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Dc Machine

# Dc Machine

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07/09/2013

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## Sections

• Let there be a coil having µN¶ the initial flux being J1 and the
• Lenz¶s law: The e.mf. induced, according to the faradays laws
• J = the flux per pole in Wb
• = (P x J) Wb
• = JP/60/N V
• = JPN/60 V
• It is the voltage induced per conductor. But there are Z
• = JZNP/60 V
• In D.C. armature winding the closed type winding is done so
• E = JZNP/60a V
• Parts of a DC Machine: The parts of D.C. generator can be
• The parts of D.C. generator which remains stationary during
• The parts of D.C. generators which rotates during the working
• (a) Eye bolt: It is a stationary part and fixed on the top of
• (b) Body or yoke: It is the outer frames of the machine. It
• (3) Poles: The main magnetic field is produced by the poles
• (4) Brushes and brush gears: The main function of brushes is
• (5) Bearings: The bearings are fitted in the cover, so as to
• (1) Armature: The armature rotates in the magnetic field
• (2) Commutator: It is made of the hard drawn copper
• 12.3. It is round in shape to facilitate the collection of current
• (3) Fan and shaft: a fan is mounted over the shaft in
• The various power stages in case of a D.C. generator are
• Copper losses = B - C
• Losses in DC Generator: The losses in d.c. machines may be
• 1. Variable losses are proportional to the square of the
• 2. Constant losses are assumed to be constant over the
• (i) Armature losses: thee losses are of two types:
• (ii) Commutator losses: Commutator losses occur due to
• (iii) Excitation losses: These include the loss in a shunt
• 2. The field switch SB2 is closed whereupon the voltage
• 5. To shift the load from A to B it is merely necessary to
• Now let us designate generator A and generator B as generator
• South Pole. Also the armature conductors of the
• Back EMF: In a D.C. motor when the armature rotates, the
• Parts of DC generator: The basic essential parts of a DC
• Types of DC Generator: When the field coils are excited by
• (i) Series Wound Generator: Fig. shows a series excited
• (a) Short shunt. In which the shunt coils are connected in-
• (b) Long shunt. When the shunt coils are connected
• Armature Reaction: The armature reaction is basically the
• According to Fleming¶s right hand ruler the conductors under
• Necessity of a starter: When the motor is at rest the speed of
• 4-Point Starter: The three point starter cannot be used to
• Types of DC motors: A dc motor must receive their
• 1. Series Wound Motor: A series motor is one in which
• Power drawn from supply mains = VI watts
• 2. Shunt Wound Motor: A shunt wound motor is one in
• Power input = VIL
• All conductors under the North Pole carry inward-flowing
• 1. Shunt motors: The characteristics of a shunt motor
• 2. Series motors: It is variable speed motors i.e. speed is
• 3. Compound motors: Differential compound motors are
• Commutation: Commutation means the process of current
• I. Flux Control Method: In this method, the flux
• (i) Field Diverters: In this method, a variable resistance
• (ii) Armature Diverter: In order to obtain speeds below
• (iii) Tapped Field Control: In this method, the flux is
• 1. Primary Cell: The basic working principle of cell is
• 2. Secondary Cell: Secondary cells work on the same
• In many respects the Nickel/Iron battery was almost ''too
• Electrolyte: A substance through which an electric current can
• Types of Electrolyte: There are three types of electrolytes:
• (i) Strong Electrolytes: The compounds which ionize to a
• (ii) Weak Electrolytes: The compound which ionize to a
• (iii) Non-Electrolytes: The compounds, which do not
• During charging process the amount of H2SO4 increased while
• Purpose of inter-poles: These are the poles mounded in
• Ward Leonard System: This method of control not only gives
• M¶ = driving motor ± a constant speed motor which drives G
• When Ilgner system is driven by means of an AC motor
• This is absolutely required by Kirchhoff¶s voltage law
• DC generators:
• Direct method: In direct test the generator or motor is put on
• Indirect method: This method consists in measuring the losses
• Regenerative method: This method requires two identical
• Hopkinson test. The connection diagram for the Hopkinson test
• Motor output power = P1 - P11
• Charging of battery: For charging a battery a d.c. supply of
• 2H2SO4
• Discharging of Battery: When the cell is fully charged the
• Swinburne's test: This is an indirect method of determining
• Dynamometer test: The dyno must be able to operate at any
• Torque is in newton-metres (N·m)
• Dry Cell: It is a portable cell. Dry cell is a modification of
• Lachlanche cell. In this cell the electrolyte in the paste shape. It
• NH3 gas. Figure shows the simple construction of the dry cell
• 3-Point DC Motor Starter: The starter shown in Fig. is of
• Consider a charged lead acid cell with anode of PbO2 and
• At anode: On reaching the anode, each hydrogen ion takes one
• PbO2 and cathode into Pb. The H2SO4 produced in the
• Nickel Cadmium Battery: Active material used for positive
• And at Cathode: Cd + 2OH Cd (OH)2
• At Cathode: Cd (OH)2 + 2K Cd + 2KOH
• Shaft Torque: The torque developed by the armature is the
• The difference Ta - Tsh is known as lost torque (i.e. torque lost
• J = 0.06 wb
• J ZN
• E × 60 × A
• J = 0.016 wb
• J = 30 mwb
• JZN
• L = 10 m
• L = ?
• L = 75 mH
• V = 220 volts
• Qc = 92.45%
• 144 × 2 × 900 × 16
• J = 0.0173611 wb
• V = 230 volts
• Voltage drop in series winding = 50 × 0.03 = 1.5 V
• Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 200 × 4 = 800 Watt
• Qc = 83.717%
• V = 200 Volt
• @ Voltage at terminal = Voltage at load + Feeder
• V = 220 V
• (iii) B.H.P. of engine = ?
• @ Vb = 220 + 2
• Voltage drop in armature = IaRa
• @ E.m.f. generated = Vb + Va
• @ Copper losses = b ± c
• @ Total losses = Current loss + Iron loss
• 0.02 I1 ± 0.02 I2 = 10
• V + 30 + 0.0004 V = 560
• V + 0.0004 V = 560 ± 30
• V = 529.78
• V = 530 Volt (approx.)
• Bus-bar voltage = V = 530 Volt Ans
• V × I1
• @ Ia = I + Ish
• @ E.m.f. generates = Vb + Va
• V = 100 volts
• V = 250 volts
• Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 250 × 5 = 1250 watt
• V = 240 V
• @ Total copper losses = Shunt Cu loss + Armature
• V = 230 V

# Q1.

State Faraday¶s law of electromagnetic induction [2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008].

Faraday¶s law of Electromagnetic Induction: These are the following laws which are known as the faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. 1st law: According to the first law of electromagnetic induction,.¶ when ever the flux linking with a coil or circuit changes, an emf. Induced in it.¶¶ This linkage can be obtained either by rotating the conductor in the magnetic field or by rotating magnetic field keeping the conductor stationary. 2nd law: According to the second law of electromagnetic induction,¶ the magnitude of the induced emf. In coil is directly proportional to the rate of changed of flux linkage.¶¶ ew rate of change of flux linkage. Let there be a coil having µN¶ the initial flux being J1 and the final flux value after timeµt¶ is J2. The net change in flux = J2 - J1 And the rate of change of linkage NJ 2 - NJ 1 = t Now according to faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. The emf w rate of change of flux linkage.
NJ 2 - NJ 1 (J 2 - J1) !k x N volts t t where k is the constant of proportionality and here being unity

w

volts t Induced emf.. = rate of change of flux x no. of conductors and it can be otherwise stated as

So,

e=

J 2 - J 1 x

e = dJ/dt x N volts Q2. Define Fleming¶s right hand rule [2002, 2004, 2005, 2007].

Fleming¶s Right Hand Rule: The direction of induced electromagnetic e.m.f. in a coil can be found out by applying Fleming's Right Hand rule. As shown in Fig. "Stretch first finger, second finger and thumb of right hand mutually perpendicular to each other. If first finger indicates the direction of main magnetic field, thumb indicates the direction of motion of conductor, then 2nd finger will indicate the direction of induced e.m.f. in the conductor.

Q3.

State Lenz¶s law [2002, 2004, 2005, 2008].

Lenz¶s law: The e.mf. induced, according to the faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, has got only the strength of the magnitude and is silent over the direction. The direction was stated by Lenz¶s laws in 1835.

2007.g.p. 2005. generator.rpm. Q4. can be given as.f. the equation can be given as e = -dJ/dt x N volts. is generated in that conductor. the direction of induced e. induced = rate of change of flux .m. Derive emf equation of DC generator [2002. because of the electromagnetic induction is such a way as to the oppose the caused which is responsible for the production of this e.f.e.C.m. this e. e = dJ/dt V Now here in case of D.m. i. Now the total flux produced = (P x J) Wb Now the time required in one revolution when running at N.g. 2006.f.f. P = number of poles a = number of parallel paths and E = the induced e. in volts. = 1/N min = 60/N sec Now e.According to Lenz¶s laws. opposing. and 2008]. The minus sign indicates the direction of the induced e. an e.m. if a conductor cuts the magnetic flux or it experience a rate of change of flux. EMF Equation of DC Generator: According to faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. 2004.m. having the following data: J = the flux per pole in Wb Z = number of conductors N = speed in r.g.

These are followings: Eye bolt. But there are Z conductors so the e.C. generator which remains stationary during the working of the generator. armature winding the closed type winding is done so the total armature conductors (Z) are divided into the number of parallel paths depend upon the type of winding. and rocker.m. Rotating parts: The parts of D. The voltage taken out will be the voltage induced per parallel path.m. = JZNP/60 V In D. 2005.f equation of the generator. be the parallel paths.f.= JP/60/N V = JPN/60 V It is the voltage induced per conductor. 2007.C. generators which rotates during the working of d. 2008]. generated can be given as E = JZNP/60a V The above equation is said the e. generator can be broadly divided into the followings: (a) Stationary parts (b) Rotating parts Stationary parts: The parts of D. are known as rotating parts. Q5.c generators.C.m. 2006. side cover. Enlist essential parts of a DC machine and explain [2004. Parts of a DC Machine: The parts of D. poles.C. These are as follows: . so the e. bearings and legs and bed sheet. body yoke. are known as stationary parts.f. Here let µa. brushes.

(3) Poles: The main magnetic field is produced by the poles excited by the Field coils. In small machines the poles are casted with the body. Nowadays the yokes of large machines are almost invariably fabricated steel because this material has good magnetic properties. The poles are made either of the cast iron or soft steel or the laminations of silicone steel. The cast iron frames are used for the machines of low capacity: because the magnetic properties are not so good It is experienced that the frames size of cast iron or cast steel differ for the same capacity. for example the permeability is twice that the cast iron. and has hence the weight. because the flux passing diverts into the paths causing half the flux through the yoke. The brief description of these parts is as follows: Stationary parts: (a) Eye bolt: It is a stationary part and fixed on the top of the body or yoke. It is used for lifting the machine. (fig. (b) Body or yoke: It is the outer frames of the machine. generator). The flux in yoke is half than that of the flux pear pole. cast steel requires half the size. commentator.C. Some times the body and yoke of the machine are different but in most of the cases these are same. The yoke provides the magnetic path for the magnetic flux. In some construction the pole faces are separate and attached to the . It accommodates all parts of the generator.1. 12. The cast steel is used for the machines of large capacity because of the good magnetic properties. fan and shaft. These are one of two depending upon the frame size of the machine. It is made of forged steel or cast steel or cast iron.Armature. parts of D.

