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Biology Test 10

1. (a) Growth is the irreversible increase in dry mass of an organism due to

cell division, cell enlargement and cell development.

(b) (i) 33/751 = 0.04

(ii) The table shows the relative growth at increasing ages. The
growth rate is the highest during the early stage of development. At the age
of 25, the relative growth is 1.02. Then the growth rate decreases rapidly
until a certain point where the rate levels off. At the age of 70, the relative
growth drops to only 0.05.

(iii) The graph of mean increase in volume per 5 year period against
the age of the trees is plotted. The graph should show a bell-shape curve. The
volume increases rapidly until a maximum point where there is no increase in
volume. Then the rate of increase in volume drops rapidly to zero.

2. (a) When Vo = (1/2)Vmax

(1/2)Vmax = (Vmax [S]) / (Km + [S])

Km = [S]

(b) (i) Vmax = 4.6 x 10^(-6) mol/min/ml

Km = 1.5 x 10^(-3) mol

(ii) A very high substrate concentration is needed in order to achieve

the actual Vmax.

(c) P: At low substrate concentration, the rate increases as the substrate

concentration increases. The higher the substrate concentration, the higher
the rate of formation of enzyme-substrate complex, thus the higher the rate
of formation of products.

Q: At high substrate concentration, the rate has reached a maximum

value and remain constant even if the substrate concentration continues to
increase. The enzymes are said to be saturated because no more active sites
are available for binding with more substrates, therefore the rate is limited by
the enzyme concentration.

(d) P: At low substrate concentration, the rate will become lower than
non-inhibited enzymatic reaction. Competitive inhibitor has similar
configuration as the substrate, which compete with the substrate for the
same active site. This increases Km.

Q: At high substrate concentration, the rate remain the same as the

non-inhibited enzymatic reaction. The effect of competitive inhibitor is
overcomed. The same Vmax is achieved.