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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Background Radio. A personal medium. A local medium. Messages broadcast over radio are directed personally to each individual listener. Its intense level of

connection with the audience is such that for many years now, the first medium that an individual tunes in to every morning is radio. Also, it could be said that it is the last broadcast medium that an individual tunes in to before he goes to bed. This creates a form of emotional bond between the individual listener and the broadcaster. Such emotional bond can be tapped for purposes of persuasion, as applied, for instance, in radio advertising. Radio is a local medium. It broadcasts messages that significantly concern its target audience. It encourages and

sometimes requires the participation of listeners living within a certain locality. This aspect works in correlation with the personal characteristic and importance of radio. It is not an intrusive medium, as it allows the listener to do his routine work, such as household chores among other things, without getting in the way. It is an inexpensive medium and requires very little technological resources. It is inexpensive in the sense that transistor radios are easily accessible and very affordable these days. Even personal FM radio tuners that come with

headphones could be purchased for less than one hundred pesos (PHP 100). Listeners in remote areas where electricity is absent can still tune in through the use of battery-operated transistor radios. It is a portable and readily available medium. Even people who travel can tune in to radio in their cars or on most public utility vehicles. Listeners may also choose to bring their own portable stereos, transistors, or even walkmans. These qualities of broadcast radio give it

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immense influence over a vast range and sizeable number of audiences. Another more important attribute of radio is its power to make listeners use their imagination. As in radio dramas, it encourages the audience to imagine the setting, the characters, everything. It is the theater of the mind. If we look at it closely, it encourages the listeners to think. Thus, it enhances and sharpens the listeners’ thinking skills if exposed to a certain format for a certain period of time. It is an intellectual medium. That is, the only way to process the information is to listen. And being a cold medium, it requires the listener to participate to enjoy the content. It allows for experience, which is fundamental to learning. If radio would be used to exploit these characteristics, our society would be in for a world of progress. Developmental broadcast format – what is it? Briefly, it is a format

established following the concepts of development communication that can be applied to either of the two broadcast media, radio or television. It is a theme aimed at finding solutions to present problems of development and

modernization of a particular locality or country.

Wikipedia, The Free

Encyclopedia, an online resource library that is community-operated and – moderated, defines development communication as:
A spectrum of communication processes, strategies and principles within the field of international development, aimed at improving the conditions and quality of life of people struggling with underdevelopment and marginalization. Reflective of the field’s historical evolution, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity in the application of communication techniques used to address the problems of development. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory communication. Communication for informed decision. Development communication is for the betterment of the society though raised from a particular group but affect the whole mass for better.

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The term "Development Communication" was coined by Nora C. Quebral, a professor at the University of Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB).

Given radio’s exceptional power, reach, and influence, a developmental broadcast format specifically-designed for the medium could do a lot of good for our society. This is not hypothetical at all, as development campaigns have been launched in the poorest of countries, and the United Nations help put up more campaigns in more countries. The Development Communication section on The Museum of Broadcast Communications states,
The United Nations provides multi-lateral aid to governments. Non-profit non-governmental organizations (NGO) conduct development projects worldwide using U.N., government, or private funding. And government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) provide assistance to developing countries, but with political strings attached.

The United Nations and USAID help conduct development projects worldwide. Naturally, this must be some form of testament to the efficiency of development-oriented programs. The Museum of Broadcast Communications states more,
There are three common types of development campaigns: Persuasion, changing what people do; Education, changing social values; and Informing, empowering people to change by increasing knowledge. This third approach is now perceived as the most useful. Instead of attempting to modernize people, contemporary efforts attempt to reduce inequality by targeting the poorest segments of society, involving people in their own development, giving them independence from central authority, and employing "small" and "appropriate" technologies. The emphasis has shifted from economic growth to meeting basic needs.

If such a paradigm of communication, especially the third type of development campaigns earlier mentioned proves to be so useful and important, then why are we not employing it here in our own country? We have the required technologies to use to target our people. We are a member of the U.N. and we could ask for their help. We have made ties with the United States and we could

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ask help from experts from USAID. We have numerous intellectuals of our own who could help formulate a format and tailor-make it to suit the Philippine context – to address our own problems and issues. And most importantly, as stated, our society has enough predicaments to garner enough attention from the said authorities. So, the question is, why not? (Patterson, 2005) Certainly, it is not just a matter of a single flick. The broadcast industry is an industry. And an industry is any grouping of businesses that share a common method of generating profit. That being said, radio is a business and profit has to be generated. Apparently, businesses, or anyone for that matter, do not see a lot of monetary profits from hardcore developmental broadcasting, and as businesses, they must do everything to maximize profits. Hence, they follow a different path of doing business. Besides, before the advent of masa

programming, Metro Manila FM radio was already in a slump as it was, without even bothering with airing developmental programs. Willie Espinosa, now Program Director of the Love Radio network, said FM stations, even their own, were having a hard time gathering their audiences back then, which was before 1995. Listenership was in a slump, and ratings were at some of their lowest. The number of listeners was at a stagnant level, and growth was only something left to be desired. Advertising rates were much lower than it is now, not even reaching 5,000 for a 30-second spot. Much of the market included people of the higher social classes and the numbers were not flattering, seeing as how income in the Philippines is not uniformly distributed. The middle and lower classes are densely populated, and the higher social classes are only proud of its few members. The CDE classes are where the

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money is at, and corporate boards of many stations decided that these are the ones who must be targeted. The more people listening at strategic times of the day, the more they could charge for advertising. This sole mercantile purpose sparked the first ever prototype of a masa station in 1995. What are masa stations? Masa stations are radio stations which adopt a format derived from AM broadcasting, using Pilipino or Tagalog as primary medium of communication. Examples of masa stations in Metro Manila are Love Radio 90.7, Energy FM 91.5, iFM 93.9, and WRR 101.9. Manila Broadcasting Company (MBC), a 66-year old radio network pioneered the masa format when it launched the radio station DWST Showbiz Tsismis 101.1 in Manila in 1995. The station’s main vision was to talk about the latest happenings in show business [in Tagalog/Filipino]. It was the first nationwide satellite FM station, ensuring Three years later, it was

coverage of the remotest areas in the country.

relaunched with a new name, Yes! FM, but the theme was not totally overhauled. It used the same format, and still covered the same topics on the air. It became a top-rating FM station and soon opened provincial stations in Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo and Davao within a year. Other radio stations struggling with ratings followed suit, such as Campus Radio 97.1, and MBC’s own Love Radio 90.7. Love Radio, which back then was a high-end station which only played love songs uninterruptedly, had to join the bandwagon. For twenty-five years, the station never made the top two FM radio stations, and never made a lot of profit. Willie Espinosa, now Program Director of the Love Radio network in the entire country, was taken in by the company to overhaul the station’s format and increase ratings in 2001. He aimed for the

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class CDE market, which is a potentially broad market considering the number of Filipino citizens that belong to the social classes mentioned. Having asked for a six-month trial period, he broadcast masa content through the station over the air, although still keeping a hint of the station’s previous theme by airing a great chunk of love songs. After the six-month trial, the management saw tremendous improvement as far as ratings were concerned, and they never looked back. When asked how they formulated the masa format, Espinosa stressed an important point – market research. Seeing how seemingly vital market research is to any entity that engages in business, how could other non-masa radio stations have missed this (and stayed with the conventional format)? What is market research? The U.S. Department of the Treasury, a government agency whose responsibilities range from managing Federal finances to investigating and prosecuting tax evaders, counterfeiters, and forgers, define market research as the process of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information about a market; about a product or service to be offered for sale in that market; and about the past, present and potential customers for the product or service. In terms of radio, how listeners tuned in and how they treated the radio were the important two among many other factors involved in the research. It turned out that the listeners seemed to be bored with all the same content aired by radio stations, and the treatment it received. To remain in the broadcasting business and of course, maximize profits, MBC had to come up with something fresh, something new, something that would catch the attention of the listeners – and that’s exactly what they did. MBC pioneered masa radio. (U.S. Department of the Treasury, Glossary)

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As one engages in a journey across the broad spectrum of Metro Manila FM radio, starting from 88.3 all the way to 107.5, with increments of 0.8 separating each station channel, one will find more masa stations than just MBCowned Love Radio 90.7. The following is a table including the stations’

frequencies, and names. Stations in bold are what will be considered in this study as masa stations.
Frequency 88.3 89.1 89.9 90.7 91.5 92.3 93.1 93.9 94.7 95.5 96.3 97.1 97.9 98.7 99.5 100.3 101.1 101.9 102.7 103.5 104.3 105.1 105.9 106.7 107.5 Station Name Jam Wave Magic Love Radio Energy FM Joey Monster Radio iFM Mellow Touch Pinoy Radio DM 955 WRock Campus Radio Home Radio The Master’s Touch Hit FM RJ 100 Yes! FM WRR Star FM K-Lite Business Radio Crossover Blazin’ Kool 106 NU 107 Call Sign DWJM DWAV DWTM DZMB DWKY DZRU DWRX DWKC DWLL DWDM DWRK DWLS DWQZ DZFE DZRT DZRJ DWST DWRR DWSM DWKX DWBR DWBM DWLA DWET DWNU

Table 1. Table of 25 FM radio stations in Metro Manila.

As shown in the table, there are twenty-five (25) stations all currently airing over the frequency modulation band in Metro Manila alone. And seeing as there are only seven (7) stations that could be regarded as masa stations, it could be concluded that they are technically in the minority. But why are they making such big noise? Why are they flourishing? Why are they thriving in the industry that is

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dominated by (judging from the table alone, stations that do not broadcast masa format make up 72% of all stations in the FM band) non-masa stations? They are outnumbered, yes. Yet they win the ratings. Then it must be the format. It is the only factor that sets them apart from the other conventional-format radio stations. In a Metro Manila survey conducted by the RRC involving a base of 21,357 radio-equipped homes, Love Radio topped the charts with a 20.9% audience share, closely followed by Yes! FM, another station owned by MBC, with 17.8%. After the top three, high-end non-masa radio stations followed, but only with single-digit audience shares. With these results, it only made masa radio a practical business. Knowing there is a large market that leans toward the masa format, more stations redesigned their broadcast formats to cater to the CDE social classes. Their markets had something new, fresh, and different to listen to and enjoy. But fresh and different do not always mean a good thing. But then again, it is not a question of good or bad, it is only a matter of perception and branding – as long as the image projected by the radio station is perceived as good. Conveniently, the average member of the middle to lower class market almost always perceives fresh and different as good. In a sense, they were the early adopters. It could also be said that the pioneering masa stations made a segment and a market of their own, exposing the audiences to their programming to an extensive level, and persuading and converting non-listeners to become part of their would-be pop culture. At work is the bandwagon effect, where, without examining the merits of that particular phenomenon, people tend to "follow the

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crowd." But then, is the radio industry all about commercialization, all about making profit? Certainly, it is not. As the radio code of the KBP states, there is a fair amount of responsibility that stations and broadcasters should hold. Program Standards Section C entitled Community Responsibility states, Broadcasters shall acquaint themselves with the culture, mores, traditions, needs, and other characteristics of the locality and its people to best serve the community. Possibly, in our time, this may not be what is happening. Monitoring a masa station for a day, one analyzes how it broadcasts the news and hosts the programs. There is great focus on commercialization, but surprisingly less

interest in public awareness and current social affairs. It could be entertaining, yes, but not exactly encouraging to progress and development. Also, when it comes to content of musical programs, masa stations are not even at par as it is stated in another part of the KBP radio code. Program Standards Section D entitled Support to Development and Nationalism states,
All stations shall contribute to national development and shall promote the educational, cultural, social and economic upliftment of the people. All stations shall provide for the expression of the Filipino identity, encourage patriotism, preserve patriotism, preserve traditions and the development of the arts, sciences and culture. Programs shall continually strive to use Filipino creative resources and talents.

Then, it is very surprising to hear love songs from the 90s by foreign artists. Well, in addition to contemporary local novelty songs such as Pamela Wan and Lagot Ka during drive time. (KBP TV and Radio Code) Public service now comes into question. Masa stations, more than any other FM station, have to show their gratitude to their audience, for these are the

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people who give them high ratings. These are the people who make their business highly profitable. These are the people who make them win ratings awards. These are the people who make them call themselves the number one station in Metro Manila. audience big time. The purpose of this study is to examine why masa stations exist and continue to thrive and what their socio-cultural effects are, if any. This study hopes to determine the weakest link in the industry and facilitate instituting a better, focused, and goal-oriented FM radio. This study desires to arrive at what could actually lead to our country’s development. At this point, we believe masa stations owe their

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Significance of the Study Once the effects of present-day masa programming have been determined and proven by this study, we can now evaluate them if they are detrimental or beneficial to society. Necessary planning and action may then be carried out to benefit the listeners. Proper testing to formulate the ideal radio programs, ones that can exert the greatest influence on a large scale, will be performed. Programming may be transformed to one that is fresh and

unorthodox, constructive to our culture and can lead to our progress. The study will also urge the industry to strengthen or even transform the existing regulatory body into something which can practice total governance over the media. Monitoring and regular evaluation of aired content will be done to see if it meets programming guidelines set by the body. When this is all done, a developmental approach of radio operation may be instituted to facilitate a supplemental form of education for Filipinos. It is only proper to let the people have their say on what they want to hear on the airwaves. The listeners should be treated with respect and with utmost

importance. After all, the audiences, the (most usually silent) other end of this communication is the lifeline of the broadcast industry. Without them, not a

single form of media, no matter how well structured and planned they are, would thrive. This is the biggest benefit society can only wish for due to the state of present-day radio programming.

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Statement of the Problem Why do masa stations exist? What are their socio-cultural effects (whether

beneficial or detrimental) on listeners? How do these effects influence its listeners’ daily lives? What is gained or lost by employing masa format?

Objectives of the Study General:  To determine the causes (market forces, social and political influences) that made certain radio stations adopt masa format and the conditions that make them thrive in contemporary Philippine society.  To ascertain if there are any socio-cultural effects (beneficial or detrimental) of the format on listeners, determine what these effects are, and assess how these effects impact the listeners’ daily lives. Specific:  To propose formulation of a new broadcast format that utilizes the existing theories of development communication to aid in transforming radio into a valuable and beneficial medium to its audience.  To propose employment of developmental broadcasting (educational

programming and localized broadcast formats focusing on local issues) through existing media outfits in the country.

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Scopes and Limitations One of the major limitations of this study is the unequal number of listeners examined. There is no set number of listeners to be interviewed for each of the stations included in the research, e.g. 50 for Love Radio 90.7, 50 for Yes! FM, et cetera. The data gathering process was carried on like all the The researcher

listeners came from the same pool: masa radio listeners.

acknowledges the existence of a dichotomy in the industry – masa and nonmasa FM. Also, for Love Radio and Yes! FM, only one program director was involved, but that is because both stations are owned by the same company, the Manila Broadcasting Company. It may already be hypothesized that the

company employs the same philosophy for both the stations, which, furthermore, use the same masa format. Definitely, the researcher’s biases as a critical individual cannot be fully set aside. It will not get in the way and become taxing for this study to be factual and objective, however. Au contraire, these biases will be channeled to the advancement of this study. These biases, after all, are not a matter of taste, but of criticality towards any form of broadcast media and the messages they transmit to their audiences. New formats are not discriminated against for fear of change, but are evaluated for their overall effects on and contribution to the current state of Filipino education and culture.

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Definition of Terms Bandwagon effect. The bandwagon effect is the observation that people often do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. The effect is often pejoratively referred to as herd instinct, particularly as applied to adolescents. Without examining the merits of the particular thing, people tend to "follow the crowd." In the context of this particular study, listeners follow the early adopters of the masa format without necessarily scrutinizing the benefits and detriments of the new broadcast format. Cold medium. Such as cartoon and radio, gives very little information. This leaves the reader to fill in the blanks; you need to participate to enjoy the content. This is aspect of broadcast radio makes it a perfect tool for education, development, and progress. Drive time. Prime time for radio broadcasting. It consists of the morning hours when listeners wake up, get ready, and head to work or school, and the afternoon hours when they are heading home and before their evening meal. These are the periods where listenership is at its highest and commercial radio can charge the most for advertising. Drive time or primetime on radio usually runs from 6am to 9am and from 3pm to 6pm. FM. Frequency Modulation band. It is a broadcast technology invented by

Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM radio is distributed primarily through broadcast reception of FM radio signals. Examples of FM stations in Manila are Monster Radio RX 93.1, Campus Radio 97.1, and Love Radio 90.7. High-end stations. FM radio stations catering to the middle to upper classes,

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generally to people with more buying power. Primary medium of communication used is English. Advertisements aired usually concern products that are more expensive than those aired over masa stations. KBP. Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas. A self-regulatory body formed to unify broadcast practitioners to achieve common goals in relation to allied industries and government agencies. It serves as the formulator of broadcast policies and standards. With the KBP’s code of ethics, broadcast companies try to air content that conform to the standards stated in the code. Masa stations. FM radio stations which adopt a format derived from AM

broadcast, and which mainly uses Pilipino or Tagalog as medium of communication. Examples of stations that broadcast in the masa format are Love Radio 90.7 and Yes! FM 101.1. Media. A collective term for outfits of mass communication such as television, radio, and print.

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CHAPTER 2 - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Simply put, radio is an essential part of Filipino society. Earlier stated, it is a portable, inexpensive, and entertaining medium enjoyed by Filipinos from all walks of life. It did not lose its popularity when other more highly advanced technologies were introduced and made their way to the Filipino household. It even gripped stronger ground because it acted as a complementary medium to the new media. It is a living proof that the concept of co-existence not only works among humans and other living organisms. Co-existence also succeeds in

commerce, among businesses and industries. The opening paragraphs of an article entitled Why Radio? Why Not! published in 2006 on Hi-Fidelity, an online publication by the Manila Broadcasting company (MBC) says radio is still the most powerful and influential broadcast medium in the country. It still flourishes continually, attracting more listeners to tune in, more than ever. Yes, much more advanced technologies, such as the television (the technology of which, at its most basic, was derived from what had then been discovered from radio), the stored media such as Betamax, VHS, and DVD, and the internet. But still, radio proves to exert greater persuasive cogency than these other better developed media. In contrast with DVDs and the like, which can be accessed whenever and wherever the viewers wants, and which can be reproduced, radio is a fleeting medium. What does this mean? It means that one has to pay

meticulous attention to the message to which he is trying to listen; otherwise, it will be finished and gone. It grabs the attention of the listener like saying: “Listen to me, you won’t hear me again, so pay attention.” The internet’s influence is no question at all. Although the amount of information that can be retrieved using

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the medium is potentially limitless, mass access to the internet is problematic at best. Not everyone has the means to access the internet. Not everyone has a desktop computer. Not everyone has an AM/FM tuner either, but the number of people who have access to radio far outshines that of who have access to the internet – thanks to the great economic divide. (MBC Sales and Marketing, 2006) Its importance to its audiences’ daily lives could not be emphasized more by the interest of more greatly established industries such as the advertising in the medium. The advertisers believe there is much more to radio than just music and audible dialogue. Its reach to countless millions of Filipinos is exceptional, and its power to grab and hold its listeners for much longer periods of time (much longer than television) is superb. Why Radio? Why Not! states that radio makes contact with over 85% of audiences aged 10 years and older in Metro Manila alone. This percentile figure translates to a massive average of 7.3 million

listeners in one day. And this means more than just numbers to advertisers. This means business. In fact, some advertisers believe in radio to sell their products so much that they put as much as 50% of their advertising budget on radio. These advertisers usually belong to the cigarette and liquor products category. Radio can attract its audience, grab them by earlobes and never let go. In point of fact, the medium can retain its listeners for much longer than any other existing medium. Why Radio? Why Not! again, shows us that, on the average, audiences spend quite a bit more time listening to FM than sitting in front of the boob tube: 190 minutes a day on radio VS 140 minutes on television. Moreover, it can breed a sense of loyalty among the listeners, and can establish an identity or character that they can identify or relate with. Also, the absence (with most

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radio units) of one technological breakthrough that is the remote control (for radio), makes surfing through radio channels seem much more tedious for listeners than it actually is. So when they turn on the radio, they just stick to the station they listened to the previous time. They also do not usually switch to a different radio channel during commercial breaks. Besides, commercial breaks on radio as not as cluttered as it is on television, and some known individuals actually enjoy radio advertisements. Unlike on television, audio materials

broadcast in radio seem very interlocked with each other that commercial breaks are hardly noticeable. This is a unique property of sound - one sound may be heard above another yet one can still recognize both sounds. Now that the radio’s power over and role to society has been established quite firmly, we can now assess the implications of these two things. With such extensive power, it thus proves that changes in the way radio is currently utilized and consumed could pose either a threat or a great improvement to the present status of our society. Urban development

communication kicks in. What is it? It is applying and transferring whatever knowledge has been researched in the development communication discipline to the urban, better developed states of the country; people who reside here are presumably more perceptive to new information and can process and fit them into their own situations. It has never been thought through by scholars because they are too focused on the rural, underdeveloped areas. They also focus on the concept of improving material living conditions. In fact, there are so many other aspects of living conditions, such as personal/individual growth through selfempowerment, boosting emotional esteem, practical skills literacy/education

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such as understanding and speaking English that they could focus on. And the ensuing masa format, with its heavily Tagalog/Filipino content, may not be exactly helping. It may be acting as a deterrent to learn the language and United

knowledge of the language has already gone down in our country.

