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Figure 3.1 Examples of cracks in a hypothetical concrete structure.

Redrawn and adapted from

Concrete Society [77]

cracks in foundations and even in water-retaining structures can often be

Some cracks, however, are not only visible but may be unacceptable either
structurally, aesthetically or because of influences on durability or
serviceability, and may require expensive remedial treatment.
Cracks may be initiated in plastic, stiffening or hardened concrete. Their
causes could be many and various and they may be difficult to diagnose. Fig.
3.1 provides graphic guidance on the more common types of non-structural
and structural cracks, and Table 3.1 provides a summary of the potential
causes of non-structural cracks, together with preventive measures. For more
detailed information on diagnosis and remedial measures, readers are
recommended to consult the Concrete Society Report [77].
To avoid cracking of the surface of sloping slabs, it is important for
compaction and finishing to be directed up the slope, which is against gravity
and the natural inclination of the operative.

© 1992 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC