PLANT NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

Deficiency : Nitrogen Deficiency Introduction : i The nitrogen deficiency first appears on older leaves. The leaves become light green to pale yellow from the tip towards the base forming the typical ‘V’ shape pattern. Later the whole leaf turns yellow followed by drying or dropping of older leaves. The symptoms proceed up the plants as the deficiency progresses. ii The number of tillers / branches is considerably reduced. iii Internodal length becomes short and the plant height decreases. iv Ears / cobs are small resulting in very poor yield. Affected Crops : All crops except leguminous. Remedial measures : Apply nitrogenous fertilizers like urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), ammonium chloride. Nitrogen deficiency in : Photo No. 1.1 : Maize 1.2 : Rice 1.3 : Cotton 1.4 : Wheat Deficiency : Phosphorus Deficiency Introduction : (i) Like nitrogen, the deficiency appears on older leaves. (ii) The number of tillers is less. (iii) Root and shoot growth is restricted and the plant height is decreased. (iv) Diagnosis of phosphorus deficiency under field conditions is many a times difficult because of the absence of characteristics external symptoms. Therefore, fertilizer use history of the crop may be kept in view to derive conclusion. However, under phosphorus deficient conditions, plants develop purple or dark to blue-green colouration and necrotic areas on leaves, petioles or stems. (v) Maturity is delayed and the development of seed and fruit is poor. Affected Crops : Maize, wheat, rape and mustard.

Remedial measures : Apply phosphatic or compound fertilizers containing phosphorus like single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK. Phosphorus must be applied to ‘Rabi’ crops as these respond to its application. Its application to ‘Kharif’ crops can be omitted if recommended rate of phoshorus has been applied to preceding crop. Phosphorus deficiency in : Photo No. 1.5 : Maize 1.6 : Response of maize to phosphorus 1.7 : Phosphorus deficiency in berseem 1.8 : Response of lentil to phosphours Deficiency : Potassium Deficiency Introduction : (i) The deficiency symptoms of potassium also appear on older leaves. (ii) Interveinal chlorosis followed by the development of necrotic areas at the tip and margins of the leaf appears first which later on results in scorching and browning of these areas. (iii) Plants become stunted and leaves are excessively damaged when there is acute deficiency. (iv) The stalks become weak. Fruits and seeds are shrivelled. Affected Crops : Berseem, potato, rape and mustard Remedial measures : Apply muriate of potash on soil test basis as most of the soils of the state have sufficient reserve of potassium. Potassium deficiency in : Photo No. 1.9 : Berseem 1.10 : Potassium deficiency in berseem – a field view 1.11 : Response of maze to potassium application Deficiency : Sulphur Deficiency Introduction : (i) Unlike nitrogen, sulphur deficiency appears on younger leaves. (ii) The leaves turn yellowish green or chlorotic leaving the tip slightly green. (iii) Under severe deficiency, all leaves may lose their green colour. (iv) Growth is stunted. (v) In legumes, nodulation is poor and nitrogen fixation is reduced. Affected Crops : Groundnut, raya, wheat, field pea

Remedial measures : Apply gypsum or any sulphur – containing fertilizer like single superphosphate and ammonium sulphate. Sulphur deficiency in : Photo No. 1.12 : Wheat 1.13 : Groundnut 1.14 : Field pea Deficiency : Zinc Deficiency Introduction : Rice : (i) Zinc deficiency symptoms appear on older leaves. (ii) Chlorosis along with small scattered light yellowish brown spots appear in the interveinal areas of older leaves. (iii) Spots later enlarge, coalesce and turn deep brown frequently referred to as iron rust or bronzing. (iv) The leaf size is restricted and plants show bushy stunted growth. (v) Leaves dry up and fall or float on water. (vi) Earing and maturity are delayed resulting in poor crop yield. Maize : (i) The symptoms appear on middle leaves, second or third from top of plants having 5-6 leaves. (ii) The leaves show light yellow tissues with reddish veins, but the midrib and leaf margins remain green. (iii) Later it forms white band which extends parallel to midrib and its colour changes to reddish/bluish red. (iv) Severely deficient plants are stunted and have shorter internodes. (v) Tasselling and silking are delayed. Wheat : (i) The third and fourth leaves from the top develop a band of white or yellow tissue in the middle of affected leaves. (ii) This is followed by interveinal chlorotic mottling and white to brown chlorotic region in the middle of the leaf blades. (iii) The necrotic areas intensify and coalesce resulting in the collapse of the affected leaf near its middle. (iv) Plants show bushy stunted growth. (v) Earing and maturity are delayed resulting in poor yields. Cotton : (i) Younger leaves of deficient plants develop mild chlorosis. Such leaves are small, thick and rough. They also show cupping. (ii) Chlorosis of leaves is followed by appearance of maroon colouration of the marginal portion of leaf lamina. (iii) The deficiency leads to shortening of internodes and significant decline in flower formation.

Affected Crops : Rice, maize, groundnut, pulses, mash, cotton, wheat, potato, berseem, rape and mustard. Remedial measures : Application of zinc sulphate to soil at the time of sowing is most effective in correcting zinc deficiency in crops. Foliar spray of 0.5% zinc sulphate solution 2-3 times at weekly interval also corrects its deficiency in standing crops. This solution should be neutralised with half the quantity of lime for broadleaf crops. Zinc deficiency in : 1.15 : Rice 1.16 : Wheat 1.17 : Maize 1.18 : Wheat response to zinc application 1.19 : Rice response to zinc application Deficiency : Iron deficiency Introduction : (i) The typical symptoms of iron deficiency in almost all the crops are alike. The symptoms first appear on younger leaves or new growth. (ii) Initially interveinal chlorosis appears. Later, veins also turn yellow. (iii) In severe cases, the leaves become bleached and turn white. Affected Crops : Rice, maize, groundnut, gram, oats, sugarcane. Remedial measures : Spray 1.0 % ferrous sulphate solution at weekly intervals on sunny days till the deficiency is ameliorated. For broad-leaf crops, 0.5 % ferrous sulphate solution should be used. Iron deficiency in : Photo No. 1.20 : Rice 1.21 : Iron deficiency in rice – a field view 1.22 : Barley 1.23 : Gram 1.24 : Sugarcane Deficiency : Manganese Deficiency Introduction : Wheat : (i) The symptoms appear on middle and lower leaves. (ii) The basal part exhibits interveinal chlorosis which extends towards the tip. (iii) The symptoms remain confined largely to lower 2/3 part of the leaf.

(iv) (v)

(vi) (vii) (viii) Berseem : The mid-stem leaves of berseem show grey to yellow mottling, leaving small regions around the margins, including the tip, and about 1/3 area from the base. These spots later spread over the entire leaf and turn pinkish to brown in colour which coalesce to from necrotic lesions.

Under mild deficiency, very light greyish yellow to greyish brown specks of minute size appear in the interveinal chlorotic regions. Under severe deficiency, these specks enlarge and coalesce to form streaks or band of pinkish – brown / buff colour in between the veins. The veins remain green. At ear head emergence stage, the symptoms appear on flag leaf. Ears emerge with difficulty and appear sickle shaped.

Affected Crops : Wheat, berseem, groundnut, soybean, green gram Remedial measures : Spray 0.5 % manganese sulphate solution 2-3 times at weekly intervals. In case of wheat one foliar spray should be done 2-3 days before first irrigation and two sprays afterwards at weekly intervals. Manganese deficiency in : Photo No. 1.25 : Wheat 1.26 : Wheat response to manganese application 1.27 : Berseem 1.28 : Groundnut

Weeds and their control Weed :
Weed is an unwanted plant, out of place and harmful to the crop.

Principles of Weed Control
Before employing any method (s) of weed control, basic principles involved in checking the infestation of weeds must be kept in mind and these include prevention, eradication and control. (i) Prevention means stopping a given are of land to be infested with weeds. It is most practical and complete method of controlling weeds. By this method, the entry of weeds to a new area could be checked. Use of clean seed i.e. free of weeds, is one of the techniques employed in checking the further spread of weeds to other areas. (ii) Eradication means complete elimination of all the living weed plants and their seeds from an area. The success can only be achieved by eliminating the living weed plants. The method is effective when new areas are infested with serious weeds. (iii) Control means reducing weed infestation below the economic injury level. This method of reducing the infestation could involve (i) the use of chemicals or (ii) nonchemical methods like mechanical methods (use of hand tools / machines), ploughing, change of cropping sequence, sowing schedule, use of smother crops, thick canopy of the crop or use of inputs to the advantage of the crop or the use of certain insects / pathogens for checking a particular weeds species, etc. the method

to be chosen for adoption would vary according to the situation.

Historical background :
Identification of weed flora is very essential to have any weed control programme as identification helps in finding out the nature, habitat, growth behaviour, mode of propagation, seed production potential, seed dormancy, viability and extent of damage to the crop. All these parameters help in finding out of critical period of competition with the crop and evolving an effective weed control schedule. The association of weed with the crop (s) is since long long ago and flora goes on changing with the change in the cropping pattern. The cropping pattern also goes on changing due to marketing need of the produce, change in input availability like irrigation, fertilizers, etc., changes in the environmental conditions, and socio – economic conditions of the farmer. There has been a remarkable change in cropping pattern of the Punjab during the period before and after Green Revolution. Before the introduction of semi – dwarf Mexican wheat varieties, the major area wad dependent on rainfall and the irrigated agriculture was practised on a limited scale. Broadleaf weeds like chenopodium album (Bathu), Anagallis arvensis (Billi Booti), Carthamus oxyacantha (Pohil), and grass weed wild oats (Avena fatua) were the predominant weeds associated with the tall wheat varieties. The weeds like Asphodelus tenuifolious (Piazi), Vicia sativa (Rari) were usually found infesting chickpea crop. During kharif, maize, bajra, groundnut were the major field crops of the Punjab before the adoption of paddy cultivation in the state. The most common weeds infesting these crops were : Trianthema monogyna (Itsit), Celosia argentea (Salara), Eleusine sp. (Madhana), Digitaria sp. (Takkri gha,) Sorghum halepense (Baru). The perennial weeds like Convolvulus arvensis (Hiran Khuri), Cirsium arvense (Leh), Cynodon dactylon (Khabbal Gha,) Cyperus rotundus (Dila/Motha) are still problem weeds but on limited area and before the cultivation of paddy, problem of these perennial weeds was much more than at present. Other annual weeds found commonly occurring were Fumaria parvflora, (Pitapara) Lepidium sativa (Jangli Halon) Melilotus sp., (wild senji ) Silene conoidea (Takla), Lathyrus aphaca, (mattari) Carthamus oxyacantha, (Pohli) etc. during rabi season and Commelina benghalensis (Kaon Makki) Euphorbia hirta, (Dodak), Digera arvensis (Thandla), Eragrostis sp., (Chirya ka dana) Heliotropium eichwaldii, (Oontchara) etc. during kharif.

Chemical Control of Weeds in Field Crops Paddy
Paddy nursery : Weed in the paddy nursery are the potent source of weed plants contamination in transplanted paddy. Weeds can be effectively controlled in paddy nursery with the application of bautachlor / thiobencard at 1.5 kg/ha 7 days after broadcasting pre germinated rice seeds or 3-7 days before pudding and broadcasting the pre germinated seeds. Alternatively apply Sofit 37.5 EC (pertilachlor + Safner ready mix) at 1.25 litre/ha as sand mix 3 days after sowing of pre-germinated seeds. Paddy (Transplanted) : Weeds particularly grasses in transplanted paddy crop can be controlled with application of liquid or granular formulation of butachlor / thiobencard at 1.5 kg/ha or anilofos at 0.375 kg/ha. The effectiveness of pedimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha/oxadiazon at 0.5 kg/ha/tridiphane at 0.48 kg/ha or Pretilachlor at 0.75

kg/ha is also at par with butachlor/thiobencard/anilofos. The best time of application either of the herbicides is 2-3 days after transplanting in 3-4 cm deep standing water. Broadcast the herbicide uniformly by mixing with sand. Keep water standing for initial tow weeks. Avoid continuous use of a single group of herbicide year after year. Anilofos group of herbicides is more effective against Ischaemum rugosum (wrinkle grass). For control of broadleaf weeds in paddy, spray metsulfuron at 0.015 kg/ha at 20-25 days after transplanting. Before spray drain out the standing water and irrigation may be applied one day after spray.

Maize
(a) Summer Crop : Application of atrazine at 0.6 to 1.0 kg/ha either as preemergence or post-emergence (ten days after sowing) give very good control of annual broadleaf as well as grass weeds. Application of simazine is effective only as pre-emergence application against annual summer weeds. (b) Winter Crop : Pre-emergence and post-emergence (four weeks after sowing) application of atrazine at 0.625 to 0.75 kg/ha is highly effective against mot of the winter season annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Pre-emergence application of simazine at 0.75 kg/ha can also be made for season long control of weeds. (c) Maize Fooder : The weed control measures for maize fodder are the same as mentioned for the grain crop. Growing of maize as fodder up to September and followed by wheat is a common practice among the farmers. In such situations use of simazine is not recommended whereas atrazine is quite safe. Use of simazine/atrazine is not recommended when maize is sown in mixture with other crops like cowpea, guara. In maize + cowpea mixture, spray pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha within two days of sowing to control weeds.

Bajra (Fodder)
In this crop Trianthema (Itsit) is the predominant weed. Application of simazine/atrazine at 0.25 kg/ha as pre-emergence application is highly effective against this weed as well as other seasonal weeds. Bajra being highly sensitive, avoid application of higher dose than recommended dose of this herbicide.

Mungbean
For control of weeds in mugbean pre-plant application of fluchloralin at 0.675 kg/ha i.e. spray on well prepared seed bed followed by sowing of mungbean immediately after the spray is highly effective. Alternatively pedimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha as pre-emergence application can be used for good control of weeds.

Soybean
Pedimethalin at 0.45 to 0.50 kg/ha as pre-emergence application is very effective against annual weeds in this crop.

Cotton
Pre-plant incorporation of trifluralin at 1.125 kg/ha followed by sowing of cotton

immediately after the spray gives a good control of Trianthema (Itsit/Chaupatti) and other summer annual weeds. Alternatively, pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha as preemergence or post-emergence (one month after sowing cotton) can be used to control weeds. Good moisture in the field at the time of application of herbicide enhances the effectiveness of the herbicide. In case of post-emergence application of pedimethalin, emerged plants of Trianthema have to be removed by mechanical means before its application because pedimethalin does not kill the emerged weed plants. Directed spray of glyphosate at 1.0 kg/ha or praquat at 0.3 kg/ha after 6-8 weeks of sowing cotton is between the rows of cotton give season long control of all types of weeds. For getting good results use spray hood.

Groundnut
Pre-plant application of fluchloralin at 0.675 kg/ha or pre-emergence application of alachlor at 2.5 kg/ha is quite effective against annual weeds in this crop.

Sugarcane (Spring Season)
Pre-emergence application of simazine/atrazine at 1.0 kg/ha or diuron 1.6 kg/ha or metribuzin at 1.4 kg/ha give season long control of weeds. For control of Cyperus rotundus (Motha/Dila) infection in the crop, spray 2,4-d sodium salt at 1.6 kg/ha as post-emergence i.e. 4-6 weeks after sowing sugarcane.

Sugarcane (Autumn Crop)
Inter-cropping of autumn sugarcane with raya, wheat, winter maize, potato, toria, gobhi sarson are recommended to make the autumn crop of sugarcane remunerative. Under such situation only those herbicides could be used which are safe to both the crops.

Sugarcane + Raya
For control of weed in autumn sugarcane intrcropped with raya, application of isoproturon at 0.75 kg./ha after 25-30 days of sowing raya is quite effective and selective to both the crops.

Sugarcane + Wheat
When this crop is intercropped with wheat, application of isoproturon at 0.94 kg/ha at 30-40 days of sowing wheat give a good control of winter weeds.

Sugarcane + Winter Maize
Intercropping of winter maize in autumn sugarcane experiences problems of weeds which can be effectively solved with the application of atrazine at 0.75 kg/ha as preemergence.

Mentha

Pre-emergence application of diuron at 0.56 kg/ha give effective control of weeds in this crop. This herbicide provides season long control of annual weeds only as it is not effective against perennials like Cyperus (Motha), Cynodon (Khabbal gha), etc.

