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Synthesis, Properties, and Applications
Mark Angelo A. Ordonio
BS Chemical Engineering
Prof. Ma. Sheila M. Simat
University of the Philippines Los Baños
Synthetic Diamonds: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications
Thesis Statement: Synthetic diamonds, upon differentiating them with natural diamonds
based on their discovery and synthesis, examination of their properties, advantages, and
the efficiency of their applications, exceed the value of the latter, making the former more
chosen by most consumers.
I. The diamond, being one of the world’s most important mineral resources, is the
hardest substance known by man on earth.
II. Today's diamonds can be classified in two general kinds: the real, natural
diamonds and the man-made synthetic diamonds.
A. Formed 100-200 km under the earth's surface about at most 3.2 billion years
ago, a natural diamond is the hardest natural material known to man.
1. Among the four polymorphs of carbon, it is the diamond which has the
most compact and strongly bonded structure.
2. The natural diamond possesses several exceptional qualities.
a. It is the only precious stone composed of a single chemical element.
b. Its extreme hardness is of great industrial importance.
c. The colored and pure ones are suitable for jewelry use.
d. In a brilliant cut gemstone, it exhibits strong dispersion and high
e. It is not easily affected by strongest acids and bases.
other methods were also discovered. The General Electric (GE) Company was able to heat carbon to about 3000 °C under a pressure of 3. 1.5 gigapascals for a few seconds. depending on the manufacturing process and its usage. Synthetic diamonds are named depending on the production method: high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) diamonds and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds are among the few. III. 1. b. 1.The discovery of the synthetic diamond industry started with numerous attempts to convert cheap forms of carbon into diamonds. 2. as opposed to a natural diamond. A synthetic diamond.B. Being the most common and ancient method. a. Hannay used a flame-heated tube. 3. The basic principle behind the carbon-diamond conversion involves extremely high temperatures. A synthetic diamond's properties may be inferior or superior to those of natural ones. After the use of high temperatures for synthetic diamond production. Hannay and Moissan heated charcoal up to 3500 °C with iron inside a carbon crucible. http___scribd. is produced in a technological process. B. the HPHT method involves three main press designs to supply the necessary pressure and temperature.com_mathematicko . 2. A. Moissan used an electric arc furnace. Ruff and Hershey succeeded after replicating the experiment.
4. http___scribd. 1.com_mathematicko . The split-sphere press involves ceramics for a more compact.a. The cubic press supplies pressure simultaneously onto all faces of a cube-shaped volume. and economical press. 2. Manpower would not be costly since the industries are small-scale. B. Ultrasound cavitation forms diamonds upon suspension of graphite in an organic liquid. Current development in synthesizing diamonds involves a combination of two or more manufacturing techniques or another contemporary research. A. Ecological gains include the negligibility of the environment as a primary resource for production and the minimal effect of pollution dispersal. The synthetic diamond industry has various ecological. and technical advantages. The belt press supplies pressure load to a cylindrical inner cell. 3. 2. Synthetic diamond industry needs no deep excavations and wide land area manipulation. CVD is a method of growing a diamond from a hydrocarbon gas mixture. C. economical. b. IV. Explosive detonation is a process of detonating certain carbon-containing explosives in a metal chamber. efficient. Economical gains include the reduced minimalism of financial resources and the reduced market price of the product. c. 1. Synthetic diamond industry minimizes its output pollution.
yellow. while synthetic diamonds usually give a tinge of blue or green. C. Most resources are available in the laboratory. clarity. electrodes. Synthetic diamonds make a good optical material. 4. Various properties can be compared to differentiate a natural diamond with the synthetic one. Cubic faces are rarely seen in natural diamonds. The easiest way to differentiate diamonds is by performing simple physical test or by observation. cut. Synthetic diamonds have both excellent thermal conductivity and negligible electrical conductivity. 3. http___scribd. Depressions are easily seen with magnification in natural diamonds. 2.com_mathematicko . 2. transistors. and carat) are the main things to consider when buying a diamond as a gemstone. Most industrial functions of synthetic diamonds are associated with hardness. 1. radiation detection devices. Natural diamonds can be colorless. not in synthetics. synthetic diamonds can serve as semiconductors. while are often seen in synthetic diamonds. In electronics. Technical gains include all industrial applications of the diamond. A. V. A diamond's four C's (color. and redox reaction detectors. 3. or brown. 1.2. 4. making them an ideal tool for machining and cutting.