Nations Education, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO) estimates about 5% of the adult Philippine population, or four (4) million, cannot, with understanding, read, write, and speak a short simple English statement on everyday life. (UNESCO Estimates) On a parallel view of the quality of present-day television content in connection with radio, there had been studies advancing the potential and actual short- and long-term effects of violent media content on society. In a study by Karyn Riddle entitled Violent Media Effects: A Comparison of Scholarly Research, Public Opinion, and Industry Rhetoric, although television is different from radio in many ways, the author proposes that effects could be impressed upon the audience either immediately after exposure, or after constant/regular exposure in a longer span of time – which could be translated into the simpler medium of this discussion that is radio. Violence, being a negative component portrayed by the media, has three major short-term effects upon immediate exposure. First, aggression, as The probability of

supported by a substantial amount of empirical research.

showing evidence of aggressive behavior is increased upon exposure to media violence. Other effects of violent television material found by the study were fear due to traumatic stress and desensitization to the concept of violence. To

compare and contrast with the aural medium, if violent content can cause such

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negative effects on its audiences, the prevalent broadcast design in masa radio may also cause different negative effects on its listeners and society as a whole. The study has yet to find out what exactly they are, but it could be assumed that one of them is hindrance to out-of-school/non-formal education. As 90% of the radio stations in the Philippines almost all of them in Metro Manila are purely commercial, it could also be comprehended that commercialization is taking a toll on the development of society. (Violent Media Effects) Consequently, if negative effects may be garnered through substandard programming, naturally more positive effects could be achieved by improving program quality. The audiences are more likely to accept positive effects and behavior rather than negative ones. Riddle, in the same study, says 47% of parents with children aged 4 to 6 state that the children have emulated aggressive behaviors broadcast on TV. However, when the same group of

children was exposed to more positive materials that conveyed good habits, values, and virtues, 87% of the children who received the messages mimicked and even applied the constructive values in their daily interactions with playmates and schoolmates. The study proved that positive messages are more likely to be assimilated into the audiences’ personal set of values and principles than negative messages such as violence, etc. are. It has been said that radio is the theatre of the mind. Radio is an

emotional experience rather than visual. It is an emotional theatre where feelings are the primary currency. Logically, as it deals with emotion, and so does

persuasion, this method could be used to influence the audiences to literally do the media’s bidding. Aside from commercialization, there are other concepts and

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practical processes that present practitioners could put to good use through the medium, and positively affect Philippine society. Better quality programming equates to more beneficial effects on listeners and the Filipino society. It is what the study will call for upon its completion. Of course, these effects are only relative and assumed. There could even be the remotest possibility that no positive effects would be achieved by high quality programming. But isn’t it better to have media content that could prospectively lead to positive effects, i.e. development in whatever form, than none at all, or worse yet, that could encumber what is said to be a common benefit to society?

CHAPTER 3 – FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

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Theoretical Framework Cultivation Theory of Mass Media The Cultivation Theory of Mass Media (CTMM), proposed by George Gerbner in 1973, will be used to guide the study. A definition of this theory:
“The Cultivation Theory specifies that repeated and intense exposure to distinctive, deviant definitions of "reality" in television and other massmedia messages lead to perception of that "reality" as normal. The result is a social legitimization of the "reality" depicted in the mass media, which can affect behavior.”

This theory is one of the so-called stalagmite theories that suggest that media effects occur analogously to the slow buildup of formations on cave floors, which take their interesting forms after eons of the steady dripping of limewater from the cave ceilings above. What has been present in the airwaves for quite a long time has made the people perceive or believe that what they are hearing at present establishes the norms of contemporary society, and that it is an image of the present reality. If they perceive media content, surely, they can perceive the medium itself, and how it is being used. Therefore, they must believe that nondevelopmental, (or to border on the extremes, dysfunctional in essential ways) for-your-entertainment-only media is a normal or real circumstance. (Cultivation Theory, Theoretical Framework) Now the theory can be used to reverse the messages communicated through the medium that creates the perceived common reality. Through the use of developmental content (even with the slightest hint of an attempt on nonformal, out-of-classroom education, it could be classified as such) through radio, the perceived common reality by the audiences could be changed, improved, and in time, developed. They will be under the impression that if educating the

masses is the normal reality, they should follow suit and change their current

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behavior that has been cultivated by the previous masa format. This could be proved by a subsequent cultivation research, defined as a study which looks at the mass media as a socializing agent and investigates whether media consumers come to believe the media version of reality the more they watch it.

Uses and Gratifications Theory Mick Underwood once said, “The choices which people make are motivated by the desire to satisfy (or 'gratify') a range of needs. Hence the uses and gratifications approach is concerned to identify how people use the media to gratify their needs.” (Mass Media – Effects Research) The core of the theory is to attempt to explain and understand media consumption of individuals, groups, and society. The article Uses and

Gratifications Approach on the University of Twente in The Netherlands website, a comprehensive Internet catalog of communication theories, enumerates the three objectives:
1)to explain how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs. “What do people do with the media”. 2)to discover underlying motives for individuals’ media use. 3)to identify the positive and the negative consequences of individual media use.

The same article also expresses a core assumption of the theory “that audience members actively seek out the mass media to satisfy individual needs.” The core statement of the theory is “A medium will be used more when the existing motives to use the medium lead to more satisfaction.” This categorizes the theory into one that works in an exponential manner. Different results are yielded as the degree of use or exposure varies. The level of media

consumption is also logically explained by the benefits the audiences acquire. If

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the medium yields good results as perceived by the audience, it will be used more often and to a more intense degree. Dennis McQuail identified four general needs of the audience that they seek to gratify using media, which are surveillance, personal identity, personal relationships, and diversion. Surveillance means the need to find out what's going on in the world around us. The need for knowledge suggests that we would probably be most likely to use such media output in order to gratify this need. In this particular need, it could be said that the current state of radio program content on masa stations gives their audience an idea of what is going on in their environment. This content could give them a false idea of this world, and in turn, imitate that world. Moreover, this could lead the audience to think that this substandard programming is what is acceptable in the real world – that to do whatever the host does is right on the ethical and technical aspect of radio broadcasting, or to a greater extent, the real world. This is how the cultivation theory of mass media will be used in this study. Another need which will be addressed using the theory is that of personal relationships. According to Underwood, certain social needs can be made

definite to satisfy the personal relationships need of the theory. These are:
We can find out how other people live.

This could mean that the audience can learn how the actors and more importantly the characters they play, go through life and somehow relate to them and brand them as good, if they like what they are viewing or listening to, or stay away from if they see them as bad influences. The fact of the matter is, in the Philippines, very few people know better. Most of the audiences do not know

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which to brand good and which to brand bad, which to follow and which to stay away from. Their judgment may be clouded by partially manipulated claims of media entities – that they are number one in Metro Manila, that they are the coolest in Metro Manila, that they are Kapamilya or Kapuso.
We can identify with people in the media and thus gain a sense of belonging. We can use the media as a source of things to talk to other people about - I can remember a highly intellectual colleague who refused to have a TV in his home while his children were little. As soon as they started school, though, he went out and bought one because they were isolated from other schoolchildren, as they hadn't a clue about any of the programmes the others talked about.

With the given theory that directly concerns motives and gratifications for and from media use, plus the whole process of finding out how people consume media, it can be safely assumed that masa format is being proliferated. People would identify with programs and gain a sense of belonging to them, like they become part of it. Before they know it, they would have been absorbed by the system that puts much bearing and importance on commerce. They could also use masa content to talk to friends about, thus the proliferation. They could talk to friends about the quality of the program and perform some level of evaluation. That would be an improvement because they would determine and in turn, generate awareness on the downsides (should any exist) of the masa format, but only a few people realize that it may be substandard, that it may be the last thing that the people require. It is a fact that it takes above average brainpower to approximately evaluate media content and even more to comprehend that what they’re hearing may not be done in great taste. (Mass Media – Effects Research)

Conceptual Framework

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Combining the two aforementioned theories, a more complex, cyclic conceptual model of the media consumption process is formed. The model for the Uses and Gratifications Theory is used as base and that of the Cultivation Theory as an elaboration as to what happens on the sidelines in varying levels. On the conceptual level, the communication cycle begins with a listener or viewer's motives for media consumption. Depending on his motives, the

frequency of his exposure to media and his levels of focus, attentiveness, involvement during the communication process may vary. If his reasons for

consuming media include gratification of certain social needs, and they are gratified, these reasons may be further strengthened and more motives may be added. If they are not satisfied, his reasons may be deconstructed and other motives may be used to replace the old ones that did not get fulfilled. Simply put, the more of his motives turn out to be fulfilled or gratified, the more frequent he will consume media, the more attentive and focused he will be to the content channeled through them, and the more likely he will consume media for the same reasons in the next cycle. This all depends on how the listener or viewer

perceives the effects achieved at the end of the gratification process. The said effects, together with other information as highlighted in the Cultivation Theory of Mass Media will aid in building a new, perceived social reality. While cycle moves from one process to the next, certain things happen on the sidelines. When a media consumer decides to expose himself to more

broadcast material, he will receive more information that will help him establish a new social reality. He will more likely think of what he sees on television, reads in the paper, or hears on the radio as an encompassing reality that should

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normally occur to him and other individuals of his immediate environment. Such reception and comprehension may be filtered by the listener or viewer's learning skills and past life experiences that may help or hinder the absorption of information, and determine how he will value it once absorbed, whether positively or negatively.

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Operational Framework On a more specific perspective, we take a look at a listener's media utilization cycle starting from his motives to the effects of his radio listening experience and back to his reinforced or deconstructed motives. The listener starts his listening experience with a handful of motive in mind. He wants to be entertained. He wants to know what his peers and the other members of his immediate surroundings do, what they do with their radio transistors, which stations they listen to, and what they acquire from listening to the programs. He discovers elsewhere that his peers listen to masa FM stations and wants to know what it is about these stations that they like. By gathering these bits of information, he gains a sense of belongingness with others. He considers these motives very important because by fulfilling them, he becomes part of the group and eliminates the chance of him being ostracized or isolated from the group. Such priority given to these needs dictate how long and often he will listen to masa radio, i.e. three to six hours in a day, on a regular basis. One method of how the listener uses radio is to gratify his social needs. He wants to know how other people live. He wants to identify with people in the media and therefore feel normal about himself. He wants to be entertained. These needs are gratified and in effect, the listener forms a conclusion regarding his experience, masa as a format, and radio as a broadcast medium. The

listener generalizes that radio is for entertainment, and for so he can discover new things about which to talk to people. effective and sufficient. He believes that masa format is

He knew what he wanted from masa radio and it

delivered. He will make entertainment a staple objective in listening to the radio

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the next time he engages in another radio listening experience. Apart from affecting the listener's motives in the next media consumption cycle, these effects/conclusions will also contribute to the listener's picture of reality in general. He will accept the ideas that radio is primarily used for

entertainment, and that radio and other media outfits are not credible enough to handle hard news, as fact. When the listener's needs are gratified, he will believe that this is the purpose that radio must serve him, his peers, and his society. This will constitute to his construction of the new social reality. Other factors that are involved in the process are the listener's learning skills, his environment, and certain personal experiences. The learning skills of the CDE classes could range from excellent to poor, but that of the majority will border between slightly above average to poor. This doesn't help when we are on the subject of perception because their evaluation and judgment can be easily clouded and fooled by false claims of leadership and excellence broadcast on the airwaves. The reality that probably millions of listeners perceive is that radio is there for their entertainment. That they should only pay attention to it when they're bored and they want to kill some time. That they should only tune in to discover new trends should they notice any changes in their peers' routines so they can do it as well and avoid being ostracized from the group. Such perceptions of a less than ideal social reality will eventually materialize and their impacts will kick in soon after. The impacts

include further proliferation of masa FM radio and deterioration of the credibility of media in general. They will no longer seek important, need-to-know-ASAP information from radio because they have already set their expectations from the

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medium. Any more than they expect will be considered overkill and this may drive them away from using radio.

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CHAPTER 4 – METHODOLOGY Research Design In the study, the dominant-less dominant model of combined design will be used, focusing more on the qualitative paradigm utilizing interviews with listeners of masa FM and the station management as well. This is to derive knowledge from both sides of the mass communication process – the audience perception and reception of the said broadcast format, and the business, political, social, and ethical intentions of the stations’ management department - and try to construct an evaluation of the information and make them meet halfway. The research design will be complemented by quantitative methods of research, through acquisition of relevant, contextual quantitative data from leading media research and national institutions to ensure utmost credibility. The gathered data will be used to present readers with a background and describe the current state of mainstream media consumption in the broadcast radio industry. The types of these data include urban FM radio ratings tables and population estimates.

Subjects of the Study WRR 101.9, YesFM, and Love Radio 90.7 – listeners of these stations will be interviewed with an initial set of interview questions, while other questions are being added depending on each individual’s answer to particular questions, to converse with other members of the audience about their impressions, likes and dislikes of the stations to which they listen. There will be no exact figures for each of the masa stations. From these three stations, a pool of listeners will be

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selected, not necessarily obtaining the same number for each masa station. The study only acknowledges the dichotomy that involves masa and non-masa FM stations, and not the very subtle differences occurring among the stations within the same particular grouping. To generalize, listeners of each half would

basically be the same type of people, who prefer essentially the same kind of listening material.

Methods and Procedures Interviews will be the key instrument utilized to support the propositions, hypotheses, and assumptions undertaken by this study. It is this advantage of the qualitative paradigm over the quantitative to draw a unique picture and build a personal character of each of the individual respondents which the researcher hopes to utilize. The listeners will be asked to define their listening habits, their comments on the programs to which they listen, and what they perceive as the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of the communication process. Another set of interview questions will be prepared for station management executives to gain an in-depth perspective of the station’s goals and thrusts. Historical background of masa FM formation will be included in the data gathering process to act as a base and guide for other relative data that will be collected. Interviews with program managers and executives of masa stations will also be used to construct the backbone of the study. To provide credible opinions, an expert in Filipino Psychology, a cultural worker, and a sociologist will also be interviewed. Their views on the masa format’s effects and impacts on the listeners’ daily lives will be incorporated into

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the data presentation, and will facilitate better understanding through comprehensive, interdisciplinary analysis. To supplement the qualitative study, quantitative data will be acquired from research institutions and statistical offices, such as the Nielsen Media Research Department of AC Nielsen Philippines (for ratings based on market share percentages and target audience rating points), the National Statistics Office for approximate population count of masa radio’s target market, and others.

Data Analysis and Procedures Data gathered will be evaluated putting more weight on the effects of masa radio programming. The effects will be determined by asking respondents how they feel about listening to masa radio, what they have learned (as with the theory of out-of-school education) so far, what things have changed in their lives since they started listening to masa radio stations, their comments and suggestions regarding the programs, and how they would feel if they had the chance to get their voice heard by providing more significant programs that actually make them feel involved. Gathered data will be evaluated and analyzed to form a general conclusion that will either prove or disprove the presented hypotheses and assumptions, and answer the problems stated and fulfill the objectives of the study. They will be analyzed in relation to the possible eminent effects of present FM radio content on its audience. The effects, together with the psychographics and demographics of the experiment subjects, will be tabulated and any correlations observed among them will be presented.

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The direct effects stated by the respondents themselves will be analyzed in such a way that the impacts, the true meaning of these effects will be determined in a socio-cultural perspective. Case in point, if the respondent says his primary motive for listening to the radio (masa stations) is to derive comic relief from the hardships of everyday life, it will be interpreted as a lowering of standards for and expectations from radio and media in general. This may also be interpreted as a deterioration or even eventual loss of the long sought-after media credibility. Additionally, the affected percentage out of the total number of respondents will be added to the table. The higher the number of respondents exhibiting the same effect, the more the effect can be said to be widespread, and the more powerful the impact is, compared to an effect that presents in only a few respondents/listeners.

CHAPTER 5 – DATA PRESENTATION

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Results and Discussion The audience. In any media outfit imaginable – television, radio, print – there is not a single aspect of the broadcast communication process more important than the audience. They must be given utmost importance and priority for they are the lifeline of any given television or radio network. Literally, in terms of number, they make up the biggest part of the process. Just how many listeners does a single radio station serve? Seventy-nine percent (79%) of households in the Philippines own a form of radio tuner/receiver. Eighty-seven (87%) of these households utilize their radio units by listening at different times of the day. In a survey conducted in July of 2005 by Asia Research Organization, Inc., a Gallup International member, the results showed that 2,026,239 households in Metro Manila, and 10,312,506 households outside Metro Manila, own a radio. Of course, not all these households tune in to the same station at the same time, but the number of listeners switching on the radio at random times that could be generated from these figures could start, conservatively speaking, at thousands. These massive figures only help emphasize the importance of the final aspect of the broadcast process. (Survey: TV viewing level 94%; radio listening, 87%, KBP) But then, with the current trend of masa stations dominating the ratings table since the advent of the contemporary format, “conservative” is not a way to describe the figures they rake in. According to the ratings sheet provided by Vince Angeles, Senior Executive in Client Sales of the Media Research Department of AC Nielsen Philippines, the three market leaders are Love Radio 90.7, WRR 101.9, Yes FM 101.1 as of the first quarter of 2006.

Page Market : Mega Demographic : All People 10+ Survey : Survey #1 2006 Session : Mon-Sun 12:00 MN-12:00 MN Pl. of Listening : (C) All Places Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM 101.1 iFM 93.9 Campus Radio / Barangay LS 97.1 Star FM 102.7 DM 955 95.5 Home Radio 97.9 Mellow Touch 94.7 WRock 96.3 Energy FM 91.5 RJ 100 100.3 Wave 89.1 Magic 89.9 Monster Radio RX 93.1 NU 107 Crossover 105.1 Joey 92.3 K-Lite 105.3 Blazin' 105.9 Jam 88.3 The Master's Touch 98.7 Business Radio 104.3 RT 99.5 Dream FM 106.7 Call Sign dzmbF dwrrF dyesF ifmF dwlsF dwsmF dwdmF dwqzF dwllF dwrkF dwkyF dzrjF dwavF dwtmF dwrxF dwnuF dwbmF dzruF dwkxF dwlaF dwjmF dzfeF dwbrF dwrtF dwetF Total TARP %

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3 1.7 1.1 0.55 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.2 0.17 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 11.18

Share % 32.5 18.4 11.9 6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.9 2.1 1.9 1.5 1.4 1.2 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 -

Table 2. Ratings table of all FM radio stations in Metro Manila portraying the dominance of masa stations being discussed in this study.

Table 4 shows that all masa FM stations, with the exception of Energy FM, are at the top of the ratings table. Love Radio 90.7 leads WRR 101.9 by 14.1 points on the market share percentage category. The first upscale station that enters the roster is Home Radio 97.9, which trails the leader by a staggering 29.1 points. It is interesting to note that Dream FM 106, probably the most upscale FM station airing mostly instrumental jazz and employing no disc jockeys or

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spiels whatsoever in their programming, falls at the bottom of the list. Some theory can be derived that the more upscale and exclusive the image of the station is, the smaller its potential market becomes. The information contained in this table is enough to conclude that masa stations truly dominate the ratings race. For the purpose of clarification, TARP stands for target audience rating point, which Multi Media Buying & Planning Services Pty. LTD defines as “the percentage of a specific target audience viewing a program at the time.” The same information source cites an example of how TARP is used (in television). (Multi Media Buying and Planning Services FAQ)
For example - an advertiser has a specific target audience women 25-39 and wants to know how a program performs for this target. If 21% of women 25-39 in Sydney watch “Desperate Housewives” we could also say that the TARP for the show in this market is 21.

Following this definition, the information says that 3% of the all people aged 10 and above (10+ population) in Metro Manila listen to Love Radio 90.7 at different times between noon and midnight, 1.7% listen to WRR 101.9, and 1.1% to Yes! FM. These percentages may seem small, but when multiplied to the 10+ population, the product could be overwhelming. A very conservative estimate of the 10+ market could start at 1,000,000 persons, which when multiplied to the top three’s TARP %, would yield 30,000, 17,000, and 11,000 listeners respectively. But of course, nothing is ever conservative with the thriving business of masa radio. Information released by the National Statistics Office (NSO) in January of 2003 showed that there are far more than 1,000,000 persons in the National Capital Region. In the Census of Population and Housing conducted by the NSO in the year 2000, figures have been announced for each age bracket, from 1-4 years old up to 80 and over. This is the most recent information the NSO could

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provide because national census is being conducted again this year (2007). (National Capital Region: Close to 10 Million Persons)
Age Group National Capital Region Under 1 1 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74 75 to 79 80 and over Total Population 10+ Total Population 9,932,560 255,191 956,161 1,045,297 914,010 970,920 1,090,487 984,618 865,349 713,170 607,853 474,156 367,402 219,070 182,938 118,975 78,102 45,707 43,154 7,675,911 Male 4,877,842 131,657 490,125 536,296 461,142 454,275 506,550 477,951 430,622 354,564 303,085 237,694 183,817 106,834 84,971 53,031 33,439 17,662 14,127 Female 5,054,718 123,534 466,036 509,001 452,868 516,645 583,937 506,667 434,727 358,606 304,768 236,462 183,585 112,236 97,967 65,944 44,663 28,045 29,027 Sex Ratio 96.5 106.58 105.17 105.36 101.83 87.93 86.75 94.33 99.06 98.87 99.45 100.52 100.13 95.19 86.73 80.42 74.87 62.98 48.67

Table 3. Total Population by Age Group, Sex and Sex Ratio: National Capital Region, 2000 supplied by the National Statistics Office, revised to include the total population of the 10+ market measured by AC Nielsen’s TARP %.

Assuming the population hasn’t changed from 2000 until the end of 2005 (which tames the figures a little because the population always grows from year to year), a close approximation can be derived from the data presented on Tables 4 and 5. The individual TARP % (converted to decimal form) of the radio stations from Table 4 is multiplied by Total Population 10+ (7,675,911 persons) found on

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Table 5 to yield the number of listeners of each of the Top 7 [masa] radio stations, everyday from 12NN to 12MN.
Radio Station Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM 101.1 iFM 93.9 Campus Radio / Barangay LS 97.1 Star FM 102.7 DM 955 95.5 TARP % 3 1.7 1.1 0.55 0.34 0.33 0.32 Number of Listeners 230,277 130,490 84,435 42,217 26,098 25,330 24,562

Table 4. Approximation of the Top 7 masa station’s audience base, based on TARP % and the total population of their demographic: all people 10+.

These numbers showing how the market is heavily collected into only a handful of masa stations were put in plain words by Jose Maria Bartolome, former faculty member of the University of the Philippines Department of Psychology and now Head of the Program Analysis Department of GMA Network. The success of masa radio stations, he said, is completely understandable due to the composition the Philippine market. Bartolome stated that the masa, socio-economic classes D and E make up 70% of the population, which makes them the biggest market. Combined with C2, or lower middle class which comprises 20% of the market, the sheer volume of potential listeners help masa radio stations lead the race. Also, as a side comment, he pointed out that radio is literally a mass medium. It was originally intended to be utilized by the masses. And that is what is happening now. Below is an illustration of Bartolome’s description of the Philippine market profile.

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Figure 3. Composition of Philippine market described by GMA Network’s Jose Maria Bartolome.

