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EEEB 161

DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN LABORATORY


SEMESTER 1
2010/2011

SECURITY MONITORING SYSTEM USING MULTIPLEXER


AND DE-MULTIPLEXER

STUDENT’S NAME : MOHAMAD IZHAM BIN ZAINAL


ABIDIN

STUDENT’S ID : EE083728

SECTION : 02

INSTUCTOR’S NAME : SHARIFAH AZWA BINTI SHAAYA

DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 23TH SEPTEMBER 2010

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 7TH SEPTEMBER 2010


EQUIPMENTS

• IDL800 digital experimenter


• 74151, 74138, 7493
• 555 Timer
• Resistor
• Capacitors
• Potentiometer 1MΩ

OBJECTIVES

• To learn the functions of multiplexers (MUX) and de-multiplexers


(DEMUX).
• Learn to configure a 555 IC to produce a waveform or a clock
signal.
• To experience building digital subsystem from combining
together with different MSI logic ICs.

COMPONENT LISTING

GATES TYPE IC NUMBER QUANTITY

A 8-TO-1 LINE 74151 1


MULTIPLEXER

B 3-TO-1 LINE 74138 1


MULTIPLEXER

C 4-BIT BINARY 7493 1


COUNTER

TOTAL 3
PROCEDURES

1. The circuit of the security monitoring system was constructed.

A. The simulation of the doors was done using the toggle


switches on the digital experimenter.

B. Three of the doors was put to permanently open by


connecting them to the +5V node on the digital experimenter, so
that their signals will always indicated as 1.

C. The MOD-8 CTR that have been derived from the 74LS93
chip was not connected yet to the MUX and DEMUX at this stage,
as we need to test the functionality of the MUX and DEMUX by
connecting the select inputs to the toggle switches.

2. The MUX and DEMUX were given a sequence for two times, starting
from 000 to 111 using the toggle switches that connected to the select
inputs.

3. The LEDs were monitored.

4. At this stage, troubleshooting was done if there is any problem


regarding to the MUX and DEMUX, based on the LEDs result previously.

5. After all tests was done, and the MUX and DEMUX was functioning
properly, the MOD-8 CTR was built at another portion of the
protoboard, without dismantling the MUX and DEMUX. The completed
MOD-8 CTR then was connected to the pulse switch to check for any
problem.

6. After the test was successful, the MOD-8 CTR then was connected to
the MUX and DEMUX. The connection from toggle switches to the MUX
and DEMUX previously was disconnected.

7. The sequence produced by the LEDs were monitored, while leaving the
three permanently opened doors being opened.

8. The 555 Timer was used to generate clock signals to the MOD-8 CTR.
Potentiometer (1MΩ) was used as RB on the timer circuit to adjust the
clock rate (speed of the sequencing LEDs) to an appropriate interval.
The 3.3kΩ resistor was used as RA.

9. The position of the switches that simulate the doors was changed since
we can connect all the doors to the switches. The signals on the LEDs
were then monitored.

10. The final working circuit was then demonstrated to the laboratory
instructor.

RESULTS

INPUTS OUTPUTS
I₀ I₁ I₂ I₃ I₄ I₅ I₆ I₇ O₀ O₁ O₂ O₃ O₄ O₅ O₆ O₇
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 B 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 B 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B

* B indicates the LED’s output as “Blinking”.


OBSERVATIONS

If a door is open, the corresponding LED will turn on only during the time
interval that the Modulo-8 Counter is at the appropriate count (which
corresponds to that particular door) and it will be off at all other counts.
For example, from the experiment, when I₀ has an input of 1, only O₀ will
blink. Thus, the LED will be blinking on and off if its door is open. The
blinking rate can be adjusted by changing the frequency of the clock by
using potentiometer RB.

1. MUX AND DEMUX TESTING

In MUX and DEMUX testing, only one LED will light off at one substitution
input, in other meaning, only one LED will light off at same time, the
reason is, in this logic function only one input are selected to appear on
the output(MUX function). Control signal in this logic, which called select
lines are used to determine which data input will be routed to the output.

Figure of MUX

All input (I’s) low:

The LED only light off at open gate input of MUX (1, 6, 7), because the
logic function can’t detect any other inputs. At MUX, only gate 1, 6, and 7
are functioning and can give the corresponding inputs the the DEMUX.
.

Figure of DEMUX

All input (I’s) high:

The logic function can detect all the given input and function according to
substitution input. Which means, one specified LED will light off, when we
substitute its input. For example; LED Do will off when input 000 are
given.

2. 555 TIMER
The timer is constructed based on given manual lab:
To produce a perfect timer circuit would be impossible, since we need to
consider other external factors that can affect the circuit, and thus 50
percent duty cycle square wave output is used, which making RA and RB
are closely equal with keeping RA greater the 1K ohm so that t1
approximately equals to t2.

