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D.G. Triantafyllidis D.P. Labridis

ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI - SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SECTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY P.O. BOX 486 GR-54006 THESSALONIKI - GREECE TEL.: FAX.: +30 31 996374 +30 31 996302

email.: dimtri@egnatia.ee.auth.gr, labridis@eng.auth.gr

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may lead to inaccurate solutions. First. 1996). There are two major disadvantages to this approach. the solving area has to be sampled at specific sample points. This technique will provide very accurate results. (Golias and Tsiboukis. since more memory and computation time is required. After the completion of the ANN training. then the solution error is estimated for each element and finally the elements with error that exceeds a given threshold are split into smaller elements. 1). called magnifier (Chedid and Najjar. 1998). 1994): starting with an initial coarse mesh the problem is solved.. The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been proposed in the last years for predicting the mesh density of specific electromagnetic problems (Dyck and Lowther. a mesh with which the method will converge to an accurate solution quickly. A sample point (+) is the center of a square. thus refining the initial mesh. of dimensions scale x scale (Fig.ABSTRACT An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been trained to reproduce the mesh density vector of openboundary faulted power transmission line problems under the presence of small features.. they appear to fail in cases of faulted overhead power transmission line systems (TLS). One way around this problem is the use of adaptive meshing (Cendes and Shenton. A Delaunay-based mesh generator is used to produce the final mesh. On this remote boundary a Dirichlet condition is applied. or as a good starting point for adaptive meshing. 1996) a similar method based on Let-It-Grow ANNs is also suggested. i. 1996). where other methods would probably fail. The device is sampled at specific sample points and a set of geometric features is associated to the mesh density at the neighborhood of the given sample point.. Second. by presenting the device to the ANN. PROBLEM DEFINITION AND MODELING The faulted power transmission line is located over homogenous lossy ground and the total solving area is included in a square 10 km x 10 km.e. INTRODUCTION The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been widely used to solve electromagnetic field problems. error build-up. reducing the total number of necessary iterations. One of the main disadvantages of the method though. as this is the case with practical interest. system resources are not efficiently exploited. Another approach would be to use much more elements than necessary. In order to produce the data for the training database of the ANN a technique for recursively subdividing the solving area is proposed. mesh density prediction for similar magnetic devices may easily take place. Once the mesh density has been determined. In (Alfonzetti et al... which allows mesh density prediction for open-boundary electromagnetic field problems of overhead power transmission lines (Triantafyllidis et al. 1990) are presented. a density driven mesh generator is used to create the final mesh. In order to present a power transmission line to the ANN. The procedure is repeated. 1985). In (Lowther and Dyck. due to the unnecessary large number of elements. 1992). until the needed accuracy is met. but is very time and memory consuming and does not take into account the “knowledge” obtained from similar previously solved problems. (Chedid and Najjar. is the need for an experienced user to provide a quality mesh. which includes all features expected to be found in future devices to be meshed. 1993) a Delaunay process is used for this purpose. Maxwell’s equations are solved by FEM in order to calculate the per-unit length voltage drops of the conductors. carrying a zero-sequence current. The data gathered constitute the training database for the ANN. In this paper a method based on ANNs is presented. Several test cases show that this method significantly reduces solving time. mainly due to its ability to handle cases of geometrical complexity. The uniqueness of these problems lies in the disproportion between the conductors sizes and the total solving area. when a zero sequence of unit currents is applied (Triantafyllidis et al. such as conductors. overdiscretizing the solving area. The mesh obtained can be used as is. 1995) techniques based on Self-Organizing Maps (Kohonen. Mesh density in a magnifier is defined as: 2 . For this purpose a prototype mesh is generated for a magnetic device. 1998). Although the above mesh density prediction methods work well for the magnetic devices that they were designed for. while in (Ahn et al. with no significant computational cost. 1991) and (Jeong et al.

Repeat steps 1 to 3. which is considered to be equal to zero. This is accomplished by the following technique: 1. Obviously. as can been seen in Fig. Fig. Initially. is marked bold. 4 presents among others the mesh density defined in (1) versus the distance r of a sample point from the conductor. 3. near the conductor. an arrangement of 10 x 10 sample points with magnifiers of scale=1 km. the conductivity of conductors is not included in the input vector of the ANN. centered on the conductor. One of the four magnifiers. until the scale of the last magnifiers created is of the same order as the radius of the conductor. into four magnifiers of half scale each. • the distance h of the sample point from the air-ground boundary and • the f/ ratio. Update the sample point list. three parameters have been identified to influence mesh density: • the distance r of the sample point from the current carrying conductor. Since the majority of current carrying conductors of TLSs is made of aluminum and ground wires are made of steel. 2. corresponding to the sample points of step 1.Mesh density = Number of nodes in magnifier scale (1) Regarding a sample point. Figure 1: A sample point (+) and its magnifier Figure 2: Initial coarse sample point location. their conductivity is in all cases extremely larger than that of the surrounding air. closest to the conductor. These parameters are considered as the input vector of the ANN. This recursive subdivision scheme produces an arrangement of sample points near the conductor. This scale for the magnifiers has been proven to be satisfactory for sample points far away from the conductor. is generated (Fig 2). 3. Discard the sample points located in step 1. 3 . Locate the four sample points that are nearest to the conductor. 4. where f is the frequency of the energizing current and is the resistivity of earth. For this reason. the scale must become smaller in order to satisfactory discretize the small features. Subdivide each of the four magnifiers.