Fooders Sorghum
For effective control of weeds spray atrazine/simazine at 0.5 kg/ha (preemergence) within 2-3 days of sowing. If guara is sown in mixture with sorghum then use of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha as pre-emergence application is recommended.

Teosinte (Makchari)
To get good control of weeds and higher fodder yield spray atrazine/simazine at 0.5 kg/ha within 2-3 days of sowing.

Guinea Grass
Initial growth of this crop is very slow and get smothered by the weeds. To control weeds spray atrazine at 0.625 kg/ha immediately after sowing.

Cow Peas
Application of pendimethalin at 0.56 kg/ha within 24 hours of sowing gives very good control of weeds.

Wheat
It is economical to control weeds in wheat in wheat with herbicides, but special care has to be taken for control of weeds in durum wheat with herbicides. Broadleaf Weeds : Broadleaf weeds like Chenopodium album (Bathu) in wheat can effectively be controlled with 2, 4-D. This herbicide is available in 3 forms i.e. sodium salt, ester and amine. All the three forms are equally effective against broadleaf weeds. The time and rate of 2. 4-D applications are very important factors for getting the best results. Its faulty application results in sterilization of spikelets in the ear heads, smaller size grains, barren tillers, twisted ear heads, even awns of spike/ear heads are also affected. Application of 2, 4-D at 0.5 kg/ha is recommended when wheat is at maximum tillering stage, but before jointing stage. This herbicide cannot be used in all the wheat varieties without testing the varietal sensitivity. Wild Oats : Triallate (Avadex BW) at 1.25 kg/ha as pre-plant incorporation provides good control of this weed. To ensure good results, spray the herbicide on a well prepared seedbed and incorporate it into the upper 3 cm (not deeper) layer of the soil by running a bar harrow over the seedbed. Sow wheat immediately afterwards preferably with a drill at depth 5-6 cm (not shallower). This herbicide does not control emerged wild oats plants and good soil moisture conditions i.e. near field capacity enhances its effectiveness against wild oats.

Wild oats (Bigar/Jaundhar) can also be controlled with early post-emergence application (20-25 days after sowing of wheat) of isoproturon at 0.563 kg/ha or metoxuron at 0.9 kg/ha. Alternatively diclofopmethyl at 0.875 kg/ha or tralkoxydim at 0.35 kg/ha applied 30-40 days after sowing wheat give excellent control of this weed. Phalaris minor (Gullidanda) : Phalaris minor is the major weed of wheat in ricewheat cropping sequence in the state. Control of this weed through herbicide is more efficient than mechanical weeding. Chemical weed control also helps in better utilization of applied N and other nutrients. Following herbicides have been recommended for control of Phalaris minor in wheat. Name of herbicide (a) Isoproturon 75 WP (b) Metoxuron 80 WP (c) Diclofopmethyl 28 EC (d) Tralkoxydim 10 EC (e) Pendimethalin 30 EC Commercial dose/ha 1.25 kg 1.875 kg 3.125 litre 3.50 litre 2.50 litre Time of application 30-35 days after sowing - do - do - do Within two days after sowing

Phalaris minor can also be controlled by spraying isoproturon 75 WP 2 to 3 days before first irrigation bur dose of this berbicide varies from 750 to 1250 g/ha depending upon soil type. Lower dose of isoproturon 75 WP (750 g/ha) is quite effective in case of light textured soils while higher dose (1250 g/ha) of this herbicide is recommended for heavy soils. Young seedlings of Phalaris minor are more sensitive to herbicides than grown up or mature seedlings.

Control of Phalaris minor and other weeds in durum wheat
For control of weeds in durum wheat spray metoxuron 80 WP at 1. 875 kg/ha after 30-40 days of sowing or pendimethalin 30 EC at 2.5 litre/ha within 2 days of sowing wheat. Isoproturon 75 WP at 1.25 kg/ha can also be sprayed in durum wheat 40-50 days after sowing for control of weeds but isoproturon berbicide should not be used in durum wheat sown in light textured soils. With the continuous use of isoproturon group of herbicides in wheat for control of Phalaris, under certain situation there has been a development of resistant biotypes of the weed in wheat. These biotypes cannot be controlled with the application of isoproturon. New group of herbicides has now been recommended for control of resistant biotypes of Phalaris in wheat and are given below : Name of herbicide Commercial dose/ha Time of application 30-35 days after sowing - do - do -

Clodinafop 15 WP (Topik) 400 g Fenoxapropethyl 10 EC 1.0 litre (Puma super) Sulfosulfuron 75 WG 33 g

(Leader) CAUTION : Avoid continuous use of a particular group of herbicide to check the development of resistant biotypes of weeds.

Weed Control in Special Situations
Some times field have heavy infestation of some of the dicot weeds like jangli matter/Do Kanni/Mattri, Leh, Billi booti, Takla, etc. along with grass weeds. In such situations, application of isoproturon at 0.94 kg/ha + 2, 4D at 0.5 kg/ha (Tank mixed application) gives excellent control of both types of weeds.

Barley
Herbicides used in wheat for control of weeds are also safe to this crop and can be used.

Gram
This crop has an infestation of both grass and broadleaf weeds. Pre-emergence application of linuron at 0.94 kg/ha provides an effective control of both types of weeds.

Field Peas
Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 30 EC at 0.75 kg/ha or linuron at 0.625 kg/ha provides efficient control of weeds in this crop.

Rapessed & Mustard
In toria pre-plant application of trifluralin at 0.48 kg/ha on a well prepared seedbed and sowing of toria immediately after the spray of the herbicide gives an effective control of weeds particularly that of Itsit (Trianthema sp.). In raya (Indian mustard), pre and post-emergence (25-30 days after sowing), application of isoproturon at 0.75 kg/ha is very effective against weeds in this crop. Post-emergence application of isoproturon is raya and ghobi sarson (seeded) causes slight burning of leaves, but crop recovers in due course of time. In gobji sarson pre-plant incorporation of trifluralin/fluchloralin at 0.75 kg/ha or isoproturon at 0.563 kg/ha as post-emergence before first irrigation are equally effective against weeds. However, in gobhi sarson transplanted, application of isoproturon at 0.563 kg/ha immediately after the transplanting of gobhi sarson seedlings but before irrigation gives season long control of weeds. Transplanted gobhi sarson crop treated with isoproturon have exceptionally dark green colour leaves. In case of fields severely infested with Phalaris minor (Gullidanda) sometime isoproturon provides poor control of this weed. Under such situations grow atrazine resistant variety GSL-2 of gobhi sarson and use atrazine at 0.4 kg/ha as preemergence application. This is quite cheaper and efficient herbicide. It can also be

sprayed as post-emergence application 20-25 days after sowing crop.

Linseed
Pre-emergence or post-emergence (before/after first irrigation) application of isoproturon at 0.94 kg/ha is highly effective against both grass as well as broadleaf weeds in linseed.

Sunflower
There is not much problems of weeds in sunflower sown during spring but if there is problem of weeds, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha in this crop provides efficient control.

Berseem
During the early period of growth this crop faces severe competition from annual grass weed Poa annua (Bueen) and Trianthema (Itsit). For control of Poa, application of fluchloralin at 0.45 kg/ha on a well prepared seedbed just before sowing of berseem provides excellent control of this weed. Under situations where Itsit (Trianthema) is a problem, sow berseem mixed with raya which is fast growing crop and exert tremendous smothering effect on Itsit or delay the sowing of berseem to second week of October. Due to fall in temperature, there is a drastic reduction in the population of Itsit.

General Weed Control
To kill weeds on farm roads, water channels, around the tubewell house, farm houses, etc. spray Gramoxone (paraquat) at 1.25 litre/ha (commercial) or glyphosate at 1.0 kg/ha in 200 litres of water on bright sunny days. After use, always flush the spray pump thoroughly with water. Keep the herbicides with its label intact.

Control of Parthenium (Congress grass/Carrot grass)
It is a problem weed in waste lands, orchards, etc. This weed poses a serious health hazards particularly causes allergy, eczema, asthema and dermatitis. It starts appearing from end February onwards and makes luxuriant growth during rainy season, the plants dry up during winter. This weed can be controlled by mechanical means such as repeat cuttings and digging. It can also be controlled by spraying Atrataf 50 WP (atrazine) or Roundup 41 EC (glyphosate) at 2.5 kg/ha as preemergence or post-emergence. Parthenium is more susceptible to atrazine herbicide at active growth stage, but before flowering.

KHARIF WEEDS
Scientific Name Acrachne racemose (Heyne) Ohwi

Synonymous Family English Name

Eleusine verticillata Roxb Gramineae Goose grass

Vernacular Name ‘Makra’ It is kharif weed, found commonly in groundnut, maize, cotton, kharif pulses and vegetable crops. It is an erect annual and culms are tufted simple or branched. Leaves are linear, soft without hairs and sheath is compressed, ligule a few hairs. Spikes are eight to twelve, flowered. Grains are very small. Propagation is through seed. It can be used as a fodder. Photo 2.1 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Ageratum conyzoides L. Compositae Ageratum

Vernacular Name ‘Phulli, Nilam’ This weed is found in arable and waste land and along the banks of canals and irrigation channels. An annual, covered with strong hairs 30-60 cm high, with opposite coarsely notched edge ovate hairy petioled leaves 2.5-7.5 cm long. It flowers and fruits all the year round; mostly in December and February. Inflorescence is white or purple, flowers in clusters. Fruit is black with a parachute of fine hair. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.2 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Amaranthus viridis Linn. Amarantaceae Pigweed

Vernacular Name ‘Chaulai’ It is a weed mostly occurring in kharif crops like maize, cotton, sugarcane, kharif pluses, summer vegetable and waste places. It is an erect annual, growing up to 30-60 cm in height. Leaves are simple alternate, ovate, round at the tip and green in colour. It has sessile flowers, arranged in axillary or terminal spike like racemes. The plants come into flowering during August-September. Each plant produces numerous seeds. The seeds are small, black. Propagation is through seed. The weed is commonly used as pot herb. There is another species i.e. Amaranthus spinosus which also infests various kharif crops. In this case sharp spines are present at the base of petioles. Under many situations both the species grow side by side in the field and there is a little difference in the two from the agricultural point of view. Photo 2.3 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Ammannia baccifera L. Lythraceae Henna

Vernacular Name ‘Dadmari/Kuranda’ An annual weed commonly found in rice fields throughout the state. It flowers during rainy season and fruits are found at the advent of cold season. Leaves are opposite, narrow at each end and broadest in the middle, tapering towards both ends. Stem is erect, stout 15-60 cm high square. Flowers are minute, green pedicelled, in dense axillary usually umbelliform cymes, turning red in fruit. Capsule depressed globes exceeding calyx and red in fruit. It propagates through seeds. Photo 2.4 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Caesulia axillaris Roxb Compositae Cesulia

Vernacular Name ‘Gharilla’ It is new emerging dicot weed in rice. An annual commonly found in marshy situations and rice fields. This weed flowers and fruits from August to December. It is tall with sub-erect stem. Leaves are linear, long acute with thickened margins, base tapering into a short petiole with dilated base embarcing the clusters. Florets are tubular and narrowly companulate deeply. Flowers are whitish. Achenes flat, one ribbed on each side. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.5a : The weed plant. 2.5b : Weed infestation in paddy. Scientific Name Family English Name Celosia argentea Linn. Amarantaceae Cock’s Comb

Vernacular Name ‘Salara’ It is a common weed of kharif season, mostly infests groundnut, maize, cotton, kharif pulses and fodder crops. The weed starts germinating with the onset of monsoon rains. An erect glabrous, branched annual, growing up to a metre or more in height. Stem is angled. Leaves are simple, alternate, linear or lanceolate, nearly sessile. Inflorescence is terminal pinkish spike with papery brackets and bracteoles. Flowers are pink when young, become white near maturity. Each inflorescence contains numerous shining black seeds. Before flowering, the plant can be used as fodder. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.6 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Cenchrus catharticus Del.

Family English Name

Gramineae Sandbur

Vernacular Name ‘Lendhra’ or ‘Kutta ghas’ It is a common annual weed in cotton, groundnut and other field crops grown on light textured soils. Also a problem weed on soils which are occasionally cultivated. Under the Punjab conditions, it starts germinating with the onset of monsoon rains during July. Stem is erect or geniculately ascending, branched from the base, leafy. Leaves are linear. Spikes are usually more or less enclosed in the uppermost leaf sheath. Inflorescence is long, solitary and cylindrical, bristles thick with hard sharp spines. Before flowering the weed can be used as fodder. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.7 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Cleome viscose Linn. Capparidaceae Cleome

Vernacular Name ‘Hulhul’ It is common, kharif weed found in cultivates as well as non-cultivated lands. It mostly favours light textured soils and infests crops like groundnut, maize, cotton, pulses, etc. it is an erect growing herb about 30-75 cm tall. Flowers are long pedicelled, yellow. Pod is 5-8 cm long with a fine streak, narrowed to the tip. Seeds are small brown or black granular. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.8 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Commelina benghalensis Linn. Commelinaceae Tropical spider wort

Vernacular Name ‘Kaun Makki’ It is an annual grass weed found commonly in crops like maize, groundnut cotton, kharif pulses, etc. It is a quick growing, branched, slender herb. Stem has prominent nodes and is creeping type with rooting below. Leaves are sessile or petiolated, parallel veined. The blue flowers are present in bifid cymes and emerge one at a time through a conduplicate spathe. Capsule is five seeds are wrinkled. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.9 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Vernacular Name Crotolaria medicaginea Lamk. Leguminosae Rattleweed ‘Gulabi'

It is a common weed in groundnut and light textured soils. Under rainfed situations, it starts germinating with the onset of monsoon rains during July. It is an erect growing herb with small trifoliate leaves. Flowers are yellow which start appearing during September-October. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.10 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Cyperus compressus Linn. Cyperaceae Sedge

Vernacular Name ‘Mothi’ It is a common annual weed of kharif crops grown in light textured soils. It is called mothi, because of its smaller size as compared with Cyperus rotundus. Plants are greenish, erect with numerous fine, tufted roots. Leaves are almost as long as stem. Inflorescence is umbellate; brackets often longer than umbel and leaf like. Glumes are green on the sides and winged. Seeds are the potent source of propagation. Photo 2.11 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Cyperus difformis Linn. Cyperaceae Common sedge

Vernacular Name ‘Jhone da dila/motha’ It is a common weed in paddy fields and paddy nursery. It is an erect annual sedge, 50-70 cm tall. Stem is triangular at the top. Leaves are linear usually somewhat shorter than stem. The inflorescence is a dense compound umbel, subtended by 2-4 leaf like brackets 15-30 cm. in length. Umbel is simple compound reduced to one head. Spikelets are small most densely crowded. Seeds are brownish, small in size. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.12 : Paddy crop infested with weed. Scientific Name Family English Name Cyperus iria Linn. Cyperaceae Yellow sedge

Vernacular Name ‘Chhatriwala dila or Motha’ It is an annual weed found in paddy fields. The plant is about 50-60 cm tall with triangular stem. Roots are fibrous. Leaf sheath envelops the stem at the base. Leaves are linear, often as long as t\stem. Inflorescence is a compound umbel varying greatly in size, subtended by 3-5 brackets. The lowest bracket is longer than the inflorescence. Spikes are very loosely spicate and are yellow or brown. Propagation is through seed. During paddy threshing its seeds often get mixed with paddy seeds and under many situations pose a serious problem in paddy-nursery as well in the ensuing season. Photo 2.13 a : The weed plant

2.13 b : Paddy crop infested with weed plants. Scientific Name Family English Name Cyperus rotundus Linn. Cyperaceae Purple nut sedge or Nut grass