4. The brushes are provided with a spring as to offer some pressure which could easily be adjusted by the spring loading finger. The field coils are wound with the different number off conductors (shunt field coil. The pole faces are made circular as to provide uniform air gap around the armature and uniform flux density also. The assembly is called brush holder. the brush position can be changed. The poles are always in pair. These brush holders are mounted over the round construction known as the ³rocker´ by the displacement of rocker over the commentator. These are housed in rectangular chamber. The conductors in which the e. 6 and 8 etc.less number of turns thick conductor) are place over the poles. 2. are housed in the slots of the armature .having more number of turns of thin conductors series field coil. The poles are attached with the yoke or body by means of bolts etc.e. Nowadays the complete poles are made by laminations of silicone steel which are pressed hydraulically and riveted together. in such away so that it may not come out. Rotating or rotary part: The part which revolves during operation is called the rotating part. so as to have minimum friction between the rotating and stationary portions (shaft and side cover). The bearings also help in keeping the armature in the centre for smooth running. generally made a brass.the armature is made of laminations of silicone steel to reduce the eddy current and hysteresis loss. (1) Armature: The armature rotates in the magnetic field.m. i. (4) Brushes and brush gears: The main function of brushes is to collect the current from the commutate and supply to the external load circuit.f is induced. (5) Bearings: The bearings are fitted in the cover.mountings. The laminations are assemble and riveted under hydraulic .

groove on both the sides to protect the segment from coming out because of the centrifugal forces. (2) Commutator: It is made of the hard drawn copper segments which are insulated from each other and from shaft by means of mica or minacity.pressure to avoid any air gap between the laminations. some ventilating ducts are provided.3. from segment to shaft from segment to the sleeve and µv¶ checks nuts by means of mica or minacity. It is round in shape to facilitate the collection of current (in case of generator) from the armature. These Is a space provided to solder the conductor with the riser or segment as shown in fig 12. Generally the thickness off each lamination is 0. By adding the silicone in steel. The copper segments are tapered and there is a rises on one side of each segment.4 to 0. armature winding etc.. (3) Fan and shaft: a fan is mounted over the shaft in opposite direction of commentator. the resistance is increased and thus decreases the eddy currents which in other words decrease the eddy current losses. thus produced. It is made of cast iron or thick mild steel sheets. the lamination instead of solid block. caused the further reduction in current and ultimately reducing both the eddy current and hysteresis losses. The lamination are insulted from each other by means of the varnish or sometimes thin insulating paper. The construction of the segment is such as.e. that it has ³v. In order to dissipate the heat. Every segment is properly insulated from every side i. . It is mounted on the shaft of the machine. It circulates the air through armature. from segment to segment. to keep the temperature down. The air circulation through these ducts increases the heat dissipation and keeps the machine temperature under space limits.6 mm.

m.e.m. Q6. generator works on the principal of faraday¶s law of electromagnetic induction and that to the dynamic induction. fan and bearings. The e.f generated is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux i. an e. 2004.A shaft generally of mild steel is used.f. The total .f. According to that ³principal´.m. commentator.f. is generated in that conductor. The pulley is also mounted on the shaft after the side cover to enable the mechanical energy to the load. which carries the armature. Working Principle of a DC Generator: The D. the angle of flux linkage. when ever the conductor cuts the magnetic lines of force. The e. Explain the working principle of a DC generator [2002. 2009].m.C. thus induction or produced is known as the dynamically induced e. 2008. 2006.

machines may be divided into two groups: (1) Variable losses. 2004. Draw a block diagram showing a power stages of DC generator [2002. Q7. 2008. 2006. 2007.m.e.c.C. 2009]. Due to the contact resistance between the brushes and the commutator. 2006. Generator The various power stages in case of a D.C. State the different losses of a DC generator [2002.C Q8. . 2009]. Losses in DC Generator: The losses in d. generator are given below: Iron and friction losses = A-B Copper losses = B . 2007. and (2) Constant losses. 1. there is amore variable loss. Variable losses are proportional to the square of the load current in the armature and the series and interpole windings when employed.f generated in the armature is also proportional to the number off conductors. Power Stages in D.

Moreover the eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the thickness of the laminations. Constant losses are assumed to be constant over the load range and comprise: (a) Iron loss (due to hysteresis and eddy currents) (b) Windage and friction loss. due to the hysteresis and eddy currents. The above two groups of losses are discussed below: (i) Armature losses: thee losses are of two types: (a) I2 R loss in the windings of the armature. Hysteresis loss depends upon the quality of iron. Commutator losses: Commutator losses occur due to the contact resistance and friction between the brushes and the commutator segments. It is a function of frequency f and approximately proportionate to the square of the flux (J2). The eddy current losses are proportional to the square of frequency and the square of flux. the coefficient of friction and the peripheral speed of the commutator. and (b) Iron loss in the core of the armature. (a) Contact resistance losses are dependent upon the quality of the brushes.2. The eddy currents losses due to change in flux with load are additional to above losses and known as stray losses. The above losses can be calculated or obtained separately from test results. (ii) . and (c) Shunt field excitation loss. (b) The frictional losses in the commutator segments and brushes depend upon the brush pressure on the segments.

2009]. Parallel Operation of Shunt Generators: When two shunt generators are connected in parallel. 2005. whereas in a level compound generator it is almost constant. windage loss is proportional to the cube of the speed. Hence the iron loss depends upon the square of the flux density.(iii) Excitation losses: These include the loss in a shunt circuit (if so used) which is equal to the product of the shunt current and the terminal voltage. Excitation losses also occur in commutating poles or interpoles series. they function together to supply power to a common load and they are completely stable whether or not their exact voltage versus current characteristics are identical. 2004. this loss varies between no-load and full-load. 2006. This is because of the drooping voltage-current characteristics of shunt generators. and are proportional to the square of the armature current. (iv) (v) Q8. Losses due to stray load: The effect of armature reaction to distort to flux. Windage loss is ordinarily very small unless the generator is fitted with a cooling fan device. . Hence the iron loss is increased due to armature reaction. The flux densities in certain regions of the armature are increased and in certain other regions they are decreased. In a shuntwound generator. Such losses are known as stray losses. and compensating windings (if used). Losses due to bearing friction and windage: The losses due to bearing friction are roughly proportional to the speed. Explain in detail the parallel operation of DC Shunt generator with the help of diagram [2002. and in that case.

. Now let us designate generator A and generator B as generator 1 and generator 2 respectively and these are connected in parallel. the sum of their line current must equal the current supplied to the load on the system. Then its main switch can be safely opened and its prime mover can be shut down. This would cause severe sparking at the contacts and would cause a sudden increase in the loads on the other machine. Instead it is better to decrease its field current till the current supplied by this generator becomes almost zero.the main switch SA can be opened to disconnect generator A from the line. These generators have identical voltages and the characteristic curves of both the generators can be plotted back to back with terminal voltage in common on the vertical axis. it is not convenient to open its main switch suddenly. When generators of this sort are connected in parallel. When it is necessary to shunt down any of the generators.

In addition. Also the armature conductors of the motor carry currents. All the conductors under South Pole carry currents in one direction while under North Pole. Q10.C. If the speed or field current of generator 1 is increased in the system. As explained.C. the mechanical force acts on the conductors (placed in the slots)and the armature of the D. the field magnets on excitation become alternate N and S poles and develop magnetic field which extends from North Pole to South Pole. supply.IL1 + IL2 = Iload The terminal voltage at which the power system operates will be exactly the line voltage required to make the sum of the two generator's currents equal to the current required for the loads. when the terminals are connected to external D. Explain the working principle of DC motor with diagram [2002]. Working Principle of DC Motor: In a D. motor tends to rotate in the anti-clockwise direction as shown. Similar adjustment of either generator 1 or generator 2 can permit the system voltage and the power sharing between the generators to be freely adjusted. those carry currents in the other direction. The direction of motion of the motor is determined by the Fleming¶s left hand rule. motor. . the entire characteristic curve of generator 1 moves upward and the voltage at which the sum of two machine¶ currents adds up to equal the load current rises. generator 1 now assumes a large fraction of the total load on the system.C.

or vice-versa. . The force on conductors gives a combined effect to produce a driving torque which makes the armature to continue rotating. The motor will run in the clockwise direction.It is the arrangement of placing the conductors under the poles such that the direction of the current flowing through these armature conductors is as shown in Fig. It is thus a matter of convention we use. If the direction of current in the conductors is otherwise reversed from that shown in Fig. The direction of motion of the motor is always determined by the Fleming's left hand rule.

m. of course. (a) the force developed as a result of motor action opposes the motion which produced it. the applied voltage. State back emf of DC motor [2002. is induced in the armature as in a generator. Back EMF: In a D. there is a current carrying conductor existing in a magnetic field: hence motor action takes place shown as a dotted line in Fig. (b) shows a generator action where a mechanical force moves a conductor in upward direction inducing an e.f.m.m. so that it is customary to refer to this voltage as the "back e.f. which is.f. therefore. Q11. to the applied voltage. 2005]. motor when the armature rotates.f. which states that the direction of an induced e.m. When a current flows as a result of this e. acts in opposition to the current in the machine and.m. 'That this is so can be deduced by Lenz's law. in the direction shown by Fleming's Right hand rule.C. is such as to oppose the change causing it. The induced e. 2004..To understand the difference between motor and generator action let we discuss there two separately Fig. the conductors on it cut the lines of force of magnetic field in which they revolve. so that an e.f. .m.f.

.f. we may write.m.m.f.m. by Eb and the applied voltage by V. in a generator. and it is important in the case of the motor. Thus if Eb denotes the back e. although difference is small when the machine is running under normal conditions. to appreciate that this is proportional to the product of the flux and the speed. where k is a number depending on nature of armature winding.f.f. the back e.The magnitude of the back or counter e. The value of back e. J the flux and N the speed. If this resistance is represented by Ra. It is the difference between these two quantities which actually drives current through the resistance of the armature circuit. (Eb) is always less than the applied voltage. can be calculated by using formula for the induced e.m. then we have V = Eb + IaRa .m.f.

6. 4. Secondary cells can be used for high energy applications. Secondary cells have long life. 5. 2005]. Draw block diagram showing the power stages of dc motor [2002. Primary cell is light weight. . Q12. List parts of DC generator [2004].C. Secondary cell is heavy weight.Where Ia is the current in the armature circuit. Primary cell has high internal resistance. Q14. Secondary Cells Secondary cells can be recharged. Primary cells can be used for low energy applications. 2004]. Secondary cell has low internal resistance. Differentiate between secondary cell and primary cell [2002. Plates cannot be changed they to be thrown out. Primary Cells Primary cells cannot be recharged. Primary cells have short life. Motor Q13. Difference between Primary & Secondary Cells 1. 2. One may change the parts of the cells. Block Diagram of Power Stages IN D. 3.

