FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

KERAJAAN MALAYSIA JABATAN KERJA RAYA MALAYSIA

STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROAD WORKS

CAWANGAN JALAN IBU PEJABAT JABATAN KERJARAYA MALAYSIA JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDDIN, 50582 KUALA LUMPUR.

KETUA PENGARAH KERJARAYA JABATAN KERJARAYA MALAYSIA JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDDIN 50582 KUALA LUMPUR

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 1
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’ 1. Table 4.8 - Gradation Limit For Asphaltic Concrete Clause 4.2.4.2, page S4 – 21 should read as follows :

Mix Type Mix Designation B.S Sieve 37.5 mm 28.0 mm 20.0 mm 14.0 mm 10.0 mm 5.0 mm 3.35 mm 1.18 mm 425 um 150 um 75 um

Wearing Course ACW 20

Binder Course ACB 28

% Passing by weight 100 100 76 - 100 64 - 89 56 - 81 46 - 71 32 - 58 20 - 42 12 - 28 6 - 16 4 - 8 80 - 100 72 - 93 58 - 82 50 - 75 36 - 58 30 - 52 18 - 38 11 - 25 5 - 14 3 - 8

2. Table 4.9- Design Bitumen Contents Clause 4.2.4.3, page S4 - 23 should read as follows :

ACW 20 - Wearing Course ACW 28 - Binder Course

4.5 - 6.5 % 4.0 - 6.0

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 2
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’ 6.2.5.5 Sign Faces Sign faces for permanent traffic sign shall be as shown on the Drawing and shall comply with the Malaysian Standard Specification for Reflective Sign Faces Materials (MS 1216). All retro-reflective sheeting shall be fixed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., sign faces shall be formed from a single piece of retro-reflective sheeting. Where, with the aggrement of the S.O., more than one retro-reflective sheeting is used, the number of sheets shall be kept to a minimum. All faces up to 1 m in size shall be produced with a single sheet and no joint will be accepted. Only vertical and horizontal joint shall be permitted and all join in retro-reflective shetting shall be overlapped by not less than 6 mm. The overlap in the horizontal joint shall be from the top and the vertical joint shall be from the left; but joints will be only be accepted for prismatic retro-reflective sheeting. Retro-reflective sheeting shall be applied evenly over the whole surface of the sign plate and shall adhere fully. it shall be free from twists, cracks, folds or cuts, air bubbles and other blemishes. All retro-reflective sheeting used on the same sign shall be carefully matched for colour to produce a uniform appearance both by day and by night. Non-uniform shades of colour on any one sign will not be accepted. The edges of all the retro-reflective sheeting shall be properly fitted to ensure no delimination of the sheeting from the base substrate. where shetting is applied to the extruded section by pressure roller, it shall extend over the top and bottom edges of this sections by not less than 3 mm. Any cut-outlet letters, numerals, symbols and borders shall be of material compatible with the sheeting to which they are applied. They shall be applied in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer’s instruction. The finish of all sign faces shall be capable of passing the tests described in MS 1216, and and standard of fabrication and workmanship shall be such that under normal conditions of service and proper maintenance, the sign faces shall last not less than 5 years without any seriousblemishes or defects for Engineering Grade retro-reflective sheeting and 8 years for High Intensity and prismatic retro-reflective sheeting. The Contractor shall furnish to the S.O. a letter of warranty for the specified period for all sign faces from the manufacturer of the sheeting or the sign fabricator. The retro-reflective sheeting manufacturer shall furnish the S.O. written warranty that the fluorescent colours shall be durable for a minimum 3 years for temporary signs.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

ADDENDUM NO. 3
This Addendum shall be made part of the ‘JKR Standard Specification For Roads Works’

6.2.6.1

FLUORESCENT ORANGE WIDE ANGLE PRISMATIC RETROREFLECTIVE SHEETING FOR THE WORK ZONE
Description 6.2.6.1.2 i) Requirements

6.2.6.1.1

The flurescent orange wide angle prismatic retro-reflective sheeting is specifically designed for use on rigid substrade work zone signs to provide high visual impact under nighttime and daytimedriving condition, including low visibility periods such as dawn, dusk, and overcast days. The sheeting shall consist of prismatic lenses formed in a transparent flurescent orange synthetic resin, sealed, and baked with and aggressive presure sensitive adhesive protected by a removable liner. The sheeting shall have a smooth surface with a distinctive interlocking diamond seal pattern and orrientation marks visible from the face.

Photometric - Coefficient of Retroreflection RA when the sheeting applied on aluminium test panels is measured in accordance wth ASTM E 810, it shall have minimum coefficient of retro-reflective value as shown in Table I. The rotation angle shall be *90° , the observation angles shall be 0.2° and 0.5°, the entrance angles and +50°, and the entrance angle (component ß1) shall be - 4°, +30°, and +50°, and the entrance angle component ß2 = 0°.

TABLE I

Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA (Candelas per footcandle per square foot) (90° Rotation Angle*)

Observation Angle ( ° ) 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.5 0.5 0.5

Entrance Angle ( ° ) -4 +30 +50 -4 +30 +50

Orange 200 120 50 80 50 20

* The datum mark (arrow) imprinted on the face of the sheeting shall be the datum mark for test purposes. For the specified 90° rotation angle, the sheeting shall be positioned on the goniometer so that the direction of this datum mark is perpendicular to the observation plane (this geometry is equivalent to a 90° orientation angle with a presentation angle of 0° in the measurement geometry described in Fed. Test Method Standard 370).

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

i)

Daytime Color Color shall conform to the reqiurement of Table II. Daytime color and maximum spectral radiance factor (peak reflectance) of sheeting mounted on aluminium test panels shall be determined instrumentally in accordance with ASTM E 991. The value shall be determined on a HunterLab Labscan 6000 0/45 spectrocolorimeter with option CMR 559 [or approved equal 0/45 (45/0) instrument withcircumferential viewing (illumination)]. Computation shall be done in accordance with ASTM E 308 for the 2° observer.

TABLE II Color Specification Limit ** (Daytime)
Color
X

1
Y .416 X .523

2
Y .397 X .560

3
Y .360 X .631

4
Y .369

Reflectance Limit Y (%)
Min. 30 Max. -

Orange (New) Orange (Weathered)

.583

.583

.416

.523

.397

.560

.360

.631

.369

20

45

Maximum spectral radiance factor, new : 110%, min. weathered : 60%, min.

** The four pairs of chromaticity coordinates determine the acceptable color in terms of the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system measured with standard illuminatant D65. iii) Nighttime Color. Nighttime color of the sheeting applied to alumium test panel shall be determined instrumentally in accordance with ASTM E 881 and calculated in the u’, v’ coordinate system in accordance with ASTM E 308. Sheeting shall be measured at 0.33° observation and - 4° entrance at 90° rotation. Color shall conform to the requirements of Table III.
TABLE II Color Specification Limit ** (Nighttime)
Color
u’

1
v’ .540 u’ .475

2
v’ .529 u’ .448

3
v’ .522 u’ .372

4
v’ .534

Orange (New and Weathered)

.400

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 5

Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works vi) Resistance to Heat.3Nm) using a weight with a 5/8 in. The retroreflective sheeting applied according to the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations to a test panel of alloy 6061-T6.2.6 cm) by 5” (12.2° observation. panels shall be washed in a 5% HCL solution for 45 seconds. All measurements shall be made after sign cleaning according to the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations.4° entrance angles at 90° rotation and exposed to 170 + 5°F (77 + 3°C) for 24 hours in an air circulating oven. above and conditioned for 24 hours. the retroreflective sheeting will be considered unsatisfactory if it has deteriorated due to natural causes to the extent that : (1) the sign is ineffective for its intended purposed when viewed from a moving vehicle under normal day and night driving conditions. at test temperatures of both 32° F (0° C) and 72° F (22° C). south-facing and inclined 45° from the vertical. b) Be measured only at angles of 0. iv) Resistance to Accelerated Weathering. K. blotted with a soft clean cloth and brought to equilibrium at standard conditions. (15.7 cm) and conditioned for 24 hours. shall show no cracking outside the impact of 100 inch-pounds (11.4° entrance at 90° rotation. A.08 cm) shrinkage or expansion. the coefficient or retroreflection shall be the averange of all determinations. or dimensional change after 1 year’s unprotected outdoor exposure in south Florida. or (2) the coefficient of retroreflection is less than 100 when measured at 0. blistering. The sample shall : a) Show no appreciable evidence of cracking. edge lifting or curling or more than 1/32 inch (0. below. The retro-reflective surface of the sheeting shall be weather resistant and show no appreciable cracking. at 0.10 cn) by 3” (7. or after 1500 hours’ exposure in a xenon arc weatherometer in accordance with ASTM G 26.4° entrance and 90° rotation. After cleaning. Type B.. vii) Field Performance Retroreflective sheeting processed and applied to sign blank materials in accodance with the sheeting manufacturer’s recommendations. crazing. . applied to a test panel as in E. pitting. scaling.2° observation and . The retroreflective sheeting. blistering. v) Impact Resistance.2° observation and . Following exposure. 0. After heat exposure the sheeting shall retain a minimum of 70% of the original coefficient of retroreflection. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and the color is expected conform to the requirements of Table II and III for weathered sheeting. is expected to perform effectively for a minimum of 3 years. shall be measured in accordance with paragraph. the coefficient of retroreflection shall be not less than 100 when measured as in D. Method A.040” (0. Where more than one panel of a color is measure.8 mm) diameter rounded tip dropped from a height necessary to generate an impact of 100 inch-pounds.L Page 6 . rinsed throughly with clean water.

L Page 7 . K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS WORKS CONTENT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 General Earthworks Drainage Works Flexible Pavement Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Road Funiture Street Lighting Traffic Signals Concrete Piling Works PAGE S1-11 to S1-31 S2-1 to S2-20 S3-1 to S3-31 S4-1 to S4-55 S5-1 to S5-21 S6-1 to S6-22 S7-1 to S7-19 S8-1 to S8-33 S9-1 to S9-39 S10-1 to S10-35 Cawangan Jalan.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 1 GENERAL Cawangan Jalan.L Page 8 .

1 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.21 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT SCOPE OF WORKS NOTES.24 1. TEMPORARY PROTECTION AND TEMPORARY DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY INSTALLATIONS AND OTHER SERVICES WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY PROJECT SIGNBOARD PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WORKS AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND MICROFILMING CLEARING UP OF SITE OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-11 S1-12 S1-12 S1-12 S1-12 S1-13 S1-13 S1-13 S1-13 S1-14 S1-14 S1-14 S1-14 S1-16 S1-16 S1-16 S1-17 S1-17 S1-17 S1-17 S1-18 S1-19 S1-19 1. Culverts.19 1.O.20.6 1.8 1.12 1.26 1.3 1.5 1. AND HIS STAFF VEHICLES FOR THE S.3 1.10 1.3.1 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.GENERAL Page 1.4 1.27 S1-19 S1-20 S1-20 S1-20 S1-21 S1-21 S1-21 Cawangan Jalan. Temporary Diversions Half-width Construction and Traffic Control Temporary Traffic Signs Temporary Works LOCATION.1 1.18 1.'S STAFF CONTRACTOR'S OFFICE AND ACCOMODATION MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY AND STAFF PROVISION FOR SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND CHAINMEN MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING ROADS AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC Maintenance of Existing Roads.20.20.9 1.14 1.13 1.2 1.25 1.5 1.L Page 9 .20 1.22 1.2 1.20.3 1.23 1.11 1.16 1.3.15 1. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 1 . etc.20.17 1. ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Notes Abbreviations Units of Measurement PROGRAMME OF WORKS LIMITATION OF SITE SUPPLY OF MATERIALS MATERIALS OF MALAYSIAN ORIGIN SETTING OUT DIMENSIONS AND LEVELS PROTECTION OF WORKS DESIGN OF TEMPORARY WORKS BY THE CONTRACTOR CONTRACTOR'S SUPERINTENDENCE INSPECTION AND TESTS COVERING UP OF WORK OFFICE ACCOMMODATION FOR S.3.O. Bridges.

AND HIS STAFF LIST OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT S1-22 S1-23 S1-24 Soil Testing Equipment Concrete Testing Equipment Flexible Pavement Testing Equipment SURVEY EQUIPMENT APERTURE CARD FOR MICROFILM S1-25 S1-27 S1-27 S1-30 S1-31 APPENDIX 1E FIGURE 1-1 Cawangan Jalan. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page APPENDIX 1A APPENDIX 1B APPENDIX 1C APPENDIX 1D (a) (b) (c) GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SCOPE OF WORKS VEHICLES FOR S.O.L Page 10 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

GENERAL 1.2 SCOPE OF WORKS a) M.M. e) M.1 Notes i) Any clause in this Specification which relates to work or materials not included in the Works shall be deemed not applicable.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iv) The terms "Engineer" and "Superintending Officer" shall be synonymous. b) B. Where British Imperial units are shown or stated the following conversions shall apply :- Page 11 .L 1.D. Ibu Pejabat JKR. means The American Society for Testing and Materials.O. iii) All Standards and Codes of Practice referred to in this Specification shall be deemed to be the editions current at the time of Tender. g) C. K.3 NOTES.T. means Bill of Quantities. 1. means The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. i) B.S. If the Malaysian Standard exists.H.M. ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1. then the provision of this Specification shall take precedence.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT 1. h) S.R. any dimension of material described means the finished or fully compacted dimension. tools. means Malaysian Standards published by the Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM). deems to be equivalent to the British or other Standard specified.3.O.S. means Superintending Officer.T. c) A.S.S. means California Bearing Ratio. labour.O. means Maximum Dry Density. ii) Unless stated to the contrary.2 Abbreviations The general description of the project is as given in Appendix 1A. d) A.Q.3.3 Units of Measurement All units of measurement used in this Specification and in the Bill of Quantities shall be in accordance with the metric system unless otherwise stated.B.3. f) O. 1. Cawangan Jalan. plants.D.A. then the Malaysian Standard shall be followed. which the S. means Optimum Moisture Content. means British Standards published by the British Standard Institution. transport and everything else necessary for the construction and completion of the Works as given in Appendix 1B all to the approval of the S.C. The Works covered in this Contract comprise the provision by the Contractor at his own risk and cost of all materials.O. In the event of any discrepancy between the provision of this Specification and the provision within the relevant Standards or Codes of Practice as mentioned in this Specification. SECTION 1 .

7 MATERIALS OF MALAYSIAN ORIGIN Materials of Malaysian origin where available must be used by the Contractor to the exclusion of imported materials and this requirement shall be allowed for in his tender.O. a revised programme showing the modifications to the previously approved programme necessary to ensure the completion of the whole Works within the time set for completion. or the S. for his approval a programme showing the order of work activities and time schedule in which the Contractor proposes to carry out the Works and shall. the Contractor shall submit to the S. including overheads or any other charges.4536 kilograms 4. offices.O.'s approval.3048 metres 0. whenever required by the S.'s representative of such a programme or the furnishing of such particulars shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his duties or responsibilities under the Contract.'s representative.mm 1. No action taken under this Section shall in any way affect or modify the right of the Government to claim for damages in the event of the Contractor's failure to complete the Works by the agreed date. that the actual progress of the Works does not conform to the approved programme referred to herein before. furnish in writing. 1.O. If at any time it should appear to the S. particulars of the Contractor's arrangement for carrying out such works and of the construction plants and temporary works.5 LIMITATION OF SITE The Contractor shall ensure that all his plants.40 millimetres 0. which the Contractor intends to supply. stores.O. on his own. the Government may supply any portion or all of the materials and the cost borne by the Contractor shall be either that as calculated at the current market rates or the actual cost to the Government at the date of supply.4 PROGRAMME OF WORKS Within thirty (30) days after the receipt of the Letter of Acceptance of Tender. If the Contractor's failure to supply any material causes any interruption or delay in the progress of the Works. stores and offices are kept within the Site at locations approved by the S. Any costs incurred under this Section shall be deducted from the Contract Sum. Page 12 1 inch 1 foot 1 lb 1 gallon 1 lb/sq.O. Areas or area to be rendered as part of the Site shall be subject to the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Should the Contractor require additional land outside the Site for his workyards. or the S. the Contractor shall submit for approval. No claim for loss of profit under the conditions of this Contract shall be deemed to have arisen.O. The submission to and approval by the S. he shall.in = = = = = 25.895 x 10-3 N/sq. K. 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan.O. temporary workshops. materials. purchase or rent any additional area he may need.O.6 SUPPLY OF MATERIALS The Contractor shall place orders for specified materials at such times as will enable him to execute the Works in accordance with his approved programme. temporary haul roads or any other temporary structures. use or construct as the case may be.5461 litres 6. 1. whichever is the greater.L . if any.

11 DESIGN OF TEMPORARY WORKS BY THE CONTRACTOR Unless otherwise provided in the Drawings. Page 13 1. the Contractor shall provide and install precast concrete reference beacons on both sides of the road centre-line at a spacing of 300 metres. 1.L . Ibu Pejabat JKR. the Works shall be in good order and condition and in conformity in every respect with the requirements of the Contract and the S.O. 1. he shall at his own cost repair and make good the same so that at completion. The Contractor shall also be liable for any damage to the Works occasioned by him in the course of any operations carried out during the Defects Liability Period.O.10 PROTECTION OF WORKS From the commencement of the Works to the date the Works are taken over by the Government.'s instructions. the Contractor shall submit to the S. for his approval. that the materials are not available locally.8 SETTING OUT Before commencing the Works at any location.O. The levels and dimensions taken by the Contractor jointly with the S. the Contractor shall verify the levels of the existing ground surface within areas where earthworks are to be performed and the locations and bed levels of water-courses. The Contractor shall give the S. The Contractor shall take all practicable steps to safeguard the beacons including fencing and concreting-in where necessary in the opinion of the S.O.O. or if available are not of an acceptable standard. K. the Contractor shall take full responsibility for the care there of together with all temporary works and in case any damage. reference markers and levels as shown on the Drawings shall be checked on the Site by the Contractor at his own expense and be confirmed by the S.9 DIMENSIONS AND LEVELS All temporary benchmarks. and shall immediately replace any damaged beacons. Cawangan Jalan.O. The beacons shall be not less than 75 mm square in plan and shall project at least 600 mm above the surrounding ground.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Before the Works or any part thereof are commenced. 2 copies of all working or shop drawings produced by him including all drawings made by his approved sub-contractors for all temporary works. not less than 24 hours notice of his intention to set out or give levels for any part of the Works in order that arrangements may be made for checking. loss or injury shall happen to the Works or to any part thereof or to any temporary works from any cause whatsoever. shall form the basis of measurement of the relevant work quantities. These may differ from the locations and levels shown on the Drawings owing to changes which could have taken place during the interval between the original survey and construction. Under no circumstances shall the Contractor be permitted to use imported materials unless he can prove to the satisfaction of the S. The beacons shall be firmly sited at right angles to the centre-line at a distance from the centre-line of 15 metres or such other distance as directed by the S. 1.O.O. Each beacon shall be clearly marked with its chainage and elevation above datum.

The Contractor is permitted to provide a relocatable site office as an alternative to the JKR designed type shown on the Drawings. 1.O. The S. AND HIS STAFF The Contractor shall provide and maintain a site office for the use of the S. K. 1. If the Site Agent needs to be absent from Site for more than three (3) consecutive days. all in accordance with the relevant Drawings inclusive of all furniture and fittings as shown on the Drawings. the S. 1. Notwithstanding any tests which may have been carried out off the Site. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O.O. whose appointment shall be approved by the S.13 INSPECTION AND TESTS The S. may consider necessary for the proper fulfillment of the Contractor's obligations under the Contract.O.L Page 14 . measurement and tests on any part of the Works to ensure compliance with the requirements of this Specification and of the Drawings. Cawangan Jalan. Such submission shall be made at least two weeks before the temporary work is scheduled to commence.. When required by the S.O. shall be empowered to order further tests of any materials or goods to be made on the Site and to reject such materials or goods should they fail to pass such tests on Site.12 CONTRACTOR'S SUPERINTENDENCE The Contractor shall provide all necessary superintendence during the execution of the Works and as long thereafter as the S.O. the Contractor shall give due notice to the S.O.15 OFFICE ACCOMMODATION FOR S. 1. the Contractor is solely responsible for the adequacy and safety of his work and for any necessary modification or addition whenever found necessary by the S. who may require the Contractor to temporarily appoint another Site Agent..14 COVERING UP OF WORK Before any part of the Works is permanently covered up. Notwithstanding the approval by the S. for the inspection and measurement of dimensions.O. or his representative may at any stage of the Works carry out inspection. he shall give prior notice to the S.O.O.O. The Site Agent shall have the authority to receive instructions from the S.O. A competent Site Agent. or his representative. and his supervisory staff.O. The Site Agent shall be stationed on Site for the whole duration of the Contract and shall not be replaced without the approval of the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall provide the necessary attendance whenever required by the S. the Contractor shall submit a copy of the result of any quality control test carried out by the Contractor on his own during the progress of the Works.O. and to act on behalf of the Contractor.. shall attend without unreasonable delay for the purpose of examination and measurement unless he considers it unnecessary and advises the Contractor accordingly.O. shall be employed by the Contractor for management on Site.

the Contractor shall submit details of the relocatable site office together with his tender. the Contractor shall arrange for the site office to be connected to the electricity and water supplies. the site office is to be sited. list of furniture and fittings and brochures if available. Lighting to toilets and corridors may be by tungsten filament bulbs. The Contractor shall make proper arrangements for and pay all charges in connection with conservancy.O.O.O. K. Where a telephone exchange is not within practical distance. The Contractor shall also provide such labour and cleaning materials as are required to maintain the site office in a thoroughly clean and sanitary condition.L Page 15 . Such details should include the name of the manufacturer. at all times. The Contractor shall arrange for the installation of a telephone with a separate connection to the telephone exchange for the exclusive use of the S. The Contractor shall also indicate whether the proposed site office is new or otherwise. Additional lighting in the form of wall or deck lamps shall be provided where required by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. an automatic mobile telephone such as the ATUR (Automatic Telephone Using Radio) service shall be provided. the Contractor shall supply the site office with electric power from generators and shall provide an adequate supply of water for washing and potable filtered water for drinking purposes. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. the Contractor shall further maintain the site office till the end of the Defects Liability Period unless otherwise directed by the S. constructed and positioned as approved by the S.Otherwise.O. The telephone shall also be be fitted with 4 extensions unless not required by the S. It shall be erected or provided by the Contractor within four (4) weeks from the date of possession of Site. The Contractor shall be responsible for the connection to such exchange and the payment of rental for the telephone services but the Government shall reimburse the Contractor for the cost of making calls. and thereafter remove from the Site the site office with all furniture and fittings which become the property of the Contractor.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Sanitary facilities with disposal to septic tanks located not nearer than 5 m from the building shall be provided.m. Thermostatically controlled airconditioners capable of maintaining a temperature below 23°C in the office shall be provided. Cawangan Jalan. The quality of such a relocatable site office shall be of equivalent standard but not inferior to the JKR designed type and shall be equipped with similar furniture and fittings as indicated in the JKR designed site office. The office shall be illuminated by fluorescent fittings giving a general level of illumination of at least 2 lumens/ sq.O. Where electricity and piped water are available from public utility authorities. Where a relocatable site office is to be provided. floor area and layout. The Contractor shall keep the offices accessible at all times and in every way habitable for working purposes throughout the duration of the Contract. On completion of the Works. The site office shall comply with local building by-laws.

All laboratory equipment shall become the property of the Contractor on completion of the Works.O.Q.O.'s approval together with any necessary approval in writing from the relevant statutory authority. as and when requested. tidy and well drained condition. 1.O. Cawangan Jalan. clean up the area and restore it to its original condition. The laboratory shall be adequately supplied with water and electricity. comprehensive insurances and roadtax shall be provided by the Contractor together with a licensed and competent driver for every vehicle.16 VEHICLES FOR THE S. The vehicles will revert to the Contractor at the completion of the Contract unless otherwise stated in the B. It shall be maintained in a clean and tidy condition to the satisfaction of the S. In addition. oil and lubricants.'S STAFF The Contractor shall provide new vehicles as listed in the B. workshops. general maintenance. Replacement vehicles shall be provided when normal vehicles are not available such as during periods of servicing. drainage and lighting for his staff.18 MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY AND STAFF The Contractor shall provide and maintain a laboratory at the Site throughout the duration of the Contract.'s site staff full use of the services and facilities as and when required. etc.O. All necessary fuel. the Contractor shall provide and maintain temporary accomodation and living facilities.O.17 CONTRACTOR'S OFFICE AND ACCOMODATION The Contractor shall provide and maintain a suitable office for himself and his staff in a position or positions to be approved by the S. The Contractor shall provide adequate first aid facilities appropriate to the size and composition of his staff and labour force. 1. and his staff at all times. The Contractor shall afford the S. The Contractor shall be responsible for all fees and other charges or expenses incurred in connection with such office and housing and shall keep the whole area in a clean.O.O.Q.. the Contractor shall remove all such buildings and appurtenant works from the Site.L Page 16 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works When instructed by the S.. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. stores. and Appendix 1C for the sole use of the S. However the Contractor shall provide helpers to assist the S. The said laboratory shall be in accordance with the Drawings and shall be equipped as indicated in Appendix 1D. details of the proposed buildings and services and shall obtain the S. Earthworks and pavement construction will not be permitted to commence until the laboratory and necessary equipment have been provided. the building shall be removed from the Site and the Site left in a neat and tidy condition. maintenance or repair. including all necessary services for water supply. and his staff. K. The laboratory shall be used exclusively by the S.O.O. Before any work can commence the Contractor shall submit to the S. On completion of the Works. 1.

The instruments and equipment to be provided are as listed in Appendix 1E. drains and culverts included therein within the Site to the conditions at the time of possession of Site for the full duration of the Contract. 1. Bridges. The chainmen shall have knowledge of Bahasa Malaysia or English and as far as possible the same men shall be provided throughout the Contract period. Such diversion ways shall be of a standard of construction at least equivalent to that of the original road.19 PROVISION FOR SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND CHAINMEN The Contractor shall provide for the sole use of the S.O. path. access to properties.1 Maintenance of Existing Roads. 1. and his staff all such instruments. All instruments and equipment shall remain the property of the Contractor on completion of the Works.20.20.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works He shall also be responsible for maintaining the free flow of traffic on these sections of existing road. Culverts. 1. track or access. equipment and chainmen and shall ensure that the instruments and equipment are at all times in good working condition and adjustment. rubbish or materials upon any road. The Contractor shall also keep such roads clear of slurry. The Contractor shall be responsible for any damage caused by any work carried out by him or by construction traffic to any existing roads or installations from whatsoever cause arising thereof and shall repair. the S. The Contractor shall be responsible throughout the Contract period for all such instruments. footpaths. Such maintenance shall include routine activities such as grass cutting. K. etc.2 Temporary Diversions Temporary diversions shall be constructed wherever the Site is intersected by existing roads. may require to enable him to check the accuracy of the Contractor's setting out and any measurements taken. Cawangan Jalan. street. Upon failure on the part of the Contractor to fulfill his obligations under this Section.20 MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING ROADS AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC 1. He shall not deposit any earth. The Contractor shall maintain all sections of existing roads and all bridges. shall be deducted from any monies due or to become due to the Contractor under this Contract. maintain and reinstate the same to their original condition to the satisfaction of the S. etc.O. equipment and chainmen as the S. cycle tracks. may take whatever action and any means necessary to satisfy the requirements and all costs incurred by the S. etc. pavement or footway to cause hindrance or obstruction of vehicles or pedestrians.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. clearing of drains.L Page 17 .O.O. The Contractor shall arrange for the conveyance of materials and plants so as to cause minimum damage to existing roads and installations and minimum inconvenience to the public. boulders and loose earth which may be dropped in the course of transportation. patching of potholes.

20.O.O.O. At least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of any proposed temporary diversions of traffic shall be given to the S.O. For all temporary diversions. all to the satisfaction of the S.O. work on culverts shall be completed and the embankment adjacent to them must be reinstated so that at least half the full width shall be available for use by the public at all times. K.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works If the Contractor fails to maintain and/or reinstate these temporary diversion ways to the satisfaction of the S.L Page 18 . They shall be constructed in advance of the closure of the existing ways and regularly maintained.. Where access roads are to be permanently closed by the construction of the Works. for his approval.O. shall have the right to carry out these works himself and all costs incurred shall be deducted from the Contract Sum.O. Such closures shall not be effected until any specified alternative access has been provided and only with the written approval of the S. In the event of the operation of single-way traffic becoming necessary and when approved by the S. for as long as required. The Contractor shall maintain reasonable access to all properties adjoining the Works where such access exists during construction.O. the Contractor shall provide. and shall ensure that all the necessary fences.O. planking and gangways are adequately lit to the satisfaction of the S. construction on existing public roads shall be undertaken only over half of the full width of the roadway at any time. Cawangan Jalan. The Contractor shall maintain and/or reinstate these temporary diversion ways to their original condition throughout the entire duration of the temporary diversion. in a satisfactory condition. the Contractor shall maintain through traffic routes by providing a width of at least 3 metres for single-way traffic. the original ways shall be reinstated to their original condition to the approval of the S. install and maintain adequate temporary construction signs in accordance with Sub-Section 1. the S. he shall give at least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of his proposal to the S.. 1. On completion of the work. He shall also provide approved electrically operated signals for traffic control on each of the affected lengths and any additional traffic signs as may be directed. diversion ways shall not be required. a detour is not feasible. on any particular length of the Works or on the Works or on the approaches to the Works. Ibu Pejabat JKR.20. Where the Contractor proposes to use existing local streets as temporary diversion ways.3 Half-width Construction and Traffic Control Where half-width construction is necessary.4. as shown on the Drawings. in the opinion of the S. The lengths of such half-width construction shall be kept as short as is practicable. for his approval. Where.

4 Temporary Traffic Signs The Contractor shall at all times take full and sufficient precautions to ensure the safety of all traffic through and around the Work Site and of traffic that is diverted owing to the Works. 1. but the S. tracks. Kuala Lumpur and shall be reflectorised and kept clean and legible at all times. at any time. shall be lit to the approval of the S. before erection. for his approval before such a system can be implemented. Manually operated "Stop/Go" signs shall only be used with the prior approval of the S. sewers and drains and all service connections to buildings..O.O. The sizes of all such signs and the lettering and wording thereon shall be as shown on the Drawings and approved by the S. including water mains. 1.O. The Contractor shall position. To this end the Contractor shall erect and maintain on the Site and at prescribed points on the approaches to the Site.21 LOCATION.. pipes. TEMPORARY PROTECTION AND TEMPORARY DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY INSTALLATIONS AND OTHER SERVICES The Contractor shall be responsible for locating the positions of all public utility installations. during periods of darkness. overhead and underground cables. bridging. be of the size. maintain and remove on completion of the Works all temporary works including diversion ways. etc.5 Temporary Works The Contractor shall provide. and where necessary. Kuala Lumpur. staging. The electrical signal lights shall be automatic in operation. published by Cawangan Jalan.O. 1. may. all traffic signs.L Page 19 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Construction and excavation shall be sign posted and.20. signals and warning lights necessary for the direction and control of traffic.20.O. colour and type as shown on the Drawings and complying with the requirements of the ARAHAN TEKNIK(JALAN) 2C/85 (Manual on Traffic Control Devices for Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control). shall adopt such methods of excavation as may be required by the appropriate authorities or owners to ensure that no damage is caused to them. and shall make them safe and suitable in every respect for carrying all plants and materials and for all purposes related to the Works. At least fourteen (14) days notice in writing of any proposed single-way traffic system shall be given to the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Temporary traffic signals shall comply with the requirements of the ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85 published by Cawangan Jalan. require them to be hand operated by a competent operator. The Contractor shall make suitable arrangements for emergency servicing of the electrically operated traffic signals to be available at all times. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and shall. cover or remove these signs as may be directed by the S. if so approved.O. Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

O.O. any damage caused by him to the existing services to the approval of and in accordance with the instruction of the appropriate authority or owner concerned. and pay all charges in connection with this.O. The Contractor shall make good. Cawangan Jalan.O. 1.23 PROJECT SIGNBOARD The Contractor shall provide. the Contractor shall dismantle and clear away the signboards as directed by the S. erect and maintain signboards at locations to be decided by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 1. temporary or recurring) to the said services. Ibu Pejabat JKR. costs and expenses which may arise on account of any damage (whether permanent.L Page 20 . The negatives of the photographs shall be the property of the Government and no prints from these negatives may be supplied to any person or persons except with the approval of the S.'s approval for the work and for the appropriate authorities or owners to authorise the work. obtain the necessary materials and carry out the work. fees and charges and comply with all safety regulations and statutes in connection therewith. strutted or otherwise protected from injury to the satisfaction of the respective authority. lighting and electric power where required for use in the Works and shall pay all costs. In planning his work for the diversion or relocation of services. who shall notify the appropriate authority or owner of the required removal and/or relocation. licences and fees. at his own expense.O. Where a service is required to be interrupted or relocated the Contractor shall inform and obtain the approval of the S. including obtaining permission. Temporary diversion shall mean works involved in the diversion of services that will be reinstated to their original position and condition on completion of the works in the affected areas. printing two (2) copies of each exposure in 3R size and documenting the photographs in suitable albums. All such installations which are encountered in the course of the Works shall be adequately supported. development of film.O.22 WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY The Contractor shall provide at his own risk and cost all water.24 PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF WORKS The Contractor shall provide a camera of reasonable quality for the purpose of taking record photographs and slides of the Works as and when directed by the S. Each sign board shall comply with the design and specification as shown on the Drawings. The temporary diversion or relocation of any service within or outside the Works to permit the construction of the Works shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. and shall keep the Government indemnified at all times from all claims. slung-up. The Contractor shall not be entitled to any extension of time due to his failure to allow for a reasonble period of time necessary for obtaining approval and completing the work. 1. On completion of the project. The Contractor shall bear the costs of providing the film. K. etc. The Contractor shall also provide and maintain temporary water storage together with any distribution piping which may be necessary. the Contractor shall make reasonable allowance for the time necessary to obtain the S.

The originals.0 mm film with the aperture card format as shown in Figure 1-1 and submit the same to the S.O. progressively as sections of the Works become completed. remove rubbish.L Page 21 . or his representative. K..O. 1.O. and two (2) printed copies of all as-built drawings shall be supplied by the Contractor to the S.O. A suitably typed caption shall be affixed to the reverse side of each photograph describing the subject and the time at which it was taken. in addition. debris and surplus materials from the Site and leave the whole Site in a neat and tidy condition to the satisfaction of the S. He shall.O. in good quality transparencies.O. from time to time on the completion of any area of the Works or where directed by the S. As-built drawings shall be A1 size (838 mm x 584 mm) unless otherwise approved by the S.O.O.26 CLEARING UP OF SITE The Contractor shall make every effort to keep the Site in a reasonably clean and tidy condition for the duration of the Works.25 AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND MICROFILMING Drawings for recording as-built construction details of the Works shall be prepared by the Contractor and shall be certified by the S. surplus materials. Cawangan Jalan. 1. One copy of each photograph shall be signed by the Contractor and the S. 1. or any other construction debris from such areas as may be attributable to his work under this Contract and generally leave them in a satisfatory condition.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works On completion of the Works. Ibu Pejabat JKR. to the approval of the S. All drawings shall be completed within one month after the completion of the respective section. The Contractor shall also microfilm the as-built drawings using 35. afford all reasonable opportunity to any other Contractors employed by the Government and their workmen and to the workmen of the Government and of any other duly constituted authorities who may be employed in the execution on or near the Site of any work not included in the Contract.O.27 OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS The Contractor shall. the Contractor shall remove all rubbish. when required by the S..

L Page 22 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works APPENDIX 1A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT Cawangan Jalan.

L Page 23 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works APPENDIX 1B SCOPE OF WORKS Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.

AND HIS STAFF All vehicles shall be NEW and of the types listed below :Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E . air-conditioned saloon car. air-conditioned Trooper or equivalent with hard top.c.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works APPENDIX 1C VEHICLES FOR S.1600 c. .1500 c. Cawangan Jalan.c. air-conditioned Proton Saga. K.c. air-conditioned long-wheel.O. air-conditioned estate car. .2000 c. . Ibu Pejabat JKR.c.L Page 24 .base Land Rover or equivalent with hard top. . four-wheel-drive.c. four-door.2250 c.2000 c. five-door. four-door. four-wheel-drive.

425 um.75 mm. 1377. 25 (2) Electric balance of 1 kg capacity. 4. electric motor operated.S. 5 mm. 300 um. 63 mm. (8) 203 mm diameter B. 600 um. accurate to 1 g. (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) 203 mm diameter B. 37. (a) Soil Testing Equipment (1) Moisture content tins . 1 1 1 2 5 2 1 of each 2 of each 2 2 2 1 1 Cawangan Jalan.S.18 mm. Lid and pan together with vibrating machine.L Page 25 . 2 mm.36 mm.5 mm. 1377. capacity of 0. 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.75 um. sieves . 212 um. 12. 150 um. 20 mm. as specified in B.35 mm.12 mm. (5) Glass plates .3 mm.S.5 mm.m. 3. 2. 6. (7) Spatulas . 14 mm.76 mm x 25 mm with lids. sieves . Sample splitter . 425 um.75 um. 75 um. 50 mm. 28 mm. 25 mm. (6) Linear shrinkage moulds . K. 10 mm.75 mm.50 mm.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works APPENDIX 1D LIST OF LABORATORY EQUIPMENT The Contractor shall provide and maintain the following testing laboratory equipment which shall become the property of the Contractor at the end of the Contract :No.254 mm.1 g with a tare correction of not less than 100 g.457 mm x 609 mm x 6 mm.S. 9.152 mm. Standard compaction hammer. (4) Atterberg limit machine calibrated with a grooving device as specified in B. Sample splitter . (3) Electric forced draught oven. accurate to 0.08 cu. Wash sieves . Balance of 10 kg capacity.5 mm.

C. Rubber mallet.S. Steel scoop. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1377. (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) Standard compaction mould as specified in B. Compression machine suitable for laboratory and field C.26 kg surcharge weights .005 cu. 1377.01 mm divisions and 25 mm travel as specified in B.horseshoe type.R. Drying pans . moulds fitted with collars and base plates for compaction and soaking and tripods for small measurement fitted with dial gauges having 0. latest edition.L Page 26 . Complete field density kit. 1377. Hand auger suitable for boring to depths of 3 m and supplied with 100 mm diameter heads suitable for boring in cohesive and cohesionless soils.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works No.1000 c. British Standard 1377 . 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 (23) 10 6 9 (24) (25) (26) 2 (27) 1 1 of each 6 (28) (29) (30) 1 Cawangan Jalan.S. Steel rule .0001 cu.305 mm. Vernier calipers .R. 1377.'s with all fittings necessary for field and laboratory operation as specified in B. sand replacement type suitable for volume measurement of 0.S. Crowbar.26 kg surcharge weights .ring type. K.m to an accuracy of not less than 0.B. Compaction mould extruder as specified in B. 2."Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes".S.406 mm x 406 mm x 76 mm.m as specified in B. 1377. Measuring flasks . pick and spade.B.152 mm. 2.S.c.

(4) Steel moulds for Marshall test specimens (100 mm diameter) with base. 6 2 1 1 (c) Flexible Pavement Testing Equipment (1) Metal tray. Additional items required for asphaltic concrete and/or bituminous Macadam :- 4 1 (3) Balance of 2 kg capacity. (2) Slump cones with tamping rods as specified in B. 598. 1881.S.S. K.S. (6) Compaction hammer and automatic compactor for Marshall test specimens as specified in B. 1881. 598.6 m square or similar suitable for measuring spray rates of bituminous materials and spread rates of cover aggregate for surface dressing. 1881. extension collar. (3) Compacting factor apparatus as specified in B. 2 of each Cawangan Jalan. 598.L Page 27 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (b) Concrete Testing Equipment No.S. (4) Tank for curing of concrete specimens to accomodate 50 Nos. x 152 mm cubes in layers not more than 50 mm deep. 598.S. (2) Metal thickness gauge (or set of slotted sleeves) as specified in M. 30 for determination of aggregate flakiness index.S. (5) Extractor for removing Marshall test specimens from moulds without distortion or shock as specified in B. accurate to 0.S. (1) 152 mm x 152 mm x 152 mm standard concrete test cube steel moulds as specified in B. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1 6 1 1 of each (7) Compaction pedestal and mould holder for Marshall test as specified in B. (8) Thermostatically controlled hot plate.S.S. extraction collar and extraction plate as specified in B.1 g suitable for weighing samples suspended in liquid. 0. 598. 1 of each 1 (9) Thermometers for use in laboratory and in asphaltic mixes for Marshall test as specified in B.

Volumetric flasks of suitable capacity. K. Machine to rotate the bottles about their longitudinal axes at a speed of between 10 rev/min to 30 rev/min as specified in B. second as specified in B. 598. Pressure filter of appropriate size. Recovery apparatus for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B. 598.100 mm diameter.S. air pump and funnel for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B.S.S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works No. Filtration apparatus for extraction of bitumen by direct determination as specified in B. 598.000 m/sq. Tools for cutting and trimming pavement cores. 100 mm diameter thin-walled diamond bits for use with pavement coring machine.S. 598. Filter papers .L Page 28 . Centrifuge capable of developing an acceleration of 25.S. 598. (10) (11) (12) (13) Rubber and heat resistant gloves. Metal bottles of suitable capacity for bitumen extraction by direct determination as specified in B. Pavement coring machine of the thin-walled diamond bit type for obtaining 100 mm diameter samples of bituminous surfacings. 2 pairs of each As needed As needed 1 (14) As needed As needed (15) (15) As needed (16) 1 As needed (18) (19) 1 (20) 1 (21) (22) 1 of each Cawangan Jalan.S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Containers for heating aggregates and bituminous materials. 598.

Mechanical mixer of 2 kg capacity. 598.S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works No.5 litre.S.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 29 . Gas jar . 30. 1 1 1 1 1 1 (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) 1 1 (30) (30) 1 (31) 1 Testing which is specifically required in the Contract and any test defined in quoted British Standard Specifications which are required to ensure compliance with the Contract but cannot be done in the Site testing laboratory shall be carried out at approved laboratories off the Site.1 litre. Pyconometer . 598.5 mm or smaller mesh with wire hanger as specified in M. for determination of specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates.S. Dial gauge and mounting assembly for measuring Marshall test flows of up to 10 mm with accuracy of + 0. These tests shall be carried out as directed by the S. K. Airtight container of similar capacity as wire basket above. 598. Warm air blower. Cawangan Jalan. Further items required for asphaltic concrete :- (23) Wire basket of 6. 598.S. Steel Marshall testing head as specified in B. The cost incurred by the Contractor shall be deemed to have been included in the tendered rates. for preparation of asphaltic concrete mixtures.S. capable of applying loads of up to at least 22 kN at a constant rate of strain of 50 mm + 3 mm per minute and recording the maximum load achieved as specified in B. Thermostatically controlled water bath for Marshall test specimens as specified in B.1 mm as specified in B.1. Compression testing machine with proving ring.

1 No.Wild NA2 or Koni 007 or equivalent.5 m aluminium. hammers. Divided over first 5 m at 50 mm intervals. 2 No. 2 No. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Divided over first 30 m at 1 m intervals. Cawangan Jalan. steel or aluminium. 30 m fibreglass box tapes. Levelling staves . K.L Page 30 . 2 No. 1 m spirit level. 1 No. 2 No. white face. 50 m x 5 mm steel measuring band divided throughout and numbered at 5 m intervals. pegs. Theodolite of direct read out accurate to 1 second. etc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works APPENDIX 1E SURVEY EQUIPMENT The Contractor shall provide and maintain the following instruments and equipment for the purpose of measurements and setting out. straightedges.5 m ranging rods. canvas bags. These shall become the property of the Contractor at the end of the Contract :- 1 No. 10 No. 2 No. Automatic levels . 2. 30 m steel box tapes. Repair set for the same. parangs. Templates. Survey umbrellas. 2 No.

K.1 APPERTURE CARD FOR MICROFILM Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Figure 1.L Page 31 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 2 EARTHWORKS Cawangan Jalan. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 32 .

