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SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THEDEGREE OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 2009-10 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Ms. Neha NAME OF THE FACULTY : Ms. NEHA FACULTY, MAIMS SUBMITTED BY: ANMOL MALIK
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies
Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi PSP Area, Plot No. 1, Sector 22, Rohini Delhi 110086
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I hereby declare that the project report entitled topic,” Marketing Strategies of Apple Inc.” is based on my original study and has not been submitted earlier for any degree or diploma of any Institution/University.
The work of the author’(s) wherever used, has been acknowledged at appropriate place.
Date…………………. Candidate signature Place………………… Name………………………… Enroll. No…………………
Counter Signed Name………………………. (Faculty Guide) MAIMS
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This is to certify that the project titled “Marketing Strategies of Apple Inc.” is an academic work done by “ Anmol Malik” submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor Of Business Administration from Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies, Delhi, under my guidance & direction. To the best of my knowledge and belief the data & information presented by her in the project has not been submitted earlier.
Name of the Faculty Guide
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and the factors leading to the success of it. I also owe a deep sense of gratitude to the faculty for their continuous encouragement. has always spelt trust . They have built trust by aligning themselves with the needs of customers over the years of trust. I would like to express my thanks to Mr KAKKAR (director. Neha Verma for the assistance. the company's best-known for hardware. ANMOL MALI K 0906111708 TABLE OF CONTENT Page | 4 .ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to say that I am feeling very overwhelmed and privileged to present the project. It bring outs the present and future marketing strategies of Apple Inc. Apple Inc. MAIMS) for giving me such a wonderful opportunity to widen the horizons of my knowledge . I have no doubt that error and obscurities remain that seen to afflict all writing projects and for which I am culpable. is an American multinational corporation. Apple Inc. In particular. Despite all efforts.be it with the products themselves or with the service standards. I would like to thank Mrs. In no small measure. I would also like to gratefully thank to all those who gave me constructive suggestions for the improvement of all the aspect related to this project. First of all.
china 30 (H) key trends 33 Page | 5 14 28 . (c)Limitation of the Study 6.Page No. Retail sector of India (a) (b) Key factors in Indian Retail 8 Liberalizing FDI 10 (c)Organized Sector (d) (e) Organized Sector set for Big Leap 17 Challenges in Indian Retail Boom 21 (f) Retail revolution (g) Organized retail: India vs. Introduction 3 3. Objectives of the Study 4 4. 1 Literature Review 5 Research and Methodology 7 (a) (b) Research Design Time Frame 5. 1. Abstract 2.
(I) Mall over capacity? (J) Big player’s of Indian retail sector • Reliance fresh • Reliance future plan • Wal-mart • Reliance on wal-mart 35 38 39 41 46 55 8. Analysis 9. Conclusion 10. References 60 56 58 Page | 6 . Recommendations 59 11.
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PURPOSE OF STUDY REPORT
The process of objective self-study is necessary for any institution wishing to remain vital and vigorous and is particularly crucial for institutions of higher learning. Periodically reexamining the institution’s purpose, mission, goals, planning, and assessment helps to maintain quality educational programs and fosters innovative thinking. Only by carefully examining the past and honestly evaluating the present can an institution effectively plan for the future. The purpose of this Study was multi-faceted: to provide comprehensive examination of the nature of the educational programs at Maharaja Agrasen College of Management Studies; to revise, where necessary, characteristics of those programs; and to identify resources and strategies to assure continued development of quality educational programs. Though the major purpose of this Study was to achieve reaffirmation of accreditation by showing compliance. This Self-Study Report will serve not only as an accounting of our compliance with the Criteria, but also as a springboard for continued examination of institutional effectiveness and as a guide for future planning and assessment efforts.
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RESEARCH OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To review the variants offered in India. 2. To know the present and future strategies of the company
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Secondary data are those data that have already been collected by someone else and have already passed through the statistical process. journals.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY The data the project report contains is all secondary data. The secondary data is the type of data chosen by me. The secondary data was collected from the internet. Page | 10 . magazines and newspapers. books.
Given the time constraints. hence. Data being very vast.LIMITATIONS 1. Due to wide spread information of the data. appropriate information could not be gathered to the point specific requirement needs. the errors might have crept in. Page | 11 . 2. the scope of project becomes very wide. 4. All the matter has been collected through secondary sources. all the information could not be gathered. 3.
the iWork suite of productivity software. but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9.48 billion in its fiscal year ending September 29. for its first 30 years. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers.000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$32.000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$32. the iWork suite of productivity software. Apple has about 35. 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. and Final Cut Studio. is an American multinational corporation that designs and manufactures consumer electronics and computer software products. Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. 2008. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008 and in the world in 2009. a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand. Page | 12 . California on April 1.48 billion in its fiscal year ending September 29. a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. Established in Cupertino. Established in Cupertino. Apple Inc. particularly in the United States. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. California on April 1. is an American multinational corporation that designs and manufactures consumer electronics and computer software products. 1977. the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software. 1976 and incorporated January 3. the iPod and the iPhone. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. 1977. for its first 30 years. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand. the iTunes media browser. Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system. and Final Cut Studio. the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software. 2008. 1976 and incorporated January 3.INTRODUCTION Apple Inc. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system. the company was called Apple Computer Inc. the company was called Apple Computer Inc. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008 and in the world in 2009. Apple has about 35. the iPod and the iPhone. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers. 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns. the iTunes media browser. but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9. particularly in the United States.
Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250. the TRS-80 and Commodore PET. Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. it lacked basic features such as a keyboard. who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. monitor. the Disk II.66. and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the office. 1977 without Wayne. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock. Apple's first product. The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface. The Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market. The Apple II was introduced on April 16. Sold as an assembled circuit board. Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a GUI. According to Brian Bagnall. 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II.HISTORY 1976–1980: The early years The Apple I. RAM. Steve Wozniak. By the end of the 1970s.000 during the incorporation of Apple. Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along. and case. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices. Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case. and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa. and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666. and Ronald Wayne. 1976 by Steve Jobs. to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU. Apple was incorporated January 3. Apple was established on April 1. Page | 13 . They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. because it came with color graphics and an open architecture.
1984.In December 1980.5 million television commercial. Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1. A turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship first and save Apple. Several venture capitalists cashed out. Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting. it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. the Macintosh. It was directed by Ridley Scott. In 1984. The Macintosh 128K. "1984". Page | 14 . Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI. When Apple went public. aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22. and is now considered a watershed event for Apple's success and a "masterpiece". and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project. but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles. set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh. 1981–85: Lisa and Macintosh The heroine from Apple's 1984 ad. the first Macintosh computer. reaping billions in long-term capital gains. Apple next launched the Macintosh. set in a dystopian future modeled after the Orwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
it appeared that Apple could do no wrong. Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties. a major upgrade to the operating system. The success of Apple and LOGO in the education environment provided Apple with a broad base of loyal users around the world. agreeing with the donation of one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. The Mac was particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities. the same year. 1986–93: Rise and fall Timeline of Apple II family and Timeline of Macintosh models The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer. (LCSI). that ignited the acquisition of Apple IIs in schools across the country. Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. and PageMaker.The Macintosh initially sold well.. The arrangement. for the Apple II platform. Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991. an early desktop publishing package. For some time. The drive into education was accentuated in California by a momentous agreement concluded between Steve Jobs and Jim Baroux of LCSI. attributed to an implementation of the LOGO Programming Language by Logo Computer Systems Inc. the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point. but follow-up sales were not strong. Apple introduced System 7. The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. A power struggle developed between Jobs and new CEO John Sculley in 1985. The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter. The conquest of education became critical to Apple's acceptance in the home. The same year. released in 1989. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market. Page | 15 . Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989. which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer. as parents supported children’s continued learning experience after school. introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. (eventually replicated in Texas). It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001. which were already necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was in great part due to its leadership in the education sector. established a strong and pervasive presence for Apple in all schools throughout California. which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities.
At the same time. Instead they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform. and TV appliances. a series of major product flops and missed deadlines destroyed Apple's reputation and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler. video consoles. The end result was disastrous for Apple as consumers did not understand the difference between models. v. The Macintosh platform was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking. In addition. Price Club. and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. The lawsuit dragged on for years before being thrown out of court. portable CD audio players. Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993. and the ill-fated Performa line that was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears. Apple saw the Apple II series as too expensive to produce. experience. and Wal-Mart. In 1990 Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform. Inc. Page | 16 . focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers while Apple was delivering a richly engineered. Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh. such as the A/UX. During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. but expensive. a low end Quadra offering. Ultimately. or reworked to run on more powerful hardware. as well as one of the first in the industry. Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Apple introduced the Centris line. speakers. while taking away sales from the low end Macintosh. 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention The Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets. the primary dealers for these models. it helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and Apple's own iPhone in the future.Following the success of the LC. Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems. By the early 1990s. Microsoft Corporation. A financial flop. all of this proved be too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide. Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows.
1998. It sold close to 800. with 800. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive. On July 9. Page | 17 . The goal was to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform). Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. including massive layoffs. and that Microsoft made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock. 1998–2005: Return to profitability Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino. Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. then later with Copland and Gershwin.000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993.In 1994. which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. At the 1997 Macworld Expo. Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers. On August 15. Apple introduced the Apple Store. and Final Cut Pro for professionals. iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite. In 1996. On November 10. first with the Taligent project. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind.000 registered users in early 2007. After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS. thus countering Microsoft. who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. 1997. Through this period. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line. tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system. In 1998. The following year. In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake. the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program. which led to the development of their consumer-level GarageBand application. Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software. Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh. bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. California. 1997. Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia's Final Cut software. The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design. the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's PowerPC processor. Apple introduced the Power Macintosh. The same year. as well as Emagic for their music productivity application Logic. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple. Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market.
with over 5 billion downloads by June 19. over 1 year sooner than announced. At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6.The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass cube. 2008. 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips. Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability. the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to utilize Intel's Core Duo CPU. The Power Mac. Apple's iTunes Store was introduced. after several years of development. based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24. Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California. 2005. 2006. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9. The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips. 2001. On May 19. The same year. housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store. the Mac Pro. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. Mac OS X. 2001.4" widescreen) was Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor. This began with the titanium PowerBook and was followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike. Page | 18 . iBook. 2009. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services. reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. offering online music downloads for $0.. On April 29. Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition. 2005–present: The Intel partnership The MacBook Pro (15. Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. It was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market. MacBook. the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment. On January 10. Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006.  In 2003. By August 7.99 a song and integration with the iPod. and MacBook Pro became their respective successors.
