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Struggle to Limit Government

Struggle to Limit Government

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Sections

  • Preface
  • 1. Building the Old Regime
  • 2. The Crisis of the Old Regime
  • 3. Revival and Reform
  • 4. Reagan and After
  • 5. Revolution?
  • 6. The Politics of Moral Renewal
  • 7. Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Index

Page references followed by t or f denote tables or figures, respectively.

Aaron, Henry J., 131
academia and intelligentsia
progressive agenda and, 36–39
accounting firm scandals, 225
Advisory Commission on
Intergovernmental Relations, 65
affirmative action
LBJ and, 25–27, 31
Nixon and, 46–48
Afghanistan, war in, 220–21, 223–24,
233–34
Bush Doctrine, 225, 228
African Americans, 25–28, 46–48, 64,
65, 68
Agricultural Adjustment Act, 8–9
Agriculture Improvement and Reform
Act, 198
Aid to Families with Dependent
Children, 13, 108–9, 191–96
al Qaeda, 220
Altmeyer, Arthur, 13, 20
American character and culture, 77–78,
152–54, 252
American Medical Association, 32–33
American political culture
Contract with America, 167–78
Croly on, 6–7
progressive reconstruction of, 36–39,
50–51, 66–67, 72
Reagan presidency and, 149–54
regime struggles and changes, 245
Anderson, Martin, 80–81, 246
anti-poverty programs, 89–90
Archer, Bill, 186
Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, 36
Armey, Richard, 183
Ashcroft, John, 218

Balanced Budget and Emergency
Deficit Control Act. see Gramm-
Rudman-Hollings Act
Ball, Robert M., 21, 32, 56
Bartels, Larry, 1

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Berkowitz, Edward, 54
Black Monday (10/19/87) stock market
crash, 134–35
block grants, 109–10, 144
Bowman, Karlyn, 166
Bradley, Bill, 129
Bradley-Gephardt bill, 131
broadcasting industry funding, 36
Brown, J. Douglas, 18
Buchanan, Pat, 162–63, 172, 180
Bush, George Herbert Walker, 135–37,
154, 155–56, 159, 160
budget negotiations and resolutions,
137–42
‘‘kinder, gentler America,’’ 141–42
Bush, George W.
compassionate conservatism, 212–15,
216, 217, 236, 237, 244, 246
domestic policy and affairs, 225
domestic political front, 229–33
economy, 226–27
failures, 240–44
federal expansion, 248
foreign policy, 219–25, 236–37
gay marriage issue, 232, 235, 236
idealism and themes, 224–25
neoconservatives and, 221–25
ownership society, 237, 238
post-Reagan GOP, 215–18
prescription drug benefit, 216,
229–32, 235, 241–42
realism and, 219–20
reelection, 233–37
religious conservatism, 213–14,
217–18, 248
September 11 terrorist attacks,
218–20, 227–28, 233. see also
Afghanistan, war in; Iraq War
Social Security reforms, 238–40
staying the Bushian course, 247–49
Bush Doctrine, 225, 228, 244
Byrd, Robert, 103
Byrnes, John W., 18–19, 33

INDEX

Califano, Joseph, 38
California
Proposition 13, 58–59
campaign finance law, 225
Carter, Jimmy, 67, 73, 89, 121, 122
malaise speech, 69–70
taxes, 92–93, 94
welfare system, 192
Cavanaugh, Jerome B., 30
Chafee, John, 103, 199
Chase, Stuart, 10–11
Cheney, Dick, 240, 257
Christian conservatives. see religious
conservatives (religious right)
Church, Frank, 46
Cisneros, Henry, 200
civil liberties, 63
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 25–26, 36, 46,

47
Civil Rights Act of 1968, 36
civil rights movement
LBJ and, 25–27, 31
Nixon and, 46–48
progressive failures and, 63–64
Clark, Joseph, 24
classic liberalism
Nixon and, 48–49
see also Jeffersonian ideals
Clinton, Bill, 160–62, 164–67, 170–71
impeachment, 209–12, 244, 246
Iraq policy, 221
limited government promises, 250
Medicare cuts, 246
political changes and proposals,
185–87
post-Reagan GOP and, 206–9
raising taxes on affluent Americans,
253
reelection, 178–80
Republican revolution and, 174–78
Coehlo, Tony, 141, 156–57
Cogan, John, 142–43
Cohen, Wilbur, 16, 20, 41
Community Action Programs, 28–29,

