Naval Shiphandling

Naval Shiphandling
‡ AGENDA:
± Describe the effects of momentum and inertia. ± Discuss ³controllable´ and ³uncontrollable´ shiphandling forces. ± Describe the pressure/suction effect on ship¶s maneuverability during alongside operations and operating in shallow water. ± Understand Standard Shiphandling Commands ± Become familiar with standard mooring lines and line handling commands and safety. ± Describe Man Overboard recovery techniques.

‡ Applicable reading: SSO Ch. 1, 2; WOG Ch. 6, 8.

Shiphandling Theory
‡ There may be more than a dozen forces acting about the vessel¶s axis at a given moment, and the resultant may not be as anticipated but due partially to a force which has escaped discovery. This is not µmysticism¶ as much as lack of the research which takes the art of shiphandling into the finite world of applied science.
± P.F. WILLERTON, BASIC SHIPHANDLING

MOMENTUM & INERTIA
‡ MOMENTUM: ³Generally, we consider momentum as the motion of a ship at the time we no longer want it, especially when we have taken action to obtain the opposite effect. ... Momentum is the quality of motion measured by the product of mass & velocity.´ ‡ INERTIA: Inertia is the quality of motion that causes a ship to resist a change in motion. ³A force exerted on a ship will result in motion after inertia has been overcome.´
Hooyer - Behavior and Handling of Ships

Ship's Tactical Data Folder

# of Screws # of Rudders Turn Diagrams Acceleration/ Deceleration

Length/Beam Pivot Point Advance/ Transfer Navigational Draft

LONG STEERING LEVER FROM PROPS/RUDDERS ASTERN BELL FROM DIW..PIVOT POINT HEAD WAY. NO EFFECTIVE STEERING LEVER UNTIL SOME STERN WAY ... STEADY COURSE & SPEED AHEAD BELL FROM DIW..

Advance for 90 Transfer Tactical Diameter Final Diameter .

BOTH TUGS EQUAL LEVERAGE SLOW STERN WAY .AFT TUG HAS MORE LEVERAGE PIER .FWD TUG HAS MORE LEVERAGE PIER PIER SLOW HEAD WAY.PIVOT POINT DIW .

FAITH ‡ CONTROL: Precise and constant ability to adjust to changing circumstances.SHIPHANDLING PRINCIPLES CONTROL vs. ‡ FAITH: Yielding control to natural forces .

Shiphandling Forces CONTROLLABLE ‡ ENGINES/PROP(s) ‡ RUDDER ‡ BOW THRUSTERS ‡ TUGS ‡ ANCHORS ‡ LINES UNCONTROLLABLE ‡ WIND ‡ CURRENT SEMI-CONTROLLABLE ‡ SHALLOW WATER EFFECTS ‡ PASSING EFFECTS .

SHIPHANDLING FORCES CONTROLLABLE ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ENGINES/PROPELLER(s) RUDDER BOW THRUSTER / APUs TUGS ANCHORS LINES .

PROPELLER FORCES STERN WALKS THE SAME DIRECTION PROPELLER TURNS COUPLE (TWIST) TRANSVERSE THRUST LONGITUDINAL THRUST (SIDE FORCE OR PADDLEWHEEL FORCE) .

.SINGLE PROPELLER STERN WALK Side Force Visualize the lower blades walking along the bottom.

CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLERS FFG DD/CG/MCM DD/CG DEVELOP STERN WAY @ 0% PITCH AND WHEN TWISTING DDG 51 STERN WALKS TO STBD .

RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS ‡ RUDDER PLACEMENT ‡ COORDINATING RUDDER & ENGINES ‡ IMPLICATIONS OF ALL STOP ‡ PUMP TO THE RUDDER (KICK AHEAD) .

DDG-79 Rudder Placement .

Auxiliary Propulsion Unit (APU) Bow Thruster .

OFF ONLY LST/LHA/ARS/MCM FFG .BOW THRUSTERS / APUs BOW THRUSTER APU 270 090 TWO UNITS EACH 360 DEG INDEPENDENT ON .

Tugboat Cruiser .Tugboats Assist maneuvering by pushing or pulling.

