This article was written a decade ago and is dated.

I will be updating it soon THE ORIGINS OF THE PORT CITY OF KARACHI AS KALACHI-JO-GOTH by Moin Ansari The city of Karachi on the Mekran Coast on the Arabian Sea, does not have a long drawn out history. There was no dwelling in Karachi when the Turkish Slave kings were building magnificent buildings in Delhi. There were no inhabitants of Karachi when the East India Company was fighting battles in Calcutta. The city was not even a twinkle in the eye during the magnificent Mughal Rule. The city missed the Industrial Revolution that changed the planet, and slept through the war of Independence. To put it mildly the city of Karachi had no legacy before the city became a Pakistani capital. «..this city was called Kolachi, named after Mai Kolachi a Sindhi fisherwoman . It was built by Baloch tribes from Balochistan, from Makran, and established as a fishing village and thus we became the city by the sea. Before the goddess of the waters, before Mai Kolachi called this her home, Karachi was known to the ancient Greeks as Krokola. This was where Alexander the Great rested after his campaign in the Indus Valley. Karachi or Krokola was a port of calm before the madness that would greet Alexander in Babylonia. Later, Karachi became a brief gem among the jewels of the Talpur crown. It became a port city, coveted by those near and far. ³Charles Napier brought our city, our home, into the Bombay Presidency. The British, with little affection, worked Karachi into the ground. We were enslaved, made to open our harbour and our coast for the ill-gotten wealth of pirates. How little has changed, Karachi. How sad for us. But we are a jewel; we are to be envied for these shores. Kemari, Korangi, Landhi, Malir, how many men and women make up this jewel? Parsis, Christians, Jews, Muslims and Hindus how many faiths have congregated here to pay homage to the divine? How many wonderful strains of tolerance we did have here in our city, our home. Baloch, Sindhi, Punjabi, Gujrati, Mujahir, Pathan, Afghan how many brothers we have living here with us under the same sun. Unfortunately, we do not live as one, not as we used to. Divided by districts, neighborhoods, and hate, we brothers and sisters are not as fortunate as we once were. But we are here. We are this city. We, the men and women who live in Karachi, who have lived in Karachi, who work and struggle and toil through disproportionately large KESC bills, through hefty taxes ignored by those who should pay, through hartals, through bunds, through riots and death, we are this city. We are Karachi Fatima Bhutto ³Karachi my city my home´. Sunday Oct. 21,2007 The city of Karachi began as a small and insignificant fishing village populated by Mekranis, and it would have remained a small insignificant footnote of history had it not been for certain individuals who made it into a cosmopolitan magapolis after 1947. In the middle of the nineteenth century, events that happened thousands of miles away in the New World had a profound effect on the economy of what was then called the Mekran Coast.

