2-1 cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu

lor conturios, Jaylight vas tho only olliciont sourco ol light availallo. Architocturo vas
JominatoJ ly tho goal ol spanning viJo spacos anJ croating oponings largo onough to
Jistriluto Jaylight to luilJing intoriors. Elliciont artilicial light sourcos anJ lully glazoJ
lacaJos havo liloratoJ Josignors lrom thoso constraints ol tho past. AJvancoJ Jaylighting
systoms anJ control stratogios aro anothor stop lorvarJ in proviJing Jaylit, usor-lrionJly,
onorgy-olliciont luilJing onvironmonts. Thoso systoms nooJ to lo intogratoJ into a
luilJing`s ovorall architoctural stratogy anJ incorporatoJ into tho Josign procoss lrom
its oarliost stagos. This chaptor outlinos tho Josign consiJorations associatoJ vith onhancing
a luilJing`s Jaylight utilization vhilo achioving maximum onorgy ollicioncy anJ
usor accoptanco.
ßay|ight in ßui|ding ßesign 2.
F|anning lor ßay|ight at the Conceptua| ßesign Fhase 2.1.
1nsic 2-1:
Tur rrocrss or
crsicuiuc ror
cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
2-2 cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
Daylighting stratogios anJ architoctural Josign stratogios aro insoparallo. Daylight not only
roplacos artilicial lighting, roJucing lighting onorgy uso, lut also inlluoncos loth hoating
anJ cooling loaJs. Planning lor Jaylight thoroloro involvos intograting tho porspoctivos anJ
roguiromonts ol various spocialitios anJ prolossionals. Daylighting Josign starts vith tho
soloction ol a luilJing sito anJ continuos as long as tho luilJing is occupioJ.
Daylighting planning has Jilloront oljoctivos at oach stago ol luilJing Josign:
- ConccptuaI DcsIgn: As tho luilJing schomo is loing croatoJ, Jaylighting Josign
inlluoncos anJor is inlluoncoJ ly lasic Jocisions alout tho luilJing`s shapo,
proportions, anJ aporturos, as voll as alout tho intogration anJ tho rolo ol
luilJing systoms.
- DcsIgn PÞasc: As tho luilJing Josign ovolvos, Jaylighting stratogios must lo
JovolopoJ lor Jilloront parts ol tho luilJing. Tho Josign ol lacaJos anJ intorior
linishing, anJ tho soloction anJ intogration ol systoms anJ sorvicos (incluJing
artilicial lighting), aro all rolatoJ to tho luilJing`s Jaylighting plan.
- FInaI/ConstructIon PIannIng: Tho soloction ol matorials anJ proJucts is
alloctoJ ly tho luilJing`s Jaylighting stratogy, linal Jotails ol tho Jaylighting
schomo must lo vorkoJ out vhon construction plans aro croatoJ.
- CommIssIonIng and Post-Occupancy: Onco tho luilJing is constructoJ, lighting
controls must lo calilratoJ, anJ ongoing oporation anJ maintonanco ol tho
systom logins.
2.1.1. ßay|ight Avai|ahi|ity
All Jaylighting stratogios mako uso ol tho luminanco Jistrilution lrom tho sun, sky,
luilJings, anJ grounJ. Daylight stratogios JoponJ on tho availalility ol natural light,
vhich is JotorminoJ ly tho latituJo ol tho luilJing sito anJ tho conJitions immoJiatoly
surrounJing tho luilJing, o.g., tho prosonco ol olstructions. Daylighting stratogios aro also
alloctoJ ly climato, thus, tho iJontilication ol soasonal, provailing climato conJitions,
particularly amliont tomporaturos anJ sunshino prolalility, is a lasic stop in Jaylight Josign.
StuJying loth climato anJ Jaylight availalility at a construction sito is koy to unJorstanJing
tho oporating conJitions ol tho luilJing`s lacaJo. Tho Jaylighting Josign solution lor tho
luilJing shoulJ aJJross all ol thoso oporating conJitions.
Thoro aro sovoral sourcos ol inlormation on Jaylight
availalility |Dumortior 1995l. lor oxamplo, Jaylight
availalility Jata has loon monitoroJ ovory minuto at moro
than 50 stations vorlJviJo sinco 1991 (http:iJmp.ontpo.lr)
anJ has also loon monitoroJ in tho Votoosat satollito ovory
hall hour lrom 1996-199¯ (unJor lota tosting).
High latituJos havo Jistinct summor anJ vintor conJitions,
tho soasonal variation ol Jaylight lovols is loss apparont at
ficuec 2-1:
Suurrfu circrru
rro,rcfrc ou r
risur\r ruofocrrru
or fur sifr
2-3
ficuec 2-2:
Surciuc sfuc\ iu r
Lrrcr-scrLr ursru
uousiuc rrrr
iu 8rrLiu. Fxisfiuc
suiLciuc sLocks
rrr suowu iu sLrck,
rrorosrc urw
suiLciucs iu crr\.