54

Community Development Block Grant
program, 89
compassionate conservatism, 212–15,
216, 217, 236, 237, 244
Compassionate Conservatism, 212
Comprehensive Employment Training
Act, 89, 145
Congress
congressional term limits, 157–58, 183

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midterm elections in presidential
second terms, 210–11
1996 elections, 246. see also Republican
revolution
Reagan’s budget reforms, 124–26
2002 elections, 220, 225–28
2006 elections, 242–43
Connally, John, 43
conservatism, 48–49, 76–79
abortion and gay rights, 77, 78, 168
Christian, 244
cultural, 136–37
Gingrich’s cultural conservatism,
171–72
see also compassionate conservatism;
neoconservatism
Consumer Products Safety
Commission, 44–45
Contract with America, 167–78, 177,
183, 184, 193
controls and regulations
deregulation, 81
Nixon and, 42–45
progressive regulatory failures, 61–63
Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
40–41, 201–3
Cranston, Alan, 157
Croly, Herbert, 3–8, 10, 12, 21, 23, 25,
35, 66

De Long, J. Bradford, 55
Declaration of Independence, 23
DeConcini, Dennis, 157
defense spending
slow growth or decline, 98, 203
deficits and borrowing, 256–57
DeLay, Tom, 207, 211–12
Democratic Party or coalition
Carter, Jimmy, and, 67–69
New Deal coalition, 68–69
paternalism, 251
pursuing progressivism, 250
as true party of limited government,
249–50
deregulation, 81
Derthick, Martha, 17, 20, 21
Director’s law, 71–72
Domenici, Pete V., 88–89, 103, 151, 201
Douthat, Ross, 247
Downey, Thomas, 131
Durenberger, David, 103

Earned Income Tax Credit, 194–95
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, 96

INDEX

education policy and funding
Bush, George W., 215–16
Great Society, 34–39, 41
No Child Left Behind Act, 225
Reagan, Ronald, 90
Eisenhower, Dwight, 100
Elazar, Daniel, 64–65
Elementary and Secondary Education
Act, 34–35
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 136
The Emerging Republican Majority, 66
employment programs, 89
The End of Liberalism, 78–79
Energy, Department of, 144–45, 173,
174, 200–201
energy markets, 200
Enron, 225
entitlement programs
Director’s law and, 71–72
politics of, 252

see also specific programs

Environmental Protection Agency, 44,
45, 199
environmental reforms, 198–99
equal opportunity, 25–27

Fair, Ray, 233
Family and Medical Leave Act, 166
farm subsidy programs, 8–9, 196–98,
225
FDR. see Roosevelt, Franklin Delano
(FDR)
Federal Agriculture Improvement and
Reform Act, 196–98
federal deficit
congressional budget reform, 124–26
federal government
people’s trust in, 256
Federal Reserve Board, 97, 255–56
federalism, centralized
LBJ, 35–36
federalism reforms
Reagan, 106–11
Fenno, Richard, 176, 177
Ferraro, Geraldine, 121
flat tax on consumption, 254–55
Fletcher, Arthur, 47
Ford, Gerald, 49
foreign policy
Bush, George W., 219–25, 236–37
Bush Doctrine, 225, 228, 244
Democrat’s use of force, 250
moral clarity in, 224
neoconservatives and, 223

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Reagan, Ronald, 222
Frum, David
staying the Bushian course, 247, 249
Fuller, Ida, 20

gay marriage, 232, 235, 236
Gephardt, Richard A., 129
Gingrich, Newt, 138, 154, 159–60,
171–78, 181, 184, 199, 204, 205–6, 207,
210
see also Contract with America
Glenn, John, 157
GOP (Grand Old Party). See
Republican Party (GOP)
government media, 40, 41
see also public broadcasting
government shutdowns, 173–74, 174–76
Graham, Bob, 139
Graham, Hugh Davis, 35
Gramm-Latta II, 86–87, 88
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, 124–26,
137–40, 182
Grand New Party, 247
grant programs, 35–36

see also specific programs

Great Society, 22–41, 50, 58, 69, 171,
200, 213
Greenberg, Stanley, 167
Greenfield, Jeff, 76
Greenspan, Alan, 103–4