(ii) Compound wound generator. According to the type of connections of the field coils with the armature coils the self-excited generators may be classified in to: (i) Series wound generator. (ii) Shunt wound generator. Series generators are scarcely ever used except for special purposes e.. . 2006. ( i ) shows the connections of a series wound generator where as Fig. shows a series excited generator in which the field coils are in series with the armature and carry the total current of the generator. Explain types of DC generator [2004. (i) Series Wound Generator: Fig.g. 2008]. Types of DC Generator: When the field coils are excited by the exciting current supplied by the generator itself.Parts of DC generator: The basic essential parts of a DC generator are: (i) A magnetic field (ii) A conductor which can so move to cut the flux Q15. the external circuit must be closed. (ii) shows its conventional diagram. Fig. boosters. Since the field coils carries the full load current therefore. it has a few turns of wire of large cross-sectional area having low resistance. 2007. Before the machine will excite. the field coils may be connected in series with the armature coils (series) or in parallel with the armature coils (shunt) or partly in series and partly in parallel with armature coils (compound). In a self-excited generator. it is said to be self-excited generator.

This exciting current varies from about 0-5 percent of the full load current of the machine to about 5 percent.(i) Shunt Wound Generator: In a shunt wound generator the field coils are connected in parallel (or shunt) across the armature terminals as shown in Fig. depending chiefly on the size of the machine. the larger proportion of current being taken by the smaller machines. ( i) & (ii). high resistance and carry a current IF or Ish = (iii) Compound Wound Generators: Fig. These coils have many turns of relatively small wire having . ( i ) & ( i i ) shows compound wound generators in which there are both shunt and series field coils on each pole-One is in series and the . the terminal Rsh voltage divided by the resistance of the field coil circuit. Fig. ( i ) & ( i i ) shows the connections and conventional diagrams of a shunt wound generator.

(ii). (i). (ii) It makes no appreciable difference in the operating characteristics which way the shunt is connected and the choice is determined by mechanical considerations of connections or reversing switches. thus the compound wound generator may be: (a) Short shunt. the machine is said to have a longshunt connection as shown in Fig. In which the shunt coils are connected inside the series coils or in which the shunt field coils are only in parallel with armature. the connection is said to be short shunt as shown in Fig. When the shunt coils are connected outside the series coils. . (i) (b) Long shunt.other in parallel with the armature .

When ever load is not connected on the armature so no current is flowing through the armature conductors. Now two magnetic fluxes. Now consider an armature rotating in the magnetic field produced by the two poles machine. 2005. According to Fleming¶s right hand ruler the conductors under North Pole are carrying current in such a direction as shown.Q16. the magnetic field produced is merely because of the main magnetic field as shown in the following fig. Armature Reaction: The armature reaction is basically the effect of the flux produced by the current carrying armature conductors on the main magnetic flux. 2004. 2007. 2009].the magnetic flux will contribute the magnetic belt in the both sides of MNA and hence the direction of armature flux is upwards. (b) . 2008.´ the armature reaction is defined as the effect of the magnetic field produced by the armature conductors on the distribution of the flux under the main poles. Explain the process of armature reaction with diagram in a DC generator [2002. So. Now the magnetic field produced by armature conductors is shown in fig. because of main magnetic field and because of the armature conductors are working at right angle to each other when these .

of course. which is at right angle to the resultant magnetic field. (c). there fore back emf Eb is zero and if a dc motor is connected directly tot eh supply mains.IaRa) armature current Ia is given as and armature resistance Ra is very small. The resultant armature flux as shown in fig. more angle and vice versa. there fore. .are energized as shown in fig. The angle lead depends upon the load on the armature more load. the applied voltage V is opposed by the induced back emf and. a much smaller current flows.e. For example consider a 400 V.e.12. Q17. Necessity of a starter: When the motor is at rest the speed of the motor is zero.5 . a heavy current will flow through the armature conductors because from the emf equation for armature circuit (Eb= V. As a result. The starting current thus would be i. Heavy inrush of current at the stating instant may cause (i) Heavy sparking at the commutator and even flashover¶s. 20 kW dc motor having a total resistance of 0. When running. the main flux will be distorted and the flux will be strong and TPT and weak at LPT. it would draw a current of a while the full-load current would probably be about 64 ampere. i. the new neutral axis. Explain the necessity of starter for DC motor [2004]. has two components: the Jd = the demagnetizing component and Jc = the cross-magnetizing component. The demagnetizing the main flux and the crossmagnetizing component is at right angle to the main magnetic flux. It is observed that the flux through the armature is no longer uniform and symmetrical about the poles axis.load values. Hence the brushes are to be given the forward lead in the direction of motion of the armature. If switched directly on to the supply.5 times the full.

However. This results in the field current having approximately the same range. it is necessary that a high resistance be connected in series with the armature of the motor at the instant of starting and gradually cut in steps as the motor gains speed. (i) The resistance and inductance of the armature winding in case of small motors are generally sufficiently large to limit the initial of current to values that are not particularly serious. Damage to the rotating parts of the motor and load to development of large starting torque an quick acceleration and Large dip in the supply voltage. either by the heat developed in the windings. a very small motor (frictional kW motor) may be started simply by closing the switch which connects it to the supply mains. there by minimizing the detrimental effects that might otherwise result from the excessive sustained current.magnetic action. The reasons for it are given below. If this additional loss of energy resulting in reduced operating efficiency and (ii) reduction in operating speed of the motor. The . Such motors normally have a speed variation of 5 to 1.(ii) (iii) (iv) Damaged to the armature winding. 2009]. Hence for the protection of the motor against the flow of excessive current during starting period (say 5 to 10 seconds). (ii) Q18. Define the operation and protection offered by 4 point starter [2004. or by the mechanical forces set up by electro. The inertia of a small armature is generally so low that it comes upto speed very quickly. the additional resistance from the armature circuit it totally disconnected. 4-Point Starter: The three point starter cannot be used to advantage on variable-speed motors having field control.

When the supply voltage is shut down. . nearly equal to the line voltage and the net voltage across the switch contacts is small.. a small finger can be introduced to break the arc. This difficulty can be overcome by a four point starter as shown in Fig. this results in a hot arc which burns the contact. since the motor develops a counter e. To prevent the contact from being burned. Owing to the inductive nature of the field. except that the hold up coil is of high resistance and is connected directly across the line. the line switch should always be opened rather than throwing back the starting arm. if the starting arm is thrown back. at the higher values of field current and too weak at the lower values. The only difference in the connection is that the "line" terminal must be connected to the side of the line which runs directly to the common armature and field terminals.f. In stopping a motor. the field circuit is broken at the last contact button.hold up magnet may be too strong. therefore. the hold up coil becomes de-energized and allows the arm to spring back to the starting position.m. (b). On the other-hand. With shunt motors the line switch can be opened with no appreciable arc. The electro-magnetic energy stored in the field does not appear at the switch but is discharged gradually through the armature.

Eb = V-I(Ra + Rse) . 1. In a dc series motor. IL = I( say) Back emf developed. therefore. in one of the three different ways employed for self-excited dc generators.Q19. and so according to the field arrangement there are three types of dc motors namely: (i) series wound (ii) shunt wound and (iii) compound wound. they are separately excited. Types of DC motors: A dc motor must receive their excitations from an outside source. their field and armature windings are connected. Armature current. la = Series field current. 2005]. lse = Line current. Series Wound Motor: A series motor is one in which the field winding consisting of few turns of thick wire is connected in series with the armature so that the whole current drawn by the motor passes through the field winding as well as armature. State types of DC motors [2004. however. Connection diagram is shown in fig.

losses in .. Shunt Wound Motor: A shunt wound motor is one in which the field winding consisting of large number of turns of comparatively fine wire is connected in parallel with armature. one through the shunt field winding and second through the armature.e.Power drawn from supply mains = VI watts where V is the supply voltage and I is the input current. The current supplied to the motor is divided into two paths. i. as illustrated in fig. IL = Ia + Ish where Ia is the armature current and Ish is the shunt field current given by the expression Rsh voltage. Ish = ¡ Back emf developed. input line current. Power developed = Power input-losses in armature and field = VI ± I2 (Ra + Rse) = I [V ± I (Ra + Rse)] = Eb I watts. 2. Eb Power input Power developed armature and shunt field   Rsh being the shunt fiend resistance and V the supply = ± Ia Ra = VIL = Power input .

Ia Ra) = Eb la 3.= V IL ±VIsh . as illustrated in fig:. .Ia2 Ra = V (IL ±Ish ) . Differential compound wound motor is one in which the field windings are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is opposite to each other in the two field windings. In the motor of this type the flux due to series field winding strengthens the field due to the shunt field winding.. Cumulative compound wound motor is one in which the field windings are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is same in both of the field windings. Compound Wound Motors: Compound wound motors are of two types namely cumulative compound wound and differential compound wound.Ia2 Ra = V Ia ± Ia2 Ra = Ia (V. In this type of motor the flux due to series field winding weakens the field due to shunt field winding. as illustrated in fig.

Explain with diagram. TORQUE DEVELOPED IN A MOTOR: When the field of a machine (of the type described as generator) is excited and a potential difference is impressed upon the machine terminals. All conductors under the North Pole carry inward-flowing currents which react with the air gap flux to produce downward acting forces and a counter clockwise torque. The commutator (just as in a generator) serves to reverse the current in each armature coil at the instant it passes through the neutral axis. illustrates production of torque in a motor.Q20. the current in the armature winding reacts with the air-gap flux to produce a turning moment or torque which tends to cause the armature to revolve. while those lying under South Pole carry currents in the reverse direction. Similarly . all the armature conductors lying under the North Pole carry currents in a given direction. When the brushes are on the neutral axis. Fig. how the torque is developed in a DC motor [2004]. so the above relation is always maintained as the armature rotates.

. m r = average lever arm of a conductor or the average radius at which conductors are placed. each of the force acts tangentially and produces a turning moment equal to the force multiplied by its lever arm ² the radial distance from the centre of the conductor to the centre of the shaft. A I = active length of each conductor. the total torque developed by the armature Ta = BllrZ Nm Where B = gap density. Magnitude of torque developed by each conductor = Bllr Nm If the motor contains Z conductors.the conductors under the South Pole carry outward-flowing currents which produce upward-acting forces. These forces also give rise to counter clockwise torques. m Z = total number of armature conductors. If the air-gap flux is assumed to be radially directed at all points. T (Wb/m2) I = armature current in a conductor.

used: Where the speed is required to remain almost constant from no load to full load. total flux per pole J and number of poles p. I= And B= Ia a J Where a = number of parallel paths. It is therefore. Applications of motor depending upon their characteristic 1. 2T a Q21. (i) ¢ . A= Then B= = 2T rl p JlIar x 2T rl JIap Nm 2T a Ia a p a Ta = 0. and A = the cross-sectional area of flux path at radius r.It is more convenient to express Ta in terms of armature current Ia.159 J p x Or Ta = k J la Nm Where k = p is a constant for any machine. Shunt motors: The characteristics of a shunt motor reveal that it is an approximately constant speed motor. State the applications of DC motors depending upon their characteristics [2004].

