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Digital Visual Interface

Digital Visual Interface

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Published by Abhishek Vr
about digital visual interface
about digital visual interface

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Published by: Abhishek Vr on Oct 06, 2010
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12/03/2012

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

OUTLINE 
INTRODUCTION  ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS  BANDWIDTH  DIGITAL MONITOR POWER MANAGEMENT  SIGNAL LIST  COMPARISON OF DIGITAL AND ANALOG CONTROLLERS  OTHER DIGITAL INTERFACING STANDARDS  SCOPE AND MOTIVATION  CONCLUSION  REFERENCE
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

INTRODUCTION 
It is known as DVI It provides high speed digital connection for visual data types Primarily focused at connection between computer and display device Digital and analog support in single connector

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS TMDS 
It is known as transition minimized differential signaling Used to send graphics data to the monitor Implemented by an advanced encoding algorithm

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

CONTD.. 

Transmitter uses TMDS signals to reduce EMI across copper cables and DC balancing for data transmission over fiber optic cables 

Receiver side uses robust clock recovery to achieve high skew tolerance for driving longer cable lengths and shorter low cost cables

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

PLUG AND PLAY SPECIFICATION 
VGA Compliant device might be assumed by the graphics controller DDC2B Protocol to determine what pixel formats and interface is supported EDID data structure for the identification of the monitor type and capabilities Hot plug detection allows system to determine when a DVI compliant monitor has been plugged in Two parameters that affect the user perception of the picture quality are gamma and scaling
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

TMDS LINK SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 
A DVI system must implement a minimum of single TMDS link Pixel formats and timings greater than 165MHz TMDS clock then second TMDS link is required Dual TMDS links switch between pixel formats that require single and dual link configurations

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

TMDS LINK MONITOR REQUIREMENTS 
A DVI monitor must implement minimum of single TMDS link If monitor supports greater than 165MHz then second TMDS link is required Dual link TMDS monitor must be able to detect the activity of each link and switch between single and dual link configurations

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

HIGH COLOR DEPTH SUPPORT 
Color depths requiring greater than 24bit per pixel are supported via second link The most significant bits provided over the primary TMDS link and least significant bits provided over secondary TMDS link If monitor does not support high color depth the system must be able to operate in the required 24bit format

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

LOW PIXEL FORMAT SUPPORT 
It allows a default operation mode A legible picture does not require the image to be scaled to full screen or centered Video BIOS is required to respond all VESA BIOS calls and INT 10 BIOS calls,it is acceptable for hardware to emulate legacy mode

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

EDID SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 
EDID 1.2 and 2.0 are used for systems The system reads the EDID data structure to determine the capabilities supported by monitor Digital monitors that uses TMDS electrical specification supports both EDID 1.2 data structure and EDID 2.0 data structure

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

EDID MONITOR REQUIREMENTS 
A DVI monitor must support the EDID data structure EDID 1.2 and 2.0 are used for systems EDID Preferred timing mode

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

HOT PLUGGING 
It is a system level function requiring industry specifications at both hardware and software levels This section is limited to the specification of hot plug signal that provides hardware underpinning for complete system solution There are 2 hot plug events a) Monitor attachment b) Monitor removal

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

BANDWIDTH
MINIMUM FREQUENCY SUPPORTED  Link to differentiate between an active low pixel format and power managed state  Low pixel format is 640x480@60 Hz(clock time of 25.175 MHz)  The link is inactive if clock transitions are less than 22.5 MHz

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CONTD..

ALTERNATE MEDIA 

TMDS transmission protocol is DC balanced and transmitted over fiber optic cable  Fibre optic-DVI compliant  Alternate media-connector to connector adapter

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

DIGITAL MONITOR POWER MANAGEMENT 
Defines power management as applied over TMDS link for any monitor type  Four monitor power states are present 1) 2) 3) 4) Monitor on power state Intermediate power state Active off power state Non link recoverable off power state

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

SIGNAL LIST 

There are three types of connectors a) DVI-D (digital only) b) DVI-A(analog only) c) DVI-I(digital &analog)

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

CONTD..