Hance, Kent, 94
Harkin, Tom, 196
Hastert, Dennis, 210
Hatch, Orrin, 190, 218
Hatfield, Mark, 182
health care and health insurance, 32–34
SCHIP, 189–91
Health Care Financing Administration,

119
Heinz, John, 103
Hickok, Eugene, 215
higher education, 37–39, 41, 90
Highway Beautification Act, 36
Housing Act of 1937, 200
Housing Act of 1949, 29
Housing and Urban Development,
Department of, 173, 200
Humphrey, Hubert, 42
Hurricane Katrina, 241
Hussein, Saddam, 221, 228, 234

impeachment
Clinton, Bill, 209–12, 244, 246

INDEX

individualism, 5, 6, 7–8, 12, 29, 48–49,
66–67, 222, 223, 247

inflation
1970s, 55, 58, 97
tax indexing, 93–94
Iraq, regime change, 221, 251
Iraq War, 223, 224, 228–29, 233–34,
237–38, 241, 243–44
Bush Doctrine, 225, 228, 244
‘‘right thing to do,’’ 234, 237

Jeffersonian ideals, 4–5, 21, 172
Jeffords, James, 215
Job Corps, 28
Johnson, Lyndon Baines (LBJ)
Great Society and its programs,
22–41, 48, 50, 69, 71, 89, 94, 150,
171, 189, 213

judiciary

new civil and social rights and,
63–64
just compensation, 198

Kagan, Robert, 222, 224
Kasich, John, 181
Kasten, Robert, 129
Keating, Charles H. Jr., 156–57
Keating Five, 156–57
Kemp, Jack, 128–29
Kemp-Roth cut, 103
Kennedy, John F., 22, 68
Kennedy, Robert F., 30
Kennedy, Ted, 190, 191
Kerry, John, 190, 235
Keynesianism, 11, 12
Kosovo

Democrats’ use of force, 250
Kristol, Irving (Kristol Senior), 66, 223
Kristol, William, 222, 224, 239

La Follette, Robert, 39
Landis, James, 10
law enforcement powers, 218
LBJ. see Johnson, Lyndon Baines (LBJ)
Lee, Richard, 29
libertarians, 252
limited government
future of, 258
GOP and, 246–50
Reagan’s efforts, 245–46
will of the people, 251–55
Lindsay, John, 29–30
line-item veto, 182
Linton, M. Albert, 18

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Lott, Trent, 186
Lowi, Theodore, 44, 61–62, 78–79, 85
Lugar, Richard, 197
Lukens, Donald E., 141

Madigan, Ed, 159
Matheson, Scott, 109
McCain, John, 157
McCain-Feingold campaign finance
law, 225
Medicaid, 33, 57, 101, 108, 109, 189
spending cuts or restraints, 145, 189,
257–58
Medicare, 33–34, 50, 57, 101, 187–89
Clinton, Bill and, 246
prescription drug benefit, 216,
229–32, 235, 241–42
prospective payment system, 118–19
spending caps, 140
spending cuts or restraints, 138–39,
145, 174–75, 257–58
Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act,
138
Medicare Modernization Act, 231
mercantilism, Connally and, 43
Michel, Robert, 210
Middle East
Bush Doctrine, 225, 228, 244. see also
Afghanistan, war in; Iraq War
Mills, Wilbur, 17, 33, 46, 56
Mondale, Walter, 119–21
moral renewal. see Bush, George W.;
neoconservatism; post-Reagan GOP
morality and moral order, 49
answers to moral decay, 223
Morgenthau, Henry Jr., 14
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 103, 193
Muris, Timothy, 142–43

nation-building, 8, 225
National Commission on Social
Security, 104
National Historic Preservation Act of
1966, 36
National Industrial Recovery Act, 8,
9–10
National Recovery Administration, 8–9,

50
nationalism, 5, 6, 223
Needs of the Cities. see Great Society
neoconservatism, 77, 221–25
‘‘New Class’’ argument, 65–66
New Deal, 8–13, 22, 50
see also progressive regime