com_mathematicko . A diamond can be also subjected to chemical experimentation. while these are present in substitutional sites in synthetic diamonds. C. D. http___scribd. and a lesser amount in synthetics. Synthetic diamonds. VI. surpass the worth of natural diamonds with the latter's close similarities with the former. Nitrogen-related defects are present in natural diamonds. The optical properties of a natural diamond are almost similar with that of a synthetic. Most impurities are visible in natural diamonds. 2. The thermal and electric properties between the two diamonds provide less differentiation.B. 1.
is the hardest known substance on earth.2 billion years ago.com_mathematicko . From the Greek word adamas which means ―invincible‖ or ―unconquerable. Carbon in its other traditional forms such as coal has been familiar since the discovery of fire (Field. Diamonds occur in two general deposits: volcanic pipes through which igneous rock masses of kimberlite rose up deep within the Earth. With this. the gem every woman would desire to have. and alluvial deposits. a natural diamond is the hardest natural material known to man since synthetics were discovered.‖ its extreme hardness made it one of the world's most important mineral resources. a diamond was thought to make its wearer invincible in battle as it fosters courage and it protects the wearer from various maladies. and as the archetypal covalent solid for many decades.The diamond. today's diamonds can be classified in two general kinds: the real. According to Holden (1994). diamonds can be cultivated in the laboratory in contrast to what man had known with the geological occurrence of diamonds. 1992). The name itself describes a nonmetallic mineral considered as one preeminent gem stone occurring in various crystal forms. With the progress of the advancement of technology. which were formed by the erosion of 1 http___scribd. Formed 100-200 km under the earth's surface about at most 3. having the octahedron as its common shape. even in antiquity. both inland and marine. Carbon as diamond has been known as agemstone for centuries. natural diamonds and the man-made synthetic diamonds. as well as the dodecahedron and the cube.
but will be synthesized to gaseous carbon dioxides if it is undergone to oxidation with 2 http___scribd. it is the only precious stone composed of a single chemical element. Formed at great depths at very high temperatures and high pressures. 1994) as well as high refractive index which gives its striking diamong luster (Holden.pipes over millions of years (Desautels. or large-scale mining processes. First. Second. and the strongest bases. it is not easily affected by strongest acids and bases. its atoms are organized in a close -packed cubic arrangement that gives the stone its hardness (Dana. Its withstanding hardness has a cutting resistance of 140 times greater than that of ruby and sapphire.g.com_mathematicko . only in crystal form (Wallis. the colored and pure ones are suitable for jewelry use. 1965). enables it to cut another diamond (Schumann. Fourth. Among the four polymorphs of carbon. natural diamond is capable of withstanding chemical reactions with the strongest acids. which then causes the gem to throw back the bright lashes of separated colors (Desautels.g. its extreme hardness is of great industrial importance. ammonia. e. 1994). since it is basically made of pure natural carbon—similar to that one seen in pencil leads. though different in each crystal face. 1949). The natural diamond possesses several exceptional qualities. it is the diamond which has the most compact and strongly bonded structure. gradual erosion. these stones come to the earth‘s surface upon a volcanic eruption. 1991). A real. in a brilliant cut gemstone. it exhibits strong dispersion or the ability to separate the various colors of the spectrum. e. hydrochloric acid. Its hardness. Third. 2006). Lastly.
