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Red wolf running. Running is a means for an animal to move on foot. It is defined in sporting terms as a gait in which at some point all feet are off the ground at the same time. This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity rides along fairly smoothly on top of the legs. The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting.
Humans actually leap from one leg to the other while running. Each leap raises the center of gravity during take-off, and lowers it on landing as the knee bends to absorb the shock. At mid arc, both feet are momentarily off of the ground. This continual rise and fall of bodyweight expends a tremendous amount of energy opposing gravity and absorbing shock during take-off and landing. Running uses more energy than walking to travel the same distance.  Therefore, running is less efficient than walking in terms of calories expended per unit distance, though it is faster.
Jeanette Kwakye during World Indoor Championships 2008 in Valencia on the ground at a time in running, one leg is always in recovery, while the other goes through support and drive. Then, briefly, as the runner leaps through the air, both legs are in recovery. These phases are described in detail below.
During the support phase, the foot is in contact with the ground and supports the body against gravity. The body’s centre of mass is typically somewhere in the lower abdominal area between the hips. The supporting foot touches ground slightly ahead of the point that lies directly below the body’s centre of mass. The knee joint is at its greatest extension just prior to the support phase; when contact is made with the ground, the knee joint begins to flex. To what extent it flexes varies with the running style. There exist stiff-legged running styles which reduce knee
Lower body motion
Running is executed as a sequence of strides, which alternate between the two legs. Each leg’s stride can be roughly divided into three phases: support, drive, and recovery. Support and drive occur when the foot is in contact with the ground. Recovery occurs when the foot is off the ground. Since only one foot is
and so considerable gains in running speed as well as economy can be made by eliminating wasteful or incorrect motions. Because the knee joint straightens. The forward arm drive is more forceful and rapid. In some running styles. and the opposite hip rises from its brief dip. During this extension of the leg and flexion of the hip. the hip flexes. Recovery ends when the foot comes into contact with the ground. as the lower leg rapidly unfolds. The supporting hip continues to extend and the body’s centre of mass passes over the supporting leg. and a leg’s support and drive motions are balanced by backward movement of the opposite arm. Most of the energy expended in running goes to the compensating motions. This is why elite sprinters have powerful upper body physiques. The more force exerted by the lower body. if the force vector in the drive phase is aimed too far away from the centre of mass of the body. Because the leg drive is slower than the kick of recovery. such that the toe maintains contact with the ground as that leg trails behind the body. or more dynamic running styles which increase it. Using the arms to absorb the forces aids in maintaining balance at higher speed. and a forward motion for optimal running. As the competitive distance increases. creating a diagonal force vector.From Wikipedia. The degree of leg lift can be consciously adjusted by the runner. the free encyclopedia flexion. The pelvic dip is opposed by the Tensor fasciae lataeilio-tibial band of the supporting leg. the arm thrusting backward is slower also. While it is possible to run without movements of the arms. The knee then begins to extend. The faster the running. Upper body motion The motions of the upper body are essential to maintaining balance. The drive leg extends at the knee joint. Since the diagonal vector has a vertical component. much of the power of the drive comes from the quadriceps muscle group. Muscles which are stretched respond by contracting by a reflex action. the recovery phase begins. the spine and shoulders will generally still be recruited. Otherwise. and. The support phase begins to transition into drive. During recovery. the more exaggerated do the upper body motions have to be to absorb the momentum. it exerts torque against the lower leg through the knee joint. the foot may extend also. A leg’s recovery is matched by a forward drive of the opposite arm. The knee flexion is opposed by the Muscle contraction eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. and looser. Much of the motion of the lower leg is driven by the forces transferred from the upper leg rather than by the action of the muscles. though not full. optimal force would be hard to attain for fear of falling over. which. keeping the body in rotational balance. and the abdominals and lower back muscles. These motions absorb shock and are opposed by the coordinated action of several muscles. the more energy has to be dissipated through compensating motions throughout the entire body. During the last stage of recovery. The shoulders and torso are also involved. As the knee kicks forward. the pelvis dips down on the opposite side. During the drive. This motion is most exhibited in sprinting. by a flexing of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle in the calf. the drive phase continues to provide some support against gravity and can be regarded as an extension of the support phase. the ankle remains more or less rigid during drive. The foot pushes backward and also down. the knee joint also reaches its greatest. the hamstring and gluteal muscles are required to stretch rapidly. Running upward. the hip achieves maximal flexion. extension. it will transfer an angular momentum to the body which has to be absorbed. which it does in a passive way. and in some running styles. the hip abductor. causing the leg to snap 2 . there is a rapid drop in the upper body and overall muscle mass typically Drive The support phase quickly transitions into the drive phase. with additional muscle power. transitioning again into the support phase. As the supporting leg bends at the knee. is aimed squarely at the runner’s centre of mass. though not completely. in an efficient running style. which rapidly drives the knee forward. Recovery When the driving toe loses contact with the ground. For instance. additional power comes from the calves as they extend the foot for a longer drive. They compensate for the motions of the lower body. and at the hips. notably long-distance "shuffles" which keep the feet close to the ground.