In January 2006. Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store. Three months later." Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9. an internal Apple memo from Steve Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month leave of absence.Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X. the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold. Nine years prior. Despite Steve Jobs' absence. On January 14. 2008. On April 2.21 billion. Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell.80. Apple announced 2009 would be the last year Apple would be attending the Macworld Expo. with Steve Jobs speculating that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple. The event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. Steve Jobs announced that Apple Computer. Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch. On July 11. On December 16. Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with a revenue of $8. and that Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote in lieu of the expected Steve Jobs. Apple's share price passed the $100 mark. In May. the store sold 60 million applications and brought in $1 million daily on average. Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. to allow him to better focus on his health and to allow the company to better focus on its products. On February 6. until the end of June 2009. Apple indicated that it would sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM (which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to drop the technology. Within a month. effective in May. it was announced that Apple had become the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone. Between early 2003 and 2006. from around $6 per share (splitadjusted) to over $80. 2008. would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. 2007. APPLE PRODUCTS Page | 19 . Inc.16 billion and a profit of $1. Apple shares hit $97. Dell's CEO Michael Dell said that if he ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. 2007. 2007. The following day. an all-time high. 2009.
available in white. Time Capsule. Mighty Mouse. ultra-portable notebook. List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type. introduced in January 2008. MacBook. dual processor 1U server. iPod Page | 20 . low-cost desktop computer. 15. and the Apple USB Modem. MacBook Pro. consumer notebook introduced in 2006. • • • • • • • Mac mini. Mac Pro.Current products See also: Timeline of Apple products and List of products discontinued by Apple Inc. MacBook Air. Its popularity helped revive the company's fortunes. it was previously known as the PowerMac. Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless networking products. and 17 inch variants. rack mounted. it was previously known as the iBook. available in 13. introduced in January 2006. consumer sub-desktop computer introduced in January 2005. and List of Macintosh models by case type The Mac mini. consumer all-in-one desktop computer that was first introduced by Apple in 1998. professional portable computer alternative to the MacBook. iMac. ultra-thin. the Apple Wireless Keyboard computer keyboard. Mac and accessories See also: Timeline of Macintosh models. workstation-class desktop computer introduced in August 2006. Cinema Display. dual or quad core. Xserve. it was previously known as the PowerBook.
 The iPhone first became available on June 29. iPod Touch. providing an incremental update to the device including faster internal components. Following complaints from many people. Page | 21 . 2001. 2008. On June 9. 2008. which was available in both black and white. assisted-GPS navigation. The iPhone features a 3. iPod Nano. Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod. The software capabilities changed as well. at WWDC 2008. iPod Shuffle. 2007. or 16 GB of memory. It has evolved to include various models targeting the needs of different users. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. • • iPhone 3G. digital audio player first introduced in 2005. portable media player first introduced in September 2007. Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. iPhone At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007. a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. 2009. Bluetooth.iPod Nano On October 23. currently available in an 8 GB model. 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract. Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush jack to be compatible with more styles of headphones. portable media player first introduced in 2001. the store provided applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone. portable media player first introduced in 2005. On June 8. currently available in an 120 GB model. 16. and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. 4. the App Store surpassed one billion downloads. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the flat silver back. currently available in 8. The original iPhone combined a 2. On April 24. and a price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version. at Apple's annual worldwide developers conference. currently available in 8 and 16 GB models. and $299 for the 16 GB version. Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11. Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated iPhone. currently available in 1 and 4 GB models. with the release of the new iPhone came the release of Apple's App Store. 2009. iPhone 3GS.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices. running a scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS). and 32 GB models. • • • • iPod Classic (previously named iPod from 2001 to 2007). currently available in 16 and 32 GB models. support for faster 3G speeds and video recording capability. The iPod is the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin. the iPhone 3GS was announced. This version added support for 3G networking. 8. with more than 100 million units shipped as of April 9. with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g").5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display.
a Storage Area Network file system. and Software Update are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows. Java EE Web application server. email. and Timeline of Macintosh models Page | 22 . a comprehensive music toolkit and Shake. a remote systems management application. and Learning Center online tutorials. Final Cut Studio. Timeline of Apple II family.Mac) that bundles personal web pages. there is Aperture for professional RAW-format photo processing. iDisk. Logic. and Numbers. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iDVD. which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV. For the professional creative market. For presentation. iPhoto. Mac OS X. 2007 a 160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model and on January 15. Software Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs. QuickTime media player. GarageBand. WebObjects. either via Wi-Fi or a wired network. page layout and word processing.com allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration. The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage. (previously known as the iTV). Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. On May 31. Safari web browser. and Xsan. Pages. Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its Mac OS X operating system. iMovie. Timeline of Apple products Timeline of Apple products. Apple Remote Desktop.Apple TV At the 2007 Macworld conference. Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly . includes outputs for HDMI and component video. a video production suite. iTunes. the latest version being Mac OS X v10. iWork. a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with highdefinition televisions. backup. iTunes. MobileMe is a subscription-based internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync. Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV. and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p. which includes Keynote. Their range of server software includes the operating system Mac OS X Server. an advanced effects composition program.6 Snow Leopard. and iWeb. Groups. 2008 a software update was released. Announced at MacWorld Expo 2009. iWork is available. iSync. with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. Apple also offers a range of professional software titles.
 Alan Kay. as new products begin on a contiguous product line.Products on this timeline indicate introduction dates only and not necessarily discontinued dates. Steve Capps. Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same time period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. As the company has grown and been led by a series of chief executives. thanks to the influence of its founders.). Page | 23 . To recognize the best of its employees. Steve Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple was a Fortune 500 company. Apple created the Apple Fellows program. Culture Corporate Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in terms of organizational hierarchy (flat versus tall. Rod Holt. Rich Page. especially after Jobs' return. By the time of the "1984" TV ad. Apple Fellows are those who have made extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. and Steve Wozniak. the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM more or less by default. Originally. Al Alcorn. etc. this trait had become a key way the company attempts differentiated itself from its competitors. some of its original character has arguably been lost. but Apple still has a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably draws talented people into its employ. each with his own idea of what Apple should be. The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson. casual versus formal attire. Don Norman. Guy Kawasaki.
are a Page | 24 . but Apple was a marketing company. It was the marketing company of the decade. John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: "People talk about technology. for instance. supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available. who publishes the For Dummies series of instructional books. HyperTransport." Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from an unusually artistic. and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of such standards such as USB. who sells Microsoft Office for the Mac. and well-educated population. The New York City Fifth Avenue "Cube" store had a line as long as half a mile. Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company. Mac developers in turn gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference. Apple appears not to have gone out of its way to create it. Power. Mac users meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference & Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public. This allows. Braeburn Capital. manufacturing the hardware on which they pre-install their software. avant-garde subcultures. however. Apple has the highest brand and repurchase loyalty of any computer manufacturer. D. Apple has. While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product. AGP. also sells its Mac-compatible software. At one time. This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event. Books from John Wiley & Sons. Nikon and Canon to sell their Mac-compatible digital cameras and camcorders inside the store.Users According to surveys by J. Apple has sold third party accessories. Wi-Fi. and FileMaker Inc. FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that has seen widespread industry adoption after it was standardized as IEEE 1394. a few Mac fans took the opportunity of the setting to propose marriage. Corporate affairs See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple. which may explain the platform’s visibility within certain youthful. The Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated in the thousands with a line exceeding eight city blocks. one of Apple's oldest software partners. Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands. Apple has a history of vertical integration in their products. During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware. Adobe. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon". Apple has since adopted USB. Ever since the first Apple Store opened. but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established. instead creating their own. as does Microsoft. creative.
 The original hand drawn logo features Sir Isaac Newton. particularly 2005 Power Mac ads and iPhone ads in Britain. Headquarters Main article: Infinite Loop (street) Apple Inc. this was replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple”. Logos Apple’s first logo. Cupertino.6 km) east of the current campus. also in Cupertino. Advertising Since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern 'Get a Mac' adverts. at 1 Infinite Loop. California. will be about one mile (1.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley. as a way to humanize the company.000 m2) assembled from various contiguous plots.notable exception however. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo. Almost immediately. the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. The new campus. Turing is regarded as one of the fathers of the computer. In 2006. While Jobs liked the logo. Apple Inc. who committed suicide by eating an apple he had laced with cyanide. though it has been criticized for the claims of some more recent campaigns. CA. 1 Infinite Loop. though. Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200. designed by Jobs and Wayne. and one theory states that the symbol references his discoveries of gravity (the apple) and the separation of light by prisms (the colors). he insisted it be in color. Another explanation exists that the bitten apple pays homage to the mathematician Alan Turing.000 square feet (79.000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos. and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. Cupertino. The rainbow colors of Page | 25 . depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree.. The publisher's line of books were banned from Apple Stores in 2005 because Steve Jobs disagreed with their editorial policy. This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850. Apple has been recognized in the past for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products.
it is still closely associated with Apple. was coined in the late 1970s. From 1997–2002. However. with the roll out of the new iMac. "Byte into an Apple". and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. In 1998. used present. and all subsequent versions of these products. used rainbow theme it featuring from late 1976 replaced. no specific color is prescribed throughout Apple's software and hardware line. themes. The logo's shape is one of the most recognized brand symbols in the world. identifies all Apple products and retail stores (the name "Apple" is not even present) and has been included as stickers in nearly all Macintosh and iPod packages through the years. Apple used the slogan Think Different in advertising campaigns. It is still Isaac Newton until replaced in used and often under the 1998 by appears in various fabled apple monochrome colors on various tree. and iPod. Nano. Slogans The "glass"-themed Apple logo. The slogan had a lasting impact on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. iPod Panther. iMac ("hello (again)"). on start-up of the and on early iPhone. such as packaging and advertisements in 2003. iPod Touch. products. The monochromethemed logo maintained the The original The rainbow same shaped as the Apple logo "bitten" logo. versions of Mac fifth generation OS X before video iPod. Newton. It first from 2001 to 2003 appears on Mac OS on packaging and X Panther and also advertisements. therefore iMac". Although the slogan has been retired.the logo are rumored to be a reference to the rainbow flag. Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example. News & Opinion Page | 26 . was used in 1998 to promote the iMac. "iThink. Apple discontinued the rainbow theme — supposedly at the insistence of recently returned Jobs — and began to use monochromatic themes. as a homage to Turing's homosexuality. used The Aqua-themed from 2003 to Apple logo. "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh. nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation. Apple's first slogan.