With this market composition, Bartolome could safely assume that one of the most important, and most apparent, reasons why masa stations flourish as a business and as a media entity in Metro Manila is language. Why is it that Love Radio and the other masa stations top the charts? “Kasi sa Pilipinas, ang mga tao, Pilipino. Hindi Amerikano,” Bartolome said matter-of-factly. Language is the most prevalent means of verbal communication, and if nobody understands what you are saying, how can you effectively communicate to the people who do not speak or understand English? The answer to this he said is you just cannot. Aware of the sharing of the same audiences between television and radio, wherein media consumers listen to radio while not viewing television, and they view television while not listening to the radio (this can be easily deduced by looking at the non-coinciding primetime schedules of radio and television), Bartolome cites the programming of ABS-CBN and GMA as an example. These characteristics shared by both radio and television make the argument of alluding to television programming qualities and procedures all the more logical. He said that viewers will most usually not hear anyone speak fluent English in the shows. Why? Because the moment one speaks English on television, the ratings will

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tremendously drop, to the point that it is no longer feasible to sustain the business with such programming and language. Exemplifying Japanese cartoon

shows on local TV, he said that 90% of the market will choose to watch the shows dubbed in Tagalog than those dubbed or subtitled in English. The moment English is heard, the market narrows down to just 10% of all possible viewers, even hardcore Japanese cartoon fans. He went on to discuss the literacy of the average viewer. Many Filipinos can speak and understand English, but the masa or C2-DE market’s understanding of English is very limited. Yes, they can speak a few English words or even construct a simple sentence in the language, but full-blown English programming is something that they will not be able to handle for a sustained period. This, again, brings us back to the reason why masa stations are top Filipino favorites compared to upscale, English-speaking radio stations. The sheer volume, up to 90%, of those who would prefer to listen or view Tagalog programming, is what keeps the masa radio industry alive and thriving. The use of the listeners’ native tongue is, after all, the main attraction and marketability leverage of masa stations such as Love Radio, WRR, and YesFM. An interesting question to ask, though, is “Will English programming force listeners to learn English so they can understand the shows better?” It is very hard to say. But the more eminent presence of English programming could definitely help raise curiosity, awareness, and knowledge on the importance of learning the language. Popularization of the language is the key, which is somehow different from the trivialization of English that masa stations indirectly execute. And even after then, after learning effective English communication skills, how

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will these skills be utilized to give the listeners the edge in life? How can speaking English help them get more out of life? Basic English is recommended for everyone to acquire knowledge in. But the value of fluency in English to those in the C2-DE market is open to debate. Some will say it will help them tremendously in their endeavors, some will question how advanced English skills can help an ice cream vendor, or a janitor, experience progress in his career. “Conservative” is not a way to describe the format they use for broadcast. According to Love Radio Network Program Director Willie Espinosa, radical is how they would most like to be perceived. They broke through the market with such a unique format that was quite unheard of in metropolitan FM radio. This topic shall be further discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. Naturally, the researcher needed to know what the listeners of masa FM stations thought of the programs, the announcers, the fashion of transmitting messages, and the station’s image in its entirety. The researcher engaged in a dialogue with the heart of the radio industry: the listeners. The masa FM radio audience base is primarily composed of individuals and households from the CDE social classes, as earlier stated by Espinosa of Love Radio. Reports contesting this marketing focus, stating that the upper AB classes are now their primary market, have been received. But Espinosa reiterated in a follow-up interview that markets have not shifted. They still primarily cater to the CDE bracket. The researcher gathered respondents whose job titles ranged from security guards to canteen vendors to office workers, and finally, even to high school and college students.

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The researcher was able to get in touch with a total of 60 listeners distributed among Love Radio 90.7, YesFM 101.1, and WRR 101.9. The places of residence of the respondents spanned from Payatas, Quezon City to the farther parts of Manila, such as Tondo and Binondo. Ages were all within range of the specified target audience of masa stations – all above the age of 10, up to the later age of 56. Their exposure to the masa format ranges from one to seven years. Those who have been exposed longer will be more likely to experience certain effects than those who have been listening only for weeks. Similar to the data acquired from AC Nielsen, the composition of the listeners showed that even with a smaller number, the rankings still follow, with Love Radio leading by far, and WRR and YesFM trailing behind, the latter not far behind the former. The following table contains the distribution of the listeners among the three leading masa stations:
Station Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM Total Number of Listeners 36 13 12 61* % Share 59% 21.3% 19.7% 100%

Table 5. Distribution of Respondents Among Top 3 Masa FM Stations.

Even though there are only 60 respondents, the total tally shows 61 listeners, because one of the respondents interviewed expressed that she listens regularly to all three stations. It can be seen that the majority of the respondents, more than 50%, said they listen to Love Radio. The rest of the listeners were divided almost equally between the following two, WRR and YesFM. In all individual interviews, respondents were asked to describe their listening habits and experience, how they would rate the programs, how it has affected their lives since they started and formed a habit, and how they would

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change the current trends, if they had the chance. Below is a copy of the questions that were used in the interviews and questionnaires that the respondents were asked to answer. The questions were phrased in Filipino after consideration of the CDE market’s educational attainment and language literacy. The use of the respondents’ native language eliminates potential noise and/or distortion in the communication process. Noise can be brought on by confusion or miscomprehension which may arise from lack of knowledge in English.

Questions: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sa'yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? Kung mayroon, anu-ano ang mga ito? Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? Alam mo ba ang mga Inggles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? May natututunan ka bang masasabing mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, ano ano ang mga ito?

In a pool of 60 listeners of the three masa stations, 41 of them said they listen to these stations because they need a [comic] relief from their strenuous day-to-day activities. These 41, making up 68% of the total number of respondents, said they listened to masa stations for either learning jokes or learning more about contemporary pop music – the tunes, the lyrics, and the chart toppers. They want to take their mind off things and they do this by listening to programs which usually feature trivial comments and situations. In particular, a security guard from the UP Institute of Biology said everything about her work is taken seriously, so she wanted to listen to something oriented in the opposite direction.

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She said it is her way to unwind and forget, if only for a few moments, the usual stressing demands of her job. This might be interpreted as an isolated case, but then, it might prove to be a more generic phenomenon through the masa format’s audience, affecting most members of the CDE market. Certainly, it is not only the UP security guard who listens to masa stations for that reason. As more people were engaged in this data gathering process, more of them admitted that they do it for the exact same reason - a staggering 68% of the total number of respondents listen for the sole purpose of entertainment. Thirty-one (51.7%) respondents said they listen to the radio for the jokes, while nineteen (31.7%) respondents said they listen to be updated in the local and international music scene. This attraction was explained by Bartolome. He demonstrated a connection

between this attraction and the common Filipino psychology. Defined as the way in which Filipinos perceive things and how their culture determines whether something is desirable or not, common Filipino psychology is said to be consistent with masa content. Bartolome elucidated that the masa stations’ features of popular songs and popular jokes are appealing to the audience, in that they can easily relate to them. This is because these songs and jokes are consistent with other aspects of the common Filipino’s experience. As with Love Radio’s Es-

pinosa, Bartolome believed that what the announcers say on air, and the theme of the songs they play, are events that do happen in real life. True enough, discussions with 60 respondents revealed that 18 (30%) of them tune in to the three masa stations because they reflected the listeners’ daily activities and talked about matters that concerned them. These same 18 listeners do not tune in to upscale stations because they find the topics being discussed hardly relatable, or

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reflective of their own lives, and therefore boring. Arlene Brosas, a cultural worker and a member of Musicians for Peace, begins to give a socio-cultural assessment of masa FM by saying that “masa radio stations are formula.” She continued to explain that these stations are basically entertainment, plus programs that cater to the people’s religiosity. Brosas clarified that, more than attraction, it is a case of this-is-only-what-you-need, or this-is-only-how-far-we-can-go. Her observation is that advertisers, the government, and media owners who are also owners of other capitalist institutions are the true dictators of what does and what does not go on air. She further justified this observation by citing the failure of masa programs to provide meaningful insights to issues that are significant to the masses, whether social, political, or economic. Brosas said that such programs could be aired over the stations, but they generally fall short of delving into the fundamentals of the issues. Case in point, stations really intent on fleshing out the president’s impeachment issues can only be left to the imagination. One very important point that can be taken against masa FM stations is information gate-keeping. Through information

gate-keeping, some topics are not discussed, while some are sensationalized. The agenda of the station management can be determined by scrutinizing the issues they choose to exaggeratedly report on, which, upon exposure, listeners will be led to think is what is truly important to them. This is how Brosas arrived at her conclusion that masa FM stations are structurally manipulative. They communicate the underlying message of importance and urgency to the audiences by bombarding them with mostly borderline sensationalized issues. But then, there is always the question of what is truly significant and what is pure media

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hype. Additionally, masa FM stations are not the only media outfits that commit the crime of sensationalism from time to time. Almost all, if not all, media outfits sensationalize different issues for different reasons. Whatever these reasons are is upon the discretion of the powers-that-be. Filipino culture also makes the masa audiences vulnerably attracted to the masa format, according to Arlene Brosas. She brought up the concepts of religious pacifism, escapism, addiction to melodrama, and games of chance which have been present in masa culture since colonial times. Not only are these behaviors forged into Filipino culture, they are also continually perpetuated through masa programming. Usual spiels of “tawanan mo ang iyong problema,” “ipagpasa-Diyos mo na lang,” and “swertihan lang iyan” are the most direct, verbal indicators that these behaviors are being further cultivated in the listeners’ view social reality as part of the normal Filipino lifestyle. According to history, this was how the ruling class afforded the masses to remain docile producers of wealth whiles the former stayed in power. When asked about learning through the programs, they said if their reason was purely entertainment, there is obviously hardly any learning involved. They did not learn much and they did not expect to. It is not in their agenda, so to speak. They tune in for the songs and the announcers’ comments that they find funny, not for the educational value of the programs. However, they said that at some point, they learned a few things – a few trivial things. Examples of these bits of information that they obtain are parts of the usual disc jockey spiel such as the title of the song and the artist. In short, music scene updates, which as stated earlier, comprised the agenda of 31.7% of the listeners. They are at most,

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informed about new songs in the local music industry, particularly in the novelty genre. Bartolome of GMA 7 said that these findings are most understandable. Very many people see the radio as a medium of entertainment, because that’s what it really is. Radio, he said, is something you switch on when you’re bored, when you have nothing else to do, or when you are doing something but still want to hear some music. The main purpose of listening to the radio is to listen to songs, not listen to hour-long talks on politics, or to introductory lectures on science subjects such as biology and physics. “We have to accept the medium for what it is,” Bartolome said. Indeed, it would be very peculiar to find someone, a notebook and a pen in hand, writing away as he listens to the radio. No one will listen to programs like the aforementioned because this is not the value of radio that culture/society has taught its people. What is ingrained in the minds of the people is that radio [or even television] is nothing that should be taken seriously. It’s just good for killing time. True, listeners tune in for entertainment, and entertainment they get. If this truly is the purpose of radio, then radio serves it purpose well. After all, entertainment can entail a myriad of other things. After speaking with 60 listeners from all walks life, the researcher found out that acquiring entertainment during working hours can translate to a few benefits. Because of these jokes and songs that the audiences truly enjoy, 38 out of 60 respondents or 63% believe that they are in a better mood compared to not having the radio on in the background. Better moods further translate to doing their jobs more efficiently, without taking much notice of stress after long hours of work. Ignorance of stress could mean

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less complaints especially from blue-collar workers.

Respondents say they

hardly notice time passing by and the tremendous amount of work they have done because at the end of the day, they still have that light and energetic feeling that they derive from tuning in to masa programs. Listening to the programs also make them forget, if only momentarily, about the hardships they face on a daily basis. They forget their problems. A happy outlook in life, as Espinosa of Love Radio expressed their goal image for their station, is what the listeners acquire upon listening to the radio. It all seems a little escapist, but radio’s charm can only work up to some extent. Through this lens, masa radio is beneficial. But is radio really just for entertainment? Jokes and music? Are these the only things listeners need? Radio is a much more powerful tool than just for entertainment. The principal motivation for the invention of radio was to relay important messages. Where is this now? Through the proliferation of radio as an entertainment-in-the-background-only medium, a new social reality is created. This is explained by the Cultivation Theory of Mass Media. As the cycle continues, the audience will all be under the impression that this is the primary, even sole, function of radio and other forms of broadcast media as well. The impression is strengthened over time, until it will be hard to convince them anymore that radio can be such an informative and persuasive tool that can be used for things other than killing time. Currently, this essential character of radio is being overlooked – overshadowed by the business of making money. Broadcast radio will only be taken for granted, and will no longer be taken seriously by its audiences. It will become a medium of communication that is hardly reliable. This is the new social reality that masa radio has begun. And its target market is under the im-

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pression that it is an acceptable condition. The study found out that only a small number of listeners had comments or grievances on the programs of the stations they tune in to. Out of the total 60, only 4 listeners or 6.7% thought that the stations should improve the programs by changing the way DJs delivered their spiels, adding more segments that tackle current affairs, helping listeners elevate their knowledge by airing segments that contain practical knowledge, or by having more promotions that give out financial rewards, thereby helping to ease the financial burdens of the listeners. Eleven (11) others, or 18.3%, want changes in the music that is played. Eight other listeners, or 13.3%, believed some of the stations’ jokes to be morally offending, especially those that feature sexual innuendos. These listeners want to put a stop on the airing of these so-called green jokes. Lastly, three respondents, or 5%, would like shorter commercial breaks so they could enjoy more music. All the others, unfortunately, are fine with how the stations are programmed. What does this mean? It means that the audiences have become less critical media consumers. The numbers prove that the listeners have become more passive in this particular communication process. It can be said that anything is acceptable to them, as long as they are not affected directly (that they know of). Ideally, all consumers, even media consumers, must be critical and value-seeking in all goods and services that they consume, even if with mass media consumption, the goods/services do not come with a monetary value. Still, time is spent, and time is something valuable that should be exchanged for something of equal or even greater value. Espinosa reports that they have received complaints from a few entities regarding their programs, the way their jocks handle them and how they commu-

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nicate to the listeners, but he defends their format by saying that their whole operation is governed by the KBP Code of Ethics. He stated that although their approach may be considered radical and unorthodox, they still function within the bounds of ethical broadcasting. Going back to the needs of society, how can the needs and the wants of the listeners be reconciled? Apparently, most listeners think that they are getting what they need from radio as a broadcast medium, because the remaining 55 out of 60, or 91.7% believe that masa programming is good enough for them with the exception of a few minor details. Listeners need more avenues for education other than those which the Philippine educational system provides. Apparently, six respondents or 10% think so because they try to derive other types of information for their radio listening experience than just sexy jokes and music. These six listeners expressed that they learned much from the advice segments on how to deal with family issues and romance- and work-related problems. These segments are usual offerings from masa radio stations such as Love Radio. Ramil Bastillo, a security guard at the University of the Philippines, even said that he learned how to express himself better and tell stories more effectively after listening to Love Radio 90.7 for more than three years. Still, the question is, how can the media be used in the dialectics of society and individual to shape listeners into more critical, value-seeking audiences? How can radio be used to transform the concept of the listeners of what is truly necessary in this day and age? This is more of a question of cultural transformation than anything else, but one suggestion of the researcher would be to popularize the concept of edutainment. Put quite simply, edutainment is the marriage of entertainment and education.

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Times Multimedia, subsidiary of The Times of India Group which is a media conglomerate with more than 160 years of industry experience, defines edutainment as “a revolutionary new concept in learning that combines education with entertainment.” This concept has long been used in the programming of children’s shows, such as Sesame Street on television. These shows were aired to help

educate children on rudimentary skills, such as arithmetic, communication, and good manners and proper conduct. Even in children’s computer games, the edutainment technique is used such as in the CD-ROM products of Times Multimedia. A specifically formulated version of edutainment can be used to aid learning in listeners through playfully written radio programs embedded with practical knowledge. (Times Multimedia FAQ’s) Moving on, three college students from the University of the Philippines were interviewed regarding the reach of masa stations. The students agreed that the stations have tremendous reach across the country. Even they themselves are included in this. When they take the bus to school or some other place, most of the time, the driver is tuned in to Love Radio. In a sense, they are somehow forced to listen because apparently, they cannot easily (or even possibly) tune the sound out, especially if they are traveling alone. One of the interviewees said that for every five times that she takes the bus or any other PUV, she notes that there are about two or three instances where masa radio is playing in the background. That translates to a 40-60% chance of “stumbling upon” masa radio when accessing public transportation. The students are, most of the time, fully amenable to this. They are only apathetic to what’s playing and what the host is talking about in the background. One of the students said, “It’s okay. I don’t get

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affected at all. I neither got depressed nor entertained by listening to them.” When asked about gathering any information from the programs, they said they usually don’t learn anything new from them. The topics discussed by the hosts are very light and very trivial to them. Espinosa also confirms this. He stated that they do not wish to air textbook information to their listeners. He believes that, however limited the learning endeavor is, the quality of the content they air relates to their listeners’ real lives. The hosts cite real-life situations that most people don’t really mind anymore, such as when taking the bus or jeep to get to school or work. He supposes that people want to know about these little things. The listeners on the other hand, have mixed reactions. Others, such as these three university students, believe that the triviality of their material is one of the factors that bring the masa format to a disadvantage. It is another story for a different set of students. If the college students presented in the preceding paragraph did not make the choice to listen to masa FM stations, the researcher found others who did make the decision among themselves, and are influenced in a more active level by the system: the bandwagon effect. It is one theory that turned out to be enough reason and justification to support masa radio. In a discourse with two high school students, they said they listen to masa station WRR 101.9 because their friends listen to it. When they get together at school, they talk about the announcers that they admire. Others admitted they did not want to listen to the station at first, but they felt left out in the conversations their friends were having, and finally started to join the bandwagon. Now that they are familiar with and are accustomed to the sta-

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tion’s programs, they can talk to their friends about it and even invite more people to join them. It has been expressed earlier that the masa stations primarily cater to the CDE market. But Espinosa of the Love Radio network said that in most recent market research results, they found out they were able to capture the entire spectrum, from the A-class to the E-class. Indeed, this vast market range entails a considerable deal of influence over the audiences. The researcher asked the respondents how they think their listening experience with masa programs has affected their lives. Most respondents, at first, could not readily answer the question. It required thorough assessment of how the stations they have tuned in to have affected them over the years. Some respondents named personal influences that the format has brought to them. Thirty-eight (38) respondents said they feel happy and entertained whenever they listen to the radio, owing to the stations’ general theme of “a happy outlook in life”, and that is one of the reasons they have made listening a daily habit. So whenever they feel depressed, tuning in to the radio had proven to be a solution. After this, the respondents had a hard time identifying another advantage (that they are aware of) of supporting masa radio. The listeners were actually surprised that they could not specify any other benefits, or effects of something that they have spent a lot of their time in over the past years. The interviews concluded that the choice they made of listening to masa radio was a totally carefree one. It was one that did not demand a lot of thinking or scrutinizing. In some cases, it was not even a decision to tune in to masa radio. For example, one respondent said that he tunes in to YesFM be-

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cause it was the only station that his transistor could receive. But overall, the respondents confessed it was a matter of feeling, determining which format (masa or non-masa) catered to their taste, tickled their emotions, and imitated and related to their characters as ordinary citizens. Moreover, it was a matter of getting used to the station’s programming, and afterwards being a loyal listener to that one station. Thirty (30) respondents, or 50% of the total, stated that they do not listen to any other station than the one they currently listen to. Below is a table of effects on the listeners, and the subsequent impacts of these effects. Effects are examined through multidisciplinary lenses to arrive at the impacts. Percentages of the affected individuals are computed based on how many respondents displayed the said effects and are likely to experience the subsequent impacts.
Effect Listeners acquire entertainment from masa radio. The first options for entertainment are television and radio. Listeners believe that no changes should be made to the programming of the masa radio station they listen to. Impact The other, more important aspects of radio are overlooked. The role of broadcast media in the daily lives of the listeners is devalued as purely an avenue for entertainment. Affected % 68.3%

Listeners have become progressively passive over the years. Ignorance of possible long-term effects of stagnant programming becomes rampant. Listeners also become less critical of the content they receive. Airing of grievances is no longer an option for listeners. The concept of what is necessary and what is important and significant to their daily lives has gone off course in today’s media consumers. Brand affinity has infiltrated the broadcast media. Blind loyalty to one particular station can hinder learning through experimentation and acquiring fresh perspectives on issues. It could facilitate in making the consumers become less open-minded.

91.7%

Listeners consider jokes aired on masa radio as important to their radio listening experience. Listeners do not switch to other stations, remaining loyal to a single station.

51.7%

50%

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Very few listeners do acquire new significant knowledge from listening to masa radio.

Through mental conditioning over the years, the media have helped consumers become less receptive to brand-new, relevant information, and alternative perspectives, as a result of the cultivation of Effect No. 1. The concept of radio is transformed from an intellectual tool to an emotional one. Listeners are made to think that effects that could be derived from radio listening should have no intellectual value at all. Due to this, the perceived importance of radio is lowered. Again, this impact is compounded through Effect No. 1 Learning how to speak functional English is made trivial by the presence of masa FM stations. With the option of Tagalog stations, the CDE market, or those who really do need education in English, will no longer explore English stations at the very least. Existence of masa radio somehow hinders learning of the global language.

90%

Listeners are cheered up by listening to masa stations’ comic content. They feel happy, relieved, and in better moods.

63.3%

Listeners avoid upscale, English broadcast stations because they find them boring, and because the primary medium of communication is English.

---

Table 6. Table of Effects, Impacts, and Affected % of masa stations on listeners.