1.4.3 2.2.1.3 2.2.3 2.2.2.4.1.2.1 CLEARING.1.2.4.EARTHWORKS Page 2.4 2.3.5 Cawangan Jalan.7 2.3.2.1 2.9 2.2.1 2.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.6 2.3.3.3. GRUBBING AND STRIPPING TOPSOIL Description Clearing Grubbing Stripping Topsoil Construction Methods Areas To Be Cleared Areas To Be Cleared.1.4 2.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 2 .1 2.2 2.2.6 2.3.2. Grubbed and Stripped Of Topsoil Topsoil Timber Structures Disposal Of Material S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-35 S2-36 S2-36 S2-36 S2-37 S2-37 S2-38 S2-38 S2-39 S2-39 S2-39 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-40 S2-41 S2-42 S2-42 S2-42 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-43 S2-44 S2-45 2.1.1 2.2 2.4 2.1.1 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.1.3 2.3.2.2 2.1 2.2.2.1.2.4 2.2.1.2.2 EARTHWORKS Definitions General Requirements Roadway Excavation Dimensional Tolerances Separation and Stockpiling of Suitable Material Removal of Excavated Material From Site Removal of Unsuitable Material Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Widening Cuts Excavation of Rock Storage and Handling of Explosives Blasting Safety Measures Insecure Material Earth Embankment Material Borrow Pits Placement of Fill Material Compaction Rock fill Embankment 2.4.2.2.1.1.3. K.3.2.11 2.8 2.3.2.L Page 33 .5 2.2 2.2.2.1.2.2.10 2.1.

2.7 Embankment Over Soft Ground Foundation Treatment Surcharge and Staged Construction Settlement Markers Settlement Records Subgrade S2-46 S2-46 S2-46 S2-46 S2-47 S2-47 S2-48 S2-48 S2-48 S2-48 2.2 Turfing 2.6 2. K.3 Seeding Cawangan Jalan.6.2.8 Protective Vegetation for Erosion Control 2.1 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 2.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.6.2.2.6.2.2 2.8.4 2.L Page 34 .2.2.2.2.3 2.6.1 Topsoil 2.8.8.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. Clearing shall be carried out to the extents deemed necessary and approved or directed by the S. crops. etc. as specified herein and as required by the S.50 metre below ground level. undergrowth. directs are to be left undisturbed.1 CLEARING..3 Stripping Topsoil Stripping topsoil shall consist of the removal of topsoil to an average depth of at least 100 mm below ground level.O. GRUBBING AND STRIPPING TOPSOIL Description This work shall consist of clearing. vegetation.1. terraces.O. and/or its disposal. or which the S. loose vegetable matter and structures (except those structures whose removal or clearance is otherwise provided for in the Contract). unless otherwise directed by the S. all to the satisfaction of the S.1..2 Grubbing SECTION 2 .O. the underground parts of structures.1 Grubbing shall consist of the removal and disposal of surface vegetation. structures or parts of structures.O. and in which grubbing and stripping topsoil are not required. 2. brush.1. 2. and other things which are designated in the Contract to remain.EARTHWORKS 2. logs. 2. long grasses. ditches. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.1 Areas To Be Cleared The entire road reserve area shall be cleared as described above.1.O.O.. 2.1. in areas outside the road reserve where channel excavation or other work is required. K. In areas which are to be cleared only.1 Clearing Clearing shall consist of the cutting and/or taking down.2. stumps (parts above ground). the bases of stumps. removal and disposal of everything above ground level. as directed by the S.O. and its stockpiling for use in the Works.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Clearing shall also include the levelling of obsolete dikes.2 2.1. or be removed by others.L . Construction Methods 2. and other obstructions to a depth of at least 0.1. The material to be cleared shall include but not necessarily be limited to trees. all as specified herein and as required by the S.O. and of clearing only in other areas designated here under and/or shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S. except such trees.O.1. including objects overhanging the areas to be cleared such as tree branches.1. roots. grubbing and stripping topsoil in the areas designated hereunder and/or shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S. The work shall also include the demolition and disposal of structures in said areas.O. except where otherwise provided for in the Contract. and care shall be taken Page 35 Cawangan Jalan. the methods of work shall be such as will not unduly damage the surface vegetation and topsoil.

except that grubbing and stripping topsoil shall not be carried out in those areas where :i) embankment is to be constructed on earth designated as swamp or soft ground. in areas both inside and outside the road reserve where channel excavation or other work is required. 2.2. at his own expense.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works This work shall be considered incidental to the work of clearing. and shall be taken from such areas where clearing. grubbing and stripping topsoil is required as approved or directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall have the right to use unsaleable timber (or saleable timber when permission is granted in writing by the Page 36 not to disturb the topsoil and the root systems of grasses and other surface vegetation.. No topsoil shall be removed from such areas..4 Timber The ownership of timber is vested in the Government.50 metres or more on ground with a cross-slope of not more than 1 (vertical) to 30 (horizontal). and shall not be measured for payment.O.3 Topsoil Topsoil to be stockpiled for the Works shall be sufficiently fertile to promote and support the growth of vegetation. grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be carried out in all areas of roadway excavation and in all areas where embankment is to be constructed. Clearing.O. grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be filled with materials similar to the adjacent ground. Before stockpiling. K. all to the satisfaction of the S.O.Grubbed and Stripped Of Topsoil Except as otherwise shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S. topsoil shall be separated from objectionable materials. and such fill shall be compacted to a dry density similar to that of the surrounding material.O. grubbing and stripping topsoil shall be carried out to the extents deemed necessary and approved or directed by the S. all to the satisfaction of the S.O.O. and all to the satisfaction of the S. clearing.2. Except where further excavation is required. as approved or directed by the S. except as directed by the S.L . Cawangan Jalan. holes and cavities in the ground surface after clearing. 2. 2. or otherwise disposed of. in accessible places within the road reserve as approved or directed by the S.O. ii) embankment is to be constructed to a height at the centre-line of 1.O. topsoil removed during grubbing and stripping operations shall be separated from objectionable materials and spread within the road reserve or borrow areas. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Saleable timber shall be trimmed and stacked in accordance with the requirements of the appropriate Government agency.1.2 Areas To Be Cleared. grasses and other surface vegetation other wise removed or disturbed shall be replaced and made good at the Contractor's own expense. The Contractor shall arrange for stockpile sites either within or outside the road reserve. and any topsoil.O. grubbing and stripping topsoil. all to the satisfaction of the S. Otherwise.1.2.1.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. all brush. All burning shall be subject to the prior approval of the relevant Government authorities.O. always provided that he shall comply with the requirements of the S. K. Materials designated in the Contract or directed by the S. shall be carefully removed and stored. Burning shall also be carried out at such places and at such times and in such a manner as to prevent fire from damaging vegetation and property within the road reserve designated to be preserved. and encumbrances of any character within the limits of the road reserve. always provided that he shall comply with the requirements of the S.L Page 37 . and shall be carried out in conformance with all pertinent regulations. 2. to be salvaged. Cawangan Jalan.6 Disposal Of Material Unwanted material from clearing. and burn it at a time when burning is permitted. appropriate Government agency or authority) for his own purposes in connection with the Contract. Where burning is not permitted at any time. 2.2. the Contractor may pile up combustible materials within the road reserve outside the limits of the road works. whose demolition requires pneumatic tools. stumps. except those to be removed by others or designated to remain.2. and shall be the property of the Government. vegetation and other combustible refuse may be piled up within the road reserve and burned. roots. agency or authority) for his own purposes in connection with the Contract. grubbing and stripping topsoil (including the demolition of structures) shall be disposed of as approved or directed by the S.5 Structures Major structures are those which cannot practicably be cleared by bulldozer and/or hydraulic excavator. shall be demolished and removed by the Contractor.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Combustible material including all timber (except timber to be salvaged or used).O. and from spreading to areas adjoining the road reserve and damaging vegetation and property therein. A brief description of each major structure (if any) and depth to which extent it shall be demolished is given in the Bill of Quantities. Should the clearing.1. explosives and/or other specialised equipment. buildings. All fences. structures.O. or the Contractor elects not to burn unwanted material.1. combustible material shall be disposed of together with incombustible material. where burning is allowed. grubbing and stripping of topsoil be carried out at a time when burning is not permitted.

containing large amounts of roots.1 (f) and (g). logs. It shall not include material which can be loosened with a track-type tractor with mounted and drawn ripper of the following descriptions :- Cawangan Jalan. by wedges and sledge hammers. shall be disposed of in a safe and tidy manner at solid waste dumps outside the Site. unless otherwise classified by the S. .2. (f) Rock Incombustible material. (c) Common Excavation Common excavation shall mean excavation in any materials which are not rock or artificial hard materials as defined in Sub-Sections 2. perishable or toxic material. slurry or mud.2 EARTHWORKS Definitions (a) Formation Level Formation level means the top surface of the subgrade. (e) Suitable Materials Suitable materials shall mean those materials other than the unsuitable materials defined in Sub-Section 2.L Page 38 . if excavated by hand. 2. unless otherwise approved or directed by the S. and paying expenses and claims arising from the use of such solid waste dumps whether on Government or private land. . K.2.1 (d) above. or 2.2. peat.1 Rock shall mean material found in ledges or masses in its original position which would normally have to be loosened either by blasting or by pneumatic tools or. grass and other vegetable matter. including where appropriate the remains of burning.O. Materials that are soft or unstable merely because they are too wet or too dry for effective compaction are not to be classified as unsuitable. . .which is susceptible to spontaneous combustion. stumps.which is clay having a liquid limit exceeding 80% and/or a plasticity index exceeding 55%. Ibu Pejabat JKR. (b) Subgrade Subgrade means that part of the embankment or existing ground in cutting which is immediately below the subbase or lower subbase of the road pavement and shoulders.O. The Contractor shall be solely responsible for making the necessary agreements.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works ii) any material .5% on ignition.consisting of highly organic clay and silt.which has a loss of weight greater than 2. (d) Unsuitable Materials Unsuitable materials shall include :i) running silt.

2.. shapes and typical cross. as is necessary for the completion of the Works up to the formation levels.5 cubic metre. ditches. K. (g) Artificial Hard Material This shall mean any hard artificial material which would require the use of blasting or approved pneumatic tools for its removal but shall exclude individual masses less than 0.1 Dimensional Tolerances Slopes in cutting shall be trimmed mechanically to neat and even surfaces which shall have gradients not steeper than that shown on the Drawings.3 Roadway Excavation i) Tractor Unit : Equipment with a minimum weight of 20 tonnes and nett horse power rating of 200 brake horse power or more. Should the surface of completed areas be damaged by erosion or by any other cause the Contractor shall at his own cost make good such areas to the satisfaction of the S. compaction. 2. Such provision shall include carrying out the work of forming the cuttings and embankments in such a manner that their surfaces have at all times a sufficient gradient to enable them to shed water and prevent ponding. 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. in accordance with the lines.3. Boulders or detached pieces shall only be regarded as rock if they individually exceed 0. Similar arrangements shall be made for all earthworks including excavations whether for pile trenches. dimensions. The Contractor shall exercise care in preventing wastage of suitable material needed for embankment or fill construction.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall provide where necessary temporary water courses.O. Adequate means for trapping silt shall be provided on all temporary drainage systems. drains. Cawangan Jalan.L Page 39 . backfilling.2. etc. grades. 2. In pumping out excavations and in the lowering of water tables the Contractor shall pay due regard to the stability of all structures. unless otherwise approved by the S. ii) Ripping Unit : The ripper to be attached to the tractor shall be the most efficient parallelogram type recommended by the tractor or ripper manufacturer. forming embankments and slopes.5 cubic metre.2. foundations or cuttings.O.O. pumping or other means of maintaining the earthworks free from water.2 General Requirements The work shall include the excavation of all types of material. The ripper shall have a single shank in good working condition with sharpened cutting point. The tractor unit is to be in good condition and operated by experienced personnel skilled in the use of ripping equipment. Widths of excavations shall not exceed the dimensions shown on the Drawings by more than 300 mm.sections shown on the Drawings and to the approval of the S.

In the latter case. carry out the excavation in such a manner that the suitable materials are excavated separately for use in the Works without contamination by the unsuitable materials.2. natural gravel or sand having grading within the respective limits specified in Table 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O.7. and be transported and disposed of in an approved manner.O.O.O. to dump and spread the unsuitable materials within the Site is obtained. 2.3 Removal of Excavated Material From Site No excavated material shall be removed from the Site except on the direction or with the approval of the S. Unless designated dump sites have been shown on the Drawings.1.2. Should the Contractor be permitted to remove suitable materials from the Site to suit his operational procedure. K. considers it practicable.O. The Contractor shall stockpile separately material for subgrade as specified in SubSection 2.4 Removal of Unsuitable Material Unsuitable material shall be excavated to such depth and over such area as directed by the S.O.6 Widening Cuts The S.2 Separation and Stockpiling of Suitable Material Where excavation reveals a combination of suitable and unsuitable materials.5 Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Where it is decided by the S.O.2. the Contractor shall first request permission in writing from the S.3.O. the Contractor shall. may instruct the Contractor or the Contractor himself may elect to obtain material for the Works by widening cuts.3. In doing so.2. Unless approval of the S.L Page 40 . 2. at his own expense.O. the Contractor shall be responsible for providing his own dump site for such unsuitable materials.2. that replacement of unsuitable material shall be done under standing water.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 2. voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled with hard clean crushed rock. then he shall make good any consequent deficit of fill material arising there from. etc. The Contractor shall comply with statutory requirements such as payment of royalties. environmental protection. Voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled with suitable material compacted to a dry density not less than that of the surrounding material or that specified for the respective part of the earthworks or as directed by the S. the Contractor shall comply with statutory requirements such as payment of royalties. 2. environ mental protection.3. etc.2.3. the Contractor shall dispose of surplus suitable material at his own dump areas outside the Site as approved by the S.3. Cawangan Jalan. wherever the S. 2.

storage and usage of explosives shall be complied with.O. subbase.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Where the rock is of satisfactory quality. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0 mm 37.0 mm 1. Where explosives shall be used. in either of the two following ways :- TABLE 2. Cawangan Jalan.0 mm 5.10 100 85 .100 45 . to the fullest practical extent.30 2 . and used as common fill. blended with suitable earth fill material in a proportion not exceeding 1 rock to 1 earth. ii) excavated rock shall be broken down to a maximum particle size of 150 mm. the relevant security regulations dealing with purchase.2. roadbase. excavated rock shall be used in the construction of embankment and fill.100 0 .0 mm 10. the Contractor may elect to crush and screen it to produce aggregates required for concrete. K.20 0-5 i) excavated rock shall be broken down to a maximum particle size of 400 mm and used as rock fill as described in Sub-Section 2.2. Excavated rock needed for earthwork construction which the Contractor elects to waste shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense by borrow of satisfactory quality approved by the S. All material from rock excavations shall be used as far as is practicable in the Works. handling. The Contractor may only waste excavated rock with the approval of the S.L Page 41 . Otherwise.O.5. transport. 2.5 mm 20.0 mm Sand 10.O. Excavated rock needed for earth work construction which the Contractor elects so to use for producing select materials shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense by borrow of satisfactory quality approved by the S.S.O.7 Excavation of Rock Rock excavation shall be carried out by methods appropriate to Site requirements as approved by the S. or other purposes. Sieve Size % Passing By Weight Crushed Rock or Gravel 63.18 mm 300 um 150 um 100 90 .80 10 .3.1 - GRADING LIMITS OF MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF UNSUITABLE MATERIAL B.

with separate compartments for detonators. as in seams. Such authorisation shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his liabilities under the Conditions of Contract. shafts. Special care shall be taken in wet ground to ensure that individual explosions are reduced to such size as to preclude damage to any buildings or structures. Delayed blasting to reduce shock waves shall be used to avoid damage to concrete and other works already completed. exceeding 9 kg of explosive. blasting shall be carried out by means of parallel drill holes perpendicular to the toe of the excavation and parallel to the finally required face..e. he may prohibit it. appropriate safety rules shall be strictly adhered to.2. in suitable positions for the storage of explosives in manner and quantities to be approved shall be provided. Ibu Pejabat JKR. or large holes. The use of explosives in large blasts. drifts. the use of heavy mesh blasting mats shall be used to ensure that no damage is caused to persons or property on or off Site. 2.8 Storage and Handling of Explosives Proper buildings or magazines..9 Blasting Explosives shall be used in the quantities and manner recommended by the manufacturers. pits. Blasting shall be restricted to such periods as the S. is prohibited unless authorised in writing by the S. in the opinion of the S.O.O. may prescribe.2. The prevention of any unauthorised issue or improper use of any explosive brought on the Works shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and only experienced and responsible men shall be employed to handle explosives for the purpose of the Works. that he has obtained it. 2. 2. Cawangan Jalan. As the excavation approaches its final lines. or is being carried on in a reckless manner. prior to the interruption. blasting would be dangerous to persons or property or to any finished work. If.3.O.O.3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works All necessary precautions shall be taken to preserve in the soundest possible condition the materials below and beyond the lines of all excavations.10 Safety Measures When blasting is carried out close to properties or roads. K. Plaster shooting will not be permitted within 400 metres of any building or structure. Where necessary or as directed by the S.O.2.3. and order the rock to be excavated by other means. If traffic on any road or railway has to be interrupted for blasting operations.L Page 42 . the Contractor shall obtain approval of his schedule for such interruption from the appropriate authorities and shall prove to the S. i.

the Contractor shall excavate any insecure material to an approved depth and build up the resulting spaces with grade 15P/20 concrete or masonry using rock similar to the adjoining natural rock so as to ensure a solid face. which shall be subject to the approval of the S. considers that the slope.2. it shall be his responsibility to ascertain the suitability of the pit with respect to the quantity and quality of the materials. K. 2.O. layers of rock and soft material alternate and the S. the Contractor shall obtain suitable materials from the designated borrow pits or from his own borrow pits which have been approved by the S.4. Whether the Contractor obtains materials from the designated or his own borrow pit.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.4. taxes or royalties to the appropriate authorities and observe all relevant regulations.2.4. Where.4.L Page 43 . Each compacted layer shall be maintained at all times with a sufficiently even surface in order to drain away the sur face water. Where the quantity of such materials is inadequate. Designated borrow pits shown on the Drawings only indicate to the Contractor potential areas for borrow.1 Material Fill materials for use in forming embankments shall be the suitable material obtained from excavation in cuttings.2. The Contractor shall keep the borrow pits free from ponding water and the excavation neat and tidy and shall carry out necessary erosion protection measures as instructed by the S.4. The loose depth for each layer of fill shall be determined from the trial compaction.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 2. Each layer shall extend over the full width of the fill area and shall be compacted in accordance with the requirements of SubSection 2. will not permanently withstand the effect of weather.3 Placement of Fill Material All fill materials shall be deposited in layers.2.11 Insecure Material The slopes of cuttings shall be cleared of all rock fragments which move when prised with a crow-bar. 2.4 Earth Embankment 2.O. 2.2 Borrow Pits The Contractor shall be responsible for locating borrow pits.3. Cawangan Jalan. The Contractor shall pay all necessary fees.O.2. in the slopes of cuttings. immediately after dressing.

Scarifying of the horizontal and vertical faces of the benches shall not normally be required. The maximum compacted thickness for fill shall be limited to 300 mm unless otherwise approved by the S. This shall include the type of compaction plant for each type of material and the number of passes in relation to the loose depth of material to achieve desired compaction. The Contractor shall carry out field compaction trials. Ibu Pejabat JKR. shall be scarified to a depth of 100 mm.4 Compaction (a) General All materials used in embankments and as fill elsewhere shall be compacted as soon as practicable after being placed and spread. supplemented by any necessary laboratory investigations. 2.O. as required by the S. Where embankment is to be constructed on ground with a cross-slope flatter than 1 (vertical) to 10 (horizontal) but steeper than 1 (vertical) to 30 (horizontal). and the material excavated in forming the benches may normally be used as fill in the embankment as approved by the S. or he may employ a tow type roller to compact the sloping surface. Cawangan Jalan. The benches shall be contiguous beneath the full width of the embankment.O. the Contractor may either extend each compacted layer beyond the design slope surface by at least 600 mm and then trim back to the required slope angle. 1377 Compaction Test (4.2. the foundation material.O. for his approval the proposed method of compaction for each main type of material to be used in the embankment. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. K.L Page 44 .4. except where this is rock.4. Where embankment is to be constructed against existing embankment or on ground with a cross-slope of 1 or more (vertical) to 10 (horizontal).S. etc. For compaction of embankment slope. the foundation shall be excavated in all materials (including hard rock) to form benches with horizontal and vertical faces from which con struction of the embankment shall proceed.4.5 kg rammer method) shall be used in determining the moisture versus density relation of soil. and shall be of a suitable width to accomodate construction equipment such as motor-graders.2. trucks. All compaction requirements shall be controlled by means of field density measurement. rollers. (b) Compaction Trials The B.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Compaction shall be undertaken to the requirements of this Section by plant approved by the S. blended with embankment fill material and compacted as described in SubSection 2.

Compaction trials with the main types of material likely to be encountered shall be completed before the works with the corresponding materials will be allowed to commence. Each trial area shall be not smaller than 8 m x 15 m.5 Rock fill Embankment Rock used in rock fill embankments shall be of maximum particle size of 400 mm so that it can be deposited in horizontal layers. each not exceeding 500 mm in compacted depth and extending over the full width of the embankment except for any specified external cover to slopes or new formation level. (c) Degree of Compaction The whole of the embankment below the top 300 mm of the subgrade shall be compacted to not less than 90% (for cohesive material) or 95% (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B. 1377 Compaction Test (4.O.S. A satisfactory method and sufficient equipment as approved by the S. or the material aerated and dried to adjust the soil to the proper moisture content to obtain the required density.2. the Contractor can either bring down the moisture content by aeration or drying or alternatively replace it with suitable materials of compactable moisture range at his own cost. K.5 kg rammer method). that all the specified requirements regarding compaction can be achieved. This shall be done by using the procedures proposed by the Contractor for earthworks and shall satisfy the S.S.O. If the natural water content of suitable materials is too high for the proper compaction to be carried out.O. 2.5 kg rammer method) shall be used as a guide in determining the proper Cawangan Jalan.S. Each layer shall consist of reasonably well graded rock and all large voids shall be filled with broken fragments before the next layer is placed. (e) Moisture Control Each layer of earth fill shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material. The top surface and side slopes of embankments so formed shall be thoroughly blinded with approved fine graded material to seal the surface. shall be used for the furnishing and handling of water. 1377 or by using other means of testing of comparable accuracy approved by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works moisture content at which each soil type shall be compacted. The optimum moisture content as determined by the B.L Page 45 . Water shall be added. suitable for compaction. (d) Field Density Testing Field density tests on each layer of compacted earth fill shall be carried out using the sand replacement method in accordance with B. The materials shall be spread and levelled by a crawler tractor weighing not less than 15 tonnes. 1377 Compaction Test (4.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works 2.2.6.2 Surcharge and Staged Construction Where indicated in the Contract or directed by the S.O., the embankment shall be built to different heights in stages with or without surcharge with allowance for consolidation time periods in between stages, all in accordance with the Contract. Where sur charge is specified, the Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of surcharge material and the removal and disposal of excess material on completion of consolidation or when directed by the S.O. 2.2.6.3 Settlement Markers Markers shall be provided and installed by the Contractor in the positions indicated on the Drawings for the purpose of measuring settlements taking place under the embankments during and after the construction period. The design of markers shall be as shown on the Drawings and the Contractor shall be responsible for supplying and installing such markers and for extending the markers as the work proceeds. Adjustments to the height of markers shall be made when required by the S.O. Each marker shall be identified by painting on it the chainage of its position. The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to protect markers from damage by plant and vehicles at all times and shall repair any such damage to the satisfaction of the S.O. Readily visible barriers shall be installed around each marker.

There shall be a transition layer between rock fill and earth fill or the top 300 mm of subgrade of at least 300 mm compacted thickness. This shall consist of uniformly graded crushed rock between 6 mm and 150 mm as approved by the S.O. Each layer of rock used as rock fill in embankments shall be systematically compacted by at least 12 passes of a vibrating roller with a static load per 25 mm width of roll of at least 45 kg or a grid roller with load per 25 mm width of roll of at least 200 kg or other approved plant. 2.2.6 Embankment Over Soft Ground 2.2.6.1 Foundation Treatment Prior to forming embankment over soft ground, the soil over which fill material shall be placed shall be given strength improvement treatment as specified and to the details as shown on the Drawings or as directed or approved by the S.O. Treatment by means of replacement of unsuitable material shall be as specified in Sub-Sections 2.2.3.4 and 2.2.3.5. The first layer or layers of fill materials shall be deposited over the full width of the embankment and berms in thicknesses and compacted as approved by the S.O. The Contractor shall provide compaction plant suitable for working over soft ground.

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Standard Specification For Road Works (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). If the S.O. is fully satisfied that the subgrade in its natural state possesses a density exceeding the requirements, then the surface of the subgrade shall be trimmed and rolled to obtain a smooth finish. Where the material in cut area is found to be unsuitable for use in the top 300 mm of subgrade it shall be removed and replaced with suitable material which shall be compacted as indicated above. The subgrade shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner, and the widths of embankments and cuts shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centreline. The top surface of the subgrade shall have the required shape, superelevation, levels and grades and shall be finished everywhere to with in + 10 mm and minus 30 mm of the required level. i) Where rock surface extends over the whole width of the formation :The rock surface shall be trimmed to a free draining profile, at or below formation levels. No high spot shall protrude above the formation levels. Any voids or cavities more than 0.5 metre below the formation level shall be filled up with approved lean concrete having 7-day cube strength greater than 7 N/sq.mm. The rock surface shall then be brought up to the formation levels with approved
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2.2.6.4

Settlement Records Joint measurement of settlement shall be taken weekly while fill is being placed in the vicinity of the markers. Thereafter, readings shall be taken fortnightly for a period as directed by the S.O. The readings shall be submitted on an approved printed form to be supplied by the Contractor. For the measurement of the volume that has settled below the original level of the foundation of the embankment, the measured settlement of each marker shall be used for volume computation following the method shown on the Drawings.

2.2.7

Subgrade Material for the top 300 mm of subgrade shall have a minimum California Bearing Ratio (CBR) as shown on the Drawings when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method) under 4 days soaked condition. Throughout the top 300 mm of subgrade, the material shall be compacted to not less than 95% (for cohesive material) or 100% (for cohesionless material) of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). In cut area, the top 300 mm of the subgrade shall be scarified and recompacted to 95% (for cohesive material) or 100%

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works Turf sods shall be stacked and watered when they cannot be laid immediately after cutting. The surfaces to be turfed shall be trimmed and thoroughly wetted. The turf shall then be carefully laid to form a complete and uniform cover as shown on the Drawings. Turf laid on slopes steeper than 1 (vertical) and 3 (horizontal) shall be pegged down with bamboo stakes approximately 250 mm in length. Approved fertiliser shall be applied after placing of turf at suitable times and at rates of application approved by the S.O. All turf shall be regularly watered and fertilised to the satisfaction of the S.O. until the vegetation is satisfactorily established. Any dead turf shall be replaced with new turf at the Contractor's own expense.

crushed rock or gravel, regulated and blinded. ii) Where rock outcrop occurs over part of the formation only:The rock outcrop shall be cut down to a level not less than 300 mm below the formation level. The surface shall then be brought up to level with suitable subgrade material. 2.2.8 Protective Vegetation for Erosion Control 2.2.8.1 Topsoil Topsoil stockpiled for the Works in accordance with Sub- Sections 2.1.1.3 and 2.1.2.3 shall be spread and lightly compacted to an even thickness of 50 mm as directed by the S.O. in areas to be turfed and/or seeded, or used as the S.O. shall otherwise direct for tree planting and other purposes. 2.2.8.2 Turfing

2.2.8.3 Seeding Turfing shall be carried out as soon as practicable on all earth slopes and other areas as shown on the Drawings and/or where directed by the S.O. The type of turf shall be as indicated on the Drawings or other alternative type as approved by the S.O. and shall be free of lallang and essentially free of weeds. Turf shall be obtained in unbroken sods with a substantial amount of topsoil and shall be approximately 250 mm x 250 mm in size and 100 mm thick, from an approved source, and shall be placed in position as soon as practicable after cutting. Seeding or hydroseeding shall be carried out as soon as practicable on slopes and other areas as shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.O. The Contractor shall submit to the S.O. for his consideration and approval, at least four (4) weeks in advance of the proposed work, full details of his proposed method of seeding or hydroseeding. The information submitted shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, a full description of the following aspects of the work :-

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works xii) the cultivation and after-care of the seeded areas, including rates and frequencies of watering, fertilising, grass cutting and general maintenance for at least 1 year after seeding; the time after seeding required for establishing permanent, dense growth of grasses, which will require minimal maintenance; guarantees of the success of the seeding work.

i) the preparation of the areas to be seeded or hydroseeded, including if appropriate the amount of top soil to be used and its method of application; ii) the details and results of investigations to determine which types of grass and legume are compatible with the soil in the areas to be seeded; iii) the types of grass and legume (if any) and strains of seed to be used, and the function, root and growth characteristics of each type; iv) the rates of application of the grass and legume seeds; v) the composition of fertiliser to be used at the time of seeding and its rate of application; vi) the composition of fertiliser to be used after seeding, the times of application after seeding, and the rates of application; vii) the type of mulch to be used and its method and rate of application; viii) the amounts of lime or other chemicals (if any) to be applied to improve the soil before, during and/or after seeding; ix) the type and amounts of binding agent to be applied with the seeds, mulch, fertiliser, etc., as appropriate. x) the proportions and methods of preparation of the seeding mix; xi) the equipment and methods to be used in preparing and placing the seeding mix and other materials;
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

xiii)

xiv)

All grass shall be regularly watered until the vegetation is satisfactorily established to the satisfaction of the S.O. Any dead grass shall be replaced at the Contractor's own expense.

Page 49

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works

SECTION 3 DRAINAGE WORKS

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 50

2.2.2.5 STONE PITCHING Description S3-60 S3-60 S3-60 S3-60 S3-60 3.1 Unlined Drains 3.3.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 3 .2 Materials 3.3 3.2.2.3 CHANNEL EXCAVATION Description Materials Construction Methods S3-57 S3-57 S3-57 S3-58 3.2.2.3 Precast Concrete Drain Sections 3.L Page 51 .2 GENERAL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING FOR DRAINAGE WORKS Description Materials Excavation Granular Bedding Material Concrete Bedding Ordinary Backfill Material Granular Backfill Material Concrete Backfill Excavation Backfilling with Ordinary or Granular Backfill Material S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-54 S3-55 S3-55 S3-56 3.2.6 3.2.2.4 SURFACE DRAINAGE Surface Drainage Types S3-58 S3-58 S3-58 S3-58 S3-59 S3-59 3.2.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 3. K.4. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.5.4.2 Cement Mortar Cawangan Jalan.2 3.4.4 3.2.2.2.5.3.1 3.4.2.2 3.3.5 3.2.1 3.1 3.2 3.4.1 Stone 3.2 Surface Drain Construction 3.DRAINAGE WORKS Page 3.1 3.1 3.5.5.2.2.2.2 Cast In Situ Concrete Drains 3.

1 Pipes 3.6.2.8.2.7.2.3 Filter Cloth 3.2.2.8.2.2 Cement Mortar 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 3.8.L Page 52 .2 Materials 3.3 Stone 3.1 Pipes 3.3.2.3 Construction Methods 3.7.3 3.3.4 Cement Mortar 3.1 3.1 Description 3.6.8 SUBSOIL DRAINS 3.3.6.1 Grouted Stone Pitching 3.8.2 Polyvinyl Chloride Coating 3.6.9 R.9.5. PIPE CULVERTS Description 3.9.1 3. K.7 Construction Methods BRICKWORK Description Materials Common Bricks Cement Mortar Construction Methods Brick Laying Plastering Brickwork 3.8.9.3 Bedding Material Cawangan Jalan.3 3.C.5.7.8.6 GABIONS Description S3-60 S3-60 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-61 S3-62 S3-62 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-63 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-64 S3-65 S3-65 S3-65 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 S3-66 3.2.7.2.6.3.7.8.2 Ungrouted Stone Pitching 3.2.2 3.1 Wire Mesh Gabions 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 3.1 3.7.9.2.5.1 3.2.2 Materials 3.2 3.3 Construction Methods 3.7.9.2 Materials 3.2 Filter Material 3.6.1 3.

3.10.2. K.11 3.3.4 3.9.9.2 3.9.11.9.C.4.2 Backfilling 3. Pipe Culverts General Butt Ended Pipe Culverts with Precast Concrete Collars Rebated Pipe Culverts Spigot and Socket Pipe Culverts S3-67 S3-67 S3-68 S3-68 S3-68 S3-68 S3-69 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-70 S3-71 S3-71 S3-71 S3-71 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-72 S3-73 S3-73 S3-73 S3-73 S3-74 S3-74 S3-74 3.2 Mortar Lining 3.C.5 3.11.12.11.10.4.2.1 General 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 3.10.10.4 Installation of Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts 3.9.4.4.2 3.L Page 53 .10.4 Installation of R.10.9.10.3 3.12 PRECAST BOX CULVERTS Description Materials Precast Box Culverts Cement Mortar Bedding Material Excavation and Backfilling Excavation for Precast Box Culverts Backfilling Installation of Precast Box Culverts EXTENSION OF CULVERTS 3.2 Extension of Box Culverts Cawangan Jalan.3 3.3.11.10.10.2 3.11.11.2 3.9.1 Extension of Pipe Culverts 3.1 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 3.10.1 3.2.3.3 Description Materials Pipes Bitumen Coating Bolts and Nuts Cement Mortar Bedding Material Excavation and Backfilling for Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts 3.2.11.2 3.11.2.1 3.12.4 3.4.3 Excavation and Backfilling for R.1 3.2 3.2.1 Excavation 3.2.10.1 3.4.3 3.11.2. Pipe Culverts 3.10 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE CULVERTS 3.3 3.9.4 3.

and shall not contain lateritic or concretionary materials.2. cast in site box culverts.1 Excavation 3. levels.L Page 54 .4 Ordinary Backfill Material Ordinary backfill material shall be suitable material as defined in Section 2 of this Specification.2.O. 3.O.2. sumps and other drainage structures in accordance with this Specification or as directed by the S. grades and cross-sections shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.1 Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.2 Granular Bedding Material Granular bedding material for the foundations of structures shall be suitably graded broken rubble. and shall include furnishing.2.O.3 Concrete Bedding Concrete bedding or blinding for the foundations of structures shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification for the class of concrete specified on the Drawings or required by the S. shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter and clay. crushed stone. compacting and shaping foundation bedding materials. 3. and the removal and disposal of all excess excavated material.O. crushed stone. crushed gravel or a mixture of crushed and natural aggregates.DRAINAGE WORKS 3.2 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING FOR DRAINAGE WORKS Description This work shall consist of excavation for the construction of surface drains. Material excavated shall be classified as common excavation or rock as defined in Section 2 of this Specification.2.2.2. not otherwise provided for in this Specification. sand or other material as specified on the Drawings or as required by the S. 3. 3. pipe culverts. subsoil drains. in accordance with this Specification and as shown on the Drawings and as required by the S.2.9. K. and other drainage structures. The maximum particle size of the backfill material shall be 50 mm.2. backfilling excavations against completed structures with suitable material or granular backfill where specified.2 Materials SECTION 3 .5 Granular Backfill Material Granular backfill material shall be sand. except pipe culverts. crushed gravel. box culverts.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 3.2. Excavation and backfill for pipe culverts and precast box culverts shall be in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 3.2. subsoil drains. Drainage works shall be constructed to the lines. 3.1 GENERAL This work shall consist of the construction of surface drains.O. 3. placing.

5mm 28.GRADING LIMITS FOR GRANULAR BACKFILL OTHER THAN SAND B. The elevations of the bottoms of footings shown on the Drawings are approximate only and the S. The natural ground adjacent to the structure shall not be disturbed without permission of the S.O.100 45 .O. grades and elevations shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.1. 3. TABLE 3. to that effect and no footing.L Page 55 . Sieve Size 10.O.O.0mm 2.2.1 .O.75 35 . TABLE 3.10 iii) material other than sand shall have a gradation conforming to one of the envelopes shown in Table 3.65 25 .GRADING LIMITS FOR SAND BACKFILL B. Excavations must be kept free from water and temporary drains.30 2 . may order in writing such changes in the dimensions or elevations of footings as may be deemed necessary to secure a satis factory foundation. bedding material or structure shall be placed until the S.6 Concrete Backfill Concrete backfill where specified shall be of the grade as shown on the Drawings and shall con form to Section 9 of this Specification.S.3 Excavation The Contractor shall notify the S. sumps and pumps shall be provided when necessary. sufficiently in advance of the beginning of any excavation so that cross-section elevations and measurements may be taken of the undisturbed ground. K. Sieve Size 37.0 mm 5. The rate of excavation and backfill shall be approved by the S.2 .30 0–2 C 100 45 – 75 30 – 60 15 – 35 0–2 Cawangan Jalan. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the fines shall be non-plastic.0mm 425um 75um % Passing By Weight A B 100 70 –100 60 – 90 45 – 75 30 – 60 20 – 50 10 – 30 0–2 100 70 .0mm 10.0mm 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 3.2.0mm 20. ii) sand shall have a gradation conforming to the envelope shown in Table 3.80 10 .18 mm 300 um 150 um % Passing By Weight 100 90 .O.S. After each excavation is completed the Contractor shall notify the S. logs and other objectionable materials encountered in excavation shall be removed. Trenches and foundation pits for structures and structure footings and underdrains shall be excavated to the lines. Boulders.100 45 .0 mm 1.50 10 .2.O.2.

Excavated material suitable for use as backfill may be deposited by the Contractor in storage piles at points convenient for rehandling of the material during the backfilling operation. shall be utilized as backfill or embankment.O. When the footing is to rest on material other than rock. Cawangan Jalan. the Contractor shall remove the unsuitable material and insert foundation fill material or concrete as specified or shown on the Drawings or directed by the S. bedding material or structure shall be placed until the S. Backfill material shall be free from large lumps. All loose and disintegrated rock and thin strata shall be removed. Rock and other hard foundation material shall be cleared of all loose material and cut to a firm surface. All excavation surfaces and surfaces of backfill material against which concrete is to be placed shall be even and firm and true to line and level. and excavation to final grade shall be deferred until just before the footing is to be placed. Backfill not within the embankment areas shall be placed in layers not more than 250 mm in depth (compacted measurement) and shall be compacted to a density comparable with the adjacent undisturbed material.L Page 56 . The degree of compaction shall be equivalent to that of the surrounding foundations. the foundation material is soft or mucky or otherwise unsuitable. so far as suitable. When. to that effect and no footing.4 Backfilling with Ordinary or Granular Backfill Material All spaces excavated under this Specification and not occupied by a permanent structure shall be backfilled. nor is it to endanger the partly finished structure. as specified or shown on the Drawings or directed by the S. shall be finally disposed of in such a manner as not to obstruct the stream nor otherwise impair the efficiency or appearance of the works. services or property either within or outside the road reserve. wood and other extraneous material. 3.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works All excavated material.2. whether or not temporarily allowed to be placed within a stream area. and so as to cause no impediment to the drainage of the Site or surrounding area. either level or stepped or serrated.O.O.. All seams and crevices shall be cleared out and grouted with Portland cement grout at the time the footing is placed. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. Excavated material shall be deposited in such places and in such a manner as not to cause damage to highway. The surplus material. K. special care shall be taken not to disturb the bottom of the excavation. in the opinion of the S. If foundation fill material is required it shall be placed and compacted in layers not more than 150 mm thick or as directed by the S. has approved the depth of excavation and the character of the foundation material.

3. training or permanently diverting rivers. No backfilling shall be placed against any structure until permission shall have been given by the S. Unless otherwise approved by the S. the construction of appurtenant bunds. Backfill and embankment behind abutments held at the top by superstructure shall be carried up simultaneously behind opposite abutments and side walls. This work shall also include the backfilling of old channels. In placing backfill and embankment. streams and irrigation and drainage channels other than drains and ditches appurtenant to the roadway. liquid or semi-liquid pressure shall be prohibited.. 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. or likely to involve.O. Backfill within the embankment areas shall be made with approved material placed in uniform layers not to exceed 150 mm in depth (compacted measurement) and each layer shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2 of this Specification except that mechanical tampers may be used for compaction. 3.O. Cawangan Jalan. the additional material on the higher side shall not be placed until permission is given by the S. levels. grades and cross-sections. or until the S. hand tamping will not be accepted. haulage to their points of utilization in the Works or the removal and disposal of all excavated materials.3 CHANNEL EXCAVATION 3. the material shall be placed insofar as possible to approximately the same height on both sides of the structure..O. K.2 Materials Channel excavation shall be classified as common excavation or rock as specified in Section 2 of this Specification. and the shaping and finishing of all earthworks involved in the construction of channels in accor dance with the required lines.L Page 57 . is satisfied that the structure has enough strength to withstand any pressure created. dikes and berms. and shall include all required excavation for widening.3.O. The placing of embankment and the benching of slopes shall continue in such a manner that at all times there will be a horizontal berm of thoroughly compacted material for a distance at least equal to the height of the abutment or wall to be back filled. If conditions require backfilling appreciably higher on one side. Backfill for embankment shall not be placed behind the walls of box culverts until the top slab is placed for the required time and not less than three days.1 Description This work shall consist of excavation for waterway channels both inside and outside the road reserve as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Special care shall be taken to prevent any unduly high pressures against the structures. except excavation of top soil for use in the Works and excavation required for clearing and grubbing. Jetting of fill or other hydraulic methods involving. Each layer of backfill shall be wetted uniformly as necessary and compacted to the same requirements as the adjacent earthwork as specified in Section 2 of this Specification.O.

All channels and appurtenances shall be excavated and constructed to the lines. all at the Contractor's expense.4. median drains. bench drains. Borrow which is required to replace suitable excavated materials needed for construction which the Contractor elects to waste shall not be paid for. roadside drains. dikes and other earth appurtenances as required.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Sections of channel abandoned owing to diversions shall be back filled as directed by the S.3. Excavated unsuitable material.. levels.4. suitable material surplus to that needed for construction and suitable material that the Contractor elects to waste.O. levels.O.O.O.O. Cawangan Jalan.4.1 3.4 SURFACE DRAINAGE Surface Drainage Types Surface drains of the types shown on the Drawings shall be constructed to the lines.O. 3.1 Unlined Drains Excavation for unlined drains shall be trimmed to form a smooth. Any of the above drains may be constructed either unlined or lined using cast in situ concrete. nor cause damage to highway works or property. Any areas of over excavation shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O.3 Construction Methods All suitable materials removed from channel excavations shall be used for backfilling waterways to be abandoned and constructing bunds. berm drains.L Page 58 . ditches or drains. K. Excavation beyond the limits required shall not be paid for and shall be backfilled at the Contractor's expense as directed by the S.O. levels. embankment toe drains. cascade drains. grades and cross-sections as shown on the Drawings or as required by the S. channel excavations shall be kept drained as far as is practicable and the work shall be carried out in a neat and workmanlike manner. should he deem it necessary. all to the satisfaction of the S. During construction. 3. 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. outfall drains. should this be necessary to complete the work. or stone pitching. shoulder drains. grades and crosssections shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. Surface drains shall include interceptor drains. precast or porous concrete drain sections. etc.2. The Contractor shall provide borrow of satisfactory q quality and approved by the S. firm surface to the required lines. shall be disposed of at designated areas in such a manner as to present a neat appearance and not obstruct flow in any channels. Surplus suitable materials shall be used as far as is practicable in constructing the roadway. grades and crosssections as specified or as directed by the S.2 Surface Drain Construction 3.

