SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

SHRI SAPTARSHI NAG, WBCS (EXE), BVSC & AH

http://saptarshinag1.blogspot.com/

E -WASTE

E waste or electronic waste is loosely defined as discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices like computers, printers, scanners ,CD/DVDs, mobile phones, microwave ovens, refrigerators, televisions etc. Often they are disposed off without thinking the consequences and they often release toxic and harmful elements like Lead, Silicon, Cadmium, Mercury etc, thereby causing irreparable damage to the environment and human health. This has much to do with the growing consumer culture all over the world. In a recent data published by the Indian Institute of Material Management, the total obsolete computers originating from government offices, business houses, industries and household is of the order of 2 million nos. There has been much debate over the disposal of such ewaste. It has become a lucrative business for some unscrupulous brokers who call themselves recyclers, of the developed nations, to dump such products to developing nations. Nations like China, South Korea or Taiwan have been engaged in refurbishing such used products. Such refurbishing has threatened the existence of traditional manufacturing markets in countries like India. The hazards associated with such unprocessed e -waste are plenty

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Some of such products are carcinogenic The degrading materials release toxic substances which again turns water unsafe Air and soil pollution May lead to death of animals upon grazing on the fields where such wastes are dumped Loss of physical beauty of the environment

The Solutions

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Strict international legislations on disposal, procurement and dumping of such products Developing new technologies based on the socio economic patterns of different regions for recycling of such products Strict laws to regulate trade in e -waste. Global consensus on the negative impacts of such wastes and international cooperation to combat the situation

In India, although the total e-waste production is much less than that of US or EU, India suffers from absence of sophisticated technologies to recycle the waste materials. At present there are only two formal units of recycling of such waste materials in India, whereas most of the recycling work is done by informal sectors, often ignoring the socio-economic status or demographic patterns of different regions. Although rules like Hazardous waste (management and handling) Rules, 2003 and Municipal solid waste (Management & handling) Rules, 2000 exist, the implementation have not been up to the mark so far.
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MOBILE NUMBER PORATBILITY

Mobile number portability is basically switching from one service provider to another without changing the number. Here the old service provider is known as "donor" and new service provider is known as "recipient”. In the International system, the customer is required to contact the "recipient" to make necessary arrangements for the process and is known as "recipient led porting" whereas UK is the only country where" donor led porting" exists. The system routs all calls, messages and other services to the new service provider database through a central database. In India, the government has decided to launch MNP from December. The country will be divided into two service zones and eleven licensed service areas. However in the Indian context some problems may arise like- quick spread of mobile virus, less memory capacity to bear the switching exhaustion and less capacity of the batteries to handle the additional load. http://www.saptarshinag1.blogspot.com/

The speed of Super computers is denoted by FLOPS along with certain prefixes like TFLOPS(Tera FLOPS). http://saptarshinag1. Presently IBM's Road Runner is the fastest super computer in the world. there is need for more works on external storage bandwidth. India’s EKA installed in Computational Research Laboratory (CRL) is world's 4th fastest super computer.blogspot. quantum mechanics etc.com/ .PFLOPS(PetaFLOPS)etc.SUPER COMPUTER Super computer is basically a computer with higher processing capacity and therefore it is able to do calculations at much faster rate than the normal computers. weather houses or various research organizations and universities. Such computer use variants of LINUX or UNIX as Operating systems. It is required for calculation intensive tasks like molecular modeling. weather forecasting.A particular problem "Grand Challenge" requires semi infinite computer resources and thereby needs super computers. It is widely used in military researches. Blue Gene is a Computer architectural Project to design and build super computers. The challenges before super computers are that these become heated very early and as the process and integrate data very fast. nuclear researches. CDAC'S Pram Padma is the first super computer of India.

In 2009. It simultaneously enables to transfer voice and non voice data like downloading or uploading. thereby bridging the urban-rural techno divide.20 billion. sending and receiving e-mails and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G service is video telephony. It promises to improve mobile phone operational standards in India by providing better network connectivity. endorsed and accredited by International Telecommunication Union. health hazards due to excessive electromagnetic waves are some of the reasons behind its lack of popularity in the initial periods despite having tremendous potentials for future. Presently the Government of India has allowed five foreign players to bid for 3G Spectrum. BSNL launched its 3G service in India. although the response even after half a year has not been satisfactory.blogspot.com/ . The bandwidth needed for 3G is 5 to 20 MHz.8 Mbps. The maximum download speed provided is 14. http://saptarshinag1. facilitation of e-governance and ecommerce services. This will provide the service providers the opportunity to provide better quality service over a large number of subscribers. Many hazards like high operation cost. The technology followed in 3G is IMT 2000.3G TECHNOLOGY 3G or 3rd Generation Technology is the latest technology for the up gradation of mobile phone services.4 Mbps whereas upload speed may be as high as 5. The floor price is $20.

Laser uses a gain medium inside a highly reflective optical cavity. hair removal. not necessarily visible. . unlike other lights where the light is spatially incoherent. laser is gradually replacing radar for locating targets. This feature is used for security purposes. In research laser spectroscopy is a popular field.Since then it has become multi billion dollar industry. The single largest use of laser is in optical storage devices such as compact discs where a semiconductor laser less than 1 mm wide scans the whole disc. Laser shows are popular during various festivals and ceremonies. it is widely used in fiber optics communication. Besides. eye treatment etc. Light which passes through the cavity becomes amplified. In defense. Laser is usually labeled with a safety class number to avoid any danger. printers. In industry laser is used for welding. scanners etc. cutting or marking. In product development it is widely used in developing pointer mouse. low divergent beams or can be converted into ones by using optical tools like lenses. Theodore Maiman demonstrated the first working laser back in 1960. It may be electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. kidney stone treatment.LASER AND ITS VARIOUS USES LASER or light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is spatially coherent which means that the light is emitted in narrow. It is being used in medical technology as well for blood less surgery.

and face recognition etc . It is a more accurate method of identification than the presently used password or PIN systems. e. . People have to remember their passwords. the features of retina may be changed with aging or eye diseases and thus impossible to recover the data. It is fast.g. PIN may be cracked. reliable and accurate system.It is widely used in financial systems. Certain principles of biometrics • • Universality of character Permanent nature of character. law enforcement sectors etc. However biometrics is free from such hassles. It has much potential to be used in homeland security. ID proofs may be lost or stolen. IT security. retinal scan. immigration.saptarshinag1.blogspot. physiological or behavioral characteristics like finger prints.although retina scan is a very useful method.com/ BIOMETRICS Biometric is an automatic method of recognizing a person by physical.http://www. easy to use. .

These are generally reducing agents like Theol or polyphenols. facial thermography. That has been an obstacle in the rising popularity of biometrics. Vitamin E (Alfa Tocopherol).blogspot. behaviometrics or behavioral biometrics like mouse gesture. . heart diseases. However strong reducing agents like tannin or oxalic acid bind to dietary Fe or Zn and cause nutritional imbalance. Glutathione. However. it must be remember that. Parkinson’s disease.• Technology must be difficult to be deceive Apart from the above mentioned systems newly emerging biometric techniques like keystroke dynamics (here a person is recognized by his typing behavior and speed). Oxidative stress in the body produces free radicals which cause irreparable damage to the body systems and may in turn result in cancer. Antioxidants are of two types-lipid soluble (prevents per oxidation of cell membranes) and water soluble (reacts with oxidative agents in plasma or cytoplasm).com/ ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidants are the molecules which prevent oxidation of other molecules.Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). http://saptarshinag1. melatonin are some of the important antioxidants. vein scan are also becoming popular. Antioxidants prevent the formation of free radicals and thereby prevent numerous diseases. in biometrics once a character is chosen. diabetes etc. Alzheimer disease. it is not possible to replace it with another one.

e. namely • • • As supplement after exercise Food preservation Lubricant and cosmetics http://saptarshinag1. e.."Golden Rice" contains high amount of Beta Carotene Drought resistant/salinity resistant Disadvantages: • Potential gene flow from cultivated to wild species . . Advantages: • • • • • • • • Herbicide resistant: Due to insertion of herbicide tolerant genes.g.BT Cotton against Ball Worm and Bt Maize against Maize Borer. Transgenic plants where the plant genome is altered by Recombinant DNA Technology also belong to this category.Antioxidants have other uses as well. Soybean. Pest resistant Virus. e. corn are the common crops which are used for producing GM Crops.blogspot. bacteria.g..com/ GM CROPS GM Crops or Genetically modified crops have their DNA modified through genetic engineering. canola.Monsanto's Round Up Ready Soya bean Insect resistant: By inserting Bacillus thurigiensis into the gene.g.. cotton. fungus resistant High yielding Reduction in the cost of pesticides Addition of essential nutritional factors through genetic engineering into such crops.

enforcement of patent in such crops is often contentious http://saptarshinag1. It is widely being used in software development. Psychology. Such machines will posses qualities like knowledge. e. The term was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956. game . In terms of moving and manipulating objects this field is very closely related to robotics.g. communication.g. reasoning.recent threat to the existence of monarch butterfly Emergence of new viruses/ diseases through antigenic shift. cognitive science and economics.-Mad Cow Disease( caused by Prion) is believed to have emerged from indiscriminate plantation of Monsanto's Round Up Ready Soybean Due to potential gene flow.He described it as “the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines". Thus it will create a bridge between computer science and Linguistics. But AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. logic.com/ ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines and it also refers to the section of science which seeks to create it. perception apart from the general ability to move and manipulate objects. It is also known as synthetic intelligence or computational intelligence.. The basic objective of this section of science is to create machines capable of thinking.blogspot.• • • There is apprehension that these crops will harm not only insect pests but also other insects and thus will disturb eco stability. planning. e.