The marriage between the Portuguese and the English royalty. In 1940 the Pakistan Resolution was passed that demanded Pakistan as a separate state formed in the Muslim majority areas of the Subcontinent. The Muslim invasion of Mekran Coast by Mohammad Bin Qasim in the early part of the eight century. Coalition ministries were formed in Sindh. alternative sites for cotton growing were explored in the British empire. This small invasion established a Muslim foothold on the Arabian Sea. These are the humble beginnings of the city. Islam did not spread in South Asia because of the Arab invasion of the Mekran Coast. Ports were needed to handle the cotton crop to be exported to Britain. Point 9 of Jinnahs 14 points demanded the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Constituency. As Pakistans capital and only port Karachi became a very important city. In 1661 Catherine of Braganza was married to the English King Charles II. The construction of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the Bombay constituency and the port of Bombay to become a port of call between England and Singapore. This discovery of the new sea route allowed Britain and other European Nations to use their Naval prowess and expand their empires to ³India´ and China. Since raw cotton from the Confederate States of America could not fuel the textile mills in the capital of the industrial revolution in Britain. This marriage transferred the Portuguese territory of Bombay to the British. 9. 2. The Discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco De Gama in 1498 converted the Indian ocean into a Portuguese lake. The Bombay Constituency was separated into Muslim Sindh and Hindu Bombay in 1936. The Nehru Report was published in 1929. The new port of Bombay under British rule began to compete with the Portuguese favorite Goa. Quaid-e-Azam.These are the twelve (12) significant world events that shaped the creation and expansion of Karachi: 1. 7. A general election took place in which Congress won and formed ministries in 7 out of the 11 provinces. The American Civil War between the North and the South (1860s). 5. As Bombay grew. 6. According to the India Act of 1935. 4. a group of Mekrani traders moved West from the older ³bandargah´ of Kharak Bandar to the fishing village of Kalachi-jo-Goth. . many of the demands of the Muslims were accepted. and Sufisim actually spread Islam into the rest of the subcontinent. forced Britain to use the ports of Karachi and Bombay. Prince Charming was to come in and rescue Cinderella ten years later. 8. Bengal and Aasaam. Karachi was treated like Cinderella before she was discovered by Prince Charming. In the early eighteenth century. The Punjab was chosen as a site to grow cotton and Bombay was the obvious choice for exporting the raw cotton to Manchester¶s bustling cotton milling industry. Pakistan was created. The creation of the province of Sindh in 1936. This is the predecessor of the magapolis called Karachi. The Turkish invasions from North West Asia three hundred years later. Even the creation of Sindh did not promote the city of Karachi. Seven years after the Lahore resolution. The Prince Charming were about to rescue Kalachi Jo Goth. Bombay eventually grew into the Bombay constituency that included the Mekran Coast. Mohammed Ali Jinnahs proposed his own 14 points in opposition to the Nehru Report. The creation of Pakistan in 1947. No longer would sailors have to go around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the land of spices. 3. These two events put great emphasis on Karachi.

and 40% of Pakistan was Hindu. educated. the islands were inhabited only by fishermen living in scattered hamlets. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The greatest period of growth. To look at Karachi we have to briefly look at Bombay. called the Castle. According to the Act of Partition of 1947. By 1914 the city had become the largest grain-exporting port of the British Empire. Muslims were eagerly exchanged for Muslims in Pakistan. A large fort. Creation of One Unit. Karachi became the main outlet for its grain. These were the legal ³optees´ and millions others were thrown out of their homes to head for India or to head for the capital of Pakistan. Karachi became a principal seaport. the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League to allow the exchange of populations. who annexed it in 1842«« Between 1843 and 1864 a river-steamer service. and they ceded Bombay to England in 1661 as part of the dowry transferred at the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to the English king Charles II. however. occurred in the 1860s. was completed in 1717. When the adjoining region of the Punjab emerged as the granary of India in the 1890s. Somewhat earlier. The first dock facilities were opened by 1750. and Karachi served as a poor cousin to Bombay. Experiments in Punjab were successful. The Portuguese did not value the site as much as Goa. Karachi sees a lot of development as the new industrious immigrants build a city in the sandy desert of Mekran 11. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 made Bombay even more important as a trading center.10. a railway. meaning ³good harbor. For the Textile industry of Manchester. as befitted a city housing the headquarters of the British East India Company (1672-1858). Growth was steady. Thousands of Hindus in Pakistan opted for India and thousands of Muslims in India opted for Pakistan. The constitution breaks up ONE UNIT in 1973 and makes Karachi the capital of Sind This is what Compton¶s Encyclopedia says about the city of Karachi: ³In the early 18th century Karachi was a small fishing village called Kalachi-jo-Goth. 38% of the population of Lahore was Hindu. The influx of hard working. The American Civil war stopped the export of cotton to the Textile Mills of Manchester England and forced the British to look for alternative cotton growing sites. Bombay was the obvious choice for a port. The move to take the capital away from Karachi to Rawalpindi in 1958 12. The American Civil War cut off the supply of Southern cotton to British textile mills. about 200 miles (320 kilometers) to the south. in 1851. the Indian cotton textile industry itself had been born in Bombay. port improvements. The building of railways . A group of traders moved there from the decaying port of Kharak Bandar about 16 miles (26 kilometers) west. all British government servants in India were given the choice to ³opt´ for Pakistan or India. Muslims to the Federal Capital of Pakistan. The cotton industry of Pakistan owes its existence and its prosperity to the war between the states in the New World. There was tacit approval at the highest levels of the British empire. a Hindu goddess. and a direct telegraph communications link with London were established.´ Prior to the establishment of a Portuguese trading post in 1534. and the mill owners turned to western India for their raw material. In 1839 it was captured by the British. although some claim that Bombay is a corruption of the Portuguese bom baia.´ As part of the Mekran Coast Karachi became a part of the Bombay Presidency. and patriotic. the fields of the Punjab are still growing cotton. This is what Compton¶s Encyclopedia says about the city of Bombay: ³The city is said to derive its name from Mumbai Devi.