Vernacular Name ‘Dila/motha’ It is a most persistent common obnoxious perennial weed in crops, lawns and uncultivated lands. It poses a serious problem especially in sugarcane, cotton, maize, vegetable crops, orchards and other kharif field crops. The plants exhibit no preference for soils provided there is an abundance of soil moisture. Plants are 15-60 cm tall. Stem erect, unbranched, smooth and triangular with swollen tuberous base. Leaves long, often overtopping stem. It propagates through tubers and rhizomes. It is a very prolific weed. A single parent plant produces large number of secondary plants, rhizomes and tubers in a single season. Most of the tuberization takes place from July to September. The plants bear inflorescence in which flower stalk starts from the same base and there are three foliar brackets which exceed the umbel. Plants produce seeds as well but seeds viability is low. Hence propagation is mostly through vegetative means. Nuts can withstand desiccation and sprout as soon as moist conditions prevail. Photo 2.14 a : The weed plant. 2.14 b : Large scale infestion of weed plants in maize crop. Scientific Name Family English Name Digera arvensis Forsk Amarantaceae Digera

Vernacular Name ‘Tandla’ It is a slender annual weed with spreading or erect branches, prostrate below and is commonly found in kharif crops like groundnut, maize, cotton, pulses and millets. Leaves are very variable, simple, alternate and membranous. Sessile. Pink flowers occur n groups of threes, arranged in axillary peduncles spikes. Seeds are pale. The leaves and tender shoots are eaten as pot herb. The plant is also relished by cattle. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.15 a : The weed plant. 2.15 b : Weed infestation in maize. Scientific Name Family English Name Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Gramineae Carb grass, Hairy Finger grass

Vernacular Name ‘Takkri ghas’ Noxious weed commonly found in kharif crops like maize, bajra, sorghum, groundnut, soybean, orchards and vegetable crops. Grows during summer season (April to November) also found in waste places, lawns, etc. Its leaf blade is green to purplish, both sides with silky shiny hairs, reddish white central stripe and whitish

nerve at the margin. Sheath green to violet, with long hairs especially the basal ones. Youngest leaf is rolled and auricles are absent. Culm is smooth and glabrous, nodes sparsely hairy and branched at the base. Inflorescence of this weed is very typical and looks like a finger usually 4-10 spike-like racemes, spikelets with short pedicels. Its growth habit is tuffed type. Height up to or more than 60 cm, shoots often geniculate and rooting from the lower nodes or prostrate and widely spreading. Propagation is through seeds. Photo 2.16 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Echinochloa crusgalli (Linn) Beauv. Cramineae Barnyard grass

Vernacular Name ‘Swank or Edar’ It is an annual grass weed found in paddy fields and wet places. It resembles paddy plants and is undistinguishable during early vegetative growth. Plants are erect, 80100 cm tall. A single plant produces 15 to 20 tillers and 2000 to 3000 seed per season. Leaf blade is linear and ligule is absent. Inflorescence is erect having compact spikelets. Grains are plano-convex. It also poses a problem in rice nursery and often gets transplanted along with paddy nursery. However, usual mode of reproduction is through seeds which are often shed in the field before harvest of paddy crop, These seeds remain dormant in the field during winter and start germinating during JuneJuly when plenty of water is available. The grass is a good fodder for animals. Photo 2.17 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name Echinochloa colonum Link Panicum colonum Linn. Gramineae

Barnyard grass ‘Swanki’ or Vernacular Name ‘Chhota swank’ It is another species of barnyard grass, a troublesome weed in paddy and maize fields. It is also a problem weed under waterlogged situations and heavy textured moisture re-tentive soils. Plants are short, erect or geniculately ascending and branched. Leaves are linear, panicles are loose. Grains are plano-convex and are often shed in the field before harvest of paddy crop. Propagation is through seed. It is highly valued as a quick fodder grass. It is relished by cattle at all stages of its growth but its value is more at grain formation stage. Photo 2.18 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Eclipta alba (Linn) Hask Compositae False daisy

Vernacular Name ‘Chitte phullan wali buti’ It is a common annual broadleaf weed in paddy fields. A diffuse or erect usually much branched weed. Leaves are opposite and sessile. Inflorescence head is subglobose and outer flowers have a narrow white ligule. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.19 a : The weed plant. 2.19 b : Weed infestation in paddy.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Eichhornia crassipes Solms. Pontederiaceae Water Hyacinth

Vernacular Name ‘Jal Kunbhi’. A very beautiful floating aquatic plant with sympodial rhizome creeping in mud and finely floating and is found in places having stagnant water all the year round. The termination of each joint is of the sympodium bears a rosette of broadly spoonshaped leaves with petioles swollen into green bladders and numerous adventitious roots. A sheathed scape 12-25 cm high bearing violet-blue flowers emerge from the centre of the rosette. It propagates through the creeping rhizome. It bears flowers and fruits from September to November. Photo 2.20 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) Persl. Cyperaceae Sedge

Vernacular Name ‘Ghueen’ Annual weed commonly found in paddy grown on fine textured soils. Starts growing during July and continues up to September/October. Plants are small with bunchy growth. An annual growing in tufts; roots fibrous, culms 3-12 cm high, erect of slightly curved. Sheaths 1.5 cm long, purplish or deep brown at base; apex oblique. Spikelets ovoid, oblong, obtuse or sub acute at apex, many flowered. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.21 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Eleusine aegyptiacum Desf Gramineae Crow’s foot grass

Vernacular Name ‘Madhana’ It is annual kharif weed mostly found in maize, cotton, groundnut, sugarcane, kharif pulses and summer vegetables. An erect or prostrate spreading and rooting,

often branched at the thickned nodes. Leaves narrowly linear. Spikes are mostly four, densely crowded spreading at right angles to the rachis. Grains are small and very rough. Propagation is through seed. It serves as a good fodder for animals. Photo 2.22 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Eragrostis japonica Trin. Gramineae Love grass

Vernacular Name ‘Lammb’ It is a common annual grass weed found in paddy fields mostly found in light textured soils or the fields which have been recently brought under paddy cultivation. It starts germinating on the availability of sufficient moisture in the soil. The plants grow taller then paddy plants. Inflorescence is long, sickle shaped; panicles are loose, violet in colour. Seeds are small and numerous. Propagation is through seed. Before maturity, the grass can be used as fodder. Photo 2.23 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Eragrostis pilosa Beauv. Gramineae Love grass

Vernacular Name ‘Chirian da dana’ It is a common weed of short stature crops in light textured soils, particularly of groundnut, kharif pulses and vegetable crops. It is an erect annual, usually very slender and simple, rarely stout and branched. Leaves are short, narrow and flaccid. Panicles is variable in size and form, erect, inclined or nodding i.e. hanging downward from curved rachis; rachis is hairy. Seeds are very small. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.24: The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Eragrosits tenella Roem & Sch. Gramineae Love grass

Vernacular Name ‘Chirian da dana’ It is a shade loving kharif annual grass. It makes its appearance with the onset of rainy season and is a common weed in groundnut, maize, cotton, pulses and summer vegetables. It covers the entire area of the place where it occurs. An erect, tufted annual. Leaves narrowly linear tapering to a fine point. Inflorescence spikelets not very strongly compressed. Spikelets linear branchlets with long, white hairs, in axils

of panicles. Seeds are small. Propagation is through seed. A good fodder both as green and as hay. Photo 2.25 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Euphorbia hirta Linn. Euphorbiaceae Red spurge

Vernacular Name ‘Dodhak’ It is an annual weed found during summer season and continues to grow till October. However, it is found all the year round in flowering and fruiting conditions. It is a common weed of maize, cotton, groundnut, pulses, sugarcane, vegetables and other field crops, as well as lawns and play grounds. It is commonly called dodhak, because of milky fluid present in all parts. Stem is covered with crisp hairs. Leaves are green or reddish on the upper side; and they are simple, opposite, shortly stalked, oblong, lanceolate with serrate margins. Flowers are usually small often minute, present in clusters in the axil of leaves, produce a large number of seeds. Seeds are reddish brown. Propagation is through seed . Photo 2.26 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Fimbristylis tenera Roem & Sch. Cyperaceae Hoora grass

Vernacular Name ‘Ghueen’ A weed of paddy fields and wet places. It is erect tufted annuals sedge 40-60 cm tall. Stem is slender. Basal leaves are as long as half stem, 2.5 to 4.0 cm wide. Umbels are lax and glumes are ovate, brown. Nuts are ovoid, dirty white or yellowish brown. Seeds are very small, brown. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.27 a : The weed plant. 2.27 b : Weed infestation in paddy.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Ischaemum rugosum Salisb Gramineae Wrinkle grass

Vernacular Name ‘Kanki’ A new problematic weed of pady fields under the Punjab conditions. It is an aggressive, erect or irregularly spread out, tufted annual grass, 60 to 120 cm tall, with branched leafy shoots. Leaf blade is linear, lanceolate; ligule is short. The

inflorescence at maturity separates into two recemes. Spikelets are paired with one sessile and the other on a stalk up to 6 mm long. The grains are flattened and straw coloured. Propagation is through seed. Most of the seeds are shed before maturity of paddy crop. Seeds are often get mixed with paddy grains and it is difficult to isolate them from paddy produce. Photo 2. 28 a : The weed plant. 2. 28 b : Weed infection in paddy.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Ipomea pestrigridis Linn. Convolvulaceae Morning glory

Vernacular Name ‘Bel, Makru’ A spreading or twining, found either climbing on shrubs, trees or cotton, bajra, sugarcane. Leaves deeply palmate, 5 to 7 lobed. Flowers white or pinkish in long peduncled heads. Bracts conspicuous, outer ones larger, corolla funnel shaped. Capsule hidden in the clayx grow rapidly during kharif. Flowers during August to October. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.29 a : The weed plant. 2.29 b : Weed infestation in cotton.

Scientific Name Family

Leptochloa panacea Retz. Gramineae

Vernacular Name ‘Gha’ An annual geniculately ascending, slender grass. Culms long, glabrous, many from base. Leaves flat, finely acuminate, Panicules long contracted diffuse and branched. Spikes ascending or spreading. Spikelets are very small. Common in rice fields and moist situations. Found during kharif. Flowers and bears seeds during July to September. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.30 a : The weed plant. 2.30 b : Weed infestation in paddy.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Leucus aspera Spreng Labiateae Leucus

Vernacular Name ‘Gumma’ It is a common annual weed in kharif crops and vegetables. Its stem is erect, diffusely branched and branches are rather leafy, leaves are linear, narrowly oblong

tapering to a short petiole. Inflorescence whirls are large, terminal and very dense flowered having strong bristles. Propagation is through seed. Plant is used both as a pot herb and fodder. Photo 2.31 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family

Monocharia vaginalis Pres. Pontederiaceae

Vernacular Name ‘Pani ghas’ A broadleaf weed of rice fields. This weed flowers during rainy season. A plant with short root stock and usually narrow leaves, linear or lanceolate, more rarely ovate or ovate-cordate, scape being embraced by sheaths for a considerable distance giving a leafy look to the stem. Blade 5-nerved only 5-10 cm long by 2.5-5.0 cm broad. Flowers blue with short pedicels, capsule oblong. It flowers and fruits during September-October. Propagation is through creeping root stock. Photo 2.32 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Compositae Carrot grass

Vernacular Name ‘Gajjar ghas’ It is an obnoxious weed, till recently considered a weed of southern states of India but is now commonly occurring in the northern states. In the Punjab, wide spread infestation occurs along roads, railway tracks, unbuilt residential colonies, drainage and water channels, established gardens, sugarcane ratton crop and waste places. This weed is a serious health hazard. It is an erect growing, deep rooted, much branched herb about one metre in height at fully flowered stage. Its highly incised leaves resemble very much to that of carrot it bears numerous terminal flowers, white in colour. Each flower bears numerous seeds which are easily dispersed by wind or water. Under the Punjab conditions, fresh flushes of the weed start appearing from March and continue to appear up to September-October. Its further growth ceases with the onset of winter season. Many plants die during winter but a large population can survive under or in the vicinity of trees. Due to gradual winter hardening, many weed plants, mostly in vegetative stage, survive severe winter even in an open habitat. The seeds are shed after maturity and they start germinating during March-April. Photo 2.33 a : The weed plant. 2.33 b : Large scale weed infestation. Scientific Name Paspalum conjugatum Berg. or

Paspalum distichum Linn. Family English Name Gramineae Hilo grass

Vernacular Name ‘Nadi Ghas’ A moisture loving presisten perennial, extensively creeping by leafy stems rooting at the joints, runners flattened, hairy at the joints, often reddish-purple. Leaves thin, pale yellowish-green, abruptly tapering to a sharp point, rough on the edges. Flowering stems are erect from the creeping base, with two or sometimes three widely spreading racemes. Spikelets are flat, silky, hairy on the edges. Propagation is through seeds and runners and spreads rapidly. Grows at the banks of rice fields and penetrates into the field. Rapidly grows during kharif season. Native of tropical America. First noted near Hilo Island of Hawii. Photo 2.34 a : The weed plant. 2.34 b : Weed infestation in paddy.

Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name

Perotis indica (Linn.) Kuntze Perotis latifolia Ait Gramineae Perotis, Ait

Vernacular Name ‘Dumbi ghas’ It is an annual grass, stem sub-erect glabrous; leaves ovate or lanceolate, spikelets tinged with purple; grain almost cylindric. The grass is common in dry and sandy soils particularly in groundnut crop. It is considered to be a good fodder grass. Its propagation is through seeds. Photo 2.35 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Phyllanthus niruri L. Euphorbiaceae Tropical Shrubby Plant

Vernacular Name ‘Hazardani / Jaint’ It is distributed throughout the whole state. It flowers and fruits during rainy season. Its plants look like Jantar/Dhaincha plant. A broadleaf annual weed. Stem of this weed plant is glabrous about 30 cm high, often branching fro the base, angular. Leaves are many subsessile and often overlapping, elliptic-oblong. Flowers axillary, numerous, minute. Capsules depressed globose. Seed trigonous. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.36 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Physalis minima L. Solanaceae Berry/Ground

Vernacular Name ‘Bhambola / Banmakoya’ A common annual broadleaf weed found in maize, cotton, bajra, groundnut during kharif season. A prostrate or erect plant, stem striate, leaves are ovate, entire or distantly crenate. Flowers are yellow, solitary, on slender deflaxed pedicels. Calyx in flower is long not angular. Berries enclosed within the inflated calyx. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.37 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name Trianthema monogyna Linn. T. Partulacastrum Aizoaceae Horse purselane

Vernacular Name ‘Itsit’, ‘Chaupatti’ It is a problem weed in maize, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, pulses, summer fodder, potato (autumn crop) and early sown berseem. It grows luxuriantly in soils rich in organic matter. Annul prostate succulent having forked stem. It has unequal opposite leaves broadly ovate or oblong. Flowers are solitary, small, sessile, axillary, white or pinkish from the forks of the branches. Capsule contains six to eight seeds. Seeds are black. Propagation is though seed. There are numerous flushes of the weed during a single growing season of a crop. There is no seed dormancy during summer season, however, seeds remain dormant during winter. Photo 2.38 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Tribulus terrestris Linn. Zygophyllaceae Puncture vine

Vernacular Name ‘Bhakhra’ It is a problem annual weed in kharif crops like cotton, groundnut, maize, pulses and vegetable crops. It favours dry waste places and prefers light sandy soils. It spreads very quickly due to its hardy nature and large number of fruits it produces. It is a well branched prostrate herb, covered with silky hairs. Leaves are compound. Flowers are yellow, solitary and axillary. Fruit has 3-5 sharp spines. These spines help in the quick dispersal of the seed. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.36 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Saccharum spontaneum Linn Gramineae Tropical Tuffed grass

Vernacular Name ‘Kana’, ‘Sarkanda’ A very variable, tall perennial, densely tufted grass. Leaves very long, narrow linear, acuminate, coriaceous. Flowering panicles are conical or lanceoate to oblong; branches whorled, spreading or slightly ascending with the callus hairs closely appressed to the branches; peduncle softly silky just below the panicle. Spikelets paired, on pedicellate, the other sessile; a very pernicious grass common in unused grounds, fallow fields near canals, ponds and marshy places and along areas on both sides of railway lines. The columns are extensively used in making chicks. The foliage is used against frost for protection of vegetables growing in fields. Flowers and fruits during September-December. Propagation is through seed and underground rhizome. Photo 2.40 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Scirpus roylei (Nees) Cyperaceae Sedge

Vernacular Name ‘Morlo’ A slender, medium sized annual culms 10-60 cm high, slender, terete or slightly compressed, often transversely separate when dry. No leaves but sheaths with an obliquely truncate mouth. Glumes usually 5 ranked, elliptic lanceolate. The colour of young glumes of the spikelets is green, on maturity turned golden-yellow, the whole colour sequence is gradual simultating the neck of the peacock and hence the local name ‘morlo’ in Jodhpur (Rajasthan) meaning peacock like. Flowering and fruiting during September to November. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.41 : The weed plant. Scirpus tuberosus (Desf) or S. maritimum Linn. Cyperaceae Nut grass

Scientific Name Family English Name

Vernacular Name ‘Motha, Deela’ An erect, variable tall sedge with creeping rhizomes and woody tubers. Stem is stout, trigonous. Leaves are often as long as the stem, coriaceous. Umbels simple or compound, rays unequal. Spikelets 3-8 or solitary on each ray, dull or dark brown, ovate, oblong, elliptic. Nuts plano-convex, smooth polished brown. Common in marshy area, the sedge is amphibious as it is adapted to both on land and in water or

on marshy soil. Flowers and fruits during March of December. Propagation is through underground nut/tuber and seed. Photo 2.42 a : The weed plant. 2.42 b : Multiplication of weed.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Setaria glauca (Linn.) P. Beauv Gramineae Fox tail grass, Bottle grass

Vernacular Name ‘Bandari ghass’ A tufted annual grass grow during kharif season. Column simple or branched, erect or ascending. Leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering to fine point. Racemes spiciform, erect, dense, cylindric, variable in length, yellowish at maturity. Spikelets bristles oblong or elliptic. Common in cultivated fields of rice and waste places. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.43 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn Sphenocleaceae Lobelia

Vernacular Name ‘Mirchi, Phulanghas’ A stout, amphibious broadleaf annual herb found in rice fields. This herb is 80-90 cm tall. Stem is fistular. Spikes erect, cylindrical. Flowers greenish yellow. Petals are white. Seeds are minute and brown in colour. Flowers from August to October. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.44a : The weed plant. 2.44b : Weed infestation in paddy. Scientific Name Family English Name Typha angustata Bory & Chaub. Typhaceae Cattails

Vernacular Name ‘Dib, Era’ A perennial, tall, marshy shrub 1.5-3.0 m high. Leaves usually6 exceeding the flowering stems, semi-cylindric above sheath. Spikes cylindric; the males and females separated by a long interval. Female spikes pale brown. Male flowers mixed with clavate tipped pistillodes. Pollen simple. This weed is commonly found in marshes and swamps along the rivers and canals forming dense patches at some places. It flowers from October to May. Propagation is through underground rhizomes/suckers.