Quarterly iPhones sold were 5.Apple's Best Non-Holiday Quarter Ever PR: Apple on Tuesday announced financial results for its fiscal 2009 third quarter ended June 27." "We're extremely pleased to report record non-holiday quarter revenue and earnings and quarterly cash flow from operations of $2.3 billion. representing a 4% unit increase over the year-ago quarter.23 billion.35 per diluted share.07 billion.23.9 billion. "We're making our most innovative products ever.19 per diluted share. Adjusting GAAP sales and product costs to eliminate the impact of subscription accounting.46 billion and net quarterly profit of $1.3%.2 million iPods during the quarter. "Looking ahead to the fourth fiscal quarter of 2009. Apple sold 2. the company recognizes revenue and cost of goods sold for iPhone and Apple TV over their estimated economic lives. Apple's CFO.5 billion applications from our App Store in its first year.34 billion and a net quarterly profit of $1. representing 626% unit growth over the year-ago quarter. In accordance with the subscription accounting treatment required by GAAP.2 million. and we expect diluted earnings per share in the range of about $1. International sales accounted for 44% of the quarter's revenue. The company posted revenue of $8. Gross margin was 36." Page | 27 . The company sold 10. and our customers are responding. up from 34. These results compare to revenue of $7.8% in the year-ago quarter." said Peter Oppenheimer. representing a 7% unit decline from the year-ago quarter. late 2004 to mid 2009. or $1.74 billion of "Adjusted Sales" and $1. "We're thrilled to have sold over 5. and users have downloaded more than 1.18 to $1.7 billion to $8. the corresponding non-GAAP measures for the quarter are $9.94 billion of "Adjusted Net Income." Macintosh Unit Sales. we expect revenue in the range of about $8.2 million iPhones during the quarter.6 million Macintosh computers during the quarter." said Steve Jobs. 2009. Apple's CEO. or $1. in the year-ago quarter.
CinemaView TV has dual cableready HD tuners with picture-in-picture. as well as Mini DisplayPort connections both in an out. connecting by Mini DisplayPort. HD TV. from simply connecting one of the displays to a Mac. Products & Services CinemaView HD TV and Data Displays Announced PR: Collins America announces a group of display and TV products engineered to radically expand the capabilities of today's Apple computer systems. Inserting a CinemaView TV box between a Mac and either an Apple LED LCD Cinema Display or a CinemaView display turns any new Mac system into a complete HD home television system. the TV box. in addition to enabling direct connection to both a Mac and an Apple TV. connect your favorite TV peripherals by HDMI. or component links. composite. these three new products open an expanded world of options. or combining a Mac. or data.0 through the same cable from the Mac to the display's four port USB 2. and with HDMI on its Apple TV. Plug a 24" or 47" CinemaView display into the Mini DisplayPort output. With Apple's implementation of Mini DisplayPort connectors on its computers. as well as any other HDMI-connected peripherals into a full featured home video entertainment system.0 hub. The two new CinemaView displays have the 16:9 cinematic aspect ratio and 1920 x 1080 resolution that is well suited for viewing either movies. these two interfaces define the future of Apple-centric video. and one of the displays. too. The live webcast will be available for replay for approximately two weeks. and includes easy-to-use onscreen controls.Apple provided live streaming of its Q3 2009 financial results conference call utilizing QuickTime. connect your Mac to the Mini DisplayPort input and your Apple TV to an HDMI input. The new products include 24" and 47" HD LCD displays. and an RF wireless remote. both with native Mini DisplayPort connections. An investment made into a display product today should lead to many years of easy integration with your home video lifestyle. and a full featured headless TV system with full HD TV features. CinemaView believes that tomorrow's graphics and video experiences simply are not going to be the same as yesterday's. Apple's standards-based technology for live and on-demand audio and video streaming. and that Apple will continue to lead and define the path forward for consumer video entertainment. One of these displays makes a terrific companion to a Mac. Our CinemaView TV product turns a CinemaView display into a full-blown HD television system. using one of the displays with the TV box. and routing USB 2. all using the high Page | 28 . Together.
That's where iPhoto To Disk can help. and EU destinations. CinemaView products can be reserved now from the CinemaView web site. The CinemaView 47 LCD display will be available in January 2010 with a USA list price of $1. Whether you need to export your photos or movies for use in other applications or you just want to archive a part of your library. Using iPhoto To Disk you can automatically organize your export by "event" or by "year and event" in a hierarchical folder structure. And. the CInemaView TV will be available in January 2010 with a US list price of $399. the entire approach taken in designing the products is aimed to please the most ardent Mac fans.bandwidth and high quality Mini DisplayPort interface found on all new Apple Mac computers. 2009 will receive free shipping to USA. CinemaView products will be available from the CinemaView web site. You probably don't want the thousands of photos and movies in your library to all be exported to a single folder.499. The CinemaView 24 LCD display will be available in October 2009 with a USA list price of $499. All three products are built using our UniFrameô Aluminum construction that precisely matches the design theme of current Apple computers. but they are most probably meaningless (they typically depend on your camera Page | 29 . retrieving your media files may be a challenging experience. Canada. You can keep your original media file names. iPhoto To Disk exports your media files to a well-structured folder hierarchy. iPhoto To Disk allows flexible naming of your media files. from Apple Specialist retailers across the USA. Software iPhoto to Disk Freeware Image Management Utility PR: If your iPhoto library contains thousands of photos and movies organized in hundreds of events. And. and from hundreds of independent Apple product and custom home theater and AV contractors and resellers around the world. iPhoto To Disk makes it easy. Customers placing reservations before October 1.
drag your selection to the export basket. a contoured back. Timeline of full-size iPod models See also: Timeline of iPod models and Timeline of compact iPod models Page | 30 .settings). with iPhoto To Disk. you can use this valuable information to automatically rename the exported media files. iPhoto To Disk is simple. was unveiled on September 9. personal digital assistant. The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line and is available with 8. a built-in speaker.0 Manufacturer Apple Inc. 2008 at the Let's Rock keynote presentation. and Wi-Fi mobile platform designed and marketed by Apple Inc. To retrieve your media files. The second generation iPod Touch. All features are available in a single window. Done! iPod Touch 2nd generation iPod touch with iPhone OS 3. The product was launched on September 5. It includes Apple's Safari web browser and is the first iPod with wireless access to the iTunes Store. as shown in the screenshot below. The iPod Touch (trademarked and marketed as iPod touch) is a portable media player. built-in Nike+. Did you spend time defining relevant names for your iPhoto events? Of course! Did you label your photos and movies with titles? Great! Then. It also has access to Apple's App Store. featuring external volume controls. 16. select iPhoto events in your library. choose your export preferences and click the "Export" button. and Bluetooth support. 2007 at an event called The Beat Goes On. or 32 GB of flash memory.
The iPod Nano has gone through four models. including variable bitrate files) Audible (formats 2. It uses flash memory. or generations. like the iPod Shuffle. but with a 2-inch (diagonal) QVGA display and the "click wheel" found on the iPod Classic. The first generation was introduced in 2005. Supported audio formats • • • • • • • AAC (16 to 320 kbps) Protected AAC (from the iTunes Store) MP3 (16 to 320 kbps. since its introduction.iPod Nano 4th Generation iPod Nano The iPod Nano (marketed lowercase as iPod nano) is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. 3 and 4) Apple Lossless AIFF WAV Timeline of compact iPod models Page | 31 . It is the midrange model in Apple's iPod family.
it was the first iPod to use flash memory. 2005. using the tagline "life is random". 2009. It was announced at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 11. It is the budget model in Apple's iPod family.7 grams (0. Instead of storing data on a hard disk. introduced on March 11. The iPod Shuffle (trademarked as iPod shuffle) is a digital audio player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The current third generation model.The iPod Shuffle is the smallest digital audio player ever produced by Apple Timeline of compact iPod models Page | 32 . the three generations of the iPod Shuffle.38 ounces). weighs 10.See also: Timeline of iPod models and Timeline of full-size iPod models iPod Shuffle From left to right.
All generations use a 1. The "Classic" retronym was introduced with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic on 5 September 2007.8-inch hard drive for storage. To date. Technical information Page | 33 . there have been six generations of the iPod Classic. as well as a spin-off (the iPod Photo) that was later reintegrated into the main Classic line. an iPod Classic was simply referred to as an iPod.iPod Classic iPod Classic 6th generation The iPod Classic (trademarked as iPod classic and known before its sixth generation as simply the iPod) is a portable media player marketed by Apple Inc. prior to this.
All iPods have five buttons and the later generations (4th and above) have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — a design which gives an uncluttered. with sliding animations. toggle the backlight on older iPods.User interface The iPod's signature Click Wheel iPods with color displays use anti-aliased graphics and text. The buttons are: • • • • • Menu: to traverse backwards through the menus. minimalist interface. and jump to the main menu on newer iPods Center: to select a menu item Play / Pause: this doubles as an off switch when held Skip Forward / Fast Forward Skip Backwards / Fast Reverse Timeline of full-size iPod models Page | 34 .
Apple TV can function as either a home theater-connected iPod device or a digital media receiver. Page | 35 . 2007. songs. 2007. and music videos and subscribe to video and audio podcasts. MobileMe or any Mac OS X or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television. The devices started shipping on March 21. It is a small form-factor network appliance designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes store. The Apple TV provides YouTube integration by receiving direct streams from YouTube.Apple TV Apple TV on display pre-release at the Macworld 2007 conference Apple TV is a digital media receiver manufactured. marketed and sold by Apple. such as viewing favorites. leaving the door open to further utilization of its hardware capabilities and new software developments. By connecting directly to the iTunes Store. by Apple CEO Steve Jobs. Internet media services include the iTunes Store. A second version with a larger 160 GB hard disk started shipping on May 31. Flickr. Apple TV includes enhanced remote control and AirTunes capabilities. or MobileMe. Consumers can browse and view YouTube videos and Flickr or MobileMe photo albums. depending on the needs of the user. Internet media services Apple TV offers basic media services with movie previews and YouTube videos. Features AppleTV is a network device that allows consumers to use an HDTV set to view photos. play music and watch video that originates from an Internet media service or a local network. YouTube. YouTube. but it is good to configure for personalized options. California on September 12. Apple plans to continue offering new features through automatic software upgrades. buy television shows. much of the content in high definition. 2006. It was first announced at a special press event in San Francisco. A YouTube account is not required to browse and view YouTube videos. music and video content from a network-connected computer running iTunes. This initial version shipped with 40 GB of storage. Flickr. albums. users can buy and rent movies. Apple TV can also sync or stream photo.
It is seen by industry experts as changing podcasts to video on demand services.0 (currently the iPhone and iPod Touch). Apple TV became capable of acting as a pure stand-alone device. and "Purchase and Rental ". On July 10. and this was substantiated by the fact that the standard podcast subscription process no longer applies with Apple TV. and television shows. If the unit is already in standby then any of the buttons on the remote appear to wake the unit. Because the Apple Remote is a standard infrared remote. Jobs stated. The commands provided on the AppleTV handheld remote are: "play/pause". iTunes HD movies could only be purchased from Apple TV. "back". "Podcasts". in the App Store. saving podcasts as favorites. Remote. Remote's touch and gesture features are similar to the multi-touch interface used on the iPhone and iPod Touch "Music" app. The Ken Burns effect can also be configured for transitions. "Apple TV was designed to be an accessory for iTunes and your computer. The "play/pause" button will also send the unit into standby mode when held for approximately 5 seconds. but for music only. Movies and TV shows can be restricted based on rating as well as explicit music and podcasts. Pressing the menu button multiple times may not consistently get you to the main menu. movies. Apple TV can optionally be paired with one particular remote to prevent conflicts from other IR-capable devices. Page | 36 . however in newer versions of software you must be in the main menu for this to work. Customers can also use Apple TV to rent regular or HD-quality movies Until mid-March. with automatic cross-dissolve transitions. movies. Internet media is split into 4 categories: "Internet Photos". music videos. Each of the 4 categories is configured by a parental control of "Show". The remote control allows for adjustment of playback volume. "-". Apple released. "+". music. Parental controls allow consumers to limit access to Internet media service content. mainstream universal remotes have been updated for use with Apple TV and can be used to control volume. Apple TV will display the photos in a slide show. the default setting is unpaired which means any Apple Remote works with the device. Out of the box. "Hide" or "Ask" to prompt for a 4-digit preset code. 2009. We learned what people wanted was movies. The Apple TV can be programmed to recognize commands from virtually any infrared remote control. no longer requiring a computer running iTunes on Mac OS X or Windows to stream or sync content to it. Consumers can browse and view podcasts from the iTunes store. a free application that allows for a Wi-Fi-based remote control of the iTunes library on the Apple TV and computers of the Mac line using Apple's line of devices with iPhone OS 2. It was not what people wanted. Internet photos can be viewed from MobileMe and Flickr accounts. "menu". "YouTube". Remote control Apple TV comes with the standard Apple Remote. and "next".TWiT's Leo Laporte notes that the podcast support in the Apple TV puts podcasts on the same level as other media.With the 'Take 2' software update announced by Steve Jobs at Macworld 2008. In addition." Users can access the iTunes store directly through Apple TV to purchase movies. 2008. and it has been mentioned that in certain versions of software pressing and holding the menu button will get you to the main menu directly.
TV shows. especially for home automation/control systems and universal remotes. Apple TV automatically bookmarks video content midstream to continue playback at a later time. presenting the available music sorted by Artist. and video podcasts. as well as offering a shuffle option and listing available audiobooks. As categories are selected with the remote. Genres. These initial menu options then lead to other submenus.5 in late 2007. and Photos).4 Front Row. animated album art is displayed on the side of the display for the contents of the selected category. Apple TVs Content is organized into six groups (Movies. Apple TVs interface was merged back into OS X 10. Aside from "Movies" and "TV Shows" content. etc). While playing "audio-only" content such as music and audio podcasts. Album. The use of multiple functions for individual buttons or infrared codes is problematic. Initially. Podcasts. the "TV Shows" options allows the user to sort contents by show or date and the "Movies" option also allows the user to view movie trailers for new releases. including movies. The included Apple Remote is used to navigate through the menus by using the up or down buttons and selecting options with the play button. and is presented in the initial menu along with a "Settings" options option for Apple TV configuration. just as the Front Row software does on a Mac.0 was based on an enhanced OS X 10. Music. Songs. All video content. The "Music" submenu offers similar options to those found on an iPod. Apple TV software version 1. but since then. movies. Page | 37 .There appears to be no way to discretely turn ON or OFF the device with any infrared codes or get to any sub-menu (music.5 (Leopard) computers. pictures. major Apple TV enhancements ("Take Two" and later) have not been included in the OS X version of Front Row. includes bookmark functionality. Look and feel The Apple TV's software is based on Front Row used on Mac OS X. YouTube. TV Shows. but also perform previous song/next song functionality when selecting audio-only content. The left/right buttons are used to perform rewind and fast-forward functions while viewing video content. Apple TV periodically moves album art and content info on the TV display to prevent burn-in on video displays. music videos. and Composers. including software updates. Apple TV presents an interface based on the Front Row software for Mac OS X 10.
Content support Content has to be in certain formats to play on the Apple TV. USB for firmware updates. and optical audio. and some High Definition rentals from iTunes are offered with Dolby Digital 5. BMP. This allows content in some formats that the device does not support to be easily re-encoded into accepted formats for playback on the device. Some thirdparty content conversion tools also provide Apple TV export options and Macworld has created a guide for using the tools to convert media to Apple TV-compatible formats. Apple TVs audio chip supports 7. Apple Lossless. It also has support for files encrypted with the FairPlay Digital Rights Management technology. or WAV audio codecs.1 surround sound. Page | 38 . It supports video encoded with either the H. Ethernet. Audio can be encoded with AAC (16-320 kbit/s). and PNG image file formats. MP3 (16320 kbit/s. For photos it supports the JPEG. GIF.1 surround sound. Specifications Rear connectors including power. Apple TV supports content purchased or rented from the iTunes store on Apple TV itself or from a networked computer running the iTunes software client. Attempts to sync unsupported content to Apple TV will result in iTunes error message(s) because iTunes supports more formats than Apple TV. AIFF. with VBR).264 video codec for a maximum resolution of 720p (up to 1280x720 pixels) at 25 frame/s or the MPEG-4 video codec for a maximum resolution of 720x432 (432p) or 640x480 pixels at 30 frame/s. Applications which make use of QuickTime to export media also have access to the Apple TV export option. Apple included an Apple TV export option in an update to their QuickTime software that was released at the same time as Apple TV. Both video and audio-only podcasts are supported and media companies are currently producing Apple TV-compatible video podcasts. TIFF. HDMI. Aside from content obtained from Internet media services. component video and audio. for example iMovie (from the "Share" menu) and iTunes (from the "Advanced" menu).
10BASE-T/100BASE-T Ethernet 802. security updates.7x7. Page | 39 . though hackers have managed to allow connectivity of hard disks. 2007) Apple TV Photo Streaming 2.09 kg (2.1 surround sound. iTunes 7. Play iTunes content on the audio system connected to the Apple TV via AirTunes. iPhoto events. and enhanced parental controls. limited Internet radio support. music and music videos. parental controls. View photos from . n wireless networking (AirPort) 1080p/1080i 60/50 Hz (but maximum video resolution is 720p) 720p 60/50 Hz 576p/576i 50 Hz (PAL) 480p/480i (480i is unofficially supported) 60 Hz digital optical audio Networking • • • • • • Output Audio Power Dimensions Weight Software Updates • • RCA analog stereo audio Built-in universal 48W power supply 197x197x28 mm (7. 2007) YouTube integration. mice. 2008) Standalone iTunes Store features (directly from Apple TV through the Internet): rent standard and HD movies with Dolby Digital 5. show everything or only synced content.0 aka "Take Two" (Feb 12. buy TV Shows.0 (officially for diagnostic use only.1 in) 1.Processor Graphics Memory Hard drive Intel Pentium M 1.3 (June 29. Podcast directory of over one hundred thousand video and audio podcasts. Video and audio cables are not included with Apple TV.11 b. Content automatically syncs back to the user's computer. framework updates. slideshow screensaver.7x1. and keyboards) infrared receiver HDMI Component Video. photo priority and browsing other iTunes stores.4 lb) 1. g.1 (June 20.0 GHz "Crofton" Processor NVIDIA GeForce Go 7300 (64 MB VRAM) 256 MB of 400 MHz DDR2 SDRAM 40 or 160 GB hard disk • Connectivity • • • • USB 2. TV show display tweaks.Mac and Flickr galleries.
Support for Remote application. Photo browser. Apple TV does not contain a TV tuner. Podcasts browsable by video and audio. AirTunes receiver. enabling scheduled HDTV recordings to automatically appear on Apple TV for playback. Users created solutions for remote access.3 (November 24. Security fixes. 2008) AirTunes Streaming from Apple TV. The PVR software will connect to iTunes. Movie browsing by actor and director. The Apple TV system software updates will typically remove any software hacks that are installed. but a tuner and PVR capability can be applied on the connected home computer through a third party. installing a full blown copy of Mac OS X Tiger. Particular attention was paid to the device's operating system. Updated transport and chapter modes. enhanced codec support. Genius playlists. Critics against the DVR/TiVo idea mention that the DVR market is dead and call the DVR the "PDA of the living room".2. Flickr Search. but users are warned that applying hacks may void the product's warranty. web browsing. Music Volume Control. support for enhanced remotes.x.1 (July 10. Major ATV hacks are updated on a regular basis and the Apple TV device can easily be re-hacked. Page | 40 . 2008) Movie Wish List.4 (June 24.2 (October 2. 2009) Network Test 2. On-The-Go playlists.1 (February 25. Chapter selection. Movie description. alternate audio and subtitles. The end result was a group of "unofficial" commercial and community-supported add-ons for the Apple TV. New view options. 2009) Remote app directional control. One such PVR idea says that Apple should buy TiVo and another mentions that Apple should go a step further and turn Apple TV into a fully-functional cable box. 2. 2. Music videos in playlists. Security fixes. Playlists. Third-party Remote Controls. MobileMe protected albums.3. Apple TV standby mode. 2. Limitations Functionality Concerns have been expressed about the lack of personal video recorder capabilities on Apple TV. Apple is not currently preventing users from installing Apple TV modifications. Most Front Row plugins are minor and have not been updated to work with Apple TV 2. and the ability to download metadata from the IMDB. USB hard drive access. Modifications and hacks Hacks for the Apple TV were available within days of the unit's release. 2008) HD TV shows. AwkwardTV reports 10 plugins out of 32 have been certified to be compatible with the "Take Two" update. which had been described by Walt Mossberg before the release as "a modified version of the Mac operating system".
 The Mini remote can also control volume for all applications including video and music. not search local network movies (i. but only for Music on Apple TV. and "if you do not have HDTV now. RCA/composite video and F/RF connectors are not included on the Apple TV device. According to Apple. a DVD drive. viewers can use the supplied remote control to activate and navigate the Front Row or other media management packages. it lacks the out-of-the-box simplicity and ease of use of ATV. The Movies "Search" feature only searches iTunes Store movies. Apple TV comes with only a power cable. it has been mentioned that Apple TV should provide the same functionality so that programmers can provide third party applications using Apple TVs interface without having to hack the Apple TV device. iPhone or Apple TV for playing. However. albeit more costly. and access to third party media management software like Plex. The Apple TV device runs "very hot". "My Movies"). option. Content which can be synced or streamed to Apple TV has to be on the local drive or an external drive directly connected to the iTunes-enabled computer. A USB port is included on the device. full Internet radio support. Hardware Apple TV content cannot be used with older televisions. After the success of the iPhone SDK and the App Store. although 480i is unofficially supported as long as the TV supports component video connectivity. including rating items. but it is reserved for service use only. something which the Apple TV interface does not provide today. Page | 41 . Apple TV/itunes is "not designed" to sync or stream content from networked drives to Apple TV. but any movie rented on Apple TV must be watched on Apple TV. Advantages include expandable storage. Movie rentals on iTunes can be transferred to any video-enabled iPod. Apple has teamed up with a third party to provide cables for its customers. synchronizing from more than one computer. you will in the future". the movie must first be transferred to an iTunes-enabled computer on the network. To copy a movie purchased on Apple TV to a video-enabled iPod or iPhone. As a full-featured computer. The website Apple TV Junkie was created to "list of all new HD & SD rental titles released on a daily basis". this is normal. full 1080p video. The Apple Remote can control volume. once configured for home theater applications. There is no off button or function on the Apple TV (although there is a sleep function) so the only way to cool the Apple TV is to unplug it in sleep mode. Reviewers have noted that Apple is "future-proofing". support for multiple video and audio codecs.e. Mac Mini comparison Apple enthusiasts seeking an alternative to the Apple TV sometimes consider the Mac mini as a more powerful. and games.Industry experts feel that the Front Row interface is lacking standard iTunes functionality. sometimes reaching 44° C (111° F).
using either a browser or one of several full featured free applications like Boxee. Hulu and Netflix. Released July 11. the Mini can stream content from services like Youtube. Apple TVs interface includes YouTube support and iTunes store capabilities. 2007 before being marketed worldwide. the third generation adds support for 7. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (also including text messaging and visual voicemail). Since this is not a stock set up. after months of rumors and speculation. It was released in the U. 2007. 3G. the second generation added UMTS with 3. the multitouch screen renders a virtual keyboard when necessary. 3GS. web browsing. Plex and XBMC. 2009. 2009. and an Internet client (with email.2Mbps HSDPA downloading but remains limited to 384 Kbps uploading as Apple had not implemented the HSPA protocol.0 of the iPhone OS operating system for the iPhone (and iPod Touch). and Wi-Fi connectivity). Because its minimal hardware interface lacks a physical keyboard. Apple announced the iPhone on January 9. Canada and 6 European countries on June 19. From left to right: original. The Apple TV must be hacked to add software like Boxee to partly compensate for the lack of browser-based functionality. Apple announced version 3.  iPhone The three generations of the iPhone in chronological order. a portable media player (equivalent to a video iPod). the iPhone 3G supports faster 3G data speeds and assisted GPS. The iPhone 3GS was announced on June 8. and will see international release in July and Aug History and availability Page | 42 . 2008.As a full featured computer.. in Australia and Japan on June 26. On March 17. 2009. released on June 17. Time magazine named it the Invention of the Year in 2007. The iPhone is an Internet-connected. official software updates remove the hack  and it could void the warranty. multimedia GSM smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc.  The original iPhone was introduced in the United States on June 29.S. The first-generation phone hardware was quad-band GSM with EDGE.6Mbps HSDPA.
 Jobs unveiled iPhone to the public on January 9. and Germany in November 2007. along with plans to release it Page | 43 . Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1. The original iPhone was made available in the UK. including the original six. Apple has since released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories. The iPhone went on sale in the United States on June 29. France. 2007 in a keynote address. 3G iPhone 3G and 3Gs Original iPhone iPhone Worldwide iPhone availability: only iPhone 3G and 3Gs Original iPhone was available. now 3G iPhone 3G Development of iPhone began with Apple CEO Steve Jobs' direction that Apple engineers investigate touchscreens. 2008.Worldwide iPhone sales by quarter. a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Apple created the device during a secretive and unprecedented collaboration with AT&T Mobility—Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. Sales volume is in millions. at 6:00 pm local time. On July 11. while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide. Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house. 2007. but since such filings are made available to the public. 2009. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8. the announcement came months before the iPhone had received approval. Apple was required to file for operating permits with the FCC. Instead. and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008.
.S. July. In an attempt to gain a wider market. ending March 2009. it now costs $99.S.. The iPhone attracts users of all ages. Hardware Page | 44 . Canada and major European countries on June 19. alone. down from $599. and 40% of users have six-figure incomes annually. Many would-be users have objected to the iPhone's cost.8 million iPhone 3G units in the second quarter of fiscal 2009. Apple has retained the 8 GB iPhone 3G at a lower price point. starting with the U. Apple sold 6. although it includes a twoyear contract and a SIM lock. which made Apple briefly the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue. Sales in Q4 2008 surpassed temporarily those of RIM's BlackBerry sales of 5. some of this income is deferred.4 million iPhones are active in the U.later in June. after Nokia and Samsung. Approximately 6. totaling 21. and August.S. it now sells for one-sixth of the price of the original 8 GB iPhone when it first became available. In the U. the iPhone has garnered positive reviews from critics like David Pogue and Walter Mossberg. This is the latest of several price reductions over the years.2 million units.4 million iPhones sold to date. The company sold 3. Regardless.1 million original iPhone units over five quarters. While iPhone sales constitute a significant portion of Apple's revenue.
 The proximity and ambient light sensors on the iPhone 3G (shown) are identical to the one on the iPhone 3GS. Rear view of the original iPhone (left) made of aluminum and plastic. and the iPhone 3G. Page | 45 .A highlighted view of the proximity and ambient light sensors on the first-generation iPhone. made completely from a hard plastic material.
A proximity sensor deactivates the display and touchscreen when the device is brought near the face during a call. The iPhone 3G is available in black with 8 GB of space. HVGA) with scratch-resistant glass. such as email. Most gloves and styluses prevent the necessary electrical conductivity. Page | 46 . A single "Home" hardware button below the display brings up the main menu. The 3. regardless of storage capacity. The accelerometer can also be used to control third party apps. or multiple fingers for multi-touch sensing. and the iPhone 3GS also has a digital compass. The touch screen furnishes the remainder of the user interface. The capacitive touchscreen is designed for a bare finger. differentiated only by the latter's reflective silver text which now matches the silver Apple logo. The back of the original iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. and introduced shaking the unit as a form of input. Photo browsing. and ringer on/off.144 colors. These are made of plastic on the original iPhone and metal on all later models. Screen and input The touchscreen is a 9 cm (3. If a headset is plugged in. Audio and output One of two speakers (left) and the microphone (right) surround the dock connector on the base of the iPhone. allowing the user to easily switch between portrait and landscape mode. An ambient light sensor adjusts the display brightness which in turn saves battery power. web browsing. This is done to save battery power and to prevent inadvertent inputs from the user's face and ears. and the discontinued 16 GB model was sold in either black or white. replacing the 3G's grey text. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal. notably games.3 px/mm. The iPhone 3GS is available in both colors. volume up/down.5 in) liquid crystal display (320×480 px at 6. The iPhone has three physical switches on the sides: wake/sleep. A 3-axis accelerometer senses the orientation of the phone and changes the screen accordingly. sound is played through it instead.0 update added landscape support for still other applications. and can render 262. A software update in January 2008 allowed the first generation iPhone to use cell tower and Wi-Fi network locations trilateration.  The display responds to three sensors. despite lacking GPS hardware. The iPhone 3GS also features a new Fingerprint-resistant oleophobic coating. 160 ppi.The reverse of the iPhone 3G (left) is almost identical to that of the 3GS. The iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS employ A-GPS. and music playing support both upright and left or right widescreen orientations.
 The headphone socket on the original iPhone is recessed into the casing. Unlike many similar phones. The 3. Both speakers are used for handsfree operations and media playback. While the iPhone is compatible with normal headphones.0 software update. skip tracks.One loudspeaker is located above the screen as an earpiece. music and videos.  While illicit solutions exist. such as pictures. screen." also included) can Page | 47 . The iPhone 3G eliminates the issue with a flush mounted headphone socket. with other bluetooth-enabled cell phones. Apple sells headsets with volume controls. Volume controls are located on the left side of the unit and as a slider in the iPod application. Alternatively. headphone jack. The iPhone features an internal rechargeable battery. The switches were black plastic on the original model. Composite or component video at up to 576i and stereo audio can be output from the dock connector using an adapter sold by Apple. SIM card slot. the battery is not user-replaceable.x+EDR supports wireless earpieces and headphones. Apple provides a headset with additional functionality. silence switch. Top: speaker. identical to the iPhone 3G. and answer or end phone calls without touching the iPhone itself. making it incompatible with most headsets without the use of an adapter.0 update for hardware that supports A2DP. A multipurpose button near the microphone can be used to play or pause music. volume controls. Battery The top and side of the iPhone 3GS. Stereo audio was added in the 3. similar to charging an iPod. but they are only compatible with the iPhone 3GS. From left to right. opposite a microphone on the bottom-right. The iPhone can be charged when connected to a computer for syncing across the included USB to dock connector cable. the iPhone does not officially support the OBEX file transfer protocol. sides: On/off switch. The built-in Bluetooth 2. A small number of third-party headsets specifically designed for the iPhone also include the microphone and control button. a USB to AC adapter (or "wall charger. and another is located on the left side of the bottom of the unit. the iPhone did not support voice recording until the 3. which requires the HSP profile. The lack of these profiles prevents iPhone users from exchanging multimedia files.5 mm TRRS connector for the headphones is located on the top left corner of the device. Like an iPod but unlike most other cell phones.
nine hours of web browsing on Wi-Fi or five on 3G. Apple added a 16 GB model. which is inserted into a slot at the top of the device. even solar chargers) are also available. 24 hours of music.  In most countries. 2008. and SIM eject tool. or the SIM card. six hours of web browsing on Wi-Fi or five on 3G. or five on 3G. The iPhone 3G's battery is stated to be capable of providing up to seven hours of video. The SIM tray can be ejected with a paperclip or the SIM eject tool included with the iPhone 3G and 3GS. ten hours of 2G talk time. eight hours of talk time. The SIM card sits in a tray. From left to right: Top of box. Apple claims that the 3GS can last for up to ten hours of video. On September 5. Apple discontinued the 4 GB models. which prevents the iPhone from being used on a different mobile network. USB cable. Storage and SIM The iPhone was initially released with two options for internal storage size: 4 GB or 8 GB. On February 5. The items included with the iPhone 3G.be connected to the cable to charge directly from an AC outlet. The original iPhone's battery was stated to be capable of providing up to seven hours of video. or 300 hours of standby. The iPhone 3G was available in 16 GB and is still available with 8 GB. The iPhone 3GS comes in 16 GB and 32 GB variants. or five on 3G. Apple runs tests on preproduction units to determine battery life. the iPhone does not support expanded storage through a memory card slot. A number of third party accessories (stereos. headphones. iPhone 3G. 24 hours of music or up to 250 hours on standby. package with cloth. documentation. twelve hours of 2G talk time. Software Page | 48 . 30 hours of music. car chargers. the iPhone is usually sold with a SIM lock. or 300 hours of standby. and wall charger. which is comparable to iPod batteries. six hours of web browsing. Apple's website says that the battery life "is designed to retain up to 80% of its original capacity after 400 full charge and discharge cycles". 2007. All data is stored on the internal flash drive.
5 Leopard. which is compatible with Mac OS X version 10. iPhone 3G users initially experienced dropped calls until an update was issued. as well as from third-party developers. Users can download additional applications from the App store. The earliest versions of iPhone OS required version 7.10 Tiger or later.4. Apple provides free updates to iPhone OS through iTunes.3 or later. and rearrange the icons. Like the iPod. and a workaround has been discovered for previous 64-bit Windows operating systems.0 update requires iTunes 8. The numeric battery meter is a feature exclusive to the iPhone 3GS. but can also be achieved via the jailbreaking process.2 — but the iTunes system requirements have stayed the same. It is capable of supporting bundled and future applications from Apple. Also included is the "Core Animation" software component from Mac OS X v10. OpenGL ES 2. the 3. the iPhone is managed with iTunes. It is based on a variant of the same Darwin operating system core that is found in Mac OS X. it is responsible for the interface's motion graphics. Updates include both security patches and new features.0). The operating system takes up less than half a GB of the device's total storage (4 to 32 GB). and 32-bit or 64-bit Windows XP or Vista. The release of iTunes 7. Software applications cannot be copied directly from Mac OS X but must be written and compiled specifically for iPhone OS.The default Home screen of the iPhone shows most of the applications provided by Apple. For example. Such updates often require a newer version of iTunes — for example. Together with the PowerVR hardware (and on the iPhone 3GS.6 expanded this support to include 64-bit versions of XP and Vista. Page | 49 . create Web Clips. and major updates have historically accompanied new models. The iPhone (and iPod Touch) run an operating system known as iPhone OS.
videos. All customizing can be done in iTunes.1. and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. and repeat tracks. audiobooks. this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. and the first two models only supported voice dialing through third party applications. if a song is playing while a call is received. Multimedia The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod or current Symbian S60 phones. The iPhone can sort its media library by songs. call merging. albums. Voice control. or alternatively with Apple's GarageBand software 4. the volume can be changed with the included Page | 50 . genres. The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face. The screen is automatically disabled when held close to the face. playlists. Options are always presented alphabetically. podcasts. both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. which retain their order from iTunes. pause from half a second to five seconds when looped. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users plenty of room to touch their selection. On the iPhone 3GS.1 or later (available only on Mac OS X) or third-party tools. The ringtones can be 3 to 30 seconds long from any part of a song. The iPhone allows audio conferencing. can fade in and out.Phone When making a call. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. artists. or loop continuously. play. it gradually fades out.  A music ringtone feature was introduced in the United States on September 5. This iPhone does not support video calling. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access Cover Flow. headset controls can be used to pause. call holding. allows users to say a contact's name or number and the iPhone will dial. Users can create custom ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a small additional fee. available only on the iPhone 3GS. Like on iTunes. Alternatively. 2007. and fades back when the call has ended. composers. For example. and compilations. skip. except in playlists. caller ID. the iPhone presents a number of options.
and Snow Leopard (6). Mac OS X version 10. and to provide access to network services. The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.. is a Unix-based operating system. and a desktop-oriented version.0 in 1999. for example. an LDAP server. It is the successor to Mac OS 9. Jaguar (2). and includes tools to facilitate management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines. The server edition. Its sixth and most recent version. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats.. and since 2002 has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. These tools include a mail transfer agent. Panther (3). and others. a Samba server. Leopard (5). Page | 51 . It is pre-loaded on Apple's Xserve server hardware. whose "X" represents the Roman numeral for "10" and is a prominent part of its brand identity.5 is usually referred to by Apple and users as "Leopard". Tiger (4). the final release of the "classic" Mac OS.Apple Software Mac OS X Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/) is a line of computer operating systems developed.5 is certified UNIX 03 while running on Intel processors. 2001. Description Box artwork for Mac OS X. which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Mac OS X v10. is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart.0 followed on March 24. marketed. Mac OS X v10. a domain name server. Left to right: Cheetah/Puma (1). and sold by Apple Inc. but can be run on most of Apple's computer models. Mac OS X Server. Mac OS X. built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in early 1996.
For example. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers. Apple released this set of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin. All Mac software that did not receive a complete rewrite to the new framework would run in the equivalent of the Classic environment. Nextstep was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple. Compatibility Software The APIs that Mac OS X inherited from OpenStep are not backward compatible with earlier versions of Mac OS.x). Mac OS X introduced a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor.g.Mac OS X is the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. and OpenStep was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project. standing variously for Nextstep or NeXT/Sun. published in September 1994. and G5 processors. Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. which was designed to be portable—to ease the transition from one platform to another. Hardware For the early releases of Mac OS X. It is therefore correctly pronounced as the number 10 in this context (/tɛn/). On top of Darwin. for example. or server) based on PowerPC G3. e.5 "Leopard". introduced October 2007. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals. G4. has dropped support for all PowerPC G3 processors and for PowerPC G4 processors with clock speeds below 867 MHz. Mac OS X Server (now known as Mac OS X Server 1. Apple layered a number of components. a Roman numeral. since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework. These APIs were created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems and are now referred to by Apple as Cocoa. Many aspects of Mac OS X's architecture are derived from Openstep. to complete the GUI-based operating system which is Mac OS X. With the introduction of the MacBook Air and Page | 52 . the Carbon Application Programming Interface (API) was created. Later versions discontinued support for some older hardware. For example. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X. including the Aqua interface and the Finder. Panther does not support "beige" G3s. Applications written with Carbon can be executed natively on both systems. Mac OS X v10. though pronouncing the letter "X" (/ɛks/) is a common mistake for users. with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface. was the first to split the API between Foundation and Application Kit and the first to use the “NS” prefix. Apple's Rhapsody project would have required all new development to use these APIs. pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. desktop. Mac OS X's core is a POSIX compliant operating system (OS) built on top of the XNU kernel. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X. the standard hardware platform supported was the full line of Macintosh computers (laptop. The official OpenStep API. and Tiger does not support systems that pre-date Apple's introduction of integrated FireWire ports. causing much outcry among existing Mac developers. Mac OS 9. The letter X in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10.
Page | 53 . a DOM Inspector-like utility that lets users and developers browse the Document Object Model of a web page Support for CSS 3 web fonts Support for CSS animation Bookmark integration with Address Book ICC colour profile support Inline PDF viewing Integration with iPhoto photo management Mail integration Ability to save parts of web pages as web clips for viewing on the Apple Dashboard. Leopard does not require an integrated FireWire port.later the "unibody" MacBook. which lack any FireWire ports. Safari (web browser) Safari offers most features common to modern web browsers such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tabbed browsing Bookmark Management A resizable web-search box in the toolbar which uses Google on the Mac and either Google or Yahoo! on Windows Pop-up ad blocking History and bookmark search Text search Spell-checking Expandable text boxes Automatic filling in of web forms Built-in password management via Keychain Subscribing to and reading web feeds Quartz-style font-smoothing The Web Inspector.
Windows Vista. iPod games. 2001.iTunes iTunes is a proprietary digital media player application. was announced at Apple's September 2008 keynote "Let's Rock". Originally a Mac OS 9-only application.0-10. used for playing and organizing digital music and video files. various podcasts. and Windows XP from Apple's website.0 was released nine months later. The latest version. which Page | 54 . music videos. feature length films and movie rentals (not available in all countries). The program is also an interface to manage the contents on Apple's popular iPod digital media players as well as the iPhone.3. at the Macworld Expo in San Francisco. It is also used to download applications for the iPhone and iPod touch as long as they are running iPhone OS 2. applications. It is also bundled with all Macs. developed by Jeff Robbin and Bill Kincaid and released by Casady & Greene in 1999.0 or later. television shows. Older versions are available for Mac OS 9. Additionally. iTunes can connect to the iTunes Store via the Internet to purchase and download music. audiobooks. and Windows 2000. and ringtones (available only in the USA). History SoundJam MP. on January 9. OS X 10. and removed its recording feature and skin support. iTunes is available as a free download for Mac OS X. and released it as iTunes in January 2001. iTunes 8. iTunes was introduced by Apple Inc. Apple added a new user interface and the ability to burn CDs. became the basis for iTunes when Apple purchased it in 2000. and some HP and Dell computers. iTunes began to support Mac OS X when version 2.
in October. record Compact Discs. run a visualizer to display graphical effects in time to the music. allowing users to access and edit a song's attributes. The 64-bit versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are not supported by Apple. The last major update. but a workaround has been devised for both operating systems. and rating. It caches information like artist and genre from the audio format's tag capabilities (the ID3 tag.xml. iTunes typically reads library data only from this file.also added support for the original iPod. and encode music into a number of different audio formats. for example) and stores iTunes-specific information like play count and rating. The first is a binary file called iTunes Library and it uses a proprietary file format ("ITL"). In April 2003. version 4. is refreshed whenever information in iTunes is changed. using iTunes is required in order to manage the audio of an Apple iPod portable audio player. acting as a front end for Apple's QuickTime media player. The second file. back up songs onto a CD or DVD. These attributes. Version 3 dropped Mac OS 9 support but added smart playlists and a ratings system. grid view. iTunes lacked support for 64-bit versions of Windows until the 7. and 7. edit file information.0 introduced gapless playback and Cover Flow in September 2006.6 update on January 16. iTunes is an application that allows the user to manage audio and video on a personal computer.0.0 introduced the iTunes Store. which are Page | 55 . Media management iTunes keeps track of songs by creating a virtual library. version 8. In March 2007. Features iTunes includes visualizers. added Genius playlists. Version 7. iTunes Music Library. download free podcasts.1 added support for Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP. Officially. Users can organize their music into playlists within one or more libraries.4 marked the end of Windows 2000 support. purchase music and videos through its built-in music store. are stored in two separate library files. Shown here is the new visualizer in iTunes 8.1 added support for Windows Vista. copy files to a digital audio player. version 4. There is also a large selection of free internet radio stations to listen to. allowing developers to easily write applications that can access the library information (including play count. 2008. and a new default visualizer. including black orbs and moving specks of light. It uses an XML format. iTunes 7. although alternative software does exist. although the iTunes executable is still 32-bit. last played date. known as metadata. iTunes is currently supported under any 64-bit version of Windows Vista.
Detailed third-party instructions regarding this are documented elsewhere. only the list is broken up by albums. Accordingly. Library sharing A user's iTunes Library can be shared over a local network using the closed. If the song(s) from the album were imported from a 'mix' CD. play count.3 format). artist. DAAP relies on the Bonjour network service discovery framework. voiced by Mark Pilgrim. only to third-party licensees such as Roku. etc. and iPhoto applications all access the library. the protocol has been reverseengineered and is now used to stream playlists from non-Apple software (mainly on the Linux platform). and so forth. created by Apple for this purpose. Apple's own iDVD. Although this allows users to browse content more visually. If the first file is corrupted. user rating. including name. However. with the artwork as a header to the list. Apple has not made the DAAP specification available to the general public. album. It sorts the albums into artist. Library views Cover Flow allows users to browse their libraries visually by cover art. as with Cover Flow view.not standard fields in the ID3v2. genre. genre. Cover Flow displays all of the user's album art as CD covers in a slideshow format. the second view mode is most appropriate for users who sort their libraries by album. iTunes users may choose to view their music and video libraries in one of four ways: as a list. DAAP allows shared lists of songs within the same subnet to be Page | 56 . that this feature will create an "undocumented binary blackhole" because the recovery from the XML file may not work. The standard list view displays library files with many optional detail fields. in Cover Flow (a side-scrolling catalog of album artwork). There have been some concerns. sorting the list view by name will accordingly break up the library into redundant instances of each album. as a list with accompanying album artwork. the album artwork will be displayed as a default music note pictures. proprietary Digital Audio Access Protocol (DAAP). The list with accompanying album artwork is much the same. Item backgrounds alternate between white and a light blue-gray for readability. Apple's implementation of the Zeroconf open network standard. iMovie. Compilation albums are only shown as a single album cover if the compilation tag for each of the album's tracks is turned on. iTunes will attempt to reconstruct it from the XML file. or in Grid View.
thus iTunes may have performed better with a Constant bitrate (CBR).x and ID3v1. by specifying IP addresses of remote shared song libraries. WAV.4 (which uses UTF-8 encoding) is possible via its "Advanced" > "Convert ID3 Tags" toolbar menu.0. If both ID3v2. There is limited support for Vorbis and FLAC enclosed in an Ogg container (files using the FLAC container format are not naturally supported) or Speex codecs with the Xiph QuickTime Components. these features will not work with these QuickTime components. The multiple. iTunes ignores the ID3v1. The QuickTime plugin that supports the OGG container format has no support for tag editing or album art. File metadata For MP3 files. It was stated in the final results that these tests only covered VBR encodings. but authentication is required. write and convert between MP3. Because tag editing and album art is done within iTunes and not Quicktime.automatically detected. AAC and Apple Lossless. and HEAAC streaming audio (which a number of Internet radio stations use) will not play back at all. including Protected AAC files from the iTunes Store and Audible. stored in the MP4 container as socalled "Atoms".2 using UCS-2 encoding by default. AAC and Apple Lossless files support Unicode metadata. The latest version of iTunes (Win/Mac) supports importing audio CDs with the default iTunes standard file format of AAC at 256 kbit/s. alternate "View" options normally available to iTunes users including "Cover Flow" are disabled when viewing a shared library over a network. in that the quality of the files produced by iTunes was below par. Page | 57 . iTunes writes tags in ID3v2. iTunes currently will not play back HE-AAC/aacPlus audio streams correctly. AIFF. but converting them to ID3v2. Songs in Protected AAC format can also be accessed. in addition to one's own subnet. File format support iTunes 8 can currently read. MPEG-4.1. Importing of audio CDs into MP3 or AAC formats can also be accomplished using variable bitrate (VBR) encoding. iTunes can stream the song but won't save it on the local hard drive.x tags. Library sharing was first introduced with iTunes 4. Apple quickly removed this feature with version 4.com audio books.3 (UCS-2 encoding) and ID3v2. in order to prevent unauthorized copying. where users could freely access shared music anywhere over the Internet. but users can choose from 16 kbit/s to 320 kbit/s constant bit rates (CBR) in either AAC or MP3. a double-blind experiment conducted in January 2004 of six MP3 encoders noted that the iTunes encoder came last. HE-AAC/aacPlus format files will play back as 22 kHz AAC files (effectively having no high end over 11 kHz). However. iTunes can also play any audio files that QuickTime can play (as well as some video formats). When a song is shared. A maximum of five users may connect to a single user every 24 hours. claiming that users were violating the End User License Agreement.x tags are in a file.0.
Originally. For any album loaded into iTunes for which there is not an existing Gracenote track listing. this is usually called volume leveling or volume normalization. in a separate window. videos were only distinguished from audio in the Library by a small icon resembling a TV screen and grouped with music in the library.1 quite a few features were added to iTunes DJ. Song voting can only be done when song requesting is enabled and in two ways: the first by right clicking on a song in the iTunes DJ queue on the hosts computer in iTunes. by a manual procedure. customers being music videos and Pixar's short films. Sound processing iTunes includes sound processing features. There is also a feature called "Sound Check" which automatically adjusts the playback volume of all songs in the library to the same level. customers. Party Shuffle was renamed iTunes DJ in iTunes 8. When song requesting is enabled a Page | 58 . video support was introduced to iTunes with the release of iTunes 4. Along with the song request feature voting on songs in the queue was added. much like a database query. "sound enhancement" ("sound improvement" in some languages) and crossfade. 2005.iTunes uses the Gracenote interactive audio CD database to provide track name listings for audio CDs. Playlists In addition to static playlist support.S. Any user of iTunes can publish a playlist to the iTunes Store with his or her own preferences. Track names for albums imported to iTunes while not connected to the Internet can be obtained during a later connection. Users can drag and drop movie clips from the computer into the iTunes Library for cataloguing and organization. version 3 of iTunes introduced support for smart playlists. They can be viewed in a small frame in the main iTunes display. with the only video content available to non-U. Video support On May 9. this can be turned on in the 'Playback' section of iTunes' preferences. movies and TV shows were only available to U. Like "sound enhancement". When iTunes was updated to 8. Multiple criteria can be entered to manage the smart playlist. The service can be set to activate when a CD is inserted into the computer and an Internet connection is available. which is called an iMix.S. such as equalization. Before version 7 provided separate libraries for media types. the more votes a song gets the high in the queue it will be and sooner it will be played. or fullscreen. The free Apple Remote application for the iPhone and iPod Touch was also update at this time that added a new iTunes DJ option in the settings screen when the user is connected to a Wi-Fi network and a new song request feature is enabled in iTunes DJ on the hosts. This feature is being extended to other countries as licensing issues are resolved. the second is in the Remote application ether connected with the iTunes DJ option by a guest or by the host in the full playlist section. Smart playlists are playlists that can be set to automatically filter the library based on a customized list of selection criteria.8. the user can choose to submit track name data to Gracenote. organized by the same musical categories (such as "album" and "composer").