!.99073 $6:.70/ 7747 ORJ 7 .

for an f/ UDWLR UDQJLQJ IURP WR +] P with a step increasing this ratio by 10. The above range is sufficient for any practical power system problem of this kind. a mesh density prediction takes initially place for each current carrying conductor. 1985). Thus. Adaptive meshing (Cendes and Shenton. where N is the number of current carrying conductors. Figure 5: Cross section of a power transmission line for ANN training purposes. This can be done under the assumption that the field far away from a TLS carrying only zero-sequence currents is practically independent from the exact position and number of conductors. Finally. Figure 6: Test case a. The predicted mesh density is divided by N. (Golias and Tsiboukis. The configuration was sampled and the data produced made up the training database of the ANN. Cross section of a typical 20 kV distribution line. producing a final mesh of about 5000 nodes. Figure 3: Sample point location near conductor. At last. assuming that no other conductors are present. Therefore. Initially. up to six iterations were necessary. ORJ PHVK GHQVLW\ . the above sampling procedure must be generalized for performance purposes. 1993). 5). TLSs used in practice always have more than one conductor. a Delaunay based mesh generator is used (Lowther and Dyck. 1996. a simple null mesh was created. Figure 4: Mesh density vs distance r from conductor (f/ = 5000 Hz/ m). In order to obtain suitable data for training the ANN. a power line consisting of only one conductor is considered (Fig. 1997) to produce the final mesh. until the solution obtained by FEM converged to a constant value for the per-unit voltage drop of the conductor. Usually. (Shewchuk. the N predictions are overlapped and merged into one. 1994) was used. The line is energized by a unit current.

4 .

Conductor type Outside diameter (mm) Inside diameter (mm) dc resistance NP.9…0. 1973).023743 -0. Also. 6-8 three different overhead power TLSs are shown.e.5 0. Test case a consists of three conductors.95 0. are used. being a typical medium-voltage line. 5 km in our case). it can be used to predict mesh density for other similar problems. 20 kV single circuit line (Test case a) Phase conductors. In Fig.9 -0. Total number of layers Number of neurons in input layer n Number of neurons in hidden layer p Number of neurons in output layer m Learning rate 1 for first layer Momentum Learning rate 2 for second layer 3 1 7 1 0.8 0. 1988) has been used to train a three-layered feedforward artificial neural network. Table 2 presents the characteristics of the three test cases. while test case c is a double-circuit three-phase line taken from (Magnuson. the characteristics of which are presented in Table 1.. because of their great dispersion. in order to make the training database scale invariant. the input variables r and h are normalized by dividing them with the halflength of the square of the solving area (i.ANN ARCHITECTURE AND TRAINING The method of backpropagation (Narenda and Parthasarathy.9…0. 1990): (2) p = 2n + 1 = 2 ⋅ 3 + 1 = 7 Before training starts. RESULTS Once the ANN has been trained.3 0. Test case b is a typical 150 kV line of the Greek power system. the logarithms log(r) and log (f/) of the input variables r and f/ respectively.9 1064 22031 tanh coefficient a Final mean squared error Normalization region for all inputs Normalization region for output Number of patterns Number of iterations Table 1: ANN characterstics The number of neurons in the hidden layer was selected according to Kolmogorov’s theorem (Maren et al.

Ground wires.09136 solid St conductor 0.71 0.04965 Alumoweld strand 0.9779 1.6419 0.4913 1000 Solid 5.9525 3. Conductor type Outside diameter (mm) GF UHVLVWDQFH 150kV single circuit line (Test case b) ACSR 25.146 9.4431 100 735kV double circuit line (Test case c) ACSR 35.364 0.103 23.2833 - f/ ratio (Hz/ m) NP.

resulting from the adaptive meshing procedure and the trained ANN. 1 Table 2: Characteristics of TLSs Figures 9-14 compare meshes for the transmission lines examined. Iterations CPU Time Nodes Elements Line f/! 5 . for various f/ ratios.