Cultural worker Arlene Brosas has her own interpretation of the possible effects of masa FM radio on listeners and the Filipino society. She said that the format effectively contributes to the perpetuation of social inequity to the detriment of the masses. In actuality, the audiences are exposed a very anti-masa culture in a very unobtrusive way. The escapist behavior surreptitiously forced upon them denies them critical thought over the social structures that tie them to poverty, while pacifist attitude denies them the opportunity to collectively assert and fight for their rights. Subsequently, these effects add up to their miseducation by continually depriving them of the opportunity to comprehend the roots of their impoverishment. She dismissed the attempts at public service of the stations as selective efforts and mere palliatives. These factors, Brosas stated, lead the masa to accept their condition as the normal order of society. Ultimately, Bro-

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sas arrived at the conclusion that the term “masa format” is actually a misnomer, considering all of its aforementioned anti-masa effects and impacts on the listeners and our society. She ended with a statement that what would be beneficial for the listeners is to realize that masa content is actually detrimental to them. Her suggestion is a socio-political awakening, much like the protest years during the Marcos Dictatorship when radio and other forms of media were continuously challenged for their accountability. This process, she said, led to more public service, and more educational and current affairs content, compared to pre-Martial Law broadcast state of affairs. Listeners of masa stations tune in because they are only after pure entertainment. They do not wish to extend their knowledge during the communication process because they are already tired of their day jobs. This has become a trend among the respondents whom the researcher interviewed. Subconsciously, they have formed an opinion of radio, as a whole, as a device/medium only for pure entertainment. They have established an entirely different social reality, by extensive exposure to masa FM. Previous expectations, that the broadcast media have to perform and exhibit a sense of social service and responsibility, have been diminished to that of pure leisure purposes. If this goes on for an even longer period of time, the principal objective of the invention of radio, which is to relay important messages in real time, will only be a thing of the past. Again, the hope of utilizing edutainment for broadcast programming becomes even bleaker. One of the most rudimentary tools of learning is imitation. And, no matter how people deny that they have not learned a single essential thing from listening to the radio, they will have learned at least a thought by imitating what is be-

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ing aired over the stations. By imitation, it is not meant that they mimic how the announcers talk. Imitation as mentioned here is more similar to how they acquire the same way of thinking and living as portrayed by the station to which they listen. Masa stations are laid out to broadcast happy, upbeat themes that turn out to be indifferent to current affairs in the real world. This is what the people are somehow encouraged to imitate. Tuning in to radio programs may be a pleasurable, enjoyable experience, but it also somehow persuades them to not mind the more significant occurrences that are happening in their environment. This takes away the substance of community, and they only care for events that directly involve them on a personal level. The value of selflessness for the betterment of the entire community, and our society, is overlooked for personal advantages. Included in this indirect mental conditioning of radio as an entertainment medium, is the trivialization of the learning of English as the Filipinos’ second language. The listeners hear messages in Tagalog, the language they are most comfortable with, and ask for nothing more. Unlike with high-end stations which broadcast in English, with masa FM, they do not have to be alienated anymore. They do not have to learn English to engage in the communication process with radio, and with the people in their environment who discuss their radio listening endeavors. They believe that if one wants to get close to another, one must speak the language the other is comfortable with, and in this light, masa stations have captured their taste. Radio can be seen as a great tool to disseminate information and, to this end, could be considered a very useful instrument to convince listeners to learn English. The importance of learning English, the global language, could not be justified enough. Differences among people could be

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settled if they spoke the same language, fostering understanding among them. Understanding leads to collaboration and collective effort, which is the key to progress. Globalization has been the next big thing after the internet broke out, and it can only be attained once the language barriers are brought down. Masa radio does not put confidence in learning English. Au contraire, it could have trivialized the need to learn it since its inception. The bandwagon effect introduced in the previous chapters and earlier in this chapter, if assessed and utilized properly, could put radio in a better direction. As confirmed in the latter part of the data gathering process, the high school students who responded to the researcher’s questions said they started listening to one masa radio station, WRR 101.9, because they thought all of their friends – and partially in their ideology, everyone – was listening to the same radio station. It is because before they were involved in the listening experience, they felt left out whenever their friends talked about the radio programs. They felt isolated and alienated. Some even felt discriminated against for having a different choice of radio station. And the basic human response when people begin forming groups in their environment, such as in this position, is to join the group. This is herd instinct. One would usually go out of his way to feel involved, especially when if he did not, he would feel isolated and alone. This puts pressure on an individual, which could lead to decisions which have not been thoroughly evaluated for their merits and/or demerits. In the high school students’ case, they did not care what kind of content was broadcast over WRR 101.9, as long as they achieved the desired end result – to join the herd and get involved in their exchange of thoughts. If appropriately structured, the bandwagon effect could lead to favorable results

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in social development. Take for example, light educational content (edutainment) on English broadcast stations. Not everybody pays attention to this kind of material. It is a niche. If individuals had the impression that this is the kind of material that everybody listens to, by initiating group discussions where certain individuals would feel isolated, they would try and put down the barrier that separates them from the herd. By doing so, they gain knowledge of not only the language used but also the substance per se. It may be considered manipulative in specific ways, but the beauty of the end result of this system prevails far over its means. It has been mentioned earlier that Love Radio received some complaints regarding their programming. Whatever happened to the complaints? Well, they are just that, complaints from some people that may never be noticed and heard out. Besides, if the system works so well for the stations in question, why would they change it because of a few entities who disapprove of their unorthodox approach? They have more than thousands of others who think otherwise and support them. They are a business after all, and they deliver to their consumers. In the rules of business, not all consumers will be satisfied with your product or content, and this perhaps has been considered by the station management long before they even implemented the masa format. Of course, it is most important to realize that the broadcast industry per se is a commercial affair. Its actions and decisions will be impacted by current economic factors. It is a business, and the management must do whatever it can to maximize its profits for the benefit, primarily, of the owners, and secondarily, of the company’s investors. In some instances, businesses have to degrade the quality of their products to continue generating profits, at the expense on the end

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of their consumers. But then again, as a business, it has to demonstrate an impression of corporate social responsibility (CSR). What is corporate social responsibility? The Pearson Education website, a leading educational publisher across Europe, Middle East, and Africa, defines CSR as the need for organizations to consider the good of the wider communities, local and global, within which they exist in terms of the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic impact of their way of conducting business and the activities they undertake. According to an article in the March 2006 issue of Entrepreneur Philippines, CSR is a philosophy which gained momentum in the last decade as consumers, the media, activists, and various groups started demanding that companies contribute to the betterment of society. Throwing away the media card and just examining the masa stations as different business institutions, they still owe the society in which they exist something other than the basic services they provide. And this is one of the important aspects on which masa radio fails to focus. Even if it would be assumed that the content they provide satisfies the consumers’ (listeners’) needs, masa radio stations do not have any recognized volunteer projects for the benefit of the people who support their business. (Pearson Education Website; It’s Good to Do Good, Entrepreneur Magazine) But what, really, happens when somebody files a complaint against them? Apparently, the station itself is not the best institution to approach regarding one’s grievances. Of course, there is the KBP to go to and file the complaint, then afterwards, the KBP will monitor the station’s material and decide if the complaint holds true and the station operates beyond the boundaries of the KBP radio code. This process looks good on paper, but it is hardly accessible for a person

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with limited resources (who are basically the target market of masa FM) to go through the entire procedure. With today’s busy schedule of the average Filipino, one surely must go out of his way to write a paper describing his complaint, go to the KBP office in Makati, and file the complaint there. Not everyone has the time to do it, and more importantly, not everyone is action-oriented (as cultivated by contemporary mass media). Within themselves they might be feeling revolted, but they still would not cross their daily routine just to complete the task. The said association could generate alternative ways to make filing complaints easier, like an online portal where listeners could submit their letters, but that would only encompass listeners who, as well, have access to computers and the internet. Furthermore, given the present situation of exceedingly passive listening habits, people still won’t be motivated enough to file a complaint on matters that they deem as inappropriate for broadcast on the radio. The KBP could initiate a campaign motivating people to be active participants in the broadcast communication process by providing feedback, although not instantaneously, on the material being aired over their favorite radio stations. UPDATE: The KBP has recently informed the media consumers through advertising spots on radio that they now process complaints that are filed through short messaging service (SMS) or simply known as text in the Philippines. It is dubbed by the organization as the Tell KBP Program. A listener, whether feeling exultant or revolted by a particular program or radio station can send a text message to KBP. Using a specific text syntax leased to the KBP, the message will be received by the organization through a four-digit service number. Below is the format that must be followed to guarantee delivery and receipt of the complaint.

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Text Tell<space>KBP<space>Comment and send to 2968. This is a considerable improvement and can be seen as KBP opening more doors to accommodate listeners. This medium is very accessible to the listeners as almost everyone in the Philippines owns a cellular phone. According to the Manila Times Internet Edition which released in August of 2006 an article called Text Messages hit 250M a day, at the end of 2005, there were 34.78 million cell phone owners in the Philippines. Its concentration on radio (which is quite distinct due to the fact that the service announcement only aired on radio and not on television) is a good thing as well. There is always the MTRCB to monitor television content. Radio listeners have long had the feeling that there is nobody to tell whenever certain violations are made by media professionals, and the thought that the KBP is only a text message away can be quite relieving. There is a feeling of security for the listeners now. Plus, the convenience of SMS is encouraging for listeners to air grievances or amusement concerning radio programming. Regular monitoring is what the KBP needs to do on its members’ content, especially its radio constituents. They should function more like the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB), which can instantly suspend a program from airing within 24 hours that the violation was made. It will need more manpower to accomplish this task, given that the KBP monitoring team in its current state is very undermanned according to the organization’s former President Marinela Aseron, who as of this writing is also a director of the KBP Standards Authority, but the societal benefits of this proposition far outweigh its disadvantages, particularly regarding the cost of operations.

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Masa programming has also affected its audiences in such a way that it lowered the level of criticality among them. When asked how listening to the radio has affected their personal lives, the advantages of it that they are aware of, the respondents alluded to one considerably subjective effect. They mentioned enjoyment whenever they listen to the announcers’ jokes and side comments on certain topics brought up, and additionally, the upbeat music being played, owing to the overall theme of the masa stations to which they listen. Upon asking for more, the researcher discovered that the respondents could not think of any more positive or negative effects of their experience. This only underlines the fact that people become less and less critical when exposed to this kind of material. They could only cite one advantage/effect, and then nothing followed. Upon familiarity with the content, they somehow suddenly discontinue appraising the value of the material and either just take it in or let it slip away. The media has a responsibility to develop and instill critical thinking among its audiences. Evidently, this is not the perfect example of responsible broadcasting.

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CHAPTER 6 – SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Looking back at the stated objectives of the study, the researcher wanted to determine the different causes, market forces, and socio-political influences that made certain radio stations adopt masa programming. In connection to this, the researcher also wanted to discover the conditions that make these radio stations thrive in contemporary Philippine society. But the more significant

questions that the researcher intended to give answers to, through the study, are the following: Does masa programming have any effect on its audiences and Philippine society? What are these effects? How do these effects impact the daily lives of the listeners? Ultimately, are these effects and impacts beneficial or detrimental to media consumers and society and general?

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Discussions with experts (a cultural worker, a psychologist and head of the market analysis arm of a broadcast television network, and a program director of the leading masa station in Metro Manila) and 60 listeners of masa FM radio enabled the researcher to fulfill the objectives of the study. Quantitative data acquired from an international media research company and the National Statistics Office supported contextual descriptions that make the findings of the study more meaningful. Quantitave data supports the argument that broadcasting masa

programming makes a lot of business sense. The staggering volume of the masa market, more than seven million persons in Metro Manila, is enough reason for radio stations to either switch to masa format or continue airing such programming. Station managements cannot afford the surplus income that could be derived from broadcasting masa programs in exchange for upscale, pseudodevelopmental programs that feature more socially and politically insightful current affairs coverage. These programs do not rate as much as masa

programs do, and in the industry, ratings are sacred. At the end of the day, the managements’ decisions have to be in line with the motives and interests of the owners of the media outfits and advertisers. As for the effects, they can be concluded as mostly attitudinal – slight variations in behavior. These effects include the acquisition of entertainment from radio translating to better moods while carrying out tasks in the listeners’ jobs, formation of loyalty to a particular radio station, and giving importance to trivial jokes aired over the stations. While these effects seem harmless, they tag along certain implications that, once subjected to socio-cultural scrutiny, cannot

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be taken for granted.

The concept of radio as a medium of entertainment Radio’s educational potential is

relegates the value of the medium.

overshadowed by masa FM’s usual offering of jokes and trivial information. The assistance it could provide in a cultural transformation to make listeners become more critical and more value-seeking media consumers is not realized. Instead, cultural perversion or distortion is what could be taking place in the era of masa FM. For instance, the listeners believe jokes are necessary bits of information – the juicy parts of their radio listening experience. The listeners are somehow forced to partake in a new social reality, a new culture that shackles them to their current economic state and social status. The new social reality that masa radio could be helping to institute in the listeners’ mindset, through escapism and religious pacifism, is that their socio-economic situation is normal, and that it is consistent with the “normal” order of society. These implications make the task of deciding whether masa format is beneficial or detrimental to the listeners, and our society, all the more uncomplicated. The effects of masa radio programming on its listeners and the society could be summarized in a few words: diminishing expectations on radio as a serious developmental medium due to the proliferation of a subliminal for-entertainment-purposes-only policy, eliminating the criticality among listeners that makes them human beings capable of brain activity, widening the gap between the utilization levels of television and radio, because audiences believe that TV is somehow more credible than radio (and they should not be blamed), and furthering the language barrier among societies, cultures, and economies, as the current masa format trivializes the need to learn English as a global language.

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The indifference towards the developmental facet of radio will not help our country move forward. Maybe it will not make us move backwards, either, but would it not be better to have more avenues for progress and socio-cultural development available to the people?

CHAPTER 7 – RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Given the unveiled weaknesses and shortcomings of the trend-setting masa programming format, the researcher would like to recommend scholars to pursue related studies in the structuring of a new and entirely different development-motivated broadcast format to which the examined masa FM stations could shift. It would be an exhaustive quest to find a format, suitable to the established cultural and social settings where the Filipinos are, that would communicate in a fashion with the potential to take off and be the next pop culture. It would be a search for hard-hitting concepts that will organize and implement a commercially viable, commercially sustainable, and at the same time, socially and culturally profitable developmental broadcast system. It could

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take immense resources, but with the main goal of social progress through information and education, it could be more than worth all the time, effort, and financial costs. But before this could happen, it might be worth looking into a redefinition of the concept of Development Communication. Still viewed as a communication methodology instigated in the rural areas to effect knowledge, attitudinal, and behavioral change in audiences, mainly farmers, the researcher believes Development Communication can also be implemented in the urban broadcast media to ameliorate the average Filipino’s quality of life. While the original

concept was intended to help farming communities learn about new technologies and procedures to increase their produce and enhance its quality, the research supposes the objectives can be revised to better suit the needs of urban Manila. Farming is hardly an industry in the city, so that is out of the question. However, there are so many other aspects of metropolitan living that can still be improved. For example, raising awareness on topics that the masses usually deem trivial can bequeath the listeners knowledge that will make them holistic. Through this, culture is enriched, and will eventually advance. A redefinition need not entail the whole concept to be transformed completely. More than anything else, the study could be the tailoring of Development Communication according to the needs of a different type of audience, and to the dictates of contemporary times in which it would be designed to work. Researchers looking into carrying out this study would have to realize the indicators of effective communication and adhere to the foundations upon which the Development Communication was originally established, which the Development Communication Division of the World Bank

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Corporate Online Portal put quite simply in the article What is Development Communication? World Bank’s DevComm is “divided into four areas of

expertise: Capacity Building & Knowledge Managment, Communications for Sustainable Development in Operations, Operational Communications Support, and Client Surveys. (What is Development Communication; DevComm Services)
All development requires some kind of behavior change on the part of stakeholders. Research shows that changing knowledge and attitudes does not necessarily translate into behavior change. In order to effect behavior change, it is necessary to understand why people do what they do and understand the barriers to change or adopting new practices. It is not enough to raise awareness of the "benefits", it is critical to understand peoples' barriers or the "costs" they perceive such a change would entail. Meaningful communication is about getting information out to particular audiences, listening to their feedback, and responding appropriately. Whether discussing a development project or broader economic reforms — from health, education or rural development to private sector development, financial reform or judicial reform — the idea is to build consensus through raising public understanding and generating well-informed dialogue among stakeholders.

Interested researchers may also look into market research. Since it has been established by the study that masa FM radio has the broadest range of listeners encompassing the whole spectrum, scholars should try and find out how the market would react if there was a sudden shift in formats. The market has been accustomed to the same masa approach and it could take a while for them to adjust once a new methodology is implemented. Then, should they conclude that listeners would react only violently towards the agenda shift, the scholars could formulate techniques to not give metropolitan Manila, literally, a big shock – assuming, of course, that it is the fashion that the researchers decided to be best for our society. If they would go for the more unorthodox way of storming through the market and shocking them with a new system, as the pioneers of masa radio did years ago, then there would be no need to smoothen the transition so as not to defeat the purpose. It is ironic that it is still referred to as unorthodox when, in

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fact, shock implementation (with little to no prior introduction) has been done so many times in the media business. If the two represented fields of research would be carried out and would give favorable results, i.e. a fully working development-motivated (but still commercially profitable) broadcast system for radio would have been formulated, and market research would show that the audiences would be prepared to embrace or accept new programming that could totally relate to their characters and social situation, then it would best to study how the KBP would handle the options they would be given. Another topic regarding the KBP that could interest scholars would be the effects of a retransformation of the said association. Currently, it can only

exercise limited power over its member stations and networks. The KBP follows the policy of self-regulation and it expects its members to do so. It is a noble policy and would work perfectly in the ideal world. But then, in the real world, the problem within the system of the KBP could be rooted to this. It does not hold enough power to suspend programs or networks from operating, and one member could just resign from the association should they wish to. Researchers might want to study what would happen if the KBP redesigned its system into something like a merger between the MTRCB and the National

Telecommunications Communication (NTC). What would happen if the KBP (or maybe even fashion a new name, but still to a certain extent of reference to the old name for recognition) had the resources to regularly monitor the content aired by each of its member networks and stations? What if it had the power to censor irrelevant and possibly harmful messages contained within the programs? What

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if it could revoke the license of a network, keeping it from further broadcasting any more material should it commit a critical violation of the code of ethics? Would this scenario prove to be an advantage our society could enjoy? These are some of the questions to which the researchers should find answers. This situation may sound authoritarian, much like the situation during the reign of the dictator Marcos, especially on the side of the media, but this is also part of the research that would be undertaken. The researchers should ascertain if it would be a better alternative to what the KBP is as of this writing.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas Website. KBP TV and Radio Code. Online. Internet. 1999. Available URL: http://www.kbp.org.ph/rTVCode00.html IndiaTogether.org. “The Medium, The Media, and The Masses.” Online. Internet. 11 May 2005. Available URL: http://www.indiatogether.org/2005/may/med-medium.htm Feminist Theory Website. “The life and work of Ammu Joseph, an Indian feminist.” Online. Internet. 1999. Available URL: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/feminism/Joseph.html Music Unbound. “Creating a Merit-Based Music Economy: Compulsory or Blanket Licensing for Interactive Subscription Services - A2. Why Radio is (Still) So Important.” Online. Internet. December 2003. Available URL: http://www.munb.com/meritmusic5.htm National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Ramon R. Tuazon. “Radio as a Way of Life.” Online. Internet. 2002. Available URL: http://www.ncca.gov.ph/culture&arts/cularts/others/communication/communication-radio.htm

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U-Web Student Web Service. Karyn Riddle. “Violent Media Effects: A Comparison of Scholarly Research, Public Opinion, and Industry Rhetoric.” Online. Internet. Available URL: http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~ker/karyn2.htm Media Awareness Network. “Research on the Effect of Media Violence.” Online. Internet. 2005. Available URL: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/violence/effects_media_violence.cfm University of Twente, Netherlands Website. “Cultivation Theory.” Online. Internet. June 2004. Available URL: http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Mass%20Media/Cultivation_Theory.doc/ John Hopkin Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs Website. “Theoretical Framework.” Online. Internet. 2003. Available URL: http://www.jhuccp.org/research/theory.shtml Mass Media: Effects Studies. Mick Underwood. “Uses and Gratifications Theory.” Online. Internet. 2003. Available URL: http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/ugpr.html Kapisanan ng mga Broadkaster ng Pilipinas Website. “Survey: TV viewing level 94%; radio listening, 87%.” Online. Internet. July 2005. Available URL: http://www.kbp.org.ph/HH%20TV%20Radio.html Pearson Education UK Website. Glossary. Online. Internet. 2004. Available URL: http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/1452/1487687/glossary/glossary.html Smith, Mary John. “Contemporary Communication Research Methods.” Belmont, California: Wadsworth Pub., c1988. 145. The Manila Times Internet Edition. Darwin G. Amojelar. “Text messages hit 250M a day.” Online. Internet. August 3, 2006. Available URL: http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/aug/03/yehey/top_stories/20060803top5.html Multi Media Buying and Planning Services Australia Website. Frequently Asked Questions. Online. Internet. No date. Available URL: http://www.multimediabuying.com.au/faqs.php?pname=faq#faq0 Philippine National Statistics Office Website. “National Capital Region: Close to 10 Million Persons.” Document No. 2003-12. Online. Internet. January 14, 2003. Available URL: http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2003/pr0312tx.html

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World Bank, Development Communication Division Website. “What is Development Communication?” Online. Internet. August 2004. Available URL: http://go.worldbank.org/5CHGCEWM70 World Bank, Development Communication Division Website. “DevComm Services.” Online. Internet. August 2006. Available URL: http://go.worldbank.org/429CEJ7A90 Times Multimedia of India Website. “Times Multimedia FAQ’s.” Online. Internet. No Date. Available URL: http://shopping.indiatimes.com/ism/faces/tiles/templates/TimesMMFaqs.jsp

APPENDICES A. Interviews with Respondents A1. Dette-C Uy – incidental listener, student, UP Diliman (Love Radio) M: Alam mo ba ang masa radio? D: Ah, masa radio? Hmm, yeah, medyo. M: Nakikinig ka naman? D: Unintentionally. M: Unintentionally? Saan ka nakakapakinig? D: Kase nagko-commute ako, so sa mga bus and jeep. M: Anong istasyon ang napapakinggan mo sa mga bus? D: Love radio, yun ba yung may kukurukuku? M: Sila yung may “Kailangan pa bang i-memorize yan?” D: Oo yon. Madalas yon. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakakapakinig ng Love Radio?