 Page | 59 .customizable welcome message is displayed below the host's shared library name in the button used to connect to iTunes DJ.
has built but will also have to face barriers more strenuous then what Apple had to face. not only had to face a number of barriers to entry in the development of the iPhone but they must also worry about potential competitors overcoming them as well.Economies of Scale Apple Inc. had an existing experience in manufacturing mass-market consumer electronics devices. so Apple Inc. Although Apple currently has an advantage with its innovative products it must always be aware of the ease that a competitor can copy its products. However those new companies to the market will not only have to compete with the strong brand that Apple Inc. Access to Distribution Channels Page | 60 . 2. In either situation it is extremely risky as both could lead to the company’s collapse.FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS Threat of Entry ↓ Threat of Suppliers → Threat of Substitutes Level of Threat in an Industry ← ↑ Threat of Rivalry ↑ Threat of Buyers Apple Inc. A new company entering this market would have one of two choices available: 1) They sell their product at a higher price to make up for the fact they can’t sell the same volume as a company like Apple Inc. the iPod and their line of computers. Or 2) They sell their product at a lower price probably occurring a loss per unit in hopes of selling a high volume and banking on sales of applications that can be purchased for the phone. 1. especially in the extremely competitive field of cellular phones. many of which share similar components of the iPhone. was not negatively affected by this barrier. and must hope that the consumer sees the higher price as a indicator of better quality. had the production lines and personnel to make advance electronic products such as. New entrants may not have that comfort as the cell phone market is almost defined by its mass-market environment. it wasn’t difficult to develop a production line capable of mass production of the iPhone. Since Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. because the iPhone is significantly different than most of its competitors. which gives them another advantage as they do not need to spend as much time and money in the research and development stages as a new phone manufacturer would. 3G and EDGE network). itself did not face much resistance with this barrier because of their experience creating both software and hardware. Samsung and Nokia. and AT&T stores and auction websites. A list of the iPhone’s highlighted features includes the iPod. to most effectively compete with the iPhone they will need to invest significantly in certain areas. have released designs and plans to develop their own versions of an iPhone. the iPhone 3G is a revolutionary phone with a high call quality as its main point of parity. A future entrant to the market could create an advantage by make their product more available for multiple carriers and multiple retailers. had already been successful with their computers and the iPod they had an advantage with having the capital required to start mass production of a new product. However. like eBay. in hopes of attacking some of Apple’s market share. Product Differentiation In general this trait is favorable for Apple Inc. This will make it more difficult for competitors to copy the iPhone but we are sure will not stop companies from developing their own versions of this successful product. 5. 2007). to a certain extent. and it is only supported by the AT&T network. Companies looking to enter this market with have difficult barriers to overcome in order to compete at the same level as Apple Inc. Capital Requirements Since Apple Inc. and unless a company has experience in developing consumer electronics it seems very unlikely that they can experience similar success. Internet tool (Wi-Fi. So. Apple Inc. The problem with cell phones is product differentiation can be emulated. also has experience with developing software and hardware. First and foremost. recently LG with Verizon have just release the Dare. also has a certain amount of protection through the strength of its brand identity. 3.Although Apple Inc. which governs communication technologies in the United States. 4. Apple has gained another advantage by acquiring a patent and FCC approval for the IPhone. an iPhone like product. Page | 61 . has had success with the distribution of its products it does face issues with this barrier due to the limited retailers of the iPhone and the fact that there is currently only one service provider. Government Policy Any company looking to enter this market has two governmental factors they must consider before entering the market: 1) the strength of current manufactures patents and 2) the regulatory obligations and approval requirements of the FCC (Apple Insider. Not to mention companies like. Apple Inc. The iPhone is only available through a limited number of distribution channels those being Apple Inc. Cell phones are pretty uniform in functionality and use and not overly differentiated between each other.
pagers. no new companies have entered the market and got a hold of a significant market share in 2001. Buyer’s spending habits will change accordingly with the economy’s position. but wait for Windows XP instead. Mobile phones have become integrated as a point of parity in the American lifestyle. Landlines are non-wireless receivers that are offered at a much lower cost than mobile phones. Buyers play an important role in the strategic pricing for a new cell phone because they have no obligations in purchasing a cell phone from a single supplier. 2008). namely Windows XP. Landlines are evolving to be more of a direct competitor to the mobile phone industry. if economic profits are high then buyers are willing to spend versus saving their disposable income. and walkie talkies make up a small portion of the market share. Although this product has not been released during the life of the Apple G4 Cube. When a buyer is purchasing a new cell phone. and snail mail. The capacity of the PC market is constantly increasing because of the introduction of new products. Threat of Buyers The buyers market consists of a large amount of individuals or corporations that own one or multiple cell phones. a widescreen iPod. Customers could decide not to purchase a Mac. and a breakthrough Internet device with rich HTML email and a desktopclass web browser” (Steve Jobs. Threat of Rivalry Page | 62 . the lost of a buyer is not a key threat. There were no new entrants worth mentioning. Threat of Substitutes Porter’s five-force model validates that all forms of communication devices threaten the mobile phone industry as a whole. Examples of substitute industries include landlines. it combines three products in one — a revolutionary phone. Computers (notebook and desktop) offer numerous options in the communication sector.6. in other words. 8. snail mail. but they still provide its services at a different vantage point. Quoting Steve Jobs “the original iPhone. 7. Collectively. it has been announced. For example. fax machines. and communication software. which include electronic mail. pagers. and economic profits will determine the price a buyer is willing to pay for a cell phone. If the mobile phone industry cannot meet the needs of its customers at a reasonable price. Companies are constantly introducing new PCs that are more powerful than the ones already on the market. One ‘New Entrant’ worth mentioning is a new product from Microsoft. Due to the large market. the process at times is overwhelming due to the wide variety of differentiated products. computers. then substitute products play a key threat. walkie talkies. The iPhone’s top priority is to provide its customers with a complete solution in the mobile phone industry with added features and benefits. live chat. fax. but still pose a threat for unsatisfied customers in the wireless industry.
but this does not eliminate the fact that all subcategories of cell phones contribute to the strengthening threat of rivalry. Sony Ericsson W760i. Positioning Map . According to CNET Senior Editor Kent German (2008). and a count of their product offerings. Threat of Suppliers Standard Design Page | 63 . Samsung Instinct. RIM BlackBerry Curve 8320. while a few firms make up the majority of the market share. camera. the editor’s top cell phones include the LG Dare. smart. Direct competition includes all mobile phones that can be subcategorized as a basic. The industries large selection of mobile phone manufacturers creates a strong threat of rivalry. The iPhone has made its debut as a smart phone targeting the higher-income demographic.Smart Phones Innovative Design Verizon Sony W760i Dare Google G1 Blackberr y Apple RIM iPhone Nokia N95 Samsung Instinct Low Price High Price 9. mp3. Nokia N95. Provided by CNET is a list of suppliers that operate within the same industry as Apple’s iPhone. and the newest edition of direct competition comes from Google introducing the T-Mobile G1.The number of competing firms within the mobile phone industry is increasing. or videophone.
but it is a touch-button. This means the computer has to get rid of the warmth that is produced in a different way. The complexity of this product makes it even more difficult to prevent mistakes. the consumer will not notice it. The complexity of this device is also demonstrated by the extra ordinary functions that were added by Apple. in a cooperation with IBM and Motorola. Other suppliers offer specific applications to be used on mobile phones. Because Apple develops his own processor and its own software the soft. ∗ The CD-RW is not a normal drive. like the memory or the hard drive come from Other Electronics Suppliers. These components are universal so can be used in any other PC and thus are not exclusive for this product. Research and development in this industry is vital to the success of a mobile communication product. innovation would be limited. All the rest of the components. this meant everything had to be made much smaller which also causes higher complexity. Harman Kardon takes care of the sound system for the G4 Cube. Without their skills. The low cost from suppliers puts pressure on manufacturing to in turn pass on the savings to the end consumer. and the Cube comes with preinstalled software from Microsoft (Internet Explorer and Outlook) as well (Specification Sheet). to avoid the produced sound of a fan. Suppliers in this industry are fundamental to a product’s successful development and its competitive advantage. Employees also are a key component as they supply knowledge and expertise to the development of mobile communication products. ∗ The G4 Cube is much smaller than other computers at that time. therefore. because he or she will not hear it. Apple developed the PowerPC processor that is used in the G4 Cube. manufacturers are able to make preferable purchasing agreements. Product Understanding Page | 64 . allowing their manufacturing cost to then be reduced. an imperative factor for survival in this industry. Trends Complexity The Apple G4 Cube is a highly complex device containing many different components and materials. Apple has had several suppliers to supply components for its G4 Cube. Some examples of these functions that make it even more complex than a normal computer can be found \below: ∗ The on/off button is not a normal button working with pressure. For example.and hardware are made foreach other and it is impossible for suppliers to start manufacturing the G4 Cube by themselves bypassing apple. If this does not work. but has the effect of a toaster.There are several suppliers of component parts in the mobile communication industry. Furthermore Apple uses Graphics Cards from ATi and n VIDIA for implementation in the G4 Cube. including the use of digital games (Electronic Arts. 2008). This means it works vertically instead of horizontally. ∗ The G4 Cube is a computer without a fan.
The people that were already users of Apple. for example the iPod. could better spend their money on a different computer instead of buying the G4 Cube with the ‘beautiful appearance’. did not understand why Apple broke their line of products that were so highly functional for their profession. Page | 65 . These people want to work on their computer.The Apple Power Macs are made for professional users. Once the G4 Cube came on the market. At the same time. Overall Apple does adjust the price of their products to the local market. people could buy a better computer at a different company for the same amount of money. The Apple G4 Cube has only been on the market in the United States of America in the years 2000 and 2001. They can place it on the table and the appearance becomes as important as the functionality. The Power Mac G4 Cube is slightly opposite. we can conclude that Apple has delayed the entering in the Europian and Asian Market as a result of disappointing sales. So those who preferred the functionality of Apple. This cannot be seen for the G4 Cube. Because the G4 Cube has been on the market for a year. but the manufacturing that is done by the company Foxconn takes place in China and Czech Republic. When looking at other products of Apple. it was seen as a luxury product. iPhone or Macbook. It takes even longer for the products to be on the market in Asia and Australia. but it takes a couple of months before the products enter the markets in Europe. because it did not enter the market globally. but a good example is the iPod which is a little cheaper in the Netherlands than it is in Germany. So the Power Mac G4 Cube is targeted at a slightly different group of consumers as the other Power Macs. they are brought on the market in the US. The G4 Cube was made for people who could afford to spent more money for a computer that they could show off with. because it is made in such a way that people can ‘show’ their computer. Globalization The headquarters of the Apple company are situated in California in the United States. they want it to be quick and functional.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Page | 66 .
com 3.com 2.1.apple. www.wikipedia. 4. India Today The Times Of India Economic Times Page | 67 . 5. www.
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