The concrete shall be poured in sections not exceeding 2 m in length and shall be carried out between end forms in alternate bays. Notwithstanding any approval given by the S. 3.4.5. any defective or broken drain section shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense before or after laying in position.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Ready made precast concrete drain sections may be used subject to the approval of the S. Weep holes shall be cast in situ as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. Mass concrete for bases shall be of grade 10/25 concrete or as specified and to the dimensions and thicknesses as shown on the Drawings. All concrete shall be grade 20/20 concrete unless otherwise specified and shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. 525. The joint shall be grouted with 1:3 cement mortar complying with SubSection 3.O.2 and weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S..O. Construction joints shall not be formed in the inverts.2 Cast In Situ Concrete Drains Excavation shall be carried out to the lines and levels as specified and as shown on the Drawings. Ready made precast concrete drain sections may be used subject to the approval of the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.O. Cawangan Jalan. Porous concrete shall comply with the requirements of porous concrete for pipes as described in M.O.2.3 Precast Concrete Drain Sections Precast concrete block inverts shall be of the shapes and dimensions as shown on the Drawings and shall be of grade 20/20 concrete conforming to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification or of porous concrete unless otherwise specified. K. Cement and aggregates used in the manufacture of the porous concrete drain sections shall con form to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification.L Page 59 .2. Precast concrete drain sections shall be laid on concrete bedding in trenches excavated to the lines and levels as specified and jointed to produce a neat even alignment and gradient. The precast concrete drain sections shall be manufactured using good quality moulds and the finished product shall be round and have smooth inside surfaces all to the approval of the S. for his approval before placing of orders.S. 3. Templates which may be of timber or steel shall then be provided to ensure the thickness and shape of the concrete drains.O.4.O. Samples of ready made drain sections shall be submitted to the S.

The constituent materials of the mortar shall comply with the appropriate requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. or pit or river cobbles. and suitable in all respects for the purpose intended. etc.L Page 60 .5 STONE PITCHING Description This work shall consist of the construction of all structures or parts of structures to be composed of stone pitching either grouted or ungrouted as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. maximum.1 Grouted Stone Pitching Prior to constructing grouted stone pitching. unless otherwise specified. grades.5. All mortar shall be used within 30 minutes of mixing and no reworking of mortar shall be permitted thereafter. durable and dense. 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as required by the S. drain linings.5.O. Water shall be added to the mix to produce a suitable consistency for the intended use. and shall be essentially free from dust. or a mixture of any of these materials.1 Stone Stone shall be clean rough quarry stone. the surfaces against which it is to be placed shall have been finished in accordance with the appropriate provisions of this Specification. any damage to or deterioration of them shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.3. The stone shall be hard.O.O.5.5. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of these finished surfaces.1 3. vegetative matter and other deleterious materials.O. resistant to the action of air and water.2 Materials 3. unless otherwise specified.5.5. levels.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 3.2. 3. clay. all to the satisfaction of the S. including erosion protection pavements and aprons. culvert inlets and outlets.2. Individual pieces of stone shall be approximately cubical or spherical and shall have least dimensions in the range 100 to 150 mm and a maximum dimension of 250 mm. before grouted stone pitching is placed. K. The ingredients for mortar shall be measured in proper gauge boxes and mixed on a clean boarded platform or in an approved mechanical batch mixer.3 Construction Methods 3.2 Cement Mortar Cement mortar. tough. 3. shall contain 1 part ordinary Portland cement to 3 parts fine aggregate by volume. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and to the lines. Cawangan Jalan.

Unless otherwise specified.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works building up the structure to full thickness is commenced on any section of the work. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. to the satisfaction of the S.O.2. they shall be of the following standard dimensions :- Cawangan Jalan. The exposed surfaces and edges of the structure shall be constructed such that they have as large a proportion as practicable composed of stone faces. Mortar which has been mixed for more than 30 minutes shall not be used in the works. the largest of which shall be used at the bottom.2 Ungrouted Stone Pitching Where shown on the Drawings. ungrouted stone pitching shall be hand set to provide maximum interlocking effect. The whole work shall be finished to the satisfaction of the S. densely packed against adjacent stones and built up to form a stone structure of more or less uniform thickness which shall nowhere be less than 150 mm (measured per pendicularly to the surface covered).6. shall be well bedded on a 75 mm layer of gravel or aggregate rammed to an even surface.6. K.3.2 Materials Construction of grouted stone pitching shall commence at the lowest part of each structure or section of a structure and continue progressively upward.6 GABIONS Description This work shall consist of the construction of miscellaneous erosion protection and retaining structures to be composed of stone filled wire mesh gabions. All the while that stones are being placed. 3. The work shall be carried out and finished all to the satisfaction of the S.O. however the surfaces of stones in the exposed faces and edges shall not be covered with mortar.O.1 Wire Mesh Gabions Gabions shall be rectangular baskets of the required dimensions as shown on the Drawings or ordered by the S. Stones shall then be firmly set by hand into the mortar.6. 3. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and as shown on the Drawings and/or as approved by the S. The surface against which the work is to be placed shall be moistened with clean water a little in advance of construction. as the con struction advances.5. and covered with a layer of cement mortar about 50 mm thick.L Page 61 .O.O 3. all voids in the structure shall be packed solidly with mortar and stone spalls. The stones. Long structures such as drain linings and slope protection pavements shall be constructed in sections of practicable length.1 3. Nor shall mortar be laid against the supporting surface more than 2 minutes before pitching stone and 3.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Gabion mesh shall be triple twisted and shall have a uniform hexagonal pattern with openings of 100 x 120 mm or less. The mesh shall be securely tied to selvage wires to form rectangular panels which shall be securely wired together to form the completed gabion baskets. The ties and connections for each gabion basket shall comprise not less than 8% of its total weight, and the fabrication shall be all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.6.2.2 Polyvinyl Chloride Coating When specified on the Drawings, all wire used in the fabrication of gabions and in the wiring operation during construction shall, after galvanising, have extruded on to it a coating of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The PVC coating, not inclusive of galvanising, shall nowhere be less than 0.55 mm in thickness. 3.6.2.3 Stone Stone fill for gabions shall be clean rough quarry stone, or pit or river cobbles, or a mixture of any of these materials, and shall be essentially free from dust, clay, vegetative matter and other deleterious materials. Individual pieces of stone shall have least dimensions not less than 20 mm larger than the gabion mesh openings and greatest dimensions not more than 250 mm. The stone shall be hard, tough, durable and dense, resistant to the action of air and water, and suitable in all aspects for the purpose intended. The material shall be approved by the S.O.

i) width - 1.00 metre; ii) length - 1.00, 2.00 or 3.00 metres; iii) height - 0.50 or 1.00 metre. Gabions longer than 1.00 m shall be divided into compartments of equal length not exceeding 1.00 m by wire mesh diaphragms securely tied along all edges. Each gabion or compartment of a gabion shall be provided with at least 4 cross-connecting wires if its height is 0.50 m or less, and with at least 8 cross-connecting wires if its height is in the range 0.50 to 1.00 metre. Gabions shall be fabricated from steel wire manufactured in accordance with B.S. 1052 and galvanised in accordance with M.S. 407, or such similar standards as the S.O. shall approve. The galvanised wire sizes used shall be in accordance with Table 3.3.
TABLE 3.3 - GALVANISED WIRE SIZES FOR GABIONS

Type of Wire

Minimum Diameter

Selvage (perimeter) wire Mesh wire Tying and connecting wire

3.50 mm 2.70 mm 2.20 mm

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 62

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works 3.7 BRICKWORK Description This work shall include the laying of brickwork to the lines, levels and grades shown on the Drawings and/or as directed by the S.O. 3.7.2 Materials

3.6.3

Construction Methods Prior to placing gabions, the surface on and against which they are to be constructed shall have been prepared and finished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of these finished surfaces, any damage to or deterioration of them shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.O. before gabions are placed. Each gabion basket shall be put in place in its turn, completely fabricated except for the fastening down of the lid, stretched to the correct shape and dimensions, and fastened securely to all contiguous baskets along each edge with tying wire. The basket shall then be tightly packed with approved stone by hand in such a manner that voids are kept to a practicable minimum and are uniformly distributed in the stone mass. Finally, the lid of the basket shall be securely fastened down with tying wire along all hitherto unfastened edges, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. In no case shall the weight of the finished gabion be less than 1300 kg per cubic metre. As a gabion structure is built up, backfilling against finished gabions shall be carried out as necessary for proper progressive construction, all in accordance with the relevant provisions of the appropriate Sections of this Specification. Unless otherwise specified, vertical joints between gabions shall be staggered in gabion structures in a pattern similar to the joints in running bond brickwork.

3.7.1

3.7.2.1 Common Bricks Common bricks shall be sound, hard, well burnt, of proper size and clean and shall give a clear ring when struck. They shall be Class 3 standard format complying with the requirements of M.S. 76. Bricks shall be obtained from manufacturers approved by the S.O. 3.7.2.2 Cement Mortar Cement mortar for brickwork shall comply with the requirements of Sub-Section 3.5.2.2. 3.7.3 Construction Methods

3.7.3.1 Brick Laying Brickwork shall be executed with cement mortar and shall be of the thickness and bonds as shown on the Drawings. Bricks shall be kept damp until used and shall be laid on a full bed of mortar. The brickwork shall be true to line and plumb, and courses shall be kept truly level. The thickness of mortar joints shall not exceed 10 mm and shall be such that 4 courses of brickwork forms a height of 300 mm.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 63

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works 3.8 SUBSOIL DRAINS Description This work shall include the supply and installation of subsoil drains constructed in accordance with this Specification at the locations and in accordance with the lines, levels and grades as shown on the Drawings and/or as directed by the S.O. 3.8.2 Materials

Newly laid brickwork shall be protected from the harmful effects of sunshine, rain, running and surface water and shocks. Any brickwork that is damaged shall be taken down and rebuilt and the joints raked out and pointed as directed by the S.O. Any such remedial work shall be at the Contractor's own expense. 3.7.3.2 Plastering Brickwork All exposed brickwork surfaces shall be plastered. The plaster shall be applied in 2 coats generally to a total thickness of 20 mm and shall be finished with a steel trowel for internal surfaces and with a wooden float for external surfaces. Plain plaster shall consist of 1 part masonry cement complying with M.S. 794 to 3 parts of sand by volume. where ordinary portland cement is used, plasticiser of a type approved by the S.O. may be added to the mix in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Ordinary Portland cement and water shall comply with the appropriate requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. Weep holes shall be provided as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

3.8.1

3.8.2.1 Pipes Porous concrete pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with M.S. 525. Clay pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with B.S. 1196. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipes for subsoil drains shall comply with Australian Standard Specification 2439 or B.S. 3656. 3.8.2.2 Filter Material Filter material used in the construction of subsoil drains shall consist of hard, clean sand conforming to the grading limits given in Table 3.4. The material passing the 425 um sieve shall be non-plastic when tested in accordance with B.S. 1377.
TABLE 3.4 - GRADING LIMITS FOR FILTER MATERIAL
B.S. Sieve Size 10.0mm 5.0mm 2.36mm 1.18mm 600um 300um 150um % Passing By Weight 100 90 - 100 75 - 100 55 - 90 35 - 59 8 - 30 0 - 10

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Filtration Requirement Equivalent opening size of the filter cloth determined by sieving as described in ASTM D422 shall be less than the eighty-five percentage size of the adjacent soil. (d) Permeability Requirement

3.8.2.3 Filter Cloth The synthetic filter cloth shall be a non-woven type of approved manufacture having the following properties :(a) Chemical Composition Requirements Fibres used in the manufacture of the engineering fabric shall consist of a long chain synthetic polymer, composed of at least 85% by weight of polypropylene, -ethylene, esteramide or -vinylidene chloride and shall contain stabilisers and/or inhibitors added to the base plastic (as necessary) to make the fabric resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet and heat exposure. (b) Physical Property Requirements The physical properties of the filter cloth shall comply with Table 3.5.
TABLE 3.5 - PHYSICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS FOR FILTER CLOTH

The equivalent Darcy Permeability of the filter cloth shall be greater than 10 times the Darcy Permeability of the soil to be drained. 3.8.2.4 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for use in pipe joints shall comply with SubSection 3.5.2.2. 3.8.3 Construction Methods Excavation for subsoil drains shall be carried out all in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SubSection 3.2. Filter material as described in SubSection 3.8.2.2 above shall be placed and uniformly compacted by a suitable method approved by the S.O. to form a firm, even bedding for the pipe drain as shown on the Drawings. The pipe sections shall be set firmly against the filter material bedding with the flow lines in the design position. For pipes with mating joints, the receiving ends shall be upgrade, and the pipe joints shall be fully mated. For butt jointed pipes with collars, the pipe sections shall be fully contiguous, and the collars properly centred over the joints.

Grab Strength (ASTM D1682) Puncture Strength (ASTM D3787 - 80a) Burst Strength (ASTM D3786 - 80a)

0.9 kN

0.4 kN

2100 kN/sq.m

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Standard Specification For Road Works 3.9.2 Materials

Joints shall be spot mortared as necessary to hold the pipe sections correctly centred and aligned, but not so as to unduly restrict the infiltration of water through the joints. Slotted or perforated pipes shall be tightly wrapped in filter cloth such that the entire length of the mortared pipe is covered by at least 2 layers of cloth. All joints in both layers shall have an overlap of at least 100 mm and joints in the outer layer shall be offset by at least 300 mm from joints in the inner layer, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. After pipe laying and, if appropriate, wrapping has been approved by the S.O., the remainder of the filter material shall be placed and uniformly compacted by a suitable method approved by the S.O. to form a dense, even surround to the pipe as shown on the Drawings. Care shall be taken that the pipe is neither damaged nor displaced. Backfill shall then be placed and compacted in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SubSection 3.2.4. 3.9 R.C. PIPE CULVERTS Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of reinforced concrete pipe culverts, inclusive of excavation, backfilling, jointing, bedding, construction of headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and sumps and channel protection works, all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings.

3.9.2.1 Pipes Reinforced concrete pipes shall conform to the requirements of M.S. 881 and shall be supplied by manufacturers approved by the S.O. Rebated pipes of diameter 600 mm and above shall be internally rebated. Collars shall be precast with grade 25 concrete and shall be suitably reinforced all in accordance with Section 9 of this Specification. The width of the collar shall be not less than 150 mm and the minimum thickness shall be 50 mm. Rubber rings for spigot and socket pipes shall comply with the requirements of Type 2 as specified in B.S. 2494. 3.9.2.2 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for jointing of reinforced concrete pipes shall conform to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.5.2.2. 3.9.2.3 Bedding Material Type A bedding shall consist of grade 20/20 concrete complying with Section 9 of this Specification. Type B bedding shall consist of clean, natural sand or gravelly sand of suitable gradation and quality, approved by the S.O. The material shall have a maximum particle size of not more than 12 mm.

3.9.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works Where rock or other hard unyielding foundation material is encountered in the trench, it shall be excavated to a depth below the bottom of pipe design levels of at least 300 mm or 12.5 mm per 300 mm of fill to be placed over the top of the pipe, whichever is greater, up to a maximum of 75% of the internal diameter of the pipe. The hard material so excavated shall be replaced with suitable material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. (c) Open Ground Method Where existing ground levels are above top of bedding material design levels and firm foundation materials are encountered, excavation and foundation preparation shall be similar to that described in the trench method above. Otherwise a firm foundation plane shall be prepared, which shall be essentially free draining along the line of the culvert, by trimming the existing ground, or such fill as it is necessary to place and compact, over a width sufficient to permit satisfactory construction of the pipe bedding, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Hard materials shall be excavated from the pipe foundation over a width equal to the outside diameter of the pipe to the same depth as specified in the trench method, and shall be replaced with suitable
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3.9.3

Excavation and Backfilling for R.C. Pipe Culverts

3.9.3.1 Excavation (a) General Unless otherwise directed by the S.O., prior to construction of a pipe culvert, the earth works at the required location shall have been constructed to a level at least 600 mm above the top of culvert design levels or to the top of subgrade levels, whichever is lower. Pipe culverts specified to be constructed in trench conditions shall be excavated in accordance with SubSection 3.9.3.1 (b) below. Where drainage conditions or other circumstances so require, the S.O. may direct the Contractor to construct the pipe culvert without first constructing the earthworks to the level specified above, in which case excavation and foundation preparation shall be in accordance with SubSection 3.9.3.1 (c) below. (b) Trench Method The trench to receive a culvert pipe shall be of sufficient width and depth to enable the placing of bedding material and construction of pipe joints in accordance with this Specification, and the bottom of the trench shall be trimmed to a suitably smooth plane surface which shall be kept free from water, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works Heavy plant and equipment shall not operate within 1.5 m of any pipe culvert until backfilling and, where appropriate, pavement construction has advanced to a stage which provides at least 600 mm of cover to the culvert. Subject to the approval of the S.O., light compaction equipment may be operated above pipe culverts after a minimum of 300 mm of cover has been placed and compacted. 3.9.4 Installation of R.C. Pipe Culverts

material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where soft or unstable soil is encountered in the foundation, it shall be excavated over a width of at least 1.5 times the outside diameter of the pipe on each side of the culvert centre-line to the depth directed by the S.O., and replaced with suitable material uniformly compacted in layers of not more than 150 mm compacted thickness to provide satisfactory support for the pipe, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.9.3.2 Backfilling Backfilling against reinforced concrete pipe culverts and their appurtenant structures shall be carried out in accordance with the construction methods described in Sub-Section 3.2.4, using material conforming to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.2.2.5. Special care shall be taken to properly compact backfill against the undersides of culvert pipes without disturbing or damaging the pipes and joints. Backfill shall be built up evenly on both sides of each pipe culvert along its entire length.

3.9.4.1 General The type, size and class of pipe to be installed at each location shall be as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.O. Culverts shall not be installed at any location until the type of pipe, the exact location, the lines, levels and grades, the length of pipe and details of inlet and outlet structures have been confirmed by the S.O. In addition, special requirements recommended by the manufacturer with respect to assembly and installation shall be complied with. Especially where elliptically reinforced pipe sections are used, care shall be taken to ensure that the loading axes are positioned exactly vertically. 3.9.4.2 Butt Ended Pipe Culverts with Precast Concrete Collars The pipes shall be laid on Type A bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Before placing any concrete bedding, the pipes shall be assembled complete with precast concrete collars to the

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Standard Specification For Road Works Following pipe assembly and mortaring up as above, the remainder of the cradle shall be cast monolithically, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Where vertical construction joints in the concrete cradle are unavoidable due to circumstances on Site, transfer bars shall be provided to the satisfaction of the S.O. Special care shall be taken when placing the concrete cradle to avoid the entrapment of air underneath the pipe. To eliminate this possibility, concrete shall be placed to one side of the pipe only until such time as the level of the concrete surface rises above the underside of the pipe on the side remote from that on which concrete is being placed. The concrete shall then be brought up at the same level on both sides of the pipe. 3.9.4.3 Rebated Pipe Culverts The pipes shall be laid on Type A bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. The method of construction shall follow that described in SubSection 3.9.4.2 for butt ended pipe culverts except for the exclusion of precast concrete collars. The rebated joint shall be internally flush and fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar, all to the satisfaction of the S.O.

correct levels and grades on precast concrete spacing blocks of the same class of concrete as the bedding material and of sufficient size to eliminate any risk of settlement of the pipes before or during concreting. All joints shall be fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar before concreting of the cradle, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. The concrete cradle shall be cast as one monolithic unit. Alternatively, part of the concrete cradle below the underside of the pipe may be constructed monolithically at least 24 hours before the assembly and mortaring up of the pipe sections and collars, on condition that shear connectors are provided across horizontal construction joints to the satisfaction of the S.O. During installation, the ends of the pipes shall be butted and the collar centred about the joint using wedges or other approved means. The annular shall be completely filled with 1:3 cement mortar with only sufficient water added to ensure adequate workability and the wedges removed before finally fairing the joint. Special care shall be taken to ensure that excess cement mortar is neatly cleaned off. For pipes over 900 mm in diameter the jointing space shall be filled from inside the pipe after completion of embankment construction using 1:3 cement mortar. When installed, the clearance between the outer diameter of pipe and the inner diameter of collar shall be at least 20 mm.

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Standard Specification For Road Works Care shall be taken to see that the rubber ring is adequately compressed to seal the joint. All pipes shall be laid to the satisfaction of the S.O. 3.10 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE CULVERTS 3.10.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of bolted, corrugated metal pipe culverts inclusive of excavation, backfilling, jointing, bedding, construction of headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and sumps and channel protection works, all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings. 3.10.2 Materials 3.10.2.1 Pipes The pipe sections shall be fabricated from zinc-coated (galvanised) steel sheets conforming to AASHTO M218 or from structural plates conforming to AASHTO M167 depending on the pipe size requirements. The dimensions of the pipes shall conform to AASHTO M36. All pipes shall be clearly identified by marking on each section the following information :i) name of manufacturer; ii) diameter of pipe; iii) gauge number; iv) date of manufacture. The above markings shall have been marked by the manufacturer.

3.9.4.4 Spigot and Socket Pipe Culverts The pipes shall be laid on Type B bedding in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. The bedding material shall be accurately shaped by a template to fit the lower part of the pipe exterior for a height of at least 10% of the outside diameter of the pipe. Gaps shall be left in the bedding material and recesses dug in the earth foundation of sufficient width and depth to accomodate the socket without it resting on the bottom of the recess. The widths of the recesses in the foundation and the bedding shall both exceed the width of the socket by more than 50 mm. Jointing of the pipes shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's recom mendations, all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Concrete pipes as specified above shall be laid true to line and level, each pipe being separately boned between sight rails. Pipes shall be laid in an upstream direction with the sockets towards the inlet and shall rest on even foundations for the full length of the barrel. Rubber ring joints shall be installed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Prior to jointing, rubber rings and jointing surfaces shall be cleaned of all contaminants except for specified lubricants. The spigot of each pipe shall be inserted concentrically in the socket of the one previously laid, and the pipe then adjusted and fixed in its correct position with the spigot correctly entered in the socket.
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Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.L Corrugated metal pipe culverts shall be bedded on Type B bedding as specified in SubSection 3.3. Bolt holes along circumferential seams shall have spacings of not more than 314 mm. the pipe sections or plates shall be coated with an approved bitumen coating at the factory by the hotdip process for Type A as specified in AASHTO M190.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works For pipe material conforming to AASHTO M218 (corrugation 68 mm pitch x 13 mm depth) with diameters of 1500 mm or smaller. except those at the plate corners.4 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar shall comply with the requirements of SubSection 3.10.2.O. Diameters of bolt holes in the longitudinal seams. 3. The S.5 Bedding Material The Contractor shall submit to the S. K.9. may order further tests in the sections supplied to Site at the rate of not more than 1 in 100.O.2 Bitumen Coating Where specified.75 times the diameter of the bolt. the material test certificates from the manufacturer showing the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the base metal and the amount of zinc coating for every lot of pipes supplied. The galvanising on bolts and nuts must meet the requirements of ASTM A153.10.O.3 Bolts and Nuts All bolts and nuts shall be of high strength carbonated steel meeting the provisions of ASTM A449 and ASTM A563 Grade `C' respectively. Before coating. The bolt holes in the circumferential seams. Bolt holes in the circumferential seams shall have spacings of not more than 254 mm.2.2. 3. For pipe material conforming to AASHTO M167 (corrugation 150 mm pitch x 50 mm depth) with diameters of 1500 mm or larger. Cawangan Jalan. shall not exceed the bolt diameter by more than 6 mm. Notwithstanding the above. Page 71 . any damage to the galvanising shall be made good in a manner approved by the S. 19 mm diameter bolts shall be used. 12 mm diameter bolts shall be used. All costs on such tests shall be borne by the Contractor. including those at the plate corners. 3.10. shall not exceed the bolt diameter by more than 3 mm.O.5. The minimum distance from the centre of a hole to the edge of a plate shall be 1.10. the Contractor shall satisfy the S.2. 3.2. Four bolt holes per 300 mm of longitudinal seam shall be provided and these shall be staggered in rows 51 mm a apart with holes in one row in the trough and holes in the other row in the crest of the corrugation. as to the adequacy of all bolted connections.

where damaged.O.4.9. Special attention shall be given to the sequence of tightening bolts and the specified torque to be applied during assembly.5. 3.9. The lining shall be constructed after completion of earthworks and wingwalls. the work shall comply with Sub-Section 3. or any equivalent alternative standard acceptable and approved by the S.O. strutted. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 Description 3. aprons and sumps and channel protection works.11. and protected during construction in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.10.3 Excavation and Backfilling for Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts Unless otherwise directed and/or approved by the S.2. jointing.2 Materials 3.1 (c).10. a 1:3 cement mortar lining shall cover the inverts of the pipes to a thickness of 25 mm above the crest of the corrugations over a minimum of one third of the circumference centrally Cawangan Jalan.2. This work shall comprise the supply and installation of precast box culverts inclusive of excavation.11.11.11. be repaired and made good with further application of the bitumen coating.3 Bedding Material Precast box culverts shall be bedded on Type B bedding as specified in Sub-Section 3. 3.1 Precast Box Culverts Precast box culverts shall be of approved manufacture complying with Australian Standard Specification 1597 Part 1. 3. construction of headwalls.9.3.11 PRECAST BOX CULVERTS 3.1 General The culvert sections shall be assembled. bedding.10.2.2 Cement Mortar 1:3 cement mortar for jointing of precast box culvert sections shall conform to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works placed along the entire length of the culvert. all in accordance with this Specification and the details shown on the Drawings.2. 3. K.L Page 72 . Where the open ground method is approved. or where directed by the S.2 Mortar Lining For corrugated metal pipe culverts of 1800 mm diameter or more. 3. for pipes of smaller diameters.1 (b). the pipe culvert shall be laid in a trench excavated in accordance with Sub-Section 3. After assembly the bitumen coating shall. wingwalls.4 Installation of Corrugated Metal Pipe Culverts 3.10.11.4.2. 3.2.3. backfilling.3..O.

4 Installation of Precast Box Culverts The type and size of precast box culvert to be installed at each location shall be as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S.3 Excavation and Backfilling 3.O. Type B bedding shall be laid on a layer of crushed aggregate of maximum particle size not exceeding 50 mm..L Page 73 .11. Where drainage conditions or other circumstances so require.1 (c).O.11.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Backfill shall be built up evenly on both sides of each box culvert along its entire length. levels and grades. and the precast box culvert shall then be constructed in a trench excavated in accordance with Sub-Section 3. the S.1 (b). Unless otherwise approved by the S.9. pavement construction has advanced to a stage which provides at least 300 mm of cover to the culvert.9. K. special requirements recommended by the manufacturer shall be complied with.4.3.11.11.4 in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. 3.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.. In addition. heavy plant and equipment shall not operate within 2.1 Excavation for Precast Box Culverts Unless otherwise directed by the S. using material conforming to the requirements of Sub-Section 3.3. where appropriate. Where specified on the Drawings or directed by the S. Precast box culverts shall not be installed at any location until the exact location.9.2 Backfilling Backfilling against precast box culverts and their appurtenant structures shall be carried out in accordance with the construction methods described in SubSection 3. in which case excavation and foundation preparation shall be in accordance with SubSection 3.2.3.5. Precast box culverts shall be laid on Type B bedding as specified in Sub-Section 3.O. the earthworks at the required location shall have been first constructed to a level at least 600 mm above the top of the culvert design levels or to the top of subgrade levels. may direct the Contractor to construct the precast box culvert without first constructing the earthworks to the level specified above. whichever is lower. 3.. Cawangan Jalan. the lines.O. 3. Special care shall be taken to properly compact backfill without disturbing or damaging the precast box culvert sections.O.2.2. the length of culvert and details of inlet and outlet structures have been con firmed by the S. prior to construction of a precast box culvert.3.0 m of any precast box culvert until backfilling and.

a 3 mm layer of 1:3 cement mortar shall be spread on top of the legs of the invert in order to ensure uniform bearing between the invert and lid. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The remaining space in the gap shall then be filled with Flexcell Expansion Filler.12 EXTENSION OF CULVERTS 3. In addition.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 3.12. Bakau piles shall be installed as shown on the Drawings.O.O. K. aprons and concrete bedding shall be demolished wherever indicated on the Drawings to expose the existing pipe culvert on the side(s) to be extended. Bakau piles shall be installed as shown on the Drawings.Extension joints shall be formed as shown on the Drawings by injecting Thioflex 600 .Gun Grade (manufactured by Expandite) or its equivalent to a thickness of not less than 25 mm in the 15 mm wide gap between the existing pipe and the new pipe. all to the satisfaction of the S. Lifting holes shall be filled with 1:3 cement mortar.Gun Grade (manufactured by Expandite) or its equivalent to a thickness of not less than 25 mm in the 15 mm wide gap between the existing box culvert and the new box culvert section. All joints shall be fully mortared with 1:3 cement mortar.O. The end of the existing box culvert to be extended shall then be wirebrushed or some other means employed to give a clean sur face. Cawangan Jalan.1 Extension of Pipe Culverts The existing wingwalls. aprons and concrete bedding shall be demolished wherever indicated on the Drawings to expose the existing box culvert on the side(s) to be extended. The remaining space in the gap shall then be filled with Flexcell Expansion Filler.2 Extension of Box Culverts The existing wingwalls. unless otherwise directed by the S.L Page 74 . 3. The end of the existing pipe culvert to be extended shall then be wire-brushed or some other means employed to give a clean pipe end.12. unless otherwise directed by the S. Extension joints shall be formed as shown on the Drawings by injecting Thioflex 600 .

Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 75 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 4 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Cawangan Jalan. K.

2.2.1.1.2.1.1 4.2 BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT COURSES Bitumen Prime Coat Description Materials Equipment Construction Methods Bituminous Tack Coat Description Materials Equipment Construction Methods Bituminous Surface Dressing Description Materials Equipment Construction Methods 4.1.2.3 4.4 Crushed Aggregate Roadbase 4.2 Subbase 4.1 Description 4.1.2.2 Materials 4.2.1 Description 4.1.2.2 4.4 4.1 4.2 Materials 4.3.2.4.3 Construction Methods 4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3 Construction Methods 4.2.3.1 UNBOUND PAVEMENT COURSES S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-78 S4-79 S4-79 S4-79 S4-80 S4-81 S4-81 S4-82 S4-83 S4-83 S4-83 S4-84 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-85 S4-87 S4-88 S4-88 S4-88 S4-88 S4-89 S4-90 S4-90 S4-90 S4-91 S4-93 4.2 4.2 4.1.2 4.2.1.3 4.2.2.1.2. K.4 Cawangan Jalan.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 4 .1.L Page 76 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.1.4.2.1.3 4.1.1.3.1.1 4.FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Page 4.2.2 Materials 4.1 Lower Subbase 4.3.3 Gravel Surfacing 4.4 4.3.2.1.2.1.3 4.1.3 Construction Methods 4.2.2.2 Materials 4.3 Construction Methods 4.2.1 4.1 Description 4.4.

2.4 4.4 Construction Methods HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT.2 4.2.2.3. K.3.1 4.4.2.5 4.4.5.1 4.4.4. SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY OF PAVEMENT COURSES Horizontal Alignment Surface Levels of Pavement Courses Surface Regularity S4-120 S4-120 S4-120 S4-121 4.4 4.3.2.3 4.1 4.2.2.2.2.4.5.3.2 4.2 4.5 4.2 Gravel Shoulders 4.2 Materials 4.1 Earth Shoulders 4.2.3 Cawangan Jalan.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Description Materials Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design Equipment Construction Methods Bituminous Macadam Description Materials Equipment Construction Methods S4-99 S4-99 S4-99 S4-102 S4-105 S4-110 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-116 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 S4-119 SHOULDERS Description 4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 4.2.2.2.1 4.5.3.3 4.3 4. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 77 .4 4.4.5.4.

1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing. all to the satisfaction of the S. before lower subbase is constructed. 1377 Compaction Test (4. in one layer or more. weathered or fragmented rock. 4. and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the crown on each side in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort. levels.1. 4.1. Lower subbase shall be placed over the full width of the formation to the required thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S. Each layer of lower subbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction.3 Construction Methods Prior to placing any lower subbase material.1. placing. the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) shall have been shaped and compacted in Cawangan Jalan.S. and shall have a CBR value not less than that shown on the Drawings when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.O.1.1. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness.2 Materials Lower subbase material shall be inorganic soil.1.L Page 78 . dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.1.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 2. SECTION 4 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 4. sand. each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4. compacting and shaping lower subbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade in accordance with this Specification and the lines. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.7.O.O.1 UNBOUND PAVEMENT COURSES 4.5 kg rammer method).5 kg. It shall have a maximum particle size of 75 mm or less. essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter and expansive clay minerals. gravel. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.1 Lower Subbase 4. or a mixture of any of these materials.O. and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S. any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.S. grades. K. 1377 Compaction Test (4. Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the roadbed.

5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.2. weathered or fragmented rock. 4.1.2. 425 um sieve. or a mixture of any of these materials. levels and grades. expansive clay minerals and lumps of clay. It shall have a small proportion of plastic or non-plastic fines and shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter.S. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :- Cawangan Jalan. gravel or crushed gravel.5 kg. and shall have an average thickness over any 100 metre length not less than the required thickness. grades. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.S.L Page 79 . The top surface of the lower subbase shall have the required shape. placing. 75 um sieve not greater than 2/3 of the fraction passing the B.S.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works i) the liquid limit shall be not more than 25%. 4.1.4. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in SubSection 4. sand.1.S.2 Subbase 4. iii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M. ii) the plasticity index shall be not more than 6.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing. 30 shall be not more than 35. 1377 Compaction Test (4. iv) unless otherwise specified on the Drawings or directed by the S. compacting and shaping subbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines. levels.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.. K. v) the gradation shall conform to one of the envelopes shown in Table 4. the material shall have a CBR value of 30 or more when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.2 Materials Subbase material shall be a natural or prepared aggregate comprising crushed rock.1 with the fraction passing the B. The lower subbase shall be finished in a neat and workman like manner. superelevation.

Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway.1.O.L Page 80 .S. Cawangan Jalan. all to the satisfaction of the S.O.O. care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts.0 mm 9. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5 kg rammer method). the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) or lower subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 2. 1377 Compaction Test (4. except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge.GRADATION LIMITS FOR SUBBASE MATERIAL B.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 4.1 .S. all to the satisfaction of the S.1.5 mm 4.7 or Sub-Section 4. each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness.O. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B. Throughout the placing.3 as appropriate. any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness.0 mm 25. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase. before subbase is constructed. Subbase shall be placed with equipment approved by the S.00 mm 425 um 75 um % Passing By Weight A 100 30-65 25-55 15-40 8-20 2-8 B 100 79-95 40-75 30-60 20-45 15-30 5-20 C 100 50-85 35-65 25-50 15-30 5-20 D 100 60-100 50-85 40-70 25-45 5-20 E 100 55-100 40-100 20-50 6-20 F 100 70-100 55-100 30-70 8-25 4.2.75 mm 2. adjustment of moisture content and compaction of subbase material.O.1. Each layer of subbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction. in one layer or more. and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.3 Construction Methods Prior to placing any subbase material.2. K. and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side. Sieve Size 50. over the full width of the formation to the required thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.

1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing.30 8 .2 with the fraction passing the B. The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :i) the liquid limit shall be not more than 35%. compacting and shaping gravel surfacing material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines.1.45 15 .00 mm 425 um 75 um Cawangan Jalan. ii) the plasticity index shall be in the range 4 to 10.1. 30 shall be not more than 35. 75 um sieve not greater than 2/3 of the fraction passing the B.70 20 . dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S. The top surface of the subbase shall have the required shape. superelevation.100 50 .GRADATION LIMITS FOR GRAVEL SURFACING % Passing By Weight B.45 8 . grades.2 . expansive clay minerals and lumps of clay.5 mm 12.85 40 .75 mm 2. 425 um sieve. iv) the gradation shall conform to one of the envelopes shown in Table 4. The subbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner.20 B 100 55 .S.50 8 .20 D 100 55 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 4.S.5 mm 4.2 Materials Gravel surfacing material shall be a natural or prepared soilaggregate mixture comprising gravel and sand size particles together with a small proportion of plastic fines.30 8 .85 35 . 4.3 Gravel Surfacing 4. Ibu Pejabat JKR. placing.O.90 40 .60 20 .75 30 .S.L Page 81 .3.25 37.20 C 100 60 . and shall be essentially free from vegetative and other organic matter. levels. iii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M. TABLE 4. Sieve Size A 100 45 . and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness.S. K.70 25 . levels and grades. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in SubSection 4.50 15 .65 25 .4.3.1. its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line.

O.1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction. each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. The gravel surfacing shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner.2.3. all to the satisfaction of the S.L Page 82 . adjustment of moisture content and compaction of gravel surfacing material. its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method). care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts.3 Construction Methods Prior to placing any gravel surfacing material. Ibu Pejabat JKR. except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge. and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness and its minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 20 mm. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B. all to the satisfaction of the S.S. in one layer or more. Gravel surfacing shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.O.O.5 kg. any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S.S. Each layer of gravel surfacing shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a Cawangan Jalan. before gravel surfacing is constructed. while otherwise not conforming to the gradation specification but satisfying the other requirements. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase.7 or Sub-Section 4. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort. and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S. the underlying subgrade (particularly the top 300 mm of the subgrade) or lower subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of SubSection 2.O.1.3 as appropriate. and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side. Throughout the placing. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness. Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway. Material with a maximum particle size of 37.O. shall be acceptable provided that it shall have a CBR value of 30 or more when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B. 4. K.5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.5 mm.1. 1377 Compaction Test (4.

40 10 . durable.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing. clean and essentially free from clay and other deleterious materials.4 Crushed Aggregate Roadbase 4.10 50. Sieve Size % Passing By Weight Type I Type II 100 85 . The material shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the plasticity index shall be not more than 6. iii) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M. 30 shall be not more than 30. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and shall be everywhere within 10 mm of the required plane or such higher.3 .1. which is hard. compacting and shaping crushed aggregate roadbase material on a prepared and accepted subgrade or lower subbase or subbase in accordance with this Specification and the lines.4.4. 4. as the S.2 Materials Crushed aggregate roadbase material shall be crushed rock. 1377 Compaction Test (4.S. levels and grades.65 30 .0 mm 10.80 40 .00 mm 600 um 425 um 75 um 100 95 .5 kg rammer method) and soaked for 4 days under a surcharge of 4.1.5 mm 28. shall approve. K. The top surface of the gravel surfacing shall have the required shape. Cawangan Jalan.100 70 . or crushed gravel.40 15 . vi) the material shall have a CBR value of not less than 80 when compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.0 mm 2. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S. 4.3 for the type specified. or a mixture of crushed and natural aggregates.S. vii)the gradation shall comply with the envelope shown in Table 4. ii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.90 40 .55 20 .5 kg.L TABLE 4. 4.S. v) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%.25 2 . placing.60 25 .0 mm 37.36 mm 2.30 8 – 22 0–8 Page 83 . superelevation.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iv) not less than 80% of particles retained on the B.O.GRADATION LIMITS FOR CRUSHED AGGREGATE ROADBASE B.0 mm 5.100 60 .75 mm sieve shall have at least one fractured face. approximately parallel plane. grades. 30 shall be not more than 30.100 60 . levels.1.S.O.0 mm 20.S.

L Page 84 . Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or lower subbase or subbase. Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway. and shall be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.O.1. or..5 kg rammer method). by motor grader.O. In all cases compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort. and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side. superelevation. except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge.O. before crushed aggregate roadbase is constructed. K.O. crushed aggregate roadbase shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction. The top surface of the crushed aggregate roadbase shall have the required shape.O. to not less than 95% Cawangan Jalan.2. 1377 Compaction Test (4. Spread material shall be maintained at the correct moisture content for proper compaction by sprinkling with water or drying as may be necessary. Throughout the placing. care shall be taken to maintain a uni form gradation of the material and prevent its separation into coarse and fine parts.4.4.S. in one layer or more. Crushed aggregate roadbase shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works of the maximum dry density determined in the B. any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or lower subbase or subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. all to the satisfaction of the S.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. Prior to spreading. and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. adjustment of moisture content and compaction of crushed aggregate roadbase material. the underlying subgrade or lower subbase or subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate Section of this Specification. all to the satisfaction of the S. levels and grades. each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness. Spreading shall be done by a mechanical spreader approved by the S. 4. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal thickness and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness.3 Construction Methods Prior to placing any crushed aggregate roadbase material. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4. The crushed aggregate roadbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner. if approved by the S.

2 BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT COURSES Bitumen Prime Coat 4. 161.O. 4.1 Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted crushed aggregate roadbase. 4.S.O. and shall be approved by the S.1. equipment for storing and heating bituminous material. Page 85 4.1. and shall be approved by the S. The distributor shall have a suitable capacity and shall be equipped with a gas or oil fired heating system capable of heating a full charge of bituminous material to l80°C. grade SS-1 or SS-1K. The tank shall be insulated in such a manner that when filled with bituminous material at l80°C and not heated. all in accordance with this Specification and the lines.S. K.1 4.2.O.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Power Broom The power broom shall be a rotary type specifically designed for sweeping road surfaces.2. and as necessary. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.O. Cut-back bitumen shall be grade RC-70 or MC-70 conforming to the requirements of M. as appropriate to the type of roadbase material to be primed and approved by the S.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and the furnishing and application to the cleaned roadbase surface of a bituminous priming material.3 Equipment The equipment used by the Contractor shall include a power broom. a self-propelled pressure distributor for bituminous material.7 N/sq. in capacity at 0. (b) Compressed Air Blower The compressed air blower shall comprise a portable air compressor of 3 cu. The heating system shall be such that overheating of the bituminous material will not occur and shall be of a type in which flames from the burner do not come into direct contact with the casing of the tank containing the bituminous material. Cawangan Jalan. Bitumen emulsion shall be slow setting. a compressed air blower.2 Materials The bituminous priming material shall be either cut-back bitumen or bitumen emulsion as stated in the Bill of Quantities. conforming to the requirements of M.mm delivery pressure with a suitable hose and nozzle for blowing clean a road surface after power brooming.m/min. 159.L . It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder.1. (c) Pressure Distributor for Bituminous Material The distributor shall be a purpose built model of recognised manufacture and shall be approved by the S.2.

all at the Contractor's own expense. As directed by the S.m at normal distributor operating speeds. K. The S.0 litres/sq. may require such performance tests as he considers necessary to check that the distributor is operating satisfactorily. testing apparatus. tools. The distributor shall run on pneumatic tyred wheels of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface when the vehicle is fully charged shall not exceed l2 kg/mm of tyre width. The distributor shall be equipped with a full circulation type spray bar with nozzles from which the bituminous material is sprayed on to the road surface uniformly over the full spraying width.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 0. The tank shall be fitted with an accurately calibrated dipstick or contents gauge.25 to 8. The vehicle shall be equipped with a `fifth wheel' tacheometer system to accurately measure its forward speed during spraying operations.0 metres. The spray bar shall be controlled by a second operator riding at the rear of the vehicle in such a position that all the discharge sprays are in his good view. pumping pressure and temperature shall be located in such a manner that the vehicle driver can easily read them while operating the distributor. and the pipe for filling the tank shall be fitted with an easily replaceable filter. materials.. such that deviation from the prescribed rate of application shall not exceed 10%. On the suction side the pump shall be fitted with an easily replaceable filter. If in the course of the work the rates of application of bituminous material are found to be inaccurate. the distributor shall be withdrawn from the Works and recalibrated to the satisfaction of the S. The spraying width shall be variable in increments of not more than 100 mm up to a maximum of 5.O.. The distributor shall be equipped with a hand spraying system. etc. the drop in temperature shall be less than 3°C per hour. All measuring equipment on the distributor shall have been recently calibrated. A thermometer shall be provided to measure continuously the temperature of the bituminous material in the tank and shall be so arranged that the highest temperature in the tank is measured.L Page 86 . The meters for the `fifth wheel' tachometer system and the bituminous material pumping flow rate. and accurate and satisfactory records of the calibrations shall be submitted to the S.O. the Contractor shall make the distributor and its equipment available for such tests and shall supply all necessary assistance. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. The spray bar and pump shall be so designed that bituminous material at even temperature and uniform pressure may be sprayed uni formly over the spraying width at controlled rates in the range Cawangan Jalan. The spraying pump shall be driven by a separate power unit and shall be equipped with an accurate pressure gauge and an accurate flow rate gauge or meter. before being returned to service.O.

barrel decanters shall be equipped with heating systems which provide for effective and positive control of the temperature of the bituminous material at all times up to the temperature required for utilisation. warm weather when the surface to be treated is essentially dry. the crushed aggregate roadbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Section 4.4 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bitumen prime coat work shall only be carried out in dry. and such that no portion of the bituminous material shall be subject to overheating. The tanks and. the spraying temperature shall be in the range 25°C to 45°C. The method of heating shall be such that neither flames nor the products of combustion shall come into direct contact with the bituminous material or the casing of its immediate container.4. the full width of the surface to be treated shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished crushed aggregate roadbase. any damage to or deterioration of the roadbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. but shall usually be in the range 0. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system. For bitumen emulsions. Immediately prior to applying the bituminous material. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to applying the prime coat. scraped using hand tools to remove all dirt. if necessary. all to the satis faction of the S. K. 4.O. Cawangan Jalan.3. where necessary.0 litre/sq. based on the results of test applications.O.m. dust and other objectionable material. Ibu Pejabat JKR. before prime coat is applied. all to the satisfaction of the S.5 to 1.1.L Page 87 .O.1.O.2. The temperature of cut-back bitumen shall be maintained in the range 50°C to 70°C during spraying operations. (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous priming material shall be sprayed on to the cleaned roadbase surface by means of a pressure distributor. (d) Storage and Heating Facilities for Bituminous Material Tanks for storage of bituminous material shall have a capacity suited to the proposed rate of utilisation of the material and the method and frequency of its delivery to the Works.