Tur sfuc\ wrs
crrrirc ouf wifu
r ru\sicrL uocrL iu
ru rrfiricirL sk\.
Tur ricfurr suows
fur surrrrosifiou
or surcows ror
08:00, 10:00, 12:00,
1ú:00, ruc 16:00 ou
Mrrcu]Srrfrusrr 21.
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
lov latituJos. At high latituJos vhoro vintor Jaylight lovols aro lov, Josignors usually aim
to maximizo Jaylight ponotration in a luilJing, roJiroction ol Jaylight into luilJings
lrom tho lrightost rogions ol tho sky is an appropriato stratogy at thoso latituJos. By contrast,
in tho tropics vhoro Jaylight lovols aro high throughout tho yoar, tho Josign omphasis is
usually on provonting ovorhoating ly rostricting tho amount ol Jaylight ontoring tho
luilJing. Tho olstruction ol largo parts ol tho sky, ospocially ol aroas noar tho zonith, anJ
tho aJmission ol Jaylight only lrom lovor parts ol tho sky or ol inJiroct light rolloctoJ lrom
tho grounJ aro usolul stratogios in tropical rogions.
Daylight availalility strongly JoponJs not only on tho latituJo lut also on a luilJing`s
oriontation, oach oriontation vill roguiro a Jilloront Josign omphasis. StuJy ol vornacular
architocturo anJ past succosslul Jaylighting Josigns is a gooJ vay to unJorstanJ tho
rolationship lotvoon climato anJ luilJing Josign.
2.1.2. The ßui|ding 5ite and 0hstructions
At a construction sito, tho sky is usually olstructoJ to somo oxtont ly surrounJing
luilJings anJ vogotation.
StuJying tho olstructions at a construction sito tolls a Josignor alout tho Jaylight potontial
ol tho luilJing`s lacaJos anJ allovs him or hor to shapo tho luilJing anJ to allocato lloor
aroas vith rospoct to Jaylight availalility. ln many casos, luilJings aro soll-olstructing,
so luilJing Josign anJ olstruction stuJios locomo intorconnoctoJ.
Iocal zoning rogulations limit a luilJing`s Josign (o.g., luilJing sizo, hoight, otc.) anJ tho
impact a nov luilJing can havo on surrounJing, oxisting luilJings. Tho lattor rostrictions
havo thoir origins in liro protoction, imposing minimum Jistancos lotvoon noighlouring
2-4 cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
luilJings to provont liro lrom sproaJing. Thoso rogulations ovolvoJ into logislation to
protoct tho right to Jaylight, originally JraltoJ (as oarly as 1¯92) vhon povorlul sourcos
ol artilicial light voro unknovn or unavailallo to tho majority ol tho population, anJ tho
availalility ol Jaylight vas ossontial in luilJing intoriors. ln solocting Jaylighting stratogios,
a Josignor must tako into account tho Jogroo to vhich tho nov luilJing vill croato an
olstruction lor oxisting luilJings, roJucing thoir accoss to Jaylight, anJor vill rolloct
sunlight that might causo glaro at tho stroot lovol or incroaso thormal loaJs in
noighlouring luilJings.
Zoning rogulations anJ lloor aroa inJoxos that rogulato tho oxtont ol urlan Jonsity also
alloct Jaylighting Josign. Tho aim ol maximizing lloor aroa in orJor to got tho lost
oconomic roturn lrom a nov luilJing may conllict vith tho Josign goal ol proviJing
intorior Jaylight.
Sovoral mothoJs anJ tools aro availallo to analyso olstructions. Tho lasic approachos aro:
- plotting tho no-sky lino` on tho vork plano ol a soloctoJ spaco, tho no-sky lino
JiviJos points on tho vork plano that can anJ cannot soo` tho sky |Iittlolair 1991l,
- oxamining olstructions lrom ono spocilic viov point ly projocting tho sun`s courso
or a Jaylight availalility chart on a roprosontation ol tho luilJing sito
(liguro 2-1),
- computing tho amount ol inciJont Jaylight anJ raJiation lor spocilic locations anJ
oriontations on tho sito, or
- projocting shaJovs that vill lall on tho lacaJo or grounJ vhon tho sun is in
spocilic positions, this approach givos an ovorviov ol tho availalility ol sunlight
at tho sito (soo liguro 2-2).
lor hoavily olstructoJ lacaJos, Jaylight-roJirocting systoms can improvo tho Jistrilution
ol light to intorior spacos. Glass prisms havo loon usoJ lor this purposo lor moro than a
hunJroJ yoars, toJay a rango ol systoms can lo usoJ, incluJing holographic olomonts, lasor-
cut panols, anJ aniJolic olomonts.
2.1.3. ßui|ding 5chemes and ßui|ding Types
Commonly oncountoroJ constraints on Jilloront luilJing typos ovor tho yoars havo
rosultoJ in typical luilJing shapos anJ Josign schomos lor stanJarJ typos ol luilJing usos.