SHIPHANDLING FORCES SEMI-CONTROLLABLE ‡ SHALLOW WATER EFFECTS ± SQUAT ± BANK SUCTION / CUSHION ± INCREASED TACTICAL DIAMETER ‡ PASSING SHIP EFFECTS ± MEETING ± OVERTAKING/UNREPS .

5 X DRAFT SLOW DOWN TO REDUCE EFFECTS .SHALLOW WATER EFFECTS SQUAT 2.

SHALLOW WATER EFFECTS BANK SUCTION/CUSHION .

PASSING SHIP EFFECTS MEETING/OVERTAKING .

SHIPHANDLING FORCES UNCONTROLLABLE ‡ WIND ‡ CURRENT .

Balance of Forces Wind (30 KTS) Rudder (30 ) Propeller (15 KTS) Current (3 KTS) .

Some Other Terms ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ³Kick the stern-out´ Sternway Headway Bare steerageway Propeller wash .

Standard Commands Basic Format CONNING OFFICER HELM/LEE HELM Command ‡ ‡ Reply ‡ Crisp. loud voice Voice level should indicate confidence Verbatim restatement of command Report Acknowledgement ‡ ‡ Always ³very well´. Not given until command has been carried out completely. .

steady on course 270. Amount of Rudder . ± ³Right full rudder. Very well.Standard Commands Basic Format . sir. my rudder is right full coming to course 270. aye. steady on course 270.Helm Orders ‡ Basic Format A. Direction of Rudder . Very well. steady course 270. etc. full.standard. Course to Steer .´ .´ ± ³Sir.right or left B. check course 274 magnetic.in degrees EXAMPLE (1): ‡ Right full rudder. C. 25º.´ ± ³Sir. 5º. 10º.

´ OTHER COMMANDS: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rudder amidships Increase your rudder.Examples EXAMPLE (2): Course change of < 10 degrees ‡ Come Left. aye. Very well. sir. ease your rudder Shift your rudder Steady as you go Meet her .Standard Commands Helm Orders . checking course 269 magnetic. steer course 265.´ ± ³Sir. steady on course 265. Steer course 265 ± ³Come left.

Amount of rudder given first.The maximum rudder angle possible . then direction.Standard Commands Helm Orders .Exceptions EXCEPTION: HARD RUDDER . **Used for emergency situations!** "Hard right rudder!!" "Hard right rudder!!" .

± Conning officer stops passing reports with: ³Belay your headings.Standard Commands Helm Orders . ± Helmsman reports passing headings every 10 degrees.Exceptions When course to steer is not given: ± Helmsman ends report with ³no new course given´.´ .

‡ After giving a command. visually confirm the position of the rudder(s).Tips ‡ Don¶t precede your commands with ³Helm´. visually check your bridgewing to ensure it¶s safe to turn. .Standard Commands Helm Orders . ‡ Before giving turning commands. ‡ Never use ³Belay my last´. ‡ The amount of rudder used should not exceed the amount of your course change. ‡ Consider the ³Rule of 30´.

Full. starboard. back.1/3. engine rooms answers all engines ahead two-thirds. Standard. Flank Revolutions desired .3. all Direction Desired .´ . stop ³Bell´/Speed range . ± ³All engines ahead two-thirds.´ ± ³Sir. 2. indicating turns for 10 kts.ahead. Engine Desired . aye. sir.port. D.³indicate turns for ____ kts.´ EXAMPLE (1): ‡ All engines ahead two-thirds. indicate turns for 10 kts.Lee Helm Orders ‡ Basic Format A. Very well. indicate turns for 10 kts. C. B.Standard Commands Basic Format .

´ OTHER COMMANDS: ‡ % Pitch commands ‡ Restricted Maneuvering ‡ Zero Thrust . aye. ± ³Port engine ahead one-third. Very well. sir. starboard engine back one-third. starboard engine back one-third.´ ± ³Engine room answers port engine ahead one-third. Starboard engine back one-third.Examples EXAMPLE (2): Port/Starboard Twists ‡ Port engine ahead one-third.Standard Commands Lee Helm Orders .

Standard Mooring Lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 BOW LINE FWD BOW SPRING AFTER BOW SPRING FWD QTR SPRING AFT QTR SPRING STERN LINE .