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D: Ever since nagko-commute ako. Siguro first year college. M: Third year, so mga three years na. M: Masaya ka ba sa pakikinig? D: May joke silang nakakatawa e. Shempre subjective yon. Pero nakakatawa naman yung mga joke nila. Pero minsan hindi kase parang ang balahura ng mga DJ. Kase shempre defined yung audience nila, parang kinekyeme kyeme na lang yung hosting. Parang walang kwenta. Walang substance. M: So yung mga joke na sinasabi mong nakakatawa, minsan lang yun mangyari in your experience sa pakikinig ng Love Radio? D: Oo. M: May natutunan ka ba sa pakikinig sa Love Radio? D: Meron naman kahit papaano. Nagiging example sila ng hindi dapat gawin. M: Kung meron kang gustong isang bagay na baguhin sa pinakikinggan mo, ano yon? D: Shempre kung ako yung magiging decisive na ano, sana hindi ganon kalamya, o hindi ganon kabalahura ang paghandle dun sa pagdi-DJ. Kase hindi naman porket masa e walang intellectual factor. A2. Darlene Menese – incidental listener, student, UP Diliman (Love Radio) M: Alam mo ba ang masa radio? D: Oo. M: So nakikinig ka naman? D: Oo. Sa mga FX, tsaka sa taxi. M: So anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? D: Love Radio, madalas. Yun yung naaalala ko. Saka YesFM. M: So gano ka kadalas makinig? Tuwing sasakay ka ng FX? D: Hindi naman lagi. Pero sa 5 beses na sasakay ako, may 2 o 3 na naka-tune in sa masa stations. M: So kung hindi sila naka-tune in sa masa radio, anong pinakikinggan nila? D: Wala. Naka-off lang. M: Masaya ka ba naman sa pakikinig mo?

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D: Ok lang. Minsan pag gusto mong matulog nakakasagabal. Pag gusto mong matulog, masakit sa tenga yung boses nung mga DJ. M: Maingay sila? So tingin mo ba may relasyon yung pagka-loud nila on-air sa personality nila in real life. D: Siguro sa image ng station. M: May natutunan ka ba naman habang nakikinig ng masa station? Yung mga topics na pinaguusapan ng mga DJ? D: Wala naman. Mga batian portion, tapos joke. Tapos the usual na light news sa FM. M: Kung mayroon kang isang bagay na gustong baguhin, ano yun? D: May bias ako sa news e, sana kahit FM, dapat may news, dagdagan yung news. Or at least, talk about current affairs. M: Siguro in a light manner? D: Oo, at saka bagay don sa personality ng station.

A3. Jason Laxamana – incidental listener, student, UP Diliman (Love Radio) M: Alam mo ba kung ano masa radio? J: Yung pinakaalam ko lang, Love, tsaka yung Energy. M: Nakikinig ka ba? J: Hinde, kapag lang nasa bus, pag galing probinsya papuntang Quezon city. Dun naka-tune in yung bus so wala akong choice kundi pakinggan sila. M: Ano yung pinakikinggan ng mga bus driver? J: Love usually. M: So, gano ka kadalas makapakinig non? J: Weekly. M: Pag umuuwi ka sa probinsya? J: Oo. At saka pala sa isang internet café, e madala ako mag-internet don. Lagi silang naka-love radio.

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M: Matagal ka na bang nakakapakinig thru these means? J: Oo mga, 3 years. M: So dun sa katagalan ng pakikinig mo, e nag-enjoy ka bas a pakikinig mo? J: Wala lang, hindi naman ako nag-enjoy. Hindi rin naman ako na-depress. M: Bale wala lang? Hindi sya memorable experience? J: Hinde. M: Don sa mga programa, may natutunan ka ba? J: Well, naiinform ako sa mga bagong kanta, novelty songs. M: E yung sa hosting, may interaction to di ba? Pag naguusap yung mga DJ, meron ba silang mga interesting topic na nata-touch, na pwede mong pagkuhanan ng mga bagong impormasyon? J: Wala masyado, kase mababaw lang naman yung mga usapan nila. Yung mga mag-ingat sa daan yung mga driver, yung mga alam ko na. M: Kung may isang bagay kang gustong baguhin don sa program na yon o kaya sa station na yon, ano yon? J: Siguro huwag silang maging mababaw. Sana help the listeners elevate their knowledge.

A4. Cherry Lyn Perante, student, Nino Jesus High School (WRR) M: Alam mo ba ang ibig sabihin ng masa station? C: Oo, yung mga masa ang nakikinig. M: Nakikinig ka rin ba sa mga masa stations? C: Oo. M: Anong station ang pinakikinggan mo? C: 101.9. (WRR) M: Yun lang ba ang palagi mong pinakikinggan? C: Oo. Doon lang lagi ang istasyon ko. M: Saan ka nakikinig ng radyo? C: Sa bahay most of the time. Minsan sa tricycle, pero kadalasan wala namang radyo ang mga tricycle e. Kaya pagdating na lang sa bahay galing sa school. Pag may ginagawa sa household, don para hindi nakakapagod.

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M: Matagal ka na bang nakikinig sa 101.9 (WRR)? C: Matagal na rin, since nung high school pa yung dalawa kong ate. Magkakasama kasi kaming nakikinig dati e. Tumatawag pa kami sa hotline para mag-request at saka magpabati. Wala lang, kahit madaling araw na tawag pa rin. Siguro mga more than 5 years na. M: Bakit mo nagustuhang makinig doon sa station na yon? C: Wala lang. Nung una nga pag nakikita ko yung mga kapatid ko, e sumasama ako, kaya lang hindi naman ako maka-relate masyado doon sa mga pinaguusapan sa WRR, kasi bata pa ako nun e. E tuwing mag-uusap yung mga ate ko e laging kasamang topic yung mga napapakinggan nila sa radyo, kaya sabi ko gusto ko na ring makinig non para hindi ako ano, OP (out-of-place). M: So nung una sa pakiramdam mo parang medyo napilitan ka lang para makasali ka sa usapan nila? C: Oo, e syempre kase, mga dalaga na sila non. Hindi nila ako masyadong sinasama. Kaya nagpipilit akong magpakatanda agad. Yun, nakinig ako sa 101.9 para kasali na rin ako usapan. Nag-enjoy naman ako pagtagal. M: Nag-enjoy ka naman? May natutunan ka ba doon sa mga programa nila? C: E wala naman. Nakakatawa lang yung mga joke minsan. Tapos yung heart-toheart lagi naming inaabangan yun, kase nakakatawa yung mga sumusulat doon. Napaka-desperado sa buhay. Siguro yun isa sa mga natutunan ko marami palang taong desperado at sumusulat pa doon para ma-brodkast sa radyo. M: Pero yung mga importanteng bagay, tingin mo, yung mga makakatulong sayo sa buhay, may natutunan ka ba doon sa pakikinig mo sa 101.9? C: E wala naman. Mga wala lang. Nakakatawa lang naman. Natuto lang ako ng mga jokes nung mga DJ doon. M: Kung may gusto kang baguhin sa 101.9, kahit ano, anong babaguhin mo? C: Siguro kung ang gusto talaga nilang gawin, kunyari, maging nakakatawa lang, yun sana yung jokes mas marami pa at saka mas nakakatawa pa. Parang bubble gang, ganon, kaso sa radyo nga lang. O kaya kung gusto nila yung inlove ang theme nila, dapat mas kilig factor pa yung mga kinukwento nila. Dun kasi sa heart-to-heart nakakatawa pa e.

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A5. Marian Baluyot, student, La Consolacion College (WRR) M: Anong station ang pinakikinggan mo sa radyo? MB: WRR, yung 101.9. M: Alam mo bang pang-masa ang station na ito? MB: Oo, wala namang masama doon. Wala lang, ibig sabihin lang marami talaga ang may gustong makinig don. Good thing naman yun di ba? M: So gaano ka kadalas makinig sa WRR? MB:Araw-araw halos. M: Saan? MB: Lugar? Sa bahay, at saka minsan sa sasakyan. M: Tuwing kailan? MB: Galing school, pagdating ko sa bahay. Yun, pampalibang pag walang ginagawa. Tapos pag may ginagawa naman, pampalibang din. Para may background music. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig sa WRR? MB: Matagal na rin. Siguro simula ng high school. Mga 4 years siguro. M: Paano ka nagsimula sa pakikinig ng WRR? MB: Yung friend ko kase, nagsimula silang makinig sa mga DJ don. E syempre, di maiiwasan yung grupo grupo. E naiiwan ako nung mga barkada ko kase sila alam nila yung mga pinag-uusapan nila. Wala naman akong malay doon dati. Kaya ayun, nagsimula na akong makinig. Mas masaya na ang bonding namin kasi may contribution na ako sa mga usapan. Okay naman. M: So yung talaga ang unang dahilan kung bakit ka naengganyong makinig sa 101.9? MB: Oo, pero okay na naman. Nasanay na ko. Naaaliw naman ako sa mga pinag-uusapan ng mga DJ doon. M: Masasabi mo bang may natutunan ka sa pakikinig mo sa programa ng WRR? MB: Hindi. Hindi naman sya nakakabobo pero, enjoy lang. Para lang maaliw ako. Hindi naman ako nakikinig doon para matuto ng mga kung ano ano. Pampalipas

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oras lang, may mga klase naman ako para matuto. Hindi ko na iaasa sa radyo yon. M: Tingin mo ba naapektuhan ka in some way sa pakikinig ng radyo? MB: Hindi naman yung malaking epekto na tipong yumaman ako. Nagkaroon siguro ako ng sunny disposition ba yun? Yung masayahin sa buhay. Pero wala masyadong life-changing na epekto sa akin ang pakikinig sa WRR. M: Para mas gumanda ang listening experience mo sa WRR, may babaguhin ka bang isang bagay sa radio station na ito? MB: Wala akong maisip ngayon. Kase ok naman e. Basta nakakasama ako sa mga conversation ng barkada tungkol doon, para hindi ako mukhang alien habang nagkukwentuhan sila, okay na sa akin yon.

A6. Michelle Roque, student, La Immaculada Concepcion School (YesFM) M: Anong pinakikinggan mong radio station? MR: Yes FM. M: Gaano ka kadalas nakakapakinig? MR: Mga 2 to 3 times a week. M: Anong rason mo sa pakikinig sa Yes! FM? MR: Wala lang. Gusto ko lang. M: Walang ibang mas malalim na rason? MR: Wala, parang kanya kanya lang naman yon. Parang pag tinanong mo rin kung bakit ganito ang suot ko. O kaya bakit ganito ang gusto kong kainin. Kase syempre gusto ko yung iba, ayaw ko ng iba. M: So sa pagpili ng radio station, kanya kanyang panlasa lang yan? MR: Mismo. Mahirap naman kung ipapaliwanag pa kung bakit ganon ang panlasa ko, e kahit ako hindi ko rin naman talaga alam kung bakit nga. M: May mga kasama ka ba habang nakikinig? MR: Minsan yung daddy ko kasama ko. Nagustuhan niya daw kasi habang nakasakay sa jeep madalas pinakikinggan din yun nung driver ng jeep. M: May mga natutunan ka ba sa pakikinig sa Yes! FM?

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MR: Yung mga bagong kanta. Mga singer, bands, tsaka mga news tungkol sa kanila. Mga ganon naman ang nirereport doon. Pag totoong news talaga ang hanap ko, sa TV ako manonood kasi mas maganda at saka mas reliable ang reporting doon e. At saka hindi naman yung ang main purpose ko sa pakikinig sa Yes. Relax lang talaga. Kaya kahit pa may i-broadcast sila na pwedeng pagkatutunan, hindi ko rin masasagap yon kasi nga ang gusto ko lang ay mag-relax. M: Ano ang mga naging epekto nito sayo? MR: Yung mga DJs kasi doon, pag nagrereport kunyari ng news, minsan nagjojoke sila tungkol don. Parang kunyari, kahit seryoso talaga yung incident, ginagawan nila ng funny angle para siguro mas maganda pakinggan para sa mga nakikinig. Ang epekto noon sa akin, parang nagagaya ko na sila. Parang sa mga nangyayari sa akin sa totoong buhay, ginagamitan ko ng silverlining. Kahit minsan nakaka-depress, okay lang. Hahanapan ko ng ibang anggulo kung saan matatawa ako, o kaya mako-console ako. Para hindi naman ako masyadong mukhang kawawa sa buhay.

A7. Jennylyn, 24, Tondo, Manila (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon po ang pinakikinggan ninyo? J: YesFM. M: Gaano katagal na kayo nakikinig, at gaano kadalas? J: Mga 2 weeks, pero hindi naman araw-araw. M: Bakit po kayo nakikinig doon, o personal nyong taste yon? J: Kasi maganda yong mga kanta nila. M: Maliban po doon, mayroon pa po bang iba? J: Yung DJ magaling magsalita at mag-joke joke. M: May naalala po ba kayong program doon? J: Wala naman eh, pero maganda talaga yung mga joke nila. M: May nakukuha po ba kayo doon pag nakikinig kayo? J: Wala naman, natutuwa lang, masaya.

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M: Masasabi nyo na ba na mayroong naging epekto sa inyo yung pakikinig nyo sa YesFM? Sa kahit anong paraan, may napansin ba kayong pagbabago sa inyo? J: Di ba doon, may diskarte, parang ganon? Yon, yung diskarte, kasi sa amin, diskarte talaga. Naaalala ko laging kailangan ng diskarte. M: Nakaka-relate kayo? Tapos nakakatulong sya? J: Sa trabaho kasi namin kailangan talaga ng diskarte, kaya nakakatulong naman. Kaya lagi kong naiisip yon. M: Ah talaga? Inaabangan nyo po ba yon? J: Oo. M: Talaga? Araw-araw? J: Lagi kaming nakatutok doon, laging yon ang station namin. M: Ah, talaga? Bali hindi na lumilipat? Sa opisina yan, no? J: Oo sa BnB Laundry Shop. M: Bakit po hindi kayo sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? J: Sa iba? Hindi ko alam. Hindi ko lang na-try. Wala nang oras maglipat lipat. M: Alam nyo po ba yong ibang mga istasyon? Kasi di ba, sa YesFM, Pilipino talaga ang salita ng mga DJ doon. J: Oo, sa Love Radio din yata parang ganon. M: Opo, sa iba naman pong istasyon, English ang gamit nilang salita doon. Nasubukan nyo na po bang makinig doon? J: Hindi pa. M: Ayun, nabanggit nyo naman po yong diskarte ano? Kung may mga bagay kayong gustong baguhin sa programa ng YesFM, ano pong sasabihin nyo? J: Damihan ang joke siguro. Kasi may ano rin doon, parang love notes, maganda yon. M: Ano pong gusto nyong madagdag? Para sa inyo, anong kailangan nyo na hindi nyo pa nakukuha doon? Ano pa pong hanap ninyo? J: Wala naman. Ok na rin sa akin yon. M: Ang estimate nyo, gano katagal na kayong nakikinig? J: Mga a year na siguro yung mga katrabaho ko.

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A8. Judy, 50, Mother of 2, Manila (Love Radio) M: Ano pong istasyon ang pinakikinggan nila? J: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal na po kayong nakikinig sa Love Radio? J: Simula pa noong nagtrabaho ako dito. M: Mga gaano katagal po yon? May taon na po ba? J: Oo matagal na. Hindi ko lang alam kung ilang taon. M: Bakit po Love Radio? J: Kasi masaya sila eh. Mula nung Love Radio, masaya na kami dito. Kasi meron dyan mga programa na may nagpapadala ng mga letter, mga advice advice, gusto namin yon. At saka yung mga kanta nila maganda. M: Ano pong naging epekto sa inyo ng pakikinig? J: E dahil maganda yung programa nila, matatawa ka talaga yon ang epekto sa akin. Nagtatawanan kami dito sa mga joke nila. M: Dyan po sa mga love advice na yan, may nadagdag po ba sa kaalaman nyo na nagamit nyo sa buhay? J: Ah wala naman kasi nakikinig lang kami dito tapos nakikitawa lang kami. Makatawa ka lang ok ka na. Habang nagtatrabaho ka dyan, kanta kanta lang habang nakikinig. M: Bakit po hindi sa ibang istasyon kayo nakikinig? J: Kasi mas maganda para sa amin yung Love Radio. Parang personal ang dating. M: Di ba po sa Love Radio, Tagalog ang salita ng mga DJ, sa iba naman, English. Nasubukan nyo na po bang makinig sa mga English station? J: Wala, hindi pa nasubukan. Kasi pag naka-on yan, sa Love Radio na yan. Sa bahay din ganoon. Pagka-on, sa Love Radio na yon nakatutok. M: Masasabi nyo po bang may natutunan kayo na mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig ng Love Radio? J: Ay, yun lang masaya. Naririnig ko yung mga joke joke nila dyan, saka yung mga kanta nila. Wala naman kaming natutunang mga importante. Siguro sa

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mga bata, e ako kasi matanda na ako. M: Mayroon po ba kayong mga suggestion, mga gustong baguhin sa programa ng Love Radio? J: Wala naman. Basta ma-entertain lang sa trabaho, ok na ako doon. Pangbackground lang talaga sya habang may iba kang ginagawa.

A9. Emilio, Boy, Krus Na Ligas, Quezon City (YesFM) M: Ano pong istasyon ang pinakikinggan ninyo? E: YesFM. M: Gaano katagal na, at gaano kadalas? E: Araw-araw, siguro mga ilang buwan na. M: Sa bahay po ba yon, o sa trabaho? E: Dito sa trabaho. Kapag nagtatrabaho. M: Pagdating po sa bahay, nakikinig po ba kayo? E: Wala kaming radyo doon eh. M: Bakit po kayo nakikinig sa YesFM? E: Music lang, maganda kasi ang music nila. M: Yung sa mga programa nila, gusto mo rin ba yon? E: Kunyari yung mga joke nila, maganda din yon. M: Anong masasabi mo na natutunan mo doon sa pakikinig YesFM? E: Wala naman, nalaman ko lang yung mga music nila. M: Masasabi mo na may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig mo ng YesFM? E: Nakakalibang habang nagtatrabaho. Para hindi napapansin na lumilipas ang oras at hindi masyadong nakakapagod. Kasi mas maganda kapag may music kang naririnig habang nagtatrabaho ka. M: Nasubukan nyo na po bang makinig sa ibang istasyon? E: Sila nililipat nila, pero nilalagay ko rin ulit sa YesFM. M: Di ba sa YesFM, Tagalog ang salita. Sa iba naman, English. Nasubukan nyo na bang makinig sa puro English na yon? E: Sa NU, kasi maganda ang rock music doon. Pero nililipat nila kasi ayaw nila

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ng puro English. Saka yung tugtog doon sa NU ayaw nitong mga kasama ko sa trabaho. M: May natututunan ka ba na sa palagay mo ay makakatulong sayo sa buhay? E: Wala naman. Ang tulong lang sa akin ng pakikinig ay sa trabaho lang, hindi nabo-boring. Yun lang ang nakikita kong tulong sa akin. M: Kung may gusto kang baguhin sa programa, anong gagawin mo? Anong hinahanap mo pa na hindi mo nakukuha? E: Sa music lang siguro, kung ano yung gusto naming, sana mapatugtog pa nila yon. Yung mga banda. Dapat may programa na puro ganon. M: Ah wala po ba sila non? E: Wala eh, may mga halong ibang kanta. Sana sa buong programa magkakasunod na puro banda kasi yun ang gusto namin.

A10. Marlon, 18, Breadwinner for 10, Novaliches (YesFM) Me: Saan po kayo nakikinig? M: YesFM. Me: Gaano po kayo katagal nang nakikinig? M: Mag-1 year na sa November. Me: Gaano po kayo kadalas nakikinig, lagi po ba? M: Oo. Me: Mga anong oras po? M: Pag nandyan kami sa loob, siguro mga alas syete hanggang alas onse ng tanghali, tapos babalikan naming ng mga 1 to 4pm. Me: Ang trabaho nyo po dito, mga ganoong oras din? Bali lagi lang kayong nakatutok? M: Oo. Me: Pagdating po sa bahay, nakikinig pa po ba kayo? M: A, hindi na, matutulog na ako agad pagdating ko sa bahay. Me: Anong nakukuha mo pag nakikinig ka sa YesFM? M: Syempre, yung mga katuwaan ng mga paborito naming kumakanta, yung mga banda.

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Me: Yung mga DJ, gusto nyo po ba sila? M: Oo, kasi marunong silang magpakilig ng mga nakikinig sa kanila. Me: Sino pong paborito nyong DJ doon? M: Ah, si, hindi ko na matandaan eh, ang dami kasi nila doon. Me: Bakit po gusto ninyong nakikinig doon? M: Kasi naaalala mo yung mga katrabaho mo, mga pamilya mo, saka yung lovelife mo. Masaya naman. Me: Bakit po hindi sa ibang istasyon kayo nakikinig? M: Kasi ano eh, sa ibang istasyon, magaganda din naman, pero hindi katulad ng YesFM na tuloy tuloy talaga ang tugtugan. Mas gusto ko yung wala masyadong salita. Me: E sa English station po ba, nasubukan nyo nang makinig naman? M: Minsan nakikinig ako, kaso eh, nililipat din dahil hindi ko gusto yung mga English na yon. Ayaw din nung mga kasamahan ko sa trabaho. Me: May natutunan ka ba na masasabi mong mahalaga sa buhay mo? M: Oo, mahalaga. Kunyari mayroon kang mga bagay na hindi mo alam, nalalaman ko doon sa pakikinig sa YesFM. Parang may matututunan ka talaga. Me: E yung sa programa, may mga programa ba silang nakakatulong sa trabaho mo o sa buhay mo? M: Oo, kasi nakakatanggal ng pagod ang pakikinig eh. Bawas stress. Me: Mayroon ka bang mga suggestion na gustong iparating sa YesFM? Yung mga bagay na kung pwede mong baguhin ay babaguhin mo? M: Gusto ko, sana mas madalas ipatugtog yung mga gusto kong kanta. Mga 6cyclemind ganon.

A11. Josephine Cruz, 23, Canteen Cook (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? J: Love Radio. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? J: 3 taon.

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M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? J: Nakakatawa yung mga jokes nila. M: Masasabi mo ban may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? J: Nagiging pilosopo ako sa kausap ko. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? J: Puro English kasi yung mga kanta, ang gusto ko maraming Tagalog. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? J: Oo. Pero mahirap intindihin yung mga pinagsasasabi nila. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa Love Radio? J: Wala naman, yung mga jokes lang. M: Kung may mga bagay kan gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, ano ano ang mga ito? J: Wala. Okay na sa akin yung mga pinatutugtog nila ngayon.