3. ADDED MUX AND DEMUX WITH 555 TIMER

If a door is open, its LED will turn on only during the time interval that the
Modulo-8 Counter is at the appropriate count (which corresponds to that
particular door) and it will be off at all other counts. For example, from the
experiment, when I₀ has an input of 1, only O₀ will blink. Thus, the LED
will be blinking on and off if its door is open. The blinking rate can be
adjusted by changing the frequency of the clock. The frequency clock,
which depend on potentiometer (RB) the timer circuit, will increase the
rate of blinking the LEDs when the resistor are decreasing, which due to
increasing the frequency, time decrease and stimulate the increasing of
LEDs blinking(the time gap between the LEDS are much smaller). In
addition, when changing external capacitor with the much smaller
capacitor(0.01 to 0.0001) , the resistor will decrease accordingly and
effected the LEDs blinking, which make its more faster and can not be
detected with normal eyes.
DISCUSSIONS

In this experiment, we learnt about the multiplexer (MUX) and de-


multiplexer (DEMUX). A MUX is a logic block that steers selected input
data to its output. This logic function has multiple data inputs from which
to choose, but only one of the inputs will appear on the output. In this
experiment, we are using 74LS151 as multiplexer, a one-of-eight or 8
channels MUX. On the other hand, a DEMUX has several possible
destinations for the input data to be sent to. The single output line that
will receive the data is controlled by the specific select code applied to the
DEMUX. In this experiment, we are using 74LS138 as de-multiplexer,
which is 1 line to 8 lines DEMUX. Below are the steps that we have done.

Constructing Mux And Demux and Troubleshooting the circuit.

Firstly, MUX and DEMUX are being connected to test the


functionality and flashing of the LED at the outputs of DEMUX, (Pin 7 and
from Pin 9 to 15). The inputs of MUX are from Pin 1 to 4 and from Pin 12 to
15. The A, B, and C labelled pin, (which is pin 11, 10, and 9 respectively)
is connected to Pin 1 (A), 2 (B) and 3 (C) of the DEMUX accordingly. To
make sure that the circuit is functioning, we need to troubleshoot. In order
to troubleshoot, we connected Pin 12, 13 and 14 (which is originally
connected to the Switch sw7, sw6 and sw5 respectively) of MUX to the
VCC and connecting the wires from Pin 9, 10 and 11 to the Switch 5, 6 and
7.
Constructing Modulo-8 counter and 555 timer .

After that, we have to design a Modulo-8 counter ourselves, that is a


4-bit binary counter by using TTL 7493. Before starting the connection
with the other components, we have to test for functionality of this
counter first to confirm and verify its functionality. This counter is
configured by using external logic gates so that the counting will stop at a
certain pre-set number. In other words, we had connected TTL
7493(Modulo-8 Counter) to the 7448 BCD-to-7 segment decoder by using
pulse switch on the experimenter as clock pulse to the counter.
Knowledge of the functionality of the designated counter is essential, in
order to accomplish the task desired. This configuration depends on the
value of N (where counting starts from 0 and ends at N-1). Thus, this
Modulo-8 counter can perform counting from 0 to 7. Hence, we had
connected Pin 9, 10 and 11 of MUX to the Pin 8, 9 and 12 respectively.

Next, we have to connect 555 Timer to the Modulo-8 Counter which


had connected to MUX and DEMUX initially to generate clock signals. We
had connected 1MΩ Potentiometer, 0.1μF and 500pF external capacitors
to the 555 Timer in order to determine the frequency of oscillations and
its duty cycle. The value of R₂ (1MΩ) must be greater than R₁ (3.3kΩ) to
perform a 50% duty cycle. We had use 1MΩ Potentiometer as R₂ to adjust
the clock rate and set it to an appropriate interval. By changing the
position of the switches that stimulate the doors, we are able to monitor
the signals on the LEDs. When the frequency of the Modulo-8 counter is
increased, the blinking rate of the LEDs also increased.

Obtaining the Result of n the Experiment.

Finally, by combining these 4 components (MUX, DEMUX, Modulo-8


Counter and 555 Timer), we are able to implement a security monitoring
system in the laboratory experiment. The system is to monitor then open
or closed status of 8 access doors in an industrial plant which are door 0
to door 7. The status of each door is displayed on the LEDs that are
mounted on a remote monitoring panel at the security guard’s station. If a
door is open, its LED will turn on only during the time interval that the
counter is at the appropriate count and it will be off at all the other
counts. The blinking rate can be adjusted by changing the frequency of
the clock.
CONCLUSION

From this experiment, me and my partner had understand the functions of


multiplexer and de-multiplexer. We also know how to configure a 555 IC
to produce a waveform or a clock signal. Last but not least, we are able to
experience building digital subsystem from combining together with
different MSI logic ICs.

A multiplexer is a device that performs multiplexing; it selects one


of many analogue or digital input signals and forwards the selected input
into a single line. A multiplexer of 2n inputs has n select lines, which are
used to select which input line to send to the output. On the other end, a
de-multiplexer (or DEMUX) is a device taking a single input signal and
selecting one of many data-output-lines, which is connected to the single
input or in this experiment, is connected to the output of MUX.