It is therefore. The period during which this happens is called the commutation period. Where the load is subjected to heavy fluctuations and the speed is automatically required to reduce at high torques and vice versa. reciprocating machines etc. sewing machines etc. drills. 2006].g. However. spinning and weaving machines etc. Q22. elevators. The motor has a high starting torque. vacuum cleaners. . 2. Compound motors: Differential compound motors are rarely used because of their poor torque characteristics. Industrial Use: Lathes. Commutation: Commutation means the process of current collection by the brush or the changes which take place in a coil during the period of short circuit by a brush.(ii) Where the load has to be driven at a number of speeds and any one of which is required to remain nearly constant. Industrial Use: Presses. at light or no load. air compressors. cumulative compound motors are used where a fairly constant speed is required with irregular loads or suddenly applied heavy loads. 3.e. Series motors: It is variable speed motors i. in elevators and electric traction. shears. the motor tends to attain dangerously high speed. boring mills. shapers. hair dry. Define commutation [2004. speed is low at high torque and vice versa. used: Where large starting torque is required e. (i) (ii) Industrial Use: Electric traction. However. cranes.

lead acid battery one by one. action and characteristics of.e.1V. 2007. A lead acid cell produces about 2. 2009]. and the surface of the latter remains clean and undamaged during continuous operation of the machine. i. It can provide large current needed to crank internal combustion engine. A lead acid battery consists of 3 cells. The sparking may be called forth by causes differing in their physical nature.Commutation is considered to be good when the changes of the current in the coil sections are not accompanied by sparking between the brushes and the commutator. A 12 V automobile battery actually has a nominal voltage of 12. 2005. Higher voltages are obtained by connecting cells together to form batteries. Lead acid battery: Lead acid battery cells are used where large currents and energy storage is needed. Now we are going to study in detail construction. . because it contains six cells. Conversely. commutation is considered to be poor if there is sparking at the brushes and appreciable damage to the commutator surface hindering reliable operation of the machine. trucks and tractors. One of the main tasks in the analysis of commutation process is to find the causes of sparking between the brush and the commutator. Lead acid cells the most commonly used secondary cell and it is the power source for the electric system of the most cars. mechanical and electrical. 2008.6 volts. State function of lead acid battery [2004. Q23. 6 cells and 12 cells.

series motors can be obtained by (i) Flux control method (ii) Armature resistance control method. State the different methods of speed control of DC motor and explain any one in brief [2004. The latter method is mostly used. the lowest speed obtainable is the normal speed of the motor. Speed control of d. Its effect is to shunt some portion of the line current from the series field winding. 2009]. a variable resistance (called field diverter) is connected in parallel with series field winding as shown in figure.e. the flux produced by the series motor is varied and hence the speed. The lowest speed obtainable is that corresponding to zero current in the diverter (i. Obviously. The variation of flux can be achieved in the following ways: Field Diverters: In this method.c. series motor: The speed control of D. I. (i) .Q24. diverter is open). thus weakening the field and increasing the speed (N = 1/J). Flux Control Method: In this method.C. 2007.

this method can only provide speeds above the normal speed. if Ia is decreased. (ii) Armature Diverter: In order to obtain speeds below the normal speed. Now for a given load.Consequently. The series field diverter method is often employed in traction work. N w 1/J. The diverter shunts some of the lien current. the motor speed is decreased. the flux J must increase (T = J Ia). a variable resistance (called armature diverter) is connected in parallel with the armature as shown in figure. (iii) Tapped Field Control: In this method. the flux is reduced (and hence speed is increased) by decreasing . Since. thus reducing the armature current. By adjusting the armature diverter any speed lower than the normal speed can be obtained.

a variable resistance is directly connected in series with the supply to the complete motor as shown in figure. speeds higher than normal speed are achieved.the number of turns of the series field winding as shown in figure. The loss of power in the series resistance for many applications of series motors is not too serious since in these applications. any speed below the normal speed can be obtained. The switches can short circuit any part of the field winding. Although this method has poor speed regulation. the control is utilized for a large portion of the time for reducing the speed under light load conditions and is only used intermittently when the motor is carrying full load. the motor runs at normal speed and as the field turns are cut out. By changing the value of variable resistance. this has no significance for series motors because they are used in varying speed applications. series motors. Armature Resistance Control: In this method.c. II. . This is the most common method employed to control the speed of d. This reduces the voltage available across the armature and hence the speed falls.

In a primary cell it is not possible to reverse the chemical action to bring the material into their original condition. The carbon-Zinc. 2007]. mercuric oxide silver oxide and alkaline cells are the most common examples of primary cell.that an emf can be obtained by two dissimilar metal when acted upon by an electrolyte. Types of cells 1.Q25. The lead acid nickel cadmium. Primary Cell: The basic working principle of cell is . A secondary cell is one which can be charged. then the cell is said to the discharged. Explain working of nickel iron battery [2004. 2006. silver Zinc and Edison cells are the most common examples of secondary cell. A primary cell is one which cannot be recharged. Secondary Cell: Secondary cells work on the same principles as primary cells but differ in the process in which they may be renewed. This is called charging. In a secondary cell it is possible to reverse the chemical action to bring the material into their original condition. This emf will produced until the chemical action has changed all of the electrolyte or electrode in some other chemical form. In a secondary cell the chemical reaction which takes between the electrolyte and electrode on discharge can be completely reversed by sending a current through the cell in the opposite direction from an external source of emf. Enumerate types of cell. 2. Difference between a .

primarv cell and a secondary, cell is that the primary cell and a secondary cell is that the primary cell cannot be recharged after use while the secondary cell can be recharged after use. Nickel iron battery (Edison cell): The nickel-iron battery is a storage battery having a nickel (III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. The active materials are held in nickel-plated steel tubes or perforated pockets. The nominal cell voltage is 1.2V. It is a very robust -battery which is tolerant of abuse, (overcharge, over-discharge, short-circuiting and thermal shock) and can have very long life even if so treated. It is often used in backup situations where it can be continuously charged and can last for more than 20 years. Its limitations, namely, low specific energy, poor charge retention, and poor low-temperature performance, and its high cost of manufacture compared with the lead-acid battery led to a decline in usage along with it having the lowest energy-to-weight ratio. The ability of these batteries to survive frequent cycling is due to the low solubility, of the reactants in the electrolyte. The formation of metallic iron during charge is slow because of the low solubility of the Fe3O4 which is good and bad. It is good because the slow formation of iron .crystals preserves the electrodes; bad because it limits the high rate performance: these cells charge slowly, and are only able to discharge slowly. Nickel-iron batteries have long been used in European, mining operations because of their ability to withstand vibrations, high temperatures and other physical stress. They are being examined again for use in wind and solar power systems and for modern electric vehicle applications. In many respects the Nickel/Iron battery was almost ''too good". A battery that lasts for decades in many cases can outlast the equipment that is was originally designed to power.

So from an economic standpoint lead acid, NiCd and other technologies have been deemed "good enough" and are the predominant technologies in use today even though they do not last as long as a Nickel/Iron counterpart.

Q26. Define preparation of electrolyte of a required specific gravity [2004, 2006, 2007, 2009]. Method of preparation of electrolyte for a given specific gravity Electrolyte: A substance through which an electric current can pass in solution form or in molten form is called electrolyte. Example: Nacl, KBr, H2SO4, NaOH, etc. Types of Electrolyte: There are three types of electrolytes: (i) Strong electrolytes

(ii) (iii) (i)

Weak electrolyte Non-electrolytes Strong Electrolytes: The compounds which ionize to a large extent in dilute solution and conduct electric current to a large extent are called strong electrolytes.

Examples: HCl, NaOH, NaCl, etc. Weak Electrolytes: The compound which ionize to a small extent in dilute aqueous solution and conduct electric current to small extent are called weak electrolytes. Examples: CH3COOH, benzoic acid, carbonic acid, etc. (ii) Non-Electrolytes: The compounds, which do not ionize in aqueous solution and do not conduct electric current, are called non-electrolytes. Examples: Sugar, urea, glucose, etc. (iii) An electrolyte can be prepared by adding pure distilled water in dilute sulphuric acid at specific gravity. During charging process the amount of H2SO4 increased while water content increased during discharging. The value of specific gravity is never constant in electrolyte during charging and discharging. Battery condition can be easily understand by given specific gravity charge with the help of this chart we can understand the battery condition and relevant specific gravity of electrolyte. Battery condition Fully charged About ¾ charged Half charged About ¼ charged Discharged Relevant Specific gravity 1.26 to 1.30 1.23 to 1.26 1.20 to 1.23 1.17 to 1.2 1.11 to 1.14

2009]. Generally these are 1/3 to 3/4 th of the main poles as shown in Fig. Purpose of inter-poles: These are the poles mounded in between the main poles. The magnetic field produced by these poles is proportional to the load current. 2005. These are small in size than the main poles. 2006. It should be noted that amount of heat is produced when acid and water are mixed further if water added into acid it is harmful for worker so first acid is added drop by drop into distilled water for dilution. At high temperature battery is fully charged at comparatively low specific gravity as compared to low temperature.The another factor for charging of specific gravity is temperature of battery. Q27. Explain purpose of interpoles [2004. . The winding is done with thick conductor. It is connected in series with the armature.

Q28. Ward Leonard System: This method of control not only gives a wide range of operating speeds. but reduces to the very minimum the wastage of energy that ay take place at starting and stopping. Explain with neat diagram the Ward Leonard system of DC motor speed control [2006]. . Fig shows the schematic arrangement of Ward Leonard method.In case of D. motor. the polarity of inter-poles will be opposite to the main poles ahead in the direction of rotation of the armature.C.

A change in voltage applied to motor M changes its speed. The voltage fed to motor M can be controlled by varying the setting of R. the motor is running at full speed in one direction. y When the sliding contact of R is at extreme right. The speed can be adjusted to any value from zero to maximum in either direction by means of a rheostat R and switch S.M = main motor whose speed is to be controlled G = separately excited generator which feeds the armature of the motor M E = an exciter (a small shunt generator) which provides field excitation to the generator G and motor M M¶ = driving motor ± a constant speed motor which drives G and E R = a potentiometer rheostat S = a double throw switch The working of this system is as follows: y The motor M¶ drives the generator G and excitor E at constant speed. To decrease the speed the sliding contact is moved to the .

is descending a slope. Q29.y y left. the driving motor M¶ slows down. then M¶ speeds up thereby again storing energy in the flywheel. its speeds up due to the action of gravity. In order to reverse the speed of the motor. This results in salvaging of considerable amount of energy and a superior and smooth braking action. Requirements for Parallel Operation of DC Generator: The following are the principle types of situations where paralleling of DC generators is required: . when the load is suddenly thrown off the main motor M. which uses a small motor generator set with the addition of a flywheel whose function is to reduce fluctuations in the power demand from the supply circuit. The speed of motor M increases until its back emf exceeds the applied voltage motor M then runs as generator and feeds the machine G which now works as a generator and feeds electrical energy back into the trolley wire. When a locomotive. However. Such an action in known as regenerative braking. When the sliding contact is at the left extreme position. What are the necessary requirements for parallel operation of DC generator [2008]. A modification of the Ward Leonard system is known as Ward Leonard Ilgner system. the switch S is reversed and the sliding contact shifted to right again. the speed of motor M is zero. fitted with this system. When the main motor M becomes suddenly overloaded. the sliding contact is shifted to the extreme left. thus allowing the inertia of the flywheel to supply a part of the overload. One important feature of the Ward Leonard system is its regenerative action. When Ilgner system is driven by means of an AC motor (whether induction or synchronous) another refinement in the form of a slip regulator can be usefully employed thus giving an additional control.