Types of connectors

Pin numbers (looking at socket): (DVI-I, dual link)

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

PIN NUMBER DESCRIPTION(DVI-I,DUAL LINK)
Pin assignments Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name TMDS Data 2TMDS Data 2+ TMDS Data 2/4 shield TMDS Data 4 TMDS Data 4+ DDC clock DDC data Analog Vertical Sync TMDS Data 1 TMDS Data 1+ TMDS Data 1/3 shield TMDS Data 3 Digital blue
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

Function Digital red - (Link 1) Digital red + (Link 1)

Digital green

(Link 2)

Digital green + (Link 2)

Digital green

(Link 1)

Digital green + (Link 1)

(Link 2)

CONTD..
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 TMDS Data 3+ +5V Ground Hot Plug Detect TMDS data 0 TMDS data 0+ TMDS data 0/5 shield TMDS data 5 TMDS data 5+ TMDS clock shield TMDS clock+ TMDS clock Analog Red Analog Green Analog Blue Analog Horizontal Sync Analog Ground Digital blue + (Link 2) Power for monitor when in standby Return for pin 14 and analog sync Digital blue (Link 1) and digital sync Digital blue + (Link 1) and digital sync Digital red (Link 2) Digital red + (Link 2) Digital clock + (Links 1 and 2) Digital clock (Links 1 and 2)

Return for R, G and B signals
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

COMPARISON OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL CONTROLLERS DIGITAL CONTROL ADVANTAGES  No signal loss due to DA and AD conversion  Geometry,clock and phase settings unnecesssary  Lower costs as less electronic circuitry required DISADVANTAGES  Three standards(P&D,DFP,DVI)  Low availability of models with digital interfaces  Requires graphic board with digital output
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

CONTD..
ANALOG CONTROL ADVANTAGES  Compatible with standard VGA boards on a broad installed PC basis  No need to purchase separate board DISADVANTAGES  Clock and phase must be synchronized with analog signal to avoid pixel jitter  Cables sensitive to external influences  High cost of signal conversion inside the display  Upgrade to digital22 interface not possible
DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

OTHER DIGITAL INTERFACING STANDARDS
Standard Owner Revision / Date Web page Workgroup leader Compatibility P & D (M1DA) VESA (Video Electronics Standards Organization) 1.0 / Jun 06, 1997 www.vesa.org VESA Own standard TMDS - Transmission Minimizing Differential Signaling (PanelLink) 165 MHz x 1 3 channels (single link) DFP DVI DFP Group (Digital Flat Panel DDWG (Digital Display Working Group) and later VESA Group) 1.0 / Feb 14, 1999 www.dfp-group.org Compaq P & D (M1DA) compatible (adapter possible) TMDS (PanelLink) 165 MHz x 1 3 channels (single link) 12 or 24 bit SXGA (1280 x 1024) No, only digital video MDR20 (20 pin) 1.0 / Apr 02, 1999 www.ddwg.org Intel P & D (M1DA) and DFP compatible (adapter possible) TMDS (PanelLink) 165 MHz x 1 6 channels (dual link) 12 or 24 bit HDTV (1920 x 1080) Analog VESA video DVI-D (24 pin) DVI-I (24 + 4 pin) 37.0 mm

Transfer protocol Max. Pixel rate (Dot Clock) Max. number of channels

Color depths 12 or 24 bit Max. Resolution SXGA (1280 x 1024) Optional transfer of other Analog VESA video, USB, signals possible using the same IEEE 1394-1995 connector Digital Connector Analog/Digital combination connector Connector width P & D (M1DA)-D (30 pin)

P & D (M1DA)-a/d (30+4 pin) No 40.6 mm 23 33.4 mm

DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

SCOPE AND MOTIVATION 
It provides industry specification for a digital interface between personal computing device and a display device  Simple low cost implementation  It specifies two connectors,one that is digital only and one that is digital and analog  Digital interface ensures all content transferred over this interface remains in the lossless digital domain from creation to consumption  TMDS protocol and associated electrical signaling are devoleped by silicon image
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

CONCLUSION 
Losseless digital domain from creation to consumpion  Display technology independence  Plug and play through through hot plug detection  EDID and DDC2B digital and analog support in single connector  No signal losses and lower costs  A potential replacement for DVI is unified display interface(UDI)
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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

REFERENCES
1. www.ddwg.org 2. www.answers.com 3. www.pacificcable.com/DVI_Tutorial.htm 4 www.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVI

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

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DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE

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