However as there is no concrete definition of intelligence till now. information analysis. its addiction is increasing. the grading of AI or the success of it. Michael F. is difficult to judge. Junk food has been a part of the consumer culture for years and now it has become an addiction for many people. speech recognition etc. The effects of junk food are as below Drowsiness Obesity Lethargy Heart diseases . spending millions of bucks by the corporates in advertisement to promote junk food as symbol of modern lifestyle is also another reason for its sky high popularity.blogspot. which is one reason that millions of busy people don't think about a healthy diet or spend the time to prepare healthy meals.development especially chess. http://saptarshinag1. Moreover.it contains too much unnecessary calories and fat which are useless and harmful to human health.com/ JUNK FOOD The famous microbiologist Dr. Junk food contains little or zero nutritious value to the diet . and with every passing day. Junk foods are very convenient to purchase and consume. Jacobson coined the phrase "Junk Food" in 1972 to describe unhealthy or nonnutritious food. Junk food is also very popular among children.

Local weather advisories are being sent through the Village Resource Centers.High blood pressure To conclude. wind . intends to bring out a weather and climate atlas of the State in the near future.com/ Advisories on precipitation and temperature anomalies are being issued to the State Government. (ISRO) the Kerala State Planning Board (KSBP) and the Centre for Monsoon Studies of the Cochin University for Science and Technology (Cusat). Project Antariksha seeks to reach real-time data. It is a collaborative project among the Indian Space Research Organization. http://saptarshinag1. pest infestation and yield prediction for major crops would be provided to specific user groups through KSPB. Two years into implementation. on a Web-based system to reach the user groups. including rainfall. Farm advisories on irrigation. humidity. it can be said that junk foods can be used occasionally. a pioneering effort at networking Kerala through an array of satellite-based automatic weather stations. http://saptarshinag1. but using them on a regular basis is very unhealthy and harmful.com/ PROJECT ANTARIKSHA Project Antariksha.blogspot. Proper knowledge about the nature of rainfall. the project has seen 58 automatic weather stations being set up over Kerala and two on the Lakshadweep Islands.blogspot.

http://saptarshinag1. Extinction is a natural event and. in so short a time. species and ecosystems are threatened with destruction to an extent rarely seen in earth history. from a geological perspective. Over-hunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more. However the real success of the ambitious project depends on how the user groups.5 billions years of evolution. Probably only during the handful of mass extinction events have so many species been threatened. and their relative abundance.blogspot. .e. due to human actions. species. In the modern era. routine.expected to help people extrapolate the extreme weather conditions to the larger global warming and climate change scenarios. The data From the AWSs is .com/ BIODIVERSITY-CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF ITS DEGENERATION Biological diversity refers to the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur.speed/direction and solar radiation will help them arrive at preventive measures as well as initiate judicious plans for raising production and controlling pest incidence and diseases with minimum costs.. genes. Below are the reasons. mostly local rural bodies can use the available data by making them publicly available and educate them on how to take effective preventive measures. The term encompasses different ecosystems. i. The biodiversity found on earth consists of millions of biological species as a result of 3. such as whales and many African large mammals.

the greater the vulnerability of species to loss of habitat to agricultural land. Climate change may simply shift these distributions but. While not commonly a cause of extinction. In the future. The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely determined by climate. The more specific these needs and localized the habitat. Commercial hunting. Habitat loss/degradation/fragmentation is an important cause of known extinctions. this promises to become the cause of mass extinctions caused by human activity. occurring in small isolated pools in the US southwest.Most extinction over past several hundred years is mainly due to over-harvesting for food. The Military and the Environment . or whose habitat corresponds to the degraded state associated with human activity Pollution from chemical contaminants certainly poses a further threat to species and ecosystems. the only species that survive are likely to be those whose habitats are highly protected. is the principal threat. and threatened by contamination. both legal and illegal (poaching). As deforestation proceeds in tropical forests. and profit. are examples. roads and cities. A changing global climate threatens species and ecosystems. for a number of reasons. fashion. livestock. it likely can be for species whose range is extremely small. as is the distribution of ecosystems and plant vegetation zones (biomes). plants and animals may not be able to adjust. Several species of desert pupfish. All species have specific food and habitat needs.