(iii) If the setting of the generator is so made that it develops less internal Eg than voltage at the paralleling terminal. The following three conditions may be met if the generated voltages of the individual generators are not all the same. and they are paralleled: (i) If a generator is developing an internally generated voltage Eg that is appreciably above the voltage at the paralleling point. as any parallel circuit must be.Paralleling shunt generators of the same or varying sizes y Paralleling compound generators of the same or varying sizes There are certain requirements that must be met for successful electrical paralleling in all different situations. The following are the requirements or conditions of paralleling DC generators: (i) The polarities of the generators must be the same or the connections must be interchanged until they are. no effective generating action is taking place and no current is flowing to the load. This is absolutely required by Kirchhoff¶s voltage law. The above three situations are in entire agreement with Kirchhoff¶s current law. (ii) When a generator is producing the same voltage as that existing at the paralleling point. A parallel circuit is defined as one in which the same voltage exists across each unit as the paralleling point. The generator is said to the floating on the line. It is neither contributing nor drawing current and is still being rotated by its own prime mover. it will draw current from the paralleling point and will be operating as motor. generator action is taking place and the unit is delivering current to the load. y .

haulage gears and mine hoists Pumps and power fans Rolling mills. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. Q30. The change of voltage with change of load should be of the same character. stamping presses and large printing presses . hair driers.(ii) (iii) (iv) The voltages should be nearly if not exactly identical so that each machine will contribute. The prime mover that drive the generators should have similar and stable rotational speed characteristics. State the applications of DC Series. Shunt and Compound motors [2008]. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) DC Shunt Motor Drills and milling machines Line shaft drives Boring mills Grinders and shapers Spinning and weaving machines Wood working machines Small printing presses Light machine tools generally DC Series Motor Traction drives generally Tram cars and railway cars Cranes. Applications of DC Motors 1. shearing and planning machines Lifts. derricks. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) 2. hoists. elevators and winches Fans and air compressors Vacuum cleaners. sewing machines Universal machines generally Cumulative Compound Motor Punching.

machines The following important performance conducted on D.c. (i) (ii) Trolley buses Differential Compound Motor Battery boosters Experimental and research work Q31. The determination of efficiency curve. Testing of d. Brake test is a typical example of direct test. but involves complication in the measurement of mechanical power input in the case of a generator and output in case of a motor. Direct method: In direct test the generator or motor is put on full-load and whole of the power developed by it is wasted. y . The direct tests can be used only on small machines. 2009]. y tests are The procedure to conduct the magnetization or open circuit test and load characteristic (external characteristic) tests The methods for determining efficiency can be divided into following three methods: (i) Direct method (ii) Indirect method (iii) Regenerative method. The magnetization or open circuit test.(v) 4. The temperature rise test. 2. machines: 1. 3. 4. Though this method is simple in looking. What is the importance of DC machine testing? Why it is necessary [2008. The load characteristics.C.

2009]. The power is required to supply the losses only. This method enables the determination of losses without actually loading the machine. The other machine works as a generator and feed back power into the supply. one of them works as a motor and drives the other.If brake is to be applied to a series motor. Hopkinson test is a regenerative test for determining efficiency of D. machines. so there is no difficulty in applying this method even to very large machines. In practice the modification of the original . The simplest of the indirect tests is Swinburne test. Thus the total power drawn from the supply is only for supplying internal losses of the two machines. Regenerative method: This method requires two identical machines. the brake must be tight before the motor is started. The disadvantage of this method is that machine is run light during the test which gives no indication as to the temperature rise on load or to the commutating qualities of the machine. Hopkinson test The back to back test for dc machines was devised in its original form by Hopkinson and is similar to the Sumpner's test for transformers. Thus even very large machines may be tested as the power required is small. Indirect method: This method consists in measuring the losses and then calculating the efficiency.C. Explain the Hopkinson¶s test [2004. 2008. which is mechanically coupled to it. otherwise the armature may get damaged and fly to pieces. Q32.

The connection diagram for the Hopkinson test is shown in Fig. this in turn can be accomplished either by increasing the generator exciting current or by decreasing the exciting current of the motor or both adjustments may be made. Machine M is started with the help of a starter as a dc shunt motor and brought to speed with switch SW open. At the end of the test.Hopkinson test by Kapp is employed and it is usually called the Hopkinson test. The field current of the machine G is adjusted till the voltmeter VI reads zero and the switch is then closed. The total current 11 is supplied from the mains to two dc machines M and G. Under this condition the generator will float neither taking nor giving current to supply. The power supplied from the mains is only the power required to supply the losses of the two machines. The machine with lower field current will act as motor and the other will work as generator. Armature current of generator is . the resistances ra1 and ra2 of the armature circuit are measured by passing full load current through them and measuring voltage drops with field circuit open. Since both the machines M and G are mechanically coupled. Two dc shunt machines are mechanically coupled and losses are supplied electrically.. both the machines run at the same speed. Any desired load can be put on the generator by increasing the value of its induced emf.

( 0  I 2 m ra1  Vl3 ) ! V (I1  12) Generator power loss P12 = P0 + I2gra2+ VI4 Generator output power P2 = VI2 Generator input power P2 = P12 .I4 + I2 Armature copper loss of generator = I2g ra2 Armature copper loss of motor = I2mra1 Field copper loss of generator = VI4 Armature copper loss of motor = VI3 Total iron + friction losses for the two machines = Vl1= .5 (Vl1.P11 Motor efficiency is given by Efficiency = 1 1 11 V(I1  V2 ) .(I2mra1+ I2g ra2 + VI3 + VI4)) Total iron + friction loss per machines P0 = 0.lg = I 2 + I 4 Armature current of motor is lm = I1 .(I2mra1+ I2g ra2 + VI3 + VI4)) Motor power loss P11 = P0 + I2mra1+ VI3 Motor input power P1 = V (I1 + I2) Motor output power = P1 .

The care should be taken that positive terminal of battery should be connected to positive terminal of supply and negative plate to negative terminal of supply.c. 2004. supply of voltage little higher than the battery voltage is applied across the battery. At Negative plate: PbSO4 + H2SO4 (Lead sulphate) (Sulphuric acid) 2H+ (Hydrogen) = Pb (Lead) + At Positive plate: PbO2 + SO-4 2H2SO4 (Lead sulphate) (Sulphate) (Sulphuric acid) + 2H2O = (Water) PBO2 + (Lead peroxide) The changes occurs during charging is as below: (i) The positive plate changes to lead peroxide (PbO2). .Generator efficiency is given by Efficiency = 2 2  ! 12 12 I 2  0  I 2 m ra2  l 4 Q33. which is dark chocolate brown in colour. 2008]. The current passes from positive plate to the negative plate inside the cell the chemical reaction is an follows. Charging of battery: For charging a battery a d. (ii) The negative plate changes to spongy lead which is slate grey in colour. Explain the methods of charging of battery and explain in brief any one of them [2001.

The current through the electrodes breaks it into potassium ions (K+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). (iv) The specific gravity of each cell rises from 1. give its process in brief [2004. illustrate charging of battery. current flow from positive plate outside the cell and from negative to positive inside cell. Fig.280. How the battery is discharged.(iii) The voltage per cell increases from 1.180 to 1. Q34. When load is connected to the terminal of the cell. is of iron (Fe). The K+ moves toward the anode and OH.8 volt to 2.Fe (OH)2 (Iron) (Hydroxide of potassium) (Ferrous hydroxide) At Positive plate: . The cell stores electrical energy in form of chemical energy. Discharging of Battery: When the cell is fully charged the positive plate is of nickel hydroxide [(Ni (OH4)] and the negative plate. 2008].1 volt.towards cathode the chemical reactions is as given below: At Negative plate: Fe++ + 2OH .

brush contacts and inter-pole endings. In this method the iron and friction losses are determined by measuring the input to the machine on no-load. The armature copper loss is I2a0 ra where ra . Swinburne's test: This is an indirect method of determining the efficiency of a motor by measuring the losses. In the case of shunt motor. (ii) The positive plate turns into the lower hydroxide of nickel.Ni (OH)4 + 2K+ = Ni (OH). + (Nickel hydroxide) 2KOH Potassium (Nickel of lower oxide) (Potassium hydroxide) The following-changes occur during discharging: (i) The negative plate turns into ferrous oxide. The connection diagram for Swinburne's test is shown in Fig. Copper losses are calculated from measured values of the various resistances. This test is carried out for shunt machines. V being the supply voltage. let I0 = the total current on no-load. A small and normally negligible portion of these losses consists of ohmic losses in the armature. Q35. Explain Swinburn¶s and Dynamometer test [2009]. Then the total losses on no load are Vlo. the machine being run as a motor at normal voltage and speed. (iii) The strength of electrolyte remains constant.

Dynamometer test: The dyno must be able to operate at any speed. it develops whatever torque is necessary to force the prime mover to operate at the set speed. If the dynamometer has a speed regulator. Ia = I.is the armature resistance and the armature current is Ia0 = I0 If. .VI f Efficiency = VI Knowing the losses the efficiency of the machine as a generator can be determined from the relation Efficiency = VI .P0 . A motoring dynamometer acts as a motor that drives the equipment under test.I 2 a r2 . it operates at a set torque while the prime mover operates at whatever speed it can attain while developing the torque that has been set.P0 . and load the prime mover to any level of torque that the test requires. A dynamometer is usually equipped with some means of measuring the operating torque and speed.I 2 a VI r2 . the efficiency of the dc machine as a motor is given by VI . It must be able to drive the equipment at any speed and develop any level of torque that the test requires. friction and windage losses are Po=VI0-I2a0 ra For an input current I. If the dynamometer has a torque regulator. Dynamometers can be equipped with a variety of control systems. The total iron.If and line voltage V.VI f The armature resistance is measured by a dc test by passing a rated current from a battery supply.