Thoso schomos gonorally incorporato Jaylighting stratogios lrom vhich Josignors can loarn.
Daylight Josign anJ luilJing Josign can morgo to Jilloront Jogroos. ln somo luilJings,
such as churchos (soo liguro 2-3), tho Jaylighting stratogy anJ tho luilJing Josign
schomo aro almost iJontical, in luilJings vhoro tho organization ol lloor aroas is
complox, Jaylight is troatoJ as ono Josign issuo among a host ol othors. Tho moro that
Jaylight is tho gonorating lactor lor a Josign, tho moro tho Jaylighting stratogy is an
architoctural stratogy.
2-5
ficuec 2-3:
ur\Licufiuc crsicu
sfrrfrcirs ror
cirrrrruf suiLciuc
f\rrs. Cuurcurs (for
row): Prufurou,
kouru urLL cuurcu,
cofuic srsiLicr,
uocrru. ScuooLs
(uiccLr row): Liurrr
rfriuu, cross or
hrusurc, uucLrus,
courf\rrcs. 0rricr
suiLciucs (soffou
row): crLLuLrr, orru
rLru, crour orricrs,
cousiurfiou orricrs
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
Dilloront organisations ol luilJing lloor spaco Jovolop in rosponso to Jilloront nooJs. Tho
lottom rov ol liguro 2-3 shovs various vays ol organizing spaco in ollico luilJings. lt
is oasy to soo that a collular Josign anJ
an opon plan Josign, lor oxamplo, vill
JomanJ Jilloront Jaylighting stratogios.
A convontional vinJov may lo
aJoguato to Jistriluto Jaylight to a
shallov ollico room, lut lringing
Jaylight into Joop spacos roguiros moro
complox Josign stratogios.
Ono ol tho lirst stops in planning lor
Jaylight is to list all ol a projoct`s lloor spacos anJ Jotormino tho lighting roguiromonts ol
thoso aroas. Tho roguiroJ Jaylight lovol anJ Jogroo ol control ovor tho visual onvironmont
aro among tho most important critoria (soo Chaptor 3).
Porlormanco paramotors aro usually oljoctivo Josign critoria, hovovor, tho attractivonoss
ol spacos cannot lo oxprossoJ in puroly guantitativo torms. Tho vork ol architocts such
as Alvar Aalto, Io Corlusior, anJ Iouis Kahn shov hov to uso architoctural Josign
loaturos to croato improssivo spacos vith Jaylight (liguro 2-4).
ficuec 2-4:
Licuf ruc surcow
iu fur koucurur
currrL crsicurc s\
Lr Corsusirr
ficuec 2-6:
Powrr Cru, uK.
Tur cr\Licuf sfrrfrc\
ruc fur suiLciuc
crsicu sfrrfrc\ rrr
iusrrrrrsL\ Liukrc
fo rrcu ofurr.
2-6 cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
Tho luilJing`s ovorall Josign schomo Jotorminos Jaylighting stratogios anJ Jaylight
potontial in all luilJing zonos, thoroloro, porlormanco paramotors shoulJ lo chockoJ Juring
tho initial Josign phaso. lncorroct assumptions alout tho Jistrilution ol Jaylight vithin tho
spaco vill rosult in poor Jaylighting porlormanco.
During tho initial Josign phaso, tho Jaylighting Josignor`s goal is to mako suro that tho
spocilioJ porlormanco can lo achiovoJ vithin tho lramovork ol tho Josign. Tho proportion
ol spacos in rolation to aporturos shoulJ lo chockoJ. ll tho porlormanco ol tho Jaylight
stratogy JoponJs on tho porlormanco ol particular Jaylighting systoms, thoso systoms havo
to lo incluJoJ in tho proJiction mothoJ. Pulos ol thuml, graphical mothoJs, anJ
simulation ol Jaylight vith physical or computor moJols aro applicallo at this stago ol
tho Josign procoss (soo Chaptor 6). Vost ol thoso mothoJs Jo not aJoguatoly account
lor a Josign`s thormal lohaviour ovon though tho thormal stratogy anJ tho Jaylighting
stratogy aro insoparally linkoJ, a
Jaylighting Josign shoulJ thoroloro incluJo
thormal calculations.
2.1.4. ßetrolitting/ßelurhishment
ln most inJustrialisoJ countrios, tho
proportion ol rotrolit activitios in tho
construction soctor has incroasoJ stoaJily
Juring tho past tvo JocaJos. ToJay, a
largo numlor ol luilJings aro rolurlishoJ
locauso ol:
- a poor inJoor onvironmont (air
guality, visual onvironmont, otc.),
- high onorgy consumption,
- a poor stato ol ropair, or
- tho nooJ lor a nov lloor layout.
Daylight Josign is an important componont
ol a rotrolit vhon luilJing compononts
that alloct tho luilJing`s Jaylighting
porlormanco aro roplacoJ. Common rotrolit
moasuros incluJo roplacomont ol vinJovs
or ol tho vholo lacaJo, olJ vinJovs aro
olton loaky anJ thus a sourco ol hoat loss.
Polurlishmont is a chanco not only to
roplaco olJ luilJing compononts vith nov onos, lut also to roJolino tho lunctional
concopt ol a luilJing in orJor to moot toJay`s roguiromonts.
ficuec 2-5:
T\ricrL suiLciuc
or fur Lrfr 20
fu
crufur\ furf cors
uof courL\ fo
focr\'s cr\Licufiuc
sfrucrrcs
2-7
ficuec 2-7:
wiucow, cLrrr virw
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
Soloction ol tho right glazing is ol major importanco lor a luilJing`s Jaylighting stratogy.
Tho comlinoJ application ol nov glass anJ nov Jaylighting systoms, particularly thoso
that proviJo solar shaJing, glaro control, anJ tho roJiroction ol light, can incroaso Jaylight
anJ Jocroaso cooling loaJs. Daylighting moasuros aro only olliciont vhon tho porlormanco
ol artilicial lighting systoms is also aJJrossoJ, i.o., nov olliciont lamps anJ luminarios anJ
an aJvancoJ control systom aro installoJ. Comlining Jaylighting anJ artilicial lighting
systoms through, lor oxamplo, a comlinoJ control stratogy or tho intogration ol lamps in
an intorior light sholl, is a Josign option in rotrolits as voll as nov construction.
Tho incroasing tonJoncy to roplaco hoating, vontilation, anJ air conJitioning (HVAC)
plants vith hylriJ HVAC-thormal-lighting systoms anJ hylriJ or natural vontilation
stratogios vill alloct tho luilJing onvolopo Josign. HVAC plant sizing anJ roJosign shoulJ
lo intogratoJ vith onvolopo Josign locauso signilicant loaJ roJuctions can occur as a rosult
ol nov vinJov anJ Jaylighting tochnologios.
Tho aims ol room Jaylighting aro to
aJoguatoly illuminato visual tasks, to
croato an attractivo visual onvironmont,
anJ to savo oloctrical onorgy. Both tho
luilJing Josign schomo anJ tho
application ol systoms play rolos in
mooting thoso goals.
Tho porlormanco ol a Jaylighting
stratogy lor rooms JoponJs on:
- Jaylight availalility on tho
luilJing onvolopo vhich
Jotorminos tho potontial to
Jaylight a spaco,
- physical anJ goomotrical
proportios ol vinJov(s), anJ
hov vinJovs aro usoJ to
oxploit anJ rosponJ to
availallo Jaylight,
- physical anJ goomotrical
proportios ol tho spaco.
ßay|ighting 5trategies lor ßooms 2.2.
ficuec 2-8:
wiucow wifu rxfrrior
Louvrr sLiucs, wurrr
fur virw is rrrfirLL\
ossfrucfrc
ficuec 2-9:
wiucow wifu iufrrior
vrrficrL LrurLLrs,
wurrr fur virw is
courLrfrL\ ossfrucfrc
2-8 cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
2.2.1. Function ol Windows
Tho olJ Jolinition ol a vinJov as an aporturo in an opaguo onvolopo is no longor strictly
applicallo. lnnovations such as lully glazoJ skoloton structuros anJ Joullo-skin lacaJos
Joly tho scopo ol this Jolinition. Novortholoss, vo vill uso tho torm vinJov` to analyso
Jaylighting stratogios. WinJovs havo sovoral lunctions, vhich vary JoponJing on tho
inJiviJual Josign caso.
Ono koy lunction ol a vinJov is to proviJo a viov to tho outsiJo. Viov plays an important
rolo in an occupant`s appraisal ol tho intorior onvironmont ovon il tho oxtorior onvironmont
is not ospocially attractivo. Tho sizo anJ position ol vinJovs, vinJov lramos, anJ othor
olomonts ol tho lacaJo nooJ to lo consiJoroJ carolully in rolation to tho oyo lovol ol luilJing
occupants. Daylighting systoms can alloct tho viov to tho outsiJo. ll an outJoor viov is a
priority in a Jaylighting Josign, visual contact vith tho oxtorior has to lo maintainoJ unJor
all lacaJo oporating conJitions. AJvancoJ Jaylight stratogios thoroloro olton allocato
Jilloront lunctions to Jilloront aroas ol tho lacaJo or to Jilloront lacaJos. Viov vinJovs
thon can lo prosorvoJ vithout loing compromisoJ ly othor lunctions.
Daylighting is ono ol tho main lunctions ol vinJovs. Tho vinJov Josign Jotorminos tho
Jistrilution ol Jaylight to a spaco. WinJovs choson sololy lor thoir architoctural Josign
loaturos may porlorm satislactorily in many casos. lor Jvollings anJ othor luilJings that
havo rolativoly minimal visual roguiromonts, application ol aJvancoJ Jaylighting systoms
is not usually appropriato.
AJvancoJ Jaylighting systoms can lo usolul in casos vhoro:
- Jillicult tasks aro porlormoJ, anJ a high Jogroo ol control ovor tho visual
onvironmont is roguiroJ,
- tho luilJing`s goomotry is complox, o.g., thoro aro hoavily olstructoJ lacaJos or
Joop rooms,
- control ol thormal loaJs is roguiroJ (aJjustallo solar shaJing can lo an olloctivo
stratogy in this caso).
Daylighting is insoparally linkoJ to solar gain. ln somo Josign casos, aJJoJ solar gains
lrom Jaylighting may lo volcomo, in othor casos, hoat gain must lo controlloJ. ll solar
gains aro Josirallo, vinJovs aro a gooJ vay to proviJo thom. ln gonoral, tho goal ol
luilJing Josign is to roJuco cooling loaJs. Thoro aro a numlor ol vays to control solar
gains lrom vinJovs anJ lacaJos, tho simplost mothoJ is tho Jiroct gain approach, vhoro
a shaJing systom simultanoously controls tho visual anJ thormal onvironmonts. Voro
aJvancoJ tochniguos, such as colloctor vinJovs anJ Joullo-skin lacaJos, allov somo
Jogroo ol soparato control ovor tho thormal anJ visual onvironmonts. ln passivo solar
architoctural concopts, solar gains aro controlloJ ly tho oriontation anJ tho application ol
shaJing systoms as a lunction ol tho sun`s position.
2-9
ficuec 2-10:
Lrrcr roorLicufs
wifuouf surciuc
s\sfru iu cLouc\
FucLruc
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
Tho oporalility ol vinJovs nooJs to lo consiJoroJ vhon Jaylighting systoms aro soloctoJ.
ShaJing systoms locatoJ in tho vinJov pano Jo not vork proporly vhon tho vinJov is
opon, il Jaylight-roJirocting systoms aro attachoJ to tho vinJov, tho vinJov`s oporation
vill havo an impact on tho systoms` porlormanco. Oporallo vinJovs also olton sorvo as
liro oscapos. Tho impact ol liro lalconios on Jaylight porlormanco nooJs to lo consiJoroJ.
GlazoJ aroas aro an intorlaco lotvoon oxtorior anJ intorior, thoroloro, vinJovs involvo
a numlor ol Josign consiJorations. AsiJo lrom tho alovo-montionoJ primary lunctions,
tho lolloving issuos aro ospocially important lor glazoJ aroas:
- glaro,
- privacyscrooning ol viov,
- protoction lrom lurglary.
2.2.2. ßesign 5trategies lor Windows
A vinJov systom must aJJross tho rango
ol a luilJing`s oxtorior conJitions to
lullil tho rango ol intorior roguiromonts.
Tho placomont anJ sizing ol vinJovs
aro among tho most povorlul loaturos ol
architoctural Josign lor Jaylight. Bocauso
tho Josign ol vinJovs has a Jocisivo
olloct on tho potontial Jaylight anJ
thormal porlormanco ol aJjacont spacos, it nooJs to lo chockoJ vory carolully |O`Connor
ot al. 199¯l. Tho IT (Iight-Thormal) mothoJ, vhich vas JovolopoJ lor typical climatos in
tho Europoan Union, allovs tho ostimation ol onorgy consumption lor hoating, lighting,
anJ cooling as a lunction ol glazing ratio |Bakor anJ Stoomors 2000l. Simplo Josign tools
(soo Chaptor 6) allov a guick ovaluation ol vinJov Josign anJ room goomotry.
WinJovs aro almost alvays oxposoJ to tho sky, Jaylighting systoms can aJapt vinJovs
to changing sky conJitions anJ transmit or rolloct Jaylight as a lunction ol inciJont anglo.
Daylighting systoms aro primarily usoJ lor solar shaJing, protoction lrom glaro, anJ
roJiroction ol Jaylight. Whothor or not Jaylighting systoms aro roguiroJ to support tho
porlormanco ol vinJov systoms, anJ vhich systom or systoms is appropriato, aro koy
Jocisions in tho Josign procoss. Soo Chaptor 4 lor a JotailoJ Joscription anJ ovaluation
ol innovativo Jaylighting systoms.
Tho aJjustmont ol Jaylighting stratogios to spocilic sourcos ol skylight is an important
charactoristic ol Jaylighting stratogios.
StratcgIcs Ior SkyIIgÞt
Stratogios lor Jilluso skylight can lo JosignoJ lor oithor cloar or clouJy skios, hovovor,
tho most signilicant charactoristic ol thoso stratogios is hov thoy Joal vith Jiroct sunlight.
cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs 2-10
Solar shaJing alvays is an issuo lor Jaylighting oxcopt on north-oriontoJ lacaJos (in tho
northorn homisphoro). ll solar shaJing is only ol minor importanco as a rosult ol oriontation
anJ olstructions, a systom to protoct lrom glaro can lo usoJ lor solar shaJing as voll.