In some nations. This in turn affects human health as well because of lack of resources for a balanced diet for many communities due to over exploitation of the species. Consequences Food Security: Biodiversity ensures our food security. the following illustrate some of the issues: In the Gulf War and Kosovo crisis. Various mangroves or coral reefs act as excellent natural buffers to protect the lands from floods or storms. In Okinawa. Thus indiscriminate hunting of animals leads to food crisis. Sometimes. the US and UK used depleted Uranium which have environmental consequences as well. Thus loss of coastal biodiversity makes the coastal communities prone to natural disasters. . By no means a complete set of examples. Natural Disasters: Loss of biodiversity has resulted in increasing natural disasters in the last few decades or so. such as the United States. the large US military bases also affect the environment for the local population. In the Vietnam war. the scale of problems they leave when they move out of a training area or conflict is considerable. various forces often kill gorillas and other animals as they encroach upon their land. In the Democratic Republic of Congo.Many military forces of the world also have an effect on the environment. the military can be exempt from many environmental regulations. the US used Agent Orange to defoliate the entire Vietnamese rainforest ecosystem. The effects are still being felt.

Energy security: Even today people of many communities and countries depend upon traditional woods for fuel needed for cooking.com/ PLASTIC HAZARDS . Zambia is a classical case where human problems are mostly due to over exploitation of natural resources. Unavailability of such fuel resources due to loss of biodiversity creates severe problems and leads to malnutrition. http://saptarshinag1. Destruction of biodiversity thus changes the social fabric and encroaches upon human relations. heating and other purposes. high infant mortality and death. Social impacts: Eco systems play a great role in binding human beings with socio cultural or religious bonds. Water scarcity: Loss of rain forests and watersheds reduces the quality and availability of water resources for drinking and agriculture which in turn produces irreversible impacts on human life. The Chipko movement was the manifestation of popular discontent over such social damage caused by loss of biodiversity.blogspot.

Plastic is a synthetic substance produced by chemical reactions. Hazards: • • • • • The "use and throw away" culture associated with plastics causes its improper disposal and is one of the cardinal reasons for unclean. unhygienic environment Improper disposal of plastics causes blockage in the drainage system. Almost all types of plastics are produced from petroleum except a few experimental resins prepared from corn or other sources. Plastic is widely used in packaging materials or for preparing bags or containers. Certain plastics when burnt produces carcinogenic substances and Green House Gases The littering of plastic reduces rain water percolating and causes low ground water level . Its easy availability and cost effectiveness make it a popular choice for various purposes. unclean water and water borne diseases They remain in the soil for long period and cause infertility of soil. However the hazards associated with plastics are plenty.

practical term it is the theft of genetic material or traditional knowledge of the biodiverse third world countries by the western nations by using their money power.• • Consumption of plastic by animals and fishes causes death or other health hazards. Remedies: • • • • • Educating people on proper disposal of plastics More R& D activities to produce cheap bio degradable plastics Subsidizing bags or containers made from traditional materials Taxation on the use of plastics Penalties for improper disposal of plastics It must be noted that plastics have become part and parcel of the modern material culture. The circulatory. A classic example would be the use of turmeric for healing wounds. endocrine. Exposure to the chemicals in plastic produces toxicological effects on human health. It is therefore almost impractical to do away with this valuable material. http://saptarshinag1. environment friendly plastics has become the need of the hour. This has been in use in India from the ancient age.blogspot. In simple. . Thus the quest for bio degradable. reproductive and urinary systems are most affected.com/ BIO PIRACY Biopiracy is the theft or usurpation of genetic material especially of plant or other biological origin by using the patent process. It has uses in almost every sphere of human activities.

Jamun. Use of Kala Jira or Kalaunji.saptarshinag1. and indigenous knowledge protection. This way Basmati which traditionally has been a communal property of the Sub Himalayan region of India has been” Hijacked" by the patent process by USA and poor Indian farmers have been left at the receiving end. Awareness of the . Methi have been pirated by the West by using the patent process and this has left thousands of Indian farmers impoverished.http://www. though inadequate. Unfortunately the Western corporates have resorted to unethical practices of swindling our very own knowledge or genetic resources to entrench their own pockets in the most unethical way. The basic logic behind patents is that it is a mechanism to promote innovation. This bill is a beginning. The Texmati case where a strain of Basmati. To ensure that there are legal mechanisms in place to ensure that this knowledge is not freely appropriated. by ensuring that the "inventor" would have the exclusive right to sell and distribute the "products he has "invented". patent claims. What we must understand is our right to our resources-genetic. It was simply an intrusion into our cultural tradition and theft of our traditional knowledge to enrich the pockets of a few. a native of India was crossed with a semi dwarf variety of rice by Rice Tech.blogspot. the Indian government is in the process of finalizing a law titled the Biological Diversity Bill. a US based company is another example of Bio Piracy. The bill contains various provisions for regulating access to biological resources. human or knowledge.com/ However in 2003 two US based people were granted the patent of using turmeric for using against wounds.

The advantages of Hydrogen fuel are many • • • • • It is available in plenty. The fuel cells are compact and lightweight--not overly bulky or heavy.com/ HYDROGEN FUEL Hydrogen—nature’s bounty. So no chances of its scarcity or being exhausted like fossil fuels. India has already joined the global quest to find ways to harness this valuable resource for large-scale commercial application. It is the most abundant element in the universe.blogspot. http://www. It is used in space programmes as well It yields three times more energy than ordinary fossil fuels. producing electricity or in domestic uses. constituting about 93% of all atoms. it is converted into water.saptarshinag1. thus light weight vehicles may be produced .common people along with proper legislation and international cooperation can curb this menace. So no chances of pollution and other curses like Global Warming It can be used in running motors. When combusted with Oxygen. It is present in water. which is available in abundance— has the potential to help resolve the global energy crisis.

without the use of poisonous chemicals like pesticides and fertilisers. which includes production. transportation and delivery etc. It is a responsible way of farming which ensures that healthy. There have been several demonstration and pilot projects around the world that have proved the efficacy of hydrogen energy and fuel cell technologies. organic . http://www. but most of these are suitable for small-scale operations. The challenge before the world is to harness this natural bounty for commercially viable large-scale operations.saptarshinag1. safe storage. It costs around $1 million to produce a Hydrogen fuelled car. healthy and sustainable crop production system. It is a fallacy that organic farming leads to loss in productivity it is proven that after a short period of a drop in yields.com/ ORGANIC FARMING Any agriculture system has a duty towards feeding the earth and it has to fulfill this responsibility using safe and sustainable methods and technologies.blogspot. Lack of a hydrogen refueling network: The refueling option is difficult due to scarcity of Hydrogen fuel stations Initial response: It is difficult for the manufacturers to convince the consumers to switch over to this newly developed technology. Organic farming is a set of simple practices which bring into picture a diverse. chemical-free food is produced without harming the environment.The other side of the coin • • • High Cost: Initial technology involved is costly.

Falling ground water levels . Some tested techniques of Organic Farming Biological / natural pest and weed control . Poor soil quality. the fact remains that pesticides got into the water supply in the first place only because of the agriculture system which uses them 3. Loss of seed diversity S Contamination of water resources by pesticides .farming is more productive than chemical farming.blogspot. hybrids also usually need more water compared to local varieties S S Greater dependence of farmers for external inputs.agricultural chemicals require plenty of water to respond.com/ In India there are some negative fallouts of traditional way of farming. environmental conditions and the health needs of the consumer. and increased risks incurred by them on account of higher crop production expenses and lower net returns 5. Organic farming is also cheaper to practice than chemical agriculture. taking into account farmer conditions. These are 1. Even if we blame beverage manufacturers (and rightly-so) for allowing pesticide residue in their products and treating human health so cheaply.the twin controversies in 2003 regarding pesticide content in bottled drinking water and aerated beverages in India hardly came as a surprise to many working with the environment and in farming. http://saptarshinag1. It is turning out to be the only way to farm.

Composting Cover cropping Crop rotation Diversity on the farm Do-nothing farming Effective Microorganism (EM) Green manuring and green leaf manuring Homa farming Indigenous seeds Intercropping Integration of systems Living fences Microbial biofertilisers Mulching Multicropping Multipurpose trees Permaculture Polyculture Reduced tillage Soil and water conservation .

India.5 million hectares of land was under organic farming in India in 2004. or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such . ideological. about 2. political or similar objectives.700027. 4th floor 2/3 Judges Court Road Kolkata . against computers and/or networks. the organic movement has again started in India http://saptarshinag1.blogspot.000 certified organic farms in India.Specialised organic farming techniques Vermicomposting According to the International Fund for Agriculture and Development (IFAD).com/ Courtesy: Sattvic Farms Flat 4A. Further. with the intention to cause harm or further social. India therefore is one of the most important suppliers of organic food to the developed nations. North Tower. religious. CYBER TERRORISM The most popular definition of cyber terrorism is that “It is the premeditated use of disruptive activities. or the threat thereof. there are over 15. No doubt.

we have yet witness the implications of a truly catastrophic cyber terrorism attack. . government and society has made it a prime target for terrorist intent on disrupting our economy and way of life. but also the increase in the level of sophistication of these attacks. the website of Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko was attacked by hackers. endangering the 58 scientists involved. in October 2007.ven more recently. The effects of cyber terrorism can be summed up as ─ Secret information appropriation and data theft ─ Privacy violation ─ Demolition of e-governance base which in turn can harm (1) International relations. Security professionals have expressed their increasing concern over not only the increase in frequency of attacks against the Internet.Other examples include "Love Bug" or "Millennium Bug" virues. The intention of a cyber terrorism attack could range from economic disruption through the interruption of financial networks and systems or used in support of a physical attack to cause further confusion and possible delays in proper response. In May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Talinn. One example of cyber terrorists at work was when terrorists in Romania illegally gained access to the computers controlling the life support systems at an Antarctic research station. Although cyber attacks have caused billions of dollars in damage and affected the lives of millions." The increased reliance on the Internet by business.objectives.