303+j0. such as conductors of faulted TLSs. while they compute all TLS operational parameters (such as the shown complex voltage V ). The complex voltage drop V per unit length of the upper left conductor of each TLS has been chosen as a measure of comparison. From these tables it can be concluded that the ANN meshes of all test cases need significantly less CPU time. where several iterations were necessary. The proposed method does not predict mesh density for no-current carrying conductors.03 0. The trained ANN has performed well in predicting mesh density in numerous cases examined. Table 3 presents performance data on the cases examined. Since one additional iteration will in most cases approximately double the number of nodes. Cross section of a 150 kV overhead transmission line of the greek power system.0 Line Iterations Nodes Elements V (V/m) 1 1 1 0’59 1’20 1’39 (b) 4163 5046 5598 8286 10073 11181 0. In all cases examined the mesh produced acceptable results already from the first iteration. some deviation from this rule is acceptable.408+j1. A Delaunay-based mesh generator has been used in order to create the FEM mesh. Figure 8: Test case c.57 0. which is made in all cases for a comparable number of nodes.303+j0. running the Linux operating system. Cross section of a 750 kV double-circuit line. Only the left circuit is energized.411+j1. Decrease in solving time reaches up to 70% in test case c. where small features are present. it would be useful to implement such a technique 6 . with satisfactory precision.03 0. The given CPU time is for a 200 MHz Pentium based PC.(Hz/ m) a b c 1 100 1000 f/! (Hz/ m) 1 100 1000 5 5 5 1’50 4’08 5’28 (a) CPU Time 3348 6924 7779 6672 13833 15543 (V/m) 0. (b) Results for ANN meshes Figure 7: Test case b.722+j13. CONCLUSIONS A technique has been developed in order to create a suitable training database for using ANNs in mesh density prediction in cases of open boundary electromagnetic field problems. which is the most complicated case. However.9 a b c Table 3: (a) Results for adaptive meshes.57 0. because this has not been proven necessary for the problems examined. as opposed to the adaptive mesh grading procedure.739+12.

Figure 12: ANN initial mesh for test case b (f/=100 Hz/ m).using ANNs. in order to deal with more complicated power system problems (i. Figure 11: Adaptive mesh of 5th iteration for test case b (f/=100 Hz/ m). The authors believe that this may be feasible in a future work. Figure 9: Adaptive mesh of 5th iteration for test case a (f/=1 Hz/ m). buried pipelines). 7 . Figure 10: ANN initial mesh for test case a (f/=1 Hz/ m).e.

Center for System Science.. 3. n. 2. 5. May.. Lowther and Dyck.. pp. Sep. 999-1008. Figure 14: ANN initial mesh for test case c (f/=1000 Hz/ m). n. pp. n. 29. 18 May 1997. 4201-4204. 27. n. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The above work was partially supported by the Research Committee of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Magn. 1994. Lee and Ahn. 14. Technical Report CMU-CS-97-137. 7. 5. n. 1811-1816. 9. Numer. Magn. IEEE Trans. Magnuson. 9... 2. 8. 1349-1352. PAS92. 3. 1993. pp. Meth Eng. May 1996. Greece. 78. vol. San Diego. Magn. vol. 37. Pennsylvania. 1464-1480. vol. 31. vol. Carnegie Mellon University. Magn. Mar. 1990. Ph. 3. pp. 1767-1770. Pittsburgh. Magn. Jeong. 5. 1991. 12. "Automatic Finite-Element Mesh Generation Using Artificial Neural Networks . Kohonen. "Adaptive mesh refinement in the finite element computation of magnetic fields". vol. "Automatic Mesh Generation by the Let-It-Grow Neural Network. pp. Magn. thesis. 6. 5173-5178." IEEE Trans. 13. Cendes and Shenton. First Workshop on Applied Computational Geometry (Philadelphia. REFERENCES 1. J.. 3.. Pennsylvania). pp.. May 1995. 8 . vol. "Triangle: Engineering a 2D Quality Mesh Generator and Delaunay Triangulator". "The Self-Organizing Map. Academic Press. 1990. 1927-1930. 5. 1988. Handbook of Neural Computing Applications. California. Shewchuk. Magn." IEEE Trans. Harston and Pap. no. Electrical Engineering. 4. May/June 1973. Yale University. Narenda and Parthasarathy. pp. pp. 1996. 28. 8815.Part I: Prediction of Mesh Density. Maren. 11. 10. vol. pp. n. 2. Ahn et al. n." IEEE Trans. 32.. n. vol. tech. vol." IEEE Trans." IEEE Trans. Sep. Sep. 1996. 124-133. Golias and Tsiboukis: "An approach to refining three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes based on Delaunay transformations. "Automatic Mesh Generator based on Self-Organizing Finite-Element Tesselation for Electromagnetic Field Problems. September 1985.. pp. Mar. 32. 1992. Dept." IEEE Trans. 21. 793-812. rep. pp. Alfonzetti et al.D. "A Diagrammatic Representation of Back Propagation".." IEEE Proc. Dyck and Lowther. "A density driven mesh generator guided by a neural network. Shewchuk. "Delaunay Refinement Mesh Generation". Chedid and Najjar. 1757-1760. "Traveling waves on multi-conductor open-wire lines: A numerical survey of the effects of frequency dependence on modal decomposition". on Power Apparatus and Systems. Association for Computing Machinery. School of Computer Science. "A self-organizing neural network approach for automatic mesh generation. "Determining an approximate finite element mesh density using neural network techniques. vol. IEEE Trans. Aug." Int.Figure 13: Adaptive mesh of 5th iteration for test case c (f/=1000 Hz/ m).

Pow. Triantafyllidis. made available for printing April 24. Deliv.15. 1998. 9 .A Finite Element Approach. Papagiannis and Labridis. "Calculation of Overhead Transmission Line Impedances ." IEEE Trans..

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