A12. Mackoy Santos, 31, Security Guard (WRR) Me: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? M: WRR 101.9 Me: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig? M: Matagal na, hindi ko lang alam kung ilang taon na. Me: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? M: Paborito ko yung isang DJ doon kaya lng hindi ko maalala kung sino. Nakakatuwa yung mga jokes. Me: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig doon? M: Wala naman. Me: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? M: Nakasanayan ko na kasi ang makinig sa WRR 101.9.

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Me: Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa English na station? M: Hindi pa. Lagi lang akong nakatutok sa WRR. Me: May masasabi ka bang mahalagang bagay na natutunan sa pakikinig? M: Wala. Me: Kung may gusto kang baguhin sa mga programa, ano ano ang mga ito? M: Mas maganda kung puro Tagalog para lahat ng kanta naiintindihan. Minsan kasi, hindi naman din naming naiintindihan yung kanta, kahit Tagalog pa yung mga DJ.

A13. Name Undisclosed, 34, Labandera (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? U: Love Radio 90.7. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig sa Love Radio? U: 6 na taon na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? May napupulot ba kayo dito? U: Nakakaaliw, saka pampawala na rin ng antok. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? Kung meron, ano? U: Nakakasakay na ako sa mga green jokes. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? U: Nakasanayan ko na ang pakikinig sa Love Radio eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? U: Oo, pero kadalasan nakakaantok at walang nakakatuwang mga biro. Ang gusto ko talaga jokes pag nakikinig ako. M: May natututunan ka ba sa pakikinig sa Love Radio? U: Mga jokes lang. Yun lang talaga ang natutunan ko sa pakikinig ko ng 6 na taon. M: May babaguhin ka bas a programa ng Love Radio, kung bibigyan ng pagkakataon?

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U: Wala, masaya na sila ngayon.

A14. Tito Galang, 28, School Driver (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakkinggan mo? T: Love Radio. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig? T: 4 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Anong nakukuha mo mula rito? T: Paborito ko kasi yung isang DJ doon, si SexyTery. Magaling syang magpatawa. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? T: Mga jokes lang, napatawa lang nila ako. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? T: Kwela kasi itong istasyon na ito, kaya hindi na ko lumilipat sa iba. M: Sa mga Ingles na istasyon, nakikinig ka rin ba? T: Hindi eh. M: May natutunan ka bang mahalagang bagay na magagamit mo sa buhay sa pakikinig dito? T: Wala. M: May babaguhin ka ba sa mga programa ng Love Radio? T: Wala. Maganda na para sa akin yung mga pinatutugtog nila.

A15. Rosario dela Cruz, 25, Tindera sa St. Paul (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikingan mo? R: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig sa Love? R: 3 years na siguro. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa Love Radio? Ano ang nakukuha mo sa pakikinig?

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R: Sumasali kasi ako sa mga load promo, kaya para sa akin mas practical makinig doon sa may mga pa-contest. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig sa Love? R: Nanalo kasi ako dati, nakakatulong ito sa mga kagaya ko. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? R: Dito lang kasi may ganitong programa. Sa iba naman walang namimigay ng load. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? R: Oo, pero hindi ako nakikinig doon dahil nga wala naman sila nung gusto kong load promo. M: May natututunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig? R: Wala naman. Natuto lang akong sumunod dun sa mga instructions kung paano sumali sa load promo. M: May gusto ka bang baguhin sa istasyon o sa programang pinakikinggan mo? R: Siguro hindi lang para sa istasyon na to, kung hindi sa iba ring mga istasyon. Sana lahat ng pangmasang istasyon may load promo para marami kaming masalihan at maraming chance manalo kasi nakakatulong din talaga sa amin yun mga papremyo nila.

A16. Mila Toledo, 25, Tindera sa St. Paul (Love Radio) Me: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? M: Love Radio po. Me: Gaano katagal na kayo nakikinig sa Love? M: Mula nung magsimula akong magtinda rito. E matagal na yon hindi ko alam kung ilan taon na. Me: Bakit kayo nakikinig sa Love? Ano pong napapala nyo rito? M: May mga text promo kasi dyan, sumasali ako para may chance manalo, ok din yung mga premyo, mga load saka kung ano ano pa na may halaga din sa amin.

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Me: Masasabi mo bang may epekto sa’yo ang pakikinig sa Love Radio? M: Wala naman. Background ko lang naman yon, saka kung may promo, saka talaga ako sumasali. Pero usually eh, pag walang bumibili dito sa tindahan, nakikinig lang kami ng tugtugin doon. Me: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? M: Corny kasi sa iba. Mas gusto ng panlasa ko ang programa ng Love Radio.

A17. Ysabel Cruz, 16, Student (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? Y: 90.7. M: Gaano katagal ka na nakikinig sa 90.7? Y: Matagal na rin, hindi ko lng alam kung gaano katagal na eksakto. M: May 1 year na? Y: Oo naman. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong yon? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? Y: Nakakatuwa. Siguro parang natututo akong maging totoo sa sarili ko. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig? Y: Wala naman, enjoy lang. Saka katulad nga nung sinabi ko, nagiging totoo lang sa sarili. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? Y: Nakasanayan ko na rin siguro. M: Alam mo ba ang Ingles na istasyon? Y: Oo pero ayokong makinig doon. Mahirap silang intindihin. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalaga na magagamit mo sa buhay? Y: Meron, kasi dito natutulungan nila minsan yung naghahanap ng text mates, katulad ko. Nabibigyan nila ng pansin yung mga pangangailangan ng iba’t ibang klaseng tao. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, ano ito?

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Y: Hindi na, wala na siguro, kontento na rin ako sa naririnig ko sa Love.

A18. Camille Raymundo, 17, Student (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? C: 90.7 po. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? C: 3-4 taon na siguro. M: Bakit nakikinig ka sa Love Radio? C: Nakakaaliw, saka nakakawala na rin ng pagod at inis. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? Kung meron, ano? C: Meron, nagagaya ko kung paano sila magsalita. Imitasyon lang ganoon. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? C: Kasi mas nakakatuwa itong istasyong ito kaysa sa iba dyan. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na Istasyon? C: Oo, pero bihira lang ako makinig doon. Mas gusto ko talaga sa Love Radio. Yung panlasa talaga ang gusto Love Radio. M: May natutunan ka bang mahalagang bagay sa pakikinig sa Love Radio? C: Wala naman, yung mga parang information na makukuha sa libro hindi ko naman talaga inaalam yan sa radyo. Siguro sa attitude ko, nagiging totoo lang ako sa sarili ko. M: Kung may mga bagay kang guston gbaguhin sa programa ng Love, ano yon? C: Tagalog ang programa, pero sana, mas haluan pa ng mga Ingles na kanta, kasi nakakasawa yung puro Tagalog na lang naririnig mo wala ka nang naririnig na bago. At wala ka nang bagong natututunan.

A19. Rose, 18, Tindera sa Pritong Manok KNL, Batasan, Quezon City (All Three)

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M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan nyo? R: Love Radio, WRR, saka YesFM, pati iFM! M: Gaano katagal na kayong nakikinig? R: Bata pa ako noon, hindi ko na alam kung ilang taon. Siguro taon na rin. M: Saan po kayo nakakapakinig ng mga istasyon na ito? R: Sa tindahan, sa mga sasakyan, saka sa bahay din, kahit saan. M: Bakit ka nakikinig doon sa mga istasyon na yon? R: Magaganda yung mga tugtog nila, ok sya. M: Pati po ba yung mga announcer, gusto nyo rin? R: A, oo, yung mga DJ doon. M: May programa ka bang inaabangan sa mga istasyon na pinakikinggan mo? R: Ah, sa WRR, yung Heart-to-Heart. Sa YesFM, meron din pero hindi ko matandaan yung pangalan mismo ng programa. Tapos gusto ko rin yung Request Express. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto yung pakikinig mo sa buhay mo? R: Oo naman. Di ba, yung sa mga payo payo, advice ganyan, parang ano, parang nagiging aral na rin sayo yun, parang ikaw na rin ang pinapayuhan doon habang nakikinig ka, hindi lang yung nagpadala kunyari ng sulat. M: May naalala ka bang specific na aral na talagang nagamit mo sa buhay mo? R: Siguro yung mga payo nila na maging praktikal ganyan. Di ba kasi, sa hirap ng buhay ngayon, kailangan talaga praktikal tayo sa pamumuhay. Parang nabibibo ka ganon, sa mga kasamahan mo at sa mga nakakasalamuha mo. M: Sa ibang istasyon, nasubukan mo na bang makinig? R: Oo, pero mas gusto ko pa rin dito sa mga pinakikinggan ko kasi mas maganda yung programa nila, saka yung mga patugtog nila. M: Mas nakaka-relate ka ba doon? R: Oo, mas nakaka-relate ako sa doon sa mga programa ng pinakikinggan kong istasyon. M: E sa mga Ingles na stasyon, nasubukan mo na bang makinig? R: Oo. M: Anong nangyari nung makinig ka sa Ingles?

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R: Ang hirap intindihin. Syempre English yun hindi naman natin masyadong alam yon. Ok din naman, pero mas maganda talaga yung Tagalog para lahat naiintindihan mo. Saka karamihan sa mga English, yung mga RnB na music, hindi ko masyadong gusto yon. M: May natutunan ka ba na masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa mga istasyong nabanggit mo kanina? R: Hindi ko na hinahanap yon. Kasi ako, gustong gusto ko talaga na habang gumagawa, may tumutugtog akong naririnig. Pang-background lang, ganoon. Kailangan talaga lagi kong kasama yong tugtog habang nagtatrabaho. Hindi mo namamalayan, matatapos na pala yung trabaho mo. Nawawala yung isip mo sa trabaho, saka nakakawala din ng stress. M: Kung may bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, o sa istasyon, anong gagawin mo? R: Siguro ano, yung mga dating kanta, mas ipatugtog pa nila, parang retro ganyan, na mga love songs. Kasi minsan hindi na nila napapatugtog. Yung mga ibang tao kasi gusto yung mga lumang kanta, pero hindi naman lagi, kahit isang programa lang. Saka kasi paulit-ulit yung tugtog, sana iba iba naman para hindi agad magsawa.

A20. Tito, 30, Krus na Ligas, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon po ang pinakikinggan nila? T: Love Radio. M: Maliban po sa Love Radio, mayroon pa po bang iba? T: Marami pero madalas talaga dito sa Love Radio nakikinig. M: Gaano kadalas po ang pakikinig nyo, araw araw po ba yan? T: Sa bahay minsan lang, pero dito sa trabaho talaga ang pakikinig namin. Yung radyo, nakabukas lang yan buong araw. So kung breaktime namin o walang ginagawa, nakikinig lang kami doon. Mula alas-syete ng umaga yan, hanggang gabi na.

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M: Mga gaano katagal na ho kayong nakikinig? Napansin nyo na ba kung buwan o taon? T: Mga buwan pa lang ang pakikinig ko. M: Mga ilang buwan na ho siguro yon? T: Mga tatlong buwan, ganyan. M: Bakit ho kayo nakikinig sa istasyon na yon? Marami naman hong ibang pwedeng pakinggan. T: Kasi, gusto namin nakakalibang. Habang may ginagawa kami mayroon naman tugtog na napapakinggan. M: Maliban ho sa tugtog, may iba pa po kayong gusto sa istasyong pinakikinggan nyo? T: Kahit ano, basta maganda sa pandinig. M: Ano ho ang nakukuha nyo mula sa pakikinig sa Love Radio? Nakakatulong ho ba sa pagtatrabaho o kung ano mang aspeto ng pamumuhay ninyo? T: Wala naman, basta, gumagawa ka dyan, may sound, at nakakalibang. Yun lang siguro ang tulong sa akin ng Love Radio. Pampawala ng pagod. M: Masasabi mo na ba na may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig? T: Wala pa naman. M: Bakit ho hindi sa ibang istasyon kayo nakikinig? Nasubukan nyo na bang makinig sa ibang istasyon maliban sa Love? T: Oo, pero minsan minsan lang, bumabalik talaga ako doon sa nakasanayang station. M: Sa mga Ingles na istasyon po, nakikinig din po ba kayo doon? T: Hindi ko pa nasubukang makinig sa mga Ingles e. M: May natutunan ka bang importanteng bagay sa pakikinig? Katulad ng mga payo payo, may napulot ba kayong magandang aral doon? T: Wala. Wala talaga. Pang-trabaho lang talaga sya, para habang gumagawa ako, hindi ako nabo-boring. M: Kung may babaguhin kang isang bagay sa Love Radio, para mas maging maganda ang pakikinig mo sa kanila, ano iyon? T: Wala e.

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A21. Rochelle Rosales, 21, Househelp (YesFM & Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: Love Radio, pero marami pang iba kasi di ba maraming istasyon yan sa radyo. M: E ano po ba yung pinakamadalas nyong pinakikinggan dyan sa mga istasyon na yan? R: Yung ano, YesFM, saka Love Radio. M: Mga gaano katagal na po kayong nakikinig? May buwan na ba, o taon? R: Ah, taon na. Kasi simula nung dumating ako dito, nakikinig na ako dito, eh ilang taon na rin ako rito. Hindi ko lang alam kung ilan talaga, pero matagal na. Limang taon na yata. M: Dati ba, nung wala ka pa rito, hindi ka pa nakikinig? R: Dati kasi sa amin sa Masbate, bago pa lang nagkakasignal, pero nung dati, wala talaga, kaya rito lang ako nakapagsimulang makapakinig ng radyo. M: Gaano kadalas po kayo nakikinig? Araw-araw po ba? R: Oo araw, araw yan. M: Mga ilang oras po sa isang araw? R: Naku, maghapon yan, nakikinig ako. Kaso yung mga amo ko, mahilig din sila sa radio, kaya sama sama kaming nakikinig. M: Habang nakikinig ka ba, talagang yun lang ang ginagawa mo? O habang nagtatrabaho ka ginagawa mong parang background yung pinakikinggan mo? R: Nakikinig talaga, kasi ang trabaho namin sa bahay, umaga, alas kwatro pa lang gising na ako. Ayun, bubuksan ko na ang radyo ng ganoong kaaga. Nakikinig na ako noon sa YesFM saka Love Radio. Kasi di ba, iba-iba yan, may masa, kaya doon ako nakikinig. M: May sinusubaybayan ka rin bang programa doon? R: Ah, wala masyado, mga sounds lang ang hilig ko. M: Bakit, yon, sa dinami-dami ng istasyon, ang pinakikinggan mo? R: Kasi, alam mo kung bakit? Mas maganda ang mga sounds nila doon, saka yung salita, may makukuha ka rin doon na ano, halimbawa, tapat ka na nakikinig

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ka talaga, may makukuha ka talaga. Kasi sa ibang istasyon, puro lang mga balita. Puro traffic update, puro ganoon lang ang narinig ko sa iba eh. M: Hindi naman yun nakakatulong sayo? R: Hindi, e walang tulong sa akin ang traffic update, bakit magkaka-traffic dito sa lugar namin, di ba? M: Ano ba yung tugtog na gusto mo talaga, doon sa pinakikinggan mo? R: Yung mga, sila Erik Santos ganon, yung mga Pilipino. Saka mga banda ganyan, marami. M: May napupulot ka bang mga aral na mai-re-relate mo sa buhay mo o sa trabaho mo? R: Ay oo, sa mga salita nila. Ma-realize mo na may gagawin ka para umasenso ka sa sarili mo. Maalala mo habang nagtatrabaho ka na ginagawa mo yun kasi may dahilan para makatulong ka sa pamilya mo. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sayo ang pakikinig mo sa radyo? R: Ay syempre, parang nalulungkot ako pag malungkot yung mga kantang pinatutugtog. Maalala mo yung pamilya mo pag ganoong mga kanta, syempre maiiyak ka rin. Kasi malayo sa akin yung pamilya ko. Kasi 5 years na ako dito hindi ako umuuwi. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? Nasubukan mo na ba? R: Nasubukan ko na, pero hindi ko talaga type. Yung YeFM at Love Radio lang talaga. M: Anong pinakatampok sayo na, nakukuha mo sa Love Radio at YesFM na hindi ibinibigay sayo ng istasyon? R: Yung mga salita ng DJ, kasi yung iba nga, mga balita at traffic update lang na wala namang tulong sa akin yon. Ayoko ng ganon. Kasi, mabuti kung driver ka, hindi naman ako nagmamaneho kaya walang halaga sa akin yung mga ganon. Hindi naman ako lumalabas ng bahay. Nasanay na talaga ako sa YesFM at Love Radio. M: Di ba sa mga pinakikinggan mo, Tagalog ang gamit nilang pananalita. Sa iba, nag-Ingles yang mga yan. Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga Ingles na istasyon?

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R: Hindi masyado, kasi pag umaga, talagang Tagalog saYesFM saka Love Radio. Tagalog yun, pag sa kabilang istasyon, Ingles. E syempre, pag yung mga bata ditong alaga ko, gusto rin nila Tagalog kasi mahilig sila sa Tagalog. Pag hindi nila naiintindihan, dahil Ingles yung salita, nagagalit sila sa akin. Sasabihin nila, ang pangit naman ano ba yan. Kaya ililipat ko na ulit sa Love Radio. Hindi rin ako nagtatagal sa mga Ingles na station kasi hindi ko talaga type. M: Mayroon ka bang suggestion para doon sa station na pinakikinggan mo? R: Wala naman akong maisip ngayon. Ok na sa akin yung mga programa nila. Gusto ko naman sa ngayon kung paano nila pinapalakad yung station nila. Wala pa akong ibibigay sa ngayon na gustong baguhin.

A22. Narcissa, 33, Commonwealth Ave., Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon po ang pinakikinggan nyo? R: Syempre, kailangan pa bang i-memorize yan? Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal na kayong nakikinig? R: Mga 3 years na. M: Gaano kadalas po? Araw-araw po ba ang pakikinig ninyo? R: Sa isang linggo isang beses lang ako hindi nakakapakinig. Pati nga gabi eh nakikinig ako. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyon na yon? R: Kasi nga maganda yung music, nakaka-relate ako, yung kabataan ko, parang naibabalik ng istasyon. M: Maliban sa mga patugtog, sa mga program mayroon ka bang gusto doon? May inaabangan ka ba? R: Meron, yung mga joke nila, inaabangan ko talaga yon. Gusto ko talaga yung sinasabi nilang, “Kadyot lang, kadyot lang.” Nakakatuwa talaga. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyon na yon, anong nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig doon? R: Yun lang saka nagbabalita ka sila kaya ayun, may nakukuha naman ako kahit papaano. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto sayo ang pakikinig sa Love Radio?

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R: Oo naman. M: May naaalala ka bang sitwasyon na nakatulong sayo ang Love Radio? R: Meron. Nakaka-recover ako pag nalulungkot ako. Once na makinig ako doon. Kasi minsan nga naaalala ko yung malulungkot na bagay, pag nakinig ako, naiimagine ko na kasali ako doon at natutuwa na rin ako. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? R: Kasi nandoon talaga ang loob ko sa Love Radio. M: Paano po ba kayo nakikinig? R: Nandoon kasi ako sa bahay ng barkada ko, bale sama-sama kaming nakikinig. Tamang tama yung tugtog nila. M: Pero sa mga Ingles na station, nakikinig po ba kayo doon? R: Minsan lang dati. M: Bakit hindi tumagal ang pakikinig nyo sa mga Ingles na istasyon? R: Kasi masyado silang sosyal, hindi ko na maintindihan yung mga English nila eh. Kaya ayon, tsaka yung mga topic nila iba rin, hindi na ako maka-relate sa mga pinag-uusapan nila. Malaking diperensya hindi lang yung lenggwahe. M: May natutunan ka bang mahalagang bagay sa pakikinig? R: Mayroon. Yung lagi nilang sinasabi sa radyo, kailangan pa bang imemorize yan, bisyo na to! Yung love life kasi, marami kang matututunan kung ano ang dapat gawin sa iba’t ibang mga sitwasyon. Sa mga problems ganon. M: May bagay ka bang gustong baguhin sa programa ng Love Radio? R: Wala naman.

A23. Jenny Lyn Perante, 22, Front Desk Receptionist (WRR 101.9) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? J: WRR 101.9. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? J: 10 years na, simula high school pa ako. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig?

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J: Maganda kasi dito, gusto ko yung mga payo ng DJ about lovelife. Kailangan ko talaga ng mga yan. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? J: Nakaka-relate lang ako sa mga pinag-uusapan nila about love problems. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? J: Nakikinig din naman ako sa ibang istasyon, mas madalas lang talaga sa WRR. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? J: Oo, sa RX 93.1 minsan nakikinig din ako. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? J: Oo, marami. Hindi ko lang ma-pinpoint, pero alam ko marami na ring naitulong sa akin ang mga napulot ko mula sa pakikinig. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? J: Wala naman. Maganda na sa akin yung programa nila ngayon.

A24. Romeo Fresto, 28, Telephone Operator (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: YesFM 101.1. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? R: Mga three years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? R: Wala namang dahilan. Gusto ko lang yung mga DJ, may sense of humor lang sila. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? R: Nagiging makulay ang araw ko pag nakakapakinig ako sa YesFM. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? R: Eh, sa YesFM tugma ang panlasa ko. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito?

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R: Oo, pero minsan lang. Boring kasi yung mga Ingles ang usapan. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? R: Oo, yung paraan ng pagpapatawa nila, yun ang natutunan ko at nagagamit sa araw-araw na pakikisalamuha sa mga tao. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Siguro yung ibang corny na jokes, huwag na lang nilang sabihin. Mas maganda kung nakakatawa talaga para sa panlasa naming yung mga joke nila. Minsan kasi sobrang kakornihan na lang.

A25. Ali Roluna, 21, Computer Technician (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: WRR 101.9 po. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? A: Mga one year na siguro. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? A: Magaganda yung mga kanta, saka nakakagana ng araw. Parang ganado akong pumasok sa trabaho kapag nakakapakinig ako sa WRR. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? A: Wala naman, siguro sa day-to-day basis, gumaganda ang mood ko. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? A: Nakikinig din naman minsan. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? A: Oo, pero minsan lang. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? A: Wala naman. Basta maaliw lang ako at ganahan sa pagtatrabaho, maganda na sa akin yon.