(5) Information about scientific discoveries. (4)Information received in confidence from a source outside the Government. (3) Investigation. ─ Tarnishing the image of individuals ─ Network damage and disruption In India The Information Technology Act. It must be noted that the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) has been designated as the single authority for issuing of instructions in the context of blocking of web sites. . detection and prevention of crime.(2) National security (including defiance) and public safety. Some suggested ways to combat cyber terrorism • Global consensus on this menace and enacting comprehensive international laws to curb it • Enhancing public awareness • The judiciary must come forward with novel ideas to curb the menace • The government sector must institute tougher penalties for cyber crimes and increased funding for law enforcement efforts to fight it. 2000 has given some ways to combat such form of terrorism.

hydrogen energy. fuel cell. biogas/biomass. depleting fossil fuel resources and growing environmental pollution have led the world to think seriously for other alternative sources of energy. renewability and pollution reduction. Due to limited oil reserves.Easier said than done. skyrocketing fuel prices.geo thermal energy etc. The bulk of demand for oil is from transport sector and in order to reduce the pressure from this sector it is necessary to explore possibilities of developing substitute fuels like biomass and producer gas. In reality alternative energy means anything other than deriving energy via fossil fuel combustion. http://saptarshinag1. small hydropower . The increased power demand.blogspot. tidal. geothermal. This must be accomplished with a high degree of collaboration globally. Various forms of alternative energy sources are solar.com/ ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES Alternative energy is an umbrella term that refers to any source of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of the replaced fuels. India has to depend on substantial imports for meeting its present and future requirement. BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS: Renewable and environment friendly Provide sustainable fuel system Have the potentials to reduce India's high fuel import cost and thus reduce foreign debt Provide local employment opportunities Low cost energy supply . Basic concept of alternative energy relates to issues of sustainability. wind.

Wind energy: It is in the form of kinetic energy. The sugarcane extracts are also being used for this purpose.http://saptarshinag1. Plants like Jatropha. solar cookers are the devices to trap solar energy. solar ponds. A blade of windmill is moved by blowing winds and can be exploited for doing work. .com/ Solar Energy: Most popular alternate energy source. Suzlon. an Indian-owned company. Pongomia are being cultivated for such energy.blogspot. Bio Fuel : The popularity of bio fuel is increasing everyday. Pegu valley are the potential sites for such energy. Solar cells. In India. emerged on the global scene in the past decade. Theoretically around 60% of wind energy can be converted into other forms of energy. and by 2006 had captured almost 8 percent of market share in global wind turbine sales. Godavari delta. Solar photo voltaic system which uses solar cells to convert solar energy into electrical energy is the most promising and progressive source of it. Geothermal energy: It is also a potential source of energy.

http://saptarshinag1. Importance of Biodiesel • Environment friendly • Clean burning • Renewable fuel • No engine modification • Increase in Engine life • Biodegradable & non toxic • Easy to handle and store Biomass energy: It utilizes waste materials and excreta to convert into energy. However due to lack of processing facilities the potential in this sector is still underutilized.Tidal Energy: By using turbine the kinetic energy of tides can be converted into electrical energy. These sources of alternative energy promise a new horizon in sustainable matter and with proper utilization of the available resources.com/ STEALTH TECHNOLOGY .blogspot. our fuel crisis can be tackled. It is popular in the coastal regions.

sonar and other detection methods. in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar. The term "stealth" in reference to reduced radar signature aircraft became popular during the late eighties when the Lockheed Martin F-117 stealth fighter became widely known. However. the United States invasion of Panama in 1989. http://saptarshinag1. ships. submarines. The first large scale (and public) use of the F-117 was during the Gulf War in 1991. Anti stealth detection system is yet to be developed.com/ . infrared.Stealth technology also known as LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub-discipline of military countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft. F-117A stealth fighters were used for the first time in combat during Operation Just Cause. Attacking with surprise gives the attacker more time to perform its mission and exit before the defending force can counter-attack. The use of such technology has revolutionized modern day warfare.blogspot. and missiles. Presently USA and Russia have acquired such technology while many other developed nations are in the quest for acquiring it.