3. The surfaces of structures. for the prime coat to achieve maximum penetration of the roadbase and become fully cured.O. Prime coat shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking.1. all to the satisfaction of the S. and the furnishing and application to the cleaned surface of a bituminous tack coat prior to the construction of an overlying bituminous pavement course. bituminous material additional to that prescribed shall be applied as the S.2 Materials Bituminous tack coat material shall be rapid setting bitumen emulsion of grade RS-1 or RS1K conforming to the requirements of M. in the opinion of the S. (d) Curing and Opening to Traffic Prime coat shall normally be left undisturbed for at least 24 hours after application and shall not be opened to traffic until. Where the condition of the treated surface indicates that it is necessary.2.O.2.2 Bituminous Tack Coat If necessary. 161. Cawangan Jalan.2.2. gutters. K. shall direct. all in accordance with this Specification and the lines. the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed.. 4. it has penetrated the roadbase and cured sufficiently so that it will not be picked up by the wheels of vehicles. the pre scribed prime coat shall be applied in two separate spraying operations.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall maintain the prime coat.O. Areas with insufficient bituminous material shall be resprayed as necessary to make up the deficiency.L Page 88 . 4. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. which shall not be within 24 hours after the application of the bituminous priming material nor within such longer period as is required. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains. 4. until the overlying pavement course is constructed. all to the satisfaction of the S. road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material.S. in order to prevent the bituminous material from flowing on the sprayed surface.3 Equipment The equipment shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.O.2.O.. in the opinion of the S.O. etc. 4.1 Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course.2.

dry. dust and other objectionable material. gutters. and areas with insufficient bituminous material shall be resprayed as necessary to make up the deficiency. K.2. road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material. all to the satisfaction of the S. based on the results of test applications. bituminous or bitumen primed surface.4 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bituminous tack coat shall only be applied to a clean.25 to 0. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to applying bituminous tack coat. and if necessary.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous tack coat shall be sprayed on to the cleaned bituminous or bitumen primed surface by means of a pressure distributor.m. all to the satisfaction of the S.2. Bituminous tack coat shall only be applied as far in advance of the construction of the overlying bituminous pavement course as is necessary to achieve a satis factory degree of tackiness before the overlying material is placed.L . Tack coat shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking. The temperature of the bituminous material shall be maintained in the range 25°C to 45°C during spraying operations. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the full width of the surface to be treated shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower. scraped using hand tools. the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed. Areas with bituminous material in excess of these limits shall have the excess removed at the Contractor's expense. all to the satisfaction of the S.55 litres/sq. Immediately prior to applying bituminous tack coat.O. etc. The surfaces of structures. but shall usually be in the range 0.O. any damage to it or deterioration of it shall be made good before tack coat is applied.O. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface. the surface to be treated shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification.O. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains. Page 89 4. Cawangan Jalan. to remove all dirt. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.

S.O.O.O. 4. Bitumen emulsion shall be rapid setting of grade RS1.O.O. or bitumen emulsion as shown on the Drawings or otherwise specified.O. (c) Aggregates for Bituminous Surface Dressing For single bituminous surface dressing the cover aggregate shall be nominal 20 mm. all to the satisfaction of the S.2 Materials (a) Bituminous Material Bituminous binder for bituminous surface dressing shall be penetration graded bitumen.2. all in accordance with this Specification and the lines. RS-1K.3. The grade of emulsion selected shall be anionic or cationic as appropriate to the type of rock from which the cover aggregate is derived. Ibu Pejabat JKR.S. 14 mm. Cut-back bitumen shall be grade RC-70 or MC-70 conforming to M.S. K. and the furnishing and placing on the cleaned surface of one or two applications of bituminous material and cover aggregate. Page 90 Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at all times. or cut-back bitumen. 161.O. 159. 10 mm or 6 mm size chippings as shown on the Drawings and/or directed by the S.1 Description This work shall consist of the careful and thorough cleaning of the surface of a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course. for such time as is necessary to produce a homogenous mixture. The additive shall be of a type approved by the S.2. RS-2. When one application of bituminous material and cover aggregate is placed the term `single bituminous surface dressing' (SBSD) shall apply. 124.3. (b) Additives for Bituminous Material An adhesion and antistripping agent shall be added to the bituminous material if the S. Cawangan Jalan. until the overlying pavement course is constructed.3 Bituminous Surface Dressing 4. shall so direct or approve. the term `double bituminous surface dressing' (DBSD) shall apply. 4. and shall be approved by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Penetration graded bitumen shall be 80-100 grade con forming to M. and the required quantity of additive shall be thoroughly mixed with the bituminous material in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or as directed by the S.2. and when two applications of bituminous material and cover aggregate are placed. RS-2K or RS-3K conforming to M. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S.L . and the Contractor shall maintain the tack coat..

The equipment shall include a power broom. sound. Cover aggregates shall be screened. For double bituminous surface dressing the cover aggregate for the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be nominal 20 mm size chippings. model type. tough. and shall furnish the S. all necessary equipment for storing and heating bituminous material. and the cover aggregate for the second application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be nominal 10 mm size chippings. AASHTO Test Method T 182. if any.2. a self-propelled pressure distributor for bituminous material. aggregate spreading equipment. with such details of particular items of equipment. Ibu Pejabat JKR. manufacturer. shall require. ii) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M. e. the coated area in the coating and stripping test for bitumen aggregate mixtures. 30 shall be not less than 40. capacity.O. flaky or elongated particles. Cover agregates shall conform to the following physical and mechanical requirements :i) using the type of bituminous material to be used in the Works. 30 shall be not more than 25. angular and cubical chippings free from vegetative and other organic matter. clay and other deleterious substances. Dusty chippings shall be washed clean. hard. as the S. weight.S.L Page 91 .O. v) the polished stone value when tested in accordance with M. etc. a compressed air blower. 4. shall not be less than 95%. vi) the gradation shall con form to the appropriate envelope shown in Table 4. a suitable number of tip-trucks and a selfpropelled pneumatic tyred roller. treated with additive if so required.3 Equipment The Contractor shall provide all the plant and equipment necessary for executing the work in accordance with this Specification.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iii) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%.S. all to the satisfaction of the S.g.. K. Cawangan Jalan. 30 shall be not more than 30. and containing few.4.S.O. iv) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M. crushed stone and shall comprise clean.3. dry.

L Page 92 . Cawangan Jalan.10 0-2 Nominal 6 mm Chippings 100 85 . all to the satisfaction of the S.100 0 . K.10 25.3 (b)..2.3 (d).0 mm 14.1.0 mm 20.2.25 0 . (c) Pressure Distributor for Bituminous Material The distributor shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.O.O.100 0 .3(a).100 0 . Sieve Size Nominal 20 mm Chippings 100 85 .20 0 .1.1. (b) Compressed Air Blower The compressed air blower shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.1. (e) Aggregate Spreading Equipment Aggregates shall be placed using mechanical spreaders of a type approved by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR.20 0-5 0-2 Nominal 14 mm Chippings 100 85 .S. capable of spreading aggregate in accordance with this Specification.3(c). The spreaders shall be capable of applying aggregate uniformly over the full width of the area being treated and shall have controls to regulate the rate of spread as required by this Specification.75 mm 2.3 mm 4. (d) Storage and Heating Facilities for Bituminous Material Storage and heating facilities for bituminous material shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4. (f) Tip-Trucks The Contractor shall provide a suitable number of tip-trucks of a type approved by the S.36 mm (a) Power Broom The power broom shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.0 mm 10.4 .0 mm 6.2.100 0 .O.GRADATION LIMITS FOR BITUMINOUS SURFACE DRESSING % Passing By Weight B.2.20 0-5 0-2 Nominal 10 mm Chippings 100 85 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 4.

L Page 93 .mm. The roller shall be equipped with means of adjusting its total weight by ballasting so that the load per wheel can be varied in the range 1.04 N/sq. Five wheels shall be on the driven axle and four on the steering axle. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be self-propelled and capable of being reversed without backlash. the ballasted weight and the tyre inflation pressure shall be adjusted to meet the requirements of each particular operation. with a calibration chart for the roller showing the relationship between the quantity or depth of ballast and total weight.3. tyre inflation pressure and contact pressure. sprinkler systems and pads of coconut matting to keep all tyres evenly wetted during operation.4 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Bituminous surface dressing shall only be carried out in dry.2.mm.O. warm weather when the surface to be treated is dry. it shall be equipped with power steering and dual controls allowing operation from either the left or right side.9 N/sq. unsatisfactory condition of materials. Cawangan Jalan. The S. The Contractor shall provide the S.0 tonnes. Ibu Pejabat JKR. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. 4. equipment or (g) Pneumatic Tyred Roller The pneumatic tyred roller shall be of recognised manufcature and shall be approved by the S. Means shall be provided for checking and adjusting tyre pressures at all times at the place of the works.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works In operation.O. The roller shall have nine wheels equipped with smooth treaded tyres all of the same size and construction. all equally spaced on both axles and arranged so that the tyres on the steering axle track midway between those on the driven axle with a small overlap. Each tyre shall be kept inflated at the specified pressure such that the pressure difference between any two tyres shall not exceed 0. and capable of operating at inflation pressures of up to 0. Work shall be discontinued when rain appears imminent and during periods of strong wind.0 to 2. The roller shall be equipped with water tanks. K. may order the discontinuation of work on account of adverse weather.O. and also a chart showing the relationship between wheel load.

Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface.m 0. scraped using hand tools to remove all loose particles.5 .0 . TABLE 4. In double bituminous surface dressing construction.m Cawangan Jalan. The rate or rates of application shall be as directed by the S.O.0 litre/sq. Immediately prior to commencing surface dressing.5 litre/sq. dirt. if necessary. the full width of the surface to be treated.7 .O. shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and. based on the results of laboratory tests and/or test applications but for penetration graded bitumen shall usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4.L Page 94 .2. or such other conditions as he shall consider detrimental to the work.m 1.0 .m 1. the surface to be treated shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification. any damage to or deterioration of it shall be made good before surface dressing is commenced. surface to be treated.5.0 litre/sq. the surface of the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate shall be similarly made good and cleaned. immediately prior to commencing the second application. together with an additional 300 mm width on each side.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Application of Bituminous Material The bituminous material for a single bituminous surface dressing or for each application of bituminous material and cover aggregate of a double bituminous surface dressing. K.1.1. shall be sprayed on to the cleaned surface to be treated by means of a pressure distributor. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to constructing a bituminous surface dressing. Any areas inaccessible to the distributor spray bar shall be treated using the distributor's hand spraying system.5 RATES OF APPLICATION OF PENETRATION GRADED BITUMEN Nominal Size of Aggregate Rate of Application of Penetration Graded Bitumen 20 mm 14 mm 10 mm 6 mm 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. all to the satisfaction of the S.3. dust and other objectionable material.2 litre/sq.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.SPRAYING TEMPERATURE FOR BITUMINOUS The rates of application for cut-back bitumens and bitumen emulsions shall be commensurately higher depending on their residual bitumen contents. K.6.O. and it shall not be resumed until the fault has been rectified to the satisfaction of the S. the quantities applied shall not deviate by more than 10% from those prescribed. Adjustments shall be made as necessary to ensure that the prescribed rate of application is maintained in subsequent runs. Cawangan Jalan. The rate of application shall be checked for each spraying run by measuring the volume of bituminous material in the distributor before and after spraying and the area treated.L Page 95 . an the progress of spraying the bituminous material shall be restricted as necessary to comply with this requirement. The bituminous material shall be distributed uniformly over the surface to be treated without streaking.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The spraying of bituminous material over any portion of the surface to be treated shall not be carried out more than two minutes in advance of placing the cover aggregate on that portion at the specified rate. The temperature of the bituminous material shall be maintained during spraying operations within the appropriate range given in Table 4. Spraying shall be discontinued immediately if any defect develops in the distributor.6 . Any bituminous material which has been heated to spraying temperature for more than ten hours or which has been overheated shall be rejected. Bituminous Material Spraying Temperature 150 oC to 165 oC 50 oC to 65 oC 25oC to 45 oC 80-100 penetration grade bitumen Cut-back bitumen grade RC-70 or MC-70 Bitumen emulsions Bituminous materials Bituminous materials shall not be heated to spraying temperatures too soon in advance of requirements. TABLE 4.

Each spraying run shall commence and terminate on lengths of building paper placed across the full spraying width immediately before and after the section to be sprayed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Provision shall be made for a volume of bituminous material of at least 10% of the capacity of the distributor. to remain in the distributor tank at the completion of each spraying run.O. The surfaces of structures. Bituminous material shall not be discharged into road drains. Ibu Pejabat JKR. dry cover aggregate shall be uniformly spread over the bituminous material using mechanical spreaders approved by the S. (d) Application of Cover Aggregate Before each spraying run of bituminous material commences. the clean. gutters. in order to avoid air entrapment within the bitumen spraying system. K. In cases where the bituminous material is applied in lanes there shall be a small overlap of bituminous material at the joints between lanes equal in width to the edge strip of the sprayed area which does not receive the full rate of application of bituminous material.O. Sufficient building paper shall be placed so that the distributor may be started and stopped with the spray bar over paper. for transverse joints. shall direct. all to the satisfaction of the S. or such other quantity as the S.O. Cawangan Jalan. sufficient aggregate to provide full cover at the prescribed rate of application over the entire area to be sprayed shall have been loaded in trucks at the Site of the Works in readiness for spreading.O. Immediately following the application of the bituminous material. road furniture and trees adjacent to the areas being sprayed shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred by bituminous material. and so that the correct distributor road speed and rate of spraying can be maintained over the entire length of the section to be sprayed. joints in the second application of bituminous material shall be offset from those in the first application by 150 300 mm for longitudinal joints and by at least 1. For double bituminous surface dressing. where possible.0 metre. the building paper shall be removed and disposed of in a manner approved by the S.L Page 96 . Immediately after use and before application of cover aggregate. etc.

O. or by sampling and measuring the aggregate spread on the road. The rate of application of cover aggregate shall be as directed by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The rate of application shall be checked for each spraying run from measurements of the quantities of aggregate in the trucks and the area treated. the aggregate shall be rolled with a pneumatic tyred roller approved by the S. Immediately following the spreading of the aggregate to the satisfaction of the S. all to the satisfaction of the S.O.O. and for no portion of the surface to be treated shall there be a delay of more Page 97 The aggregate shall be placed as quickly as practicable after the application of bituminous material on all parts of the area to be covered.RATES OF APPLICATION OF COVER AGGREGATE Nominal Size Rate of Application of Aggregate 20 mm 14 mm 10 mm 6 mm 17 – 27 kg/sq. K.m 5 – 8 kg/sq.7 TABLE 4. but shall usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4. The trucks feeding the aggregate to the mechanical spreaders shall operate backward during aggregate spreading in order that the wheels of the spreaders and trucks shall not run on uncovered bituminous material. Any bare or insufficiently covered areas shall be made good by hand spreading as quickly as possible. based on the results of laboratory tests and/or tests applications. to embed the aggregate in the bituminous material.L . Aggregate in excess of the rate prescribed shall be evenly distributed over the surface or removed as quickly as possible.m Cawangan Jalan.m 8 – 12 kg/sq. the edge of the aggregate spread adjacent to an untreated lane shall coincide with the edge of the sprayed area which receives the full rate of application of the bituminous material.. Rolling shall commence as quickly as practicable after the application of the bituminous material and aggregate on all parts of the area to be covered. and for no portion of the surface to be treated shall there be a delay of more than two minutes between the application of the bituminous material and the spreading of the aggregate.7 . This will leave a narrow strip of bituminous material of partial thickness which shall be overlapped by the bituminous material spray and aggregate spread of the adjacent lane. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. In cases where the surface dressing is constructed in lanes.m 12 – 18 kg/sq.

3. Nevertheless. the bituminous material has hardened sufficiently to prevent the dislodgement of embedded aggregate by the action of the power broom. Where it is necessary to allow earlier use of the finished surface to facilitate the movement of traffic. in the opinion of the S. where it is necessary to facilitate the movement of traffic. However.. Rolling shall generally begin at the outer edge of surface dressing and progress uniformly towards the centre on each side.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works shall then proceed as soon as is practicable. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be ballasted to an operating weight of 9 . vehicles may be allowed to run on the work after rolling has been completed. all loose aggregate shall be swept from the treated surface using the power broom and compressed air blower and disposed of to the satisfaction of the S.2. construction of the second application of bituminous material and cover aggregate Cawangan Jalan.10 tonnes and its tyre inflation pressure shall be 0. Rolling shall be continued for as long as is necessary to thoroughly embed the aggregate in the bituminous material. When. Ideally. (e) Opening to Traffic Bituminous surface dressing shall normally not be opened to traffic until such time as. all to the satisfaction of the S.53 N/sq. in the opinion of the S. the first application may be opened to traffic prior to construction of the second application. except on super elevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge.4 (d).mm for surface dressing work.O.L . Where the dressing so prepared is the first application of a double bituminous surface dressing. the surfacing shall have developed sufficient strength to withstand normal traffic forces without dislodgement of the aggregate. This will usually be not less than 24 hours after the completion of rolling.O. traffic movement on the completed Page 98 than 3 minutes between the application of the bituminous material and the commencement of rolling. The finished surface shall subsequently have to be closed temporarily to enable the loose aggregate to be swept off and disposed of as described in Sub-Section 4..O.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Consecutive roller passes shall generally overlap by about one half of the roller's width. the first application of bituminous material and cover aggregate of a double bituminous surface dressing should not be opened to traffic before construction of the second application. provided that speeds are restricted to 30 km per hour or less and sharp turning movements are prohibited. K.

Fine aggregates shall be nonplastic and free from clay. vegetative and other organic matter. placing. or mining sand.S. K. The individual aggregates shall be of sizes suitable for blending to produce the required gradation of the combined aggregate. 30 shall be not more than 30. and shall include the careful and thorough cleaning of surfaces which are to be covered without receiving a bituminous tack coat. levels.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works organic matter. ii) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%. vegetative and other Cawangan Jalan. Page 99 first application shall be kept to a practicable minimum and the second application shall be constructed as soon as is practicable after the completion of the first. 30 shall be not more than 30. shaping and compacting asphaltic concrete binder course and/or wearing course on a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S. aggregations of material. Other types of fine aggregate may be used subject to the approval of the S. if necessary.O. Coarse aggregates shall be screened crushed hard rock. Fine aggregates shall be clean natural sands. 4. Mining sand shall be thoroughly washed before use. all to the satisfaction of the S.4.4 Asphaltic Concrete 4.L . and other deleterious substances.S. angular in shape and free from dust. iii) the flakiness index when tested in accordance with M. loam.4. They shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements :i) the aggregate crushing value when tested in accordance with M.2 Materials (a) Aggregates Aggregate for asphaltic concrete shall be a mixture of coarse and fine aggregates and. 4. v) the polished stone value when tested in accordance with M. and other deleterious substances. mineral filler. 30 shall be not more than 2%.2.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing.S. clay.O.2.2. 30 shall be not less than 40 (only applicable to aggregates for wearing course). The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines. grades. screened quarry fines.O.S. iv) the water absorption when tested in accordance with M. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Notwithstanding compliance with the requirements of this Specification.71 32 .0 mm 5. 30 shall be not more than 2%.8 They shall conform to the following physical and mechanical quality requirements:i) the weighted average loss of weight in the sodium sulphate soundness test (5 cycles) when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 104 shall be not more than 12%.100 64 .58 30 .L Page 100 . any other mineral filler.S.25 5 . K.89 56 . shall conform to the appropriate envelope shown in Table 4. ii) the water absorption when tested in accordance with M.8 .93 58 . Sieve 37. TABLE 4.GRADATION LIMITS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE Mix Type Mix Designation B.S.0 mm 14.81 46 .35 mm 1.18 mm 425 um 150 um 75 um Wearing Course ACW 20 Binder Course ACB 28 % Passing by weight 100 100 76 . together with ordinary Portland cement added as an adhesion and anti-stripping agent and.42 12 .52 18 .82 50 .100 72 .58 20 . limestone aggregates shall not be permitted for use in wearing course.28 6 .0 mm 3.0 mm 20.14 3-8 Cawangan Jalan. The gradation of the combined coarse and fine aggregates.38 11 .16 4-8 80 .0 mm 10.5 mm 28. if necessary. Ibu Pejabat JKR.75 36 .

522 and shall be dry.O. Notwithstanding the use of ordinary Portland cement as an anti-stripping agent as specified above. K.O. hydrated lime. and shall be thoroughly mixed with the bituminous binder. Not less than 70% by weight shall pass the B.4. 124.O. This job mix formula gradation. the ordinary Portland cement specified above. For each type of mix required in the Works. The amount of cement added for this purpose shall be 2% by weight of the combined aggregate. ordinary Portland cement does not per form satisfactorily as an anti-stripping agent.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works adhesion and anti-stripping agent. (Additional cement may also be added. with the allowable tolerances for a single test as specified in SubSection 4. the coated area at the end of the mixture's period of immersion in water shall be not less than 95%. (b) Mineral Filler Mineral filler shall be finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust. Accordingly. shall approve. the Contractor may propose to use another adhesion and anti-stripping agent in addition to. Where.. hydraulic cement. Such agent shall be of a type approved by the S. (c) Bituminous Material Bituminous binder for asphaltic concrete shall be penetration graded bitumen of 80-100 grade conforming to M. (d) Anti-Stripping Agent Ordinary Portland cement shall be added to the combined aggregate for asphaltic concrete to serve as an Cawangan Jalan. in the opinion of the S. if necessary.S.S. then becomes the job control envelope and this job control envelope must be totally within the limits of the appropriate gradation envelope in the above Table.3 (c). shall direct or approve.S. Such tests shall be carried out in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 182. free flowing and free from agglomerations at the time of use. the Contractor shall carry out bitumen stripping tests with the proposed aggregates to demonstrate to the complete satisfaction of the S. At the time of mixing with bitumen it shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and shall be essentially free from agglomerations. the Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the bitumen binder adheres satisfactorily to the aggregate and does not strip from it during the service life of the asphaltic concrete. The gradation envelopes in the above Table are purposely wider than the tolerances for good works control of asphaltic concrete mixes.O.L Page 101 .O. 75 um sieve. limestone dust. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. or wholly or partially instead of. or such other test methods as the S. that the aggregates will perform satisfactorily in service with the specified bitumen binder. When AASHTO Test Method T 182 is used. to serve as filler. or such other suitable material as the S. the Contractor shall establish a job mix formula gradation which shall consist of a single definite percentage passing for each sieve size in the above Table and shall produce a smooth curve within and essentially parallel to the appropriate gradation envelope.) Ordinary Portland cement for this purpose shall conform to the requirements of M.

the job mix formula for each class shall be prepared on the basis of testing several trial gradations within the limits set in Table 4. Aggregate which does not perform satisfactorily in the bitumen stripping tests.8 at an appropriate range of bitumen contents. iii) determination of the stability and flow values in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245.DESIGN BITUMEN CONTENTS ACW14 .Binder Course ACB 28 .9.Binder Course 5. and hence the percentage of air voids in the compacted mix.9 . K.5 .0% Cawangan Jalan. the Contractor shall propose a job mix formula for each class of mix required in the Works. the agent shall be added to the bitumen binder used in the bitumen stripping tests in the appropriate amount and manner.6. all in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. each combination of trial gradation and bitumen content) shall be subject to a comprehensive Marshall method test and analysis as follows :i) preparation of specimens for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows/face compaction standard.10.L Page 102 . the parameters of the above tests and analyses shall conform to the requirements of the appropriate type of mix as given in Table 4.0 % 4. the design bitumen content will usually be in the appropriate range given in Table 4.0 . For each trial mix conforming to a proposed job mix formula.0 – 7. the percentage of voids in the compacted aggregate filled with bitumen.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works A sample of each trial mix (i.Wearing Course ACW14 .e. Ibu Pejabat JKR. ii) determination of the bulk specific gravity of the specimens in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 166. In such a case.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design (a) Job Mix Formulae After obtaining supplies or production (as applicable) of all aggregates consistent as to gradation and other qualities. using the approved adhesion and anti-stripping agent when appropriate.6.2. iv) analysis of the density and voids parameters to determine the percentage of voids in the compacted aggregate. In order to attain optimum quality of the mixtures. shall not be used in asphaltic concrete.5 % 4. TABLE 4. As a guide to the testing range of bitumen contents.4. 4.

0mm > 225 kg/mm 3. full details of his proposed job mix formula for each class of mix required in the Works including :i) the gradation analysis of each aggregate to be used in the mix. the smallest of which shall generally be not more than 3.2 mm. iv) the gradation analysis of the aggregate in each of the mixing plants' hot bins and of the mineral filler (including any ordinary Portland cement added as anti-stripping agent).0% .7. The Marshall density of an asphaltic concrete mix is defined as the average density of a set of three (3) test specimens moulded for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows per face compaction standard. Voids in the aggregate of a mix shall be calculated on the basis of the weighted average bulk specific gravity on an oven dried basis of the coarse and fine aggregate fractions (separated by the ASTM # 10 sieve or B. For combined aggregate with a water absorption of not more than 2. iii) the mixing plant screen sizes.80% Air voids shall be defined as the small pockets of air between the coated aggregate particles in a compacted asphaltic concrete mix.0 mm sieve) as determined in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 84 and T 85 as applicable. K. ii) the proportions for cold batching the aggregates.10 . the absorbed bitumen may be estimated on the basis that the absorption of bitumen will be approximately 20% of the water absorption.L .0% 75% .0% . Ibu Pejabat JKR.5.TEST AND ANALYSIS PARAMETERS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE Parameter Wearing Course Binder Course Stability S Flow F Stiffness S/F Air voids in mix Voids in aggregate filled with bitumen > 500 kg > 2. 2.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 4.S.85% 65% . Page 103 Cawangan Jalan.0% > 450kg > 2.0%. The Contractor shall submit to the S. The portion of the bitumen absorbed into the aggregate particles must therefore be allowed for when calculating the air voids.0 mm > 250 kg/mm 3.

v) the job mix formula gradation of the combined aggregate and filler. As a result of the plant trials. may require changes of any of the factors in each proposed job mix formula and further tests and analyses in order to attain optimum quality of the asphaltic concrete mixes. may require amendments to the job mix formulae. Should the S. and that the proposed mixes are satisfactory.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works As directed by the S. A minimum of 10 tonnes of each mix shall be placed in trial areas to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the S. (c) Compliance with the Job Mix Formulae The S.11. laying and compacting equipment conforms to the requirements of this Specification. or the mixing time if a continuous mix plant is to be used.O.O. the S. ix) the full results of the comprehensive Marshall method tests and analyses as described above for each trial mix used in determining the job mix formula.O. that the mixing.O. (b) Plant Trials After having received the S.. K. at any time have reason to believe that the materials and methods of mixing and laying are different from those approved. vi) the proportions for combining the hot bin aggregates and filler. The trial areas shall not be part of the Contract Works but shall be provided by the Contractor at his own expense. vii)the bitumen content (by weight of total mix).L Page 104 .'s final approval of the job mix formulae shall bind the Contractor to furnish asphaltic concrete mixes meeting the precise gradations and bitumen contents specified in these formulae within the tolerances set forth in Table 4. and for a satisfactory degree of compaction.O. Cawangan Jalan. and possibly additional plant trials before finally approving the mixes for full scale production and use in the Works. The S. further tests and analyses.O. and may order that asphaltic concrete works be discontinued pending further trials and testing.O.O. he shall so advise the Contractor. comprehensive sampling and testing of each class of mix shall be carried out to check for satisfactory compliance with its job mix formula.O. the Contractor shall arrange to mix. Ibu Pejabat JKR. They shall be approved by the S. viii)the dry and wet mixing times if a batch plant is to be used. Modifications to a job mix formula may only be made with the approval of the S.'s preliminary approval of his proposed job mix formulae. lay and compact asphaltic concrete conforming to the proposed formula for each class of mix required in the Works.

.0% + 3.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The plant shall be so designed as to enable consistent production of asphaltic Cawangan Jalan. manufacturer.0% 4. Fraction of combined aggregate passing 75 um sieve.2. etc. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 5. and shall include a power broom and compressed air blower as specified in Sub-Sections 4.18 mm sieves.TOLERANCES FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES ParameterPermissible Variation % By Weight of Total Mix Bitumen.2.0 mm and larger sieves. as the S.1.35 mm and 1.L Page 105 . (b) Asphalt Mixing Plant The asphalt plant shall be either a batch plant or a drum mix plant or a continuous mix plant of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S.0% + 2. + 0. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 3.11 .1.4. The equipment shall be the same as that required for preparing a surface for a tack coat.2% + 5. The mixing plant shall have a capacity suited to the Works and sufficient to enable the paver to operate more or less continuously when paving at normal speeds at the required thicknesses. e. weight.3 (b) respectively. K. Fractions of combined aggregate passing 425 um and 150 um sieves. model type. operating features.2.O. with such details of particular items of equipment.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 4.O. shall require. capacity.0% + 4.4 Equipment The Contractor shall provide all the plant and equipment necessary for executing the work in accordance with this Specification and shall furnish the S.3 (a) and 4.g. (a) Road Cleaning Equipment Road cleaning equipment will be required where asphaltic concrete is to be laid on a surface which is not to receive a tack coat.

accurate to within 0. A separate feed bin with an adjustable gate opening shall be provided for each aggregate to be included in the combined aggregate for the mix. and the aggregate will remain clean and not become coated with soot or oil. Scale dials and pointers shall be easily read from their operator's normal position without significant parallax errors. Tanks for storage of bitumen shall have a capacity suited to the proposed rate of utilization of the material and the method and frequency of its delivery to the Works. K. and all elements of the bitumen feeding system shall be equipped with heating systems or insulating jackets as necessary to provide for effective and positive control of the temperature of the bitumen at all times up to the temperature required for utilisation. all to the satisfaction of the S. The method of heating shall be such that neither flames nor the products of combustion shall come into direct contact contact with the bitumen or the casing of its immediate container. The burner shall be so designed that complete combustion of the fuel will be obtained. and Page 106 concrete mixes within the tolerances prescribed in this Specification. Scales shall be substantially constructed so that they shall maintain their accuracy after initial adjustment.O. Each bin shall be provided with an overflow pipe of such size and location as to prevent any backing up of material into other bins. The end of the return line discharging into the feed tank shall always be kept submerged in the bitumen in the tank in order to prevent oxidation of the returning hot binder. Scales for all weigh boxes or hoppers shall be of the springless dial type. Each bin shall be so constructed that representative aggregate samples can be readily obtained.2 mm. normally four bins will be required. The bitumen feeding system shall provide for continuous circulation of hot binder through the system and back into the feed tank. and where necessary barrel decanters. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and shall provide for a continuous and uniform flow of each aggregate required in the mix. The plant shall have a rotary drum dryer of satisfactory design for drying and heating the combined aggregate so that its temperature will be at the required level at the time it is mixed with the bitumen.O.L . The tanks shall be provided with means of measuring the volume of their contents at all times and of drawing off samples of the contents. all to the satisfaction of the S. and such that no portion of the bitumen shall be subject to overheating. The feed bins and gates shall be so constructed and equipped that they shall be readily accessible for calibrating at all times. The bins shall be arranged so as to provide separate dry storage for each screened fraction of the aggregate. adjusting and calibrating scales. .5% of the maximum load that may be required. each with a capacity of not less than twice the pugmill dead load capacity. The screens shall have a normal capacity slightly in excess of the maximum output of the mixing plant. The Contractor shall furnish not less than ten 25 kg test weights at the plant for checking. the smallest of which shall generally be not more than 3. Cawangan Jalan. The storage tanks.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The plant shall be provided with accurate mechanical means for uniformly feeding the aggregates into the dryer so that uniform production and temperature of the heated aggregates will be obtained. The screens shall be readily accessible for inspection. The plant shall include four (or more) storage bins for screened aggregates. The plant shall be equipped with four (or more) screens.

with a capacity of at least 500 kg of asphaltic concrete. and prevent leakage when closed. Ample and unobstructed space shall be provided on the mixing platform. The dicharge mechanism shall not leak or drip when closed. These gates shall have a quick and complete closing action. electric pyrometers or other thermometric instruments shall be fitted at the discharge chute of the dryer and in each hot aggregate storage bin to indicate the temperatures of the heated aggregates. and clear and unobstructed passage shall be maintained at all times in and around Cawangan Jalan. Suitable dial-scale mercury actuated thermometers. Separate dry storage shall be provided for mineral filler. The plant shall be equipped with a binder weigh bucket which shall be charged through a fast acting non-drip valve in the binder feed pipe located directly over the bucket. and the plant shall be satisfactorily equipped to feed filler into the mixer. The discharge gate shall be so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the weigh box or hopper into the mixer.L . all to the satisfaction of the S.O. inspection and maintenance of the plant. K. The plant shall be equipped with a dust collector so constructed as to waste the material collected or feed it uniformly to the heated aggregate.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works the truck loading area. Means shall be provided for checking the quantity or flow rate of binder entering the mixer. The bucket shall be suspended from its scale's lever mechanism and shall have a capacity sufficient to weigh out binder up to 20% of the weight of the pugmill dead load capacity. weigh bucket or flow meter. chains. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The bucket shall have a discharge mechanism which shall provide for rapid and complete emptying of the bucket in a thin uniform sheet or multiple sprays over the full length and width of the mixer. and spray bars. sprockets and other dangerous moving parts shall be properly guarded and protected. Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the prescribed temperature of the bitumen in the pipelines. The weigh box or hopper shall be suspended from its scale's lever mechanism and shall be sufficiently large to hold a full batch equal to the pugmill capacity without hand raking or spilling of the aggregate. capable of producing a thoroughly homogeneous mixture. The plant shall be equipped with adequate and safe stairways to the mixing platform and sampling locations. The plant shall be equipped with a weigh box or hopper for accurately weighing out aggregate from each of the screened aggregate storage bins. The batch mixer shall be a suitable twinshaft pugmill. All gears. Satisfactory means by either weighing or metering shall be provided to obtain the prescribed amount of bitumen in the mix within the specified tolerance. The clearance of the paddle blades from all fixed and Page 107 shall have means for observing the aggregate level. which shall be kept free from drippings from the mixer. An armoured thermometer with a range of 30 oC to 200 oC shall be fitted in the bitumen feed line at a suitable location near the discharge valve at the mixer unit. Special Requirements for Batch Plants Each storage bin for screened aggregate shall be provided with a bottom outlet gate so constructed as to prevent leakage when closed. pulleys. and guarded ladders and cat-walks shall provide access to all other positions as necessary for proper operation.

Special Requirements for Continuous Mix Plants Each storage bin for screened aggregate shall be provided with an accurately controlled variable orifice gate discharging on to an aggregate feed mechanism. The drum mixer length to diameter ratio shall be such as to ensure efficient drying and intimate mixing of aggregate. oil-fired and parallel flow type in which the aggregates and exhaust gases flow in the same direction. The discharge orifice shall be rectangular with one dimension variable by means of an adjustable and lockable gate. Test boxes shall have a capacity of not less than 100 kg each. A bypass chute shall be incorporated for sampling of cold aggregate. The plant shall have satisfactory means of effecting positive interlocking control between the flow of screened aggregates from the storage bins and the flow of binder from the meter or other proportioning device. until the closing of the mixer gate at the completion of the mixing cycle. This control shall Page 108 moving parts of the mixer shall be not more than 20 mm. If the pugmill is not enclosed it shall be equipped with a dust hood to prevent loss of fines from the mixture. The drum mixer shall be of an inclined. (The dry mixing period is defined as the interval of time between the opening of the aggregate weigh box or hopper gate and the start of discharging the binder weigh bucket. The mixer shall be equipped with an accurate time lock system for controlling the operations of a complete mixing cycle. Ibu Pejabat JKR. It shall lock the aggregate weigh box or hopper gate after charging the mixer with aggregate. it shall lock the binder weigh bucket discharge mechanism during the dry mixing and wet mixing periods. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works producing an accurate and continuous blend of the individual aggregate sizes from the cold feed compartment. These gates shall be used for accurately proportioning the screened aggregates for the mix. The cold feed system shall incorporate a device for moisture compensation capable of Cawangan Jalan.) The dry and wet mixing periods shall both be adjustable in increments of not more than 5 seconds from zero to not less than 120 seconds total for dry and wet mixing. Freshly mixed material shall be delivered and stored in a surge silo through a proper conveyor system.L . which shall have an indicator showing the distance it is open. Special Requirements for Drum Mix Plants The cold material feeder unit shall consist of not less than 5 compartments with suitable heaped capacity appropriate for the plant. The plant shall have means of calibrating the aggregate bin discharge gate openings by weighing test samples obtained by diverting the aggregate fed out of each bin into a suitable test box. and prevent leakage of any mix constituent when closed. Each bin shall be provided with a control gate and measuring feeder suitable for accurate blending of the aggregates on to the cold feed collecting conveyor. The wet mixing period is defined as the interval of time between the start of discharging the binder weigh bucket and the opening of the mixer gate. The discharge gate shall be so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the mixer. filler and binder over the full range of rated operating efficiencies.

O. The paver shall be self-propelled and capable of reverse as well as forward travel. Cawangan Jalan.O. It shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. It shall be equipped with a hopper at the front designed to receive the paving mixture from tip-trucks. to prevent adhesion of the asphaltic concrete. in order to maintain the depth at a level compatible with efficient mixing. so that the paddle tips just break out of the mixture at the height of their action. The trucks shall be equipped with covers of canvas or other suitable material to protect the asphaltic concrete. and prevent leakage of the mix when closed. K. or both. However for substantial adjustments of the mixing time. ridges. or such other liquid as the S. flat beds and sides.O. The discharging mixture shall pass over the dam into a hopper with a discharge gate so constructed as to allow rapid and complete emptying of the hopper. shall approve. the rate of feed of materials to the mixer (and hence output) should be changed. i.e.O. The mixer shall be equipped with a permanent gauge for measuring the depth of mixture in the pugmill and a manufacturer's calibration plate showing the volume of mixture in the pugmill at each increment of depth. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The binder shall be fed into the mixer through a spray bar directed on to the aggregate across the full width of the pugmill at the feed end. (d) Asphalt Paver The asphalt paver shall be of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S. The clearance of the paddle blades from all fixed parts of the mixer shall be not more than 20 mm. be accomplished by interlocking mechanical means or another positive method satisfactory to the S. tear marks or other irregularities. and shall have load capacities of not less than 5 tonnes. The screeding and compacting mechanism shall be capable of confining the edges of the material being laid without the use of stationary side forms. The mixing time shall be determined using the formula :Mixing time (seconds) = Dead weight of mix in pugmill (kg) Pugmill output (kg per second) and for a given output it may be varied slightly by adjusting the depth (and hence weight) of the mixture held in the pugmill by varying the dam height. The trucks shall have trays with smooth. shall be adjustable to strike off the mixture to the thickness and cross-section shape required. for transporting asphaltic concrete from the mixing plant to the paving works. and shall be controlled by an automatic levelling device to produce an even carpet of bituminous mixture with a uniform sur face texture free from indentations.L Page 109 . and shall have a mechanical distribution system for spreading the mixture evenly and without segregation over the surface to be paved in front of a screeding and compacting unit which shall be equipped with a suitable heating device. the configuration of the paddle blades. the inside of each truck tray shall be lightly and evenly coated with a soap or detergent solution. The continuous mixer shall be a suitable twin-shaft pugmill with an adjustable dam and paddles with reversible blade pitch for adjusting the volume of mixture held in the pugmill. Prior to loading.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (c) Tip-Trucks The Contractor shall provide a suitable number of tip-trucks of a type approved by the S.

any damage to or deterioration of it shall be made good before asphaltic concrete paving work is commenced. all to the satisfaction of the S. has received a bituminous tack coat which shall have achieved a satisfactory degree of tackiness. Cawangan Jalan. rolling and finishing work shall be carried out during daylight hours.L . with a calibration chart for each roller showing the relationships between the quantity or depth of ballast and total weight and rolling force.5 tonnes/metre of roll width. They shall be equipped with water tanks. Each steel wheeled roller shall be ballasted so that its total operating weight is in the range 8 to 10 tonnes and its driven roll (or rolls) shall exert a rolling force of not less than 3.O. All laying. levels. all to the satisfaction of the S.3 (g). If the surface to be covered is not to be provided with a bituminous tack coat. unless the Contractor shall have provided suitable floodlighting for the job site. However. unsatisfactory condition of materials.2. or such other conditions as he shall consider detri mental to the work. (e) Rollers A pneumatic tyred roller and two steel wheeled tandem rollers shall be provided. Steel wheeled rollers shall be selfpropelled and capable of being reversed without backlash.4.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 4.O.75 m and of finishing the pavement layer true to the required lines. grades. dirt. shall so approve.O. equipment or surface to be paved. to the satisfaction of the S. The Contractor shall provide the S. dust and other objectionable Page 110 The paver shall be capable of laying the bituminous mixture in paving widths in the range 2. may order the discontinuation of work on account of adverse weather. the surface to be covered shall have been prepared in accordance with the appropriate Sections of this Specification.5 to 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. then immediately prior to commencing asphaltic concrete paving. sprinkler systems and scraper blades to keep all wheels evenly wetted and clean during operation. K. dimensions and cross-sections. or if so specified. it shall be swept using a power broom followed by a compressed air blower and. (b) Surface Preparation and Cleaning Prior to constructing an asphaltic concrete pavement layer.5 Construction Methods (a) General Conditions Asphaltic concrete paving work shall only be carried out in dry weather when the surface to be covered is dry.3. The S. a three wheeled steel roller may be substituted for one of the tandem rollers if the S.O. subject to compaction by rolling.2.O. scraped using hand tools to remove all loose particles.O. they shall be equipped with power steering and dual controls allowing operation from either the left or right side. if necessary. Steel wheeled rollers shall conform to the requirements described hereunder. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of this surface. All rollers shall be of recognized manufacture and shall be approved by the S. The pneumatic tyred roller shall be as specified in Sub-Section 4.

the aggregates shall be screened into four (or more) fractions which shall be separately stored in the hot aggregate storage bins in readiness for mixing.2. all to the satisfaction of the S. all to the satisfaction of the S. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. care shall be taken to prevent segregation or uncontrolled combination of materials of different gradation.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Ordinary Portland cement and/or other mineral filler to be used in the mix shall be stored separately and kept completely dry. Immediately after heating. or added last to the aggregate weigh hopper. the sequence of weighing out shall commence with the largest sized aggregate and progress down to the fines.O. unless the S. and the total rate of feed shall be such that the plant's screens shall never be overloaded. where this is provided. (c) Aggregate Handling and Heating Each aggregate to be used in the asphaltic concrete mixes shall be stored in a separate stockpile near the mixing plant.O. then this shall be applied all in accordance with the provisions of SubSection 4. (d) Heating of Bitumen The binder shall be heated so that when delivered to the mixer it shall be at a temperature in the range 140ºC to 160ºC. (e) Mixing Asphaltic Concrete The mixing plant shall be so coordinated and operated as to consistently produce asphaltic concrete mixes within the tolerances prescribed in this Specification.2. If the surface to be covered is to be provided with a bituminous tack coat. In placing the aggregates in the stockpiles and loading them into the mixing plant's cold aggregate feed bins. The aggregates shall be dried and heated so that when delivered to the mixer they shall be at a temperature in the range 150ºC to 170ºC. The aggregates shall be fed into the dryer at a uniform rate proportioned in accordance with the appropriate job mix formula. The hot binder shall be weighed out into the binder weigh bucket in ccordance with the proportions prescribed in the job mix formula.O. shall otherwise approve. Its rate of feed into the plant shall be accurately controlled by weight or volumetric measurement.L Page 111 . Stockpiles of sand and other fine aggregates shall be kept dry using waterproof covers and other means as necessary. Cawangan Jalan. Mineral filler shall be weighed out into the filler weigh hopper. material.O. Segregated or contaminated materials shall be rescreened or rejected for use in the Works and removed from the mixing plant site. Mixing in Batch Plants For each batch the screened hot aggregates shall be weighed out into the aggregate weigh hopper in accordance with the proportions prescribed in the appropriate job mix formula. The rate of feed for each aggregate shall be maintained within 10% of the rate prescribed. in accordance with the job mix formula proportions. all to the satisfaction of the S.