and "icing" (applying ice to sore muscles or taking an ice bath). runners stay on their toes bringing their legs up. Running is often measured in terms of pace in minutes per mile or kilometer. Foot blisters are also common among runners. It also makes it easier for the runner to avoid landing the foot in front of the center of mass and the resultant braking effect. many injuries are associated with running. lancing the blister with a sterile needle and applying a cyanoacrylate glue (such as Superglue or Krazy Glue) may help to protect the wound and enable further running. which avoids landing on the heel and facilitates the use of the spring mechanism of the foot. The main difference between long. parallel with the body. A common solution is to simply affix a piece of medical tape over each nipple before running. Stride rate and Types Exercise physiologists have found that the stride rates are extremely consistent across professional runners. The faster one’s arms move up and down. They include "runner’s knee" (pain in the knee). This is common practice among hardened endurance atheletes. The faster one swings their arms up a hill. Long distance runners tend to have more relaxed strides that vary. plantar fasciitis. the faster the rate of stride. focus on leaning only slightly from the waist and the rest of the body will naturally follow. During running. This helps prevent injury as long as the body is neither rigid or tense. Long distance runners typically have lean muscles. The most common running mistakes are tilting the chin up and scrunching shoulders. there are many commercial products available. The most common running-related injuries are due to over-exertion or bad running form. runners bladder. the free encyclopedia exhibited by the people who compete at a high level in each respective event. For existing cases. eating a well balanced diet. Fast stride rates coincide with the rate one pumps their arms. Elements of good running technique Running injuries Because of its high-impact nature. For the prevention of jogger’s nipple. While upright posture is essential. the speed at which the runner moves may be calculated by multiplying the cadence (steps per second) by the stride length. getting enough rest. a runner should maintain a relaxed frame and use his/her core to keep posture upright and stable. Another common pain is chaffing. shin splints. the faster the person will move up the hill because the legs will match the speed at which the arms are moving.and short-distance runners is 3 . Different types of stride are necessary for different types of running. When sprinting. between 185 and 200 steps per minute. twisted ankles. Upright posture and a slight forward lean Leaning forward places a runner’s center of mass on the front part of the foot. performing strength training exercises. Running the length of stride rather than the rate of stride. Generally these injuries can be minimized by warming up beforehand. improving running form. Repetitive stress on the same tissues without enough time for recovery or running with improper form can lead to many of the above. and Achilles tendinitis. pulled muscles (especially the hamstring).From Wikipedia. Specialized socks help to prevent blisters greatly. Stress fractures are also fairly common in runners training at a high volume or intensity. When leaning forward. using shorter and faster strides. It occurs when one’s upper thighs rub together A group of runners in Central Park. New York City. iliotibial band syndrome. It should also be noted that the upper body also helps to propel the body up hills.
 Some claim that for runners in particular. immersion allows controlled. with their inflexible soles. A common acronym used to help the recovery process is RICE: Rest. while the cold water on the outside preserves contraction. As a result. structured sides and super-cushioned inserts keep feet so restricted that they may actually be making feet lazy. the free encyclopedia and makes the skin raw. however. Like an oil change or a fluid dump. even constriction around all muscles. Assuming one has overcome the mind’s initial flight response in those first torturous minutes. a 2:48 masters marathoner. and overall muscular soreness. A runner who finds himself injured should not continue to run because continuing could further damage the injury and prolong the recovery. This rapid transmission circulation flushes the damage-inflicting waste from the system. further studies and evidence has shown that barefoot running reduces running related injuries. "Some experts now believe that most athletic shoes. Compression. First. Barefoot runners also tend to land in the 4 . Runners should be wary of twisting their ankles on such terrain. In recent years. deodorant. but quads. "Pain relievers can disguise injury. Another injury prevention method common in the running community is stretching. effectively closing microscopic damage that cannot be felt and numbing the pain that can. It is advised to change terrain occasionally . muscular strains. and that barefoot runners use about 4 percent less oxygen than shoe runners. while stretching afterwards actually decreases them. The problem with running on concrete is that the body adjusts to this flat surface running and some of the muscles will become weaker. This is more unstable ground and allows the legs to strengthen different muscles.From Wikipedia. Recent studies have also shown that stretching will reduce the amount of strength the muscle can produce during that training session. hams. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that all stretching be done after exercise because this is when the muscles are most warmed up and capable of increasing flexibility. Make sure not to stay in longer than 15 minutes. Because of this. but which efficacy is controversial. Stretching is often recommended as a requirement to avoid running injuries. Some claim that all of those can be effective in both minimizing and recovering from running injuries. making hydrotherapy an attractive preventive regimen." "Research has shown that wearing shoes to exercise takes more energy. It can be prevented by either rubbing petroleum jelly. beach." The second advantage involves a physiological reaction provoked by the large amount of muscle submerged. and Elevation. has demonstrated that stretching prior to running increases injuries. or grass running. Concrete is also a hard surface and the stress it produces on the knee is problematic. Ice. Other studies suggest barefoot athletes naturally compensate for the lack of cushioning and land more softly than runners in shoes. or special anti-chafing creams (sold in sticks that look like deodorant) to the area of the skin that rubs together. Another.such as trail. personal trainers and runners." he warns. One major problem of many runners is that they run on concrete. Recent medical literature. and connective tissues from hips to toes will gain the same benefits. the blood rush revitalizes the very areas that demand fresh nutrients. barefoot training is gaining more attention among coaches. One may step into the tub to relieve sore calves. however. "Ice baths treat both injury and soreness. will hit the ice baths before the ibuprofen. Running Reducing the frequency and duration can also prevent injury. Saint Andrew’s crosscountry coach John O’Connell. weak and more prone to injury. three 20-30 minute sessions a week should suffice. One study found insufficient evidence to support the claim that stretching prior to running was effective in injury prevention or soreness reduction. A cold bath is a popular treatment of subacute injuries or inflammation. putting less shock and strain on the rest of the body. the body fights back by invoking a "blood rush". finds mixed effects of stretching prior to running. with 10 minutes usually being sufficient. The skin feels coarse and has a rash-like look. Running downhill also increases knee stress and should therefore be avoided. Inconsistent experimental methodology and the failure to use proper stretching methods are reasons given to explain the conflicting results. and it is almost uniformly performed by competitive runners of any level. members of the running community argue that stretching remains helpful. ice baths offer two distinct improvements over traditional techniques.
running is the usual recommended therapy to treat people with clinical depression and people coping with addiction. euphoric state. Although it is not an injury. it takes time to get into shape.  Benefits of running While there is the potential for injury in running (just as there is in any sport). especially if they have exercise-induced asthma. road racing is a popular sport among non-professional athletes. If a runner feels that the pace or distance is no longer challenging. Some believe that running may increase osteoarthritis of the knee. have shown that runners do not have more osteoarthritis than people who do not run. Sometimes. While running. In fact. The key is consistency and a slow increase in speed and distance. increased bone density. competitive running events make up the core of the sport of athletics. often referred to as a “runner’s high”. Additionally. the free encyclopedia middle of their foot. If a runner is gasping for breath or feels exhausted while running.7 million people in America alone in 2002. who included over 7." Barefoot running is becoming a larger and more vocal community. This finding could have significant implications in aging as well as learning and memory. Running hormone in response to prolonged participation in the sport. there are many benefits. Following a consistent routine of running can increase HDL levels. however. In animal models. Running races are contests to determine which of the competitors is able to run a certain distance in the shortest time. running has been shown to increase the number of newly born neurons within the brain. due to stress causing lesions on the cartilage which become irreversible with time. Running. Asthma becomes more a problem with colder weather. each requiring substantially different athletic strengths and involving different tactics. Today. which can improve running form and reduce injury. Recent studies. training methods. as many participants in the sport report feeling an elated. and an improved emotional state. Running can assist people in losing weight and staying in shape. it is best to pay attention to how one’s body feels. Running can also have psychological benefits. then the runner may want to speed up or run farther. As a sport it is split into events divided by distance and sometimes includes permutations such as the obstacles in Steeplechase and hurdles. Some of these benefits include potential weight loss. people with asthma suffer sometimes from running. like all forms of regular exercise.From Wikipedia. It has been suggested that hormones known as endorphins are the modulators of this effect. increased muscle mass. Running as a sport Running is both a competition and a type of training for sports which have running or endurance components. For new runners. can effectively slow or reverse the effects of aging. improved cardiovascular health. and were a key part of the ancient Olympic Games as well as the modern Olympics. runners may even become "addicted" to running itself. Running competitions have probably existed for most of humanity’s history. there have been claims that improved posture reduces injuries and helps to cope with existing injuries. Different speeds and distances are appropriate for different individual health and fitness levels. reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Events are usually grouped into several classes. as the benefits of unshod running become more visible and measurable. it may be beneficial to slow down or try a shorter distance for a few weeks. Today. as the body is known to produce and release the Types of running events • • • • • • • • Track running Road running Cross country running Trail running Fell running Relay Race Recreational running Talus Running (running across the rock debris at the bottom of mountains) Classification of running by distance • • • • Sprints Middle distance Long distance Marathon 5 . increased speed. and types of competitors. and uphills.
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