Besides.SETHUSAMAUDRAM PROJECT The proposed Sethusamudram Shipping Channel Project aims to create a link between Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka by creating a shipping channel through the shallow sea known as Sethusamudram. Once the project is finished. However various organizations have raised objection over the project for economic. thus saving the time to circumnavigate SriLanka. Moreover fishing activities win the region may be disrupted as well. The project recently got a nod from the central government although it was first conceived by Alfred Dundas Taylor in 1860. there is an opinion breaking the Ram Sethu may hurt religious . There is apprehension that the project will cause much damage to the Marine National Park in the Gulf of Mannar especially to the coral reef and other flora and fauna therein. religious and environmental issues. Thus it will save around 400 nautical miles of sailing distance and 30 hours of journey time. ships will be able to move freely between East and West coast. The proposed project envisages breaking the limestone shoal known as Rama Sethu and creating a continuous navigable channel across the Indian peninsula.

g. increased droughts and floods. The entire planet will be affected by the climatic changes and impacts which are predicted e. a study conducted by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute suggests that by the apprehensions of financial or environmental damage are unfounded. more extreme temperatures. The willingness of countries around the world to cooperate in the negotiation of treaties to address this global problem is a positive example of globalization .sentiments in India. Intensive discussions over an 18-month period before the 1992 Rio Earth Summit led to the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. There are many environmental impacts of economic globalization: transnational corporations moving operations to developing countries to avoid the stricter environmental regulations of their home country.blogspot. With this thickening blanket of gases. transportation. rising sea-levels. The composition of the atmosphere which surrounds the planet is altering as a result of the emissions of tonnes of polluting gases (called greenhouse gases .GHGs) from industry. However.or perhaps this is better referred to as internationalism. agriculture and consumer practices. the atmosphere is gradually warming. climate change is a global issue. etc. Negotiations have continued subsequently to develop another agreement for more specific emission reduction targets for industrialized countries. http://saptarshinag1. free trade agreements which .com/ GLOBALIZATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE By definition.

fodder and minor forest produce To provide employment for unskilled workers Reclaim wastelands Improvement of the standard of living of the rural population Improvement of the scenic beauty of rural India . destruction of southern rain forests to provide exotic timber for northern consumers and to create pasture land for beef for northern hamburgers.com/ Social Forestry The term social forestry was first used by the National Commission on Agriculture.blogspot. oil spills in the seas and oceans destroying oceanic environment because of increasing number of business treaties and increasing shipping are to name a few. The objectives of social forestry can be summed up as • • • • • • Improvement of environment for protecting agriculture from adverse climatic effects To ensure steady supply of wood. government and panchayat wastelands in order to take the pressure off the forests and for optimum use of the waste and fallow lands. fuel. river and canal banks. http://saptarshinag1. along railway tracks and roadsides. The climate change issue illustrates how inter-related the world is both in terms of the causes of the problem and the options for addressing it. In a broad sense the term signifies plantation of tress in and around the agricultural fields. Government of India.restrict the capacity of national governments to adopt environmental legislation.

2. Farm forestry Community Forestry Extension Forestry Agro-Forestry The weaknesses noticed so far in this program are • • • • Lack of awareness of the benefits of social forestry among rural people Indiscriminate cutting of community forests Corruption and misuse of funds Unsatisfactory implementation by the state governments However it must be noted that it is one of those less highlighted yet highly successful programmes undertaken by the government. A visit through the roads of rural India is the documentary evidence of the success of this mammoth task. . 3.Social forestry can be categorized into four groups 1. 4.

and they provide ample vegetables for the people and green fodder for the livestock. Moreover. Such wetlands are the life support systems for the people living in the zones. buffer against storms and hurricanes and provide habitat to various flora and fauna in the region.blogspot. Moreover they are important as tourist places. winter resort for the migratory birds and they work as bulwark against encroachment by the sea. they provide habitat to mangroves and . http://saptarshinag1. where the water table is near the land surface and the land is covered by shallow water. 1971 was held to protect the wetlands of international importance and ensure the sustainable use of such wetlands. The science dealing with wetlands is called paludology. scientific and educational interests.However considering very little forest coverage of the country the program has to be implemented with more enthusiasm and better public cooperation. The Ramsar Convention.com/ WETLANDS Wetlands are transitional areas between terrestrial and aquatic zones.

