3-Tier Architecture

3-Tier Architecture

Prepared By

Channu Kambalyal

Page 1 of 19

.........0 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture .......... 6 5......................... etc........................................................0 Architectures in Discover Financial Services .................................................3-Tier Architecture Table of Contents 1..................................................1 Web Services.............. 17 11....... 16 11...................................1 Current DAS Architecture...0 Distributed Systems............................3 Future WebSphere Based System....................... 7 6............................................................................................................ 5 4................................................................................ 15 10....................................................................................0 Client/Server Model .......................................0 Architecture Trends ................................................................................................................................................... 14 10........ 14 10........... 4 3.................................................................0 Client/Server 2-Tier Architecture ..................................................... J2EE Connectors........0 Inter-process Communication................. 17 11....................WebSphere based system ............................. 11 9.............2 Migration from DAS-Tuxedo based to J2EE ........0 Benefits of the Client/Server Model ............................... 9 8.....0 Traditional Host Systems... 3 2............ 13 10.......2 Business Process Management (BPM).......... 8 7........................0 Distributed Client/Server Model ....... Message Brokers............. 19 Page 2 of 19 ..0 Middleware .................................................................

Local Terminals are responsible for display and keyboard for user input and viewing capabilities.0.2 Traditional Host System with LAN Page 3 of 19 .0 Traditional Host Systems A Central Processing System (Mainframe) provides all processing. Computer Keyboard Server Computer Keyboard Mainframe Computer Keyboard Server Computer Keyboard Figure 1.1 Non-Client-Server System File Server and retrieval processing provided by File Server Word Processing and spreadsheet processing provided by PC workstation.0. Computer Keyboard Computer Keyboard Mainfram e Computer Keyboard Figure 1.3-Tier Architecture 1. Local Terminals do not contain any intelligent processing capabilities.

3. Corporate Data Centers Data Queries Da ta U Computer Computer Computer Host pd at es Regional Centers server R Database g tin ou ta s sk RoutineTasks s sk Ta Computer Computer Computer Data Replication server g tin ou R Database Routine tasks Ro uti n Computer Computer Computer t Da a da Up s te e ta sk s Computer Computer Computer Data Queries Host Figure 1. each computer playing a specific role in the system. Replication Ensures data at all sites in a distributed system reflects any changes made anywhere in the system.3-Tier Architecture 2. Distributed Data Centers Page 4 of 19 .0 Distributed Systems Distributed System Both data and transaction processing are divided between one or more computers connected by a network.

PC Workstation Application Server PC Workstations server Computer Database Computer Application Services Database retrievel and updating Application Logic Computer GUI presentation Figure 3.1 Client/Server 3-Tier Model Page 5 of 19 . in which a single mainframe provides shared data access to many dumb terminals. 2. in which many isolated systems access a file server that provides no central processing power. and. The local area network (LAN) model. Database Server 2. The traditional mainframe host model. Application Server 3. • • Provides integration of data and services Application Processing provided by multiple tiers – 1.3-Tier Architecture 3.0 Client/Server Model • • Complements distributed systems Responds to limitations found in the two host data processing models: 1.

Application Servers 3.1 Distributed Client/Server Model Page 6 of 19 .0 Distributed Client/Server Model • Application processing provided by all tiers of the network – 1. Mainframe 2.3-Tier Architecture 4. Workstations • • • Multiple databases to support distributed data requirements Supports high volume. load balancing and scalability (extendibility) Requires extensive network administration and application management. Application Server PC Workstations Computer Computer Application Logic Application Server Computer GUI presentation Mainframe PC Workstations Computer Database Computer Computer Database retrievel and updating Application Server PC Workstations Computer Computer Datab ase Computer Figure 4.

1 Inter-Process Communication Page 7 of 19 .3-Tier Architecture 5.0 Inter-process Communication • • • • Basis for client/server computing Client process communicates with server process Each process performs separate functions Data is passed between processes using IPC functions Client Process Server Process Get input from user Request processing from server Inter-process Communication Receive request for processing Receive returned values Pipes FIFOs Message Queues Semaphores Shared Memory Sockets Streams Retreive and process data Relational Database Return values Display output to user Figure 5.

large amount of memory and disk space) Scales Horizontally – Multiple servers. such as minicomputer or a mainframe to take advantage of the larger system’s performance Reduces Data Replication .3-Tier Architecture 6.Data stored on the servers instead of each client..Can be moved to more powerful machines.g.g. graphics and mouse support) Optimizes the Server for data processing and storage (e.. Scales Vertically . can be added to distribute processing load. each server having capabilities and processing power. • Page 8 of 19 . reducing the amount of data replication for the application.0 Benefits of the Client/Server Model • Divides Application Processing across multiple machines: Non-critical data and functions are processed on the client Critical functions are processed on the server • • • • Optimizes Client Workstations for data input and presentation (e.