Solar shaJing anJ glaro protoction aro Jilloront lunctions that roguiro inJiviJual Josign
consiJoration. Solar shaJing is a thormal lunction that primarily protocts lrom Jiroct
sunlight, anJ glaro protoction is a visual lunction that moJoratos high luminancos in tho
visual liolJ. Systoms to protoct lrom glaro aJJross not only Jiroct sunlight lut skylight anJ
rolloctoJ sunlight as voll.
StratcgIcs Ior CIoudy SkIcs
Daylighting stratogios JosignoJ lor Jilluso skylight in proJominantly clouJy conJitions aim
to Jistriluto skylight to intorior spacos vhon tho Jiroct sun is not prosont. ln this caso,
vinJovs anJ rool lights aro JosignoJ to lring Jaylight into rooms unJor clouJy sky
conJitions, so vinJovs vill lo rolativoly largo anJ locatoJ high on tho valls. UnJor sunny
conJitions, thoso largo oponings aro a voak point, causing ovorhoating anJ glaro. Thoroloro,
systoms that proviJo sun shaJing anJ glaro protoction aro an inJisponsallo part ol this
stratogy. DoponJing on tho Josign stratogy, various shaJing systoms that transmit oithor
Jilluso skylight or Jiroct sunlight may lo applicallo in this caso. To avoiJ Jocroasing
Jaylight lovols unJor ovorcast sky conJitions, movoallo systoms aro usually applioJ.
Somo innovativo Jaylighting systoms aro JosignoJ to onhanco Jaylight ponotration unJor
clouJy sky conJitions (soo tho classilication ol systoms in Chaptor 4). Somo ol thoso systoms,
such as aniJolic systoms or light sholvos, can control sunlight to somo oxtont. Tho
application ol simplo architoctural moasuros, such as rolloctivo sills, is anothor opportunity
to onhanco Jaylight ponotration, lut tho Josign ol tho vinJov itsoll is tho main inlluonco
on tho porlormanco ol this typo ol stratogy unJor clouJy conJitions.
StratcgIcs Ior CIcar SkIcs
ln contrast to Jaylighting stratogios lor clouJy skios, stratogios that Jilluso skylight in
climatos vhoro cloar skios proJominato must aJJross Jiroct sunlight at all timos. ShaJing
ol Jiroct sunlight is thoroloro part ol tho continuous oporating moJo ol this stratogy.
Oponings lor cloar sky stratogios Jo not nooJ to lo sizoJ lor tho lov Jaylight lovols ol
ovorcast skios. ShaJing systoms that allov tho vinJov to JoponJ primarily on Jilluso
skylight aro applicallo in this caso (soo Chaptor 4).
DIrcct SunIIgÞt
Stratogios lor sunlight anJ Jilluso skylight aro guito Jilloront. Diroct sunlight is so lright
that tho amount ol inciJont sunlight lalling on a small aporturo is sulliciont to proviJo
aJoguato Jaylight lovols in largo intorior spacos. Boam Jaylighting stratogios aro applicallo
il sunshino prolalility is high. Sinco sunlight is a parallol sourco, Jiroct sunlight can lo
oasily guiJoJ anJ pipoJ. Optical systoms lor Jiroct light guiJing anJ systoms lor light
transport aro applicallo in this caso (soo Chaptor 4). Aporturos JosignoJ lor loam
2-11
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
Jaylighting Jo not usually proviJo a viov to tho outsiJo
anJ shoulJ thoroloro lo comlinoJ vith othor viov
oponings ( Palm Springs Chamlor ol Commorco
1
).
Bocauso loam Jaylighting roguiros only small
aporturos, it can lo applioJ as an aJJoJ stratogy in an
approach that othorviso locusos on clouJy skios.
2.2.3. Functiona| ßivision ol a Window
ll a Josignor can allocato ono proJominant lunction
to a vinJov, ho or sho can Josign it lor optimum
porlormanco that vill not lo compromisoJ ly
contraJictory roguiromonts. Tho Josignor must thon
mako suro that all vinJovs togothor lullil tho lull
rango ol roguiromonts in a room.
Whon a vinJov has to satisly sovoral lunctions in any
oporation moJo, tho rango ol applicallo Jaylighting
systoms is constrainoJ locauso tho systom soloctoJ
must tako account ol all ol tho vinJov`s lunctions. Tho
Josign approach lor this typo ol oponing thoroloro
usually consists ol applying movoallo systoms that
can lo rocossoJ vhon not nooJoJ. Tho Josignor shoulJ
consiJor controlling systoms using a luilJing onorgy
managomont systom locauso thoy might not othorviso
lo oporatoJ appropriatoly.
Tho hotorogonoous Josign ol a vinJov allots spocilic lunctions to spocilic aroas ol a
vinJov. Dilloront Jaylighting systoms can lo applioJ to Jilloront parts ol tho vinJov, or
similar systoms may lo oporatoJ soparatoly lor Jilloront aroas ol tho vinJov. Tho
intoraction ol Jaylighting systoms in this caso nooJs JotailoJ Josign consiJoration.
