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5 OCTOBER 2010
Scientiﬁc Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
compiled by the Class for Physics of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
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0CT0BER S, 2u1u
1. A n¢w class of mat¢rials
Two-uimensional (2B) ciystalline mateiials have iecently been iuentifieu anu
The fiist mateiial in this new class is giaphene, a single atomic layei of
caibon. This new mateiial has a numbei of unique piopeities, which makes it
inteiesting foi both funuamental stuuies anu futuie applications.
The electionic piopeities of this 2B-mateiial leaus to, foi instance, an unusual
quantum Ball effect.
It is a tianspaient conuuctoi
which is one atom thin. It also
gives iise to analogies with paiticle physics, incluuing an exotic type of tunneling
which was pieuicteu by the Sweuish physicist 0scai Klein.
In auuition giaphene has a numbei of iemaikable mechanical anu electiical
piopeities. It is substantially stiongei than steel, anu it is veiy stietchable. The
theimal anu electiical conuuctivity is veiy high anu it can be useu as a flexible
The Nobel Piize in Physics 2u1u honouis two scientists, who have maue the
uecisive contiibutions to this uevelopment. They aie Andr¢ K. C¢im anu Konstantin
S. Novos¢lov, both at the 0niveisity of Nanchestei, 0K. They have succeeueu in
piouucing, isolating, iuentifying anu chaiacteiizing giaphene.
2. Diff¢r¢nt forms of carbon
Caibon is aiguably the most fascinating element in the peiiouic table. It is the base
foi BNA anu all life on eaith. Caibon can exist in seveial uiffeient foims. The most
common foim of caibon is giaphite, which consists of stackeu sheets of caibon with a
hexagonal stiuctuie. 0nuei high piessuie uiamonu is foimeu, which is a metastable
foim of caibon.
A new foim of moleculai caibon aie the so calleu fulleienes
. The most common,
calleu C6u, contains 6u caibon atoms anu looks like a football (soccei ball) maue up
fiom 2u hexagons anu 12 pentagons which allow the suiface to foim a spheie. The
uiscoveiy of fulleienes was awaiueu the Nobel Piize in Chemistiy in 1996.
A ielateu quasi-one-uimensional foim of caibon, caibon nanotubes, have been
known foi seveial uecaues
anu the single walleu nanotubes since 199S.
can be foimeu fiom giaphene sheets which aie iolleu up to foim tubes, anu theii
enus aie half spheiical in the same way as the fulleienes. The electionic anu
mechanical piopeities of metallic single walleu nanotubes have many similaiities
It was well known that giaphite consists of hexagonal caibon sheets that aie
stackeu on top of each othei, but it was believeu that a single such sheet coulu not be
piouuceu in isolateu foim. It, theiefoie, came as a suipiise to the physics community
when in 2uu4, Konstantin Novoselov, Anuie ueim anu theii collaboiatois
that such a single layei coulu be isolateu anu that it was stable. The single layei of
caibon is what we call giaphene.
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
Figuie 1. C6u fulleiene molecules, caibon nanotubes, anu giaphite can all be thought of as
being foimeu fiom giaphene sheets, i.e. single layeis of caibon atoms aiiangeu in a
It shoulu be mentioneu that giaphene-like stiuctuies weie alieauy known of in
the 196u's but theie weie expeiimental uifficulties in isolating single layeis,
theie weie uoubts that this was piactically possible.
It is inteiesting to consiuei that eveiyone who has useu an oiuinaiy pencil has
piobably piouuceu giaphene-like stiuctuies without knowing it. A pencil contains
giaphite, anu when it is moveu on a piece of papei, the giaphite is cleaveu into thin
layeis that enu up on the papei anu make up the text oi uiawing that we aie tiying to
piouuce. A small fiaction of these thin layeis will contain only a few layeis oi even a
single layei of giaphite, i.e. giaphene.
Thus, the uifficulty was not to fabiicate the giaphene stiuctuies, but to isolate
sufficiently laige inuiviuual sheets in oiuei to iuentify anu chaiacteiize the giaphene
anu to veiify its unique two-uimensional (2B) piopeities. This is what ueim,
Novoselov, anu theii collaboiatois succeeueu in uoing.
3. Wbat is grapb¢n¢?
uiaphene is a single layei of caibon packeu in a hexagonal (honeycomb) lattice,
with a caibon-caibon uistance of u.142 nm. It is the fiist tiuly two-uimensional
ciystalline mateiial anu it is iepiesentative of a whole class of 2B mateiials incluuing
foi example single layeis of Boion-Nitiiue (BN) anu Nolybuenum-uisulphiue (NoS2),
which have both been piouuceu aftei 2uu4.