The original architects and the founding fathers of the city the bare-footed Mekrani fishermen of Kalachi-jo-Goth had never imagined in their wildest imagination that Karachi. In 1947-48. it was a way stop on the way to the important ports of Bombay and Calcutta. Clifton. 5 million West Punjabi Hindus were being traded for 5 million Muslims from India. The intransigence of the leadership of the Indian National Congress forced the Muslims of the subcontinent to ask for a separate province of Sindh. After passing the Lahore resolution. there was no stopping the Muslim League. The founder of our nation and a native of the 1860s and 1870s gave Bombay direct connections to all the other major points throughout the country. the fishing village would become the little cantonment city that spread a few miles around the few births. Pakistan and India were exchanging populations. Burns Road etc. before Pakistan.´ Of the 400. Karachi was a small non descript township sandbagged by a few berths where the worst ships could possibly dock. were Bombay Hindus who lived in the then posh localities of Jamshed Road. Liaqat Ali Khan. On the 14th of August the province of Sindh had accepted the fact that Karachi was not part of the province. Pakistan was formed in 1947. and Fatima Jinnah. Pakistan was born with ONE textile mill and ONE jute mill. Mohammad Ali Jinnah had designated the territory of Karachi district as Federal Capital territory. Pakistani offices started with no assets.mostly red bricked government building in the immediate vicinity of the few dilapidating berths that were passed off as a port. perhaps Quaid-e-Azam. As part of the Bombay constituency. Quaid-e-Azam. perhaps on purpose.´ The province of Sindh owes its existence to the fortitude of the leaders of the Muslim League. KARACHI AND URBAN SINDH PERMEATE WEALTH THROUGHOUT PAKISTAN Karachi has created wealth where NOTHING existed.000 inhabitants almost all. Mohammed Ali Jinnah would not have had to propose his own fourteen points. . There were no industry in Pakistan. This is what Comptons Encyclopedia says about Karachi: ³In the central part of the city the houses of the British colonial period are characterized by red tiles and deep verandahs enclosed by latticed window screens. The district of Karachi from 1947 to one fateful day in 1968 remained separate and bifurcated from Sindhi political and social institutions. If the Nehru Report had accommodated the leadership of the Muslim League. Karachi used to be a quiet town. When Pakistan came into being Karachi was NOT part of the province of Sindh. The colonial Britisher could never conceive that the little town could become a port that challenged the industrial might of the Bombay constituency. The period of two decades from 47-68 (when Karachi was Federal capital territory) was the golden period of Karachi and Pakistan. If this exchange had not taken place Pakistan would still have 40% of its population as Hindu. The British never paid any attention to the city of Karachi. In British India. The acceptance of the 14 points was a major victory for the Muslims. Pakistan would have survived a few weeks with 40% of the population trying to undo the country. Mohammed Ali Jinnah.

but in spite of its ethnic strife. The children of slum dwellers have a very different perspective to life. they spawned factories. Philippines now is well on its way to becoming a member of the ASEAN tigers and cubs. The computer industry is one small example of an experiment that started in the laboratory. Liari. and other areas. The Palestinians who grew up in tents also have a very different perspective on life. Former government officials who were Muhajirs were housed in these little quarters and they were happy for they were sacrificing for Pakistan. In South India educational institutions in Gujrat are creating wealth to the tune of two Billion Dollars per annum by exporting their brain-power as computer programmers. new immigrants were ushered to newer and newer territories like Oklahoma where they homesteaded and created a healthy life for themselves. Martin Road and others. it has eradicated hunger and mal-nutirition. Many intellectuals regard the Ivy League and the California educational system as the main engine behind the phenomenal growth of these states. vices that plague the rest of the subcontinent. indeed entire industries. How was wealth created in Karachi? THE CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE ACCELERATES THE CREATION OF WEALTH If we trace the accumulation of wealth in urban areas we realize that educational institutions are a very important factor in the standard of living of geographic regions. The immigrants of Karachi had a dream and a vision for Pakistan. Sri Lanka has unique geo-political probelms that hinders its growth. As the experiments became economically viable. Krangi. The first few dozen incoming optees and non-optees headed for the federal capital and were settled in two-room ³British servant quarter like colonies´ called Jacob Lines. They quickly transformed the infrastructure of the city of Karachi. like the steel industry went bankrupt (except for Ittifaq foundry which survived by destroying the largest ship breaking industry of the world in Gidiani Beach ) In spite of the scores of impediments laid out by the federal government. Political instability is one great inhibiting factor that can stifle the opportunities that education can offer. During the development of the United States. During the successive military dictatorship the army controlled all the resources and tried its best to develop Kala Shah Kakoo. Wealth was created in Urban Sindh in Pakistan NOT through Federal dole. but rather by CREATIVE use of knowledge.In 1947. The government of Pakistan saw it fit to keep its citizens in tents where many of them still live. Sri Lank and the Philippines are prime example of literate population that have not achieved their true potential. The Palestinians who moved to other areas STILL live in tent colonies. and the camps of Shabra and Shatila in Lebanon produce little more than hatred. As Karachi. Karachi grew on ³Laissez-Faire-capitalism´ and Karachi was an equal opportunity employer. In the United States. Many of the California industries were actually laboratory experiments funded by research grants. and in spite of the inefficiency of the government institutions. the entire country prospered. While the land from Karachi to Hydrabad and into Balauchistan was uninhabited barren desert. The companies owned by those folks or the government went bankrupt. The importance of education was recognized early by the Pakistanis who made Karachi their home. . The rest of the migrants had to fend for themselves and ended up in make shift tent colonies that survive to this day as the slums of Liaqatabad and Orangi town. the wealthiest states are California and New York. and Liaqatabad were but tent colonies. Karachi prospered. this land was not given to the new immigrants so that they could make a decent life for themselves. the heart of Pakistan prospered. Peter Drucker in his book ³Post Capitalist Society´ talks about wealth creation by using KNOWLEDGE BASED EMPLOYEES.

Wealth in Karachi was created by cleverly using the newly educated masses and creatively marketing products through out Pakistan and abroad. The Town Hall.Schools were started in make shift camps. the schools and the knowledge went with them. of how in various countries of the world. in creating Dayamram Jethmal Science College. and then a dozen. The University of Karachi (1951). also on Bundar Road. In addition the city has colleges of medicine. The Liaqat Memorial Library was started in a small shack and is today Pakistans largest and perhaps ONLY library that can be compared to other libraries of the world. The book discusses the concept of clustering. Cottage industries cropped up and begin supporting small factories. Porter also discusses reasons on WHY some areas do not take advantage of their resources. Dawood and others established new centers of excellence and continued to build on the old ones to create and disseminate knowledge. Slowly. Memon Masjid (1960). but there are many private schools. Zoroastrianism. some of which are associated with religious denominations such as Christianity. Continuing the practice established by Buj Pers. Karachi University has propelled political and economic leadership to the world stage. Even today Karachi uses its school buildings for second shift and sometimes third shift classes. colleges. A lack of resources did not inhibit the spirit of the new immigrants. Wealth was created in Karachi by one. ³Some buildings built after independence in 1947 follow contemporary Western design. now houses the National Museum and Liaquat Memorial Library. Excellence in education was the motto of the founders. The poor people of Karachi pooled their own resources and created PRIVATE schools. is a red sandstone mosque that is typical of Muslim architecture. In the classical Porter model a small group of talented and motivated entrepreneurs recognize a need begin a trade. is now the seat of city government. and Islam. and universities in Karachi grew out of the philanthropy of the newly rich. Karachi and the Pakistanis have the highest number of doctors and lawyers per capita of any group in Pakistan (source THE HERALD). as the people converted their tents into ³pakki-colonies´ brick buildings. built of red sandstone. These small factories begin feeding larger factories. with friezes and screens patterned in intricate mosaic designs. and then a thousand individuals who ACCUMULATED capital (by sharing resources) and then wisely using the capital. After being successful they create employment for others. and numerous polytechnic institutes´. The concept of ³clustering´ and inter-dependence was well understood by the new Pakistani entrepreneurs. engineering. home economics. Private schools. located about 7 miles (11 kilometers) from the city. The Federal Government continued to divert funds to other institutions where they were misused or never used at all. Other libraries are the Karachi University Library and the National Archives Library. while others incorporate features of traditional Muslim architecture. Frere Hall. Grants to QAU and KU resemble the ratio 1 to 19. This is what Comptons Encyclopedia says about Karachi University: ³Karachi has a public school system. is the main educational institution. two. built in 1865. a group of industries develop and THRIVE. Porter gives concrete reasons on why some areas do not develop while others take off. QAU is languishing from misuse while a small town University. Karachi boasts many many book stores and libraries. . a novel idea in the socialistic era when the state was supposed to control all means of production and indoctrination. Michael Porter has written an excellent book ´ The competitive Advantage of Nations´ in which he describes factors that lead to the industrialization of areas and nations. and then a hundred. and NED. It has more than 20 graduate departments in arts and sciences as well as a school of business administration.´ A city is known by its libraries.

the Mazaris. Edhi was and is an equal opportunity employer where as the JI participated in a policy of exclusion. These Urban Sindhi Pakistanis showed EXTRA ORDINARY entrepreneurial skills to save and use capital to their advantage. The Saigols.Entire industries were spawned in the vicinity of the mother factory. Karachi was the role model not only for the rest of Pakistan but for Asia. she became a magnet for all the other Pakistanis. Singapore is so successful because the Chinese for all over Southeast Asia support the Singapore economy. A healthy consumer markets were developed. Did Adamjee manipulate funds from the interior of Sindh?. A case study of why a Muhajir called Edhi was successful. HUNDREDS of miles of factories built by Karachiites for Pakistan and for the well being of the families of the builders. Punjabis from Chinote came and took advantage of the opportunities. Competition breeds better quality and improves the quality of life of the inhabitants. Karachi was linked to all business of Pakistan. The business acumen of the Muslims of the subcontinent was put to a test and they came forth with flying colors. The Pakistanis welcomed the Balauchis by allowing them credit and helping them set up shops. while the Jamaat-e-Islami with all its workers and state support was not able to create a first aid system in Pakistan. Karachi was the subcontinental test case study of the Clustering Factor One visit to the Panama Center will show even the casual visitor on how wealth is being created even today. Pretty soon each brother has his own shop and his own machine. Did they take advantage of the military industrial complex in Pakistan? Did they build defense colonies and become rich? Were these rich Pakistanis part of the elite funded by the Federal government? The answer to all of the above questions is an obvious no. the Munnoos. The handi-craftsmen of Kashmir came and began exporting Pakistani handicrafts to Europe and the United States. and the Agha Khanis from areas in India partnered with the Parsis of Iran and the Punjabis of Sargodha to make money. The 22 families and hundreds of other families worked the capitalists system and made money for themselves for Urban Sindh and for Pakistan. The Memons from Bombay. How did Adamjee become rich? How did Edhi build a multi-million Dollar welfare system in Pakistan? How did Dawood create wealth? Their case studies are rags to riches parables of Pakistan. The poor brothers get together and buy an old leather sewing machine on a loan. all were welcomed to Karachi to make a Rupees. the Zardaris. the Bhuttos. and sell them abroad. This skill is used by Korean Americans who also share their resources to generate capital and then invest it. The Pakistanis welcomed the Kashmiris and showed them the ropes of international trade. The Balauchi carpet weavers came to Karachi and began making some of the best carpets in the world. Then they pay off the machine. the Manshahs. The reasons were that the educated and hard working people of urban Sindh supported Edhi and he in turn spread his enterprise and help throughout Pakistan. Similarly the Muslims from all over the subcontinent supported Karachi. and SITE (one of the largest industrial complexes in the subcontinent and the largest in Pakistan) «.the oldest credit system on the planet. Edhi created the largest welfare and first aid system in Asia was successful. The Pakistanis of Urban Sindh welcomed and indeed encouraged the Pathans in obtaining a monopoly over the urban transportation system. The Pathans came and took over the transportation industry. This is what Comptons Encyclopedia says about Karachi: . Multimillion Dollar deals were made on the phone and carried on ³the word´. the Habibullahs. This is what happened in Zainab Market. and Tariq Road and Saddar. As Karachi grew. These little tailorshops transform themselves into factories. They sell leather jackets. and they become big exporters.

and carpets. and began competing with the Indian Airlines. The national airlines expanded. 60% of Pakistans industry was spawned by the Pakistanis. In the times gone by in Europe all roads led to Rome. The wealth of Karachi was an importatn factor in developing the insecure Sindhi intelligencia that clinged to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and demanded special rights and privilages for their growing ranks. Lahore. and perhaps compete with East Punjab. Large industrial areas have developed on the western margin of the city. 5000 years ago the Indus Valley Civilization existed on the banks of the Indus. As Karachi expanded Karachites began flying to Europe. and pottery. and towns in the Punjab began growing along the GT Road. and gold and silver embroidery. Habib Bank opened offices in New York and London. The city is an important center for handicrafts and cottage industries that produce handloomed cloth. Pakistan restaurants like Shezan now had the funding to open stores in New York. and branches began sprouting in little villages and in fields. All this activity began attracting foreign multi-national to Pakistan who saw the fertile grounds of Karachi as opportunities to make profits. Hundreds of miles of factories were established on parched desert land on an area misnamed the Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) Karachi began paying 70% of the taxes to the national exchequer. Karachi became THE industrial center of Pakistan. and chemicals. They came and were welcomed. Habib recognized the need and set up a Pakistani bank in Karachi. Today Pakistani town exist on the sides of a roadway that is coming out of Karachi. province and the young nation. which is 26 miles (42 kilometers) east