FWD BOW SPRING 5. AFT BOW SPRING 3. AFT WAIST SPRING 7. AFT QTR SPRING 11. FWD WAIST SPRING 8. FWD QTR SPRING 13. QTR BREAST 12. BOW BREAST 4. FWD WAIST SPRING 6. WAIST BREAST 9.CV/CVN Mooring Lines 13 4 3 2 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 1 1. STERN LINE . AFT WAIST SPRING 10. BOW LINE 2.

Standard Commands Linehandling ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ STAND BY YOUR LINES PASS / SEND LINES OVER TAKE A STRAIN SLACK TAKE IN SLACK EASE TAKE TO POWER / CAPSTAN HEAVE AROUND AVAST HEAVING .

Standard Commands Linehandling ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ SURGE DOUBLE UP SINGLE UP TAKE IN CAST OFF CHECK HOLD .

Linehandling Safety ‡ Bights of lines ± Never stand in the bight ‡ Positioning of personnel ± In swath of snapback ‡ Tattletales ± Indicate amount of strain .

Strong cylindrical upright on a pier. Bitts . used for making fast lines led through chocks.Mooring Equipment Cleat .Consists of a doubleended pair of horns. . Bollard .Pairs of heavy vertical cylinders. used for securing a line or wire. about which a mooring line is placed.

Heavy fitting with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led.Mooring Equipment Chock . . Open Closed Roller Rollers help reduce friction.

Tug tie-ups Single Headline Double Headline Power .

PILOT¶S ROLE NAVREGS 0856 ‡ Pilot is merely an advisor to CO ‡ Pilot¶s presence onboard does not relieve the CO from responsibility for navigation or shiphandling. ‡ Exceptions: ± Panama Canal ± Dead stick move ± Drydock (sill) .

MAN OVERBOARD ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Recovery methods Immediate action Maneuvering Considerations .

Immediate action ‡ Receive report ‡ Direct conning officer to initiate appropriate turn for the circumstances ± Immediately put the rudder over to the side the person went over ‡ Drop a smoke in the water ± note: no smoke for aircraft crash (fuel in water) ‡ Keep man in sight (searchlights at night) ± Have someone keep eyes-on and point to the man overboard ‡ Sound 6 or more short blasts ‡ Pass man overboard on the 1MC twice .

TAO and Flag ‡ Hoist Oscar flag (day). turn on red-over-red pulsating (night) ‡ Notify other ships in company ‡ Additional information (reports from CIC) ± how long man has been in water ± water temp and stay time ± bearing and range to man .Additional actions ‡ QMOW mark position ‡ Notify Captain.

Recovery Methods ‡ Helicopter ± Average time to ready for takeoff is 10-12 mins ± Fastest Recovery method if already aloft ± Can easily pick up a helpless person ‡ Small boat ± Average time to launch 6-8 mins ± Can pick up a helpless person ‡ Ship ± Fastest method (if helo is not aloft) .

Shipboard Man Overboard Recovery ‡ 4 basic shipboard types of recovery ± Williamson ± Anderson ± Race Track ± Y-Backing ‡ All have there advantages and disadvantages .

Man Overboard Procedures Anderson Turn ‡ Used by ships that have considerable power and tight turning characteristics ‡ Fastest recovery method but requires proficient ship handling ability. . Not a straight approach.

‡ Slow to execute ‡ Initially takes ship far from original position .Man Overboard Procedures Williamson Turn ‡ Used in low visibility because ship returns on original track ‡ Used when man overboard not in sight.

‡ Slower than Anderson turn .Man Overboard Procedures Racetrack Turn ‡ Used in good visibility when a straight approach leg is desired.

keeps ship close to man .Man Overboard Procedures Y-Backing ‡ Y-backing .poor control .

MOB Considerations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Muster the crew Turn time Night or day/weather Helicopter. small boat or ship Lost sight Information when man lost ± DRT mark ± Smoke ± GPS mark ‡ The plan ± Beginning of each watch ± About each hour / wind spin .

Ship Handling Tools ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Binoculars Stadimeter Radar Bearing circles .

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