4. During transportation. and shall usually be 45 seconds or more for dense graded mixtures. as required. combined in the plant. from the tip-trucks. the asphaltic concrete shall be protected from contamination by water. K. The volume of each batch shall be such that the tips of the pugmill paddle blades just break out of the mixture at the height of their action. Care shall be taken in the truck loading. this shall be sufficient so that all particles of aggregate are uniformly coated with bitumen. The materials shall then be carried through the pugmill and in the process be thoroughly mixed by the action of the paddles and dis charged over the dam into the stor age hopper. Any load which has cooled below the specified temperature in the truck shall be rejected for use in the Works and removed from the Site of the Works. The plant shall be so adjusted as to maintain the level of mixture in the pugmill such that the tips of the paddle blades just break out of the mixture at the height of their action.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works shall be as prescribed in the job mix formula.2.4 (b) Cawangan Jalan. Care shall be taken that no segregation of the mix occurs. which shall usually be in the range 5 to 10 seconds. dust. Ibu Pejabat JKR. dirt and other deleterious materials.2. each batch of asphaltic concrete shall be discharged from the pugmill either into a storage hopper or directly into a truck for hauling to the paving site. (g) Laying Asphaltic Concrete The sequence of laying operations shall be planned in advance by the Contractor and approved by the S.4.O. and shall usually be 45 seconds or more for dense graded mixtures. Except where asphaltic concrete is to be hand laid. The temperature of asphaltic concrete immediately before unloading from the truck either into the paver hopper or on to the road for hand spreading shall be not less than 125ºC. Page 112 The hot aggregates and filler shall be discharged into the pugmill and mixed dry for the dry mixing time prescribed in the job mix formula.L .4 (c). and fed continuously into the mixer. this shall be sufficient so that all particles of aggregate are uniformly coated with bitumen. After the completion of wet mixing. The mixing time (as defined in Sub-Section 4. The hot binder shall then be added and wet mixing per formed for the wet mixing time prescribed in the job mix formula. The hot binder shall be sprayed on to the combined aggregate as it enters the pugmill at the rate required to achieve the bitumen content pre scribed in the job mix formula. (f) Transportation of Asphaltic Concrete Asphaltic concrete shall be transported from the mixing plant to the site of the paving works in loads of not less than 5 tonnes using tip-trucks as specified in Sub-Section 4. hauling and unloading operations to prevent segregation of the mix. it shall be discharged directly into the paver hopper. Mixing in Continuous Mix Plants The screened hot aggregates and filler shall be fed continuously from their storage bins in accordance with the proportions prescribed in the appropriate job mix formula.

Page 113 . The specified thickness of the new surfacing shall be built up gradually from the vertical joint to avoid any bumps or ridges across the carriageway. Hand-casting of bituminous mix on to the machine finished surface shall be kept to the practicable minimum necessary for correcting blemishes and irregularities. laying shall commence along the lower side of the carriageway and progress to the higher side. Laying shall not be carried out in a downhill direction along any section of road. laying shall be carried out using a paver approved by the S.L Existing bituminous surfacing which new bituminous mix is to adjoin shall be cut back to present a straight. and compaction of mix in the immediately surrounding or adjacent areas shall be completed by hand methods. all to the satisfaction of the S. etc. drainage and sewerage manholes and the like. As far as is practicable. All laying of bituminous mix shall be such that after compaction by rolling the specified course or layer thickness and surface profile shall be achieved. e. on superelevated sections and on carriageways with cross-slope in one direction only. all to the satisfaction of the S.5 metre long against which to lay the new material. the paver shall be operated continuously and the supply of bituminous mix shall be regulated so as to enable continuous paving. Transverse joints in a paving lane shall be kept to a practicable minimum. (h) Construction Joints Generally each paving layer shall have a compacted thickness of not less than twice the nominal maximum aggregate size of the mixture. Ibu Pejabat JKR.. As far as is practicable. vertical edge not less than 25 mm deep and a smooth transition section not less than 0. Care shall be taken to achieve a uniform surface texture free from indentations. drainage openings through kerbs. all to the satisfaction of the S. Care shall be taken that no bituminous mix is placed on expansion joints at bridges. Alternatively.O. lutes and other hand tools. such areas and openings shall be protected by suitably shaped and secured boards or other materials approved by the S. bituminous mix shall be laid and compacted by hand methods as necessary around surfacing discontinuities of these types. inspection covers for utilities ducts. Where applicable.O.O. laying shall be carried out by hand methods using rakes. In any areas inaccessible to the paver.O. The Contractor shall provide accurate thermometers at the paving site at all times.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works and before laying restarts after each interruption of the paving operation. and shall check the temperature of asphaltic concrete in the paver hopper at regular intervals Cawangan Jalan. and that catchpits.O. ridges. and not more than 100 mm.. and intermittent stopping and restarting of the paver shall be avoided as far as is practicable. tear marks or other irregularities. At the commencement of initial rolling the temperature of asphaltic concrete shall be not less than 110ºC. remain properly open and serviceable. Material which has cooled below the specified temperature before laying shall not be used and shall be removed from the Site of the Works.g. and to prevent segregation of the mix. During laying operations. K.

hand tampers or other suitable means. The final rolling shall be carried out with an approved steel wheeled tandem roller and shall serve to eliminate minor surface irregularities left by the pneumatic tyred roller. the pneumatic tyred roller shall be ballasted to an operating weight of not less than 15 tonnes and its tyre inflation pressure shall be not less than 0. where possible.L . proper compaction shall be carried out using vibrating plate compactors. this shall be rolled first ahead of the normal pattern of rolling. Rolling shall generally commence at the lower edge of the paved width and progress uniformly to the higher edge.O. The steel wheeled rollers shall operate at speeds of not more than 5 km/hr and the pneumatic tyred rollers shall operate at speeds of not more than 8 km/hr. compaction by rolling shall commence as soon after laying as the material will support the rollers without undue displacement.5 metre. Generally.O. The principal heavy rolling shall be carried out with an approved pneumatic tyred roller immediately following the initial rolling.O.7 N/sq. except that where there is a longitudinal construction joint at the higher edge. No roller or Page 114 Where longitudinal or transverse joints are required in a layer of bituminous mix under construction. Also. the breakdown roller shall not pass over any previously unrolled mix when operating in the downhill direction. nevertheless the temperature of asphaltic concrete at the commencement of rolling shall be not less than 110ºC. before the adjacent area is paved. manholes. and the points at which the roller is reversed shall be staggered. However. all contact surfaces of kerbs. (i) Compaction of Asphaltic Concrete For each layer of asphaltic concrete. all to the satisfaction of the S. At all construction joints. gutters. Cawangan Jalan. when operating on gradients in excess of 4%. compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives equal compactive effort.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Initial (or breakdown) rolling shall be carried out with an approved steel wheeled tandem roller or three wheeled steel roller. Construction joints in a layer of bituminous mix shall be offset from those in any immediately underlying bituminous layer by at least 100 mm for longitudinal joints and at least 0. catchpits.. In any areas inaccessible to the rollers.mm. Ibu Pejabat JKR. In all cases. shall be similarly treated with a coating of bitumen emulsion before bituminous mix is placed against them. all to the satisfaction of the S. K. All rollers shall operate in a longitudinal direction along the carriageway with their driven wheels towards the paver. successive roller passes shall overlap by half the width of the roller. etc. a thin uniform coating of bitumen emulsion of grade RS-1 or RS-1K shall be brushed on to the vertically cut joint faces some 10 to 15 minutes before laying the next section of bituminous mix commences to ensure good bonding. for transverse joints. the material first laid and compacted shall be cut back to a vertical face for the full thickness of the layer on a line satisfactory to the S.

the Contractor shall cut core samples of not less than 100 mm nominal diameter at locations selected by the S.O. These core samples shall be used by the S. K. Rolling shall continue as long as is necessary to achieve the appropriate requirement as follows :Type of Pavement Layer Wearing course Binder course Required Compacted Density 98 . and the minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm. Where it is necessary to allow earlier use of the finished surface to facilitate the movement of traffic. vehicles may be allowed to run on the work after rolling has been completed. This will usually be not less than 4 hours after the commencement of rolling. whichever is applicable. Ibu Pejabat JKR.4.L Page 115 . Cawangan Jalan. (j) Finished Asphaltic Concrete Asphaltic concrete binder and wearing courses shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner.100% Marshall density Care shall be taken to prevent overcompaction of asphaltic concrete.m of mix laid. levels and grades. The rate of sampling shall be 1 sample per 500 sq. to determine the thickness of the compacted layer of mix and the compacted density of the material in accordance with either ASTM Test Method D 1188 or ASTM Test Method D 2726. (k) Opening to Traffic Asphaltic concrete shall not be opened to traffic until compaction has been completed and the material has thoroughly cooled and set in the opinion of the S.O. their widths shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. Within 24 hours of laying and compacting the bituminous mix. heavy vehicle shall be allowed to stand on newly laid bituminous mix before compaction has been completed and the material has thoroughly cooled and set.O. The top surface of a wearing or binder course shall have the required shape.100% Marshall density 95 . but not less than 2 samples for the work completed in each paving session.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works the average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. provided that speeds are restricted to 30 km/hr or less and sharp turning movements are prohibited. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4. superelevation. .

2. (c) Compacted Density The compacted density of bituminous macadam shall be as follows :Type of Pavement Layer Bound roadbase Levelling course Binder course Wearing course Required Compacted Density 90 . any other mineral filler. K.3 Equipment The equipment shall be all as specified in Sub-Section 4.5.2.5 Bituminous Macadam 4.2. shaping and compacting bituminous macadam roadbase and/or levelling course and/or binder course and/or wearing course on a prepared and accepted bituminous or bitumen primed pavement course.2.12. grades.2. Where the characteristics of the aggregates require a binder content other than that given in the above Table. and the same tolerances shall apply.4.2 Materials The materials for bituminous macadam (aggregates. 4. mineral filler.O. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines.5. together with ordinary Portland cement added as an adhesion and anti-stripping agent and. if necessary.5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5. except for the combined gradation requirements.2. bituminous binder and anti-stripping agent) shall comply with all the requirements of Sub-Section 4.1 Description This work shall consist of furnishing. and shall include the careful and thorough cleaning of surfaces which are to be covered without receiving a bituminous tack coat.5 for the construction of asphaltic concrete pavement courses shall apply as appropriate to the construction of bituminous macadam pavement courses with the following variations and additions.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 4.100% Marshall density Cawangan Jalan.100% Marshall density 90 . the gradation of the combined coarse and fine aggregates.2.4.2.O.100% Marshall density 98 . The temperature of bituminous macadam at the commencement of rolling shall be not less than 100 oC.4 Construction Methods All the provisions of Sub-Section 4.100% Marshall density 95 .4.4. levels.2. 4. shall conform to the appropriate envelope given in Table 4. the revised target binder content shall be agreed between the Contractor and the S. dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S. placing. (a) Aggregate Heating The aggregates shall be dried and heated so that when delivered to the mixer they shall be at a temperature in the range 140 oC to 160 oC. The binder content shall also be in accordance with Table 4. (b) Rolling Temperature 4.12.L Page 116 . For each bituminous macadam mix.

levels and grades. levels and grades.4. the average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4. The top surface of bituminous macadam roadbase shall have the required shape.4.O. and its average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. Cawangan Jalan.O. The Marshall density of each mix shall be determined using a sample (or samples) taken from the mixing plant soon after the commencement of preparing each mix for the Works. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Bituminous macadam levelling course shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner. The top surface of a wearing or binder course shall have the required shape. its width shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line.4. The bulk specific gravity of the specimens shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 166. superelevation. all to the satisfaction of the S. The Marshall density of a bituminous macadam mix is defined as the average density of a set of three test specimens moulded in the same way as asphaltic concrete specimens are prepared for the standard stability and flow test in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T 245 using the 75 blows per face compaction standard. and shall be every where within the tolerances for binder course specified in SubSection 4. superelevation.L Page 117 . The top surface of bituminous macadam levelling course shall have the required shape. superelevation. their widths shall be everywhere at least those specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. (Note : Stability and flow tests are not normally required for bituminous macadam mixes. and the minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm. its dimensions shall be as specified or shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. Bituminous macadam binder and wearing courses shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner. and shall be everywhere within the tolerances specified in Sub-Section 4.) (d) Finished Bituminous Macadam Bituminous macadam roadbase shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner..2.. levels and grades. K.

80 44 .100 65 .82 44 .21 2-8 100 85 .46 7 .0 mm 37.85 52 .100 70 .90 45 .5% Cawangan Jalan.72 39 .7 " ± 0.55 32 .21 2-8 100 95 .100 70 .25 2-6 100 90 .100 65 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.60 32 .5% 4.7 " ± 0.94 56 .21 2-8 by Weight 100 95 .100 71 .5 mm 28. K.12 .60 15 .95 58 . Test Sieve 50.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 4.46 7 .72 39 .5% 4.9 " ± 0.85 52 .0 mm 6.6% 5.0 " ± 0.5 " ± 0.6% 4.46 7 .76 44 .L Page 118 .55 32 .0 " ± 0.30 3-7 100 95 .GRADATION LIMITS AND BINDER CONTENTS FOR BITUMINOUS MACADAM Mix Type Bound Bound Roadbas Roadbase e BMR40 BMR28 Levelling Course BML10 Binder Course BMB28 Binder Course BMB20 Wearing Course BMW14 Wearing Coursex BMW20 Mix Designatio n B.60 32 .0 mm 10.100 71 .35 mm 1.18 mm 300 mm 75 mm % Passing 100 95 .45 15 .S.60 31 .5% 4.21 2-9 100 90 .65 30 .21 2-8 Binder Content 3.0 mm 20.3 mm 3.1 " ± 0.100 30 .0 mm 14.46 7 .95 56 .45 7 .5% 5.

3.2. compacting and shaping earth or gravel shoulder material on a prepared and accepted subbase or lower subbase or subgrade.O. Compaction shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction along the shoulder and shall generally begin at the outer edge and progress uniformly towards the carriageway. Prior to placing any shoulder material. the bituminous surfacing and underlying pavement courses shall be constructed as described in the appropriate Sections of this Specification.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Sub-Section 4.3.L Page 119 .1 Earth Shoulders Earth shoulder material shall be suitable material as described in Sub-Section 2. any damage to or deterioration of these underlying and abutting pavement courses shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. the underlying subbase or lower subbase or subgrade shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Cawangan Jalan. Where two or more layers are required they shall be of approximately equal shape and thickness.2 Materials 4. to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.3. 4.1. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of the underlying and abutting pavement courses. in one layer or more.3. 4. each layer not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness at the point of maximum thickness. 1377 Compaction Test (4.2.2. and the abutting carriageway structure course or courses shall likewise have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate Sub-Section or SubSections of this Specification.1 4. and shall then be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the S.1. 4.. levels. and none shall be less than 100 mm compacted thickness at the point of maximum thickness. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. Each layer of shoulder material shall be processed as necessary to bring its moisture content to a uniform level throughout the material suitable for compaction.3.5 kg rammer method).O. all in accordance with this Specification and the lines.3. K.3. dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings and/or as required by the S. before shoulder construction proceeds.S.3 Construction Methods Shoulders shall be constructed in stages or in one operation as directed or approved by the S.2.1.O. Shoulders shall be placed to the required width and thickness as shown on the Drawings or directed by the S. except on superelevated curves where rolling shall begin at lower edge and progress uniformly towards the higher edge.O.3 SHOULDERS Description This work shall consist of furnishing. grades.O. For paved shoulders. 4. but in no instance shall a shoulder be built up to a level higher than that part of the abutting carriageway structure which has been completed and accepted.2 Gravel Shoulders Gravel shoulder material shall conform to the requirements for gravel surfacing material set forth in Sub-Section 4.

1 The combination of permitted tolerances in the levels of different pavement courses shall not result in a pavement thickness less than that shown on the Drawings. and shall provide a flush joint with the carriageway surface and shall be uniformly free draining away from the carriageway. superelevation.2.2. The level of any point on the constructed surface of a pavement course shall be the design level subject to the appropriate tolerances given in Table 4. Each pavement course shall have an average thickness not less than that shown on the Drawings.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works be correct within a tolerance of + 50 mm and minus 0 mm from the centre-line.13. all to the satisfaction of the S. Page 120 .. channel blocks and edge lines which shall be laid with a smooth alignment within a tolerance of + 25 mm and minus 0 mm from the centre-line. shall be everywhere within 10 mm of the required plane. care shall be taken to maintain a uniform gradation of the material and prevent its seperation into coarse and seperate parts. Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the S. adjustment of moisture content and compaction of shoulder material.4. Shoulders shall be finished in a neat and workmanlike manner. SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY OF PAVEMENT COURSES Horizontal Alignment The horizontal alignment shall be determined from the centre-line of the pavement surface shown on the Drawings.8.O. crossfall and pavement course thicknesses shown on the Drawings.4 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT. 4. The top surface of each shoulder shall have the required shape.L Pavement Course Wearing Course Binder Course Roadbase Tolerance + 5 mm + 5 mm + 0 mm . Throughout the placing. The total width of carriageway and shoulder shall be everywhere at least that specified or shown on the Drawings on both sides of the centre-line. all to the satisfaction of the S. earth shoulders shall be turfed in accordance with Sub-Section 2.O. compaction shall be carried out in such a manner that each section receives compactive effort appropriate to its thickness.O. TABLE 4. The edges of the pavement as constructed and all other parallel construction lines shall Cawangan Jalan. except for kerbs.20 mm Subbase and Lower Subbase 4.20 mm + 10 mm .TOLERANCES IN SURFACE LEVELS OF PAVEMENT COURSES In all cases. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 4. all to the satisfaction of the S. levels and grades.13 .4. K.2 Surface Levels of Pavement Courses The design levels of pavement courses shall be calculated from the vertical profile.O.

L Page 121 . TABLE 4.TOLERANCES FOR SURFACE IRREGULARITIES Longitudinal Direction Transverse Direction Maximum Permissible Depth of Transverse Irregularities Class of Surface Regularity Maximum Permissible Number of Surface Irregularities Depth Exceeding 4 mm over over traverse traverse length length of 300 m of 75 m Depth Exceeding 7 mm over traverse length of 30 m 2 4 4 over traverse length of 75 m 1 2 3 Class SR1 Class SR2 Class SR3 20 40 60 9 18 27 4 8 mm mm 12 mm No longitudinal irregularity exceeding 10 mm shall be permitted for Class SR1 Surface Regularity and no longitudinal irregularity exceeding 15 mm shall be permitted for Class SR2 and Class SR3 Surface Regularities.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The traverse length of 300 m and its associated maximum permissible number of irregularities shall apply wherever the continuous length of the completed carriageway is 300 m or more. The permissible number of such longitudinal irregularities is indicated in Table 4.4. K. The transverse regularity of a newly laid surface shall be measured with a 3 m straight-edge and shall have no greater depression under the straight-edge than that shown in Table 4. A longitudinal irregularity is a variation in profile of the road surface as measured by the rolling straight-edge or wedge and straight-edge device.14 .3 Surface Regularity The regularity of surfaces shall be within the relevant limits given in Table 4.14. Where the total length of pavement is less than 300 m the measurements shall be taken on 75 m lengths.14 4. The class of Surface Regularity for each portion of the Works shall be as stated on the Drawings or in the Bills of Quantities. whether or not it is constructed in shorter lengths. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan.14.

K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 5 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT Cawangan Jalan.L Page 122 .

2.4.2.4. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.4.6 5.2 2 5.1 Side Forms for Manual Construction Cawangan Jalan.L Page 123 .1 Fixed Forms.3.3.2.4.2 Construction by Machine 5.2 Construction by Fixed Form Paving Machine 5.2.3 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Concrete Equipment 5.4. Rails and Guide Wires For Machine Construction 5.1 5.4 Manual Construction 5.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 5 .2 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS Cement Aggregate Joint Filler Joint Sealants and Seals Waterproof Membrane Curing Materials S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-125 S5-126 S5-126 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-128 S5-129 S5-131 S5-132 S5-132 S5-133 5.PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT Page 5.3 Construction by Hand-Guided Method 5.4.1 5.4 CONSTRUCTION Preparation of Subgrade or Subbase 5.1 5.2.4 5.3 Construction by Slip Form Paving Machine 5.2. K.4.1 5.2.5 5.3 5.4.2 5.4.

2 Transverse Contraction Joints 5.4 5.5.6.L Page 124 .1 Planes of Weakness 5.7 5.5 JOINTS Transverse Expansion Joints S5-133 S5-133 S5-134 S5-134 S5-135 5.6 Longitudinal Joints Transverse Construction Joints Sealing Joints Concrete Saw S5-135 S5-135 S5-135 S5-136 5.2 Measurement of Texture Depth : Sand Patch Method 5.1 5.2.6.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5.6.9 ROUNDING OF EDGES CURING REMOVING FORMS 5.3 5.10 OPENING TO TRAFFIC 5.1 5. K.2 Load Transfer Assemblies 5.5.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 5.5.6.1 Apparatus 5.5.8 5.2. SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY S5-139 Cawangan Jalan.2 Method 5.5.2.5 5.5.12 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENTS.5.6 SURFACE TEXTURE Texture of Running Surfaces S5-136 S5-136 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-137 S5-138 S5-139 S5-139 5.11 TREATMENT OF MANHOLES AND GULLIES 5.

(b) Cold-Poured Sealants Cold-poured sealants shall comply with the performance requirements for the Normal type of sealant given in B. It shall cure within 1 hour and remain active for not less than 4 hours.PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT 5. fine aggregate.4 Joint Sealants and Seals Joint sealants shall consist of hot or cold-poured compounds or pre formed seals as indicated on the Drawings and shall comply with the following requirements :(a) Hot-Poured Sealants Hot-poured sealants shall comply with the requirements of B. The sealant shall be applied after the curing period of the primer and within the period that the primer remains active.S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 5.2 2 Aggregate Coarse aggregate to be used for at least the top 50 mm of the slab shall have a polished stone value of not less than 40.2. Materials to be mixed and applied by hand shall be supplied in separate containers and shall be mixed in the correct proportions using a powered stirrer or mixer or any other method approved by the S. including all relevant requirements of Section 9.3 Joint Filler The expansion joint filler shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M153 or M213. K. 5. dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings.2 MATERIALS All materials shall conform to the relevant requirements in Section 9 of this Specification. SECTION 5 . with or without admixture.O. 5.S. 5. 5212. and in conformity with the lines.2. levels.1 Cement Cement shall be ordinary Portland cement unless otherwise shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.L Page 125 . Portland cement concrete shall consist of a mixture of Portland cement.2. coarse aggregate and water. The sealant shall be composed of a curing agent and a base resin. 2499 for Type A2 sealants. Cawangan Jalan. or a retarded cure if mixed by hand. grades.O. which shall be in such proportions as recommended by the manufacturer to provide a fast cure if the material is mixed and applied by special machines. In addition the following requirements shall also be complied with. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 5.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of constructing a Portland cement concrete pavement with or without reinforcement in accordance with this Specification.

(c) Gunning Grade Sealants Gunning grade sealants consisting of two-part poly-sulphide-based sealing compounds shall comply with B.6 Curing Materials The exposed surface of concrete pavements shall be cured immediately after the surface treatment by the application of one of the following curing materials :(a) White Pigmented Liquid Membrane-Forming Compound White pigmented liquid membraneforming compound shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M148. Type 2. (b) Aluminised Curing Compound Aluminised curing compound shall be stable and impervious to evaporation of water from the concrete surface within 60 minutes after application. Cawangan Jalan.S. The curing compound shall not react chemically with the concrete to be cured and shall not crack.S.1.O. Alternatively.2. peel or disintegrate within 2 weeks after application.L Page 126 . 5. poly-urethanebased sealing compounds may be used provided their performance is not inferior to B. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 4254.5 Waterproof Membrane Plastic sheeting shall have a minimum thickness of 125 um and shall be of a quality as approved by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works It shall have test certificates from an approved testing laboratory to show that the compound has a curing efficiency of 90%. 5. K. 4254 material. (d) Preformed Compression Seals Preformed compression seals shall be made from natural rubber and shall conform to the requirements contained in Table 5.2. The curing compound shall contain sufficient flaked aluminium in finely divided dispersion to produce complete coverage of the sprayed surface with a metallic finish.

% 40 Ageing Resistance. maximum.L Page 127 . 96 hours at 140 oC. % 0 to + 5 Recovery of Finished Seals.1 .2 hrs .2 hrs % 85 Note : All tests are in accordance with ISO Standards.elongation at break.SPECIFICATION FOR PREFORMED NATURAL RUBBER COMPRESSION SEALS Property.20 . % 400 Compression Set. 50 pphm. 24 hours at 100 oC. IRHD % % 0 to + 10 . minimum. maximum change from unaged values after 72 hrs + 0 hrs at 100 oC :. Cawangan Jalan. minimum. 20% elongation. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 5. after 72 hrs + 0 hrs at 100 oC.hardness . Ibu Pejabat JKR. maximum. Hardness. - No cracking Change in Volume after immersion in water for 7 days at laboratory temperature.25 Ozone Resistance. Units IRHD Requirement 55 + 5 Tensile Strength. MPa 15 Elongation at break. under 50% deflection.tensile strength . .

whichever is the greater. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 5.1 5. and in any case not more than 30 minutes. Cawangan Jalan. Rails and Guide Wires For Machine Construction (a) Fixed Forms and Rails All forms and rails shall be made of steel and be sufficiently robust and rigid to support the weight and pressure caused by the paving equipment.7 or 4. tie bars. free from play or movement in any direction. and shall be at least 15 mm thicker than the depth of the groove former.2 Equipment All equipment used such as batching plant and mixers shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. the underlying subgrade or subbase shall have been shaped and compacted in accordance with the provisions of Sub-Sections 2. 5. Notwithstanding any earlier approval of finished subgrade or subbase. the thickness of the top layer shall be not less than 50 mm or twice the maximum size of the coarse aggregate. having one pin fixed at each side of every joint. Forms shall be tightly joined together by a locked joint.5.1. etc.3.4 CONSTRUCTION Preparation of Subgrade or Subbase Prior to placing concrete pavement.2 Construction by Machine The concrete slab shall be constructed either by fixed form or by slip form paving plant in a continuous process in either one or two layers.O. shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Sub-Section 5. In one-layer construction. before the waterproof membrane is laid and the concrete pavement constructed.2 as appropriate and the waterproof membrane laid as required in the Drawings. after the completion of the bottom layer. Side forms for use with wheeled paving machines shall incorporate metal rails firmly fixed at a constant height below the top of the forms.2.3 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Concrete Concrete shall be of the grade shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. The forms shall be secured by using not less than three pins for each 3 m length. In two-layer construction.O.L Page 128 . as approved by the S. K. the slab reinforcement shall also be installed and fixed in accordance with the relevant requirements of Section 9. all of the required joint assemblies such as dowel bars.4.1 5.2..FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Prior to the placing of concrete.4. 5.3. any damage to or deterioration of the subgrade or subbase shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. if used.1 Fixed Forms.4. Placement of reinforcement and concreting of the top layer shall be done immediately. 5. 5.

. the forms shall be approved by the S. one of the wires shall be at a con stant horizontal distance from the required edge of the pavement within a lateral tolerance of ±10 mm.4. If the removal of forms results in any damage to the concrete the period of 6 hours shall be increased to that which is necessary to avoid further damage and the Contractor shall make good the damaged areas. The ends of the guide wires shall be anchored to fixing points which shall be not closer to the edge of the slab than the row of stakes and in no circumstances shall a guide wire be anchored to a stake. The stakes and guide wires shall be checked and approved by the S. The forms shall be straight within a tolerance of 3 mm in 3 m. b) Guide Wires Unless otherwise agreed by the S.2. Forms shall not be removed earlier than 6 hours after the completion of the construction of the slab. The forms shall be bedded on low moisture content cement mortar and set to the pavement surface level as described in the Contract within a tolerance of ±3 mm. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The bedding shall not extend under the slab.O. The guide wires shall be supported from stakes not more than 8 m apart by connectors capable of fine horizontal and vertical adjustment. K. (Each guide wire shall be at a constant height above and parallel to the required edges of the slab within a vertical tolerance of ±3 mm. Care shall be taken to prevent damage to the concrete and any projecting tie bars during the removal of the forms.O. 5.L . The guide wire shall be tensioned on the stakes so that a 500 gramme weight shall produce a deflection of not more than 20 mm when suspended at the mid-point between any pair of stakes. The rails or running surfaces shall be kept clean in front of the wheels of any paving machines.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works form paving plant..2 Construction by Fixed Form Paving Machine A fixed form paving train shall consist of separate powered machines which spread. In addition. prior to concreting. Concrete shall be discharged without segregation into a hopper spreader which is equipped with the means to control its rate of deposition on to the subbase or on to the lower layer.O. a guide wire shall be provided along each side of the slab to be constructed by slip Cawangan Jalan. compact and finish the concrete in a continuous operation. The con crete shall be spread in each layer Page 129 Forms shall be cleaned and oiled immediately before each use. The mortar or concrete bedding shall be broken out after use. Prior to concreting. The horizontal alignment for forms shall be to the required alignment of the pavement edge as described in the Contract within a tolerance of ±10 mm. There shall be no vertical step between the ends of adjacent forms greater than 3 mm.

The second or subsequent slabs shall be constructed either by supporting machines with flanged wheels on flat.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The regulation and finishing of the surface of the slab shall be carried out by a machine which incorporates twin oblique oscillating finishing beams which shall be readily adjustable for both height and tilt. The leading beam shall be vibrated. The beams shall weigh not less than 170 kg per linear metre. on each side of the slab that is being constructed. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The beams shall be supported on a carriage. flanged wheels on the paving machines shall not be run directly on the surface of any completed part of the slab. The concrete shall be compacted by vibration or by a combination of vibration and mechanical tamping so as to comply with Sub-Section 5.1 throughout the full depth of the slab. Before flangeless wheels or rails are used. or by replacing the flanged wheels on that side of the machine by smooth flangeless wheels. The deposited concrete shall be struck off to the necessary level by the underside of the hopper as it is traversed across the spreading machine. When a concrete slab is constructed in more than one width.L .bottom section rails weighing not less than 15 kg/m laid on the surface of the completed slab. The final regulation and surface finishing of the slab shall be carried out after any wet forming of joint grooves.1 and its surface shall be thoroughly cleaned and brushed to remove Page 130 without segregation and to a uniform uncompacted density over the whole area of the slab. the surface regularity of the slab over which they are to pass shall comply with Sub-Section 5. beam.5. This beam shall be readily adjustable for both height and tilt. the surface level of each loose spread layer shall be adjusted to the correct surcharge by means of rotating strike off blades or a screw device. The concrete shall be recompacted around the former by a hand held vibrating plate compactor drawn along or on each side of the joint. The machine shall be capable of being rapidly adjusted for changes in average and differential surcharge necessitated by changes in slab thickness or crossfall. prior to regulation of the surface by the diagonal finishing beam. any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed. Cawangan Jalan.4.3. or slab. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with Sub-Section 5. the level of which shall be controlled by the average level of not less than four points evenly spaced over at least 3. Poker vibrators shall be used adjacent to the side forms and the edge of previously constructed slabs. After the final regulation and before texture is applied. be of rectangular section and span the full width of the slab. The initial regulation and finish to the surface of the slab shall be effected by means of a beam oscillating transversely or obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the pavement. Prior to being compacted.5 m of the supporting rail.

The machines shall be of sufficient mass to provide adequate reaction on the traction units to maintain forward movements during the placing of concrete in all situations.3 Construction by Slip Form Paving Machine A slip form paving train shall consist of powered machines which spread. The alignment of the paver shall be controlled automatically from the Cawangan Jalan.5. Slip form paving machines shall have vibration of variable output.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works guide wires by at least one sensor attached to the paver. The groove former shall be compacted to the correct level by another vibrating float which may be included with the transverse joint finishing beam. shall be drawn over the surface along the joint. Any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed before the surface is textured. Ibu Pejabat JKR. texturing and curing of the concrete shall be automatically controlled relative to the guide wires or to the surface and edge of the slab. Where a concrete surface slab is constructed in more than one width or where the edge needs to be matched for level to another section of surface slab. The equipment for striking off the concrete shall be capable of being rapidly adjusted for changes in the average and differential sur charge necessitated by changes in slab thickness or crossfall.5 m per minute or pro rata for higher speeds.2. with a maximum energy output of not less than 2. Flangeless wheels or rails shall be positioned sufficiently far from the edge of the slab to avoid damage to that edge. The concrete shall be deposited without segregation in front of the slip form paver across its whole width and to a height which at all times is in excess of the required surcharge. The alignment and level of ancillary machines for finishing. at least 1 m wide. K. compact and finish the concrete in a continuous operation.5 kW per metre of slab per 300 mm depth of slab for a laying speed of up to 1.L . Page 131 all extraneous matter. The concrete shall be compacted around the former by a separate vibrating plate compactor with twin plates.4. and the surface levels at the edges are not achieved. The deposited concrete shall be struck off to the necessary average and differential surcharge by means of a strike-off plate or a screw auger device extending across the whole width of the slab. The level of the conforming plate and finishing beams shall be controlled automatically from the guide wires by sensors attached at the four corners of the slip form paving machine. In addition a hand held vibrating float. A slip form paving machine shall compact the concrete by internal vibration and shape it between sliding side forms or over fixed side forms by means of either a conforming plate or by vibrating and oscillating finishing beams. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with Sub-Section 5. 5. paving shall be carried out over separate fixed side forms supporting the edge to the required levels.

shall be fitted in position as shown on the Drawings.L . Any excess concrete on top of the groove former shall be removed before the surface is textured. The slabs shall be constructed in one layer. The concrete shall be spread uniformly without segregation or varying degrees of pre-compaction.O.4. Dowel bars. The surface shall be regulated and finished to the level of the top of the forms or adjacent slab or pavement layer by using twin vibrating finishing beams. The whole area of the slab shall be regulated by two passes of a scraping straight edge not less than 1. by conveyor.5 m to 1 m per minute whilst vibrating over the compacted surface to produce a smooth finish. Dowel bars.3 Construction by Hand-Guided Method Areas to be constructed by handguided method shall be agreed with the S. if specified.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Details of joints shall be as shown on the Drawings. internal poker vibration shall be used for slabs thicker than 200 mm and may be used for lesser thicknesses. The slabs shall be constructed in one layer. shall be fixed in position as shown on the Drawings. chute or by other means approved by the S. The concrete shall be struck off by a screed so that the average and differential surcharge is sufficient to ensure that after compaction the surface is to the required level.O.O.4. The beams shall be metal with a contact face at least 50 mm wide and a vibrating unit having a minimum centrifugal force of 4 kN with a frequency recommended by the manufacturer or an equivalent compactive effort. chute or by other means approved by the S.O.O. The concrete shall be compacted by vibrating finishing beams. and adjacent to the side forms or the edge of a previously constructed slab. the pokers shall be at points not more than 500 mm apart over the whole area of the slab. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with SubSection 5. The concrete shall be cured in compliance with Sub-Section 5. The concrete shall be compacted by internal poker vibrator or other means approved by the S. The vibrations shall be at points not more than 500 mm apart over the whole Page 132 5. In addition. tie bars and reinforcement.8. by conveyor.5. tie bars and reinforcement. Any irregularities at wet formed joint grooves shall be rectified by means of a vibrating float at least 1. The surface shall be brush-textured as described in Sub-Section 5.4 Manual Construction Areas to be constructed by manual method shall be agreed with the S. K. When used. 5. The vibrating beams shall be moved forward at a steady speed of 0. The concrete shall be struck off by a screed so that the average and differential surcharge is sufficient to ensure that after compaction the surface is to the required level.6.8 m wide or by a further application of a twin vibrating finishing beam.0 m wide drawn along the line of the joint. if specified. Cawangan Jalan. The concrete shall be spread uniformly without segregation or varying degrees of precompaction.

5 JOINTS Joints shall be constructed as specified herein and/or as directed or approved by the S. It shall be of approved shape. 5.5. 5.L .1 Transverse Expansion Joints The components for each transverse expansion joint shall be assembled in advance and placed in position as a unit.O. Page 133 area of the slab. K. this shall be repeated until the surface is of uniform texture. The screed shall be at least 600 mm longer than the width of the slab to be struck off and compacted. as shown on the Drawings. 5. Each assembly shall consist of an installing template.5. Any irregularities at wet formed joint grooves shall be rectified by suitable means approved by the S.4.4.1 Side Forms for Manual Construction All side forms shall be made of steel and be sufficiently robust and rigid to withstand construction forces.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works As soon as surplus water has risen to the surface. Details of joints shall be as shown on the Drawings. preformed joint filler of the required dimensions in a single piece. and adjacent to the side forms or the edge of a previously constructed slab. the underlying pavement course at those locations shall have been approved by the S. and free from porous areas.O. it shall be further smoothed. sufficiently rigid to retain its shape and constructed either of metal or of other material shod with metal. Ibu Pejabat JKR. If necessary. with out lifting. screeded and compacted by means of a longitudinal hand float or other equipment as approved by the S.1 as appropriate. The surface shall be regulated and finished to the level of the top of the forms or adjacent slab or pavement layer by using an approved portable hand screed.2.4. in a combined longitudinal and transverse shearing motion moving always in the direction in which the work is progressing. Cawangan Jalan.8.O. Timber forms shall only be used for work which is less than 200 m in length. The screed shall then be placed on the forms and slid along them. true to grade and contour. the pavement shall be given a broomed finish. Compaction shall be attained by raising and dropping the screed in successive positions until the required compaction and reduction of surface voids is secured. and spacing and supporting elements for the dowel bars. Preformed expansion joint filler shall be placed around each structure which extends into or through the pavement over the full interface with the concrete pavement slab before concrete is placed. dowel bars and sleeves of the required sizes and lengths at the required locations. Joint grooves shall be constructed in compliance with SubSection 5.O. The forms shall comply with other requirements of SubSection 5. The concrete shall be cured in compliance with Sub-Section 5. After the concrete has been struck off and compacted. Before any joint materials are set in place.

subject to a tolerance of not more than 1 in 100. The dowel supports shall be constructed so as to hold dowels in correct alignment. The installing template shall be metal plate of adequate rigidity approved by the S. When assembled. the top of the installing template shall be about 5 mm above the top of the preformed filler.1 Planes of Weakness (a) Sawn Grooves When sawn grooves are specified they shall be sawn in the con crete after its initial set.. The top of the filler shall be 10 mm below the required con crete surface. The assembly and its installation shall have been approved by the S. A dowel sleeve shall be fitted on to the coated end of each dowel. before any concrete is placed against it. cut to the required depth and crown of the slab and having a length 10 mm less than the required length of the joint.O.5. The filler shall be vertical and shall be in a plane at right angles to the centre line of the road. formed grooves shall be used.2. 5. Any procedure for sawing joints that results in premature and uncontrolled cracking shall be revised immediately by adjusting the sequence of cutting the joints or the time interval involved between the placing of the con crete or the removal of the curing medium and cutting of the joints.5. and the bottom shall rest on or extend slightly into the underlying pavement course. If extreme conditions exist which make it impracticable to prevent erratic cracking by early sawing. subject to a tolerance of not more than 1 in 500. 5.O. It shall be slotted from the bottom as necessary to permit removal. Ibu Pejabat JKR. All joints shall be sawn before uncontrolled shrinkage cracking takes place but not until the concrete has hardened to the extent that tearing and ravelling is not excessive. when shown on the Drawings.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Stakes for supporting the installing template shall be of a cross-section and length satisfactory to the S. usually 4 to 24 hours after placing. shall include load transfer dowel bar assemblies. Grooves shall be at right angles to the centre line of the pavement.2 Transverse Contraction Joints Transverse contraction joints shall consist of planes of weakness created by forming or cutting grooves in the surface of the pavement and. K. Suitable means shall be provided on the template for facilitating its removal. The joint assembly shall be placed so that the installing template is on the side of the filler remote from pouring operations. shall be true to line and shall have the width and depth shown on the Drawings.O. One half length of each dowel bar shall be thoroughly coated with a 200 pen bitumen blended with creosote oil or other material as approved by the S.O. Cawangan Jalan.L Page 134 . both vertically and horizontally.

5.4 Transverse Construction Joints Concreting operations shall be planned such that transverse construction joints shall be constructed at designed transverse expansion or contraction joints. tie bars 12 mm in diameter and 1 metre long at 600 mm centres shall be placed at the transverse construction joints. They shall be of similar construction to the assemblies for transverse expansion joints except that no joint filler shall be required and.5. this construction joint shall be formed at a designed transverse expansion or contraction joint. Immediately prior to sealing.5.5 Sealing Joints Joints shall be sealed as soon after completion of the curing period as feasible and before the pavement is opened to traffic. consequently. Cawangan Jalan.2. The bars shall not be painted or coated with bitumen or other material.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works When adjacent lanes of pavement are constructed separately. Planes of weakness shall be created by forming or cutting grooves as previously specified. Wire fabric or bar mat reinforcement shall extend across all such transverse construction joints. a transverse construction joint shall be constructed.2 Load Transfer Assemblies Load transfer assemblies for transverse contraction joints shall be as shown on the Drawings.5. Tie bars across a longitudinal joint shall be placed perpendicular to the joint and shall be rigidly supported as shown on the Drawings. 5. no installing template shall be used. including membrane curing Page 135 (b) Formed Grooves When formed grooves are specified. 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR. each joint shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign material. including construction traffic. they shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device into the soft. width and depth shall be as shown on the Drawings. transverse construction joints shall be constructed at least 3 metres from all transverse expansion or contraction joints. When this is not possible.L .3 Longitudinal Joints Longitudinal joints shall be constructed as shown on the Drawings. In such cases. freshly laid concrete. steel side forms shall be used which will form a key along the longitudinal joint as shown on the Drawings. The line. The tool or device shall remain in place until the concrete has attained its initial set and then be removed without disturbing the adjacent concrete. When there is an interruption of more than 30 minutes in the concreting operations.O. K. 5. As far as is practicable.5. Transverse construction joints shall be keyed or butt joints formed by placing suitable bulkheads approved by the S.