The numerical values of horsepower and lbf·ft of torque are always equal at 5252 rpm because 5252 rpm in the numerator cancels out the constant. 5252 in the denominator leaving only the torque figure equal to the power.) Detailed dynamometer description . K. Power must be calculated from the torque and speed figures according to the formula: Where K is determined by the units of measure used as can be seen below: To calculate power in horsepower (hp) use: where: Torque is in pound-feet (lbf·ft) Rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm) To calculate power in kilowatts use: where: Torque is in newton-metres (N·m) Rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm) (On graphs of torque vs.Only torque and speed can be measured. Fig. rpm the numerical values of torque and power are always equal when the rpm value is equal to the constant.

torque A dynamometer consists of an absorption (or absorber/driver) unit. and usually includes a means for measuring torque and rotational speed. An absorption unit consists of some type of rotor in a housing. according to the type of absorption/driver unit.Electrical dynamometer setup showing measurement arrangement and tachometer engine. The housing can be made free to rotate by using trunnions connected to each end of the housing to support the dyno in pedestal mounted trunnion bearings. One means for measuring torque is to mount the dynamometer housing so that it is free to turn except that it is restrained by a torque arm. electromagnetic etc. Some means is provided to develop a braking torque between dynamometer's rotor and housing. A load cell . The means for developing torque can be frictional. The torque is the force indicated by the scales multiplied by the length of the torque arm measured from the center of the dynamometer. The torque arm is connected to the dyno housing and a weighing scale is positioned so that it measures the force exerted by the dyno housing in attempting to rotate. The rotor is coupled to the engine or other equipment under test and is free to rotate at whatever speed is required for the test. hydraulic.

an accidental increase in the generated voltage of one machine causes it to supply more load current which in time strengthens its series field. two series field coil windings are connected in parallel and this cumulative action can not take place. Essential connections for parallel operation of compound generators are shown in Fig. This increases the generated emf further. . This is usually affected by means of an auxiliary bar on the main switch board. it is again necessary to equalize their field currents. In absence of the equalizing bar. Q36. Explain parallel operation of DC Compound Generator [2009].transducer can be substituted for the scales in order to provide an electrical signal that is proportional to torque. Parallel Operation of Compound Generator: Since these machines possess winding in series with the armature and usually having a rising characteristics. When the equalizing conductor is used. with still further increase in its load current. the bar being called the "equalizer bus bar". An increase in generated emf of one machine increases its armature current but series field is not strengthened so that successful parallel operation is possible.

A vent plug is provided to escape the NH3 gas. The depolarizer is a mixture of crystals of carbon. 7H2O. 2007. The field has been permanently connected to the first stud of the resistance and the risk of opening the shunt field circuit is thus . 2004. the resistance of the equalizing connector should be very small in comparison with that of the field coils. 2006. Write short notes on the following [2002. NH4C1 and H2O. This is necessary so that the interpole winding carries the armature current. 3-Point DC Motor Starter: The starter shown in Fig. This is a shunt motor starter. Figure shows the simple construction of the dry cell. Q37. MnO2. A carbon rod is placed in centre and it works as positive terminal of the cell. A Zn cylinder is used to house all the chemicals and other components. H2O etc. Dry Cell: It is a portable cell. is of more practical arrangement. Dry cell is a modification of Lachlanche cell. It is a mixture of FeSO4. 2008. The paste is surrounding the carbon rod in a muslin bag which works as the porous pot. For satisfactory operation. In this cell the electrolyte in the paste shape. it works as negative terminal.The equalizer should be connected at the junction of inter-pole and series field windings. 2005. 2009].

This overload release is instantaneous in action. In practice overloads of large magnitude but of short duration usually occur. thus such an instantaneous 'overload release' is sometimes suitable. An electromagnet. consequently is released and return to the "off position. then a pair of contacts is bridged. Voltage Build up in DC Generator: One of the simplest forms of self-excited generator is the shunt wound machine. An 'over load release' shown in Fig. When the supply fails then the arm is released and is pulled back by the spring to the 'off position. known as "no-volt release" is arranged to hold the arm in "on" position against the pull of the spring provided in the starter arm. When the current is high enough to attract the armature of the overload release. These contacts are connected to the ends of the coil of the no-volt release which. provides an overload protection. the .avoided.

connection diagram (without load) of which is shown in figure. is zero. I2Tf is an increased mmf which produces generated voltage E3. The process continues until that point where the field resistance line crosses the magnetization curve in . E. i. the current which flows in the field circuit I1. voltage across its armature is described with reference to figure in the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Assume that the generator starts from rest.e. Voltage E2 is now impressed across the field.C.f. producing E4. which aids the residual magnetism in increasing the induced voltage to E2 as shown in figure. the voltage due to residual magnetism and speed increases. When I1 flows in the field circuit of the generator an increases in mmf results due to IfTf.m. and so on. is also small. causing a large current I2 to flow in the field circuit. The manner in which a self-excited generator manages to excite its own field and build a D. Despite a residual magnetism. Thus.. E1 as shown in the figure. But this voltage is also across the field circuit whose resistance is Rf. At rated speed. As the prime-mover rotates the generator armature and the speed approaches rated speed. But E4 causes I4 to flow in the field producing E5. E3 yields I3 in the field circuit. the maximum value. the voltage across the armature due to residual magnetism is small. up to E8. primemover speed is zero. the generated e. Tf being field turns.

Here the process stops. Sulphuric acid splits up into hydrogen ions (H+H+) and sulphate ions (SO4--). The sulphate ions move towards the cathode and hydrogen ions move towards the anode causing the following chemical actions: . E8. Chemical Action during Charging and Discharging of Lead Acid Battery: Chemical Process during Discharging: By discharging of a cell we mean that it is delivering current to the external circuit.figure. The induced voltage produced. the electrolyte being dilute H2SO4 (See figure). Consider a charged lead acid cell with anode of PbO2 and cathode of Pb. when impressed across the field circuit. produces a current flow that in turn produces an induced voltage of the same magnitude. as shown in the figure.

PbO2 + 2H PbO + H2O Sulphuric acid reacts with PbO to form PbSO4 PbO + H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2O . each hydrogen ion takes one electron from it to become hydrogen gas. H+H+ + 2e 2H The hydrogen gas liberated at the anode acts chemically on the anode material (PbO2) and reduces it to lead oxide (PbO).At cathode: On reaching the cathode. This electron is given by the sulphate ion at the cathode and has come to the anode via the external circuit. Since sulphate radical cannot exist. SO4-. a sulphate ion (SO4--) gives up its two extra electrons to become sulphate radical.. These electrons given up at the cathode move through the external circuit to the anode where they are available to neutralize the positive ions (H+H+) arriving there. it enters into chemical action with cathode material (Pb) to form lead sulphate (PbSO4).2e SO4 (radical) Pb + SO4 PbSO4 At anode: On reaching the anode.

the specific gravity of H2SO4 falls to about 1.f.m. of the cell falls. In practice.f. of the cell provides little indication to the state of discharge of the cell since it remains close to 2V for 90% of the discharge period. (iv) The chemical energy stored in the cell is converted into electrical energy.The chemical changes that take place during discharging can be summed up as under: (i) Both the plates are converted into lead sulphate (PbSO4) which is whitish in colour. When the cell is fully discharged.m.8 volts. falls to about 1. The lead acid cell should not be discharged beyond the point where its e.m. specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4) is used to know the . (ii) Water is formed which lowers the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4).18. (iii) The e. It is important to note that e.f.

.e.18. direct current is passed through the cell in the reverse direction to that in which the cell provided current. a sulphate ion (SO4--) gives up its two extra electrons to become sulphate radical. Chemical Process during Charging Consider a discharged lead acid cell having both the plates converted to lead sulphate (PbSO4). the anode is connected to the positive terminal of d. PbSO4 + O + H2O PbO2 + H2SO4 . To do so. The electrolyte (H2SO4) breaks up into hydrogen ions (H+H+) and sulphate ions (SO4--). Since sulphate radical cannot exist.state of discharge. source and cathode to the negative terminal of the source as shown in figure. In order to recharge the cell.2e SO4 (radical) SO4 + H2O H2SO4 + O The oxygen in the atomic state (i.c. O) is very active and reacts chemically with anode material (PbSO4) to produce the following chemical change. These electrons given up at the anode move through the external circuit to the cathode where they are available to neutralize the positive ions (H+H+) arriving there. Hydrogen ions move towards cathode and sulphate ions move towards anode causing the following chemical reactions: At anode: On reaching the anode. it enters into chemical reaction with water as under: SO4-. The cell should be recharged when specific gravity of H2SO4 falls to 1.

the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4) is raised. This electron is given up by the sulphate ion at anode and has come to the cathode via the external circuit. The chemical changes that occur during recharging can be summed up as under: (i) (ii) The positive plate (anode) is converted into PbO2 and the negative plate (cathode) into Pb. H2SO4 is formed in the reactions. The H2SO4 produced in the chemical reactions above increases the specific gravity of the electrolyte. H+H+ + 2e 2H The hydrogen gas liberated at the cathode reacts with cathode material (PbSO4) to reduce it to lead (Pb) as under: PbSO4 + 2H Pb + H2SO4 As the charging process goes on.At cathode: On reaching the cathode. . Therefore. each hydrogen ion (H+) takes one electron from it to become hydrogen gas. the anode is converted into PbO2 and cathode into Pb.

The working of nickel-cadmium cell is almost similar to nickel iron cell.m. K+ ions move to cathode and OH.f. Electrical energy supplied is converted into chemical energy which is stored in the cell. At Anode: Ni (OH)2 + 2OH Ni (OH)4 At Cathode: Cd (OH)2 + 2K Cd + 2KOH Nickel cadmium batteries are more suitable than nickel iron batteries for floating duties in conjunction with charging . of the cell rises. The e.ions move to anode. During discharging the K+ ions move to anode and OH. At Anode: And at Cathode: Ni (OH)2 + 2OH Ni (OH)4 Cd + 2OH Cd (OH)2 When the cell is charged by connecting the anode to the positive terminal of supply and cathode with the negative terminal of supply the direction of current flow is opposite to that during discharging. the specific gravity of H2SO4 rises to about 1.f.ions move to cathode.ions. The e.m. the electrolyte KOH breaks up into K+ and OH. Following chemical reactions take place during charging.28. When current passes through the cell. For negative plate a mixture of cadmium and iron is used. Nickel Cadmium Battery: Active material used for positive plate and the electrolyte used in nickel cadmium cells are the same as that used for nickel iron cell. of a fully charged lead acid cell is about 2 volts. Therefore. The number of positive plates used in nickel-cadmium cell is one more than the number of negative plates. Following chemical changes take place when the cell is supplying current to the external circuit.(iii) (iv) When the cell is fully charged.

power developed in armature in watts . Efficiencies of DC Generator 1. Mechanical efficiency: Elect . Electrical efficiency: Generatoro u output in watts P m= lect . Open circuit losses in these batteries are also low as compared to nickel iron batteries. P m= Mechanical power input £ ¤ . power developed in ar ature = B Ish = V IL E g Ia 2.dynamo.

Overall or Commercial efficiency: Generator out put . Whole of this torque is not available at the pulley.e.5 3.m. (metric) = @ Tsh x 2 TN 735 . . power input Unless otherwise told. It is so called because it is available at the shaft.H. (metric) x 735.5 B.6) = B . Shaft Torque: The torque developed by the armature is the gross torque.). since certain percentage of torque developed by the armature is lost to overcome the iron and friction losses. Pc= Mech. The torque which is available for useful work is known as shaft torque Tsh.P. x735 . x 735.P.Tsh is known as lost torque (i.5 2 TN 60 § ¥ . commercial efficiency is always understood.= Eg Ia B.P.P. The difference Ta .p. .(5.5 Tsh = Where N = speed of armature in r.H . B.H.. The horse power obtained by using shaft torque is called brake horse power (B. torque lost in iron and friction losses) ¦ = = VI B.H .

but after a certain point. y . this being due to a small amount of permanent magnetism in the field poles. This is called residual magnetism and is usually sufficient to produce 2 or 3 per cent of normal terminal voltage. This is also referred to as the 'magnetization curve' since the same graph shows.C. can be plotted. to a suitably chosen scale.159 x iron and riction losses Nm N 60 No-Load Saturation Characteristic (or O. shown in Fig. the amount of magnetic flux.C. y It will be noticed that a small voltage is produced when the field current is zero.C.= 0. The first part of the curve is approximately straight and shows that the flux produced is proportional to the exciting current.) y If the generator is run at constant speed with the main switch open. and the terminal voltage is noted at various values of exciting or field current then the O.C. although in some special cases it is purposely increased to 10 per cent or more. there being a constant relationship (depending upon speed of rotation) between flux and induced voltage.