2.2.4. 5trategies lor Fenestration
Whothor to uso siJolighting or toplighting, unilatoral or multilatoral Jaylighting stratogios
shoulJ lo JociJoJ Juring a luilJing`s concoptual Josign stago.
Although unilatoral siJolighting is tho stanJarJ Jaylighting caso, its implomontation
roguiros caro. lt aims to Jistriluto Jaylight into tho Jopth ol a spaco, to proviJo onough
light to porlorm a task in tho room vhilo avoiJing glaro anJ alloving a viov to tho outsiJo.
Bocauso thoso amlitions may conllict, tho Jivision ol a lacaJo into oponings vith spocilic
lunctions is a promising vay to apply siJolighting ( Willy BranJt BuilJing).
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2-12 cr\Licuf iu suiLciucs
lacaJos gonorally havo a limitoJ alility to Jistriluto Jaylight into tho Jopth ol a spaco.
Sovoral rulos ol thuml apply to potontial Jaylighting zonos lor Jilluso skylight anJ
appropriato vinJov Josign. During tho concoptual Josign phaso, tho Jaylighting zono may
lo consiJoroJ to lo a Jopth ol alout tvo timos tho vinJov hoaJ hoight |Pollins 1986l.
Unilatoral toplighting can only lo usoJ on tho top lloor ol a luilJing. Spacos on lovor lloors
can only lo connoctoJ to roollights ly coro Jaylighting systoms or atria. Poollights rocoivo
light lrom tho lrightost rogions ol tho sky, so thoy aro povorlul sourcos ol Jaylight. Thoy
Jo not, hovovor, proviJo usors vith a viov to tho outsiJo, so Jaylighting stratogios that
JoponJ oxclusivoly on roollights aro limitoJ to spacos vhoro a viov is not nocossary.
Bocauso toplighting is oxposoJ to high inciJont sunlight, solar shaJing is usually ossontial
to provont ovorhoating. Tho sizo ol roollights nooJs to lo carolully lalancoJ to moot
lighting, thormal porlormanco, anJ shaJing roguiromonts. Various roollighting shaJing
stratogios anJ systoms oxist. Poollights aro olton glazoJ vith light-Jillusing glass to
protoct tho intorior lrom Jiroct sun rays. Iight-Jillusing glass Joos not proviJo solar
shaJing, hovovor, anJ locomos vory lright vhon hit ly Jiroct sunlight, vhich may causo
glaro. Tho uso ol light shalts to lalllo anJ Jisporso sunlight is a classical architoctural
roollight concopt ( Gontolto Pullic Iilrary). Tho uso ol avnings is anothor traJitional
tochniguo to shaJo largo roollights ( Trapholt Art Vusoum).
TraJitionally, toplighting concopts havo loon usoJ at high latituJos vith proJominantly
clouJy skios, lut aJvancoJ Jaylight-roJirocting shaJing systoms, such as lasor-cut panols,
holographic optical olomonts, anJ optically troatoJ light sholvos, can cool` roollights in
sunny, hot climatos ( Contor lor Dosort Architocturo, Palm Springs Chamlor ol Commorco,
Park PiJgo Primary School).
Bocauso tho alility ol lacaJos to Jistriluto Jaylight to Joop spacos is limitoJ, ospocially
unJor clouJy skios, lilatoral anJ multilatoral lighting is an option lor rooms that cannot
lo lit aJoguatoly ly only ono lacaJo. Tho Josign ol tho luilJing`s lalric Jotorminos tho
availalility ol Jaylight on room lacaJos. Atria anJ courtyarJs aro olton usoJ to proviJo
lilatoral Jaylighting ( Bortolt Brocht School).
Bilatoral Jaylighting vith a lunctional Jivision lotvoon lacaJos is a povorlul Jaylighting
stratogy that can lo applioJ in Jilloront vays. Ono vay is to allocato tho lunction ol viov
to tho outsiJo to ono lacaJo using Jaylighting systoms such as ovorhangs that shaJo sunlight
lut Jo not olstruct tho viov. Tho othor lacaJo can lo usoJ to Jistriluto Jaylight to tho
spaco ( Protostant School). Tho most common Josign solution lor lilatoral Jaylighting
is to comlino a vinJov that lullils tho lull scopo ol lunctions lor a largo portion ol lloor
spaco vith a clorostory to incroaso tho illuminanco lovol in tho Jopth ol tho spaco
( OSZ Wirtschalt).
2-13
cr\Licuf iu suiLciuc crsicu
Bilatoral siJolighting can proviJo occupants
vith a viov to tho surrounJing lanJscapo.
This stratogy allovs olloctivo solar shaJing
ly movoallo systoms on a sunny lacaJo
vhilo tho soconJ lacaJo, vhich is not hit
ly Jiroct sunlight, Jistrilutos Jaylight to
tho spaco ( Gropius School).