6 SURFACE TEXTURE 5. to the required dimensions and at the required rate. the Contractor shall provide sawing equipment adequate in number of Cawangan Jalan. Seals shall be installed using suitable tools.75 mm and not more than one test of each set shall show a texture depth of less than 0.1 Texture of Running Surfaces After the final regulation and before the application of the curing membrane. The use of sand or similar material as a cover for the seal will not be permitted. Any excess material on the surface of the concrete pavement shall be removed immediately and the pavement surface cleaned. All of this equipment shall be on the job before and continuously during concrete placement. Notwithstanding the above.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works units and power to complete the sawing with a water-cooled diamond edge saw blade. 5. The Contractor shall provide adequate artificial lighting facilities for night sawing. The type of brush and method of application for surface texturing shall be approved by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The pouring shall be done in such a manner that the material will not be spilled on to the exposed surfaces of the concrete. The seals shall be installed in a compressed condition and shall at time of placement be below the level of the pavement surface by approximately 5 mm. The Contractor shall provide at least one stand-by saw in good working order. all sealants shall be applied or installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or recommendations.65 mm.5. or an abrasive wheel. based on trial brushing to be conducted by the Contractor. The sealing material shall be applied in accordance with the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. 5. without elongation. In no case shall the maximum texture depth exceed 2 mm. An ample supply of saw blades shall be maintained at the site of the work at all times during sawing operations. K. The seals shall be in one piece for the full width of each transverse joint.L Page 136 . The average texture depth for each set of 10 tests shall not be less than 0. compound.6 Concrete Saw When sawing of joints is specified. and the joint faces shall be clean and surface dry when the seal is applied. The texture depth shall be determined by the sand patch test as described herein.6. and secured in place with an approved adhesive which shall cover both sides of the concrete joints. Preformed compression seals for sealing joints shall be of the crosssectional dimensions shown on the Drawings. the surfaces of concrete slabs to be used as running surfaces shall be brush-textured in a direction at right angles to the centre line of the carriageway.O. Sealing material to be applied hot shall be stirred during heating so that localized overheating does not occur.

1. and striking off the sand. ii) A flat wooden disc 64 mm in diameter with a hard rubber disc. For the sides of slip formed slabs or when the side forms are removed within the curing period. The cylinder shall be filled with the sand. The sand shall be poured into a heap on the surface to be tested.2. and for small areas where a mechanical distributor cannot be used. top edges of concrete slabs shall be worked with an approved tool and rounded to a radius of 5 mm.7 ROUNDING OF EDGES Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 31000 where D is the diameter of the of the D x D patch in mm. After brush texturing but before the concrete has attained its initial set.36 litre per square metre. stuck to one face. and the surface swept clean using a wire brush both at right angles and parallel to the centre line of the carriageway. in a circular motion so that the sand is spread into a circular patch with the surface depressions filled with sand to the level of the peaks. 5. It shall be mechanically sprayed on to the surface at a rate of 0. 5.2 Measurement of Texture Depth : Sand Patch Method 5. The sand shall be spread over the surface. the reverse face being provided with a handle.S. The mechanical sprayer shall incorporate an efficient mechanical device for continuous agitation and mixing of the compound in its container during spraying. edges of concrete slabs shall be rounded as follows.5 mm thick. the compound shall be sprayed by hand lance at a rate of 0.8 CURING The exposed surfaces of concrete pavement shall be cured immediately after surface texturing and rounding of edges by treating with a curing compound fulfilling the requirements of Sub-Section 5. In doing this.22 to 0.27 to 0. sieve. any extraneous mortar and/or loose material removed. level with the top of the cylinder. any tool marks a ppearing on the slab adjacent to the joints shall be eliminated by brooming the surface.25 ml capacity.6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.S.2.2. At all transverse joints. K.6.1 Apparatus i) A cylindrical container .O. 5. All concrete on top of joints shall be removed completely. tapping the base three times on a hard surface to ensure compaction. the rounding of the edge of the slab shall not be disturbed.2 Method The surface to be measured shall be dried. working the disc with its face kept flat. iii) Dry natural sand passing a 300 um B. sieve and retained on a 150 um B.27 litre per square metre using a fine spray. The texture depth in mm of concrete surfaces shall be calculated as:- Cawangan Jalan..6.L Page 137 . 5. dense mortar finish obtained.6. A well defined and continuous rounded edge shall be produced and a smooth. The diameter of the patch shall be measured to the nearest 5 mm.

The forms shall be removed carefully so as to avoid damage to the pavement. Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works In addition. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the entire surface shall be protected from the effects of solar radiation by the use of frames covered with material with heat and rain deflecting properties for not less than 4 hours after application of the curing compound. continuous. pin holes or abrasions exist. Any areas showing a minor degree of honeycombing shall be repaired with 1:3 cement mortar. Where the S. The compound shall form a uniform. coherent film that shall not crack or peel and shall be free from pin holes or other imperfections. As soon as forms are removed. Rope of moistened paper. Approved stand-by facilities or approved alternative methods for curing concrete pavement shall be provided at a readily accessible location at the site of the work for use in the event of mechanical failure of the spraying equipment or any other conditions which may prevent correct application of the membrane curing compound at the proper time. The curing membrane so formed shall be maintained intact for a period of not less than fourteen (14) days. the section of concrete removed shall be to the full width and depth of the slab and at least 3 metres long. K. all as specified above at no additional cost. Notwithstanding the foregoing. and the stand-by or alternative curing method shall be used on the remaining portion of the paving already placed. the work shall be considered defective and shall be removed and replaced at the expense of the Contractor. an additional coat shall be applied within 30 minutes to the affected areas. the ends of all expansion joints shall be cleaned of concrete and the full width of the filler exposed for the full depth of the slab. Necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure proper curing at the joints and that none of the curing compound enters joints which are to be sealed with joint sealing compounds. and the concrete in the region of the joint shall be sprayed with curing compound immediately after the rope seal has been installed. If discontinuities. concrete surfaces which are subjected to heavy rainfall within 3 hours after the curing compound has been applied shall be resprayed. and from any other cause which will disrupt the continuity of the membrane.L Page 138 . fibre or other suitable material shall be used to seal the top of the joint opening. considers that a major degree of honeycombing is present.9 REMOVING FORMS Forms shall not be removed until the freshly placed concrete has set for at least 6 hours. the paving operation shall be stopped. Concrete liable to be affected by running water shall be adequately protected from damage during the setting period. Concrete surfaces to which membrane curing compounds have been applied shall be adequately protected for the duration of the entire curing period from pedestrian and vehicular traffic. except as required for joint sawing operations and surface tests.O. In such cases. 5. In the event of a failure of the regular spraying equipment.

Cawangan Jalan. This concrete shall be of the same grade as that of the main slab. The Contractor shall erect and maintain suitable barricades and shall employ watchmen to exclude public traffic and that of his employees and agents from the newly constructed pavement. and the mix shall be modified as necessary to permit full compaction by the methods adopted. at his own expense.4 of this Specification. Reinforcement shall be placed as shown on the Drawings and concrete placed by hand in the space between the main slab and the manhole or gully frame.12 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENTS.10 OPENING TO TRAFFIC No pavement shall be opened to any traffic earlier than twenty-eight (28) days from the completion of concreting. shall direct. Alternatively. 5.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works fixed to the slab edges so exposed. levels and regularity of the finished surface shall be in compliance with Sub-Section 4. Any part of the pavement damaged by traffic or other cause prior to its final acceptance shall be repaired or replaced all at the expense of the Contractor in a manner suitably satisfactory to the S. Manholes and gully recesses shall be formed by casting the main slab against formwork boxes with vertical sides. placed and fixed accurately. Where. as shown on the Drawings. 20 mm thick. the recesses may be sawn out after the con crete has hardened. 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 139 . The formwork boxes shall be removed before the concrete around the manhole or gully cover is to be placed and preformed joint filler. 5.O. the Contractor shall. These barriers shall be arranged so as not to interfere with public traffic on any lane intended to be kept open and necessary signs and lights shall be maintained by the Contractor clearly indicating any lanes open to traffic. SURFACE LEVELS AND SURFACE REGULARITY The alignment. gullies and their frames shall be isolated from the main pavement slab as shown on the Drawings and their surrounds cast in separate operations.11 TREATMENT OF MANHOLES AND GULLIES Manhole covers. This shall be to the full depth of the slab allowing for the depth of the groove required for sealing. it is necessary to provide for traffic across the pavement.O. construct suitable and substantial crossings to bridge the newly constructed concrete pavement for as long as the S. K.

K.L Page 140 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 6 ROADSIDE FURNITURE Cawangan Jalan.

1.3 6.2 6.2.1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3.1.2.1.1.5.2 6.1 6.1.2.7 6.2.2 6.2.1 6. K.2.1.5.2.4 6.1.3 6.L Page 141 .4.2.2.1 6.9 Cawangan Jalan.2 6.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS Description Sign Definitions Sign Classification Standards Permanent Traffic Signs General Requirements Foundations Posts Sign Plate Sign Faces Backing Frames Construction and Assembly Location and Erection Covering of Permanent Traffic Signs 6.3 6.2.2.5 6.3.2.1.2 6.2.1 6.1.2.4 6.5.8 6.6 6.5.1 6.1.5.ROAD FURNITURE Page 6.1 6.4 6.5.5.5.4.3.3 6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 6 .2.2 6.5.1 6.1 CORRUGATED SHEET STEEL BEAM HIGHWAY GUARDRAIL Description Materials Beam Element Posts Installation of Guardrails Setting Posts (Timber or Steel) Placing Beams Anchorages Marking and Storage Marking Storage Basis of Acceptance Beam Elements Posts and Block-Outs S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-143 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-144 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-145 S6-146 S6-146 S6-146 S6-146 S6-147 S6-147 S6-148 S6-149 S6-149 S6-151 S6-151 6.1.5.2.5 6.1.1.5.5 6.2 6.

3 6.11 6.6 6.1 6.2.3.4.7 6.4 6.4.4.3.8 6.7 6.3.3.3.3.2 6.6 6.3.4 6.3 6.2 6.3.3.3 ROAD MARKINGS Description Road Marking Materials Preparation of Site Preparation of Material on Site Laying Protection of Markings Reflectorisation Thickness Tolerance on Width Defective Materials or Workmanship Clearing Up CONCRETE KERB Description Materials Installation of Kerbs Excavation Cast In Situ Kerb Precast Concrete Kerb Slipforming for Concrete Kerb Backfilling S6-153 S6-153 S6-153 S6-153 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-154 S6-156 S6-156 S6-156 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-157 S6-158 S6-158 6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.4 6.4.10 6.3.3.L Page 142 .5 6.3.2.3.4.9 6.3.8 Temporary Traffic Signs Traffic Signs On Gantries Preparation and Finish of Metal and Other Surfaces S6-152 S6-152 S6-152 6. K.3.3.2 6.4.1 6.4.4.1 6.2.3 6.5 Cawangan Jalan.

posts and other ancillary works. The block-out pieces. nuts and washers.1 CORRUGATED SHEET STEEL BEAM HIGHWAY GUARDRAIL Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of corrugated sheet steel beam highway guardrails inclusive of bolts. All cut faces shall be smooth and square as shown on the Drawings. and the Drawings.1.1.2. 733. Cawangan Jalan. 449 Part 1 Grade 43. Heavy hardwood can also be used as an alternative with the approval of the S. shall be channel sections of dimensions as shown on the Drawings and shall be of the same material as that used for the posts. The post shall be sound and free from loose knots or decay with no cracks at the top.ROAD FURNITURE 6. nuts. all conforming to the requirements of AASHTO Specification M180 and as necessary for erecting the guardrails as shown on the Drawings or as required by the S. (b) Timber Posts Timber posts and block-out pieces shall be of medium hardwood (except the species Merpauh and Rengas) as classified by the Malaysian Timber Industry Board in its publication `Malaysian Hardwood'. 6. K.S. Both the posts and blockout pieces shall be hot-dip galvanised in accordance with Sub-Section 6. Guardrail timber posts and blockout pieces shall be of the dimensions as shown on the Drawings. and as directed by the S.2 Materials 6.1. 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. corrugated sheet steel beam highway guardrails shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO Specification M180 for Class `A' Type II (galvanised) guardrail with effective length of beam 3810 mm (12 feet 6 inches). SECTION 6 .1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works if used.2 Posts (a) Steel Posts Steel posts shall be channel sections of dimensions as shown on the Drawings and the material shall conform to B.1 6.O. etc.1.S.O. The preservative retention in the outermost 25 mm shall not be less than 16 kg per cubic metre.1 Beam Element Unless otherwise specified on the Drawings. all in accordance with this Specification. Guardrails shall be fabricated and furnished complete with terminal or buffer sections. and shall be treated according to M.. connecting and splicing bolts.L Page 143 .2.O.2.1. The fibres of the block should run in the same direction as those of the post. All timber components shall be cut and drilled before treatment with preservative.

O.1. bolts. After the posts are in place.1.1.1 Setting Posts (Timber or Steel) Before posts are erected.4.1.5 Basis of Acceptance 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3. Posts shall be spaced as indicated on the Drawings.1 Beam Elements All material shall be subjected to inspection and sampling in accordance with AASHTO Specification M180 at a sampling rate of 1 in every 200 or as directed by the S.1.1.1. there is detection of non-compliance with the requirements of this Specification through random sampling carried out by the S.O. nuts and washers and posts shall be stored under a cover that will protect them from rain until they are erected or used.1. If.2 Placing Beams The guardrail beams shall be fixed and firmly bolted together with the block-out pieces on to the post to the lines and grades as shown on the Drawings.4 Marking and Storage 6. While in storage.5. K.1 Marking In addition to the marking specified in AASHTO Specification M180.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6.O. is satisfied that the Contractor is capable of installing the post to the designed depth. Page 144 Cawangan Jalan.O. Post holes at the correct positions shall be dug either manually or mechanically to the required level. 6. The cost of all sampling and testing shall be borne by the Contractor.L .O..4.2 Storage All galvanised beam elements. then the material of the lot will be rejected and the Contractor shall remove the same from the Site at his own cost. The Contractor shall provide and arrange the testing facilities and the test pieces as and when requested by the S. The posts shall then be set plumb in the holes with the front face forming a smooth line to the approval of the S.O. and as directed by the S. Posts may be installed by means of driving with suitable equipment if the S. 6.1. the holes shall be backfilled with grade 20/20 concrete compacted in such a manner as not to displace the posts from correct alignment as shown on the Drawings. terminal sections.3.3 Installation of Guardrails 6.3. the JKR logo shall also be marked on each beam element. 6. in the subsequent installation. 6. the alignment and finished levels of the guardrails shall be set accurately on site for approval by the S.3 Anchorages Anchorages shall be constructed as shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S.O. the material shall not be in direct contact with the soil and there shall be a minimum space of 300 mm between the lowest most elements and the ground surface. 6. line and level. accurately.O.

The Contractor shall provide and arrange the testing facilities and test samples at his own expense as and when instructed by the S.2 above or any part thereof designed by the Contractor with the approval of the S. application of paints and finishes. 6.2 Sign Definitions For the purpose of this Specification.O. K.L Page 145 . 6. traffic signs are defined as follows :i) Non-illuminated signs are those signs which are not lit either internally or externally and shall be retro-reflective. However. fixtures and fastenings.O.2. the S. reserves the right to conduct further tests on the materials supplied.1. brackets.2. to complete the work all to the satisfaction of the S. The steel which has been rejected by the S.1 Description This work shall consist of the supply.5.O.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS 6.O. to remain in position upon completion of the Works. (b) Timber For each lot of 200 pieces or less of either timber posts or timber block-outs supplied to the Site..2 above or any part thereof as designated on the Drawings or as directed by the S.3 Sign Classification For the purpose of this Specification.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works It shall include all excavation and backfilling. 6. reserves the right to conduct further tests on the materials supplied. ii) Externally illuminated signs are those which comprise either retro-reflective or non-retroreflective facing with external lighting luminaire.2. However.2. lighting units and electrical installations where required. the following clasifications shall apply :(a) Permanent Traffic Signs Any of the traffic signs defined in Sub-Section 6.2. shall be removed from the Site. all in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings and as specified herein. sign plates. the Contractor shall submit certificates from an approved testing laboratory certifying compliance with the properties required and the mill certificate. etc. Any of the traffic signs defined in Sub-Section 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. all necessary foundations. which will not remain in position at the completion of the Works.O. anchorages. assembly.O. the S. Cawangan Jalan. (b) Temporary Traffic Signs 6. erection and installation of sign faces. the Contractor shall submit a test report from an approved testing laboratory certifying compliance with specified timber species and other qualities.2 Posts and Block-Outs (a) Steel For each lot of 200 pieces or less of either steel posts or steel block-outs supplied to the Site. posts and backing frames.

All excavations.O.2.2 Foundations The type and size of foundations for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and. 873. Types of lock shall be kept to a minimum. signs supported by a single post placed in the ground shall have the post installed centrally in 300 mm diameter holes filled with grade 20/20 concrete complying with Section 9 of this Specification to within 450 mm of the ground surface. before placing of concrete and backfilling.1 General Requirements Permanent traffic signs shall be constructed.L Page 146 . except where specified otherwise. or other period agreed by the S.S.2.S. Traffic signs shall be carefully handled to prevent damage (methods shall include the use of proper slings). shall be provided to the S. located and erected as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the S. 6. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. erection of formworks. assembled. in the quantities determined by the S. published by Cawangan Jalan. Posts shall be supported for a minimum of three (3) days after placing the concrete. K.. comply with the requirements of ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) Series 2. Backfilling shall not take place until at least 48 hours after placing the concrete.'s approval the details of fabrication drawings for all signs. Ibu Pejabat JKR. unless otherwise stated therein. 6. etc. The hole shall be excavated either mechanically or manually.. Where signs are illuminated. shall comply with this Specification.5.5 Permanent Traffic Signs 6.5. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Before the commencement of fabrication of any traffic sign.O. and shall be Cawangan Jalan.O. All traffic sign housings shall be provided with vandal and weather resistant locks. Kuala Lumpur. provision shall be made for cable entry through the foundation by means of ducting as shown on the Drawings. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. the Contractor shall submit for the S. 6. Each complete traffic sign or part thereof shall be capable of passing the tests specified in B.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works transported and stored in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Keys. 873 unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.4 Standards All traffic signs shall. All externally illuminated traffic signs shall comply with Category 1 luminance of B. for foundations shall be carried out in compliance with this Specification and shall be approved by the S.O.O. placing of reinforcement.O.2.

Compartments for electrical equipment shall be as shown on the Drawings. 873. Subject to the S.S. 6. Nevertheless. However. Cawangan Jalan.'s approval. the tape shall comply with the following requirements :i) Peel Adhesion .L Page 147 .3 Posts Posts for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B. K. Sign plates shall be drilled at all locations where rivets or bolts are required for attaching the plate to the backing frame or fixings before application of the sign face. double sided "Very High Bond" (V. and the position of the joints shall be to the approval of the S. of approximately the same size and shape.W. Posts shall be of tubular hollow section steel of not less than 50 mm outside diameter complying with B. posts shall not protrude above the top of the sign unless supporting an external luminaire where the protrusion shall be kept to a minimum.O.4 m in width shall be made from a single sheet.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1470 with a minimum thickness of 3 mm. In the case of signs supported by more than one post.) tapes may be used as an alternative to rivets. Where more than one sheet is used to make up a sign plate. 1387. iii) Dynamic Shear -550 kPa.440 N per 100 mm. All backfilling of foundation pits and reinstatement of existing surfaces above the foundations shall comply with the relevant requirements of this Specification. ii) Tensile Adhesion .S. Where pockets are formed in concrete foundations their plan dimensions shall be 100 mm larger than those of the post.910 kPa. Flange plates shall have holes or slots as shown on the Drawings to accommodate any holding down bolts.O.5.2. riveting shall be carried out only after the application of the sign face.2.4 Sign Plates All permanent sign plates shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B. sheets of aluminium alloy HS 30-WP conforming to B. 873.H. such compartments shall be on the post furthest from the carriageway unless otherwise directed by the S.2 m in height and 2. A sign plate not exceeding 1. Signs erected on a single post shall be positioned so that the post is in the centre of the sign.B. the sheets shall be rectangular. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.S. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Sign plates shall be made of 10 S.O.S.5.G.

Plastic sheeting shall be applied evenly over the whole surface of the sign plate and shall adhere fully. The edges of all plastic sheeting shall be sealed. Unless otherwise agreed by the S. it shall extend over the top and bottom edges of these sections by not less than 3 mm. Cawangan Jalan. Where top and bottom light spill screens are required as shown on the Drawings. and on replacement of this draft. A coat of clear lacquer shall be applied to the whole of the face and edges of each finished sign plate at the time of fabrication. more than one plastic sheet is used.O. cracks. All retro-reflective plastic sheeting shall be fixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All faces up to 1 m in size shall be produced with a single sheet and no joint will be accepted..5 Sign Faces Sign faces for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the `Draft Malaysian Standard Specification for Reflective Sign Face Materials' (SIRIM Reference D111 [ISCF]). Ibu Pejabat JKR.. K. these shall extend for the whole width of the sign. the respective Malaysian Standard Specification.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Only vertical and horizontal joints shall be permitted and all joints in plastic sheeting shall be overlapped by not less than 6 mm. Top and bottom light spill screens shall be considered part of the sign plate and any stiffeners and mounting fittings shall be designed to accommodate the combined size. with the agreement of the S. Edge sealing shall be continuous and uniform and shall also be applied to all bolt and rivet holes. All plastic sheetings used on the same sign shall be carefully matched for colour to produce a uniform appearance both by day and by night. The overlap in the horizontal joints shall be from the top and the vertical joints shall be from the left. be fabricated out of the same material as the sign plate and shall have corners cut to the same radius as the other corners of the sign plate. The lacquer shall be continuous and uniform and shall be of the type specified or supplied by the manufacturer of the sheeting material.O. air bubbles and other blemishes.2. Where. folds or cuts.L Page 148 . the number of sheets shall be kept to a minimum. butt joints in plastic sheeting will not be accepted. Non-uniform shades of colour on any one sign will not be accepted. sign faces shall be formed from a single piece of plastic sheeting.5. It shall be free from twists. 6. Where sheeting is applied to extruded sections by pressure roller.

tape to the backing frame after the application of the sign face. and the standards of fabrication and workmanship shall be such that under normal conditions of service and proper maintenance. pastes and finishing coats used shall be compatible with the sheeting material. symbols and borders shall be of material compatible with the sheeting to which they are applied. The sign plate shall be riveted or bonded with double sided V. purlins. bolts and washers. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. Any inks. the backing frames of these sections shall be bolted together with 8 m diameter bolts at not more than 200 mm centres.S. 6. All sign plates.S. Page 149 Any cut-out letters. numerals. Where large signs are built in sections. symbols and borders shall be screen printed with materials in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer's instructions. They shall be applied in accordance with the sheeting manufacturer's instructions. 1474. Backing frames shall not project beyond the face of the sign. 873. The angles shall be welded.B. posts and other components shall be de-burred prior to assembly.5. the sign faces shall last not less than 5 years without any serious blemishes or defects for Engineering Grade retroreflective sheeting and 8 years for High Intensity retro-reflective sheeting.O.S. backing frames. a letter of warranty for the specified period for all sign faces from the supplier of the sheeting or the sign fabricator.L . bolted or riveted together to form the backing frames as shown on the Drawings.2. Where framing and stiffening are not an integral part of the sign plate. their joints shall be welded or joined with suitable brackets utilising nuts. 6. The angles used for the backing frames shall be made from aluminium alloy HE9-TE conforming to B.H. The finish of all sign faces shall be capable of passing the tests described in B. K. 873. numerals. The Contractor shall furnish to the S.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works fabricated from 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm angles.6 Backing Frames Backing frames for permanent traffic signs shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with this Specification.7 Construction and Assembly Traffic signs shall be constructed and assembled as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with B. Screen processed letters. The details of joints between angles of the backing frame and of joints between sections of large signs shall be to the approval of the S. Signs exceeding 600 mm in height or width shall be stiffened by means of angles while signs exceeding 1 m in height or width shall have a backing frame Cawangan Jalan.5.

Spacing of rivets or other devices used in the fixing of sign plates to their stiffeners or backing frames shall be uniform and shall not exceed 150 mm around the outside edge of any sheet or section of a sheet. K. The surfaces of rivets or bolts exposed on the sign face shall be coloured by a material approved by the S.. shall be of a material compatible with the materials being joined. purlins shall be spaced equally apart. bolts. Unless otherwise permitted by the S. applied to its edge to prevent the ingress of moisture. Banding systems shall be of stainless steel. In addition to the requirements of this Specification.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works before final installation and they and their anchorages shall be installed so as to achieve the loadings..O. shall be used against the sign face to protect it from the effects of any metal nuts. and shall not exceed 300 mm on cross braces. the sign stiffening and framing shall be continuous in the horizontal direction. Connections shall be made at every point where a purlin crosses a post. An additional washer of neoprene. Where purlins are not adopted. Where ferrous components are permitted.O. as recommended by the manufacturer of the plastic sheeting. have a clear lacquer. Traffic signs to be erected on road lighting columns shall have fixings compatible with the column cross-section and finish.L . variable message traffic signs shall be of a type approved by the relevant authorities. Any hole drilled to accommodate rivets or bolts in plates with plastic sheeting shall. are required to have holding down bolt fixings. Hollow rivets shall be filled with a plastic plug flush with the head of the rivet. to match that part of the face. washers and/or screws. Page 150 Where purlins are adopted. Unless otherwise permitted by the S. Where traffic signs.O. Sign plates shall be connected to posts by a method approved by the S. torque settings and requirements shown on the Drawings.O. the bolts shall be lightly greased Cawangan Jalan. columns shall not be drilled and wiring shall be contained in approved external conduits.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. All rivets and other devices used in the fixing of sign plates to their stiffeners or backing frames. they shall be attached to each vertical member of the backing frame and the sign stiffening and framing shall be continuous in the vertical direction. any drilling of such components shall be completed before the application of any finish. or those used in the construction of housings. immediately prior to the insertion of the rivet or bolt. nylon or other material approved by the S. including external lighting luminaires or their supports.

8 Location and Erection The approximate location of each permanent traffic sign shall be as shown on the Drawings.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6.O.W. Any loose covering used must be sufficiently opaque to prevent reflection from the covered sign and be securely fastened to the back of the sign.5.5 mm (16 S. Page 151 6. Cover plates shall be fixed by means of 5 mm diameter stain less steel bolts.L .2. or a material approved by the S.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Any holes remaining in the finished sign face shall be filled with blocked rivets coloured on the face by methods approved by the S.) thick made from a material compatible with that of the sign plate. washers and nuts or non-ferrous rivets not more than 600 mm apart. the bolts passing through 12 mm diameter. Signs erected on two posts shall have each post positioned so that the distance from the centre of the post to the edge of the sign plate is 300 mm unless otherwise directed by the S. resited or removed without prior approval from the S. except those on gantries. All traffic signs shall have their exact location determined by the S. the covering to be adopted shall comply with the following requirements. and recorded on the as-built Drawings. No traffic sign shall be dismantled. Under no circumstances shall tape or other adhesive material be applied to the face of the sign. K. Traffic signs mounted on posts. The covering shall be 1. Where self-adhesive plastic film is used.9 Covering of Permanent Traffic Signs Where it is required in the Contract that permanent traffic signs are to be blanked-out or are to have an alternative message.5. Cawangan Jalan. 5 mm thick plastic distance pieces between the sign face and cover plate.G.O. Traffic signs mounted on gantries shall be erected as shown on the Drawings. Any pockets formed in concrete foundations to receive the posts shall immediately prior to erection be cleaned out. A minimum space of 50 mm shall be left between the covering and the face to permit airflow over the sign. it shall be compatible with the sign face materials and be applied and removed in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions. the face of the posts shall be lined up.2. shall be erected to have their faces plumb and orientated in relation to the carriageway in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2B/85. All posts shall be erected plumb and where two or more posts are provided for any one sign. The posts shall be placed centrally in the pockets and be bedded on and filled up to finished foundation level with grade 20/20 concrete.O.

O. 873.8.Location and erection of temporary traffic signs shall be in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85. has given his approval. Removal of any covering shall be carried out with minimum disturbance to traffic and only after the S. Page 152 . 873. to prevent retroreflection.O. authorises its removal. K. Cawangan Jalan. Ferrous steel shall be finished both inside and out by galvanising.O. Any temporary covering of temporary traffic signs shall comply with Sub-Section 6. Making good shall be carried out immediately after removal of the traffic sign to the satisfaction of the S. 873. Fabrication and construction of gantries shall be as shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S.O. Aluminium and other metals shall be left untreated unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. 6. fittings and purlins shall be prepared and protected in compliance with B.8 Preparation and Finish of Metal and Other Surfaces Traffic signs shall be prepared. Removal of temporary traffic signs shall be carried out as soon as they become superfluous or a hazard to traffic.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6. electro-plating or application of zinc or aluminium spray or other e quivalent finish approved by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. protected against corrosion and finished in compliance with B. 873 and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.5. Backs of aluminium or aluminium alloy sheets forming plate signs and external parts of luminaire housings and other permanently exposed components shall.2.O.6 Temporary Traffic Signs Temporary traffic signs shall be constructed either as non-illuminated or externally illuminated signs as directed by the S.2.O. Faces of sign plates shall be prepared to receive sign face materials in compliance with B. the signs shall comply with the relevant requirements of this Specification.O.S.S.L 6. any traffic sign erected at such a time that its legend does not relate either wholly or in part to the traffic movement and route in operation. for approval beforehand. Steel posts and post housings shall be prepared and protected in compliance with B. Irrespective of any requirement in the Contract to cover signs. Erection of temporary traffic signs mounted on posts shall comply with Sub-Section 6.5. Traffic signs which are to be covered shall not be erected on trafficked highways without the covering in place. Methods of removal and making good shall be submitted to the S.2. Steel backing frames. be dulled with paint using a method approved by the S.S.7 Traffic Signs On Gantries Where traffic signs are erected on gantries.2.2. shall have its sign face securely covered with one of the materials described above until such time as the S.S.9.

(b) Road Marking Paint Road marking paint shall comply with the requirements of M.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall comply with the requirements of B. 6. 6.3 Preparation of Site Thermoplastic material and road marking paint shall be applied only on a surface which is clean and dry.1 Description This work shall consist of the supply of road marking material and its application to form continuous or intermittent lines. 6.L Page 153 . receive the same treatment as for external surfaces except that final paint coats shall be applied before internal components are installed.3.S. tools. 356 (Golden Yellow).O. 381C No.2 Road Marking Materials The marking material shall be one of the types detailed below as indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the S. letters.S. materials. External surfaces shall be prepared and protected as described in the Contract. A tack coat compatible with the marking material shall be applied in accordance with manufacturer's instructions prior to the application of thermoplastic material. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.3 ROAD MARKINGS 6. The markings shall be white or yellow laid to the dimensions and at the locations shown on the Drawings and as specified herein or as directed by the S. It shall not be laid over loose detritus. The work includes the supply of all labour. If a primer or undercoat is necessary to ensure proper adhesion of the marking paint to the road surface without bleeding or other discoloration.S. K.S.O. the primer or undercoat shall be fully compatible with the marking paint and the road surface. 3262 Part 1.O. stainless steel shall be left untreated except where the component is visible against the sign face when it shall be coloured on the face by methods approved by the S. equipment.3. Cabinets and feeder pillars shall have final coats of paint applied on Site after final installation. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Cawangan Jalan. Yellow thermoplastic material shall be of standard colour B. arrows.O. 164. 356 (Golden Yellow). Yellow paint shall be of standard colour B. The rate of application of tack coat. including the fitting of any internal apparatus required as part of the permanent Works.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 381C No. symbols or figures. and warning and traffic guidance signs as necessary for the safe and efficient completion of the entire work. mud or extraneous matter or over old material or paint marking incompatible with the paint being applied. Internal surfaces shall. primer or undercoat shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and to the satisfaction of the S.

6. spray. etc.O. The material shall not be heated beyond the manufacturer's specified temperature during application. 6.S. 3262 Part 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. If the material is supplied in block form it shall be broken into pieces.S.3. Road markings of a repetitive nature other than centre lines.2).3. lane lines and edge lines shall be marked by approved mechanical means or as directed by the S. Solid glass beads for additional surface reflectorisation shall be Class `B' glass beads complying with the requirements of Table 2 of B. Excess material shall be discarded on completion of application. shall. 6088 (see Table 6. K. 6. unless otherwise decided by the S.6 Protection of Markings All markings shall be protected from traffic until they have dried sufficiently so that no pick-up by vehicle tyre will occur. each weighing not more than 4 kg. which shall be melted in a heater fitted with a mechanical stirrer to prevent local overheating. Appendices B and C. lane lines.3. The rate of application of the marking material for each coat shall be that recommended by the manufacturer unless otherwise Cawangan Jalan.4 Preparation of Material on Site (a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall be supplied in block or powder form. The use of thinners or other additives shall not be permitted unless otherwise approved by the S. 6088 (see Table 6.O. 6.. When more than one coat is used.1). Other markings shall be applied by brush. (b) Road Marking Paint All paint shall be thoroughly stirred before application to keep the pigments in uniform suspension. 6. hand-propelled or self-propelled machine according to the marking configuration and the type of marking material approved for use. the succeeding coat shall not be applied until the previous coat has fully set. screed.3.S. Once molten hydrocarbon resins shall be used within 6 hours and wood and gum resins shall be used within 4 hours.8 Thickness The determination of thickness shall be in accordance with B.5 Laying Centre lines.3.7 Reflectorisation Solid glass beads to be incorporated in marking materials prior to application to road surfaces shall be Class `A' glass beads complying with the requirements of Table 1 of B. be set out with stencils which comply with the size and spacing requirements as shown on the Drawings.L Page 154 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY HStandard Specification For Road Works specified.O.. A thermometer of sufficient accuracy shall be used during laying to ensure that overheating of the material does not occur.

L Page 155 . K. ROUNDNESS AND DEFECTS B.CLASS `A' GLASS BEADS : PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. ROUNDNESS AND DEFECTS B.S. % Spherical Beads by mass as tested in accordance with Appendix C Max.CLASS `B' GLASS BEADS : PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. % Defective Beads as tested in accordance with Appendix D 1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 6. Sieve Percentage Retained Min. % Defective Beads as tested in accordance with Appendix D 850 800 300 180 Below 180 0 to 5 5 to 20 30 to 75 10 to 30 0 to 15 80 20 Cawangan Jalan. % Spherical Beads by mass as tested in accordance with Appendix C Max.2 . Sieve (um) Percentage Retained Min. Ibu Pejabat JKR.18 mm 850 um 425 um 0 to 3 0 to 10 90 to 100 70 30 TABLE 6.1 .S.

the road pavement shall be made good and the markings reapplied all at the Contractor's own expense and to the approval of the S.O.L Page 156 .5 mm.3.11 Clearing Up The Contractor shall clean up all spatters. etc. -sprayed yellow edge lines (for `no parking'.3.3. shall be removed by approved chemical or mechanical means. -sprayed lines other than yellow lines : not less than 1. (a) Thermoplastic Material Thermoplastic material shall be laid to the following thicknessess :i) for synthetic hydrocarbon resin binder -screed lines : not less than 2 mm nor more than 5 mm. splashes and smirches of marking material completely to the satisfaction of the S. `no waiting'. Ibu Pejabat JKR. ii) for gum or wood resin binders -screed lines : not less than 3 mm not more than 5mm. Cawangan Jalan.8 mm. etc. -sprayed lines other than yellow lines : not less than 2 mm. 6. Where directed by the S.) : not less than 0. -sprayed yellow edge lines (for `no parking'. `no waiting'.9 Tolerance on Width The tolerance on the specified width of the marking shall be within the range of + 10% and minus 0%.10 Defective Materials or Workmanship Materials which are defective or which have been applied in an unsatisfactory manner or to incorrect dimensions or in a wrong location.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6..) : not less than 2 mm nor more than 3 mm. To the extent necessary.O. (b) Road Marking Paint Road marking paint shall be laid to give a wet film thickness of not less than 315 microns and not more than 400 microns. existing markings shall be removed in the same manner as above. K. 6.

All spaces under the kerb shall be filled with bedding material which shall be thoroughly tamped.1 Description This work shall consist of the supply and installation of cast in situ or precast concrete kerbs constructed at the locations and in accordance with the lines. 6.4. dimensions and types as shown on the Drawings.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6. bedding shall be grade 10/25 concrete. Cawangan Jalan. 6.L Page 157 . 6.4.1 Excavation Excavation shall be made to the required depth and the base shall be trimmed and compacted to a firm and even surface.3.4. grades. Each kerb shall be set so that its front top arris conforms to the line and grade required. expansion joints in the kerb shall be located in line with expansion joints in the pavement. all in accordance with this Specification.3. the concrete shall be covered with suitable material and kept moist for a period of 7 days. Concreting shall generally be in accordance with the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification.4. The bedding material shall then be placed and compacted to form a bed of required thickness as shown on the Drawings.4. Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.3 Installation of Kerbs 6.4.4 CONCRETE KERB 6.2 Materials Concrete for kerb sections shall be grade 25/20 concrete unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings and shall conform to the requirements of Section 9 of this Specification. levels.2 Cast In Situ Kerb When a cast in situ kerb is placed next to a concrete pavement.3 Precast Concrete Kerb Precast concrete kerbs shall be cast using steel moulds and shall be of the types as shown on the Drawings. After placing and compaction. Forms shall not be removed within 24 hours of the concrete being placed. Minor defects shall be repaired with mortar containing 1 part Portland cement to 2 parts sand. Expansion joints shall be formed at the intervals shown on the Drawings using preformed filler 10 mm in thickness in accordance with the specification for the pavement joint filler. All soft and unsuitable material shall be removed and replaced with suitable material as defined in Section 2 of this Specification.3. 6. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.

4 Slipforming for Concrete Kerb In situ concrete kerbs shall be laid by an approved automatic kerbing machine or. Where a Portland cement concrete pavement is to be constructed contiguous to a kerb. edges.5 Backfilling The spaces in the front and back of each kerb shall be refilled to the required elevation with suitable material approved by the S. finished to a fine surface free from blow holes and dragging.3. Any voids between filler and the concrete kerb shall be filled with mortar. Cawangan Jalan. expansion joints shall be constructed in the kerb directly in line with pavement expansion joints. if practicable in the case of concrete pavements.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 158 . The finished work shall be true to line.4.O. 6. Kerbs shall be laid with joints as narrow as possible and filled with mortar containing 1 part Portland cement to 2 parts sand. and shall be impervious.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 6. The expansion joint in the kerb shall be 20 mm in width and shall be filled with an expansion joint filler of the same nominal thickness as the pavement joint. grade and level to within ±10 mm and shall present a smooth appearance free from kinks and distortion visible to the eye.4. K. The kerbs shall be dense with regular sides. which shall be tamped in layers of not more than 150 mm until properly compacted. arrises and chamfers. by the concrete paver itself.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.L Page 159 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 7 STREET LIGHTING Cawangan Jalan.

5 Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 7 .172 S7 .2.2.1.2.2.3 7.2 LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES General S7 -164 S7 .4 7.2.3.L .172 Page 160 7.3.2.3.2.166 S7 .1.4 7.165 S7 .4 7.1 7.162 S7 .1.2 Termination of Paper Insulated Cables 7. K.2.167 S7 .1 Termination of PVC Insulated Armoured Cable 7.9 7.5 7.163 S7 .7.2 7.1 7.6 Lengths of Cables Cable Routes Cable Trenches Cable Ducts S7 .2.170 S7 .2 Types of Cables 7.4 7.1 Power Cables S7 .10 7.171 S7 .163 7.170 S7 .162 S7 .1.2.7.168 7.8 7.1 7.7 Cable Termination 7.162 S7 .2.166 S7 .3 7.164 S7 .4 7.2 Earthing Conductors S7 .2.170 S7 .2.165 S7 .172 S7 .3.2.3 Cable Jointing Cable Markers Cable Laying and Installation STREET LIGHTING LUMINAIRES Light Distribution Requirements Constructional Requirements Luminaires Lamps Ballast Capacitors Ignitors S7 .2.2.2.5 7.3.2 7.2.1 GENERAL Scope of Work On Site Commissioning Tests As-Built Drawings Maintenance Traffic Safety and Control S7 .2.3 7.1 7.1.2 7.164 S7 .STREET LIGHTING Page 7. Ibu Pejabat JKR.167 S7 .3.164 7.2.3.2.166 S7 .

8 Fabrication of Feeder-Pillars Factory Inspection Foundation Earthing Time Switches Contactors By-Pass Switches and Selector Switches 7.5.4.5.3.174 S7 .174 S7 .2 Service Slots 7.175 S7 .5.10 7.174 S7 .4.5.176 7.L Page 161 .175 S7 .173 S7 .172 S7 .4 7.16 General Design Loading S7 .4.5.3.173 S7 .173 7.5.7 7. Ibu Pejabat JKR.174 S7 .14 S7 .4.175 S7 .3 Fabrication of Column Sections 7.173 S7 .4 7.5 7.6 7.1 7.5.175 S7 .5.5 COLUMNS AND BRACKETS S7 .1 Doors and Door Openings 7.172 S7 .5.6 7.4 FEEDER-PILLARS General S7 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works page 7.4.175 S7 .173 S7 .5 7.1 7.4.174 S7 .7 7.5. K.8 7.173 S7 .11 Bracket Arms Base-Plates Baseboards Street Lighting Cut-Outs Earthing Terminals Cable Entry Erection of Columns Protection Against Corrosion Cawangan Jalan.3 7.5.5.2 7.5.4.175 S7 .9 7.4.174 S7 .2 7.

all in accordance with the Drawings and this Specification. cable ducts.O. testing and commissioning of the same for a complete street lighting system. ii) Schematic wiring diagrams. lamps. and all necessary ancillary equipment. together with the transportation. ballasts. arrange for all necessary tests to be carried out on the installation by competent personnel as part of the tests required of him for the whole of the installation under this Contract. the Electrical Contractor shall. at his own expense. reserves the right to be present at all tests and the Electrical Contractor shall give at least one (1) week's notice in writing to the S.O.The date of commissioning shall be agreed to by the S. capacitors. connection. feeder pillars. ignitors. the Electrical Contractor shall take such measures as are necessary to remedy the defects and the installation shall not be considered to have been completed until all such tests have been passed. storage.O.O.1.m A0 or A1 sizes) and four sets of prints of each of the following as-built drawings shall be submitted to the S.O.2 On Site Commissioning Tests On completion of the installation work on site. columns. and shall include other tests deemed necessary by the S.1.1 GENERAL Scope of Work This work shall comprise the design of cabling works and the supply and installation of all luminaires. In any case. The tests to be carried out shall be as prescribed in the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and the Electricity (Board Supplies) Rules 1949.L Page 162 .1. Cawangan Jalan. within one (1) week of the completion of the testing. ducting and cabling.O.1 7. street lighting poles and luminaires. and the Electrical Contractor shall ensure that the installation is safe before the cable is energised. The S. feeder pillars and earthing points. SECTION 7 .STREET LIGHTING 7. Ibu Pejabat JKR. In the event that the installation fails to pass any of these tests. for this purpose. Copies of all test certificates shall be submitted to the S. if required. sizes and types of cables.3 As-Built Drawings Within three (3) calender months from the practical completion of the installation. no test shall be carried out without prior approval from the S. 7. locations and types of joints. The work shall also include cabling from the nearest specified power source of the local supply authority to the street lighting system. one set of true-to-scale negatives (110/115 g/sq. erection. phasing out and insulation resistance between conductors and between conductors and sheaths by employing a 500 V insulation tester.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Tests on cables shall include continuity.O. by the Electrical Contractor :i) Site plans. K. iii) Layout plans showing cable routes with reference to easily recognisable buildings and structures. 7.

5 Traffic Safety and Control When work is being carried out beside any public road or other existing road.L Page 163 . slopes. pipes. etc.O. TENDER NO. In addition. published by Cawangan Jalan. which have not been properly made good as a result of the Electrical Contractor's work. flashing warning lamps shall be placed at each end of the pit or trench and at intervals not greater than 10 m apart.4 Maintenance During the Defects Liability Period. 7.O. barricades shall be erected along the length of the pit or trench in addition to the warning lamps. the Electrical Contractor's name and address. culverts. These as-built drawings shall be properly stencilled and shall have.1.) and title. concrete areas. If the as-built drawings submitted are not acceptable by the S. drains. cable joints and cable terminations. 7.O. the Electrical Contractor shall amend and resubmit the drawings within two (2) weeks from the date of return of the drawings..1. one (1) set of the asbuilt drawings shall be properly framed and kept in the switchroom. and the following particulars:JABATAN KERJA RAYA CAWANGAN ELEKTRIK CONTRACT NO. Where it is necessary for any pit or trench to be left open overnight. K. existing cables. The general arrangement and location of temporary warning signs shall be strictly in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85. Where necessary. at the lower right hand corner.O. iii) making good any damage to buildings..FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works ii) replacing any broken or defective cable markers. flag-men shall be stationed to control traffic. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the date of commissioning.O. materials. tools and parts necessary to rectify the defects due to manufacturing or installation faults shall be supplied and/or executed at no extra cost to the Government. to do so. and shall be submitted by the Electrical Contractor and approved by the S. Maintenance work shall be carried out as soon as the Electrical Contractor has been informed by the S. In built-up areas. All labour. before work commences. the Electrical Contractor shall per form maintenance work for the complete cabling and associated works. the scale. Kuala Lumpur. Ibu Pejabat JKR. warning signs shall be erected. The work to be performed shall include but shall not be limited to the following :i) replacing or making good any defective cables. drawing number (this shall be obtained from the S. Cawangan Jalan. and iv) carrying out any other work deemed necessary by the S.

for the approval of the S.. uniform in texture. lead alloy sheathed and served. insulated with strong longfibred paper. terminations.2. one (1) week before the work is to be executed.'s approval prior to excavation of the cable trenches. are for tendering purposes only.2. double steel tape armoured and served.. The Electrical Contractor shall.2.S. insulated with PVC suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V. 6480 Part 1 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors.S. The rates quoted shall include any wastage due to cutting to lengths.1 7.S. 7. uniform in texture. mass impregnated with non-draining insulating oil compound suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V.2. armoured with galvanised steel wires and sheathed with PVC.2.mm PVC/PVC cables bundled together with cable ties and terminated with lugs where necessary. free from metallic particles.2.2. 6480 Part 1 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors. after consulting the S. etc.2 Earthing Conductors 7.5 sq.. or ii) B.2 Types of Cables 7.O.2. reinstatement of trenches. The actual length of each cable installed shall be measured on site and the Electrical Contractor shall be paid according to the rate specified in the Contract.3 Lengths of Cables The lengths of each type of cable indicated on the Drawings and/or in the B.2 LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES General The Electrical Contractor shall submit. insulated with strong longfibred paper.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iii) B. mass impregnated with non-draining insulating oil compound suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V.S. lead alloy sheathed. peg out cable routes for the S.4 Cable Routes Cable routes shown on the Drawings are for tendering purposes only. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 Power Cables Power cables shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with :i) M. 7. laying of cables. 7.O. a program of work for the excavation of cable trenches. laid together and bedded with PVC. 7.Q. The Electrical Contractor shall as certain the length of each cable required before placing orders for cables.L Page 164 . etc. Cawangan Jalan. 6346 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors.O. K. or Cables from street-lighting cutouts and earthing cables to luminaires shall be 2. free from metallic particles. 274 or B.

2. cables shall be protected by galvanised steel pipes buried to a depth of 900 mm below finished ground level. The Electrical Contractor shall provide pumps and other appliances for the necessary pumping required for the disposal of water so as to prevent any risk of the cables and other materials to be laid in the trench from being detrimentally affected. Material excavated from trenches shall be placed or removed so as to prevent nuisance or damage to adjacent areas or buildings. concrete areas. cables. The ducts shall be installed with a gradient so as to drain away any water in the ducts. 1387. etc.S. Cables entering buildings shall be protected by pitch fibre ducts of 150 mm diameter. paved areas. the pipes shall be 150 mm in diameter. concrete areas and where specified by the S. Where a trench passes from a foot way to a roadway or at other positions where a change in level is necessary. structures. All ducts passing through walls shall be effectively sealed and made water-tight. The pipes shall be supported at each end in a concrete block and shall project through the blocks into the ground to a depth of at least 750 mm. The pipes shall be heavy duty pipes Cawangan Jalan.. Where necessary. complying with B.L Page 165 .O. Where it is necessary to cross drains.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works complying with B. 7.5 Cable Trenches Unless otherwise specified. pipes. pipe crossings. walls. K. complete with screwed and socketed joints.6 Cable Ducts At road crossings. drains. complete with bend pieces. Trenches shall be as straight as possible and shall have vertical sides which shall be timbered where necessary so as to avoid subsidence damage. Trench excavation and backfilling shall be so executed that all roads. sewerage pipe crossings. shall be reasonably secured against risk of subsidence damage. bailing shall be provided.. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the bottom of the trench shall rise and/or fall gradually. cable trenches shall be 750 mm deep. road crossings. They shall be of sufficient width as to enable provision of adequate spacing between cables but in any case shall not be less than 450 mm wide. drains.S. galvanised steel pipes as specified above shall be provided. culverts or similar obstructions which are too deep for the cables to be buried below.2. buried to a depth of 900 mm and encased in 75 mm of concrete all round. Unless otherwise specified. All ducts shall be extended at least 600 mm beyond paved areas. water pipe crossings. Provision shall be made during excavation and until interim restoration has been completed for reasonable access of persons and vehicles to the areas of buildings adjacent to the trenches. The bottoms of trenches shall be firm and of smooth contour and any objects likely to damage the cable sheathing shall be removed. 7. etc. sewers. 4108.

2. stress controlled. distance of cable joint. the number of cables installed in each duct shall be such that the space factor shall be not less than 60%. etc.. The cable gland shall be of gunmetal or brass and shall grip both the inner and outer PVC sheath of the cable. date of jointing. length of cable. Ibu Pejabat JKR. non-tracking. date of com missioning.7 Cable Termination Unless otherwise permitted.1 Termination of PVC Insulated Armoured Cables PVC/SWA/PVC cables shall be provided with compression cable gland termination. Terminations shall meet the performance tests of IEC 112. non-tracking polymeric materials and heatactivated sealants to prevent ingress of moisture and contamination.2. Phasing and insulation resistance tests shall be taken on each length of cable laid before termination is commenced. UV stable. If any residual moisture is present. heat shrinkable.7. It shall be so designed that any strain on the cable is taken by the steel wire armouring which shall be effectively sealed between the gland itself and the outer cable sheath.2 Termination of Paper Insulated Cables PILCDS and PILCDSTAS paper insulated cables. Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 7. K. Section 3. this will be detected immediately through the presence of bubbles. The heat shrinkable termination materials used shall be supplied in a complete kit to suit various sizes of cable and to provide stress controlled. the above galvanised steel pipes and /or pitch fibre ducts shall be provided by the Electrical Contractor whether or not they are shown on the Drawings. A plastic laminated plate engraved with details such as size of cable. They shall consist of high permittivity. but shall be gripped with a pair of tweezers. 7.O.L Page 166 .2. shall be terminated by the heat shrinkable method. 7. Unless specified to be provided by others. IEC 446 and IEC 507. number of cores.7.. The cables shall be tested for moisture before termination is commenced. Samples of paper both from the layers nearest to and furthest from the conductor shall be immersed in transformer oil or paraffin wax heated to a temperature of approximately 115ºC. high resistivity.O. environmentally sealed termination. They shall also have the following performance characteristics :- Unless otherwise approved by the S. shall be securely fixed near the termination. unless otherwise specified. A drawn wire shall be provided for each duct. Samples of paper shall be tested singly and shall not be touched by hand. all cable termination and jointing works shall be carried out in the presence of the S.

50 Hz : 4. Cable joint markers of similar construction but with the symbol "X" shall be provided and installed at every cable joint in a similar manner. v) Insulation Resistance between phase conductor and ground : > 1000 Megaohms. Cable boxes.C. Cable markers shall be of heavy duty reinforced concrete construction and shall be approved by the S. Voltage withstand for 4 hours. The cable marker shall be buried to a depth of 300 mm or any other depth as directed by the S.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Core numbers printed on papers shall be observed when jointing and.V. Voltage withstand for 15 minutes. The top face shall be indented in bold lettering with the initials "L. Voltage 1.C. 50 Hz : 3.O. In the case of 2-core cables. Core numbers `0'. 7.9 Cable Markers Cable markers with lettering and signs as shown on the Drawings shall be provided by the Electrical Contractor at every change of direction of underground cable routes and every 15 m on straight runs. Every cable joint shall be started and finished on the same day.L Page 167 . whenever possible. `1'. core number `1' shall denote the phase conductor and `0' the neutral. Crossing of cores in the cable boxes shall be avoided wherever possible and connections shall be consistent with the foregoing requirements.C. i) A. the Electrical Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent moisture from getting into the cables. `2' and `3' shall denote neutral.0 kV phase to earth." and a directional sign or signs indicating the direction/directions of the cable route. 1.2.8 Cable Jointing Jointing of cables shall be undertaken only by competent and fully experienced jointers. 7. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Phasing and insulation resistance tests shall be taken before jointing is commenced. iv) Continuous A. Where cable sheaths are to be used as earth continuity conductors.O. the glands shall have the necessary contact surface to provide a low resistance path under fault conditions.0 kV phase to earth. iii) Impulse Voltage withstand 10 positive and 10 negative. The cable marker shall form a trapezoidal block with a 100 mm square top face and 150 mm square bottom face.2/50 microseconds : 8. such numbers shall be maintained throughout the system. ii) A. yellow and blue phases respectively.0 kV peak phase to earth. red. Wherever cables are to be jointed in the open during wet weather conditions.5 kV phase to earth. : Cawangan Jalan. K. and shall be 400 mm in height as shown on the Drawings. compounds and jointing materials used shall be of an approved type.

For cable sizes in excess of 120 sq. K. the cost of such joints shall be borne by the Electrical Contractor.. The bricks shall be new. Cawangan Jalan.. the trench shall be thoroughly inspected and any debris and other sharp objects shall be removed.2. laid and installed according to this Specification. The cables shall then be laid on this bedding in an orderly manner without overlapping and crossing each other.L Page 168 .10 Cable Laying and Installation All cables shall be handled.mm. No joints in the cable will be allowed unless approved in writing by the S. The minimum bending radius of the cables shall be in accordance with Table 52 C of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. Straight through joints in the cable shall only be permitted in very exceptional circumstances such as those arising from unavoidable limitations in manufactured length. The finished surface shall be left proud by 50 mm to allow for subsidence and the Electrical 7.O.O. Wherever cables are cut. more than one row of bricks shall be laid. no cable shall be laid and/or covered up in the absence of the S. The trench shall then be backfilled with earth and shall be compacted in layers of 150 mm using a mechanical rammer. using proper installation equipment. an extra 2 m of nylon rope shall be coiled and laid.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (a) Cable Laid Direct In Ground Before any cable is laid.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. The bottom of the trench shall be covered with a layer of clean sand 75 mm thick. An orange coloured multi-strand nylon rope of minimum 6 mm diameter shall be laid at a depth of 300 mm along the trench to identify the cable route. Unless otherwise permitted by the S. They shall be laid lengthwise from end to end along the entire route of the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq. At every 10 m interval. well burnt and in complete pieces. Cable protective covers shall be of clay bricks. All cables shall be supplied in complete lengths to suit the circuits they serve and no straight through joints shall be used. 75 mm of clean sand shall cover the laid cables and shall be spread over the trench before placing the cable protective covers. the ends shall be immediately sealed in an approved manner unless it is intended to proceed with cable jointing or termination immediately. Where straight through joints or other approved joints are permitted by the S. Each cable shall be seperately protected by these bricks and the cover shall have at least 25 mm overhang on each side of the cable.mm. the cable manufacturer's recommendations and ERA Reports. all to the satisfaction of the S.O.O.

Cable trays shall be supported at least 25 mm from the trench wall by mild steel brackets at 600 mm intervals. The construction and finish of the cable trays and the method of installation of cables on cable trays shall be as described in SubSection 7.L . Cables laid in the bottoms of trenches shall be in accordance with Method Type L of Table 9A of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations.10 (b) above. if the method is not specified. whether secured individually or in a group to the cable tray.. Type M. the trench shall be made good to its original condition. All saddles for cables on cable trays shall be installed by bolts. In the case of single core cables.O. Brackets shall be anti-rust treated and painted with one coat of primer. To provide electrical continuity. all cable joints shall be bridged by means of tinned copper tape of dimensions not less than 25 mm x 3 mm.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The minimum thickness of the sheet steel used shall be 1. Cable trays shall be fabricated from perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheets finished in an orange enamel. As soon as the soil has consolidated. etc.5 mm for cable trays with widths of up to 300 mm. adaptor units. (b) Cable Installed In Precast Concrete Trenches Methods of installation of cables in precast concrete trenches shall be in accordance with Type L. Cable trays shall be suspended from floor slabs by hangers or mounted on walls by brackets at 600 mm intervals.O. all to the satisfaction of the S. K. Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. The surface of the refilled trench shall be temporarily reinstated and maintained in a thoroughly safe condition until complete consolidation of the soil has been achieved. brackets and other suspending and supporting structures shall be Page 169 Contractor shall be responsible for the removal of any surplus material to a position indicated by the S.0 mm for widths exceeding 300 mm. and 2. Samples of cable trays and brackets shall be submitted to the S. nonferrous saddles shall be used. All tees. The materials and finishes used for the hangers. intersection units. (c) Cable Run On Walls and Under Floor Slabs Cable run on walls and under floor slabs shall be mounted on perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheet steel cable trays. for approval prior to installation. the cables shall be installed as directed by the S. Cables installed on trench walls shall be in accordance with Method Type M or Type N of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and shall be secured on a cable tray by means of saddles at suitable intervals.O.O. shall be factory manufactured unless otherwise approved by the S. washers and nuts. Trenches inside buildings shall be filled with clean sand up to a level above the cable ducts. or Type N of Table 9A of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations. However.O.

The gasket shall be positively secured in the luminaire housing and shall be weather-resistant.2. The lamp compartment of the luminaire shall be accessible via a hinged bowl made of ultraviolet stabilised plastic material such as acrylic which shall. Each luminaire shall normally direct two beams along the length of the road. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L .3. bed firmly upon a soft resilient neoprene or non-ageing felt gasket.In the lowered position of the bowl. mains connectors and earth terminations.insect proof and watertight and shall be tested in accordance with B. voltage and temperatures expected within the luminaire during both the starting and operating modes in the ambient temperature of the Site. cable clamps. Each luminaire shall consist of a lamp compartment made up of an upper canopy or housing and a lower bowl assembly. Where cable trays pass through floors or fire resistant walls. a lampholder. the performance and light distribution of street lighting luminaires shall be of the Low Threshold Increment (LTI) type.3.2 Constructional Requirements the same as those described for brackets in Sub-Section 7. dust proof. K.10 (b) above.2. The direction of maximum intensity of flux shall lie between 0º and 65º of the downward vertical and the maximum permissible value of the intensity emitted at 90º and 80º shall not exceed 10 cd/1000 lumens and 30 cd/1000 lumens respectively. as well as all necessary control gear. Cawangan Jalan.hygroscopic fire-resisting material of minimum 2-hour fire rating as approved by the Jabatan Bomba Malaysia.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 7. in the closed position. The polar light distribution curves for the luminaire shall generally be smooth and free from any abrupt variations so that the luminous intensity diminishes smoothly and progressively from its maximum.3. 4533.1 Luminaires All luminaires shall be new. The control gear shall be pre-wired and integral with the luminaire.3 STREET LIGHTING LUMINAIRES 7. 7. it shall be restrained from becoming detached or being Page 170 7. The luminaires shall provide the requisite light distribution with the size and type of lamp specified. totally enclosed.S. The bowl shall be secured firmly to the luminaire body by means of stainless steel clips and hinged pins.1 Light Distribution Requirements Unless otherwise specified. All exposed parts shall be of non-corrosive materials. The luminaire wiring shall be of a size and insulated with a material that will more than effectively withstand the current. the surrounding holes shall be sealed to the full thickness of the floor or wall with non.

chemically anodised to yield optimum reflection of light distribution. Full details of the luminaire and accessories shall be furnished as required in the Appendices to this Specification. (b) Low Pressure Sodium Vapour (LPSV) Lamps Low pressure sodium vapour (LPSV) lamps shall conform to the requirements as laid down in B. shall take no longer than 11 minutes after initial "switch on" to attain 90% of of their quoted lumens output.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The lamps supplied shall have a mortality rate not greater than 10% at 5. The majority of the light output shall fall within the 560-610 nanometre waveband. The lumens output after 100 operating hours shall be not less than 50 lumens per watt. i.000 lumens for a 400 watt lamp and 25. All LPSV lamps shall be guaranteed for a minimum operating life of 4. The cap shall be of GESE40 material to fit the luminaire supplied. in the yellow/orange.e. All lamps shall be suitable for use.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Page 171 Cawangan Jalan. such reflectors shall be of high purity aluminium mirrors. The lamps shall have an initial luminous efficiency of approximately 115 lumens per watt for a 400 watt lamp and 100 lumens per watt for a 250 watt lamp.C. in conjunction with their control gears. range.000 operating hours.S. K.2 Lamps (a) High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) Lamps High presssure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps shall conform to IEC Publication 662 and shall have a colour temperature of approximately 21. 3767. The lumens output after 100 operating hours shall be 45. The lamps shall be of tubular shape with a bayonet cap (B.000 lumens for a 250 watt lamp.000 K.).2. The majority of the lumens output shall be within the 580-590 nanometre waveband range. The lamps shall have an initial luminous efficacy of approximately 160 lumens per watt for a 135 watt lamp.L . If independent reflectors are incorporated in the luminaire. 7. blown towards the other portion of the luminaire or the column arm. The reignition period after an interruption of the supply shall not be longer than 1 minute to attain 80% of the lumens output. The lamps shall be of tubular or of any other approved shape and shall have plated brass caps securely fitted to the glass envelopes.000 switched operating hours and shall not take longer than 4 minutes after the initial "switch on" to attain 80% of their guaranteed output at the rated voltage of 200/250 V and frequency 50 Hz. on 220/240 V supply and shall be capable of being started and operated at 10% reduction in rated voltage.

2.C.g.5.4 Capacitors Capacitors shall be manufactured to B.10 of this Specification. It shall be compatible with the normal control gear.3. 4017 and housed in extruded aluminium canisters with shrouded screw terminals. They shall not be fused but shall have an an external safety dis charge resistor.2. They shall comply with and be tested to the requirements of B.O. K.1 General Feeder-pillars shall be supplied completely assembled with control gear and all internal electrical and mechanical inter-connections and structural parts for voltages up to and including 1.) sheet steel. size. On the front and rear sides of the feeder-pillar. prior to manufacture.2 Fabrication of Feeder-Pillars The Electrical Contractor shall submit a design drawing of the shape.S. of the feeder-pillar for the approval of the S.w.64 mm (12 s. The unit shall be capable of operating on a voltage ranging from 200 to 250 volts. 7. 5486. 4782. Ibu Pejabat JKR.85 lagging. rigidly welded channeled steel framework manufactured from 2. shall be included in the design drawing. electrical and mechanical connections.4. 7. The feeder-pillar shall be lockable with either wedge-type locks protected by screw Page 172 Cawangan Jalan. etc. 7. The unit shall be totally enclosed with an external terminal block for the supply connection and a length of high tension cable shall be included for the lamp connection. foundation work. It shall be correctly rated for its duty and shall be designed to operate on a dual mains voltage of 220/240 V by means of suitable tappings. The tappings shall be brought out to marked terminals.S.S.000 volts A. The capacitor shall be capable of raising the power factor of each circuit to at least 0.. materials. etc.3. The plinth. the following sign shall be stencilled in red paint using a lettering height of 90 mm :BAHAYA 415 V LAMPU JALAN The door of the feeder-pillar shall be rigidly reinforced and hinged internally to prevent unauthorised access.4 FEEDER-PILLARS 7.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 7. The case of the unit shall carry a label showing the connections and listing the appropriate voltage. The feeder-pillar housing shall consist of a drip canopy.. It shall be hot-dip galvanised and the process of galvanising.L .3. 7. treatment before galvanising and treatment after galvanising shall be as described in Sub-Section 7. The ballast shall have laminated cores and high conductivity windings with power loss and noise kept to a minimum.2.3 Ballast The ballast shall be manufactured to B.4.5 Ignitors Ignitors for the discharge lamps shall be of the electronic / superimposed pulse type rated for the appropriate wattage.

etc.4. precast concrete earth chambers with covers.4.O. shall be of the synchronous/step-by-step motorwound handset dial plug-in type..4 Foundation The Site of the foundation of the feeder-pillar shall be filled where required. etc. mechanical duty Class 2 and a utilisation category of at least AC3. 7. plugs or some other secret locks approved by the S. contactors.P. 50 Hz supply.7 Contactors Contactors shall comply with B. The British Code of Practice C. 7. They shall incorporate a 24-hour spring reserve or a battery back-up system. A four-position selector switch shall be provided to select the mode of operation and shall be appropriately labelled. A baseboard made of tufnol or other approved treated hardwood of at least 16 mm thickness shall be included to mount equipment such as time switches. 7. 5424 with uninterrupted ratings.3 Factory Inspection The Electrical Contractor shall make arrangements to witness the electrical tests and for joint inspection to be carried out at the factory prior to transportation to the Site. 5419 and shall be capable of breaking the load connected to the contactors without undue ageing or damage. 7. The contacts of the contactor shall be rated for the breaking capacity of the connected load. K.S.4. 7.5 Earthing The earthing system for the feederpillar shall comply with the Rules and Regulations of the Supply Authority. The feederpillar shall be self-ventilated and weather proof and such ventilation openings shall be protected by wire mesh to prevent the entry of vermin. These shall be manufactured to B. 50 Hz supply. The contactor coils shall be fully tropicalised and wound for continuous operation for a 220/240 V.8 By-Pass Switches and Selector Switches Single or three-phase by-pass switches as applicable shall be connected in parallel with the contactors for use in the event of the failure of the contactors.6 Time Switches Time switches supplied for the control of luminaires. 25 mm x 3 mm Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.4. Time switches shall be rated as specified in the Drawings and shall be operational on a 220/240 V.4.4. Cable entry ducts shall also be provided.8 mm x 16 mm diameter steel core copper-jacketted earth electrodes.S. etc. Each feeder-pillar shall be effectively earthed using 4. compacted and levelled before the reinforced concrete base of minimum 250 mm height above the finished earth level is constructed.L Page 173 . the relevant sections of the latest edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations and the Contract Drawings. 1013. 7.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works copper tape. rodents and birds.

5 COLUMNS AND BRACKETS 7. 5649 with Grade 43C or 50C steel conforming to B. The manufacturer shall provide a mark on the finished column section indicating the Cawangan Jalan. 1840 and B.Q.5. For bracket arms longer than 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works minimum overlapping position of 1. They shall be manufactured to comply with B. 5135.S. 7.L . The bracket arms shall be octagonal in shape for up to 2. The sections shall be constructed so as to overlap each other by a minimum of 1.5.0 m in length.G. Door openings shall have internal reinforcement to compensate for the loss of stiffness in the columns caused by forming the door openings.S.5. cable entries shall be through the flange plates via a hole of suitable diameter as shown on the Drawings. 7.5 times the diameter of the immediate lower section (external across-faced dimension) and to be easily assembled on site by using simple tools without employing welding techniques.S.I. The bracket arms shall be arranged so as to give a 50 uplift as shown on the Drawings. lighting luminaires and bracket arms. service slots shall be on the same side and vertically below the service doors.3.5 times the external across-faced dimension..5.1 Doors and Door Openings 7. ii) loads due to the weight of the columns.0 m in length. Weather proof doors shall be provided with an anti-vandal locking device over the door opening of each column as shown on the Drawings. For flange mounted types of columns. iii) other applied loads if applicable.S. octagonal.S. 7. the extra length shall be formed from Grade 43C tubular steel conforming to B. The complete locking device shall be made from stainless steel. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 Design Loading The columns shall be designed to withstand loadings comprising :i) loads due to wind speeds of up to 27 m/sec. A suitable duct for cable entry shall also be provided at the concrete base. For planted root types of columns.3 Fabrication of Column Sections Each column section shall be mechanically formed and longitudinally welded by the continuous automatic gas shielded electric arc process (M. K.2 Service Slots 7.1 General All columns and brackets shall be of tapered.5. process) to B. The base-plates and bracket arms shall be manufactured as seperate units suitable for mounting or fixing on to the columns. hot-dip galvanised interchangeable sections complying in all respects with the Drawings.5. 4360.3.4 Bracket Arms Bracket arms shall be of suitable outreach as indicated on the Drawings and in the B. 4360. A tubular steel spigot of appropriate dimensions for the Page 174 7.

O.. The fuse carriers shall be selfaligning and shall accept any of the standard rated fuses for the purpose. Cut-outs shall be provided with adequate shrouding to prevent cross-phasing or accidental contact with live metal. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.10 before being hot-dip galvanised. Samples of complete cut-out units shall be submitted for the approval of the S. detachable anti-sink plates shall be supplied. For planted root types of columns.10 Erection of Columns Columns shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and as shown on the Drawings. Base-plates. before planting the columns. An appropriate type of earthing clamp shall be provided to bond the armouring of the cables which shall be effectively earthed. luminaire shall be welded at the end of each bracket arm. etc. Where bolts are used.5. The Electrical Contractor shall peg out the positions of the columns for the approval of the S.5. etc.8 Earthing Terminals Columns shall be provided with a corrosion resistant terminal having substantial contact surfaces for the attachment of an earthing lead. Baseboards shall be made from fibre board of 10 mm thickness.5 Base-Plates For flange mounted types of columns. 7.6 Baseboards A piece of baseboard shall be included in each base compartment for cable termination or control gears assembly.O. Each unit shall possess high mechanical and di-electric strength and shall be suitable for use in the tropics.O.5. nuts and bolts.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works cables as appropriate. Alternative baseboards made from galvanised perforated metal may also be used with the approval of the S.7 Street Lighting Cut-Outs Street lighting cut-outs shall be of a type manufactured for use in street lighting installations.mm copper 2-core or 4-core Cawangan Jalan. This terminal shall be provided close to the door opening inside each column.5. After welding. shall be hot-dip galvanised after manufacture. The cutout bases shall have a supply cable contact block rating of at least 50 A and shall be capable of accepting circular cable cores of up to 25 sq.9 Cable Entry Armoured cables brought into the columns shall be provided with compression cable gland terminations. 7. they shall be not less than 6 mm in diameter and shall be provided with two suitable washers and nuts.5. 7.L Page 175 . They shall have facilities for double fusing loop-in loop-out terminals. 7. Baseboards shall be made to the dimensions as indicated on the Drawings and shall be fixed securely in position inside the columns. 7. 7. flange-plates of substantial thicknesses as shown on the Drawings shall be welded on to the columns..5. bracket arms shall be treated as described in Sub-Section 7.5.

7.5. The galvanised columns and bracket arms shall be of prime finish and of good uniformity. K. The planted sections of columns and the base-plates shall be factorycoated with bitumen using the hotdipping process conforming to AASHTO M 190. Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.S.L Page 176 . The minimum average weight of the zinc coating shall be 460 g/sq. After erecting each column. flux and uncoated spots. At such locations.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Treatment prior to galvanising shall include degreasing. all in accordance with B.O. backfill shall be compacted by means of suitable ramming equipment. base-plates. rinsing. the orientation of the service doors shall be determined by the S. 729. All welding works shall be completed before galvanising. doors and bracket arms shall be protected against corrosion by hot-dip galvanising the sections both internally and externally. pickling. they shall be free from injurious defects such as blisters.11 Protection Against Corrosion Individual sections of the columns.e. Columns shall be erected such that the service doors shall face away from on-coming traffic except at parapets of bridges and retaining walls. i. further rinsing and fluxing.m for any individual test area.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 8 TRAFFIC SIGNALS Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.L Page 177 .

1.4 8.2 Hardware.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 8 .TRAFFIC SIGNALS Page 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.1.8 S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-182 S8-183 S8-183 S8-183 S8-183 S8-183 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-184 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 S8-185 8.1.1.1.1.2.6.6 8.1 8.6.1.1.1.1.4 8.8 8.1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1.6.4.2.9.1 GENERAL Scope of Work Design and Construction Contractor's Responsibility Cleanlines Metric Range of preferred Dimensions Self-Tapping Screw Corrosion Compliance With Manufacturer's Instruction Component and materials Conditions of Operation Maintenance To Be Kept To A Minimum Components Metering Identification of Equipment Protective Requirements General Insulating Bushes Isolation From Main Supply Earthing of Transformer Secondary Circuits Current Loading of Wires Danger Notices Cable Connecting Units Insulation Whiskering of Tin Electricity Supply On-Site Commisioning Test Procedures S8-182 8.9 Documentation 8.1 8.7 8.4.4.1 8.2.1.6.1.2.5 8.10 8.1.6.L Page 178 .4 8. Software and maintenance Manual 8.1.6.2 8.6.3 8.4.4 8.11 Guarantee of Supply Warranty Period S8-186 S8-186 S8-187 S8-187 Cawangan Jalan.3 8.1.1 General 8.1.1. K.5 8.2.1.1.2 8.7 8.6 8.6.5 8.1.1.9 8.1.1.2 8.6.1.1.1.3 8.9.1.1.1.

2.2 Target Boards 8.2.3 8.2 8.2 LOW VOLTAGE UNDERGROUND CABLES Type of Cables Power Cables Feeder Cables for Vehicle Detectors Loop Cables for Vehicle Detectors Earthing Conductors Cable Termination Cable Jointing Cable Markers S8-187 S8-187 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 S8-188 8.1 8.4 8.3.2 8.2 Optical Arrangement for Pedestrians 8.3 8. K.1.3 8.4.2.2 8.2.3.2 Optical Requirements 8. Constructional Requirements 8.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 8.3 8.3 Height of Signal 8.4.5 8.1.5.1 8.2.2 8.3.4.1 Lamps 8.5.3.2.1 8.3.4.4 SIGNAL POSTS AND MAST ARMS Standard Requirements Cable Entry Connecting Facilities for Cables Location and Erection Finish 8.4 Cawangan Jalan.5.3 SIGNAL LANTERNS Standard Requirements S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-189 S8-190 S8-190 S8-190 8.3.2.1 Optical Arrangement for Drivers 8.1.4 8.1.3.5 S8-191 S8-191 S8-191 S8-191 S8-191 PEDESTRIAN PUSH-BUTTONS Standard Requirements Location Pedestrian Demand Indicator Audible Signal S8-192 S8-192 S8-192 S8-192 Page 179 8.1 8.5.2.3.2.1 8.3.4 8.2.3.2.L .4.

6.6 8.11 8.6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3 8.7.6.6 8.4 8.6.6.6.1 8.6.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 8.6.6.6.6.L Page 180 .7.4 8.6.2 8.5 Cawangan Jalan.6.6.6.6.6.7.7 VEHICLE DETECTORS Standard Requirements Number of Traffic Lanes Supply Voltage Equipment Construction Performance Requirements S8-197 S8-197 S8-197 S8-197 S8-197 8.10 8.3 8.2 8.6.6.6.5 8.5 8.7.7 8.4 8.6 TRAFFIC CONTROLLER General Requirements Housing Controller Mains Switch Board Facility Switch Pedestrian Facilities Logic Module Microcomputer System Input/Output Interfaces Real 'Time-Of-Day' Clock Operator Interface and Controller Display Supply Monitor Watchdog Timer Mains Supply Interruptions Circuit Breakers Inputs Interchangeability Vibration and Noise Radio Interference Safety Timing S8-1192 S8-193 S8-193 S8-194 S8-194 S8-194 S8-194 S8-195 S8-195 S8-195 S8-195 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-196 S8-197 8.6.1 8.6.9 8.6.7.12 8.6.6.2 8.14 8.3 8.8 8.1 8.6. K.13 8.

Lights.12 8.4. etc.3.3.8.3. K.8.8.4 8.8.3 8.2 8.3.4 8.8. Backfilling.1 8.8.8 ROADWORKS General Permission to Excavate Road Excavation.8.8.3 8.3.3.5 8.9 S8-198 S8-198 S8-198 S8-199 S8-199 S8-199 S8-200 S8-200 S8-201 S8-201 S8-201 S8-202 S8-202 S8-202 S8-203 S8-203 S8-203 S8-204 S8-204 S8-204 S8-204 S8-205 S8-205 S8-205 Cawangan Jalan.3.3.1 8.8. S8-197 S8-198 8.4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 8.4.3.5 8.2 8.7 8.8.7 8.4.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.8.8.4 8.8.3.4.8. Reinstatement and maintenance of Excavations General Excavation Bedding of Excavation Cable Ducts Cable Laying and Installation Cable Laid Direct On The Ground Cables Installed in Precast Concrete Trenches Backfilling of Excavations And Reinstatements Sensing Loop Slots Maintenance of drains and Services During Excavations Reinstatement of Drains and Precast Units Completion of Works Maintenance of Excavation Traffic Arrangements General Arrangement and Location of Signs Barriers and Barricades Temporary Warning lamps Use of Traffic Guidance Cones Temporary Traffic Diversions Temporary Traffic Control Plant and Equipment Vehicles Maintenance of Signs.2 8.Temporary Traffic Diversions.8.8.4.8.3 8.3.8.4.L Page 181 .8.6 8.3.8 8.6 8.11 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.8.13 8.8.8.4.4.8.1 8.8.8.8. Barriers.

ducting and cabling.3 Metric Range of Preferred Dimensions Except as may be agreed for practical reasons. offset times. erection. detectors.4 Self-Tapping Screws Self-tapping screws shall be used only for retaining duties. K.1 8. cycle times.1.2 Design and Construction 8. and other specific requirements shall be as shown on the Drawings. posts.O. design shall make use of the metric range of preferred dimensions and tolerances.1 GENERAL Scope of Work This work shall comprise the design of cabling works and the supply and installation of all signal lanterns.1 Contractor's Responsibility The Contractor shall design the interconnecting signal cabling for the proposed signal system as shown on the Drawings. 8.1. does not relieve the Contractor of these responsibilities. all in accordance with the Drawings and this Specification.5 Corrosion All equipment shall be designed to resist corrosion in the Malaysian environment for a period of 20 years from the date of installation. Equipment offered shall be in all respects suitable for the requirements and for the environmental conditions specified. storage. and switchgears with all necessary ancillary equipment.O. 8. number of plans. before construction commences. The work shall also include cabling from the nearest specified power source of the local supply authority to the traffic control system. 8. especially in the case where forced ventilation is employed.2. timings of each phase.1.2.2. Materials shall as far as possible be of Malaysian origin except where such materials can be shown to be unavailable in Malaysia. if required.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works be responsibile for the design. SECTION 8 . etc.2.1.2. The type of signal operation.1. The Contractor shall Cawangan Jalan.1. number and sequence of phases. testing and commissioning of the same for a complete traffic signal installation. 8. Ibu Pejabat JKR. They shall not be used for fixing removable covers. whether manufactured by him or supplied to him by other manufacturers. traffic controllers.TRAFFIC SIGNALS 8.2 Cleanliness Particular attention shall be given in the design of the equipment for the exclusion of dust. The cabling design drawings are to be approved by the S. nor for the support of direct loads.1. locations of controllers and power source tapping points.L Page 182 . connection. together with the transportation.. dirt. Approval by the S. 8. material quality and workmanship of the system and every part of the system offered.

shall be such as to provide a life expectancy of up to 20 years unless specifically stated otherwise in this Specification.3 Compliance With Manufacturer's Instructions The Contractor shall ensure that the equipment and parts used shall be entirely suitable for the work to be performed and that they shall be manufactured to proper tolerances and fit. Ibu Pejabat JKR. sockets and connections.4 Metering The equipment shall be provided with waveforms and voltage test points as necessary for indicating circuit conditions.O.O.4.4.1. All shall operate well within their ratings with due consideration for the environmental conditions and temperature rises within cabinets or enclosures. Should any such non-compliance or defects be found during the inspection.4. Thermionic valves other than cathode-ray tubes shall not be used. all at the Contractor's expense and to the satisfaction of the S. 8.O.4.1.1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works replaceable may be accepted with the aproval of the S.1. Germanium transistors shall not be used unless approved by the S.4. excluding expendable items such as lamps.3 Components All active and passive components.L Page 183 .4 Components and Materials 8. Components which have a shorter life span but are easily Cawangan Jalan. Where high dissipation power resistors are used. K. the Contractor shall correct or cause to be corrected such non-compliance and defects.1. shall be designed for a life expectancy of 20 years as specified in Sub-Section 8. 8. Metal can transistors shall be used wherever possible. He shall further ensure that the loading of equipment shall under all normal circumstances not exceed the maximum laid down or agreed to in writing by the manufacturer.1.2. in preference to wire wound types. Metal oxide or grade II carbon resistors shall be used. 8.1. 8.1 Conditions of Operation The system shall be designed to operate continuously. Grade I carbon film resistors shall not be used.2 Maintenance To Be Kept To A Minimum The materials and components. 8. their mounting and the plugs. The Contractor shall be responsible for the inspection of all equipment and parts before their incorporation in the Works to ensure that they comply with the requirements of this Specification and that they are not defective in any way as regards materials or workmanship. Account shall be taken of equipment being sited in all exposed locations. metal oxide resistors shall be used whenever they are available.

4 Earthing of Transformer Secondary Circuits When a dangerous voltage is connected to the primary winding of a transformer.6.1. etc. circuit breakers or other current linking devices.6.6.5 Identification of Equipment The Contractor shall mark or label clearly all modules. cable conduits and cable sheaths. units and main parts of the system with a functional code or title.L . trade name and serial number. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The marking or labelling of main items shall be clearly visible on the outside.1. 8. Similar precautions shall be taken to reduce the possibility of overheating components.O. the secondary circuit shall be connected where practicable to an earthed point.1. cable glands.6. The labels and markings of encased units or modules shall be visible when the case or cover is removed. type number.6.).1.. The marking shall be adjacent to the component.O. cores. The primary and secondary output terminations shall be separated in an approved manner.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. Markings required for controls.1.1.1 General All metal work not normally required to carry current shall be connected to an earth point except where otherwise dictated by transmission or other requirements (such metal work shall include cases.1. Provisions shall be made in the equipment :i) to prevent damage to circuits due to failure of any pulses. 8.3 Isolation From Main Supply Unless otherwise agreed by the S. K. Markings shall maintain legibility throughout the life of the equipment in the specified environmental conditions. Techniques used shall be approved by the S. 8. maintenance or warning shall be adjacent to the part concerned. power supplies or mains supply. All wirings shall be suitably rated to carry in excess of the current permitted by their fuses.2 Insulating Bushes Insulating bushes shall be provided wherever conductors carrying dangerous voltages pass through holes in metal parts and where the conductors would be likely to touch the edge of the holes. 8. ii) to prevent damage to power supplies by inadvertent removal of the load.5 Current Loading of Wires 8. Components shall not be marked with circuit references. screens. systems shall be completely isolated from the mains supply by means of a suitable double-wound transformer which shall include an earthed screen. Page 184 Cawangan Jalan.6 Protective Requirements 8. The main transformers at the controller shall be provided with primary tappings so that the equipment operates with mains supply in the range of 200 to 260 volts.

(RMS) shall be protected by an approved cover. The Contractor shall notify the S. where dangerous voltages exist. particularly on hinged panels.1.O. The Contractor shall ensure that the equipment supplied will function correctly at the supply voltage.6.. duly certified copies of the test results when the tests have been successfully completed.6.O. the resistance of the combination shall be not less than 100/n megaohms. Unless approved by the S.1.C. when the on-site commissioning tests are to be undertaken.1. a loose barrier of insulated materials shall be provided between the surface and the connection to prevent the possibility of unwanted contact.6. Cawangan Jalan. 8.C. the S.O. 8.L . and so arranged as to prevent strain on individual wires. All wiring and cabling shall be neat. the insulation resistance between any two parts not intended to be in electrical contact shall not be less than 100 megaohms when measured at a voltage appropriate to the equipment.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. The Contractor and the Supervisor shall forward to the S. The cover shall have a sign with a danger symbol indication of the voltage.O.6. 8. and shall allow for normal variation and surges. shall notify the Contractor in writing that the system has passed the on-site Page 185 8. K. Where `n' such paths are effectively connected in parallel. not more than three cable cores shall be retained by any terminal. and any costs associated with obtaining this supply shall be included in the Tendered rates. or 100 volts A. The highest voltage to which access can be had by removal of the cover shall be shown.8 Insulation If no value is specified.O.6 Danger Notices All equipment or units working at a voltage at or above 150 volts D. When the S.7 Cable Connecting Units Terminal strips and terminals shall be clearly and indelibly coded. Terminals carrying mains electrical power shall be segregated from other terminals. Ibu Pejabat JKR. has received these test results and is satisfied that the system has passed the test.8 On-Site Commissioning Test Procedures Testing and commissioning of all equipment shall be successfully completed within one (1) month from the date of completion of the installations. 8.1.7 Electricity Supply The Contractor shall comply with all LLN or the power source authority requirements in getting an electricity supply to the installation.1.1. which shall be removable. adequately supported to prevent vibration. Approved soldered-in-lead through connectors are exempted from this requirement.9 Whiskering of Tin Where non-insulated electronic circuits are positioned within 4 mm of a non-insulated tinned surface.

O. referring to operational features in the software manual. testing and setting up adjustments.9. Great care shall be taken to ensure that in the writing of all documentation. shall notify the Contractor in writing of all faults detected during these tests. expert familiarity with apparently simple features is not advertently assumed.O.O. but care shall be taken to avoid these obscuring the operational description. Reissues shall be provided if site commissioning and testing make this necessary. decides the system is not in accordance with the Contract. circuit diagrams with component valves. 8. All documentation shall be produced in uniform style in A4 size. Page 186 commissioning tests.2 Hardware. Two copies each of the documentation shall be supplied to the S. logic diagrams.1. The S. The software description should aim at enabling new programs for an intersection to be written. and layout diagrams shall be provided.1. This shall be in the form of guidance.9. bound and correctly referenced to the text. he may reject the system. Maintenance procedures shall cover the diagnosis of faults.9 Documentation 8. Software and Maintenance Manual The manual shall contain descriptions of the complete hardware system followed by maintenance procedures. with block diagrams and an explanation of the operation of the system.L . Detailed descriptions of component units shall explain their operation. Cawangan Jalan. replacement of units and routine mechanical servicing. and to provide the basic standard techniques used in writing the system programs. All documentation shall be indexed and shall carry an issue number and date. A description of the complete software system shall also be included. They shall fold clear of the text for ease of use. and he shall inform the Contractor of the reasons in writing within a reasonable time. Block diagrams showing the flow and interaction of data. All diagrams relating to the final documentation shall be reduced to page height. it is important that program material is specially written. Where programming technique is dependent on particular features of the system. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8.1. Parts lists and wiring schedules shall be provided. Difficulties should be anticipated. The hardware description shall start with the overall configuration of the system. If the S.1 General System manuals for each equipment associated with the Contract shall be delivered to the S.O. All documentation shall be in English or Bahasa Malaysia. Ibu Pejabat JKR. with layouts showing the location of every unit.

laid together and bedded with PVC.2.L Page 187 . a supply of replacement components and materials or their agreed equivalent is available.1 8. the Contractor shall still be subject to obligation of free servicing. Repainting of the signal aspects.1. Other interconnecting signal cables shall be multicore cables having copper conductors of nominal cross-sectional area not less than 1.2 LOW VOLTAGE UNDER GROUND CABLES Types of Cables An as-built plan showing the final wiring diagrams. 8.S. A Contractor who is not a manufacturer is required to submit a letter from the manufacturer certifying that the manufacturer will support the equipments and components. A qualified Service Engineer provided by the Contractor must be available on 24 hours service a day to attend to any breakdown at anytime including public holidays. controller locations. the S. K. insulated with PVC suitable for a voltage of between 600 and 1000 V. 8. has the option to appoint another party for repair and the cost thus incurred will be borne by the Contractor.1 Power Cables Power cables shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with M. All maintenance conducted shall be entered into the Local Controller Logbook.2.O. Cawangan Jalan. and local controllers shall be performed just before the end of the Warranty Period.1.mm with a minimum of 5 cores. as the S. posts.mm.O. armoured with galvanised steel wires and sheathed with PVC. The copper conductors for Mains Power cables running from the power source to the controller shall have a nominal cross-sectional area not less than 16 sq. Upon failure to do so. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 8.10 Guarantee of Supply The Contractor shall be required to ensure that for a period of not less than 10 years from the date of commissioning the system.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The Contractor shall carry out any repair within 24 hours of being informed of the damages. pole locations.11 Warranty Period After acceptance of the installation.1. may require. detector placement. change in phasing. dated and signed by the maintenance staff of the Contractor. 8. The Contractor shall be liable for damages if he does not undertake remedial works within 24 hours. 274 and shall have high conductivity plain copper stranded conductors. All repairs and replacements required during the Warranty Period shall be carried out with despatch and an adequate supply of spares shall be available for this purpose. conduit runs and timing plan shall be included in each controller cabinet. maintenance and free replacement of all defective parts and fused bulbs for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of issue of the Certificate of Completion.5 sq.