Q1) NUMERICALS A six pole wave wound armature has 640 conductors the flux / pole is 0.saturation of the iron becomes perceptible as the curve departs from straight line form. Emf generated as 256 V. Find the speed in rpm.06 wb.06 wb E = 256 Volts N=? E= N= J ZN P × 60 A E × 60 × A J×Z×P . P=6 A=2 Z = 640 J = 0.

The flux per pole is 0.p. generated by a 4-pole wave wound armature having 45 slots with 18 conductor per slot when driven at 1200 r. P=4 A=2 Z = 45 × 18 N = 1200 J = 0. A=P=8 Z = 960 N = 500 rpm E = 320 J=? E= J= J= J ZN P 60 A E × 60 × A Z×N×P 320 × 60 × 8 = 0. for flux / pole. emf = ? emf = J ZN P × A 60 .06 × 640 × 6 N = 133.f. the emf is 320 V.016 weber.m.N= 256 × 60 × 2 0.016 wb.m.33 rpm Q2) A eight pole wound armature has 960 conductors and it runs at a speed of 800 rpm.04 wb 960 × 500 × 8 Q3) Calculate the e.

Q4) A conductor of length 3 meter moves at 60 degrees to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 5 web/m2 with a velocity of 45 m/sec.m. J = 30 mwb N = 600 rpm P=4 A=2 emf = ? emf = JZN P × 60 A JN 4 × 60 2 emf /Z = . Calculate the e.4 volts.m.m. B = 5 wb/m2 l=3m U = 60° Y = 45 m/sc emf = ? emf = YBL SinU emf = 45 × 5 × 3 × Sin 60° emf = Q5) In a 4 pole dynams.016 × 45 × 18 × 1200 4 × 60 2 = 518.f.f. induced in one of the armature conductor if the armature is driven at 600 r.= 0.p. induced in it. Calculate the average e. the flux per pole is 30 m web.

Calculate the e.5 wb/m2 with a velocity of 25 m/s.f. induced in it.m. a current of 5 Amperes flowing in the coil. L = 10 m U = 45° B = 1. N = 500 tonnes dJ = 60 Qwb di = 5 Amp. L=? e=±N e=±L ±L dJ dt di dt di dJ =±N dt dt dJ di L=N . Produces a flux of 60 micro.5 wb/m2 Y = 25 m/s emf = ? e = BlY Si U e = 1.5 × 10 × 25 × Si 45° e= Q7) A coil is would with 500 turns. Find the inductance of the coil.6 volts Q6) A conductor of length 10 meter moves at an angle of 45° to uniform magnetic field of flux density 1.30 × 10±3 × 600 4 = × 60 2 emf /Z = 0. webers.

02 seconds (ii) Reversed in 0. in 0. / sec di Self induced e. / sec.02 = 5000 Amp.f. 200 Average rate of charge of current = 0. when the current is (i) Reduced to zero in 0.f.02 sec.500 × 60 × 10±6 L= 5 L = 6 × 10±3 H Q8) A coil having an inductance of 75 milli Henries is carrying a current of 100 A.m. = L dt = 75 × 10±3 × = 5000 1 @ 75 5000 × 1000 1 (b) = 375 Volts Current charges by 200 Amp. Calculate the self induced e. = ? (a) When current charges by 100 Amps in 0. di Self induced e.02 = 10000 Amp. 100 Average rate of change of current = 0.m.02 sec.m.02 seconds L = 75 mH I = 100 A Self induced e.f.m.f. = L dt 75 10000 × = 1000 1 @ .

(b) copper loss.m.02 __. Find: (a) E. shunt field resistance 44 ohm. a) Emf generated = ? b) Copper loss = ? c) Commercial efficiency = ? V Rsn 220 44 a) Isn = Isn = b) Isn = 5A Ia = 195 + 5 Ia = 200 A Armature drop = Ia Ra = 200 (0. If the Iron and Friction loss 1600 watt. Shunt Cu loss = V Ish.m. Rsn = 44 __.f. (c) Commercial and electrical efficiencies. IL = 195 A V = 220 volts Ra = 0.02) = 800 watt.Q1) A shunt generator supplies 195 Ampere at 220 volt.f. Iron and Friction loss = 1600 watt. Armature resistance 0.02 ohms. generated.02) = 4 volts Generated e. = 220 + 4 = 224 volts Cu loss Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = (200)2 (0. .

Calculate the magnetic flux per pole required if the armature has 144 slots with 2 conductors per slot. P = 16 A=2 Emf = 600 volts N = 900 rpm Z = 144 × 2 J=? e= J= J ZN P × 60 A e × 60 × A Z×N×P .c) = 220 × 5 = 1. generator is required to generate an e. of 600 volts on open circuit when revolving at a speed of 900 r.m.p.45% Q2) The armature of a 16 pole d.m. The armature is wave wound.100 = 1800 watt Commercial efficiency: Total loss = 1900 + Iron & Friction = 1900 + 1600 = 3500 watt Output Qc = × 100% Input Qc = 220 × 195 × 100% (220 × 195) + 3500 Qc = 92.f.100 watt Total Cu loss = 800 + 1.c.

6 = 454. shunt field resistance 80 __.03 __ General emf = ? 230 Ish = = 4.638 volts Q4) A short shunt compound generator supplies a load of 15 kW at 300 volts through a pair of feeders of total resistance 0.1 __ armature resistance .0173611 wb. series field resistance .03) = 243.f.J= 600 × 60 × 2 144 × 2 × 900 × 16 J = 0.6 A General emf = V + Ia Ra = 230 + (454.03 __.m. IL = 450 A V = 230 volts.6) (0.m. P = 15 kW Vl = 300 volts Ra = 0. Rsh = 50 __ Rsn = 0. generated. Calculate the generated e.04 __ Rs = 0.03 __ Rsh = 80 __ Eg = ? .f.03 __ respectively. What is the e.04 __.6 A 50 Ia = 450 + 4. Q3) A shunt generator delivers 450 A at 230 volts and the resistances of the shunt field and armature are 50 __ and 0.

65075 volts Q5) A 4 pole DC Generator having wave wound armature has 51 slots.76875 Ia = 53.76875 A Ia = 50 + 3.Load current = 15. Find emf generated in the machine when driven at 1500 rpm with 67 mwb flux / pole.025 .5 = 301. P=4 A=2 Z = 25 × 51 N = 1500 rpm J = 6. each with 25 conductors.7 × 10±3 × 25 × 51 × 1500 4 × 60 2 E = 427.125 volts. Q6) A short shunt compound generator supplies a current of 50 amperes at 200 volts.5 V Voltage drop in series shunt winding = 300 + 1.5 V 301.76875 × 0. The resistance of the shunt field is 50 ohms.7 × 10±3 wb E=? E= E= J ZN P × A 60 6.03 = 1.15075 V Generated emf = 300 + 1. 76875 A Ia Ra = 53.15075 = 303.5 Ish = 80 Isn = 3.5 + 2.04 = 2. of series winding is 0.000 / 300 = 50 A Voltage drop in series winding = 50 × 0.

05 = 2.h. Ish = 200 × 4 = 800 Watt Total = 800 + 145 = 945 Watt c) Stray losses = 1000 watt Total loss = 1000 + 945 = 1945 Watt Output = 200 × 50 = 10000 Output of Prime mover = 10000 + 1945 = 11945 Watt . generated. Iron and friction losses amount to 1 kW.f.m.7 volts Voltage drop across series winding = 50 × 0.025 __ Ra = 0. Find: a) e. and of armature 0.25 volts Emf generated = 200 + 2.25 = 203.7 + 1.05 = 145 Watt Shunt Cu loss = V.025 = 1.ohms.p.05 ohm. d) The commercial efficiency. Load current = 50 A Vt = 200 volts Rsn = 50 __ Rs = 0. c) The b. of the prime mover.05 __ Iron and friction loss = 1 kW a) Emf generated = ? b) Cu loss = ? c) Output of prime mover d) Commercial efficiency a) Ish = 200 / 50 = 4 A Ia = 50 + 4 = 54 A Ia Ra = 54 × 0.95 volts b) Cu loss: Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = 542 × 0. b) The copper losses.

Assuring the flux / pole to be 70 mwb.717% Q7) A four pole generator. Calculate the emf generated. E= E= J ZN P × 60 A 7 × 10±3 × 51 × 20 × 1500 × 4 60 × 2 E = 357 volts. each slot containing in the machine when driven at 1500 rpm. P=4 A=2 Z = 51 × 20 E=? N = 1500 rpm J = 7 × 10±3 wb. P=4 A=2 Z = 122 N = 1200 rpm J = 25 × 10±3 wb E=? . having wave wound armature winding has 51 slots.d) Qc = Qc = Output × 100% Input 10000 × 100% 11945 Qc = 83. Q8) A 4 pole wave wound armature of a dc generator has 122 conductors and runs at 1200 rpm if the flux / pole is 25 mwb.

m.f. Armature resistance 0. So total motor current = 20 × 4 = 80 Amp..02 __ Rse = 0. Current taken by one lamp of 60 W W = VI W I= V . The load consists of 4 motors each taking 20 ampere and a lighting load of 20. V = 200 Volt RT = 0. shunt field resistance 50 . Q9) A short shunt compound generator supplies a load at 200 volts through a pair of feeders of total resistance 0. 60 watt lamps. generated = ? Solution: (i) Each motor taking 20 Amp. series field resistance of .1 __ 4 motors = each taking 20 A 20 lamps = each 60 W Ra = 0...02 .1 Ohms.E= E= J ZN P 60 A 25 × 10±3 × 122 × 1200 × 4 60 × 2 E = 122 volts.05 __ Rsh = 50 __ Load current = ? Terminal voltage = ? E.05 .

6 = 208. The current 86 Amp flowing through series field So series voltage drop Vse = Ise × Rse Vse = 86 × 0.3 Amp.1 = 8. Now current 86 Amp is flowing through the feeders of having resistance 0.1 __ So voltage drip in feeder = 86 × 0.6 + 4.3 Volt Voltage across shunt field = voltage at brush = 208.I= 60 6 = 200 20 (ii) I = 0. Total current of 20 lamps = 20 × 0. Now total current supplied = 80 + 6 = 86 Amp.3 = 212.6 Volt Voltage at terminal = Voltage at load + Feeder = 200 + 8.05 = 4.9 Volts V Shunt field current = Ish = Rsh Ish = 212.258 A Total armature current = Ise + Ish Ia = 86 + 4.6 Volt Ans.9 50 @ drop (iii) Ish = 4.258 .3 = 6 Amps.