Photo 2.45 a : Ear head of weed plant. 2.45 b : Weed rhizomes. Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name Vicoa indica Cass Vicoa auriculata Cass Compositae Vicoa, Cass

Vernacular Name ‘Halda’ It is an erect, well-branched, broadleaf pubescent herb 30-60 cm high with bright yellow flower heads; found mostly in the sugarcane fields and waste places. It comes in flowering during October-November. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.46 : The weed plant.

RABI WEEDS
Scientific Name Family English Name Anagallis arvensis Linn. Primulaceae Scarlet pimpernal

Vernacular Name ‘Billi buti’ It is a common weed of rabi season and infests almost all rabi crops grown under irrigated conditions, gardens, lawns water channels, etc. It is moisture-loving weed. It is an erect or procumbent, annual herb. Stem is weak and diffusely branched from the base. Roots are fibrous. Small, bright blue flowers are present singly in axils of leaves. Leaves are arranged in pair and verticle plane. The plants flower during JanuaryMarch. Propagation is through seed which remains dormant in the soil till October. Photo 2.47 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Argemone mexicana Linn. Papaveraceae Yellow mexican poppy

Vernacular Name ‘Satyanasi’ It is a troublesome annual, spiny herb and is a weed of waste places or fields which are occasionally cultivate. Plants are 60 to 90 cm tall with spreading branches. Leaves prickly usually cut into spinous segments, green or white. Stem is stout, erect, prickly and contains a yellow fluid. Flowers are bright yellow. Fruit, a prickly capsule contains many black seeds. It produces flowers and fruits during February-March. Propagation is though seed. Dropsy disease in human being is caused by the send oil of this weed contaminated with the edible oil.

Photo 2.48 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Liliaceae Wild onion

Vernacular Name ‘Piazi’ This weed is common in gram crop which is mostly grown as rainfed crop. Under limited irrigation conditions, it is also a common weed of wheat, barley, etc. It favours light textured soils. It is a small herb with fibrous root system. Its leaves are fleshy, fistular, resembling onion with sheathing bases, appearing to be arising as a bunch from the soil. It flowers in March-April. Pinkish white flowers are present in the axils of bracts, grouped into laxy racemes situated on ‘Scapes’ i.e. on stem rising directly from roots and bearing fruits. Scapes are several and much branched. Above. Seeds are black which are shed in the field on ripening. The seeds remain dormant in the soil till October. Propagation in through seed only. Photo 2.49 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Avena ludoviciana Dur Gramineae Wild oats

Vernacular Name ‘Jaundhar/Jangli Javi/Biggar’ It is a serious weed of wheat crop grown on well-drained light-textured soils, because in paddy soils, the seed loses viability due to stagnant water. It is considered to be one of the most competitive weed. Wild oat is an erect annual grass. Its leaves are alternate and linear. Root system is fibrous. Stem is erect cylindrical with distinct nodes and internodes and is very similar to that of cultivated oats. The panicles are open, erect with many spikelets, each spikelet with two awned florets. The sees are brown on black, densely covered with black hairs, specially neat the base. The weed plants are very similar to those of wheat during the early stages of crop growth but can be distinguished easily at flowering stage. Weed plants usually grow taller than those of the semi-dwarf Mexican wheat varieties. The seeds mature much earlier than wheat and are shed in the field by the end of March or early April. The seeds remain dormant in the field till October-November. Seeds are the potent source of further propagation. Photo 2.50 : Weed infestation in wheat. Scientific Name Family English Name Carthamus oxyacantha Beid Compositae Yellow thistle

Vernacular Name ‘Pohil’ It is thorny, annual weed of rabi season and is very troublesome. It favours loamy sand soils, sparsely irrigated or dry land conditions, that is why it is mostly found on waste places and in poorly managed crops of wheat, barley, gram, raya, etc. It makes wheat harvest difficult and laborious. Plants are erect, stem and branches are white. Leaves are highly spiny, upper leaves clasp the stem; flowers heads are yellow. The plants flower during April. Seeds are light brown and shiny. The plants propagate through seed. On maturity, in MayJune, the whole plant dries up and blown to great distance by summer dust storms, shedding the seed on its way. Photo 2.51 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae Lambsquarters

Vernacular Name ‘Bathu’ The weed is commonly used a s a green leafy vegetable. It is a weed of rabi season and commonly found in whet, barley, gram, lentil, rabi oilseeds, potato, etc. This weed also grows abundantly is gardens and waste places. It is an erect annual herb. The inflorescence arises from the leaf axils or at the terminus of stem and branches. The seeds shed in the previous years germinate during October to December. It flowers and fruits from March to May. The plants produce numerous seeds which generally get mixed up with seed of wheat and barley. The plants have a strong tap root system and thus, can grow vigorously even under limited moisture conditions. Photo 2.52 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Cichorium intybus Linn. Compositae Chicory

Vernacular Name ‘Kashni’ It is associated with berseem crop only, because its growth habit is such that it can withstand multicuttings. The germination and maturity period of this weed are the same as that of berseem. That’s why if once its seed gets mixed with berseem seed, it will continue to pose problem for many years. The plants remain leafy till mid March and start bearing flowers only in the month of April and set seed or mature during the month of May. Roots are fleshy and tapering. Stem has rigid and spreading branches. Leaves are oblong tapering towards both ends. Flowers are bright blue. Propagation is mostly through seed. Photo 2.53 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scope Compositae Canada thistle

Vernacular Name ‘Leh’ It is a perennial weed of rabi season found mostly in the fields of gram, wheat, barley, orchards and waste places. It is mostly prevalent in the bet areas of the Punjab as it favours light clay soils. Its plant is erect, growing up to one metre in height, branching only at the top. It has creeping root stock leaves have sharp spines which hinder its manual removal and also makes the harvesting of field crops difficult. Flower heads are terminal, axillary, purple or white. Plants start emerging during end of November or early December. They grow profusely during March and remain green up to end of April. The reproduction is through seeds and rhizomes. The root system is deep and extensive. Photo 2.54 a : The weed plant. 2. 54 b : Weed infestation in wheat.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Convolvulaceae Field bindweed

Vernacular Name ‘Hiran khuri’ or ‘Lehli’ It is very persistent, deep rooted, prostrate or climbing perennial dicot weed of rabi crops. The weak stem twines around the stem of the host plant and pulls it down and causes lodging. The root stock is very deep. The leaves are smooth, simple ovate with long petiole, tending to be triangular with broad basal lobes, hastate. Flowers are solitary, pinkish white, funnel shaped. Seeds are dark brown with very hard seed coat. A single plant may bear 200 to 400 brown seeds and the seeds remain viable in the soil for many years. Due to these reasons, it is also called black locust. This weed propagates through seed as well as through deeprooted root stocks and rhizomes. Photo 2.55: Weed infection in wheat. Scientific Name Family English Name Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae Sun spurge

Vernacular Name ‘Kour Gandal’ There are about 450 species of this family distributed through the entire world. Annual (15-10 cm) plant with a sharp pungent milky juice, stem fleshy, usually with 1 or 2 opposite side branches. Leaves obovate wedge shaped increasing in size form the ground upwards, narrowed to a stalk at the base, finally serrate near the apex, the apex

rounded or emarginated. Flowers yellow-green, inconspicuous. The inflorescence terminal, a 5 rayed umbel each with 3 parts. Flowering period – April to November and Produces numerous seeds per plant. Germinates shallowly, mainly at 0.5 cm depth. Found in gardens, cultivated land, vineyards, on roadsides and rubbish dumps. It likes loose, nutrient rich, loamy or sandy loam soils and also likes heat. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.56 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Fumaria parviflora Lamk. Fumariaccae Fumatory

Vernacular Name ‘Pitpapra’ It is an annual weed of rabi season and is associated with wheat, barley, rabi pulses, etc. It is a delicate diffusely spreading herb, much branched, with spikes of minute pink flowers. The plant has a weak trailing stem baring small finely lobed leaves. The leaves are bitter in taste. Root system is very shallow. It propagates through seed. Photo 2.57 a : The weed plant. 2.57 b : Weed infestation in wheat.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Lathyrus aphaca Linn. Leguminosae (Papilionaceae) Meadow pea

Vernacular Name ‘Matri or Dokanni’ This weed is mostly found in fields of wheat, barley, gram, lentil, peas, etc. it is an annual with slender, branching stems. Stipules are modified into leaves and leaves are reduced to tendrils. Stipules present in pairs and closely appressed, function as leaves. Its flowers are yellow and flowers during December-April. Each pod contains four to six seeds. The seeds are shed in the field at maturity. Its propagation is through seed only. Photo 2.58 a : The weed plant. 2.58 b : Weed infestation in wheat. Coronopus didymus (Linn.) Sm. Or Lepidium didymum Linn. Cruciferae Swine grass or Pepper grass

Scientific Name Family English Name

‘Jangli halon’, ‘Panacholi’ It is prostrate or ascending, branched leafy, rather hispid herb, often forming a rosette. Leaves are pinnatifid, lobes spreading. It is prevalent in almost all rabi crops and starts germinating during October. It flowers during February - March and matures during April. Flowers are small, pale green. Pods are two seeded. Propagation is though seed. Vernacular Name Photo 2. 59 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Lolium temulentum Linn. Gramineae Ryegrass

Vernacular Name ‘Rye ghas’ This is a rabi annual with a stout and erect stem; culms rarely spreading and ascending rough below the spike, swollen at the nodes. Leaves are linear. Inflorescence is spike; spikelets are large, flattened with edge appressed to axis, glumes are usually longer than spikelets; lemmas have long awns. This weed is mostly found in linseed crop, however, the wheat crop over a considerable area has also been found infested with this weed. The plants of this weed grow taller than the wheat crop. There is no shedding of the seed till harvest and are threshed along with wheat crop. Seed of linseed and wheat is the main source of its dissemination. Grain is poisonous, an alkaloid producing fungus grows between the palea and grain. Where cereal crops are infested by rye grass it can lead to poisoning of the flour, causing ill effects on man and animals, like gastrointestinal irritation, convulsions, paralysis and severe nervous symptoms. The toxic principle is considered to be a liquid narcotics alkaloid temuline produced by a fungus Endoconidium temulentum. Photo 2.60 a : The weed plant. 2.60 b : Weed infestation in wheat.

Scientific Name Family

Lophochloa phleoides (Vill.) Reichb. Gramineae

Vernacular Name ‘Lallu ghas’ It is an erect or ascending annual grass 30 to 60 cm high. Leaves are erect, flat glabrous or hairy. Panicle is a spike. It bears flowers form February to April. A common weed at moist places, in the lawns, garden beds, along the channels or bunds growing alone or mixed with Polypogan monspelienis Desf. This weed establishes itself on saline/alkali (kallar) patches which usually remain wet for a longer period after irrigation or rain, adversely affecting wheat stand. This weed can be distinguished from Polypogan monspeliensis from spikes. Its spikes are long, compact and without silky hairs and tapering at the apex. Photo 2.61 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family

Malva neglecta (Wallr) Malvaceae

English Name Chees weed, Round mallow, Button weed, Dwarf mallow A broadleaf winter annual. Plants prostrate or spreading. Leaves long petioled, circular in outline with a deep notch at the base. Flowers axillary, white or pinkish. Fruit wheel shaped, rapidly splitting into wedge-shaped, indehiscent, one seeded segments. Seeds wedge-shaped, sub-circular in face view. Propagation is through seed. Found in gardens, cultivated land, dry meadows, on rubbish heaps, waysides and walls. Principally found on nitrogen and potash rich usually fresh humic, loamy soils. Native of Europe and Northern Africa. Photo 2.62 : The weed plant. 2.62 : weed infestation in wheat Scientific Name Family English Name Medicago denticulata Willd. Leguminosae Californian bur clover/Toothed bur clover

Vernacular Name ‘Maina’ It is a prostrate plant with trailing branches, characterized by trifoliate compound leaves. This wed has got an affinity with soils rich in clay content. Papilionaceous flowers are bright yellow and they appear in clusters form January onward. Fruits are coiled, spiny, containing minute seeds which are generally dispersed by irrigation water and by sticking to farm animals. Propagation is through seed. In wheat, it usually germinates after first irrigation. Photo 2.63 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Melilotus indica All. FL. Ped. Leguminosae Sweet clover

Vernacular Name ‘Senji’ It is a common wed of rabi season. It favours medium to heavy soils. There are tow species i.e. Melilotus alba- a white flowered and Melilotus indica - a yellow flowered. Under many situations both species are found side by side in the field. There is very little difference between the two from agriculture point of view. It is an annual, robust, 30-60 cm high, well branched plant. It flowers in March. Propagation is through seed. At maturity seeds are shed in the field and remain dormant in the field till October-November. The weed can be used as fodder. Photo 2.64 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers Or O. indica Buch-Ham Orobanchaceae Broom rape

Vernacular Name ‘Khumbi’ An erect, pale brown, flower stalk rising form the ground without foliage leaves and root parasite, grow during rabi season. This plant lacks chlorophyll and is parasitic on the roots of rapeseed and mustered, tobacco, gram, etc. Flowers are blue, many, sessile, in a somewhat lax, spike. Bracts ovate, acuminate capsule oblong, glabrous, flowers and fruits during cold season up to February-March. Propagated by seeds and grows chiefly in sandy soils. Photo 2.65 : Host parasitized by weed.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Phalaris minor Ret’z Gramineae Canary grass

Vernacular Name ‘Gulli Danda or Sitti’ This weed (canary grass) is a robust weed associated with wheat crop and poses a serious threat to the cultivation of wheat crop. The problem of this weed has become serious after the introduction of semi-dwarf Mexican wheat varieties because the weed grows taller than wheat and provides intense competition to the crop. This weed is particularly serious in fields where paddy-wheat rotation is followed. Its plant resembles wheat plant and cannot be distinguished easily till flowering. However, at seedling stage, the base of the plant is light pink, which helps in its identification. It starts germinating from October to December and comes into flowering in March. Each seedling gives 3-4 tiller under crop situations and gives profuse tillering in the open habitat. The stem of the weed is erect with distinct nodes and internodes. Plants branch from nodes. As a result, the plants grow taller than the wheat crop. Leaves are linear with finely pointed tips; ligule exceptionally long (about 1 cm long) and clasps the stem. Spikelets are laterally compressed. Seeds are small, shinning and resemble those of linseed. Each plant produces numerous seeds. The seeds mature before wheat harvest and remain dormant in the soil till October-November. Its propagation is through seeds. Photo 2.66 a : The weed plant. 2.66 b : Weed infestation in wheat.