3-Tier Architecture 7.1 Client/Server 2-Tier Architecture Page 9 of 19 . CPU) o Requires application code to be distributed to each client workstation Client Workstation Server Machine Client Program GUI presentation logic database request Da ta File Access Routines re q ue s te Da d ta ret u rn ed Database Management System Client Workstation Client Program GUI presentation logic database request ted ues req a d Dat rne retu ata D Database Files File Access Routines Figure 7.0 Client/Server 2-Tier Architecture Two-tier client/server architectures have 2 essential components 1. A Client PC and 2. A Database Server 2-Tier Considerations: • Client program accesses database directly o Requires a code change to port to a different database o Potential bottleneck for data requests o High volume of traffic due to data shipping • Client program executes application logic o Limited by processing capability of client workstation (memory.

which provides higher performance. This slows down database operations on database server. Performance: • Adequate performance for low to medium volume environments • Business logic and database are physically close. since database server is required to perform business logic. Page 10 of 19 .3-Tier Architecture Two – Tier Pros and Cons Advantages Development Issues: • Simple structure • Easy to setup and maintain Disadvantages Development Issues: • Complex application rules difficult to implement in database server – requires more code for the client • Complex application rules difficult to implement in client and have poor performance • Changes to business logic not automatically enforced by a server – changes require new client side software to be distributed and installed • Not portable to other database server platforms Performance: • Inadequate performance for medium to high volume environments.

A Database Server 3-Tier Architecture Considerations: • Client program contains presentation logic only o Less resources needed for client workstation o No client modification if database location changes o Less code to distribute to client workstations One server handles many client requests o More resources available for server program o Reduces data traffic on the network Server Machine Server Machine • Client Workstation Client Program GUI presentation Requests for aplication function Server Program Application Logic Database Requests Database Management System Communication Functions Communication Functions Database File Figure 1. A Client PC 2.8.3-Tier Architecture 8. An Application Server 3. Typical 3 – Tier Architecture Page 11 of 19 .0 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture 3-Tier client-server architectures have 3 essential components: 1.

3-Tier Architecture 3 – Tier Pros and Cons Advantages Development Issues: • Complex application rules easy to implement in application server • Business logic off-loaded from database server and client. Page 12 of 19 . Performance: • The physical separation of application servers containing business logic functions and database servers containing databases may moderately affect performance. which improves performance • Changes to business logic automatically enforced by server – changes require only new application server software to be installed • Application server logic is portable to other database server platforms by virtue of the application software Performance: • Superior performance for medium to high volume environments Disadvantages Development Issues: • More complex structure • More difficult to setup and maintain.

Middleware Characteristics: o o o o o Simplifies partitioning of application processing among clients and servers Manages distributed transactions among multiple databases Communicates with heterogeneous database products within a single application. load-balancing. data dependant routing and queuing.0 Middleware Simplifies 3-tier application development and administration by providing an extra application server layer to manage communication between components.9 Middleware Page 13 of 19 . Supports application scalability Supports service requests prioritization.3-Tier Architecture 9. Server Client Application Servers Client Application Client-Side Middelware Cimmunication (IPC) Server-Side Middleware Relational Database Figure 1.

Routers) About 500 to 4000 PC Clients in 7 centers AIX .1 Current DAS Architecture Key Features: 1. Svc. 2. DAS – built on DCE-RPC based BEA Tuxedo Middleware (C based) Clients to Tuxedo based on CORBA based Visibroker (C++/Java based) Java based client applications using IIOP for Corba Mainframe connectivity uses SNA over TCP/IP Page 14 of 19 . (Req. 3.Tuxedo Based Application Server SNA over TCP/IP Gtway Svc Mainframe UOW Mgr Svc CORBA Servers (TuxedoClient) IIOP Java Clients Java Clients Partial Application Logic Java Clients GUI presentation & most of the App Logic Fig. 4. 10.0 Architectures in Discover Financial Services 10.1 Current DAS Architecture TUXEDO DOMAIN in 7 Centers AIX .Tuxedo Based Application Server Primary Databasein Riverwoods Database BATCH Processes Appl.3-Tier Architecture 10.

Tuxedo Based Application Server SNA over TCP/IP Database Replication Gtway Svc Mainframe UOW Mgr Svc CORBA Servers (TuxedoClient) IIOP About 500 to 4000 PC Clients in 7 centers Partial Application Logic Dist. Routers) AIX .Tuxedo to WebSphere based system Current Status: • • Currently out of about 800 TPS about 45% of transaction currently run through DAS and remaining through WebSphere Expected date of migration is July/August 2005 Page 15 of 19 .3-Tier Architecture 10. Svc. 10. Servers in 2 centers AIX based Database Server IRM P IIO Java Clients Database JDBC AP SO EJBs GUI presentation & most of the App Logic WebServices Partial Application Logic Fig.WebSphere based system TUXEDO DOMAIN in 7 Centers AIX . Batch Server Java Clients Java Clients Batch Processes DB2 Connect AIX based WebSphere App. (Req.2 Migration from DAS-Tuxedo based to J2EE .2 Migration from DAS.Tuxedo Based Application Server Primary Databasein Riverwoods Database BATCH Processes Appl.

5.IIOP Java Clients Mainframe WebServices SOAP Java Clients Dist. Servers in 2 centers Java Clients EJBs RMI . 3.3-Tier Architecture 10.3 Future WebSphere Based 3-Tier Architecture Key Features: 1.3 Future WebSphere Based System About 500 to 4000 PC Clients in 7 centers AIX based WebSphere App. 2. 4. Batch Server Batch Processes BC JD Partial Application Logic GUI presentation & most of the App Logic AIX based Database Server in 2 centers Database Fig 10. Latest J2EE based client applications using RMI over IIOP Few SOAP based implementations with few Web-Services J2EE based WebSphere Application Server DB2 Connect used for Java – Mainframe – DB2 connectivity JDBC used for Oracle – EJB connectivity and Transaction Management Page 16 of 19 .

• • • • • JMS – Java Message Service • • • • • • JMS defines the standard for reliable Enterprise Messaging Enterprise messaging. Page 17 of 19 . Message sends and receives can participate in Java Transaction API (JTA) transactions.Universal Description. See diagram of N-Tier Architecture for an overview of all these technologies and how they fit in. An EIS vendor needs to provide just one standard resource adapter. Different applications from different sources can communicate with each other without timeconsuming custom coding.Used to transfer the data WSDL is used for describing the services available UDDI .Used to list what services are available. Developers can then add the Web service to a GUI (such as a Web page or an executable program) to offer specific functionality to users. Web services are not tied to any one operating system or programming language. such as a Web server/Web page system. Web services instead share business logic.1 Web Services.0 Architecture Trends 11. often also referred to as Messaging Oriented Middleware (MOM). universally recognized as an essential tool for building enterprise applications Provides a reliable. Discovery and Integration . and the enterprise application. Resource adapter plugs into an application server. not the users. which has the capability to plug in to any application server that supports the J2EE Connector architecture.4 application server. WSDL and UDDI A means for businesses to communicate with each other and with clients Allow organizations to communicate data without intimate knowledge of each other's IT systems behind the firewall Unlike traditional client/server models. Web services do not provide the user with a GUI. For example. SOAP. The applications interface. J2EE Connector Architecture • • • The J2EE Connector architecture enables an EIS vendor to provide a standard resource adapter for its EIS. as all communication is in XML. the application server.3-Tier Architecture 11.Used to tag the data SOAP – Simple Object Access Protocol . etc Web Services • • • • A standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML. Message-driven beans enable the asynchronous consumption of JMS messages. flexible service for the asynchronous exchange of critical business data and events throughout an enterprise. Message Brokers. data and processes through a programmatic interface across a network. J2EE Connectors. Java can talk with Perl. providing connectivity between the EIS. Windows applications can talk with UNIX applications XML – Extensible Markup Language . J2EE Connector Architecture allows JMS implementations from different vendors to be externally plugged into a J2EE 1.

HTML.3-Tier Architecture Internet Explorer . CORBA. Style Sheets. DHTML. Servlets. XML Databases.1 Typical N-Tier Architecture using Web Services. DHTML. EJB. Java Applets. JMS. Java Script Internet Explorer . JSP Page 18 of 19 . Java Script Thin Java Clients Internet IBM HTTP Server JSPs Servlets WebSphere Application Server Web Service EJB Container EJB J T S EJB EJB XML Engine JNDI XML Database XML Integrators EJB EJB EJB Connector Framework Connector External Transaction Systems Java IDL JDBC JMS Distributed CORBA Clients Database LEGACY Systems Figure 11.HTML. Connectors. Style Sheets. Java Applets.

2 Typical Business Process Model (Source: WebLogic Workshop Integrator 8.3-Tier Architecture 11. as well as the coordinated exchange of information between trading partners outside of the enterprise. Focuses on Business Process Documentation to Executable! Further Reference .org Figure 11.BPMI.0) Page 19 of 19 .2 Business Process Management (BPM) • • • Business Process Management (BPM) enables the integration of diverse applications and human participants.

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