(iii) B.H. Find: (i) E.01 __ Rsh = 44 __ Iron friction loss = 1000 W (i) E. the iron and friction losses amount to 1600 watt.m.02 __ Rse = 0.f.m. (iv) Electrical efficiency.f. Generated. Q10) A short shunt compound generator supplies 200 ampere at 220 volts armature resistance 0.m. of engine = ? (iv) Electrical efficiency = ? (v) Commercial efficiency = ? Solution: Voltage drop in Rse = Vse = IRse . I = 200 A V = 220 V Ra = 0.258 × 0.02 Ohms. The shunt field resistance 44 ohms. = 214.81 Volt Now E. (ii) Copper losses.f. Armature volt drop = IaRa = 90. (v) Commercial efficiency. of engine.Ia = 90.71 Volts Ans.6 + 4.81 E.3 +1.m.P. generated E.H.02 = 1.258 Amp. = 200 + 8. generated = ? (ii) Copper losses = ? (iii) B.P.f. = load voltage = feeder drop + series drop + armature drop E.f.m.f.m.

805 Watt @ Copper losses = b ± c = 46360.805 ± 44000 = 2361.05 = 46361.01 Vse = 2 Volt @ Vb = 220 + 2 = 222 Volt Vb 222 Ish = = Rsh 44 Ish = 5.m.02 Va = 4.f.1 Volt Ans.8 Watt Ans. Voltage drop in armature = IaRa Va = 205.8 + 1600 (c) (b) × Ia @ .05 Ia = 205.Vse = 200 × 0.1 × 205.05 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 200 + 5.1 Volt @ E. = 226.05 × 0.f.m. Electrical power input = V × I = 220 × 200 = 44000 Watt Electrical power developed in armature = E.05 Amp. generated = Vb + Va = 222 + 4.1 = 226. Iron friction loss = 1600 W Total losses = Current loss + Iron loss = 2361.

Q11) A shunt generator delivers 440 A and 220 V and the resistances of the shunt field and armature are 25 Ohms and 0. I = 440 A V = 220 V Rsh = 25 __ Ra = 0.P.025 Ohms respectively.8 746 95111 × 100 46361.8 A .3% Ans.H. of engine = 746 = 47961.8 = 47961.05% Ans.f. calculate the generated emf.29 h. Commercial efficiency = = 94.= 3961.m.8 = 64.8 Watt Mechanical power input B. Electrical efficiency = = 97.8 watt Mechanical power input = Output + total loss = 44000 + 3961.p.025 e. = ? Solution V Ish = Rsh Ish = 220 25 Ish = 8.805 45111 × 100 47961.

22 Volt Ans.02 _  _ Ish = V Rsh 220 = 30 Ish = 7. and 0.3 Ia = 437. = Voltage at Brush + Armature drop = 220 + IaRa = 220 + (448. I = 430 A V = 220 V Rsh = 30 __ Ra = 0. respectively.3 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 430 + 7.3 A .025) = 220 + 11.Ia = I + Ish Ia = 440 + 8.02 __ I = 430 A e. Q12) A shunt generator delivers 430 A and 220V and the resistances of the Shunt Field and armature are 30.8 × 0.02.8 Ia = 448.=? 30 __ Rsh G 220 V Ra = 0. Calculate the generated emf.22 = 231.f .8 A e.f.m.m.

m. calculate the Bus Bar Voltage and output of each machine.75 = 228.02 ohm and field resistance is 50.f. = ? Solution: Let V = Bus-bar voltage I1 = Current output machine 1 I2 = Current output machine 2 @ I1 + I2 = 2500 (A) V V = Ish = Rs 50 V Ish = 50 . = Voltage at brush + Voltage drop at armature = 220 + IaRa = 220 + (437.75 Volt Ans.3 × 0. Q13) Two Shunt generators are operating in parallel have each Ra 0.e.02) = 220 + 8.f.W. The combined load current is 2500A.02 __ each Rsh = 50 __ each IL = 2500 A e.f. Ra = 0.m. = E2 = 550 V Bus-bar voltage = V = ? Output in K. if generated emf¶s of the machine are 560V and 550V respectively. each. = E1 = 560 V e.m.

generated V V + (I1 + ) 0.02 I1 ± 0.m.f. we have I1 ± I2 = 500 I1 + I2 = 2500 2I1 = 3000 3000 I1 = 2 I1 = 1500 A I1 + I2 = 2500 1500 + I2 = 2500 I2 = 1000 A Put value of I1 in equation (1) .02 = 560 50 (1) V V + (I2 + ) 0.02 = 550 50 (2) Subtract equation (2) from equation (1) 0.02 I2 = 10 2 I1 2 I2 ± = 10 100 100 I1 I2 ± = 10 50 50 I1 ± I2 = 500 (B) We know that I1 + I2 = 2500 (A) By adding equation (A) and (B).Bus-bar voltage + Voltage drop in armature = e.

W.0004 V = 560 ± 30 (1 + 0.78 V = 530 Volt (approx. V × I1 K. K. Calculate (i) . Output of machine 1 = 1000 = 530 × 1500 1000 = 53 × 15 = 795 K. the Iron and Friction losses amount to 1600 watts.0004 V = 529.V + (I1 + V ) 0.02 ohms. Ans.W.W. Q14) A short shunt compound generator supplies 200 amperes at 220 volts.02 = 560 50 V ) 0.W.02 V = 560 50 V + 30 + 0. the shunt field resistance is 44 Ohms. armature resistance 0.0004) V = 530 1.0004 V = 530 530 V= 1.0004 V = 560 V + 0. Output of machine 2 = = 530 × 1000 1000 V × I1 1000 = 530 K.02 = 560 50 V + (1500 + V + 30 + 0.) Bus-bar voltage = V = 530 Volt Ans.

02 __ Rse = 0.01 = 2 Volt @ Vb = 220 + 2 Vb = 222 Volt Vb 222 Ish = = Rsh 44 Ish = 5. = 226.f.H.f.m.1 Volt @ E. generated = ? B.m.1 E.01 __ Rsh = 44 __ Iron friction losses = 1600 W Electrical efficiency = ? e.electrical Efficiency (ii) EMF generated (iii) B.05 Ia = 205. generates = Vb + Va E.P. I = 200 A V = 220 V Ra = 0.f. of engine = ? Solution: Voltage drop in series winding = I × Rse = 200 × 0.f.05 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 200 + 5.1 Volt @ .02 Va = 4.P of engine.05 A Voltage drop in Armature = IaRa Va = 205.m.05 × 0.m.H. = 222 + 4.

3% Ans.p.805 watts @ Copper losses = b ± c = 46361.8 = 47961.8 watts Meth power input B. of Engine = 746 = 47961.8 watts Iron and friction losses = 1600 watts = 2361.805 ± 44000 = 2361.015 ohm.29 h.8 + 1600 = 3961.(c) Electrical power output = V × I = 220 × 200 = 44000 watts (b) Electrical power developed in armature = E.015 __ .8 746 = 64. 45111 Electrical efficiency = × 100 46361.P.m. I2 = 220 Axp Ra = 0. V = 100 volts.H. Q1) A 100 volt shunt motor is taking a current of 220 Amp armature resistance 0.1 × 205.8 watts Mechanical power input = Output + Total loss = 44000 + 3961.f.05 = 46361. Calculate back e.m. × Ia = 226.f. shunt field resistance 20 ohms.805 = 97.

775 volts. Iron and friction losses 2188 watts: Find (i) Total torque (ii) Copper losses (iii) Commercial efficiency. 0. Q2) A shunt motor running at 600 r.5 volts Torque a) .m.1 __ Rsh = 50 __ Iron & friction losses = 2188 watt 250 Ish = 50 Ish = 5 A Ia = 80 ± 5 Ia = 75 A Eb = V ± Ia Ra = 250 ± 75 × 0. N = 600 rpm I2 = 80 A V = 250 volts Ra = 0.1 ohm.Rsh = 20 __ Back emf = ? 100 Ish = 20 Ish = 5 A Ia = 220 ± 5 = 215 A Back emf = V ± Ia Ra = 100 ± 215 (0.p. shunts field resistance 50 ohms.015) Back emf = 96. Armature resistance.1 = 242. takes 80 amperes at 250 volts.

Ta = Ta =

1 Es t a 2T N 242.5 × 75 1 × = 4.8245 N/m. 600 2 × 3.14

b) Cu loss Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = (75)2 × 0.1 = 562.5 watt Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 250 × 5 = 1250 watt Total Cu loss = 562.5 + 1250 = 1812.5 watt c) Commercial efficiency Iron and friction loss = 2188 watts. Total loss = 2188 + 1812.5 = 4000.5 watt Output × 100% Qc = Input Qc = 250 × 80 × 100% = 83.333% (250 × 80) + 4000.5

Q3)

A shunt motor, armature resistance 0.2 __, shunt field resistance 55 __ is tahj 50 A at 220 volts. Find back emf. IL = 50 A V = 220 volts Ra = 0.2 __ Rsh = 55 __ Eb = ? 220 Ish = 55 Ish = 4 A Ia = 50 ± 4 = 46 A Eb = V ± Ia Ra

Eb = 220 ± 46 (0.2) = 210.8 volts Q4) A shunt motor takes 25 A from a 240V main. Its efficiency is 85%, find the output in horse power and total copper losses, when the field resistance is 150; (ohms) and armature resistance is 0.4; (Ohms). I = 25 A V = 240 V Rsh = 150 __ Ra = 0.4 __ (Efficiency) L = 85% Output in hp = ? Total copper losses = ? Solution: Ish = 24J V = Rsh 15J

Ish = 1.6A For armature current Ia = I ± Ish Ia = 25 ± 1.6 Ia= = 23.4 A Now for copper losses Shunt copper loss = Ish2 × Rsh = (1.6)2 × 150 = 384 W Armature copper loss Ia2 × Ra = (23.4)2 × 0.4 = 219.1 W

@ Total copper losses = Shunt Cu loss + Armature Cu loss = 384 + 219.1 = 603.1 Watt Ans. Output in h.p. Input = V × I = 240 × 25 = 6000 watt Output Efficiency = x = Input @ Output = x × input 85 = × 6000 100 = 85 × 60 = 5100 watt = 6.8 h.p. Ans.

Q5)

A shunt motor takes 30A from a 230 mains, its efficiency is 80%, find the output in horse power and copper losses when the field resistance is 160; and armature resistance is 0.4;. I = 30 A V = 230 V Rsh = 160 __ Ra = 0.4 __ Efficiency L = 80% Total copper loss = ? Output in hp = ? Solution:

p. Ans.57)2 × 0.Ish = Ish = V 230 = Rsh 160 23 16 Ish = 1.5 watt Total copper loss = Shunt loss + Armature Loss = 327.57 A Shunt copper loss = Ish2 × Rsh = (1.43)2 × 160 = 327. .5 = 653.43 Ia = 28.p.4 h.18 watt Armature copper loss = Ia2 × Ra = (28.18 + 326.43 A Ia = I ± Ish Ia = 30 ± 1.68 watt Output in h. Input = V × I = 230 × 30 = 6800 watt Output Efficiency = L = Input Output = L × Input 80 = × 6900 100 = 80 × 69 = 5520 watt = 7.4 = 326.

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