. ―a synthetic has to possess all the chemical features of a natural stone. With these outstanding features. According to Wallis (2006). while a synthetic is the same imitating stone but has the same chemical composition with that of a real chemical equivalent of it (Wallis. as opposed to a natural diamond created in a geological process. depending on the manufacturing process and its usage. it is identical to the gem that was created over millions of years under the earth. Synthetic diamonds may also give the buyer a second look. to wear one at a fraction of the price. the fact that the diamond can be confused with many gemstones. among the few. is not generally 3 http___scribd. In fact. Synthetic diamonds are named depending on the production method: high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) diamonds and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds are among the few. Synthetics allow the person who cannot afford that beautiful ruby. A synthetic diamond's properties may be inferior or superior to those of natural ones. A synthetic diamond.com_mathematicko .air at temperatures as high as 900 C (Szenberg. In appearance. sapphire or emerald etc. the diamond has been commonly labeled as the king of gemstones. 1973). a more vulgar term for the synthesis of gemstones. It should be differentiated from a stimulant. although not in the legitimate retail trade. is produced in a technological process. and zircon. 2006). A colorless diamond may similarly look to various crystals like beryl. sapphire. a stone that assumes the imagery of a real diamond with its different chemical composition and is made of glass or plastic. can lead to fraud.‖ Gemstone counterfeiting. topaz.
and lithium whereas Moissan used an electric arc furnace from hot molten mixtures of iron and carbon (Wentorf. The earliest successes were reported by James Ha nnay and Henri Moissan. and all that. manganese. the General Electric (GE) Company devised a new strategy by heating carbon to about 3000 °C under a pressure of 3. The basic principle behind the carbon-diamond conversion involves extremely high temperatures. wherein they heated charcoal up to 3500 °C with iron inside a carbon crucible: Hannay used a flame-heated tube from hydrocarbons.com_mathematicko . 1987). 4 http___scribd. The discovery of the synthetic diamond industry started with numerous attempts to convert cheap forms of carbon into diamonds. iron. 2001). buyers are advised for a gemologist‘s consultation then (Desautels. Lavoisier‘s discovery that diamond was simply carbon brought the scientific community to synthesize diamonds. Otto Ruff and Williard Hershey followed succeeded after replicating the experiment.intended for fraud but to supplement the relatively small supply o f naturally obtained gemstones. including their alloys and compounds (Wentorf. no one was unable to repeat the experiment. 1994). For authenticity‘s sake. and after them. cobalt. The cooling iron exerted tremendous pressure on the dissolved charcoal which is mostly carbon. bone oil. forming tiny diamonds (Keen. 2001). However. Effective catalysts used to hasten the procedure were the molten forms of chromium.5 gigapascals for a few seconds.
After the use of high temperatures for synthetic diamond production. pressure. In contrast to the conventional HPHT synthetic process. the cubic press supplies pressure simultaneously onto all faces of a cube-shaped volume.com_mathematicko .000 atm. the HPHT method subjects graphite to conditions similar to those which natural diamonds undergo (Portsmouth. 1991). 1995). efficient. It involves three main press designs to supply the necessary pressure and temperature: the belt press which supplies pressure load to a cylindrical inner cell. Physical and chemical analysis of the composition of stones would ratify this claim since both 5 http___scribd. 2003). other methods were also discovered. which is the growing a diamond from a hydrocarbon gas mixture. Another scheme is the CVD method. typically in the region of one-tenth of atmospheric pressure from carbon-bearing gases such as CH4. otherwise. small innumerable diamond crystals will grow (Davis. Small and industry-suitable diamonds are synthesized from graphite after subjecting it to a temperature of 1400 C and pressures up to 60. Being the most common and ancient method. As a result. Larger diamonds were also synthesized but are done expensively (Holden. and the split-sphere press involves ceramics for a more compact. and gas composition. It considers the following for synthesizing single-crystal diamonds: temperature. CVD synthetic diamonds are produced at much lower pressure. more carbon atoms are dissolved from the carbon source located at the hotter region and transported to the cooler region that then precipitates on the seed crystal — located at the bottom of the vessel — to form a new synthetic diamond crystal. and economical press.