INDEX

New Federalism, 106–11
Niskanen, William, 151
Nixon, Richard, 42–49, 60, 100, 248–49
No Child Left Behind Act, 225

Obama, Barack, 250
raising taxes on affluent Americans,
253
Oberlander, Jonathan, 231
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, 44, 199
Olasky, Marvin, 212, 216
O’Leary, Hazel, 201
Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981,
89, 96
O’Neill, Tip, 82, 105
Organization for Economic and
Cultural Development
1979 Economic Survey, 61
ownership society, 237, 238

Packwood, Robert, 127, 130–31
party identification
Democrats, 68–69
GOP, 248
Patriot Act, 218
pay-as-you-go budget procedures, 140
Perkins, Frances, 14
Perot, Ross, 163–64
Personal Responsibility Act, 193
Philadelphia Plan, 47
Phillips, Kevin, 66
Phillips curve, 54
Pierce, Samuel, 89
Pierson, Paul, 23, 43–44
Policy Memorandum No. 1, 80–82, 84
post-Reagan GOP, 243–44
automatic continuing resolution,
206–7
Big Government conservatism,
216–17, 248
compassionate conservatism, 212–15,
216, 217, 236, 237, 244
flood relief bill, 206–7
impeachment of Clinton, 209–12, 246
new corruption, 205–6
turning points, 205–15
2006 elections, 242–43
see also Bush, George W.; specific
party leaders

poverty

anti-poverty programs, 89–90
Bush, George W. and, 216
reduction and welfare reform, 195

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see also War on Poverty
prescription drug benefit, 216, 229–32,
235, 241–42
private retirement accounts, 186
program evaluation
progressive agenda and, 40
progressive regime, 3, 22, 49–51, 245
Agricultural Adjustment Act, 8–9
FDR and New Deal, 8–13, 22, 50. see
also specific programs

health care and health insurance,
32–41
ideology, 3–8, 22
imperialism in foreign affairs, 251
institutional reforms and national
recovery, 8–13
Keynesianism and, 11, 12
LBJ and, 22–41
National Industrial Recovery Act, 8,
9–10
National Recovery Administration,
8–9, 50
‘‘New Class’’ argument, 65–66
Nixon and, 42–49
oppression defined, 64
pragmatism, 32–41
shaping public opinion, 36–37
Social Gospel movement, 213
Social Security and, 13–22, 32, 33–34,

50
War Industries Board, 8
see also Great Society
progressive regime failures, 53, 72,
245, 255–57, 258
Carter’s ‘‘malaise speech,’’ 69–70
challenges to change, 69–72
championing the poor yet benefiting
all, 71–72
civil and social rights enforcement,
63–64
Democratic identification and,
68–69
economic decline, 55
entrenched Congress and programs,
70–71
federalism and, 64–65
legitimacy and trust in government
problems, 65–67
lost votes, 67–69
lost wars, 53–55
paying for spending, 55–61, 256–57
regulatory failures, 61–63
The Promise of American Life, 3–8
property rights, 198

INDEX

Protestant evangelicals, 68–69, 136–37,
164–65, 210, 217–18, 232–33
public broadcasting, 36, 40–41, 201–3
public housing policy, 200
public opinion
progressive regime and, 36–37

Quirk, Paul, 135

racism and racial discrimination, 25–28,

63
Rand, Ayn, 142
Reagan, Ronald
assassination attempt, 88
Bush, George W. and, 213, 214
difference between neoconservatives
and, 222–23
mandate, 74–76, 99, 142
realism, 222
rise of, 62, 245
struggle to limit government. see
Reagan reforms
Reagan reforms, 53
agenda after reform, 97–112
assessing Reagan, 142–54
‘‘Boll Weevils’’ and ‘‘Gypsy Moths’’
and, 85, 87, 89, 94
budget reform in Congress, 124–26
budget struggles, 83–92
campaign program, 80–82
conclusions, 115–16, 154
Congress and 1980 election, 82–83
Congress and taxes, 93–95
congressional election of 1982,
112–15
corruption and reform, 76–79
election of 1984, 119–23, 133–34
federalism objectives and reforms,
106–11
first seven months, 82–96
individuality and morality, 76–79
institutions and culture, 149–54
interest groups and, 152
major bureau increases in budgets,
143–44, 144t
Personal Responsibility Act, 193
Policy Memorandum No. 1, 80–82,