of Karachi. Pakistani organizations began having offices in all of Pakistan and even overseas. lace. machinery. They found jobs and got educated and found better jobs. Instead of building monument to Habib we ignore his outstanding achievements. Jhelum were but truck stops on the way to Karachi. metal products. Sindhis from the interior of Sindh litrally came to the towns to look at the lights. Muslims were never part of the financial world in the subcontinent. Urban Sindhi Muhajir focused on ³clustering´ and this had a definite ripple effect on the rest of Pakistan± the Fan industry in Wazirabad. Karachi handles most of Pakistan¶s seaborne trade. The Karachi-Peshawar road attracted villagers to come and sell their wares on the well traveled road. Due to the ingenuity of her citizens. In 1947 Pakistan had no bank. In the mid-1980s another deep-sea port opened at Qasim. The Textile industry . As Urban Sindh grew the wealth began getting transplanted to Multan and the Saraiki belt in Southern Punjab. articles made of brass and bell metal (an alloy of copper and tin). Even today the economy of these town depends on the traffic flowing through them. Gujrat. He is not even mentioned in Pakistani history books. It is an anthropologists monograph to study the development of Pakistan on the banks of the Pakistans main artery-the two laned road that extends from Karachi through Hydrabad. Buses and taxis that made profits in Karachi now could also run in Nowshera and Quetta and Faisalabad . These peanut and sugar cane stands grew into tikka-kabab shops and have since then grown into over grown villages. As Habib Bank grew it began providing services all over Pakistan. and there is a pipeline to Multan.³The chief industries are textiles. >From scratch. Little towns like Mirpurkhas took off also. through Sukkur through Multan through Jhelum.´ As Karachi grew it took Hyderabad and Sukkur and Nawabshah with it. leather goods. Several oil refineries are nearby. food and beverages. Agha Hasan Abidi an immigrant from Lucknow (the cultural center of the subcontinent) used his knowledge to set up another bank and he called in UBL. the sons and daughters who made Karachi their city home of choice. footwear. furniture. the Pakistanis of Karachi created a plethora of industrial machines that satisfied the consumer demands of the city. As Karachi grew the Pakistani banking system became sound. The wealth began to flow to Larakana and other towns too. Small farmers in Sarhad and Balauchistan now had access to capital that could be used to buy farm equipment. The United Bank began providing competition. Rawalpindi to Peshawar. Hundreds flocked to Karachi. Gujranwala. Rural Punjab was linked by the Grand Trunk Road.

Now our hearts swim these seas where once our eyes searched for golden flowers and our hands tear down the walls that once buried us alive¶. Our books don¶t wait inside cupboards for Faisalabad. Let us await the day that our hands tear down those walls. like the calling of Sahil¶s birds. The growth of industries and agriculture of Sialkot. comparing itself to the prosperity of Singapore. and the farmer in interior Sindh is tied in to the consumer in Urban Sindh. Larkana. the carpenter in the sports factories of Sialkot. ²the worker in the fan factories of Wazirabad. During a short span of three decades. Karachi not only metamorphacized itself into the heart of Pakistan. after the rain. 139 Jackson Ave. it became the city of lights. Most of Pakistani consumers are the Pakistanis and they reside in Urban Sindh. Today the survival of small Punjabi craftsmen. Mirpur. the entrepreneurs of the city of Karachi (the Adamjees. Edison. Or that the trees do not give shade without the help of clouds« With us in Karachi live birds who fly from trees through the sound of bullets and bombs. ³Zeeshan Sahil. This. the industrial capital of the Western wing of the nation and the nerve center of Pakistan. the Habibs. and Faisalabad is totally dependent on the affluent consumers of Urban Sindh. a cosmopolitan mecca. Wazirabad. and the Agha Hasan Abidis) had transformed a sleepy desert town of Karachi into an international port. NJ . our home. the sprouting grass doesn¶t have blades deep green and soft. the sports good industry in Sialkot all took advantage of the credit available from Karachi. is a prayer for us and for our city. it became DarulIslam and began competing with Bombay and had visions of grandeur. always they gather somewhere to pray. the Dawoods. an Urdu poet once wrote of our city. perch on walls. our home. The industries in the interior of the Punjab could now count on the profits generated by selling their products in the new Karachi middle class that could now afford to buy consumer goods. µIt is a lie that in Karachi. it won¶t be long.

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