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M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? A: Yung nakaka-boring nilang program minsan. Sana lahat ng programa nila eh pampagana talaga, kasi yun ang hanap ko.

A26. Monette Sabeniano, 27, Front Desk Receptionist (Love Radio) Me: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? M: 90.7 Love Radio. Me: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? M: Since college pa ako, so ilang taon na talaga yon. Kung fourth year ako, e di mga seven years na yon. Me: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? M: Nakakatuwa lang yung mga DJ. Bali nakikinig ako para matawa. Me: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? M: Napapangiti lang nila ako. Sa pang-matagalan, wala naman. Me: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? M: Nakasanayan ko na rin kasi na 90.7 lang talaga. Me: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? M: Nagiging updated lang ako sa mga songs na uso. Wala nang iba pang makabuluhan sa buhay ko. Me: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? M: Yung ibang songs nila nakakaantok, sana huwag na nilang patugtugin yon.

A27. Rolando Agcaoili, Jr., 28, Airport Representative (WRR)

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M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: WRR 101.9. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? R: Isang taon pa lang. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? R: Gusto ko kasi yung mga love advice nila, lalo na yung program ni Reggie Valdez. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? R: Siguro nung dati, nakapag-move-on ako agad nung mag-break kami ng exboyfriend ko kasi sinuno ko yung mga love advice ng DJ. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? R: Loyal ako. Solid fan ako ng WRR 101.9. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? R: Wala akong idea kasi sa WRR ko lang tinu-tune yung radyo ko. Pagbukas ng radyo, sa WRR na agad nakatutok. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? R: Marami, as in sobra, hindi ko na masasabi kung anu-ano yon, basta ang alam ko pwede ko na silang i-apply kung mahaharap ako sa isang sitwasyon na kakailanganin ko silang i-apply. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Wala naman akong suggestions para sa kanila.

A28. Ramil Cosmo, 38, Driver (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: Love Radio 90.7. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? R: Matagal na, 8 years na yata.

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M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? R: Masaya kasi yung mga programa nila, tsaka yung mga DJ lalo puro patawa. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? R: Napapatawa lang nila ako habang nakikinig. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? R: Kasi Love Radio lang ang masayang istasyon para sa akin. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? R: Alam ko, pero hindi ko pa nasubukang makinig. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? R: Yung mga jokes lang nila, pwede kang makapagpasaya ng tao kapag alam mo yung mga jokes na sinasabi nila sa radyo. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Wala, para sa akin the best itong station na to.

A29. Jennifer Barja, 33, Hotel Reservationist (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? J: 90.7 po. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? J: Mga nine years na yata. Ang tagal na pala. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? J: Masaya kasi yung mga programa nila. Napapatawa talaga nila ako hindi katulad nung iba. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? J: Yung pagpapatawa lang siguro sa akin habang nakikinig, yun lang ang epekto. Sa long-term wala naman akong maisip na nagbago sa attitude ko. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? J: Wala lang, ang gusto ko lang kasi Love Radio, hindi na ako sumusubok ng iba.

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M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? J: Oo naman. Minsan lang ako nakikinig kasi ang boring ng mga programa nila. Hindi ako talaga nakaka-relate. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo? J: Natututo akong maging joker. Yun lang siguro. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? J: Wala kasi ayos naman sila para sa akin.

A30. Cristopher Benico, 31, Company Driver (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? C: YesFM 101.1. M: Gaano ka na katagal nakikinig rito? C: 6 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang nakukuha mo mula sa pakikinig? C: Gusto ko yung programa nila, lalo na yung Yeskalera. Kasi napapakinggan ko yung favorite songs ko rin. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na ang pakikinig mo sa istasyong ito? C: Magaan kasi sa pandinig yung mga songs nila, kaya gumaganda rin ang mood ko. Magaan ba ang pakiramdam tuwing nakakapakinig. M: Bakit hindi ka nakikinig sa ibang istasyon? C: Nakikinig din naman ako minsan. Pero yun nga lang, tutok talaga kadalasan sa YesFM. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig sa mga ito? C: Oo naman, nasubukan ko na rin, pero ang gusto ko talaga ay sa Yes. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay na makatutulong sa buhay mo mula sa pakikinig sa radyo?

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C: Nagiging updated lang ako sa mga usong kanta. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? C: Gusto ko lang baguhin yung hindi madalas yung mga lumang kanta kapag Linggo. Ayoko kasi talaga ng mga lumang kanta.

A31. Kelly Matagay, 27, Driver, Pasay City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? K: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? K: 1 year na po. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? K: Libangan lang para hindi antukin. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? K: Musika para marinig mo ang mga bagong kanta. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? K: Kasi paborito ko ang Love Radio eh. Hindi na ako palipat-lipat dahil kursunada ko na ang mgakanta sa Love Radio, lalo na pag Linggo. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? K: Minsan napapakinig ako kaso minsan lang talaga yon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? K: Marami bukod sa inaalam mo ang lyrics ng mga kanta, marami ka pang malalamang bagong kanta. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito?

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K: Masyadong mahaba yung mga patalastas nila, saka nakakaasar talaga lalo na pag matagal kang naghihintay ng gusto mong mapakinggang kanta o mga salita ng DJ.

A32. Rob dela Cruz, 24, Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: Love Radio po. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? R: Since 2006, so mga isang taon na rin mahigit. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? R: Mga jokes nila, tulad ng “Kailangan pa bang i-memorize yan?” Gusto ko yun kaya ako nakikinig sa Love. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Pampaalis ng pagod. Libangan na rin saka nakakawala ng problema dahil matatawa ka sa mga jokes nila doon. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? R: Nakikinig rin minsan pero nakatutok talaga ako sa Love Radio kasi name-miss ko rin yung mga tugtugin. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? R: Hindi ako nakikinig doon. Hindi ko pa rin nasubukan. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Mayroon pero hindi naman lahat ng maririnig mo doon eh mahalaga, karamihan talaga mga jokes lang. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Yung dapat puro maganda yung mga patugtugin nila, dapat mga love songs halos, kasi yung ibang music na pinapatugtog nila eh pangit para sa akin.

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A33. Emily Sangco, 24, Saleslady, Fairview, Quezon City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? E: WRR 101.9 po. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? E: Since 2002 hanggang ngayon. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? E: Masaya lang ako, favorite ko kasi si Candy. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? E: Nagbibigay saya lang sa akin, nakakawala ng pagod at problema na rin. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? E: WRR kasi ang gusto ko eh, nasasayahan lang ako rito. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? E: Hindi ko pa nararanasan eh. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? E: Mayroon. Kasi nagbibigay nga ito ng maraming kaalaman para sa akin. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? E: Wala, kasi nagustuhan ko naman silang lahat eh. I mean lahat ng pinatutugtog nila at yung mga programa.

A34. Teodoro Gadaingan, 52, Janitor, Fairview, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? T: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito?

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T: 1 year na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? T: Libangan lang habang abala sa trabaho. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? T: Wala naman, musika lang kasi para ganahan ka sa lahat ng gawain at hindi ka medaling mapapagod. Yun lang ang epekto niya sa akin, parang energy drink ba. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? T: Paborito ko kasi yung Love eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? T: Hindi ko pa nasubukang makinig sa mga Ingles na istasyon eh. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? T: Mayroon, yung matututunan mong kantahin ang mga bagong musika. Kasi alam mo naman matanda na ako, iba yung inabutan kong mga kanta nung kabataan ko. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? T: Masyadong mahaba lang yung mga patalastas. Hindi na lang ituloy sa tugtugan.

A35. Lilia de Quiros, 33, Housewife, UP Campus, Quezon City (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? L: YesFM 101.1. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? L: Mahigit 3 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito?

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L: Kasi nagustuhan ko yung mga tugtog nila. Bale ang nakukuha ko e music lang talaga. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Mayroon kasi habang naglalaba ako lalo akong ginaganahan, kasi ang ganda ng pinapatugtog nila. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? L: Nakasanayan ko na kasi sa YesFM. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? L: Hindi ako nakikinig sa ibang station eh, YesFM lang talaga. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Mayroon, yung mga joke ng mga DJ. Mahahalaga, wala naman siguro, katatawanan lang talaga. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? L: Wala na kasi nagustuhan ko na kung ano sila.

A36. Arlyn Amotoso, 25, Saleslady, San Juan, Manila (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? A: 1 year na rin. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? A: Masaya kasi, natutuwa ako sa mga jokes nila. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Mayroon, nakakawala ng problema. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig?

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A: Kasi di ko talaga gusto yung ibang istasyon eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? A: Wala, hindi ko pinakikinggan yung mga yon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Yung mga jokes lang nila ang natutunan ko. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? A: Wala na siguro, ok na yun.

A37. Loreta Muldez, 34, Lady Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? L: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? L: 3 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? L: Libangan, wala kasing magawang iba pag nakaduty ako pag gabi na eh. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Mayroon, yung mga bagong musika, imbes na hindi ko alam kantahin ngayon alam ko na. Kung sa halos araw-araw ba naman eh nakikinig ako rito. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? L: Hindi ko kasi type ang iba eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? L: Hindi ko alam yung mga Ingles na istasyon. So, hindi ako nakikinig doon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Yes, yung mga jokes nila.

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M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? L: Wala na.

A38. Norbert Battad, 24, Waiter, Katipunan, Quezon City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? N: WRR 101.9. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? N: 4 years na siguro. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? N: Pampagana sa lahat ng mga gawin, masaya kasing makinig rito. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? N: Yung mga joke nila Martindi, natatawa lang ako doon, nawawala ang problema ko kapag nakikinig ako sa mga jokes nila. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? N: Hindi dahil nakasanayan ko na ang makinig sa WRR eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? N: Wala na akong ibang istasyon bukod sa WRR. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? N: Marami, yung mga love songs at yung mga jokes. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? N: Ah, wala na.

A39. Pedro Arpon, 34, Sweet Corn Vendor, Caloocan City (Love Radio)

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M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? P: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? P: Two years pa lang. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? P: Habang walang bumibili, ah, ito yung pampasaya sa aking pandinig, lalo na pag maganda yung mga sounds nila, ayos talaga. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? P: Mayroon, nakakaalis kasi ng bagot o init ng ulo lalo na pag jokes na ang sasaihin nila. Tulo away talaga sa katatawa. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? P: Minsan lang, kapag naliligaw. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? P: Hindi ko pa nasubukan. Hindi ko kasi alam na may mga Ingles na istasyon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? P: Ah, ang natutunan ko lang ay yung mga bagong awitin. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? P: Wala na.

A40. Ramil Bastillo, 24, Guard, UP Campus (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: Love. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? R: Mga 3 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito?

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R: Bukod sa maganda ang mga kanta, walang maraming kwentuhan, sounds lang. Malalaman ko yung tamang pagbigkas sa words, yung tono, tuning baga, pwede na akong sumali sa singing contest. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Lalong ginagahan sa love life, at sa trabaho na rin. Nalilibang ko ang sarili ko kahit mag-isa lang. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? R: Hindi lang ako nakikinig sa ibang istasyon. Tutok lang sa Love Radio. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? R: Wala, minsan Campus Radio kapag napapadaan ako sa kapitbahay naming, yun kasi ang music nila doon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Kung paano sila magsalaysay ng kwento, siguro yung mahalagang bagay na natutunan ko sa pakikinig ng Love Radio. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Maraming patalastas at bastos yung mga words. Pag narinig pa ng bata, baka matutunan pa nila yon. Kaya sana baguhin nila yon.

A41. Wilma Sanchez, 25, Janitress, Dupax Diliman, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? W: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? W: 3 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? W: Nakakatanggal kasi ng stress habang nakikinig ako sa Love Radio.

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M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? W: Oo, yung nalilibang ako habang nagtatrabaho M: Nakikinig ka ba sa ibang istasyon? W: Oo. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? W: Oo, paminsan lang, pero sa Love Radio talaga ako madalas. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? W: Oo, nakakaloka yung jokes, masaya talaga sya. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? W: Minsan ang babastos ng mga pinagsasasabi nila. Saka yung mga usapan ang tagal at walang kalatuy-latoy, parang OA na sila.

A42. Esla Domingo, 40, Vendor, Payatas (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? E: Love Radio ang pinakikinggan ko. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? E: 2 years na rin. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? E: Masaya yung mga songs, masaya ba yung beat, saka yung mga uso talaga ang pinapatugtog nila doon. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? E: Kapag nagtatrabaho tapos may sound, nawawala ang pagod ko. Magaganda rin yung mga joke joke nila. M: Nakikinig ka rin ba sa ibang istasyon?

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E: Oo naman nakikinig din ako. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? E: Oo, yung iFM. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? E: Yung advice nila sa mga listeners, saka yung mga panukala sa text para pwedeng sumali sa mga palaro nila at manalo. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? E: Yung pangit na words, sana huwag nilang sabihin kasi maraming nakakarinig, lalo na kung bastos. Saka puro daldalan lang sana bawasan nila yon.

A43. Oscar Lopez, 37, Barber, Cubao, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? O: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? O: Mga 3 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? O: Bukod sa maganda ang tugtog, mga classic kasi ang gusto ko, masaya ring pkinggan. Nakakatanggal ng pagod. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? O: Oo, halimbawa habang naggugupit ako, ginaganahan ako at pinagbubuti ko ang trabaho ko. M: Nakikinig ka rin ba sa ibang istasyon? O: Oo nakikinig din. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? O: Oo, pero hindi ko pa nasubukang makinig.

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M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? O: Natutuwa lang ako sa mga jokes, siguro yun lang ang natutunan ko sa kanila. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? O: Wala lang, basta nakikinig lang ako, wala akong gustong baguhin.

A44. Arnel Pagco, 29, Guard, Tarlac (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? A: 3 years na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? A: Nakakatawa, nakakaalis ng problema, nakakaaliw, saka magaganda rin ang tugtog. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Oo, nawawala lang ang pagod ko. Yun siguro ang epekto sa akin. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? A: Wala na, di ko sila type. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? A: Hindi e. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Yung mga joke, joke, joke, nila na nagbibigay saya. Maliban doon wala na. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? A: Minsan kasi, bastos yung ibang sinasabi nila, kaya sana tanggalin nila yon.

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A45. Adolfo Anggot, 41, Ice Cream Vendor, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? A: 1 year pa lang. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? A: Maganda kasi ang mga tugtog, saka gusto ko rin yung balitaktakan nila. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Oo, naaalis ang pagod ko. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? A: Nakikinig naman ako sa iba, sa AM nga lang. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? A: Oo, pero sa Love talaga ang gusto kong pakinggan. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Wala lang, masaya lang, napapasaya lang ako. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? A: Ok lang, wala na. Open-minded naman kasi ako.

A46. Bryan Viray, 18, Student, Marinduque, Quezon City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? B: WRR. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? B: 5 months pa lang. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito?

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B: Mayroon kasi silang cute songs saka nakakatuwa si Martin D. Naaaliw ako. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? B: Nagke-create ng magandang mood para sa akin. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? B: Pwede rin sa ibang istasyon, nakikinig din ako doon paminsan. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? B: Sa Mellow Touch lang, sa iba kasi ayaw ko di ko type yung music nila. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? B: Wala, natuto lang akong mang-alaska at mang-okray. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? B: Wala, fun lang kasi ang habol ko, para hindi boring.

A47. Perry Liquiran, 31, Guard, Caloocan City (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? P: YesFM. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? P: 3 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? P: Nakakatanggal lang ng inip. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? P: Walang pagkabagot habang nakikinig, saka nakakalimutan ko rin yung malulungkot na pangyayari sa buhay ko. M: Nakikinig ka rin ba sa ibang istasyon? P: Oo.

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M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? P: Hindi pa, ayaw ko kasing makinig ng maaarte. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? P: Yung kanilang advice sa family at sa lovelife, mga ganon. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? P: Iwasan sana yung mahabang kwentuhan, dapat music, bali less talk more music.

A48. Jeffrey Le desma, 17, Student, Quezon City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? J: WRR. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? J: 1 year. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? J: Mas gusto ko yung mga songs nila kaysa ibang istasyon. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? J: Wala naman, okay lang. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? J: Nakikinig naman, mas madalas lang sa WRR. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? J: Wala akong masyadong alam na iba eh. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? J: Wala, music lang talaga.

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M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? J: Mas gusto ko sana kung updated yung songs, dapat may schedule sila na araw kung kailan patutugtugin yung mga bagong kanta.

A49. Rey Bantileo, 32, Guard, Balara, Quezon City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: WRR. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? R: 5 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? R: Maganda ang sound, maganda ang style, saka yung mga biro nila masaya. Nalalaman mo yung mga bagong top songs. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Narerelax ako, yung mga pang-disco namang tugtog, napapasayaw ako. Pag lve songs naaalala ko yung love life ko nung nakaraan. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? R: Paminsan-minsan, pag di ko nagustuhan yung ib, yung mga luma at baduy, lumilipat ako. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? R: Hindi ako nakikinig doon eh. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Natuto ako ng mga jokes, saka advice sa pag-ibig at sa family issues. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Siguro yung mga bastos at mga green jokes. Saka may pinapanigan sila sa mga current issues.

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A50. Leonardo Sangil, 26, Unemployed, Manila (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? L: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? L: 2 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? L: Astig kasi ang mga tugtog, kumbaga kasama kong mag-isa kapag nagmumuni-muni ako. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Nawawala yung pagkatamad, saka hindi ako nabo-boring. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? L: Wala lang, hindi eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? L: Hindi rin, sa Love Radio lang ako talaga. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? L: Yung mga green jokes lang, astig para sa akin. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? L: Wala lang, basta may mapakinggan lang ako, ayos na yon.

A51. Joy Gadian, 20, Manicurist, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? J: Love Radio po. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito?

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J: 2 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? J: Yung magagandang songs lang, natututunan ko. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? J: Magaan ang feeling ko, parang nasa langit. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? J: Hindi eh, kasi maganda talaga para sa akin sa Love. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? J: Oo, ok lang sila para sa akin. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? J: Mga jokes lang. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? J: OA na yung kwentuhan minsan, kaunti lang dapat, songs dapat, marami dapat songs talaga. A52. Barok Martinez, 56, Barbecue Vendor, Recarte, Quezon City M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? B: YesFM 101.1. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? B: 3 years na siguro. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? B: Libangan lang habang nagbabantay ako sa mga paninda ko. Masaya kasi pag may mga biro na maririnig mo kahit sa radio lang. Masaya kasi talaga sa YesFM. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? B: Mayroon, mga jokes lang eh, hindi naman din kasi ako mahilig kumanta kaya joke lang pinag-aaralan ko dito.

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M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang istasyon nakikinig? B: Hindi ko kasi alam yung mga istasyon kasi yung radyo kong maliit YesFM lang ang nakukuha nito eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? B: Ah, wala nang iba. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? B: Jokes lang talaga nila. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? B: Wala na siguro.

A53. Michael Gola, 29, Ice Cream Vendor, Quezon City (Love Radio) Me: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? M: Love Radio Me: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? M: 6 months pa lang eh. Me: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? M: Ah, libangan lang habang nagtutulak ako sa ice cream kart ko, lalo akong ginaganahang magtulak. Me: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? M: Masarap pakinggan ang mga bagong musika. Me: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? M: Ay, hindi ko pa nasubukan yung iba. Me: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? M: Hindi ko na alam yon.

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Me: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? M: Ah, yung mga ibang lyrics ng kanta na hindi ko pa alam. Me: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? M: Wala na para sa akin.

A54. Ryan Maglasang, 24, Construction Worker, Caloocan City (WRR) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: WRR 101.9 for life! M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? R: 1 year na mahigit. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? R: Kasi nakakawala ng pagod ang mga jokes nila dito lalo na kay Mar Tindi. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Mayroong epekto, yung napapagaan ang loob ko sa mga pinatutugtog nila. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? R: Ah, wala nang iba! Dito lang sa WRR. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? R: Wala, hindi ako nakikinig doon. WRR lang talaga. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Yung jokes lang at saka kaunting bagong kanta. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Wala na.

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A55. Carlo Maligaya, 32, Security Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? C: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? C: 1 year na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? C: Ang nakukuha ko yung mga bagong kanta, kasi ang kinawiwilihan ko rito sa istasyon na ito ang mga yon, lalo na pag Linggo maganda talaga. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? C: Mayroong epekto rito, yung nakakawala ng mga problema at gumagaan ang loob ko. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? C: Di ko nasubukang lumipat-lipat e. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? C: Wala, Love Radio lang talaga. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? C: Mga love songs lang. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? C: Wala na, masaya na ako sa Love Radio ngayon.

A56. Vergilio Galos, 31, Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? V: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? V: 2 years.

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M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? V: Kasi ito ang istasyon na nagustuhan ko sa lahat, maganda kasi rito eh, kasi maganda ang tugtog. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? V: Mayroon, kasi dito imbes hindi ako marunong kumanta, napapakanta ako sa ganda talaga ng mga tugtugin. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? V: Ah, wala na talagang iba. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? V: Hindi ko alam eh, sa Love lang talaga ako nakikinig. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? V: Syempre love songs, saka mga jokes nila. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? V: Ah, dapat gandahan pa nila ang mga patugtog at jokes para lalo kaming magenjoy. A57. Ramilo Mainot, 26, Janitor, V. Luna, Quezon City (YesFM) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? R: YesFM. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? R: Mahigit isang taon na. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? R: Maganda kasi ang mga jokes dito, nakakatawa talaga. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Mayroon, nakakawala kasi ng problema pag nagjo-jokes sila eh. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? R: Ah, wala nang iba, YesFM na talaga.

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M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? R: Hindi eh. Hindi ko na nasubukan doon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? R: Ah, syempre yung mga jokes talaga ang natutunan ko. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? R: Wala naman.

A58. Gardencio Nieva, 36, Palma Hall Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? G: Love Radio. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? G: 2 and a half years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? G: Ah, masarap kasi yung sound nila pakinggan lalo na pag nakahiga ako ang sarap ng tulog ko. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? G: Mayroong epekto tulad ng nawawala ang problema mo kasi nakatutok ka lang sa pinapatugtog nila. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? G: Ah, wala na, Love Radio na ako. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? G: Wala, hindi ko alam ang mga yon. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? G: Love songs at saka mga jokes.