A lilatoral comlination ol siJolighting anJ
toplighting can Jistriluto Jaylight to Joop
intorior spacos ( Gontolto Iilrary). Tho
primary lunction ol tho roollights is
usually to Jistriluto Jaylight vhilo
vinJovs proviJo occupants vith a viov
to tho outsiJo ( Park PiJgo Primary
School). Anothor application ol this
stratogy is to croato aroas vith thoir ovn
spocilic aporturos that proviJo inJiviJual
lighting onvironmonts.
Coro Jaylighting systoms aro optical
systoms in vhich tho Jaylight-rocoiving
aporturo anJ tho light-omitting oponing
aro lar apart. Thoso systoms can Jistriluto
Jaylight to vinJovloss spacos. Occupants
may not notico tho Jilloronco lotvoon
pipoJ Jaylight anJ light gonoratoJ ly
artilicial light sourcos. A stratogy to mako
thoso systoms moro cost-olloctivo is to
uso thom as Jistrilution systoms lor
artilicial light as voll. Coro Jaylighting
systoms aro usually JosignoJ to pipo Jiroct
sunlight. Thoro aro various typos ol coro
Jaylighting systoms - sun-tracking as voll
as lixoJ systoms that uso optical lilros or
light Jucts.
2.2.5. ße|ation to Ad[acent 5paces
Clorostorios in corriJor valls ol ollicos can Jistriluto Jaylight to thoso othorviso vinJovloss
spacos, lor shallov ollicos, this is a suitallo stratogy ( DlN-BuilJing). Daylight-roJirocting
systoms can contriluto to tho Jistrilution ol Jaylight to thoso spacos in tho coro ol a
luilJing, Jaylight-roJirocting systoms shoulJ lo applioJ simultanoously to control glaro.
WinJovs lacing an atrium havo loss Jaylight potontial than vinJovs lacing an opon
ficuec 2-13:
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courtyarJ locauso tho glazoJ rool roJucos tho luminous llux. High rolloctancos vithin an
atrium spaco can incroaso tho Jopth ol light ponotration ( Dragvoll Univorsity Contor).
Evon il lorrovoJ light lrom intorior vinJovs Joos not signilicantly incroaso Jaylight lovols
to an intorior spaco, tho prosonco ol thoso vinJovs may improvo light Jistrilution anJ
mako a visual link lotvoon a spaco locatoJ in tho coro ol a luilJing anJ othor zonos ol
tho luilJing. Tho viov to a Jaylit onvironmont or ovon to an intorior luilJing lanJscapo
can incroaso tho attractivonoss ol othorviso vinJovloss spacos.
2.2.6. Finishing, Furnishing, and üsing a 5pace
lntorior linishing has to lo part ol tho Jaylighting stratogy. Daylight-roJirocting stratogios
usually Jiroct Jaylight to tho coiling ol a room. Tho rolloctanco charactoristics ol tho coiling
thoroloro inlluonco tho vay Jaylight vill lo JistrilutoJ. Spocular in-plano coiling surlacos
rolloct roJiroctoJ light Joop into tho spaco lut may lo a sourco ol glaro. Spocular out-ol-
plano coiling surlacos can lo shapoJ to Jolloct roJiroctoJ Jaylight to spocilic aroas in tho
room ( Goyssol Ollico BuilJing). Thoso surlacos can act as rolloctors lor artilicial light
as voll. A Jilluso coiling ol high rolloctanco can also Jistriluto light lrom Jaylight-
roJirocting systoms, vhich may lo moro comlortallo lor occupants than a highly rollocting
onvironmont. Tho rolloctanco ol valls, lloor, anJ lurnituro also havo a largo inlluonco on
tho improssion croatoJ ly a spaco. Tho lloor rolloctanco shoulJ not lo too lov (>0.3).
Dosignors olton assumo that lighting roguiromonts aro homogonoous throughout a spaco
anJ thus aim to proviJo unilorm lighting lovols, lut survoys in occupioJ rooms shov that
thoro aro pattorns in hov spacos aro usoJ. lor oxamplo, in a collular ollico occupioJ ly
ono porson, tho Josk is usually placoJ in tho vinJov aroa.
Tho lurnishing ol a spaco roprosonts a lrozon imago ol activitios in tho spaco. lt allocts vhoro
occupants Jo cortain tasks. Thus, lurnishing acts as a spocilication ol lighting roguiromonts.
ll tho roal uso ol a spaco can lo JotorminoJ, Josigns shoulJ lo lasoJ on this inlormation
rathor than on tho assumption that a unilorm luminous onvironmont is roguiroJ.
As outlinoJ alovo, tho application ol Jaylighting systoms is only ono constituont ol a
Jaylighting stratogy. Although a poor soloction ol systoms can spoil tho porlormanco ol a
luilJing vith gooJ Jaylight potontial, a sounJ soloction cannot componsato lor orrors anJ
omissions in provious Josign stagos.
ßesign 5trategies lor ßay|ighting 5ystems 2.3.

                                                                                                                                         .

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