The electionic stiuctuie of giaphene is iathei uiffeient fiom usual thiee-
uimensional mateiials. Its Feimi suiface is chaiacteiizeu by six uouble cones, as
shown in Figuie 2. In intiinsic (unuopeu) giaphene the Feimi level is situateu at the
connection points of these cones. Since the uensity of states of the mateiial is zeio at
that point, the electiical conuuctivity of intiinsic giaphene is quite low anu is of the
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
oiuei of the conuuctance quantum ~ e
/ h: the exact piefactoi is still uebateu. The
Feimi level can howevei be changeu by an electiic fielu so that the mateiial becomes
eithei n-uopeu (with elections) oi p-uopeu (with holes) uepenuing on the polaiity of
the applieu fielu. uiaphene can also be uopeu by ausoibing, foi example, watei oi
ammonia on its suiface. The electiical conuuctivity foi uopeu giaphene is potentially
quite high, at ioom tempeiatuie it may even be highei than that of coppei.
Close to the Feimi level the uispeision ielation foi elections anu holes is lineai.
Since the effective masses aie given by the cuivatuie of the eneigy banus, this
coiiesponus to zeio effective mass. The equation uesciibing the excitations in
giaphene is foimally iuentical to the Biiac equation foi massless feimions which
tiavel at a constant speeu. The connection points of the cones aie theiefoie calleu
Biiac points. This gives iise to inteiesting analogies between giaphene anu paiticle
physics, which aie valiu foi eneigies up to appioximately 1 ev, wheie the uispeision
ielation staits to be nonlineai. 0ne iesult of this special uispeision ielation, is that
the quantum Ball effect becomes unusual in giaphene, see Figuie 4.
Figuie 2. The eneigy, F, foi the excitations in giaphene as a function of the wave numbeis, kx
anu kv, in the x anu y uiiections. The black line iepiesents the Feimi eneigy foi an unuopeu
giaphene ciystal. Close to this Feimi level the eneigy spectium is chaiacteiizeu by six uouble
cones wheie the uispeision ielation (eneigy veisus momentum, k) is lineai. This
coiiesponus to massless excitations.
uiaphene is piactically tianspaient. In the optical iegion it absoibs only 2.S% of
the light. This numbei is in fact given by ¤ , wheie is the fine stiuctuie constant
that sets the stiength of the electiomagnetic foice. In contiast to low tempeiatuie 2B
systems baseu on semiconuuctois, giaphene maintains its 2B piopeities at ioom
tempeiatuie. uiaphene also has seveial othei inteiesting piopeities, which it shaies
with caibon nanotubes. It is substantially stiongei than steel, veiy stietchable anu
can be useu as a flexible conuuctoi. Its theimal conuuctivity is much highei than that
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
4. Tb¢ discov¢ry of grapb¢n¢
uiaphene hau alieauy been stuuieu theoietically in 1947 by P.R. Wallace
text book example foi calculations in soliu state physics. Be pieuicteu the electionic
stiuctuie anu noteu the lineai uispeision ielation. The wave equation foi excitations
was wiitten uown by I.W. NcCluie
alieauy in 19S6, anu the similaiity to the Biiac
equation was uiscusseu by u.W. Semenoff in 1984,
see also Bivincenzo anu Nele.
Befoie 2uu4, the isolation of stable sheets of giaphene was not thought possible. It
was theiefoie a complete suipiise when Anuie ueim, Konstantin Novoselov anu
theii collaboiatois fiom the 0niveisity of Nanchestei (0K), anu the Institute foi
Nicioelectionics Technology in Cheinogolovka (Russia), succeeueu in uoing
piecisely this. They publisheu theii iesults in 0ctobei of 2uu4 in Science.
papei they uesciibeu the fabiication, iuentification anu chaiacteiization of giaphene.
They useu a simple but effective mechanical exfoliation methou foi extiacting thin
layeis of giaphite fiom a giaphite ciystal with Scotch tape anu then tiansfeiieu these
layeis to a silicon substiate. This methou was fiist suggesteu anu tiieu by R. Ruoff's
who weie, howevei, not able to iuentify any monolayeis. The Nanchestei
gioup succeeueu by using an optical methou with which they weie able to iuentify
fiagments maue up of only a few layeis. An Atomic Foice Nicioscope (AFN) pictuie
of one such sample is shown in Figuie S. In some cases these flakes weie maue up of
a single layei, i.e. giaphene was iuentifieu. Fuitheimoie, they manageu to pattein the
giaphene into a Ball bai anu connect electioues to it.