On the other hand. Other methods considered rare include explosive detonation and ultrasound cavitation. As methods for growing diamond. and the latter is naturally granted from the earth. ultrasound cavitation forms diamonds upon suspension of graphite in an organic liquid. improve. Following atmospheric pressure and room temperature. has highly diversified systems development efforts. as research and development is done at low costs. this technique may require minimal equipment and procedures but has not had industrial use at present. The activation of methane in CVD. and as science finds 6 http___scribd. However. as well as a vast option of precursor gases containing carbon such as alcohols and halides yields to the diamond mineral (Spear and Frenklanch. converting carbon to diamond. both at high pressure and by chemical vapor deposition. 1994). Contrary to HPHT researches. carbon. and will infuse substantial knowledge into the industry (Russell. 1994).com_mathematicko . Explosive detonation is a process of detonating certain carbon containing explosives in a metal chamber. has undergone a different environment to achieve ideality. only that the former is laboratorymade. CVD diamond researches are more open and encourage systems development. wherein during the explosion.stones are basically made of the same element. the temperature and pressure inside the chamber elevates. These characteristics require a lesser economic subsidy as compared to naturally-obtained diamond industry. a combination of two or more manufacturing techniques or another contemporary research has be en utilized for the current development in synthesizing diamonds.
manpower. these idealities do not hold true for some gemstones. the real diamond. the potential applications of diamond's superlative properties appear boundless. The winning of diamonds from the host rock is done today with a great deal of machinery. By analysis. to indomitable optical windows. The rise of the number of researches intended for studying the synthesis of these laboratory-made diamonds has. This ascend lead the scientific community to choose the synthetic diamond over its mimicked counterpart. synthetic diamonds. The synthesis of such diamonds has emerged basically for the need of the diamond market to sell diamonds at a reduced price without reducing the quality. For an economic thought. whose characteristics are more than what is expected with the natural ones. However. to unscratchable surfaces . market trade. and the like. more specifically. in fact.com_mathematicko .ways to take advantage of diamond's properties. an object‘s imitation has always had a lesser value in comparison with the real one. or are as satisfying as the latter are. the function and purpose of existence of these imitations are not as much as what the imitated objects are. Generally.diamond is an obvious choice. From super electronics. disturbingly increasing as technology and development is concerned.maybe the next watch bezel . laboratory-made diamonds may require the latest technology to make such but it is not as expensive as extracting diamonds from the earth considering the equipment. Around 90% of industrial diamonds are synthesized at high pressures 7 http___scribd.
This is to keep the value of the diamond high and to stop the hesitant exercises in the diamond trade. as well as influences the prices of the brokers through its selling scheme (Schumann. giving the famous name ‗blood diamonds‘) and exploitation of mining workers (Davis. and can be tailor-made for efficiency in each application (Wentorf. For example. there has been a situation which focused on finding new sources of supply for gems for which demand is increasing. underground. However. diamonds has been a dependable investment through all political and economical inconsistencies. 2003).because its price is relatively low. Nevertheless. For a social side. a decrease in supply would give the lower level producers an option to increase their products prices since the market is very competitive. By Law of Supply and Demand. or at its maximum. the use of artisanal mining. and on finding new uses for the industrials whose supplies are growing (Suits. 1965). according to 8 http___scribd. a small-scale type of mining which involves manual digging and sifting through mud or gravel river-bank alluvial deposits with bare hands or small tools. African rebellion. However. is essentially a misuse of manpower. another is to lessen.com_mathematicko . large-scale alluvial. De Beers Diamond Trading Company. to avoid cases of insurrection (in particular. 2003). There has never been a fixed and reliable supply of large and pure diamonds. 1960). 2001). maintains huge stockpiles of mined stones and strongly controls supply (Davis. coastal and deep sea. the world‘s largest company in industrial diamond mining: open-pit. and manufacturers are reluctant to disclose detailed sales information.