Some of the important wetlands of India are Pichavaram.Chilka. With the looming threat of climate change and food scarcity it is the need of the hour to develop international and national strategies to conserve the wetlands so that they are allowed to play their role in ecology. It is advantageous in many ways.Harike.com/ RAINWATER HARVESTING It is basically accumulation and storage of rainwater in a scientific way to combat the increasing water crisis of the present day.play very important role in maintaining biodiversity of the world. http://saptarshinag1.Vembanad.Bhoj.blogspot.Bhitarkanika. such as • • Use of ancient concept in a sustainable manner Low cost technology .Loktak etc.

http://saptarshinag1. but can be adversely affected by air pollutants and/or contaminated by animals in the catchments area. Rooftop harvesting • • Here catchments area is available free of cost Supply is done at the zone of consumption Pond. rainwater for drinking should be carefully stored and treated prior to consumption.• • • Can be performed even in common households without much apparatus or technical knowledge It can supply plenty of water for consumption. lake or other water bodies • • This can be used to recharge ground water aquifers Here subsurface dyke may be used. UV and distillation. city and bottled water providers are increasingly turning to use of sophisticated treatment processes and chemicals to ensure a quality product. irrigation or other works The areas where ground water is saline. Due to increasing levels of pollutants. Rain water is generally free of harmful minerals and in most cases chemicals.com/ WATER CRISIS IN INDIA . Rainwater can be harvested in many ways from simple rooftop harvesting to complex commercial harvesting.blogspot. Several technologies exist for home treatment including: ozone sterilization. rainwater can solve agricultural crisis. Consequently.

High salinity of land is causing irreparable loss to agriculture. Around 10 million people are at high risk of exposure to excess amount of arsenic in water. considering the fact that India has 4% of total water reserve of the world. Delhi. Due to excessive use of fertilizers. Solutions: . Chennai. According to a survey by World Bank. Kolkata and Mumbai occupy the bottommost position in terms of water availability per day Excessive nitrogen content in water leads to eutrophication or growth of aquatic weeds rendering water unsafe for consumption Waste of human resources due to traveling long distances in search of water.37% of the population. India will be a water starved nation. of whom 75% are children are affected by water related diseases. Now it has come down to 1800 cu mt/year. and diarrhea are frequent in India. the amount of nitrate in water in India is ever increasing. India ranks 120.In a list of 122 countries on the availability of quality potable water prepared by UNEP. This is most severe in West Bengal. Some facts: • • • • • Per capita availability of water during independence was 5000 cu mt/year. 60 million people are at high risk due to excessive amount of fluoride in water. According to the census report 2001 only 68% of the total households have access to quality potable water.This is surprising. In around 20 states. Moreover. By 2020. poor sanitation standards. out of 27 Asian Cities with more than a million population. in Haryana it is as high as 48 mg/lit. While the permissible limit of Fluoride in water is 1 mg/lit. water borne diseases like hepatitis. cholera. Water has been one of the cardinal reasons of inter state problems and inter regional clashes.

National security. After two failed efforts. Agni is a re entry technology demonstrator missile. AD-1. such as the Brahmos. India woke up to its missile potential much later. power balance in the South East Asian region are the main factors behind India's missile initiatives. Popularizing organic farming. Developing Public private partnership and chalking out a holistic plan for conservation and better management of water and proper execution of the plan through community development programs. started in 1983. Rainwater harvesting 5. 2.II and III are part of the . Polluters Pay. etc. Water management system to recycle water waste in each industry. LRSAM and the SRSAM . Valiant Program and Project Devil to develop ballistic missiles SAM in 1970s.blogspot. a surface to surface missile with a range of 250 km. i. 6.Tactical missiles. in 1983 India started a missile development program under the aegis of DRDO.1. One of the earliest missiles is Prithvi.e. extension networks 4.Strategic missiles such as Agni III. http://saptarshinag1. Under Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. Indian Missile development today is under two groups . anti tank missile using fire and forget technology. threat from China and Pakistan. Better solid waste management 3. Nag is a third generation.Its naval version is Dhanush with a range of 150 km. AAD. Agni-V. Astra.com/ INDIA'S MISSILE INITIATIVES Tracking the history though India perhaps is the first country in the world where missiles were used in war (by Tipu Sultan against the British). A-I.a tax for polluting water in urban areas in both industrial and domestic levels.

Astra is air to air targeting missile whereas Brahmos is the latest anti ship cruise missile developed in collaboration with Russia. The role of DRDO and the "missile man" Dr A. it must be noted that within just a quarter century India has made a remarkable progress towards being self sufficient in missile technology. and LRSAM etc.J Abdul Kalam's name in this regard hold much significance. with range varying from 500 to 3500km.P.project.blogspot. Shourya is being developed as inter continental ballistic missile. . Some of the future missiles of India's arsenal include HSTDV. SRSAM.com/ for articles on important topics. Although India depends on countries like Israel. Russia for the development or import of missiles. Visit http://saptarshinag1.

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