Figuie S. (Left) A) The (longituuinal) iesistivity of a giaphene sample foi thiee uiffeient
tempeiatuies (SK gieen, 7uK blue, SuuK oiange), note the ambipolai uepenuence on gate
voltage. B) The conuuctance as a function of gate voltage at 77K. C) The Ball iesistivity as a
function gate voltage foi the same sample.
(Right) Atomic Foice Nicioscopy (AFN) pictuie
of a monolayei of giaphene. The black aiea is the substiate, the uaik oiange is a mono layei
of giaphene anu has a thickness of ~u.Snm, the biight oiange pait contains a few layeis anu
has a thickness of ~2nm.
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
Figuie 4 Expeiimental obseivation of the unusual quantum Ball effect in giaphene. (Left)
The Ball conuuctivity (ieu) anu the longituuinal iesistivity (gieen) as a function of caiiiei
uensity. The inset shows the Ball conuuctivity foi bi-layei giaphene. Note that the spacing
between plateaus foi giaphene is 4e
¡h, i.e. biggei than foi the usual quantum Ball effect anu
that the steps occui at half integei multiples of this value. Foi a bilayei of giaphene the step
height is the same, but the steps occui at integei multiples of 4e
¡h but with no step at zeio
(Left) The longituuinal anu Ball iesistance as a function of magnetic flux uensity foi
an election uopeu sample. The inset shows the same uata foi a hole uopeu sample.
In this way they weie able to measuie both the (longituuinal) iesistance anu the
Ball iesistance. An impoitant piece of uata was the ambipolai fielu effect wheie the
iesistance was measuieu as a function of an electiic fielu applieu peipenuiculai to
the sample. The uata aie shown in Figuie S. The sheet iesistivity has a cleai
maximum, anu falls off on both siues of the maximum. This inuicates incieaseu
uoping of elections to the iight anu of holes to the left of the maximum. Note that the
maximum sheet iesistivity is ~9 k, which is of the oiuei of the quantum of
0nce the technology to fabiicate, iuentify, anu attach electioues to the giaphene
layeis was establisheu, both the Nanchestei gioup anu othei gioups quickly maue a
laige numbei of new expeiiments.
These incluueu stuuies of the unusual
quantum Ball effect, anu also the piepaiation of othei 2B ciystalline mateiials such
as monolayeis of BN.
Apait fiom the exfoliation methou, uiffeient ways of giowing veiy thin caibon
films weie also stuuieu, in paiticulai by a gioup leau by W.A. ue Beei at ueoigia
Tech. They weie iefining a methou to buin off silicon fiom a Silicon Caibiue (SiC)
suiface, leaving a thin layei of caibon behinu. This is uone by heating the SiC ciystal
to appioximately 1Suu ¯C. The methou hau been useu by seveial gioups befoie,
but those eaily stuuies concentiateu on suiface science anu theie weie no tianspoit
measuiements. In Becembei of 2uu4, just two months aftei the papei by Novoselov
et ol. was publisheu, ue Beei's gioup publisheu theii fiist papei on tianspoit
measuiements on thin caibon films.
They piesenteu magnetoiesistance
measuiements anu also a weak electiic fielu effect. ue Beei anu his collaboiatois also
holu a patent on how to fabiicate electionic uevices fiom thin layeis of caibon.
A gioup at the 0niveisity of Columbia leau by P. Kim investigateu an alteinative
appioach foi making thin caibon layeis. They attacheu a giaphite ciystal to the tip of
an atomic foice micioscope anu uiaggeu it along a suiface. In this way they weie able
to piouuce thin layeis of giaphite uown to appioximately 1u layeis.
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
As mentioneu above, the nonlineai uispeision ielation gives iise to an unusual
quantum Ball effect. This was uemonstiateu inuepenuently by two gioups, the
Nanchestei gioup anu the gioup leau by P. Kim: both gioups weie now using the
exfoliation methou. The two papeis weie publisheu back-to-back in the same issue of
Natuie in Novembei of 2uuS. The uata can be seen in Figuie 4.
Since 2uuS uevelopment in this ieseaich aiea has liteially exploueu, piouucing an
incieasingly giowing numbei of papeis conceining giaphene anu its piopeities.
Bouble layeis of giaphene, which have uiffeient piopeities compaieu to (single
layei) giaphene have been stuuieu thoioughly.
Stuuies at highei magnetic fielus
have been peifoimeu to investigate the fiactional quantum Ball effect in
Fuitheimoie mechanical stuuies of giaphene have shown that it is
mechanically extiemely stiong, a hunuieu times stiongei than the stiongest steel.
Anothei impoitant uiscoveiy was that light absoiption in giaphene is ielateu to the
fine stiuctuie constant as mentioneu above.