Scientific Name Family

Poa annua Linn. Gramineae

English Name

Annual meadow grass

Vernacular Name ‘Bueen’ It is a low growing annual grass weed commonly called ‘Bueen’. It is a problem weed in wheat, berseem, potato and some other field crops. It also poses a serious problem in lawn and orchards. It starts growing from end September or early October onward infields which remain continuously wet. The plants have profuse tillering with fibrous root system and they attain a height of only 15-30 cms. Leaves are linear and light green in colour. Each plant produces numerous small seeds. Poa infested fields show a mat like appearance and as a result the weed causes a severe reduction in yield of crops. Its propagation is through seeds. Photo 2.67 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Polypogan monspeliensis Desf. Gramineae Foxtail grass

Vernacular Name ‘Loomber ghas’ It is an annual tufted grass, stout or slender from a geniculate base. It is mostly prevalent in continuously wet places, along the channels, bunds, garden beds, lawns, etc. This weed infests rabi crops in patches which remain continuously wet after irrigation/rain. It emerges late in the winter season and becomes very bushy at the moist places. Leaves are flat, linear. Panicles are spike like dense, somewhat light green silky. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.68 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name Rumex maritimus Linn Rumex dentatus Linn Polygonaceae Golden dock

Vernacular Name ‘Jangli palak’ It is a stout erect annual 30 to 120 cm high, occurring mostly on wet ground along river banks and in bet areas or on fertile soils with sufficient moisture holding capacity. It mostly infests crops like wheat, barley, lentil, potato, etc. Stem is erect and well branched. Roots are deep and red coloured. Leaves are lanceolate narrowed into the petiole. Whorl of flowers is lax or dense. Flowers are green at initial stage but turn to brownish red at maturity. The plants come in flowering during February-March and mature during April. Propagation is through seed. The seed often gets mixed with wheat or other crops during threshing. Photo 2.69 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Synonymous Family English Name

Rumex spinosus Linn. Emex spinosa (Linn.) Amarantaceae Emex Neck

Vernacular Name ‘Kandiali/Khato Palak’ A decumbent or ascending, glabrous broadleaf annual. Long tap roots more or less spindle shaped. Stem cylindrical groved when dry, sub dichotomously branched near the base, somewhat swollen at nodes, at length fistular. Leaves rounded at apex; margins entire, glabrous on both surfaces, the veins prominent beneath, petioles of basal leaves much longer. Flowers monoecious pink/purple in colour. Fruits trigonous, brown with hardened perianth with a pointed tip like a spine. Flowering and fruiting during January-April. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.70 a : The weed plant. 2.70 b : Weed infestation in wheat.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Silene conoidea Linn. Caryophyllaceae Forked catchfly

Vernacular Name ‘Takla’ It is an annual rabi weed commonly associated with wheat, gram, lentil and rabi oilseeds and mostly favours light textured soils. It is an erect, dichotomously branched herb; with alternate sessile, oblong, cauline, sometimes narrow leaves. Flowers are pink. The plants start bearing flowers from mid February to end March. Capsule is crustaceous. Propagation is through seed. At maturity seed gets shattered and remains dormant in the soil till October. Photo 2.71 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Sismbrium irio Linn. Cruciferae Wild mustard or London rocket

Vernacular Name ‘Jangli sarson’ This weed infests almost all rabi crops grown under irrigated conditions. It is an annual herb with pinnatifid pedicellate leaves. Flowers are small, yellow cruciferous. Pods are thin, long, erect, slender with seed only on one row and similar to that of cultivated Brassica. The plants come in flowering during February-March. At maturity seeds get shattered and remain dormant in the field till October. Propagation is through seed only.

Photo 2.72 : The weed plant. Scientific Name Family English Name Sonchus oleraceous L. Cichoriaceae/compositae Milk Weed, Field sowthistle/common sowthistle

Vernacular Name ‘Dodak’ It is a winter annual broadleaf plant and has milk sap. Plant is smooth, stout, often tall, erect stem with branches towards the top; alternate smooth dark green leaves toothed with small, weak spined. Bright yellow flowers in a loose terminal cluster. The corolla consists of a tube and a long strap shaped. The fruit is small, oblong, flattened ribbed, transversely wrinkled achene crowned with fine white, copious bristles. Flowers and fruits during February-April. Its seeds are disseminated chiefly by winds. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.73 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family

Trigonella polycerata Linn. Leguminosae

Vernacular Name ‘Maini’ The weed favours light to medium textured soils and is mostly associated with rabi pulses, oilseeds wheat, barley, etc. It also grows along the channels and paths. It is a prostrate annual herb with trifoliate compound leaves. Flowers are sessile, one to six papilionaceous, lemon-yellow. Pods are curved or sickle-shaped and then to twenty seeded. Seeds after maturity are shed in the field and remain dormant till OctoberNovember. Propagation is through seed. Photo 2.74 : The weed plant.

Scientific Name Family English Name

Vicia sativa Linn. Leguminosae Vetch

Vernacular Name ‘Rewari’ or ‘Rari’ It is an annual weed mostly associated with lentil, gram, peas, wheat, barley, etc. Plants are suberect; leaflets are in pairs, oblong, rachis ends in short tendril. Flower is solitary, red or violet in colour. The plants come in flowering during February – March. Pods are non-hairy an eight to ten seeded. Propagation is through seed. The seeds get shattered in the field at maturity and remain dormant in the soil till October. Photo 2.75 a : The weed plant. 2.75 b : Weeds infestation in wheat.

DISEASES RICE 1. Bacterial Leaf Blight Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae
Greenish-yellow stripes appear along the leaf margins and extend both lengthwise and breadthwise. The leaf starts drying from the tip, becomes white and in severe cases, dries up completely. (Photo 3.1 a). Sometimes the disease attacks the freshly transplanted seedlings which start wilting and in a few days the whole clump dries up (Kresek phase) Photo 3.1b. The bacterium perpetuates through seed and possibly rice straw during the off-season. Control : 1. Grow resistant varieties i.e. PR 111, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115 and PR 116. 2. Apply recommended dose of nitrogenous fertilizers 3. Do not transplant before 10th June. 4. Do not Pond water in the field. Rice nursery as well as crop should not be grown in shade. 5. Treat the seed before sowing nursery, with 10 g of ceresin wet and 1 g of Streptocyline in 10 litres of water for 8-10 hours. If Cersan is not available, use 10 g of Agallol or 5g Aretan/Tafasan.

2. Brown Leaf-Spot Helminthosporium oryzae
It produces oval, eye-shaped spots with a conspicuous dark-brown dot in the centre and light brown margin (Photo 3.2). The spot is surrounded by a yellow halo. Spots are also produced on the grains. The disease occurs in poor soils. The pathogen survives on seed and debris in soil. The disease spreads if there are rains and storm, particularly at earing stage. Control : 1. Treat the seed as given under Bacterial leaf-bright. 2. Transplant the crop at recommended time. 3. Apply adequate and balanced nutrition to the crop.

3. Blast Pyricularia oryzae
Spindle-shaped spots, with greyish centre and brown margin, are formed on the leaves at the stage of maximum tillering (Photo 3.3a). It also causes black lesions at the neck of the panicle leading to its drooping (Photo 3.3b) known as neck-rot. The disease is not serious on coarse and fine rice varieties being grown in Punjab.

However, it has been observed to cause a great loss to Basmati varieties in the districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Patiala and Ropar. The pathogen survives in the rice straw. Control : 1. Spray the affected crop with Indofil Z-78 (Zined 75%) 500g in 200 litres of water at the stages of maximum tillering and ear emergence or Hinosan @ 200 ml in 200 litres of water. 2. Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers, as nitrogen fertilizers and farmyard manure increase the intensity of the disease. 3. Burn the rice straw.

4. False Smut Ustilaginoidea virens
Symptoms become visible when the panicle starts to mature. The infection takes place at the flowering or later. The inflected grains are transformed into large greenish velvety spore-balls. The disease spreads during wet weather, generally a few spikelets per panicle are infected (Photo 3.4). The application of organic manures and high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers also increase the intensity of attack. The pathogen survives in the form of sclerotia (spore-balls) in the soil. Control : 1. Avoid the application of excess nitrogen to the crop, luxuriant crop is more vulnerable. 2. Spray the crop at earing with Blitox (copper oxychloride) 50 WP@ 500g/acre in 200 litres of water. Repeat the spray at ten day interval.

5. Kernel Smut Neovossia horrida
This is a disease of grains only. The diseased grains show minute black pustules or streaks bursting through the glume. In severe infection, a short beak-like or spurlike out growth is produced by the rupturing glumes. Sometimes the entire grain is replaced by a powdery black mass (Photo. 3.5) of smut spores. This black mass scatters on the other grains and leaves and this is often the earliest way to detect the disease in the field. Usually only few grains are attacked in a panicle. The disease incidence is more on short duration varieties planted early. Heavy doses of nitrogen also increase disease incidence. Control : 1. Avoid early transplanting of the crop. 2. Use recommended dose of nitrogenous fertilizers. 3. Spray the crop meant for seed purposes only twice at 10 days interval with Tilt 25 EC @ 200 ml/200 litres of water / acre. First spray should be given at 10 % panicle initiation stage.

6. Sheath Blight Corticium sasakii
Greyish-green lesions with purple margin develop on the leaf sheath above the water level (photo 3.6). Later, the lesions are usually not distinct till flowering. Occasionally the symptoms appear on the leaf blade where it comes in contact with the adjacent infected stem. Its severe attack results in poor filling of the grains. Control : 1. Burn the rice straw and stubbles after harvesting the affected crop. 2. Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Spray the crop with 200 g of Bavistin or MBC in 200 litres of water/acre, as soon as the disease is noticed during tillering to earing of the crop. 3. Keep the ‘bunds’ free from grasses. 4. In disease prone areas sow PR 108 which is tolerant to the disease.

3. Rust Puccinia penniseti
Circular yellowish depressed patches appear on the upper surface of the leaves. Numerous, small orange or brownish spore masses are formed in groups on both surfaces of the leaves and also on stem which later turn black (Photo 3.15). The leaves dry and grain yield is reduced. The fungus completes half of its life cycle on brinjal leaves and another half on bajra. Bajra crop sown near brinjal crop has higher incidence of rust. Control : Grow resistant varieties.

4. Grain Smut Tolyposporium penicillariae
Individual grains in an ear get transformed into smut balls which may later burst open to release millions of spores. These spores then get disseminated and cause secondary infection on the portion of the ear which is enclosed in the sheath of the upper leaf. The intensity of the attack varies according to the humidity in the area (Photo 3.16) Control : 1. Remove the diseased ears early in the season and destroy them. 2. Treat the seed before sowing with 3 g of Thiram/Captan per kg of seed to prevent the introduction of smut into new areas.

COTTON 1. Angular leaf spot Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum
The disease is both seed and soil borne. Lesions on the leaves appear as minute, water-soaked, angular spots, which subsequently turn brown and then are transformed into black angular dead lesions on both sides of the leaf (Photo 3.17). The bacterium also infects the young developing bolls and causes small, round, water soaked spots depressed in the centre. Black, elongate lesions on young stem and branches cause girdling and death, known as black arm. Control : 1. Add 5 g of Ceresan wet and either 1.3g of Streptocycline or 8g of Agrimycin 100 in 5 litres of water and soak the seed for an acre in it for 6-8 hours. In case of acid delinted seed soaking for 2-4 hours in enough. If Ceresan wet is not available use 5g of Agallol or 2.5g of Aretan/Tafasan. 2. Spray the crop with Blitox-50 (500g) + Agrimycin (20g)/Strepetocycline (3g) per acre at 15-20 days intervals, starting just after first shower of rain. Three sprays are enough. These chemicals can be combined with the pesticides recommended for the control of insect pests.

2. Alternaria leaf spot Alternaria gossypina
The fungus causes blighting of the leaves. In early stages. The spots are pale green with irregular margins. As the spot enlarge irregular concentric zones are formed in the spots. Sometimes severe shedding of leaves occur due to this disease. The plants with low vigour are more susceptible to the disease (Photo 3.18). Control : The crop may be sprayed with 0.25% Blitox or Captan (500g in 200 litres of water) at an interval of 15-20 days starting just after the first shower of rain. Two to three sprays will be enough.

3. Myrothecium Leaf-Spot Myrothecium roridum
The disease is caused by fungus, Myrothecium roridum. The disease is characterized by circular to semi-circular brown spots with broad violet margins on leaves, bracts, as well on bolls (Photo 3.19). At later stages, shield shaped, small sized, fruiting bodies appear in the central chlorotic portion of the spot. The pathogen is seed-borne but also survives on the diseased debris. High humidity and intermittent rains are congenial for the development of the disease. Control : Same as for Alternaria leaf spot.

MOONG Yellow Mosaic
It is a viral disease transmitted by whitefly and is more common on moong. The leaves of the diseased plants develop irregular, yellow and green patches (Photo 3.20) Control : 1. Rogue the virus-affected plants early in the season. 2. Grow tolerant varieties, Moong ML 613 and ML 267, PBM 1 and Mash 1-1. 3. Control whitefly, the insect vector, by spraying the crop with any of the following insecticides, using 80 litres of water per acre with a manually operated sprayer : 375 ml of Malathion 50 EC Or 250 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) Or 250 ml Anthio 25 EC (formothion) Or 250 ml of Metasystox 25 EC (Methyl demeton) Or 90 ml Dimecron 85 WSC (phosphamidon)

GROUNDNUT 1. Collar Rot Aspergillus niger
Seed can be attacked at any time after its sowing. Young plants collapse and die soon after their emergence (Photo 3.21) due to rooting of the succulent elongating hypocotyl. The hypocotyl is attacked both by soil-borne A. niger and by the fungus growing from already infected cotyledons, or spores carried on the seed surface which germinate after planting. This fungus also causes pre-emergence rots causing decrease in germination. The disease causes damage within one month of sowing of the crop. Control : Treat the seed before sowing with 5 g Thiram (75%) or 3 g of Indofil M-45 (75%) per kg of kernels.

2. Tikka Cercospora arachidicola and Cercospora personata
Leaf spots caused by C. archidicola are circular to irregular, reddish brown to dark brown, with distinct yellowish-halo. These spots are bigger in size, as compared

to that of Late-leaf spots, caused by C. personata. These spots are dark brown to black on both leaf surfaces. The halo is not distinct in this case and abundant spots are produced on leaves, stipules, petioles, stem and pegs. There is a large-scale defoliation in groundnut due to these leaf spots (Photo 3.22) Control : Spray the crop with Wettable sulphur 500-750 g/acre. Give 3-4 sprayings at fortnightly intervals starting from the first week of August. Alternatively, spray the irrigated crop with Bavistin/Derosal/Agrozim @ 50-60 g in 100 litres of water per acre. Give three sprays at fortnightly intervals, starting when the crop is 40-day old.

SUGARCANE 1. Red Rot Collectrotrichum flacatum
The disease appears from July till the crop is harvested. The top leaves of the affected can lose colour and then wither. Later, the whole clump dries up. On splitting open the cane, the tissues are found to be reddened but the discoloration is not uniform (Photo 3.23). it is interspersed with white patches running across the width of the split cane. The affected pith emits alcoholic smell. Control : 1. Plant the seed from absolutely disease-free sets. 2. Crush the affected crop early and plough up the fields soon after harvesting the crop. Collected and burn the stubbles. 3. Rogue and burn the diseased canes, uproot the entire clumps and not merely the affected stalks. 4. Do not ratoon the diseased crop. 5. Grow varieties fairly resistant to red rot viz. CoJ 86, CoJ83, CoP 211 and CoS 8436. 6. Do not plant sugarcane in the disease affected fields for one year.