Another is the continuous desecration of the environment since real diamonds are obtained via extraction. large scale mining operations use bulldozers and excavators to extract the metals and minerals from the soil. these four general categories decide the value of a diamond and usually vary between the same size diamonds. trees and vegetation are to be cleared and burned. These chemicals go through pipes and are often discharged into bodies of water. Various properties can be compared to differentiate a natural diamond with the synthetic one. Grading a diamond upon its color is based on how colorless it 9 http___scribd. ―When you‘re buying mined diamonds.com_mathematicko .Jewelers Circular Keystone magazine senior editor Rob Bates. 2007). mercury. The easiest way to differentiate diamonds is by performing simple physical test or by observation. or methyl mercury are used. clarity. When you‘re buying them from a machine. Mining is one of the main causes o f deforestation. One way of distinguishin g a diamond as a gem from another is by observing its four C‘s: color. chemicals such as cyanide. diamond mining can be neglected as one human rights issue since the diamond industry has been discovering innovations of its practices of geodetic searching of stones with the Kimberly process. With the ground completely bare. In order to amalgamate the extractions. cut.‖ he added (Wenzel. you‘re helping communities in Africa. and carat. which contaminates all living organisms within it and ultimately the people who depend on the marine animals for source of food and economic livelihood. you‘re helping 20 guys in Florida.
It does not apply to gems as their weight varies with their density. Due to the fact that terms and definitions in grading for color were not uniform and often confusing. as cubic faces are rarely seen in natural diamonds. being the only property that is dependent on human involvement. and growth lines affect clarity. To grade for it. wherein a gram is equivalent to 5 carats (Wallis. yellow. size. type and location of internal flaws or surface imperfections visible in a diamond via magnification. 1965). Enclosed minerals. or light brown.com_mathematicko .is: natural diamonds can be colorless. The first and simplest cut of the crystal is referred as ‗point cut. Next. symmetry. 10 http___scribd. and outer marks are taken into consideration. cut or proportion. but formerly were called ―flaws‖ or ―carbon spots‘ (Schumann. while ar e often seen in synthetic diamonds. cleavages. The more a stone weighs the more valuable it will be. is highly considered since it gives the gem‘s brilliance. proportions. Lastly. 2006). the type and shape of cut. Clarity then refers to the amount. the higher the value. experts had arrived with the use of a standard sample collection for consistency in color grading. the carat determines the relative size and weight of the diamond. t hey are collectively called inclusions. Carat is recognized international standard for weighing gems other than pearls. Depressions are easily seen with magnification in natural diamonds. the best proportioned ones throw back the most light. the ―cleaner‖ a diamond is. Brown and black diamonds may also occur.‘ which is basically the octahedral shape with all eight facets polished. whereas synthetic diamonds usually give a tinge of blue or green. not in synthetics.
A line made with a black felt tip pen on the table of a diamond shall break 11 http___scribd. a diamond's four C's are the main things to consider when buying a diamond as a gemstone. Place an unmounted stone. diamonds of good color and perfection are used for gem purposes. 1995). Various grades and criteria were tabulated and are to be satisfied for a diamond to pass a gemstone level. One commonly known application is for gem production. the optical. A set of distinguishing tips are presented by Wallis (2006): 1. In addition. Nitrogen related defects are present in natural diamonds.A diamond can be also subjected to chemical experimentation. for both satisfies the diamond being a ‗girl‘s best friend. while these are present in substitutional sites in synthetic diamonds. and a lesser amount in synthetics (Portsmouth. thermal and electric properties of the two diamonds provide less information since these quantities are almost the same in bot h diamonds. However. Gem-quality diamonds grown in a laboratory are identical to naturally-occurring ones. diamonds synthesized in the laboratory can acquire the thermo-electrical properties of a natural diamond via ion implantation (Portsmouth.‘ Generally. A print seen through the table is not a diamond. 2. A synthetic diamond's usage is comparatively similar with that of a natural one. most impurities are visible in natural diamonds. Again. table up on a piece of printed paper.com_mathematicko . Upon observing the thermal and electrical conductivities at room temperature. not before that they only serve scientific purposes. 1995).