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M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? G: Wala na! Ok na ako talaga sa Love Radio.

A59. Arnel Rosales, 27, Palma Hall Guard, Quezon City (Love Radio) M: Anong istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: Love Radio 90.7. M: Gaano katagal ka nang nakikinig dito? A: 3 years. M: Bakit ka nakikinig sa istasyong ito? Ano ang iyong nakukuha mula rito? A: Maganda lang talaga ang mga pinapatugtog nila eh. M: Masasabi mo bang may naging epekto na sa’yo ang pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Ah meron, tulad ng nakakawala ng init ng ulo, nakakawala ng pagkabigo sa pag-ibig at higit sa lahat, marami kang matututunang mga love songs. M: Bakit hindi ka sa ibang itasyon nakikinig? A: Solid Love Radio talaga ako eh. M: Alam mo ba ang mga Ingles na istasyon? Nasubukan mo na bang makinig dito? A: Hindi na. Hindi ko na sinusubukan. M: May natutunan ka bang masasabi mong mahalagang bagay mula sa pakikinig sa istasyong ito? A: Jokes lang talaga ang natutunan ko. M: Kung may mga bagay kang gustong baguhin sa mga programang pinakikinggan mo, anu-ano ang mga ito? A: Ayos na ang style nila, wala nang dapat baguhin para sa akin.

A60. Ms. Acenas, 19, Student

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M: Anong mga istasyon ang pinakikinggan mo? A: Madalas 97.1, tapos, Love Radio na rin, pag sumasakay ako sa public transportation. Mga FX ganon, or bus. M: Sa mga ganitong program, ano yung nakukuha mo? A: Pansin ko lang sa Love Radio, ang gusto ko sa kanya, ang madalas nilang patugtugin yung mga in na kanta ngayon, compared sa 97.1. Sa 97.1 kasi, more on international bands ang pinatutugtog nila kaysa sa local bands. Ang nakakaasar lang sa Love Radio, yung nakakairitang in-between songs. Basta yung mga sumisingit na yon. M: Kung may babaguhin ka sa Love Radio, ano yon? A: Para sa akin, siguro yung mga nakakaasar na may sexual innuendo na mga pinagsasasabi nila, ayun. Tapos nakakairita rin kasi yung boses na ginagamit nila doon eh. Pero para sa akin lang yon, kasi effective naman sya sa ibang nakikinig.

B. Interviews with Experts B1. Willie Espinosa – Program Director, Love Radio Network, Philippines M: Who is your target audience? W: The CDE, primarily. But because of new programming, we were able to target the AB as well. In the most recent results we were able to capture all. M: You said earlier you were responsible for the format switch. How did you formulate the new [masa] format? W: We just had a couple of considerations. First, understanding the market, basically the CDE first. Understand the listening habits, understand how they listen and how they treat the radio. Considerations like that, and we came up with the new format. M: By the time you switched formats, it was a new thing right?

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W: Yeah, that was actually the objective there. To stand out so people would notice Love Radio. Because if I don’t do that, the station is 30 years old already. So if the station is that old, then the novelty factor is not there anymore. So you have to come up with something new, something really outstanding, something that will really get the attention of the listeners. That’s exactly what we did. M: How long is has it been since you changed formats? W: Since 2001, so 5 years. M: What made you switch to a different format in the first place. W: Before I took over programming of the network, they were contemplating on reformatting radio, they were thinking of targeting the AB crowd. They were thinking of transforming Love Radio into a some sort of a niche station. Because for years, Love Radio never made it to the top 2. So, when they took me in, by the way I’m from Zamboanga, that’s my province. When they took me in, I asked for 6 months to maintain the [masa] format, give me six months and we’ll see what happens. If nothing happens within the six-month period, we’ll have to move on with what they have planned. M: But fortunately, it worked out? W: Yeah, fortunately for me, after six months we saw tremendous results, tremendous improvement as far as listenership is concerned, so we pursued the [masa] format. M: It was great though, how in only six months the format picked up. And it was relatively a new format by the time. W: Yes, maybe we were too radical, too unorthodox, that people, you know, parang, “Oh, iba to a.” M: It was like bringing the things you miss from AM to FM. W: Yeah at some point. M: Some aspects? W: Yeah. M: Regarding the developmental aspect of radio and mass media in general, do you believe your station develops its listener’s culture and individuality? W: In a way, yes. But, [from] some people, we have been receiving complaints. Not just from one entity, a couple, more than two entities, regarding how the

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jocks carry their programs, how they communicate to the listeners. But we remain within the bounds of the code of ethics. Because we’re following code of ethics. We have the KBP that regulates us. We believe that even if our approach is very radical, almost out of this world, we believe that we are still within the bounds of ethical broadcasting. M: How about the educational factor, do you think listeners learn some information? W: Yeah, I believe so. We’re not putting out textbook information, but what we’re putting out is real-life information, what’s happening around you. I mean, no other media is putting so much importance on those little casual things that are happening around you. Situationers, say for example when you are in the jeepney, what are the things that usually happen inside the jeepney but people don’t mind it anymore? So yun ang kinukuha naming mga topics, na pag narinig naman nila, “Oo nga ano?”, parang ganon. M: You have news right? How do you handle news? W: The usual way of handling news. Mainstream news, that’s what we do. M: What kind of mental image do you want your listeners to associate with your station. W: Happy. M: Upbeat? W: Yes, upbeat, but more on positive and happy outlook. If you notice the DJs are always smiling, always laughing even when there’s nothing to laugh at. M: What are your advertising rates? W: Advertising rates, 7,500 pesos for a 30-second spot. But of course, we are packaging, we have packages as well which you can get for lower than 7,500 pesos.

B2. Jose Maria Bartolome, Head of Program Analysis Department, GMA Network M: In your opinion, what is it about masa radio stations that attracts the average

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Filipino listener (from the CDE market)? J: Nare-realize mo ba na tautology yung question mo? Anong college ka? M: Mass Comm po. J: Anong klaseng medium ng radyo? M: Mass medium. J: So, ah, sino ang dapat nakikinig sa radyo? M: Masa po. J: So ano yung question mo? Ano yung nakaka-attract sa masa? Nakikinig ka ba sa radyo? M: Ah, sa upscale stations po pero hindi masyado sa masa stations. J: Ah, so kailangan mo pang tanungin yung isang psychologist na hindi naman masa para malaman mo yon. Niloloko lang kita, china-challenge lang kita. Ang dapat mo sigurong puntahan, yung masang nakikinig at mayroon ka rin sigurong ganoon. M: Opo. J: Pero by definition, mass medium yan, so ang mass media, TV radyo, dyaryo. Basically ito na. Ngayon ang internet para naging pang-masa na rin. For a long time, number one ang radio, except that, maraming radio stations. Hindi katulad ng number one TV station na, kasi sa ngayon, mahigit 80% ng audience mo pinaghahatian lang ng GMA at ABS-CBN di ba? Sa radyo, sobrang dami. Pero pag makita mo doon, ang pinakikinggan mo don, hindi naman masa kasi hindi ka naman masa eh. So ayaw mong pakinggan yung Love Radio kasi nababaduyan ka sa mga nagsasalita. Pero ang sagot dyan, entertainment talaga. You must first contend with the nature of the medium. Bakit ba? Kailan? Saan? At papano nakikinig ng radyo ang karaniwang tao? Bakit ang laki ng lamang ng Love Radio sa ibang stations? Ang laki ng lamang niya kasi pag tiningnan mo ang market profile, ang masa mo is basically D and E, 70%. Pag sinama mo yung C2, 90% na yan. A, B, and C1, 10% lang yan. So by sheer volume, ang makikinig sayo pag nag-Tagalog ka, napakarami. Tingnan mo ang ABS at GMA, mayroon bang nag-Ingles? The moment mag-Ingles ka, babagsak na ang ratings mo, hindi ka na pakikinggan ng masa. Kasi sa Pilipinas, ang mga tao, hindi Amerikano. Kasi ang sheer percentage ng masa dito sa Pilipinas, sobrang dami, compared sa AB. Konti

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lang dito sa Pilipinas yung katulad nating mga spokening dollar. Karamihan ng mga tao rito, marunong lang sila ng kaunting English words, kapiraso, pero hindi talaga nila mag-express in English. Kaya pag nagkaroon ka ng anime na English at Tagalog, wala pang 1/10 ang manonood ng English version. Walang kwestyon sa masa ang Tagalog na mga palabas. Ang number one na panonoorin nila, ay yung naka-Tagalog. Ang number one issue doon, language. How do you communicate to people who don’t know English, if you use the English language? What you have to realize is the sheer volume, 90% compared to 10%. Pag naglagay ka ng programming na Tagalog sa FM, at naglagay ka ng mga jokes, sayo na talaga makikinig ang karamihan. Kaya lang naman nag-eexist pa rin ang mga FM stations na upscale, ay dahil niche yan. May mga target market sila at ang mga produkto nila, pangmayaman. Dito makakabenta ka ng kotse, ng cellphone, e sa masa station, ang ibebenta mo, yung mga naka-sachet lang na shampoo at sabon. Nagsisiksikan itong upscale stations sa malalaking perang produkto, kasi maraming pambili ang market. M: Is there any connection between this attraction and common Filipino psychology (how they perceive things, how their culture and their upbringing determine whether something is desirable or not)? J: I think if you really scrutinize it, you would find out that the themes of the popular songs, the popular jokes are consistent with other aspects of the common Filipino’s experience. Nakaka-relate sila sa mga joke na sinasabi sa masa stations. Ang mga joke nila dyan, tungkol sa mga nangyayari sa jeep, sa trabaho, sa pagta-travel, kaya click sa masang makikinig dahil nakaka-identify sila at yun talaga rin ang nangyayari sa mga buhay nila. M: In a psychological perspective, what do you think are the effects of being exposed to the masa format to the listeners? J: They feel at home. Doon na sila nakikinig dahil mas nakaka-relate sila at feeling nila at home sila sa mga tugtugin at sa mga DJs din na para bang kakilala nila ang mga yon. M: How do these effects impact their daily lives and their view of the media’s role in their personal lives and our society in general?

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J: Entertainment. Also a source of news information. Kasi, we have to accept the medium for what it is. Ang radyo ba, pag nakinig ka, may dala kang notebook at magsusulat ng mga notes? Hindi. For entertainment talaga at ginagawa mo yon habang may iba ka pang ginagawa. Hindi naman yan dumbing down ng role of media dahil sa kultura talaga natin, yan ang pagtingin sa radyo at telebisyon, kaya yan ang naka-programa sa kanila. M: Are these effects beneficial or detrimental? J: Depends on what your definition of beneficial is. Depende yan sa perspektibo mo. Katulad niyang pagtingin ng makikinig sa radyo as entertainment, depende kung paano mo sya titingnan, kung beneficial or detrimental. Pwedeng beneficial, dahil kunyari isang taong nakikinig pagkatapos ng trabaho para makapag-relax sa Love Radio, o, may silbi sa kanya yon, nakakapag-unwind sya dahil sa mga programa. Pwede ring detrimental yung same case, dahil pwede mong tingnan na kawawa naman sya, doon na lang natapos ang buhay nya, trabaho tapos makikinig ng Love Radio sa gabi. Wala na syang ibang nagawa kundi iyon. Mahirap sabihin definitively. Ang gusto namang umasenso, hindi talaga makikinig sa mga ganyan, o manonood ng TV. Ibang mga programa ang panonoorin o pakikinggan nila. Pwede ring ibang bagay ang gawin nila, tulad ng humanap ng impormasyon sa internet o kung saan pa mang channel. M: Would you say employment of a developmental format, featuring high educational content that is both practical and targeted (depending on the comprehensive profile of the market) would affect the listeners in a better way compared to the current masa format? J: Do you think you can transform radio as an entertainment medium into an educational medium? Radio can be educational but there would be a lot of conditions and limitations – in other words – in a democratic society like ours, it can only happen in a very limited sense. Sa kultura natin, sabi ko nga, mahirap baguhin ang pagtingin sa radyo as an educational tool. Marami kang organization at coordination with other institutions para gumana ang ganyang klaseng setup, katulad ng pakikipag-partner sa mga schools at iba pang educational institutions, at talagang all-out information campaign. Pero matatalo ka pa rin talaga sa mga taong ang hanap lang ay parang escape, yung mga nakikinig talaga para lang ma-entertain. Kasi naka-ingrain sa utak ng Pilipino na

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ang radyo at telebisyon, panglipas oras lang talaga.

B3. Arlene Brosas, Cultural Worker and Member, Musicians for Peace M: In your opinion, what is it about masa radio stations that attracts the average Filipino listener (from the CDE market)? A: Masa radio stations are formula. They are basically entertainment, plus programs that cater to people’s religiosity. If there are programs that tend to provide meaningful insights to significant issues (socio-political-economic) confronting the masa audience, they generally fall short of delving into the fundamentals of the issues. Because doing so would eventually run counter to the ultimate interest of station owners – profit, or to the powers-that-be which possess regulative control (even punitive powers) over the industry. A case of challenging the staus quo. Imagine a station taking the side of workers pounding on the demand for a nationwide wage hike. Or a station really intent on fleshing out the president’s impeachment issues. At the end of the day, advertisers, government control and media owners who are also big businessmen decide on the content. So it is not really so much of an “attraction” but a case of “that’s-theonly-thing-you-need” or “this-is-only-how-far-we-can-go” offer for the masa audience. M: Is there any connection between this attraction and Filipino culture? (how they perceive things, how their culture and their upbringing determine whether something is desirable or not)? A: There is definitely a connection. The historical experience (read: colonized and perenially exploited) of these masa audience explains of the dominant social class needing to subjugate the masa culturally, for the latter to remain docile producers of wealth while the former remains in power. This “attraction” serves their interest by perpetuating the masa culture of “pagpapahinahon”, “tawanan mo ang iyong problema”, “ipagpasa-Diyos mo na lang”, or “swerte” by forging their addiction to melodrama, escapist music, religious pacifism and games of chance. Filipino culture is something that was forced upon the masa by virtue of

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the ruling class’ hold over the most powerful cultural instruments like the media. M: In a sociological perspective, what do you think are the effects of being exposed to the masa format to the listeners? A: The “masa format” effectively contributes to the perpetuation of social inequity to the detriment of the masa. They are actually exposed to a very anti-masa culture or mode of thinking in a very unobtrusive way. “Escape” denies them critical thought over the social structures that tie them to poverty. Pacifism denies them the opporunity to collectively assert and fight for their rights. M: How do these effects impact their daily lives and their view of the media’s role in their personal lives and our society in general? A: These add up to their miseducation. They are continually deprived of an opportunity to effectively comprehend the roots of their impoverishment and furthermore, the need to realize their organized strength and collective action in addressing their condition. They view media as mere entertainment. Or if there would be public service, they eventually realize these are selective, and ultimately, mere palliatives. They come to accept their condition as the “normal” order of society. M: Are these effects beneficial or detrimental to the listeners? A: Detrimental. What, perhaps, would be beneficial is the eventual realization that these content are actually detrimental to them. This entails socio-political awakening like the protest years during the Marcos Dictatorship when media, particularly radio, was constantly challenged over its content and public accountability. This led to more public service, educational and current affairs content in radio programs as compared before. M: Would you say employment of a developmental format, featuring high educational content that is both practical and targeted (depending on the comprehensive profile of the market) would affect the listeners in a better way compared to the current masa format? A: Such developmental format would only be truly positive if founded on a clear understanding of the socio-economic and political circumstances of the masa. This should constitute the practicability of the “comprehensive profile”. Their education should be targeted based on these foundations. In this respect,

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independent media producers allied with people’s organization would be more effective in carrying out such an approach. If for example, a mainstream station is to employ community-based health education for the poor, layman’s discussion on causes of illnesses or alternative herbal medication do not only come to the fore. What would be more pressing is addressing why the poor cannot afford hospitalization or simply why they cannot get proper attention in wanting barangay health centers. And so the presentation now demands exposing low workers wages (read: poor purchasing power), questioning government’s budget allocation, debt servicing, or challenging trade policies that are biased for pharmacuetical giants which are powerful lobbyists in congress, and which unfortunately, turn out to be station advertisers. Again, the masa gets trapped into the classification of merely being a “market” at the mercy of media business.

C. Tables and Figures
Frequency 88.3 89.1 89.9 90.7 91.5 92.3 93.1 93.9 94.7 95.5 96.3 97.1 97.9 98.7 99.5 100.3 101.1 Station Name Jam Wave Magic Love Radio Energy FM Joey Monster Radio iFM Mellow Touch Pinoy Radio DM 955 WRock Campus Radio Home Radio The Master’s Touch RT RJ 100 Yes! FM Call Sign DWJM DWAV DWTM DZMB DWKY DZRU DWRX DWKC DWLL DWDM DWRK DWLS DWQZ DZFE DZRT DZRJ DWST

Page 101.9 102.7 103.5 104.3 105.1 105.9 106.7 107.5 WRR Star FM K-Lite Business Radio Crossover Blazin’ Kool 106 NU 107 DWRR DWSM DWKX DWBR DWBM DWLA DWET DWNU

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Table 1. Table of 25 FM radio stations in Metro Manila.

Market : Mega Demographic : All People 10+ Survey : Survey #1 2006 Session : Mon-Sun 12:00 MN-12:00 MN Pl. of Listening : (C) All Places Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM 101.1 iFM 93.9 Campus Radio / Barangay LS 97.1 Star FM 102.7 DM 955 95.5 Home Radio 97.9 Mellow Touch 94.7 WRock 96.3 Energy FM 91.5 RJ 100 100.3 Wave 89.1 Magic 89.9 Monster Radio RX 93.1 NU 107 Crossover 105.1 Joey 92.3 K-Lite 105.3 Blazin' 105.9 Jam 88.3 The Master's Touch 98.7 Business Radio 104.3 RT 99.5 Kool 106 106.7 Call Sign dzmbF dwrrF dyesF ifmF dwlsF dwsmF dwdmF dwqzF dwllF dwrkF dwkyF dzrjF dwavF dwtmF dwrxF dwnuF dwbmF dzruF dwkxF dwlaF dwjmF dzfeF dwbrF dwrtF dwetF Total TARP % 3 1.7 1.1 0.55 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.2 0.17 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 11.18 Share % 32.5 18.4 11.9 6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.9 2.1 1.9 1.5 1.4 1.2 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 -

Table 2. Ratings table of all FM radio stations in Metro Manila portraying the dominance of masa stations being discussed in this study.

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Age Group National Capital Region Under 1 1 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74 75 to 79 80 and over Total Population 10+

Total Population 9,932,560 255,191 956,161 1,045,297 914,010 970,920 1,090,487 984,618 865,349 713,170 607,853 474,156 367,402 219,070 182,938 118,975 78,102 45,707 43,154 7,675,911

Male 4,877,842 131,657 490,125 536,296 461,142 454,275 506,550 477,951 430,622 354,564 303,085 237,694 183,817 106,834 84,971 53,031 33,439 17,662 14,127

Female 5,054,718 123,534 466,036 509,001 452,868 516,645 583,937 506,667 434,727 358,606 304,768 236,462 183,585 112,236 97,967 65,944 44,663 28,045 29,027

Sex Ratio 96.5 106.58 105.17 105.36 101.83 87.93 86.75 94.33 99.06 98.87 99.45 100.52 100.13 95.19 86.73 80.42 74.87 62.98 48.67

Table 3. Total Population by Age Group, Sex and Sex Ratio: National Capital Region, 2000 supplied by the National Statistics Office, revised to include the total population of the 10+ market measured by AC Nielsen’s TARP %.

Radio Station Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM 101.1 iFM 93.9 Campus Radio / Barangay LS 97.1 Star FM 102.7 DM 955 95.5

TARP % 3 1.7 1.1 0.55 0.34 0.33 0.32

Number of Listeners 230,277 130,490 84,435 42,217 26,098 25,330 24,562

Table 4. Approximation of the Top 7 masa station’s audience base, based on TARP % and the total population of their demographic: all people 10+.

Page Station Love Radio 90.7 WRR 101.9 Yes FM Total Number of Listeners 36 13 12 61* % Share 59% 21.3% 19.7% 100%

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Table 5. Distribution of Respondents Among Top 3 Masa FM Stations.

Effect Listeners acquire entertainment from masa radio. The first options for entertainment are television and radio. Listeners believe that no changes should be made to the programming of the masa radio station they listen to.

Impact The other, more important aspects of radio are overlooked. The role of broadcast media in the daily lives of the listeners is devalued as purely an avenue for entertainment.

Affected % 68.3%

Listeners have become progressively passive over the years. Ignorance of possible long-term effects of stagnant programming becomes rampant. Listeners also become less critical of the content they receive. Airing of grievances is no longer an option for listeners. The concept of what is necessary and what is important and significant to their daily lives has gone off course in today’s media consumers. Brand affinity has infiltrated the broadcast media. Blind loyalty to one particular station can hinder learning through experimentation and acquiring fresh perspectives on issues. It could facilitate in making the consumers become less open-minded. Through mental conditioning over the years, the media have helped consumers become less receptive to brand-new, relevant information, and alternative perspectives, as a result of the cultivation of Effect No. 1. The concept of radio is transformed from an intellectual tool to an emotional one. Listeners are made to think that effects that could be derived from radio listening should have no intellectual value at all. Due to this, the perceived importance of radio is lowered. Again, this impact is compounded through Effect No. 1

91.7%

Listeners consider jokes aired on masa radio as important to their radio listening experience. Listeners do not switch to other stations, remaining loyal to a single station.

51.7%

50%

Very few listeners do acquire new significant knowledge from listening to masa radio.

90%

Listeners are cheered up by listening to masa stations’ comic content. They feel happy, relieved, and in better moods.

63.3%

Page Listeners avoid upscale, English broadcast stations because they find them boring, and because the primary medium of communication is English. Learning how to speak functional English is made trivial by the presence of masa FM stations. With the option of Tagalog stations, the CDE market, or those who really do need education in English, will no longer explore English stations at the very least. Existence of masa radio somehow hinders learning of the global language. ---

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Table 6. Table of Effects, Impacts, and Affected % of masa stations on listeners.

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Figure 3. Composition of Philippine market described by GMA Network’s Jose Maria Bartolome.

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