2. Wilt Cephalosporium sacchari
This disease appears from July till the crop is harvested. Tops of the affected canes start drying. On splitting open a diseased cane, the pit shows a dirty red discoloration usually with long streaks. Near the nodes, the discoloration is invariably darker than that in the remaining portion of the internodes. The affected stalks become light and hollow (photo 3.24). As the fungus persists in the soil over a long period, the affected fields or patches should be carefully marked out and not put under sugarcane. Control : 1. Plant the seed from absolutely disease-free sets. 2. Crush the affected crop early and plough up the fields soon after harvesting the crop. Collect and burn the stubble. 3. Rouge and burn the diseased canes, uproot the entire clumps and not merely

the affected stalks. 4. Do not ratoon the diseased crop. 5. Affected fields should not be put under sugarcane for 3 years.

3. Grassy Shoot
The disease is caused by mycoplasma like bodies. The affected give rise to numerous thin tillers, the leaves become reduced in size, thin, and narrow and usually turn chlorotic. As the buds go on producing thin tillers, no canes are formed. Where the attack is light, one or two week canes may be formed. (Photo 3.25) Control : 1. Uproot and destroy the affected clumps promptly. 2. Do not ratoon the diseased crop. 3. Give moist hot-air treatment to the seed-canes at 54°C for 4 hours to inactivate the causal organism of this disease.

4. Smut Ustilago scitaminea
The disease is prevalent throughout the year but is severe form May to July. Its incidence increases in the ratoon crop. It is easily recognised by the appearance of long whip like shorts (Photo 3.26) covered with dusty black mass of spores. These whips may arise from the top of the canes as well as from the lateral sprouted buds. The whip when young is covered by a thin, with and papery membrane. This is the epidermis of the hosts. On maturity it ruptures and millions of black tiny spores are liberated and disseminated by wind and cover long distances. Diseased plants can be spotted even before the appearance of smut whips. The most conspicuous symptom induced by the smut is the reduction in the size of the plant. The leaves in these plants are thin, stiff and remain at an acute angle. Affected plants produce more tillers than the healthy ones. Primary infection is caused by dormant mycelium in the lateral buds of sugarcane. Diseased clumps have also been produced by dusting spores on the bud at planting. Secondary infection is caused by wind blown spores. The spores can also reach the host via irrigation to infect the sets. Control : 1. Use only smut free canes for seed. Reject even the healthy looking canes in the diseased stools or those growing in the vicinity of smutted canes. 2. Remove the smutted whips gently (without shaking) after putting them inside a closely woven drill bag. Then uproot the entire clump and burn or bury them deep. Immerse the bag used for collecting the whips in boiling water for 5 minutes after every rouging of the crop. 3. Do not ratoon the smutted crop. 4. For surface disinfestations, treat the cane sets with 0.5% Agallol (500 g in 100 litre of water) or 0.25% Tafasan or Emisan (250 g in 100 litre of water).

WHEAT

1. Yellow or Stripe Rust Puccinia striiformis
This rust is the earliest to appear in Punjab. It survives on volunteer wheat plants in the hills during the off season. The rust produce yellow pustules in stripes on the leaves; when the season advances, these stripes on the leaves; 3.27). The rust becomes severe by the end of February or 1st week of March. The affected leaves dry up, the grains shrivel and the yield is very poor. Control : Grow resistant varieties.

2. Brown Leaf Rust Puccinia recondita
Round pustules of orange colour are produced in a cluster on the leaves. The rust is less common on leaf stalk. It survives on self-sown wheat plants in the lower hills from where the spores are wind-blown to plains to initiate infection on wheat. The rust-becomes severe in the month of March. The yield is considerably lowered in susceptible varieties (photo 3.28). Control : Grow resistant varieties.

3. Black Stem Rust Puccinia graminis tritici
This rust is the last to appear. Its main attack is on the stem on which reddishbrown pustules, with ruptured epidermis, are produced. Leaves and sheaths are also infected. In case of severe attack, grains are shrivelled or not formed at all. However, by the time the rust appears the weather becomes too hot for its development (Photo 3.29). The disease has disappeared from Punjab with the cultivation of high yielding varieties. Control : Grow resistant varieties.

4. Loose Smut Ustilago nuda
A black loose powdery mass is produced in place of grains. All ears of the plant are affected. When the powder is blown away by the wind, the rachis is left behind. The fungus grows within the plant and no symptoms are visible till flowering occurs. The flag leaf of infected plants in some varieties become chlorotic, even before the emergence of diseased ear. The disease is internally seed-borne (Photo 3.30)

Control : 1. Soak the wheat seed in ordinary water from 8 a.m. to 12 noon on any calm and sunny day during May and June. After its 4 hour soaking spread out the moist seed in the sun in a thin layer (40 kg seed on 16 sq m ground space which must not be covered with grass or any other vegetation) on cloth or hessian. Dry the grains completely and store in a dry place till sowing. 2. Alternatively the seed may be treated with Vitavax @ 2g/ kg or Raxal one g/kg or Bavistin/Agrozim/Derosal/J.K Steom 50/Provax/Bencor @ 2.5 g/kg seed.

5. Flag Smut Urocystis agropyri
Long, narrow, lead grey or black streaks, running parallel to veins are formed on the leaves. These symptoms become visible when the crop is about 60 to 70 days old. The affected plants remain stunted, with only 2-3 tillers and rarely bear ears. The stem bearing a small ear is also infected (Photo 3.31). The plants get infected during germination of the seed before emergence from the soil. The disease is both seed and soil-borne and spores of the fungus can survive in the soil for 2-3 years. Control : Dress the seed before sowing with fungicide viz. Thiram @ 3g/kg or Raxal one or Vitavax @ 2g or Bavistan/Agrozim/Derosal/J.K. Stein/Stein 50 @ 2.5g/kg seed.

6. Karnal Bunt Neovossia indica
The disease is characterized by the occurrence of partially infected grains in the ear. The diseased grains, if crushed, give black spore mass which has peculiar stinking smell (Photo 3.32). Only a few grains are attacked in an ear. Infection takes place only in the flower-buds soon after the ears have emerged out of the boot leaves. The infection is caused by the air-borne sporidia. Control : 1. Grow resistant varieties namely PBW 34, PDW 233 and PBW 154 under irrigated conditions and PBW 175 and PBW 299 under rainfed conditions. 2. A single spray of Tilt/Folicur 25 EC @ 200 ml/acre in 160 litre of water at ear emergence stage should be given to the wheat crop meant for seed production only.

7. Powedery Mildew Erysiphe graminis tritici
The fungus develops numerous superficial white colonies on all the above ground parts of the plants. The white colour of the colonies changes to grey or reddish brown when cleistothecia develop. Infected plants become stunted due to reduction in the size and number of leaves (Photo 3.33).

Control : Spray with Karathane @ 0.5% (50 ml in 100 litres of water)

8. Yellow Ear Rot and Ear-Cockle Corynebacterium tritici and Anguina tritici
Infected plants that survive seedling mortality fail to form ears. Others become twisted or distorted and manifest the yellow gummy phase of the disease preventing grain formation altogether (Photo 3.34). Infected plants that escape the gummy phase develop black galls containing thousands of microscopic worms in the ear-head in place of the normal grain. The whole of the infected ear is full of black galls (mamni) instead of normal grains. The disease is initiated by the release of nematodes from these galls found mixed in the seed at the time of sowing. The nematodes can remain viable for more than 20 years in these galls if stored at room temperature. Control : Put wheat seed in ordinary water and agitate vigorously for a few minutes. Earcockle galls will float to the surface. These may be skimmed off with an ordinary sieve and burnt.

GRAM Gram Blight Phyllosticta rabiei
Dark brown spots, studded with dot-like bodies, are produced on the stem, branches, leaf-lets and pods. Even the seeds in the pods are infected. On pods and leaves, the dot-like bodies are concentrically arranged (Photo 3.35). Shoot terminals are specially liable to attack. In the event of excessive rains, whole crop may be blighted and killed rapidly. Control : 1. Grow the comparatively resistant varieties i.e. C 235 and PBG 1. 2. After harvest the diseased plants should not be allowed to stand in the field but should be destroyed by burning. 3. Use disease-free seed. 4. Treat the seed with Bavistin + Thiram (1:1) @ 3 g 1 kg seed or Heacap/Captan/Captaf 3gm/kg seed or Rovral & 2.5 g/kg seed. 5. Give 3-5 sprays of Brovo @ 600 ml/acre of Heacap or Idofil M-45 or Captaf of Kavach @ 360 g/1acre in 120 litre of water at 15 day interval. Start spray immediately after the appearance of the disease.

RAYA 1. Alternaria Blight

Alternaria brassicae
Brown to blackish spots with concentric rings appear on leaves and pods (Photo 3.36 a & b). Stems are also damaged. In case of severe attack, the upper parts of the stem and pods wither. The grains become shrivelled and get infected. The pathogen in the seeds get automatically killed by the time of next sowing. The pathogen remain viable in the soil debris. Control : 1. Destroy diseased debris from the previous crop. 2. Spray the crop for three to four times with 250 g of Rovral or Blitox or Indofil M-45 in 100 litres of water per acre starting at about 75 days old crop, at an interval of 15 days.

2. White Rust Albugo candida
Prominent white or creamy-yellow, scattered pustules appear on the under surgace of the leaves. The swelling of affected parts often results. Flowers get malformed and become sterile. Petals become green and stamens are transformed into leaf-like structures which become thick and club shaped. All parts are attacked, except roots (Photo 3.37). Control : 1. Destroy diseased debris of the previous crop. 2. Spray the crop for three to four times with 250 g of Blitox or Indofil M-45 in 100 litres of water per acre starting at about 75 days old crop.

BERSEEM Stem Rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
The fungus which is present in the seed or in the soil attacks the basal portion of the stem and causes it to rot. It produces white cottony mycelium which (Photo 3.38) beings to grow on the dead organic matter on the surface of the soil. The white mycelium can be very easily spotted in the field around the wilted patches of the berseem crop. The incidence of disease is higher under high humidity and low temperature conditions. September sown crop has higher disease incidence as compared to that sown in November. Control : 1. Use disease free seed. If black coloured sclerotia are suspected in the seed then put the seed in 10% salt solution and remove the sclerotia by skimming. Then wash the seed in ordinary water thoroughly. 2. Plough the fields followed by flooding in May June to kill the sclerotia present in the soil. 3. Avoid early sowing of the crop.

4. Follow 3-4 year crop rotation. 5. The irrigation interval of 11-13 days form December to February showed less disease and significantly increase the fodder and seed yield. 6. Spray the crop after first cutting with 400 g of Bavistin/Agrozem/Derosal/J.K.stein in 200 litres of water/acre. One spray is sufficient.

INSECT PESTS
COTTON 1. Cotton Jassid Amrasca bigutttula biguttula (Ishida) (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae)
It is the most destructive pest of American cotton. Besides cotton, it also feeds on okra, potato, brinjal and some wild plants. Adult is wedge-shaped, pale green during summer and reddish brown in winter. Each forewing measuring about 3 mm has a black spot on its posterior part (Photo 4.1 a). Nymphs are usually green. Life cycle : Jassid is found throughout the year. The female lays yellowish eggs in the leaf veins, on the underside. The eggs hatch in about 4-11 days and the young nymphs feed on leaf sap for 7-12 days. The winged adults live for 35 to 50 days feeding constantly on the plant sap. It completes seven generations in a year. Damage : The adults and nymphs suck sap from the leaves which turn yellow or reddish brown. The leaves curl downwards, dry-up and fall to the ground in case of severe attack (Photo 4.1b). Control : At the time of sowing, smear the cotton seed with Gaucho 70 WS (Imidacloprid) @ 5g/kg seed or spray 250 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 300 ml of Metasystox (oxydemeton methyl) 25 EC or 75ml of Dimecron 85 SL (phoshamidon) or 40 ml Imidacloprid 200 SL in 100 litres of water per acre.

2. Cotton Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae)
It is a serious pest of American cotton, particularly in the dry areas. Besides cotton, it also attacks cabbage, cauliflower, sarson, toria, melon, potato, brinjal, okra and some weeds. Body of the adult is light yellow covered with mealy powder, wings are white and

body-length is about 1.25 mm (Photo 4.2a). The louse like nymphs are sluggish creatures, clustered together on the underside of the leaves (Photo 4.2b). Life cycle : The insect breeds throughout the year. The female lays stalked and yellow eggs singly on the underside of the leaves. The eggs hatch in 3 to 33 days. The nymphal stag lasts for 9 to 81 days. The pupal stage is completed in 2 to 8 days. The whole life cycle is completed in 14 to 22 days. It has 11 generations in a year. Damage : The adults and nymphs suck plant sap and thus, lower the plant variety. As a result of severe feeding the plats give sickly appearance. Control : Spray 300 ml Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton methyl) or Anthio 25 EC (Formothion) or 250 ml Rogor 30 EC (Dimethoate) or 75 ml Dimecron 85SL (Phosphamidon) in 100 litres of water per acre.

3. Cotton Aphid Aphis gossypii Glov. (Homoptera ; Aphididae)
Introduction : It is a sporadic pest of cotton. It also feeds on chilli, cucurbits, potato and many ornamental plants, The apterous adult is light yellow to light green, whereas winged form is brown in colour. The cornicles are predominantly black and easily visible. Life cycle : Both winged and apterous forms breed parthenogenetically. It becomes active on cotton from May to November. The female deposits about 20-50 nymphs. The nymphal period varies from 3 to 20 days depending upon the climate. It moults four times to become an adult. Its average reproductive period is about 2 weeks. The length of life cycle varies from 9 to 64 days with an average of 28 days. Damage : Both the young and adults suck plant sap. The plants become weak and the tender shoots, leaves fade gradually and may become blighted if attack is severe (Photo 4.3). Control : As given under cotton whitefly.

4. Cotton Thrip Thrips tabaci Linn. (Thysanoptera; Thripidae)

Introduction : It is commonly found o cotton, cruciferous vegetables, onion, garlic, potato and tomato. The adults are slender and yellowish brown. The males are wingless, whereas the females have long, narrow wings. The nymphs are smaller and wingless but resemble adults both in shape and colour. Life cycle : It is found throughout the year. It breeds on cotton from May to September. The adult female lays 50 to 60 kidney – shaped eggs, singly into the green plant tissue, at the rate of 4 to 6 eggs per day. They hatch in 3 to 8 days. The nymphal stages last for 4 to 6 days, pre-pupal for 1 to 2 days and pupal for 2-4 days. It overwinters as adult. Several generations are found in a year. Damage : The thrip and its nymphs lacerate the surface tissues of the foliage and suck the exuding sap. In severe infestion, the plants appear blighted and occasionally dry up (Photo 4.4). Control : As given under cotton whitefly.

5. Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus koenigii (Fabricius) (Hempitera; Pyrrhocoridae)
Introduction : It is found on cotton, okra, maize, pearl-millet, wheat and clovers. The adults are red in colour with a black spot on each forewing (Photo 4.5). The nymphs are also red in colour and resemble adults but are smaller than adults. Life cycle : The insect is active throughout the year and passes winter in adult stage. It lays spherical and bright yellowish eggs in soil. They hatch in about 7-8 days and the nymphs develop into adults in about 50 to 90 days. The adults may live up to 90 days. Damage : Both adults and nymphs suck sap from bolls and stain lint. Control : As given under cotton whitefly.

6. Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera; Gelechiidae)

Introduction : It is one of the most destructive pests of cotton. The adult is deep brown measuring 12-13 mm across the wings. Forewings are dark brown having black spots; hind wings are silvery grey with fringes of long hair. Full-grown larvae (8-10mm) are pink (Photo 4.6a). Life cycle : The insect is most active from August to November. It has 4-6 generations in a year. The larval stage lasts for about two weeks. Pupation occurs among fallen leaves and debris. Damage : The larvae feed on flower buds, flowers and bore into the bolls. Attacked young bolls are shed after few days, but large bolls remain on the plant. The attacked bolls either remain unopened or depict bad opening (Photo 4.6b). Control : In order to control bollworms, conduct sprays at 10 days interval on different varieties during their effective boll formation period. The cotton fields should be examined twice a week in order to ensure that bollworm damage does not exceed 5 per cent level among the freshly shed fruiting bodies. In case the damage exceeds 5 per cent, the crop should be sprayed immediately and thereafter follow the 10 days interval and stopping two weeks before the first picking with any of the following insecticides.
Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Isecticide Asymethrin 5 EC Alphamethrin 10 EC a) Cypermethrin 10 EC b) Cypermethrin 25 EC a) Deltamethrin 2-8 EC b) Deltamethrin 4 percent Fenvalerate 20 EC Fluvalinate 25 EC a) Carbaryl 50 WP b) Carbaryl 40 LV c) Carbaryl 85 S d) Carbaryl 42 % Profenophos 50 EC Acephate 75 SP Monocrotophos 36 SL a) Quinalphos 25 EC b) Quinalphos 20 AF a) Fenitrothion 50 EC b) Fenitrothion 82.5 EC Phenthoat 50 EC Chlorpyriphos 20 EC Dose/acre 100 ml 100 ml 200 ml 80 ml 160 ml 110 ml 100 ml 120 ml 1 Kg 1.25 Kg 600 ml 120 ml 500 ml 800 g 500 ml 800 ml 1000 ml 850 ml 500 ml 400 ml 2 litres Brands Chinmix Fastac/Alphaguard/Merit Alpha. Cymbush/Cyperkill/Challenger/Cyper/ Cythion/Cyperguard/Mark/Cyper/ cyrux Decis/Delta/Rukrain/Decicare Decis Sumicidin/Fenval/Agrofen/Fenlik/Agrofe n/Agrofen/Fenlik/Fenvalerate/Markfenval /Fenrio Mavrik Sevin/Hexavin Sevimol Sevin Sevin flo. Curacron/Carina Orthene/Asataf/Starthene Corophos/Milphos/Markphos/Nuvacron/ Phoskill/ Monocil/Monolik/Luphos/Azophos Ekalux/GAIC Quinalphos/Quinguard. Ekalux Folithion/Sumithion/Accothion Folithion Phendol Caroban/Dursban/Durmet. Chlorguard/

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17.

Triazophos 40 EC Ethion 50 EC Endosulfan 35 EC

600 ml 800 ml 1 lit.

Radar/Lethal Hostathion Fosmite/E-mite/Volthion Thiodan/Endocel

7. Spotted Bollworm Earias insulana (Boisd.) and E. vittella (Fab.) (Lapidoptera; Noctuidae)
Introduction : Both species cause heavy damage to cotton, okra, gulkhera, holly hock, and some other malvaceous plants. The moth is yellowish green and measures about 30 mm across the wings. The full grown larvae are dull green and have tiny stout blackish bristles and a series of longitudinal black spots on the body. The head is brown (Photo 4.7a) Life cycle : During April, the moths lay eggs singly on flower buds, brackets and tender leaves. The eggs hatch in 3-4 days. The larval stage is completed in 10-16 days. The pupation occurs either on plants or on the ground among fallen leaves. Pupal period lasts for about 4 to 9 days. The life cycle is completed in 17-29 days. Damage : The larvae bore into the growing shoots, flower buds, flowers. The attacked terminal shoots wither away and dry up. The attacked fruiting bodies are usually shed. The holes in the infested bolls are filled with excreta. Sometimes the lint is spoiled by larval feeding (Photo 4.7b). In case of severe infestation the shedding of fruiting bodies may be as high as 80 percent. Control : Use insecticides as given under pink bollworm. Start spray about 10 days earlier than that for pink bollworm. Note :Avoid using insecticides of the same group in more than three sprays against boll worms.

8. American Bollworm Helicoverpa (Heliothis) armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)
Introduction : It is a sporadic pest and feeds on cotton, sorghum, okra, maize and gram. The moth is stoutly built and is yellowish brown. It has a dark speck and a dark area near the

outer margin of each forewing. The green coloured larvae have a dark broken longitudinal stripes along the sides of its body (Photo 4.8a). Life cycle : This pest is active throughout the year. The female moths lay shining greenish yellow, round eggs singly on tender parts of the plants. The eggs hatch in 4 to 6 days. The larvae become full grown in 13 – 19 days. The pupation takes place in soil for 815 days in active season whereas in winter the duration is prolonged. There may be as many as eight generations in a year. Damage : The larvae attack fruiting bodies and cause severe shedding (Photo 4.8b). Developed bolls are also eaten completely by the grown up caterpillars. Control : For its effective control use any of the insecticides except 15 to 17 as given under pink bollworm, at 10-day interval. Prefer to use acephate/chlorpyriphos/fenitrothion against grown up larvae of this pest more than 1.25 cm long.

9. Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata Fabricius (Lepidoptera; Pyralididae)
Introduction : It is a sporadic pest of cotton, okra, gulkhera and some forest trees. Moths are yellowish white with black and brown spots on the head and the thorax. There are series of dark-brown wavy lines on the wings. The colour of larvae vary form greenish grey to pink. Life cycle : It is active from March to October and passes winter as a full-grown caterpillar among plant debris or in soils. Moths lay eggs singly on the underside of the leaves. The eggs hatch in about 2 – 6 days. The larval instar lasts for 15 – 35 days. The pupal stage is completed in about 6 -12 days. The life cycle is completed in 25 – 53 days. It passes through 5 to 6 generation in a year. Damage : The damage is done by larvae which are usually found feeding inside the rolled leaves. In case of pest outbreak, the plants may be completely defoliated (Photo 4.9). Control : Use insecticides as given under pink bollworm.

PADDY

1. White-Backed Plant Hopper Sogatella furcifera Horvath (Hemiptera; Delphacidae)
Introduction : The adult is a straw-coloured, wedge-shaped insect, with white back. The nymph is greyish white and turns dark grey when fully mature. Life cycle : The plant hopper becomes active in May in the paddy nursery, from where it shifts to the transplanted trop. The eggs are laid generally on the leaf sheath. They hatch in 3 to 5 days. The nymphs feed for 9 to 13 days before transforming into adults. The life cycle is completed in 12 to 18 days. It has several generations in a year. Damage : The nymphs and the adults suck cell sap from the leaves and tend to congregate on the leaf sheath at the base of the plant. The leaves of attacked plants turn yellow and later on rust red. The attacked plants dry up without producing ears. The patches called ‘Hopper burn’ usually round in shape, appear at many places in the fields. Later on these patches extend rapidly if the attack remains unchecked (Photo 4.10). Control : Spray 250 ml of Lebaycid 1000 EC (Fenthion) or 800ml of Ekalux/Quinguard 25Ec or 1000 ml Ekalux 20AF (quinalphos) or one litre of Coroban / Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 560ml of Thiodan/Endocel 35 EC (endosulfan) or 560 ml of Nuvacron 36 SL (Monocrotophos) in 100 litres of water per acre.

2. Leaf Hopper Nephotettix spp. (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae)
Introduction : It is found in all the rice-growing regions of India. Both adults and nymphs are greenish and are smaller and slender than sogatella. (Photo 4.11). Life cycle : The pest becomes active in March. The eggs are laid on the inner surface of the leaf sheath. The eggs hatch in 3 – 5 days and the nymphal stage lasts for 12 -21 days. There are about six overlapping generation from March to November. The pest population is maximum in July-August. The insect overwinters in the adult stage. Damage : As a result of severe feeding on cell sap, the plants turn yellow and lose vigour. It also spreads tungro virus in rice crop. Control : The same as given for white-backed plant hopper.

3. Rice Stem-Borer Tryporyza incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera; Pyralididae
Introduction : It is a specific pest of rice. The adult moth is yellowish white with orange-yellow front wings. The female moth has a prominent tuft of brownish yellow silken hair at the tip of its abdomen. The caterpillars are dirty-white. Life cycle : It becomes active in April. The female lays oval, flattened, pearly white eggs, on the underside of the leaves. The eggs are covered with yellowish brown hair of the female tuft. They hatch in 6-7 days and the tiny black-headed larvae bore into the stem from the growing points downwards. The larva is full-fed in 16-27 days and undergoes pupation for 9-12 days, inside the attacked plant. The life cycle is completed in 31-46 days. There are 4-5 generations in a year. Damage : The affected young plants show dead-hearts (Photo 4.12a); whereas the old ones produce empty ear-heads which turn white and stand erect (Photo 4.12b). Control : The fields showing more than 5% dead hearts should be sprayed with 250 ml of Dimecron/Cildon/Phamidon/Bilcron/Kinadon 85 SL (Phosphamidon) or 560 ml of Nuvacron/Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 1 litre of Coroban/Dursban/Lethal/Chlorguard/Durmet/Classic 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) in 100 litres of water per acre. The insect can also be controlled by applying 7.5 kg Sevidol 4:4G (Carbaryl-gemma BHC) per acre in standing water. In case of Basmati rice, borers should be controlled by spraying above mentioned insecticides, five times at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after transplanting the crop. The pest can also be controlled by applying 10 kg Padan 4G or Caldan 4G (Cartaphydrochloride) or 7.5 kg Sevidol 4:4 G per acre at 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting.

4. Rice Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Linn. (Lepidoptera; Pyralididae)
Introduction : This pest occurs in all rice-growing areas of the State. The moth is golden or yellowish brown. The wings have 2-3 wavy lines characterised by dark bands. A newly emerged larva is dull white or light yellow with a brown head. The full-growin greenish larva is slender and measures 20-25 mm in length.

Life cycle : It is active from July to October and is at its peak during August-September. The moths lay oval, creamy-white eggs singly on the under surface of the leaves and leafsheaths. The eggs hatch in 3 to 4 days. The larval stage is completed in 15 to 25 days. Pupation takes place in loose silken webs in between the leaves and lasts for 6 to 8 days. The life cycle is completed in 25 – 35 days. Damage : The larvae fold the leaves, eat out the green tissue and produce zig-zag white streaks. In case of severe attack the leaves turn brown and dry up (Photo 4.13 a,b). Control : Spray 250 ml of Folithion/Sumithion/Accothion 50 EC (fenitrothion) or 150 ml Lebaycid 1000 EC (fenthion) or one litre of Coroban/Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 560 ml of Nuvacron / Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos) in 100 litres of water. Application of Padan 4 G or Caldan 4G (Cartaphydrochloride) 10 kg per acre will also check leaf-folder.

5. Rice Hispa Dicladispa armigera Olivier (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae)
Introduction : It is a serious pest in some areas of Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala Districts. The adult is a small bluish black beetle covered with numerous short spines on the body (Photo 4.14). The legless, creamy-white grubs are seen concealed inside the leaf tissue. Life cycle : It breeds actively from May to October and hibernates during the winter in the adult stage. In May, the beetles lay eggs on nursery plants. On hatching, the young grubs feed as leaf miners, between the upper and lower epidermis. Full grown grubs pupate in between the leaves. The pest completes 2-3 generations during the paddy season. Damage : The grubs of this pest tunnel into the leaves whereas the adults are exposed feeder. The grubs cause damage by producing bold, white streaks on the leaves (Photo 4.14). Control : Spray 120 ml of Methyl Parathion 50 EC or 250 ml of Folithion/Sumithion/Accothion 50 EC (fenitrothion) or one litre of Lindane 20EC (gamma BHC) in 100 liters of water per acre. Repeat the spraying after two weeks if the attack persists.

MAIZE 1. Maize jassid Zygnidia manaliensis (Singh) (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae)
Introduction : It is principally a pest of the spring-sown maize crop in the Punjab. It also feeds on other corps like barley, pearl millet, sorghum, sudangrass and wheat. Both the adults and nymphs are dirty white and wedge shaped (Photo 4.14). The average body length of adults varies from 3.05 to 3.06 mm. Life cycle : The maize jassid is active throughout the year. The egg and nymphal stages varied from 7 – 11 days and 9 – 16 days, respectively. The female lives longer then the male. The longevity of the adults vary from 38 to 80 days depending upon the season. Damage : Both the nymphs and the adults suck sap from under surface of the leaves causing typical white stipplings on the upper surface. The affected leaves turn white and give sickly appearance due to loss in chlorophyll and heavy sucking of cell sap by the jassid (Photo 4.15). Control : Spray 200 ml of Metasystox 25 EC (Oxydemeton-methyl) or Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 80 litres of water per acre.

2. Maize Borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera; Crambidae)
Introduction : It is a serious pest of maize and sorghum. It also feeds on bajra, sugarcane, sudangrass and some other grasses. The grown-up caterpillars are dirty white, with black head and four brownish longitudinal stripes on the back (Photo 4.16a). The adult moths are yellowish grey and measure about 25 mm when wings are spread. Life cycle : The insect breeds actively from March to October and hibernates in winter as a full-grown larvae in maize and sorghum stubble, stalks or unshelled cobs. A female lays over 300 oval yellowish eggs in clusters. The eggs hatch in 4-5 days. The larval stage is completed in 14-28 days and pupation occurs inside the attacked stem. The life cycle is completed in 21 days, and there are 5 generations in a year.

Damage : The young larvae first scrape the leaves and then bore into the stem through the whorl of leaf sheath. The central leaves of whorl get perforated. In young plants, the growing point is killed and a dead-heart results (Photo 4.16b). Control : 1. Remove and destroy the plants showing borer injury, while hoeing the crop. 2. Spray 2 weeks after sowing with 100 g of Sevin 50 WP (carbaryl) or 175 ml Folithion/Sumithion 50EC (fenitrothion) or 200 ml Lindane 20 EC (gamma BHC) or 100 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or 100 ml Nuvacron 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 40 ml of sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) or Ripcord 10 EC (Cypermethrin) or 80 ml Decis 2.8 EC (deltamethrin) in 50 liters of water per acre. Normally no additional spray is required after the spray with pyrethroids.

GROUNDNUT 1. White grub Holotrichia consanguinea (Blanchard) (Coleoptera; Melolonthidae)
It infests groundnut, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, chilli, okra, brinjal, etc. The full-grown grub is white, having a brown head and prominent legs. The adult beetle is dull brown (Photo 4.17 ab). Life cycle : The insect becomes active with the onset of the monsoon. The adult beetles lay eggs singly in soil up to a depth of 10cm. The eggs hatch in 7-10 days. The grubs become fullfed in 8-10 weeks. The pupal stage lasts for about a fortnight. There is only one generation in a year. Damage : The grubs eat away fine root-lets and also girdle the main root ultimately killing the plants (Photo 4.17 c). The adult beetles, at evening, feed on foliage and may completely defoliate trees like ber, guava and neem. Control : 1. Sow the crop early i.e. between 10 and 20 June wherever possible. 2. Treat the seed before sowing with 12.5 ml of Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) per kg kernels. 3. Apply 4 kg Thimet 10G (Phorate) or 13 kg Furadan 3G (carbofuran) per acre in the soil at or before sowing. 4. Kill the beetles by spraying 200 g Sevin/Hexavin 50 WP (Carbaryl) or 50 ml Folithion/Sumithion 50 EC (Fenitrothion) in 100 litres of water. The spray should be repeated after every rainfall till the middle of July.

2. Groundnut Aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. (Homoptera; Aphididae)
This greenish black aphid is a serious pest of groundnut, cowpea, beans, pulses, safflower and some weeds. The winged adults have black wings whereas the wingless adults and nymphs are brownish in colour (Photo 4.18) Life cycle : It becomes active on groundnut when the rainfall is low. The winged female lays 8 – 30 young ones during its life span of 10 to 12 days. The nymph moults four times before becoming adults in 5 to 8 days. Reproductive life of the adult lasts for 7 days. This pest multiplies throughout the year and both the winged and wingless forms are present. Damage : Adult as well as young ones suck cell sap particularly form the growing points. This pest is also a vector of a virus disease known as the rosette of groundnut. Control : Spray 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC or 150 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 150 ml of Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton-methyl) in 80 litres of water as soon as the pest appears. Repeat after two weeks if necessary.