and show signs of shipping. 3.com_mathematicko . exciting the atoms to higher energy states. the stone is probably not genuine. Ultraviolet fluorescence – Higher energy photons are imposed rather than electrons to excite the atoms. causing vibration of inter-atomic bonds. In the absence of a thermal conductivity tester. a cheap diamond shall feel colder upon touching it with the tip of the tongue as well as a breath on its face will clear slower than that of a diamond. Magnetic tests – The test of responsiveness of a diamond to a very powerful magnet or any magnetic field. On a 10x loupe. Microscopy – An optical technique that aids the use of a microscope to provide surface features of the crystal. 3. A careful study of the stone through the kite facets will show a doubled image of the opposite facet edges. 5. Cathodo-luminescence – A vacuum is used to impose electrons on a diamond crystal. 4. Experimental techniques were also presented by Portsmouth (1995): 1. not sharp. 12 http___scribd. 5.if the diamond is not genuine. if the facets are rounded. A diamond is singly refractive. 4. 2. Absorption spectrometry – White light is shone on a diamond and certain frequencies in the infrared region of the spectrum excite impurities in the lattice. causing an emission of monochromatic radiation.
and inclusion-dominant that disables them to be used as jewelry. electrodes. In addition. 1994). various names for synthetic stones were also developed for ease in distinguishing. but to obtain a semi-conducting diamond. abrasive powder for grinding wheels and cutting and polishing gems. et al. are off -color and flaw.. in contrast to gemstones. based on the gem‘s composition. Nonetheless. synthetic diamonds have both excellent thermal conductivity and negligible electrical conductivity. and other similar tools are among the few (Desautels. The diamond itself as an electronic material observes a material‘s electrical and thermal properties to note their relative capability at the limits to handle speed and power. These shall be declared on the sales receipt or certificate upon the issuance of the stone. glass-etching pencils. 1994). their extreme hardness offers them a vast stage of applications in the industry (Kraus. transistors. Diamonds for industrial applications.Treatments on the diamond shall be also observed or noted. and redox reaction detectors. A more productive way of synthesizing diamonds is for industrial use. and aluminum are 13 http___scribd. the addition of boron. In electronics. On the other hand. radiation detection devices. synthetic diamonds can also serve as semiconductors. making them an ideal tool for machining and cutting.com_mathematicko . Most industrial applications of synthetic diamonds are associated with hardness. 1959). Its basic properties encompass an electronic potential‘s characteristics (Davidson. diamond -tipped glass cutters. Diamond-studded rotary bits for drilling oil wells and boring tunnels. beryllium.
2007). Thus. 2001). largely as windows for infrared instrumentation (Seal.‖ No matter what a diamond‘s classification maybe. a semiconducting apparatus. and in nanotechnology-inspired medical devices (Wenzel. but an injection of boron and similar elements upon the carbon‘s lattice gives it a positive charge. and most probably. Its optical transparency is one property that makes it valuable for a gem. does not affect a consumer‘s preference on what to use as gem or for industrial application. the thermal conductivity. The driver of the diamond vision is the combination of its superlative properties. ―Man-made diamonds will be with us in many different ways we can only begin to imagine 14 http___scribd.com_mathematicko . and transparency of diamonds attract experts for the next-generation optics. synthetic diamonds make a good optical material. 1994). stiffness. real or synthetic. but is also of great importance for the science and technology community as a good material for optical components. One example is an electricity-conducting device for microchip circuits: real diamonds are intrinsic insulators. since both types have undeniably almost the same characteristics ranging from the tiniest atom existing on every facet of the stone to the genuine appearance of the gem.employed (Wentorf. Yoder (1994) concluded: ―Choose virtually any characteristic property of a material—structural. synthetic diamonds do surpass the worth of natural diamonds with the latter's close similarities with the former. Lastly. electrical or optical—and the value associated with a diamond will almost always represent an extremist position among all materials considered for that property. digital data storage. Consequently.
