showing the closeness rating. Location and size of restricted area.

Step 2: One department is selected randomly and placed in the layout. Step 3: In this step, the algorithm uses minimum closeness required between departments for the selection of departments to be placed with an earlier placed department. Select the department having maximum closeness rating. If there is no department having minimum closeness preference then any department that remains to be placed is selected. Step 4: If all the departments are placed in the layout, go to step 5. Else, go to step 3. Step 5: Compute the total score of the layout. Step 6: If the total score required is the acceptable score, then go to step 7, else go to step 2. Step 7: Print the current layout and the corresponding score. The following example illustrate the approach in ALDEP, heuristics. Example Develop a layout for the following problem.

Let the size of layout be 15 × 12. and the sweep width be 2 (this means that we will fill 2 columns simultaneously).) Sweep pattern . area in sq. Number of unit squares for a department = dept. Layout and area requirements are shown in Table below. Place the first department in the upper left corner and extend it downward. Table: Layout Requirements Department Area (sq. ft) Number of unit squares 1 1200 30 2 800 20 3 600 15 4 1200 30 5 800 20 6 1200 30 7 1200 30 Total 7000 175 Assume one square in the layout to be equal to 40 sq.1. ft/area per square. Width of the extension is determined by the sweep width. ft. The next department begins where the previous department ended and follows the serpentine sweep pattern (shown in figure below. The relationship chart for the example is as follows: Department 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 3 4 O I E U E O U U I E U O I U I U I O U U U U U 2 E 5 O I U I A I 6 U I O U A E 7 U U U U I E In ALDEP the closeness rating uses the following notations with the following values: Chosen closeness rating Absolutely necessary A 64 Especially important E 16 Important 1 4 Ordinary O 1 Unimportant U 0 Undesirable X 1024 Randomly select the first department in the layout.

Placing department 2 in Layout Since the minimum closeness between departments required for selection of departments is I = 4. department 1. scan the relationship chart randomly to find the departments having closeness rating of 4 or greater with department 2. (2±-5) = 4 and (2±6) = 4. (2±4) = 16. Number of unit squares in department 1 be 20.Let department 2 be selected. Select any department say. Now. Placing department 1 in the layout Repeat the above procedure to get the final layout as shown in figure below. 20 square units are filled in 15 × 12 grids as shown in figure below. For the above case closeness rating for the pair (1±2) = 16. . Place department 1 in the layout in a serpentine pattern as shown in the figure below.

Table: Closeness rating Department pair Closeness rating (1. 5) 1 (4. 7) 4 (6. Fixed departments and their location.Final Layout After the final layout is obtained. CRAFT input requirements are: 1. Total number of departments. a number of different initial layouts should be used as input to the CRAFT layout. Area of departments. 4) 4 (1. 4. 6) 64 (4. . 5) 4 (5. 3. Determine department centroids. Initial layout. Cost per unit distance. Features of CRAFT The major features of CRAFT are as listed below: y y y Attempts to minimize transportation cost. 3) 1 (6. 7) 16 (7. 6. The procedures adopted for using CRAFT are: 1. 6) 0 (5. 2. Distance matrix used in the rectilinear distance between department centroids. 3) 0 Total 110 From the above. 2) 16 (1. Therefore. CRAFT allows the use of dummy departments to represent fixed areas in the layout. 5. Flow data. The score is the sum of the closeness ratings of all the neighbouring departments as shown in table below. where transportation cost = flow × distance × unit cost. the final layout is dependent on the initial layout. CRAFT being a path-oriented method. the layout score is 2 × 110 = 220. the score is calculated. A further iteration should be carried out to check if a better score can be achieved. Required the assumptions that: (1) move costs are independent of the equipment utilization and (2) move costs are linearly related to the length of the move.

only production departments are considered. The distances between the departments is taken as straight lines whereas in practice movement is usually rectangular along orthogonal lines. Determine transportation cost of each departmental interchange. 7. To illustrate the approach to develop a layout. Select and implement the departmental interchange that offers the greatest reduction in transportation cost. the technique only applies to the modification of an existing layout or new layouts where the outline shape is known. The initial layout is shown in figure below and the flow matrix in table ? ? ? ? Initial Layout Table: Flow Matrix Department A B C A 20 10 B 30 20 C 25 15 D 45 20 10 .2. An initial idea of the layout is required. in CRAFT heuristics consider the initial layout and flow data as in the following example. Consider department sharing a common border. 6. Use CRAFT algorithm to obtain layout. 3. Therefore. 5. Assume that the cost per unit transfer to be 1. Example Consider the following layout problem with unit cost matrix. Major disadvantages of using CRAFT CRAFT. No service departments are considered. inspite of its popularity has some major drawbacks. y y y Because the basis is the cost of materials handling. Repeat the procedure for the new layout until no interchange is able to reduce the transportation cost. 4. Calculate transportation cost for the layout. Calculate rectilinear distance between centroids.

5. 3. The possible department interchanges are as shown in table below.5 (XD.5.5 Using the rectilinear distance we draw the distance matrix as shown in table below. A 0 140 140 700 B 210 0 140 140 C 350 105 0 35 C 14 7 0 7 D 7 14 7 0 . 10.5. Department A B C D Table: Departmental interchanges Department pair Reason A-B Common border and equal area A-C Equal area A-D Common border and equal area B-C Common border and equal area B-D Equal area C-D Common border and equal area For the purpose of calculating material handling cost. In the same way as we calculated the total cost for the initial layout. Table: Distance Matrix Department A B A 0 7 B 7 0 C 14 7 D 7 14 Total material handling cost is calculated as follows: Total cost = flow × distance × unit cost Table: Total cost matrix D Cost 315 875 280 525 70 350 0 875 Total Cost 2625 Consider various departmental interchange for improvement. Departmental interchange is possible for departments having common boundary or equal area.5. and select the layout that gives the least total cost. interchange would mean change in the centroid. 3.5 (XB. YC) = 3. YD) = 3. YA) = 10.5 (XC.D 100 10 5 Centroids of all the departments in the initial layout are calculated and presented as given below: (XA. we calculate the total cost for each of the possible interchanges. YB) = 10. 10.