SUGARCANE 1. Sugarcane termite Microtermes obesi (Holmgr.) (Isoptera; Termitidae)
The white-ants or the termites are the most destructive pests of crops particularly sugarcane, wheat and chilli. The termites are social insects and their colony consists of numerous workers, soldiers, one queen, a king and a good number of complementary forms. Life cycle : In the rainy season, when atmospheric conditions are favourable, the colonizing forms leave their parent colony. The members of the swarm comprise individuals of both sexes. Both the male and the female participate in the early operations o forming a nest. The eggs hatch in 7 days during the summer and within 180 days the larvae develop to form soldiers or workers. The reproductive castes when produced mature in 12-24 months. Damage : The termites live on cellulose which they obtain from dead and living vegetable matter. It destroys the germinating buds of sugarcane and causes the drying of shoots

after germination (Photo 4.19). Control : 1. To avoid termite attack, apply only well rotten farmyard manure. 2. Remove the stubbles and debris of the pervious crop from the field. 3. At sowing time, prepare emulsion of 2 litres of Lindane/Kanodane 20 EC (gamma BHC) in 400-600 litres of water for one acre and apply to cane-sets in the furrows before planking or apply 7.5 kg granules of Sevidol 4:4G (gamma BHC + Carbaryl) before the sets are covered with soil by planking. Earth up slightly and follow with light irrigation

2. Sugarcane Black Bug Gavelerius excavatus (Distant) (Hemiptera; Lygaeidae)
It attacks mainly sugarcane crop but it has also been found feeding on maize, rice and many grasses. The adult bug is black with white patches on the wings which extend slightly beyond the abdomen. Nymphs are dull pink. They resemble adults in shape but are smaller in size (Photo 4.20) Life cycle : During spring the female lays creamy with eggs on the inner side of the leafsheath. During peak period of activity, the eggs hatch in 9-17 days. The development period of nymphs varies from 28 to 42 days. It has three generations in a year. This pest passes winter in egg stage in soil. Damage : Both the nymphs and adults suck cell sap from the leaf-whorl. The attacked crop looks pale. The damage is comparatively more on ratoon crop. Control : Spray crop with 350 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or 225 ml of Sumithion/Folithion/Accothion 50EC (fenitrothion) or 350 ml Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) in 250 litres of water per acre. Direct the spray material into the leaf whorl.

3. Sugarcane Pyrilla Pyrilla perusilla Walker (Hemiptera; Fulgoridae)
It is a sporadic pest of sugarcane. It also feeds on wheat, barley, oats, maize, sorghum, and grasses. The full-grown, pale-yellow nymphs has two white prominent filaments at the tail end of its body. The straw coloured adult has dark spots on the

wings. The apex of the head is pointing (Photo 4.21). Life cycle : The insect is found throughout the year. The adults lay oval and pale-white eggs in clusters under white fluffy material on the underside of the leaves. During summer the eggs hatch in 8-10 days and during winter in 21 to 28 days. The nymphs become adults in 56 days in summer and 150 – 180 days in winter. It completes 3 to 4 generations in a year. Damage : Both the adults and nymphs suck cell sap. The leaves of the damaged crop turn yellow. Later on the crop turns black and the tops become unfit for feeding to cattle. It also reduces the cane yield and sugar recovery heavily. Control : Spray 400-500 ml of Thiodan 35EC (Endosulfan) or 260-350 ml of Folithion/Sumithion/Accothion 50EC (fenitrothion) per acre in 150 litres of water per acre.

4. Sugarcane whitefly Aleurolobus barodensis Maskell (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae)
Besides sugarcane, the white fly also survives on Sarkanda. The adults are small delicate pale yellow insects with wings having white mealy powder mottled with black dots. The grown-up nymphs are oval, flattened and scale-like and remain sticking to the same spot on a leaf (Photo 4.22). Nymphs are black having silvery grey waxy coating on the body. Life cycle : Winged adults appear in March and lay creamy white conical eggs on the leaves. Eggs hatch in 8-10 days. The young nymphs are pale yellow and become full grown in 25-30 days. The pupal stage lasts for 10-11 days. The insect completes nine generation in a year. Damage : The nymphs feed on cell sap. Yellow streaks appear on the attacked leaves and the crop acquires a pale-green appearance. The general vitality of the plants is reduced and both the quality and quantity of gur becomes poor. Control : Spray the crop with 1 to 1.5 litres of Malathion 50EC in 150 litres of water per acre with a manually operated sprayer.

5. Sugarcane Early Shoot-Borer

Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera; Crambidae)
This is serious form April to June, in addition to sugarcane, it feeds on maize, bajra, sarkanda, kahi, baru, etc. The caterpillars are dirty white and have light violet longitudinal stripes on their bodies (Photo 4.23a). Moths have straw coloured forewings and whitish hindwings with apical light buff areas. Life cycle : It becomes active in March and lays creamy-white scale-like eggs on the surface of leaves. The eggs hatch in 4-5 days. The larvae each the plant base, bore into the shoot and fed there for three weeks. They undergo pupation for 7 days inside the canes. The life cycle is completed in 5 – 6 weeks and the pest multiplies four or five times in a year. Damage : In young plants, the caterpillars cause dead hearts which can be easily pulled out. The attacked plants dry up completely (Photo 4.23b). After the formation of canes, its attack does not produce dead hearts and the damage is confined to a few internodes. Control : 1. Plant the crop early i.e. before the middle of March. 2. At plantation time, apply 2 litres of Lindane/Kanodane 20EC (gamma BHC) in 400-600 litres of water to the cane sets in the furrows, with a sprinkling can or apply 7.5 kg granules of Sevidol 4:4G (gamma BHC + Carbaryl) before the sets are covered with soil by planking or apply 10 kg of granules of Padan 4G (Cartap-hydrochloride) mixed in 20 kg sand or 2 litres of Durmet 20 EC/Classic 20EC/Durshan 20EC (chlorpyriphos) in 400 litres of water/acre at post-germination stage (about 45 days after planting). Earth up slightly and follow with light irrigation

6. Sugarcane Top-Borer Scirpophaga novella Fabricius (Lepidoptera; Pyralidiadae)
This pest, apart from sugarcane is also found on Sarkanda, Kahi and some other grasses. The full-grown caterpillar is creamy white and 20-30 mm long. The moth are pure white. A female moth carries a red dish tuft of silken hairs at the tip of its abdomen. Life cycle : The moths emerge during March and start laying eggs on the under surface of the leaves. Eggs hatch in 5-7 days. The young larvae bore into the mid rib of a leaf, mining their way to the base. They become full-grown in 4-5 weeks. The pupation

takes place inside the cane for 7-9 days. Thus this pest has 4-5 generations up to November and passes winter as a full-grown larva in the cane tops. Damage : The young plants attacked by this pest show characteristic reddish streaks on the mid-ribs of the leaves and also show a number of shot-holes in the leaves, ultimately causing dead hearts. After the formation of canes, the attacked plants show peculiar bunchy tops (Photo 4.24). Control : 1. Cut the attacked shoots at the ground level from April to June. 2. Apply 12 kg of Furadan 3 G (carbofuran) or Thimet 10 G (phorate) at the base of the shoots in the last week of June. Earth up slightly and give a light irrigation immediately.

7. Gurdaspur Borer Bissetia steniellus (Hampson) (Lepidoptera; Crambidae)
It appears from June to October. A full-grown larva is creamy-white with orangebrown head. There are four side longitudinal, dark-brown stripes on the body (Photo 4.25). The moth is dull brown and has a number of dark spots along the outer margins of the fore wings. The hind wings are white. Life cycle : The moth emerges in June and lays scale-like eggs on the upper surface of the leaves. Along the mid rib. The eggs hatch in 4-9 days. The young larvae enter the top portion of a cane through a single hole just above a node. They feed gregariously for about 7-10 days by making spiral galleries which run upwards. As the larvae grow they come out of the cane and disperse attacking adjoining canes individually. Larval stage is completed in 19-27 days and undergoes pupation for 6-12 days. The pest completes the life-cycle in 5-6 weeks and it has 2 or 3 generations in a year. It passes the winter and the early part of summer as a full-grown larva in sugarcane stubble. Damage : This borer causes the withering of the central leaves notably the fifth leaf followed by the total drying up of the tops. With a slight jerk to the affected canes, they break at the point of attack. Control : 1. Rogue out the canes showing withered tops, every week from June to September. Burn or bury them deep in soil. 2. Plough up the fields not meant for rationing and destroy the stubbles before June.

8. Stalk Borer

Chilo auricilia Dudgeon (Lepidoptera; Crambidae)
It is commonly know as the Tarai borer and is found mainly on sugarcane. The full-grown larva is light bluish pink in colour with five longitudinal violet stripes on its back. The forewings of the straws-coloured moth have golden spots and the hind wings are silvery white. Life cycle : The insect is active throughout the year but its peak period of activity is from March to October. In February, scale like eggs are laid in leaf-sheaths or on the underside of leaves. The young larvae emerge from eggs in 7 days. The larval period is completed in 21 to 42 days. The pupation occurs within cane for 7 days. The full life cycle is completed in 35 to 63 days. In all, 5 to 6 overlapping generations are completed in a year. During winter, it is found in larval forming canes or stubbles. Damage : It causes damage in the larval stage by feeding inside the stem. A larva feeds for some times in one node and then comes out to attack another node. Thus cane may be attacked at several places (Photo 4.26). The cane yield and sugar recovery are adversely affected. Control : 1. Do not ratoon a heavily infested crop. 2. Do not leave the water-shoots in the field. 3. Do not plant the cane set from the infested field. 4. Staple 40 Tricho-cards (5cm x 2.5cm) hard paper piece glued with 7 days old eggs of laboratory host, Corcyra Cephalonica parasitized by Trichogramma chilonis to the undersides of sugarcane leaves from July to October at 10 days interval. Normally 10-12 releases are required. 5.

ARHAR Arhar Leaf-Webber Cydia critica (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera; Eucosmidae)
The leaf-webber is a regular pest of pigeon pea in the Punjab State. Besides pigeon pea, it also infests the sunhemp. Newly emerged larva is yellowish white with brown head. Later on it turns to light brown and finally to dark brown. Moths are dusky brown with forewing having four black dots and a silvery transverse mark. Life cycle : It appears on pigeon pea in July and remains active till December. Eggs are laid singly on leaves. The oval creamy white eggs hatch in 3-6 days and the larval period varies from 17-26 days. Pupation takes place in white silken covering within the webbed leaves and lasts for 6-9 days. Hibernation in form of larval stage, takes place from December to March on left over pigeon pea plants or webbed leaves attached to

harvested arhar sticks. Damage : The larvae feed on the tender shoots of the plant. They web the top 3 of 4 leaves of terminal shoots to form a shelter in which they harbour, feed and pupate. In case of severe infestation, the growth and development of the crop especially the flower setting or pod formation is hindered (Photo 4.27). Control : Spray 700 g Sevin 50 WP (carbaryl) or 400 ml Hexasulfan (endosulfan) in 80-120 litres of water per acre at the time of 50 per cent flowering. Repeat the spray after 15 days.

MOONG Moong Aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera; Aphididae)
The details about its life cycle is given under groundnut aphid. Damage : The black aphid attacks the flowers and pods. It sucks plant sap resulting in shrivelling of pods and grains (Photo 4.28). Control : Same as given under groundnut.

WHEAT 1. Termite Microtermes obesi (Holmgr.) (Isoptera; Termitidae)
Damage : Termites damage wheat crop soon after sowing and near maturity. The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears which have no grains (Photo 4.29 a & b). Control : 1. Treat the seed @ 4 ml Dursban/Ruban/Durmet 20 EC (Chlorpyriphos) or 7 ml Thiodan 35 EC (Endosulfan) per kg seed. Dilute 160 ml of Dursban/Ruban/Durmet/ or 280 ml Thiodan in one litre water and spray the same on 40 kg seed spread as a thin layer on the pucca ground or polythene sheet. 2. To the standing crop, apply 1 litre of Thiodan 35 EC with irrigation water or

dilute Thiodan 35 EC in 2 litres of water, mix it with 20 kg of sand and broadcast in the infested field and irrigate afterwards.

2. ARMY WORM Mythimna separate Haworth (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)
It is a sporadic pest of wheat, sugarcane, maize, jowar, bajra and other graminaceous crops. The adult moths of this pest are pale brown. Freshly emerged larvae are very active, dull white and later on turn green (Photo 4.30). Life cycle : During March, round and black eggs are laid which hatch in 4-11 days during March-May and in 19 days during December-January. In spring, the larval stage is completed in 13-14 days, but in winter it is prolonged to 88-100 days. The pupal stage is completed in 9 to 48 days. Damage : In the early stages, the young larvae feed on tender leaves in the central whorl of the plant. As they grow, they begin to feed on older leaves and skeletonize them totally. The grown up caterpillars throw out faecal pellets, which are quite prominent. In case of severe attack whole leaves are consumed and field look as if grazed by cattle. The pest may also eat away ears. Including the awns and developing trains. Control : Spray 350 ml Folithion/Sumithion 50 EC (fenitrothion) or 200 ml Nuvan 85 SL (DDVP) or 1.2 litres of Diptrex 50 EC (trichlorphon) or 400 ml Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos) in 100 litres of water per acre.

RAPE AND MUSTARD 1. Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Hemiptera; Aphididae)
It is a serious pest of cruciferous oilseeds like sarson, raya, toria, taramira and vegetables like cauliflower, cabbage, knoll-khol, etc. The nymphs and wingless adults are pale-greenish, louse-like insects. Life cycle : This pest remains active in plains during November to March. It breeds parthenogenetically and the females deliver 26 to 133 nymphs. The nymphs become adult in 7-10 days. About 45 overlapping generations are completed in a year. The winged forms are produced in autumn and spring which migrate/disperse to long distances.

Damage : Both the nymphs and adults suck cell sap from plants as a result of which the leaves acquire a curly appearance, the flowers fail to form pods and whatever pods develop they do not produce healthy seeds (Photo 4.31). Control : When plant infested by aphids reach 40-50% (observe 100 plants/acre), then spray 250-400 ml of Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton methyl) or Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos) or Anthio 25 EC (formothion) or Malathion 50 EC (malathion) or 375-600 ml Dursban/Coroban 20 EC (Chlorpyriphos) or 60-100 ml Dimecron 85 SL (phosphamidon) in 80-125 litres of spray fluid per acre depending upon the stage of crop.

2. Mustard Leaf Miner Phytomyza horticola Goureau Phytomyza horticola Goureau (Diptera; Agromyzidae)
It is a regular pest of Brassica crops and peas. The adults are two-winged flies, which have a greyish black back and yellowish speck near head. The newly hatched larva is white whereas old larva becomes brown. Life cycle : This pest remains active from December to May and passes rest of the period in the soil in the pupal stage. The adults emerge in December and lay small transparent eggs singly in the leaf tissue. The incubation period is 2-3 days. The larval stage lasts for 6 days in zig zag leaf tunnels. The life cycle is completed in 14 days. The pest has several generations during its active period. Damage : The leaf-miner larvae feed on chlorophyll by maiing zig-zag mines into the leaves and, this hinders photosynthesis (Photo 4.32). Control : Spray 350 ml of Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton methyl) or Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 100 ml of Dimecron 85 SL (Phosphamidon) in 100 litres water per acre. Repeat at 15-20 days interval, if necessary.

3. Bihar Hairy Caterpillar Diacrisia oblique Walker (Lepidoptera; Arctiidae)
The Bihar hairy caterpillar is a sporadic polyphagous insect. It attacks crop like mustard, sesamum, mash, moong, linseed and some vegetables. Adult is browncolour. Larva is reddish yellow and its body remains covered with hairs.

Life cycle : The adults emerge in March. The female lays 410 to 1250 light green spherical eggs, in clusters on the underside of leaves. The eggs hatch in 8-13 days. The larvae become full grown in 28 to 56 days. The pupation takes place in plant debris or in soil for 7 to 14 days. The full life-cycle is completed in 42 to 84 days. There are three to four generations in a year. Damage : After emergence, the young larvae feed gregariously on the green portion of the leaf. Caterpillars eat leaves and soft portions of stems and branches. In the case of severe infestation, the plants may be completely defoliated (Photo 4.33). Control : 1. Use light traps for the destruction of moths. 2. Young larvae can be destroyed by plucking the infested leaves or by pulling out the infested plants and bury them underground. 3. The grown up caterpillars can be destroyed by picking and putting them into kerosenized water. If the population is high; then spray 500 ml of Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos) or 200 ml of Nuvan 85 SL (dichlorvos) in 100-200 litres of water per acre or by dusting 15 kg of 5% Malathion/Diptrex dust per acre.

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