sharing a fast-growing market for diamond jewelry. a large two-tier market will develop. the synthetic diamond which should be more considered whether for consumer‘s or for a scientific community‘s use for it has surpassed even the qualities of a real diamond without risking the social.‖ Apollo Diamond‘s chief executive Bryant Linares stated. natural and synthetic diamonds will equally coexist. Ultimately. As technology surges forward. and environmental considerations of the planet. Synthetic diamonds are as much a threat to the diamond industry as they are a threat to the way people think about the diamond industry. undoubtedly. it is. consumers all over the world will be buying synthetic diamonds. 15 http___scribd. With enough facts stated. cultured diamonds or whatever name the legal and marketing people agree upon.right now that will materially affect everybody on the planet. with no uncertainty. political.com_mathematicko . economic.
S. Chicago: J. Seal.).L. CVD Diamond Markets in the 21 st Century. (1991). M. Spear & J.com_mathematicko . J. California: Academic Press Inc. Inc.com/scales/synthetic-diamondsfinal-report. IX of Lexicon Universal Encyclopaedia. (11th ed. San Diego. M. (1987). J. Inc.H. Vol. pp. The Encyclopaedia of Gemstones.. Dismukes (Ed. S. Blackwood (Ed. Holden. Diamond.dendritics.References Cited Dana. P. New York: John Wiley and Sons. In P. Spear & J. In K. 2010 from www. New York: Airmont Publishing Company. (1994). Distinguishing Between Natural and Synthetic Diamonds. Desautels. Ferguson Publishing Company. J. VI of Lexicon Universal Encyclopaedia. Vol. (1949). The New Diamond Age. Vol. (1994). Inc. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group. Field.G.F. L. September). In K. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. III of The Science Library. E. Schumann. Davis. Russell. (1959). (11th ed. Diamond Electrical Properties and Electronic Device Behaviour.). J. (2003. Hurt.asp. New York: Lexicon Publications. E.). Inc. Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond. (1965).). (1994). (1994). Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. 35-41. P. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 16 http___scribd. Inc. (1992). J.). New York: Lexicon Publications. Wired. Industrial Applications of Single-Crystal Diamond. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. W. (1995). Minerals and How to Study Them. (3rd ed. W. & Camp. Kraus.. E. Davidson.).). Keen. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Mineralogy: An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals. Spear & J. Portsmouth. Desautels. Gemstones of the World. Chemistry. In K. Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. C. Inc. Dismukes (Ed. Inc. (1994). Retrieved on July 12. Gem. Dismukes (Ed. Inc. M.
Retrieved on July 12. Spear & J. K. Buying. Inc. Yoder. M. Jr. (1994). Identifying. E. Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. M.H. Mechanics for CVD Diamond Growth.html. Wenzell. R.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. M. Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. New York: General Electric Laboratory. K. Synthetic Diamonds Still a Rough Cut.com/Synthetic-diamonds-still-a-rough-cut/2100-11395_36159542.cnet. Dismukes (Ed. (2001). Woodbridge.Spear. Schenectady. (1994). Gemstones: Understanding. New York: John Wiley and Sons.com_mathematicko . Spear & J. (1960). C. 2010 from news. Suits. (2006). Szenberg. Dismukes (Ed. & Frenklach. New York: Basic Books.). The Economics of the Israeli Diamond Industry. Diamond. The Synthesis of Diamond—A Case History in Modern Science. (1973). Wallis. Synthetic. (2007). 17 http___scribd. Inc. Inc. New York: John Wiley and Sons. In K. Wentorf. Vol. VIII: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology. The Vision of Diamond as an Engineered Material. In K. Inc. Suffolk: Antique Collectors‘ Club Ltd.
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