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Introduction to Physiology / Pharmacology 2 / L1

Introduction to Physiology / Pharmacology 2 / L1

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Published by Sherwan R Shal
First Lecture to students / Physiology / L1
First Lecture to students / Physiology / L1

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Sherwan R Shal on Oct 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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General Introduction Definitions

Minimum Requirements for Students
y y y y y y y y

A PC or Laptop (Better). Internet Acess (Min. 20 KB/Sec.) Notebook. Essentials of Windows, Office 2007 (Word, Excell, Power Point, «. ). Basic Programs: Google (Web, image, video). www.scribd.com and www.4shared.com Internet download manager, Flash saver and Real Player (Golden Edition).

Get It !


Allowed «.
Questions. y Notes. y Suggestions. y Permissions. y Logic criticism. y Invite Friends and other students. y SHARE JOKES and HUMORS.

Undue laugh, smile, whispers, .. y Mobile Phone for ANY REASON. y Smoking, eating, drinking, «.. y Fetish Costumes and Makeup !!

In summary
y You

should look and act like a student«. y And we should offer the best for you. y This is our DEAL or Contract

Human Physiology ` Study of how the human body functions. ` Physiology = NORMAL ` Pathophysiology:
` How

physiological processes are altered in disease or injury.

Main Goal of Physiology.

main goal is achievement of HOMEOSTASIS. HOMEOSTASIS. ` This is Maintaining constancy of internal environment. ` Dynamic consistency. ` Maintained by feedback loops.
` The

Definition of Homeostasis
` Homeostasis,

from the Greek words for "same" and "steady," refers to any process that living things use to actively maintain fairly stable conditions necessary for survival«

Internal components of homeostasis
1. Concentration

of oxygen and carbon

dioxide 2. pH of the internal environment 3. Concentration of nutrients and waste products 4. Concentration of salt and other electrolytes 5. Volume and pressure of extracellular fluid

Control Systems
` Open

systems are linear and have no feedback, such as a light switch. Closed Systems has two components: a sensor and an effector, such as a thermostat (sensor) and furnace (effector). Most physiological systems in the body use feedback to maintain the body's internal environment.

Extrinsic Control System



Most homeostatic systems are extrinsic: they are controlled from outside the body. Endocrine and nervous systems are the major control systems in higher animals. The nervous system depends on sensors in the skin or sensory organs to receive stimuli and transmit a message to the spinal cord or brain. Sensory input is processed and a signal is sent to an effector system, such as muscles or glands, that effects the response to the stimulus.

Intrinsic Control System
` Local, or

intrinsic, controls usually involve only one organ or tissue. ` When muscles use more oxygen, and also produce more carbon dioxide, intrinsic controls cause dilation of the blood vessels allowing more blood into those active areas of the muscles. ` Eventually the vessels will return to "normal".

Feedback Loops
` Sensor:
` Detects

deviation from set point.

` Integrating ` Effector:
` Produces

the response.

` Determines

the response.

The LOOP (Negative Phase)

The LOOP (Negative Phase)

Negative Feedback Mechanisms
` ` `

Defending the set point. Reverse the deviation. Produces change in opposite direction.

Example (Insulin Injection) {Negative FB}

So, in summary« Negative FB

Positive Feedback
` Action

of effectors amplifies the change. ` Is in same direction as change. ` Examples:
` Oxytocin

(parturition). ` Blood Cloting ` Voltage gated Na+ channels (depolarization)

Note that« !!
` Most

of body activities and mechanisms for homeostasis are (( Negative FeedBack)), few are (( Positive FeedBack)).

In Positive FeedBack

` Go


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