84
political stalemate and, 117–19
spending as percentage of gross
domestic product, 146–47, 146f
spending proposals and spending
cuts, 93–96, 142–47, 252–54
stock market crash and budget
summit of 1987, 134–35

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tax cuts and tax-rate cuts, 74, 80–81,
84, 93–96, 115
tax policy, 147–49
tax preferences, 99, 126–33, 154
taxes and tax revenues, 92–96
trade and immigration restrictions,
111–12
victory, 73–76
realism

Bush, George W., 219–20
Reagan, Ronald, 222
recession

1982 election and, 112–15
Reed, Clarke, 103
reforms

progressive regime, 8–13
see also Reagan reforms
Regan, Donald T., 129
regimes, U.S. longevity, 255
Reigle, Donald, 103, 157
religious charities, funding, 214
‘‘charitable choice,’’ 216
religious conservatives (religious right),
77–78, 136–37, 213, 223, 232–33
Buchanan, Pat, 162–63
see also compassionate conservatism;
Protestant evangelicals
Republican Party (GOP)
future of, 245, 246–50
identification, 248
new majority and progressive
regime, 71
Republican revolution, 155
agents of change, 158–64
conclusions, 203–4
Contract with America, 167–78
institutional changes and policy
reforms, 181–203
1992 elections, 164–65
1994 elections, 169–70
party unification, 100, 172–80
signs of congressional instability,
155–58
tax cuts, 180–81
Ribicoff, Abraham, 30
Richman, Sheldon, 111
Robertson, Pat, 136, 180
Roe v. Wade, 63–64
Rollins, Ed, 140
Roman Catholics, 68–69, 213–14
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR), 3, 8,
11, 48, 65, 69, 150
Court-packing scheme, 9
Social Security Act, 13–14, 20, 22

INDEX

see also progressive regime
Rostenkowsi, Dan, 129–30
Roth, William V. Jr., 128–29
Rove, Karl, 212, 213, 232

Salam, Reihan, 247
Sam’s Club Republicans, 247
Schiavo, Terri, 241, 244
SCHIP (State Children’s Health
Insurance Program), 189–91
Schneider, William, 122
Schultz, George, 47, 222
Schweiker, Richard, 105
secularism and secular voters, 68–69,
77–78, 232, 235
September 11 terrorist attacks, 218–20,
227–28, 233, 256
see also Afghanistan, war in; Iraq War
Shaw, E. Clay, 186
Sinclair, Barbara, 100
Smiley, Gene, 9
smoking (tobacco), 189–91
Snow, John, 240
Social Gospel movement, 213
Social Issues (Nixon), 49
Social Security, 153, 184–87, 191–92
Bush, George W. reforms, 238–40
Clinton’s ‘‘saving Social Security
first,’’ 185–87
minimum benefit, 102
Nixon and, 45–46
progressive regime, 13–22, 32, 33–34,
50, 56
Reagan and, 91–92, 102–6, 145, 245
spending caps, 140
spending cuts or restraints, 257–58
Social Security Act of 1935, 13–22, 57
social welfare programs, 108–9
Reagan and, 84, 192. see also specific
programs

spending, 98–99
spending caps, 140
Staats, Elmer, 47
Stark, Pete, 175
Starr, Kenneth, 209
state and local governments
social welfare programs, 108–9,
189–91
taxes, 57–59
State Children’s Health Insurance
Program (SCHIP), 189–91
‘‘staying the course,’’ 247
Steuerle, Eugene, 58
Stimson, James, 75

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Stockman, David, 78–79, 82–86, 88, 89,
91, 95–96, 100, 102, 105, 112, 152–53,
158, 252
Supplemental Security Income
program, 102
Supreme Court, U.S.
Court-packing scheme, 9
Warren and Burger courts, 63–64

Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility
Act of 1982, 98
tax preferences (loopholes), 45, 59, 99,
126–33, 154, 254
Tax Reform Act of 1986 and, 126–33,
250
Tax Reform Act of 1986, 126–33, 250
taxes, 50–51, 92–96
Carter and, 92–93, 96
Earned Income Tax Credit, 194–95
flat tax on consumption, 254–55
growth-oriented tax cuts, 138
higher taxes, lower spending, 253–54
income, 57, 58
Medicare and Medicaid, 33–34, 57
paying for progressive spending,
55–61, 256–57
property, 58–59
Reagan reforms and, 147–49
Reagan tax cuts and tax-rate cuts, 74,
80–81, 84, 92–96, 115
revenues before Reagan, 92t
Social Security and, 13–22, 32, 33–34,

56
state and local, 57–59
tax preferences, 45, 59, 99, 126–33,
154, 254
on wealthy Americans, 253
Teeter, Robert, 91
television, public. see public
broadcasting
Temporary Assistance for Needy
Families program, 194–95
terrorism. see Afghanistan, war in; Iraq
War; September 11 terrorist attacks
Thurmond, Strom, 43
tobacco smoking, 189–91
Townsend Plan, 19

The Tragedy of American Compassion,

212
The Triumph of Politics, 78
Truman, Harry, 32

Urban Development Action Grant
program, 89–90, 143–44
urban renewal policies, 29–30, 31

INDEX

Vietnam War, 30–31, 38, 53, 54, 67, 250
Volcker, Paul, 97
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 25

War on Poverty, 25, 27–29, 30–31,
54–55, 66, 67, 213
Water Quality Act, 36
Waxman, Henry, 139
Weicker, Lowell, 103
Weinberger, Caspar, 222
welfare reform, 191–96
‘‘charitable choice,’’ 216
welfare state, 16, 22, 39, 42, 56, 58, 79,
84, 100, 136, 142, 151, 176, 229, 232

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West, Darrell, 87
White, Joseph, 98
Wholesome Meat Act, 36
Wholesome Poultry Act, 36
Wildavsky, Aaron, 60–61, 98
will of the people, 251–55, 258
Reagan’s mandate, 75
Williamson, Richard, 107, 109
women voters
GOP, 214, 215
workplace regulation reforms, 199
Wright, Jim, 141, 156–57, 158

zone of privacy, 244

About the Author

John Samples directs the Center for Representative Government
at the Cato Institute. His book The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform
was published by the University of Chicago Press in the fall of 2006.
He has edited three books for the Cato Institute, including Welfare
for Politicians: Taxpayer Financing of Campaigns
(2005). Samples co-
directed the Brookings-Cato project on the decline of electoral com-
petition that led to the volume he co-edited entitled The Marketplace
of Democracy
(2006). Samples previously served as director of the
Georgetown University Press and vice president of The Twentieth
Century Fund. He received a Ph.D. in political science from Rutgers
University.

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Cato Institute

Founded in 1977, the Cato Institute is a public policy research
foundation dedicated to broadening the parameters of policy debate
to allow consideration of more options that are consistent with the
traditional American principles of limited government, individual
liberty,andpeace.Tothatend,theInstitutestrives toachievegreater
involvement of the intelligent, concerned lay public in questions of
policy and the proper role of government.
The Institute is named for Cato’s Letters, libertarian pamphlets that
were widely read in the American Colonies in the early 18th century
and played a major role in laying the philosophical foundation for
the American Revolution.
Despite the achievement of the nation’s Founders, today virtually
no aspect of life is free from government encroachment. A pervasive
intolerance for individual rights is shown by government’s arbitrary
intrusions into private economic transactions and its disregard for
civil liberties.

To counter that trend, the Cato Institute undertakes an extensive
publications program thataddresses thecompletespectrum ofpolicy
issues. Books, monographs, and shorter studies are commissioned
to examine the federal budget, Social Security, regulation, military
spending, international trade, and myriad other issues. Major policy
conferences are held throughout the year, from which papers are
publishedthriceyearlyintheCato Journal.TheInstitutealsopublishes
the quarterly magazine Regulation.
Inordertomaintainitsindependence,theCatoInstituteacceptsno
government funding. Contributions are received from foundations,
corporations, and individuals, and other revenue is generated from
the sale of publications. The Institute is a nonprofit, tax-exempt,
educational foundation under Section 501(c)3 of the Internal Reve-
nue Code.

CATO INSTITUTE
1000 Massachusetts Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20001
www.cato.org

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