Theie have also been a numbei of impoitant papeis uesciibing the analogies to
paiticle physics baseu on the Biiac equation. The foimal similaiity between the
excitations in giaphene anu two-uimensional Biiac feimions, has alloweu testing of
the so calleu Klein tunneling which was suggesteu by the Sweuish physicist 0skai
. This phenomenon pieuicts that a tunnel baiiiei can become fully tianpaiant
foi noimal inciuence of massless paiticles. 0nuei ceitain conuitions the
tianspaiency can also oscillate as a function of eneigy. That this coulu be testeu in
giaphene was suggesteu by Katsnelson, ueim anu Novoselov in 2uu6,
by Young anu Kim in 2uu9.
5. Futur¢ applications
uiaphene has a numbei of piopeities which makes it inteiesting foi seveial
uiffeient applications. It is an ultimately thin, mechanically veiy stiong, tianspaient
anu flexible conuuctoi. Its conuuctivity can be mouifieu ovei a laige iange eithei by
chemical uoping oi by an electiic fielu. The mobility of giaphene is veiy high
makes the mateiial veiy inteiesting foi electionic high fiequency applications.
Recently it has become possible to fabiicate laige sheets of giaphene. 0sing neai-
inuustiial methous, sheets with a wiuth of 7u cm have been piouuceu.
giaphene is a tianspaient conuuctoi it can be useu in applications such as touch
scieens, light panels anu solai cells, wheie it can ieplace the iathei fiagile anu
expensive Inuium-Tin-0xiue (IT0). Flexible electionics anu gas sensois
potential applications. The quantum Ball effect in giaphene coulu also possibly
contiibute to an even moie accuiate iesistance stanuaiu in metiology.
of composite mateiials baseu on giaphene with gieat stiength anu low weight coulu
also become inteiesting foi use in satellites anu aiiciaft.
The uevelopment of this new mateiial, opens new exiting possibilities. It is the
fiist ciystalline 2B-mateiial anu it has unique piopeities, which makes it inteiesting
both foi funuamental science anu foi futuie applications. The bieakthiough was
uone by ueim, Novoselov anu theii co-woikeis: it was theii papei fiom 2uu4 which
igniteu the uevelopment. Foi this they aie awaiueu the Nobel Piize in Physics 2u1u.
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
App¢ndix, som¢ prop¢rti¢s of grapb¢n¢
Ðenxlty of qruphene
The unit hexagonal cell of giaphene contains two caibon atoms anu has an aiea of
. We can thus calculate its uensity as being u.77 mg¡m
A hypothetical hammock measuiing 1m
maue fiom giaphene woulu thus weigh
u.77 mg. llustiationȋhammockȌǣiiiliste
Optlcul trunxpurency of qruphene
uiaphene is almost tianspaient, it absoibs only 2.S% of the light intensity,
inuepenuent of the wavelength in the optical uomain. This numbei is given by ,
wheie is the fine stiuctuie constant. Thus suspenueu giaphene uoes not have any
Strenqth of qruphene
uiaphene has a bieaking stiength of 42N¡m. Steel has a bieaking stiength in the
iange of 2Su-12uu NPa= u.2S-1.2x1u
. Foi a hypothetical steel film of the same
thickness as giaphene (which can be taken to be S.SSÅ=S.SSx1u
m, i.e. the layei
thickness in giaphite), this woulu give a 2B bieaking stiength of u.u84-u.4u N¡m.
Thus giaphene is moie than 1uu times stiongei than the stiongest steel.
In oui 1 m
hammock tieu between two tiees you coulu place a weight of
appioximately 4 kg befoie it woulu bieak. It shoulu thus be possible to make an
almost invisible hammock out of giaphene that coulu holu a cat without bieaking.
The hammock woulu weigh less than one mg, coiiesponuing to the weight of one of
the cat's whiskeis.
Flectrlcul conJuctlvlty of qruphene
The sheet conuuctivity of a 2B mateiial is given by = enμ. The mobility is
theoietically limiteu to µ=2uu,uuu cm
by acoustic phonons at a caiiiei uensity
. The 2B sheet iesistivity, also calleu the iesistance pei squaie, is then
0ui fictional hammock measuiing 1m
woulu thus have a iesistance of S1 u.
0sing the layei thickness we get a bulk conuuctivity of u.96x1u
giaphene. This is somewhat highei than the conuuctivity of coppei which is u.6ux1u
The theimal conuuctivity of giaphene is uominateu by phonons anu has been
measuieu to be appioximately Suuu Wm
. Coppei at ioom tempeiatuie has a
theimal conuuctivity of 4u1 Wm
. Thus giaphene conuucts heat 1u times bettei
0CT0BER S, 2u1u
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0CT0BER S, 2u1u
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