The conductors shall be insulated. The cable gland shall be of gunmetal or brass and shall grip both the inner and outer PVC sheath of the cable. PVC/SWA/PVC cables shall be provided with compression cable gland termination.O. when installed. date of jointing.1.mm. twisted balanced-twin cables which shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with M. Cawangan Jalan.3 unless otherwise specified herein. The insulation shall be waterproof and.5 sq.3 Loop Cables for Vehicle Detectors The material for inductive type vehicle-detector loop cables shall be in accordance with Australian Standard 2276.L . 8. and shall be approved by the S. 8.mm unless otherwise specified.mm and earthing rods shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 10 sq. Ibu Pejabat JKR. shall be securely fixed near the termination. 2276. Jointing of mains power cables shall be allowed only when approved by the S.2.3 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S. number of cores.O. distance of cable joint.2. A plastic laminated plate engraved with details such as size of cable. The detector sensing shall be of a type which can be easily assembled from bulk cable on Site. all cable termination and jointing works shall be carried out in the presence of the S.1. The core conductors shall be of annealed copper having a nominal cross-sectional area of 1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. length of cable.2. 8. K. date of commissioning. The cable shall have a nominal characteristic impedance (Zc) of 90 ohms at 50 kHz.O.2 Feeder Cables for Vehicle Detectors The material for feeder cables to vehicle detectors shall be screened. Cable markers shall be Page 188 The current rating of cables shall comply with the appropriate Tables of the latest IEE Wiring Regulations for the class of conductor used.3 Cable Jointing No cable jointing shall be allowed for interconnecting signal cables. 274. 8. It shall be so designed that any strain on the cable is taken by the steel wire armouring which shall be effectively sealed between the gland itself and the outer cable sheath.2.2 Cable Termination Unless otherwise permitted.2.4 Earthing Conductors Earthing conductors shall have a nominal cross-sectional area of 2. Any deviation from A.1.2. etc.S..O.S.5 sq. 8. shall withstand a temperature of 70ºC without suffering damage or deformation.4 Cable Markers Cable markers with lettering and signs as shown on the Drawings shall be provided by the Contractor at every change of direction of underground mains power cable routes and at every 15 metres on straight runs.

Where no amber signal is installed these dimensions apply to the centre of the green signal. The top face shall be indented in bold lettering with the initials `L. 8.3.1 Optical Arrangement for Drivers Each signal face shall.2 Optical Arrangement for Pedestrians Each signal face shall contain two optical systems arranged vertically. Ibu Pejabat JKR. as seen by the driver.S.' and a directional sign or signs indicating the direction/directions of the cable route.3 SIGNAL LANTERNS 8. Cable joint markers of similar construction but with the symbol `X' shall be provided and installed at every cable joint in a similar manner.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works For horizontal overhead signals. the middle one amber.2 Optical Requirements 8.S.3.3. shall be in accordance with A.3 Height of Signal (a) Post-Mounted Signals Intended For Drivers The height of signals shall be such that when erected the centre of the amber optical system shall be not less than 2. The cable marker shall be buried to a depth of 300 mm or any other depth as directed by the S.L Page 189 . Primary signals shall be fitted with a type A visor and secondary signals shall be fitted with a type B visor as described in A. contain three optical systems arranged vertically. Cawangan Jalan. The cable marker shall form a trapezoidal block with a 100 mm square top face and 150 mm square bottom face. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. and the lower one green. 2144 unless otherwise specified herein. and the right-most one red. the middle one amber.1 Standard Requirements All components. Any deviation from A. each having a diameter of not less than 295 mm nor more than 305 mm. 8. their installation and performance.2. and shall be 400 mm in height as shown on the Drawings. 2144. The optical system spacings shall be as shown on the Drawings.V.O.4 metres nor more than 4 metres above the carriageway level. The upper optical system shall illuminate a red `DON'T WALK' symbol and the lower one a green `WALK' symbol.O.O. 8. K. of heavy duty reinforced concrete construction and shall be approved by the S.S. 2144 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S. which shall incorporate pedestrian symbols as shown on the Drawings. the coloured lens of the upper optical system shall be red.2. the coloured lens of the left-most optical system shall be green.3. each having a diameter of not less than 295 mm nor more than 305 mm. 8.2. For post-mounted signals.3.

All target boards shall have an orange border not less than 45 mm nor more than 55 mm wide. Other types of target boards shall be as shown on the Drawings. (c) Overhead Mounted Traffic Control Light Signals The height of overhead mounted signals shall be such that when erected. uncoloured and the filament shall only be used in the horizontal position. shall be a 12 V. 6007.3 Constructional Requirements Each tungsten halogen lamp shall be provided with an appropriate transformer complying with the requirements of B.S. It shall extend not less than 280 mm horizontally either side of the vertical centre line of the optical system. a target board shall be provided with each signal face intended for vehicle drivers. 8. extending not less than 275 mm above the centre of the upper optical system nor less than 275 mm below the centre of the lower optical system.S. The bulb shall be clear.L Page 190 . vi) nominal operating voltage : 11.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iv) overall length : 44 mm maximum.3.S. 50 W.1 metres nor more than 2. Wiring between the lamp holder and the transformer and the terminal block shall be in compliance with the requirements of M. The lamp shall meet the following requirements as tested in A. long life tungsten halogen lamp. (b) Light Signals Intended For Pedestrians The height of signal shall be such that when erected the height of the lower edge of the housing enclosing the green signal shall be not less than 2. mounted within the signal head and connected to a terminal block which may be mounted remotely.6 metres above the carriageway level.3. iii) nominal colour temperature : 2850 K at 12 V input. Cawangan Jalan. K. ii) nominal life : 2000 hours continuous burning at 12 V input.3.1 Lamps The lamp used in the optical system.7 V. 136 and B. Unless otherwise specified.3. the lowest point of the signal head assembly shall be not less than 5.2 Target Boards 8. 2144 Section 3. to meet the requirements of A. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 9720. 2144 :i) nominal lumens : 820 lm at 12 V.S.3. v) overal diameter : 12 mm maximum. 8.5 metres above the carriageway level.5 metres nor more than 8. The target boards shall be manufactured from a durable resilient material and shall be stiffened where necessary to resist distortion due to wind and extreme ambient temperature.S.

8.4 SIGNAL POSTS AND MAST ARMS Standard Requirements All signal posts. Where possible. Every post shall be provided with one nickel-plated brass earthing screw located within the post. 1 metre above the ground.5. 8. the signal should have a clearance of 300 mm to 450 mm behind the kerb line. for the mounting of one pedestrian push-button assembly in accordance with Sub-Section 8. All posts and mast-arms shall have their exact location determined by the S. 8. signal mast arms and mountings of signal lanterns shall be as shown on the Drawings. The posts and mast arms shall be so designed and constructed as to provide adequate support and stability for the signal head assembly.4.4.4 Location and Erection The posts and mast arms shall be erected at the approximate locations as shown on the Drawings. 25 mm below the top. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The posts and mast arms shall be capable of having holes drilled in the vertical section. K.1 8. the interior and exterior of steel posts shall be protected by a finish complying with the requirements of M.O.S. In areas where there is no kerb.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. the posts shall be erected so that no part of the signal head other than overhead signals projects over the roadway. the steel posts should be erected so that the signal head is clear of the shoulder (or usable area) and should not be less than 2 m nor more than 3 m from the edge of the nearest traffic lane. All signal posts shall be of tubular hollow section of steel with a nominal diameter of 100 mm and fitted with a weather-proof cap to prevent ingress of water. 8. The post shall be at a distance not less than 1 metre before the edge line.3 Connecting Facilities for Cables Provision shall be made for the connection of terminating and inter connecting cables coming from within the post or mast arm and of cables from the traffic signal lanterns.4. and recorded on the as-built Drawings. Mast arms shall be tubular hollow sections of steel of a generally tapered form mounted on a baseplate as shown on the Drawings.5 Finish Unless otherwise specified.2 Cable Entry Buried posts shall incorporate a cable-entry aperture as shown on the Drawings.4. 740.4. Cawangan Jalan. On roadways whose edges are defined by a raised kerb.L Page 191 . Baseplate-mounted posts shall provide for entry of the cable into the interior of the post through a hole in the baseplate having a diameter not less than the inside diameter of the post.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Standard Specification For Road Works 8.5.4 Audible Signal An audible signal shall, unless otherwise specified, be provided with all pedestrian push-buttons in accordance with A.S. 2353. 8.6 TRAFFIC CONTROLLER General Requirements A controller is the complete timing mechanism which controls the signal phases at an intersection. The controller shall be microprocessorbased consisting of :i) a microprocessing unit; ii) interfacing for inputs and outputs; iii) ancillary equipment. The control equipment and components shall be housed in a weatherproof cabinet as specified in Sub-Section 8.6.2. The controller shall be able to provide four phases and shall be capable of expansion to at least eight phases by the addition of modules on site, which shall be in addition to any special phase required in connection with start up sequences, all reds, etc. It shall also provide a variety of timing functions and differing operational modes. The controller unit shall be capable of operating a minimum of eight plans in a 24 hour period. All active and passive components, their mountings and plugs, sockets and connections shall be suitable for their application.

The exterior surface of steel posts shall be painted with alternate black and orange bands of 300 mm width in weather resisting plastics material as specified in Clause 6 of B.S. 873, Part 1, and as shown on the Drawings. Any surface cut after galvanizing, painting, or the application of the plastics finish, shall be wire brushed and given two coats of good quality zinc-rich paint in accordance with B.S. 4652. 8.5 PEDESTRIAN PUSH-BUTTONS Standard Requirements All pedestrian push-buttons, their mechanism and operation, shall be in accordance with A.S. 2353 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2353 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.5.2 Location Pedestrian push-button detectors shall be provided facing the footpath at each end of each crosswalk where pedestrian actuated signals are required as shown on the Drawings. 8.5.3 Pedestrian Demand Indicator When the button is pressed, an internally illuminated panel shall light up bearing the legend `NANTI', which shall be white on a black or blue background. It shall continue to be displayed until the cross signal (green man) commences. The pedestrian demand indicator shall be provided with all pedestrian pushbuttons unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.

8.6.1

8.5.1

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Standard Specification For Road Works All means of access shall be protected by locks of different patterns and the corresponding locks and keys shall be identical for controller housings of the same make, type and series. Not less than two keys of each type shall be supplied with each controller and they shall be handed over to the S.O. after the completion of testing and commissioning. A log book shall be provided in each housing for the purpose of maintenance and inspection records. The log book shall be attached to the housing by a cord or similar method to prevent removal from the housing cabinet. A pocket or shelf shall be provided within the housing for its storage. 8.6.3 Controller Mains Switch Board The controller mains switch board shall consist of :i) one mains switch and one mains fuse (rated 30 A); ii) one isolation switch together with a fuse to control mains supply, active to all lamps; iii) one flashing yellow feature switch and fuse; iv) one equipment switch and fuse (rated 15 A) to supply four sub-circuits labelled as :. controller . detectors . auxiliary . general purpose outlet; v) neutral link; vi) earth link.

8.6.2

Housing The housing shall have a weatherproof enclosure for the protection of :i) the logic module; ii) interfacing and/or lamp switching modules; iii) power supplies; iv) a `call-recorded' tranformer; v) mains switch board; vi) facility switch; vii)shelf space for mounting of vehicle detectors. The housing cabinet shall be in accordance with A.S. 2578, Part 1, unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A.S. 2578, Part 1, shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.O. Housing shall be manufactured from such material approved by the S.O. Appropriate means of entry and support for cables shall be provided. Sufficient ventilation shall be provided to prevent condensation inside the cabinet under all weather conditions. Charcoal or some other dehydration agent shall be placed in the housing as directed by the S.O. All non-current carrying metal parts shall be bonded together and effectively earthed in accordance with CP 1013.

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Standard Specification For Road Works When the pedestrian indications are allowed an exclusive phase, the pedestrian steady green shall be controlled by the appropriate control command and followed by the flashing green pedestrian signal. The intergreen periods shall be inserted before the pedestrian steady green and between the end of the flashing green and the start of the next vehicle phase green. It shall be possible to operate the pedestrian phase with or without pedestrian detection. This shall be selected by a switch or other methods within the controller, subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.6.6 Logic Module Arrangement of the microprocessor based logic module shall be subject to the approval of the S.O. 8.6.6.1 Microcomputer System The microcomputer system shall contain a stored program in readonly-memory (ROM). Part or all of the ROM shall be reprogrammable. The stored program shall permit the traffic controller to be operated in different traffic modes as follows :i) isolated traffic-actuated operation; ii) cableless/Synchronous operation; iii) fixed time operation. All information relating to a particular signal installation, such as number of plans, signal groups, detector logic, time setting and description of logical

The controller shall be suitable for operation at 240 V + 6%, 50 Hz + 1%, single phase A.C. supply. 8.6.4 Facility Switch A facility switch shall be provided to switch the signal lanterns to ON, OFF or FLASH or other facilities such as manual operation. The switch shall only control the signal lamps and flashing yellow circuits while leaving the control equipment fully operative. Access to this facility shall be via a separate locked door or some other means which does not give access to the controller. The facility shall be located not less than 1 metre from the ground level. 8.6.5 Pedestrian Facilities Pedestrian indications shall be allocated as exclusive phases or be connected in parallel to a green phase(s). When the pedestrian indications are connected in parallel to a green vehicle phase, the steady pedestrian green shall commence at a preset period adjustable to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 seconds before or after the start of the green vehicle phase. The steady pedestrian green shall persist until the end of a preset period. It shall be followed by the flashing pedestrian green. The flashing pedestrian green shall flash at 76 to 84 flashes per minute, and the lamp shall be on for between 50% to 70% of the time. The amber signal terminating the vehicle green phase shall not commence until a preset period adjustable to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 seconds has elapsed after the termination of the flashing pedestrian green.
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Standard Specification For Road Works The clock shall derive its timing from two sources, either from the 50 Hz mains supply or a crystal oscillator. When the mains supply is normal, the 50 Hz mains frequency shall provide the time. The crystal reference signal shall be phase locked to the mains frequency by a digital phase locked loop. The real time clock shall provide time in seconds, minutes, hours and days to the microprocessor via a data bus. 8.6.6.4 Operator Interface and Controller Display A keyboard display unit shall be provided as an operator interface with the controller logic module. Visual indicators shall be provided to indicate the status of various traffic parameters such as the phase currently running, base phase step for each phase, demand for each phase, pedestri an demands recorded, etc. When operated in link mode, the display shall be able to provide all traffic parameters associated with the appropriate link mode. 8.6.6.5 Supply Monitor All D.C. power supplies to various cards in the logic module shall be constantly monitored to ensure correct operation of the controller. The monitor shall be arranged so that if one or more of the supply output voltages falls below certain preset levels, the power failure detection circuit will activate to cause the controller to black out the intersection.

and conditional features, shall be contained in the reprogrammable ROM. Time settings may be stored by means of :i) reprogrammable ROM; and ii) battery back-up RAM. The RAM settings shall be such that they may be changed by means of a detachable keyboard while the controller is functioning. The reprogrammable ROM shall be separate from the CPU and its associated circuitry to facilitate field servicing. 8.6.6.2 Input/Output Interfaces The Contractor shall provide for the approval of the S.O., detailed technical information on the input and output interfaces. Inputs include those from vehicle detectors, pedestrian push buttons and signal links. The output shall be to the vehicle signal lamps, pedestrian lamps, wait indicators and signal linking. 8.6.6.3 Real `Time-of-Day' Clock For cableless/synchronous linking operations, a hardware clock shall be provided. The circuit generating the hardware clock shall be backed up by a standby battery for up to 48 hours or more (when fully charged).

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Standard Specification For Road Works 8.6.10 Interchangeability All parts shall be interchangeable with like parts for equipment of the same make, type and series. 8.6.11 Vibration and Noise

The mains supply voltage shall also be monitored. Any voltage drop below certain levels shall cause a black out situation. 8.6.6.6 Watchdog Timer A watchdog timer shall be used to detect failure of the microprocessor system to execute its traffic control program. Any failure to execute traffic instruction shall black out the intersection. 8.6.7 Mains Supply Interruptions

The apparatus shall be reasonably quiet and the mechanism shall not cause undue vibration. The apparatus shall be constructed so as to reduce to a minimum any damage to lamps and equipment due to vibration caused by traffic. 8.6.12 Radio Interference The design of equipment shall be such as to prevent interference to telegraphic, telephonic or radiotransmissions. The apparatus will be considered to meet this requirement, as far as radio interference is concerned, if the interference produced by it does not exceed the limits laid down in M.S. 71 and B.S. 800. 8.6.13 Safety Where right of way signals are shown for any controlled traffic in one phase, it shall not be possible through failure of any operating component of the controller to give a right of way signal to a conflicting traffic signal. The Contractor shall satisfy the S.O. as to how the conflicting green state can be detected and what action is to be taken on its detection. The use of two independent safeguard systems is favoured. A method of testing the operation of the safeguards shall be provided.

In the event of a mains supply interruption equal to or less than 50 milliseconds, the controller shall continue to function correctly. When a controller commences to fail (after a mains supply interruption in excess of 50 milliseconds) it shall shut down for the duration of the mains interruption plus a nominal period of about 5 - 10 seconds. At the expiration of this nominal period the controller shall commence operation at an all red state. This state shall persist for at least 5 seconds and shall be followed by the pre-selected phase. 8.6.8 Circuit Breakers Appropriate fuses or circuit breakers shall be provided by the Contractor for the connection of the controller to the mains supply. A mains isolation switch shall also be provided. 8.6.9 Inputs All inputs shall be suitably protected against high voltage peaks and short circuits.

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1 8.2 Number of Traffic Lanes The loop detector shall sense traffic flow on one to four traffic lanes depending on where it is installed. 8.C. power supply. It shall sense traffic moving in one direction only and detection on a two way road shall be achieved by using two sets of detectors so that the information obtained for each direction is separate.5 Performance Requirements The detector shall respond to any vehicle. 50 Hz + 1% single phase A. These shall include any roadworks associated with :i) installation of Local Controller and Detector Recording housings. The Contractor shall satisfy the S.7.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8.8. This shall apply to those timing arrangements which measure selected fixed periods.7 VEHICLE DETECTORS Standard Requirements All equipment.7. as to how the conflicting green state can be detected and what action is to be taken on its detection. except bicycles and trishaws.7.O. 8.7. its construction and performance. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. K.S.L 8. Cawangan Jalan. shall be in accordance with A. ii) installation of signal poles and heads. A method of testing the operation of the safeguards shall be provided.6.8 ROADWORKS General The Contractor shall carry out all necessary roadworks in connection with the installation of the system. with respect to the accuracy of the detector unit in terms of false or nil presence actuation at normal operating sensitivity for all types of vehicles including high-bodied vehicles and multi-axle vehicles.4 Equipment Construction The Contractor shall be responsible for the manufacture. 2703 unless otherwise specified herein. Any deviation from A. 8. The flashing rate of any flashing signals shall be between 76 and 84 flashes per minute within the same voltage and frequency limits. Power shall be supplied from the traffic controller. The use of two independent safeguard systems is favoured. installation and commissioning of the detector system. 8.S.O. iii) installation of cable ducting. normally encountered on public roads travelling at any speed. 2703 shall be at the request of or subject to the approval of the S.3 Supply Voltage The detectors shall operate on 240 V + 6%.14 Timing The duration of all periods timed by the controller shall be within + 10% of the nominal time when the applied main voltage is within the range between + 10% of the nominal value and + 4% of its nominal frequency. 8.1 Page 197 . 8. The Contractor shall satisfy the S.7.

1 General The Contractor shall cause as little obstruction as possible to the general public during the execution of all works under this Contract. laying cables. :i) trenching in sidetables.L Page 198 . reinstated and maintained as specified in this Sub-Section.3.3 Excavation.8. 8. This approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.8. The Contractor shall ensure that no delay occurs between opening excavations. ii) cables to be laid in carriageway shall be at least 750 mm below the carriageway level. For excavation in carriageways and footpaths.8. K.O. The remaining excavated materials may be stockpiled on the Site for later backfilling but excavated topsoil shall be kept separate. excavated premix and subbase may be stockpiled on Site for later backfilling. stacked and periodically watered for later re-use. backfilled.2 Permission to Excavate Road The Contractor shall apply to the S. and shall pay due regard to the interests and convenience of the public and of all private persons who have property in or are resident in the neighbourhood of the works. iv) no work shall be done during traffic peak hours unless approved by the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. Cawangan Jalan.3. 8. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The Contractor shall comply with the following conditions and other additional instructions from the S. The application shall be made not less than seven (7) days before the commencement of the work. Backfilling Reinstatement and Maintenance of Excavations If an existing conduit has been installed across the road carriageway. backfilling and reinstatement and that these actions form a continuous process. 8.2 Excavation Each trench shall be excavated to the required level and materials taken out shall not be re-used unless otherwise specified or directed by the S. footpaths and carriageways shall be excavated. For excavation in side-tables.8.O. iii) cables running longitudinally in footpaths and side-tables shall be at least 600 mm clear of the edge of the kerb line or carriageway and at least 750 mm below the adjacent carriageway channel level. for approval to excavate the roadway. selected granular materials.O. all cross-carriageway cabling shall be carried by this conduit. All other unsuitable excavated material must be removed to spoil on the day it is excavated.O. turfs shall be carefully removed.

5 Cable Laying and Installation All cables shall be handled. road crossings.L . the number of cables installed in each duct shall be such that the space factor shall not be less than 60 %. galvanised steel pipes shall be provided.8. Ibu Pejabat JKR. If straight through joints or other approved Page 199 All excavated materials shall be kept clear of the carriageways at all times. Straight through joints in the cable will only be permitted in very exceptional circumstances such as those arising from unavoidable limitations in manufacturing length.. 1387. concrete areas. a trench running laterally across a road cannot be backfilled and must be left open overnight or for a longer period. paved areas. complying with B. concrete areas and areas specified by the S. the pipes shall be 150 mm in diameter. complete with screwed and socketed joints.3. for unavoidable reasons. the above galvanised steel pipes shall be provided by the Contractor whether they are shown on the Drawings or not.S.4 Cable Ducts At road crossings. 8. laid and installed according to this Specification. All excavations shall be kept free of standing water. Where it is Cawangan Jalan.3 Bedding of Excavation Before ducts are laid. In soft or unstable ground the sides shall be adequately supported.3. All ducts shall be extended at least 600 mm beyond paved areas.O. If.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works necessary to cross drains. 8. water pipe crossings.8. Unless otherwise specified. etc. cable manufacturer's recommendations and ERA Reports by using proper installation equipment. Unless specified to be provided by others. sewerage pipe crossings. 8.. The pipes shall be heavy duty pipes. cables shall be protected by galvanised steel pipes buried to a depth of 900 mm below finished ground level. All ducts shall be covered by a layer of sand hand tamped to a thickness of at least 75 mm above the crown of the duct.3. securely bolted and adequate to take traffic loading. All sides of excavations shall be vertical. A drawn wire shall be provided in each duct. K. then steel plates. culverts or similar obstructions which are too deep for the cables to be buried below. the IEE Wiring Regulations. The pipes shall be supported at each end in a concrete block and shall project through the blocks into the ground to a depth of a least 750 mm.8. Unless otherwise approved by the S. drains. shall be placed across the trench and the section of road opened to traffic.O. pipe crossings. the trench beds shall be levelled and sand placed on the bed and hand tamped to a thickness of not less than 75 mm. All cables shall be supplied in complete length to suit the circuits they serve and no straight through joints shall be used.

The bricks shall be new. After laying the cables. the cables shall then be laid on this bedding in an orderly manner without overlapping and crossing each other.mm. the ends shall be immediately sealed in an approved manner unless it is intended to proceed with cable jointing or termination straight away. The cable protective covers shall be clay bricks. 8.6 Cable Laid Direct On The Ground Where trench beds have been covered with sand. well burnt and in complete pieces.. At every 10 metres interval.3.mm. Cables laid at the bottom of trenches shall be Type L cables in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition). Each cable shall be separately protected by these bricks and the cover shall have at least 25 mm overhang on each side of the cable.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq.7 Cables Installed in Precast Concrete Trenches Methods of installation of cables in precast concrete trenches shall be in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition) for Type L. The minimum bending radius of the cable shall be in accordance with Table 52C of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition). a layer of 75 mm clean sand shall cover the cables and shall be carefully spread over the trench before placing the cable protective covers. For cable sizes exceeding 120 sq.8.mm. In the case of single core cables.O.3.O. However. more than one row of bricks shall be laid..O. no cable shall be laid and covered up in the absence of the S. the cables shall be installed as directed by the S. more than one row of Cawangan Jalan.mm. For cable sizes exceeding 120 sq. Unless otherwise permitted by the S.8. Wherever cables are cut. Cables installed on the trench walls shall be Type M or Type N cables in accordance with Table 9A of the IEE Wiring Regulations (15th Edition) and the cables shall be secured on a cable tray by means of saddles at suitable intervals. joints are permitted by the S.O. They shall be laid lengthwise from end to end along the entire route of the underground cable if the cable size is not more than 120 sq. 8.L Page 200 . Type M or Type N cables. No joints in the cable will be allowed unless approved in writing by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. if the method is not specified. the cost of such joints shall be borne by the Contractor.O. non ferrous saddles shall be used. an extra 2 metres length of nylon rope shall be coiled and laid. K. multi-strand nylon rope of minimum 6 mm diameter shall be laid at a depth of 300 mm along the trench to identify the cable route. whether secured individually or in groups to the cable tray. An orange coloured.

The minimum thickness of the sheet steel used shall be 1. the backfilling of the slot in the roadway. intersection units. and the slot or trenches for the feeder cables. berms and slopes. The next 230 mm of backfill shall consist of crushed aggregate roadbase con forming to Sub-Section 4.4 of this Specification.8. 8. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The cable tray shall be supported at least 25 mm from the trench wall by mild steel brackets at 600 mm intervals. Cawangan Jalan. Approved quality grass turfs shall be closely and continuously fitted over the topsoiled area where necessary and directly pegged down to prevent displacement.1.L Page 201 .8. The brackets shall be treated with anti-rust and painted with one coat of primer. All tees. All saddles for cables on cable trays shall be installed using bolts. all cable joints shall be bridged by means of tinned copper tape of dimensions not less than 25 mm x 3 mm.5 mm for cable trays with widths of up to 300 mm and shall be 2. for approval prior to installation.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works For excavations in carriageways and footpaths the backfilling shall be done in 150 mm layers to within 300 mm of the surface level using clean sand and suitable excavated granular material or other approved granular material. To provide electrical continuity. A tack coat of cationic bituminous emulsion shall be applied on the crushed aggregate surface and a 75 mm thick layer of compacted asphaltic premix shall be placed as the final layer.8.9 Sensing Loop Slots The Contractor shall be responsible for providing the slot in the roadway for the loop sensor. The Contractor shall ensure that all precautions are taken not to disturb such drains and services and shall be The cable tray shall be fabricated from perforated hot-dipped galvanised sheets finished in an orange enamel. the excavated material shall be replaced in 150 mm layers in the reverse order to which the material was excavated.. 8. Each layer shall be compacted with a power driven rammer.3. 8. Each layer shall be compacted using a power driven rammer.10 Maintenance of Drains and Service During Excavations The Contractor shall ensure that he has full knowledge of the location of all drains and services in the area of any excavation prior to the excavation commencing. Samples of the cable tray and brackets shall be submitted to the S. washers and nuts. etc.3.3.0 mm for widths exceeding 300 mm. shall be factory manufactured unless otherwise approved by the S. laid and compacted by a power driven rammer. the installation and jointing of the loop feeder cable. all in accordance with the relevant requirements of Section 4 of this Specification.8 Backfilling of Excavations and Reinstatements For excavations in sidetables.O. all as shown on the Drawings.O. adaptor units. The top 150 mm of the excavation and adjacent disturbed ground shall be filled with good loamy topsoil and hand tamped.

which have been affected by any trench opening.11 Reinstatement of Drains and Precast Units The Contractor shall carry out the reinstatement of all existing precast channel drains. surplus materials and plant and leave the site in a clean and tidy condition.3.3. Any part of reinstatement in a footpath or carriageway that settles more than 15 mm below the adjacent undisturbed surface level shall promptly be resurfaced to a level not more than 15 mm above the adjacent undisturbed surface level. backed and jointed to the satisfaction of the S.O. humps. but shall be promptly swept clear. loose stones and any other similar defects such as not to constitute danger or unreasonable nuisance to traffic or members of the public. 8.O's written approval for the reinstatement works. and shall obtain the S.O. The Contractor shall be required to maintain a small mobile gang of workmen for the above purpose. in the S. and a regular system of daily inspection shall be instituted for all trenches awaiting temporary and permanent rein statement.O.12 Completion of Works On completion of reinstatement works at any one site. K. etc. Cawangan Jalan.L .O.13 Maintenance of Excavation The Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the proper maintenance and good condition of each excavation and each reinstatement up to a period of three (3) calendar months after the date of the S.8. gulleys. otherwise the Contractor shall supply and lay similar new units.. the Contractor shall clear away all debris.3. The Contractor shall carry out any further remedial works as directed by the S.'s judgement. and after reinstatement shall be maintained in a sound and firm condition.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 8. during.8. Only excavated units in a sound and undamaged condition may be replaced. Should the Contractor default in the maintenance of excavations and reinstatement where. 8.'s written approval of such reinstatement works. Page 202 responsible for their maintenance during the reinstatement of such excavations. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The units shall be replaced to the original lines and levels and shall be bedded. The resurfacing shall be carried out by applying a prime/tack coat and asphaltic premix as specified in Section 4 of this Specification.8. All excavation sites prior to. free from depressions. Loose materials or stones shall not be allowed to accumulate over or around any excavation. pavement slabs. The Contractor should note if the Site of the Works is subject to frequent and heavy rainfall and all precautions shall be taken to maintain existing drainageways to prevent flooding. dividers. kerbs.

4.1 General Obstructions and excavations shall be adequately fenced and guarded at all times for the protection of all persons who use the roadway.O. In these cases. Roads shall not be used for the unnecessary storage of materials.8. K. published by Cawangan Jalan. Particular attention shall be paid to the positioning of the barriers. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. In the event that the Contractor fails to notify the S.L . Kuala Lumpur. the maintenance period of each item of work shall be deemed to have been extended by the Contractor due to his fault to such time until the final inspection is carried out. not more than one traffic lane in either direction shall be closed except as may be otherwise directed by the S. When the work is such that the simultaneous closing of several lanes cannot be avoided and would cause undue interference with traffic. of the date of expiration of the maintenance period and has not arranged for the inspection of the work.O. before work commences. On roads of not more than one traffic lane in each direction. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O. Barriers and Barricades The general arrangement and location of temporary signs at works in progress shall be strictly in accordance with ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 2C/85.8.2 Arrangement and Location of Signs. Before the expiration of the maintenance period of each item of work. This may be accomplished by the use of steel plates as specified in Sub-Section 8. as it will not be necessary to close up one full lane. shorter barriers shall be used.8. may give permission for the simultaneous closing of lanes for emergency works or other works as deemed necessary.O. 8. and shall be submitted by the Contractor and approved by the S.4 Traffic Arrangements 8. for final inspection of the work to determine any outstanding defects which have to be rectified.O.2.4. However. The Contractor will only be absolved of all the responsibilities of the maintenance after such defects are rectified to the satisfaction of the S. The whole obstruction or excavation shall be completely fenced off. the Contractor shall write to the S. Page 203 such default would constitute in any way a traffic hazard.O. Work on a road involving less than one-third of a traffic lane and work on a footpath in the immediate vicinity of the carriageway of a high speed road shall be deemed to be minor obstructions.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works On multilane roads. the work should either be carried out at night or during weekends. shall have the power to attend forthwith to such defects and the entire cost of the work plus 25% shall be borne by the Contractor. then the S. but unnecessary blocking of traffic lanes shall not be permitted. 8.3. the Contractor shall ensure that both lanes are kept open during peak periods as previously defined. the S.O.8.

barricades and handrails.8.4. Red and green flags should.4. barricades or signs. Otherwise they shall be removed from the roadway when work ceases at night. Lamps shall be kept alight at all times during the hours of darkness. 8. The extra carriageway shall be properly maintained in a smooth and hard condition at all times for the duration of the work.4. a temporary traffic diversion shall be constructed if possible. under no All traffic signs used in temporary signing must be reflectorised. 8.8. Warning lamps shall consist of standard battery operated flashing lights and shall be placed at salient points of the site every night. The methods of temporary traffic control are :i) Police supervision : this applies where the works are of a very short duration with some special feature. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Cones shall be of rubber or equivalent flexible material and shall be bright orange in colour. The maintenance of pedestrian movement shall be provided by construction of temporary walks.6 Temporary Traffic Control It is essential that traffic control at the site be exercised diligently and by competent personnel. signs shall be sited where they will receive maximum benefits from street lighting.4.8.3 Temporary Warning Lamps Temporary warning lamps shall be used during the hours of darkness in conjunction with all temporary signs. When practicable. 8.L Page 204 . ii) Manually operated 'Stop' and 'Go' signs : this applies at works of short duration. traffic guidance cones shall be placed on the road so as to guide traffic smoothly from the wide section to the narrow section in which a portion of the roadway has been closed to traffic. Cawangan Jalan. provided that traffic is not dense. Ibu Pejabat JKR.8. a satisfactory roadway shall be provided for the traffic. Certain areas along the construction site may be restricted to pedestrian use where such restrictions are in the interest of pedestrian safety. continuously operating flashing lights shall be used to guide the traffic. such as a busy road junction. Cones shall be used only when the work is in progress or where there is a watchman who can reposition any of the cones which may have been dislodged by the traffic. At night.5 Temporary Traffic Diversions For the duration of the work. 8.4 Use of Traffic Guidance Cones When a portion of a roadway is closed to traffic by the use of barriers. if the need arises. Where a sufficient width of carriageway is not available. barriers and other traffic control devices which are to remain in position at night.

clear and legible at all times. Signs. Ibu Pejabat JKR. They should also have a plate on the rear side with the words `SLOW MOVING' or `KENDERAAN PERLAHAN'. K. Barriers. During the day. lights.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works flashing lights on the top of the vehicles.8. 8.L Page 205 .Temporary Traffic Diversions. if at all practicable.9 Maintenance of Signs.4.8. a red flag shall project beyond the extremity of all plant items (other than vehicles) adjacent to the traffic lane. circumstances.8 Vehicles Vehicles which carry out operations on the road and which are required to travel slowly or to stop at frequent intervals should be made as conspicuous as possible. and/or providing Cawangan Jalan. all plant items and similar obstructions shall be removed from the road at night. The lights may be omitted in cases where there are permanent obstructions. This shall be achieved by painting such vehicles a distinctive colour. Temporary traffic diversions shall be maintained in good order at all times. Plant and equipment shall be lit at night if within 5 metres of the edge of the carriageway by two red lights suspended vertically from the point of obstruction nearest to the carriageway. 8. but could be used to supplement the disc signs. and/or painting their rear portions with diagonal stripes of a contrasting colour.7 Plant and Equipment In all cases where traffic is permitted to use the whole or a portion of the existing road. barriers and other traffic control devices shall be maintained in good order and in the correct position day and night. Lights.4. such as trees less than 5 metres from the edge of carriageway and the plant or equipment are not closer to the road than the permanent obstructions. 8. be used for traffic control.8. etc. Signs shall be neat.4.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 9 CONCRETE Cawangan Jalan. K.L Page 206 .

4.1 Workability 9.4.2.L .4.4.3 9.3.6 Maximum Sulphate Content 9.2.4.4.3. K.2 9.3.1 9.3.3.4 Maximum Cement Content 9. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3 Requirements for Concrete 9.5 Total Chloride Content 9.3.2.4 9.CONCRETE Page 9.2.3.2 9.2.2 DESCRIPTION MATERIALS S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-211 S9-212 S9-213 S9-213 S9-214 S9-214 S9-214 S9-215 S9-215 S9-216 S9-217 S9-217 9.2.2 Sampling and Testing 9.3.2.1 Cement 9.3 Aggregates Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates Grading Sampling and Testing of Aggregates Storage of Aggregates Water Admixtures CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIXES Requirements for Prescribed Mixes Requirements for Designed Mixes Target Mean Strength Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions Mixes Control of Strength of Designed Mixes 9.2.2.2.3.3 Testing plan 9.2.1 S9-220 S9-221 S9-221 S9-221 S9-222 S9-223 Page 207 9.1 9.2 Designed mix 9.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 9 .1.2.2.2.3 Minimum Cement Content 9.3.2 9.2.3.1 Characteristic Strength 9.4 COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS Prescribed Mix S9-218 S9-218 S9-218 S9-218 S9-219 S9-220 9.3.3 9.2.2.3.4 9.3.5 9.2 9.3.2.1 9.2.3.3.3.1 9.2.1 Transportation and Storage 9.2.3 9.2.3.2 Concrete Grade 9.3 Additional Cubes Cawangan Jalan.4 9.

6.2 9.5 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Supervision Batching and Mixing Transporting Placing Temperature Requirements Compaction S9-223 S9-223 S9-224 S9-224 S9-226 S9-226 S9-227 S9-227 S9-228 S9-228 9.6.4 9.5.2 9.7. etc. Chases.5 9.3.3 9. Brackets.5.6.1 Normal Curing 9.8 9.7.3 9.2 Accelerated Curing 9.5.5.6.7.6.5.5 9.1 9.3.3.3 9.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 9.2 9.6.3.3.3.6.4 9.7 S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-230 S9-231 STEEL REINFORCEMENT Description Materials Construction Method Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement Fixing of Reinforcement Splicing Supporting and Spacer Blocks Welding of Reinforcement S9-231 S9-231 S9-232 S9-232 S9-232 S9-233 S9-233 S9-233 9. Holes.7.L Page 208 .6. built-In-Bolts.1 9.5.3.6.7.3 9.3.1 9.4 9.3.1 9. K.5 Cawangan Jalan.6 9.7. Precast Concrete Construction Manufacturer Off the Site Storage Handling and Transport Assembly and Erection Forming Structural Connections Protection S9-228 S9-229 9.2 9.7.2 9.6 9.7.3.5.5.1 9.7 Curing and protection 9.3.5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.7.5.3 9.6 Ready-Mixed Concrete CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE Construction Joints Fixing Blocks.7.

1 9.8.1 Formed Surfaces 9.2 Finishes 9.4 S9-234 S9-234 S9-235 S9-235 9. K.8.2.8.3 9.8.1.1.L Page 209 . Fixing Devices 9.4 Preparation of Formwork Before Concreting Removal of Formwork S9-235 S9-236 S9-236 S9-237 S9-237 Cawangan Jalan.8 FORMWORK AND SURFACE FINISH FOR STRUCTURE Design and Construction Description Voids In Concrete Form Lining Projecting Reinforcement. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3 Remedial Treatment of Surfaces 9.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 9.8.1 9.8.8.8.2 Unformed Surfaces 9.2 9.8.1.3 9.1.8.2.8.

grades.O. The cement shall be described under one of the following headings :i) Ordinary Portland Cement . which shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3. damage to containers.S.the cement shall comply with M.2 MATERIALS Cement The cement to be used throughout the work shall be Portland cement obtained from an approved manufacturer. 4027. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2.S. 522. and shall be hard. in general. ii) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement . SECTION 9 . Additional tests shall be carried out on any cement which appears to have deteriorated through age.1 Transportation and Storage The cement shall be transported to the Site in covered vehicles adequately protected against water. 12.2 Aggregates Aggregates shall be naturally occurring sand. iii) Moderate Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement . 9. crushed or uncrushed except as otherwise specified. It shall be stored in a weather-proof cement store to the approval of the S.O. and shall be taken for use in the Works in the order of its delivery into the store. iv) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement .L 9. K. except for reinforced concrete pipe culverts. They shall be free from adhering coatings and shall not contain any harmful material in sufficient quantity so as to affect adversely the strength. gravel or stone.9. They shall be obtained from a source approved by the S.2.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the construction of all structures or parts of structures to be composed of Portland cement concrete with or without steel reinforcement. 9. durability and impermeability of the concrete.the cement shall comply with B. improper storage or any other reason. and Portland cement concrete pavement. strong. In any event. and shall comply with M. 9. the batch of cement which has been sampled and tested and found not to have complied with the requirements shall be rejected and removed from the Site. 29. Cawangan Jalan.1 Page 210 . Cement delivered in bulk shall be stored in silos of an approved design. levels.S. which shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5. durable and clean. Marine aggregates shall not be used unless otherwise specified.the cement shall comply with M. The work shall be carried out all in accordance with this Specification and the lines. 522. be accepted as proof of soundness.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Manufacturer's certificates of test will.CONCRETE 9.S. dimensions and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as required by the S.1.the cement shall comply with B.O.2.S.

0 mm 37.45 0 . 30 and shall be within the limits given in Table 9.20 - 0 .36 100 95 .100 0 .2.0mm 14.0 2.O.5 20.100 25 . TABLE 9.100 0 .20 0-5 - 100 85 . 29.10 0 0 – 10 - - Cawangan Jalan.1 .0 mm 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 9.100 0 .S.0 mm 75. 410 Test Sieve % Passing By Weight Nominal Size of graded aggregate Nominal Size of single-sized aggregate (mm) 37.0 mm to to 5.2 Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall comply with M.0 mm 20.2.0 14.55 100 90 100 40 .0 mm 63.0 63.0 37. 9.2.70 10035 5 100 95 .L Page 211 .0 10.2.S. K.0 5.100 0 .10 - 85 .85 100 85 .5 mm 20.S. the fine aggregate shall be washed and screened to the satisfaction of the S.2.1 Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate shall comply with M. If it is found necessary.0 mm 5.100 0 .20 0-5 - 100 85 .30 0-5 - 100 85 .S.5mm to 5.0 mm 14. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 29.COARSE AGGREGATE B.3 Grading (a) Coarse Aggregate The grading of coarse aggregate shall be analysed as described in M.100 30 .1. 9.2.

K. Tests shall be carried out on samples of the latter taken at intervals as required by the S.20 0 .O. 410 Test Sieve % Passing By Weight Grading Zone 1 Grading Zone 2 Grading Zone 3 Grading Zone 4 10.2 .L Page 212 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (b) Fine Aggregate The grading of fine aggregate shall be analysed as described in M.0 mm 5.15 9.4 Sampling and Testing of Aggregates Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the S.S.10 100 90 . shall be kept on Site.O. Cawangan Jalan.O.100 75 – 100 55 – 90 35 – 59 8 – 30 0 – 10 100 90 – 100 85 – 100 75 – 100 60 – 70 12 – 40 0 .36 mm 1.2. 30 and other standards as specified in Table 9.0 mm 2. and shall give a fair indication of the general quality of the aggregates for comparison with the aggregates delivered during the course of the work.2.S.34 5 .S. shall be removed from the Site.3.10 100 95 – 100 95 – 100 90 – 100 80 – 100 15 – 50 0 .FINE AGGREGATE B. TABLE 9. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. Any batch of aggregate rejected by the S.70 15 .100 60 – 95 30 . 30 and shall be with in the limits of one of the grading zones given in Table 9. The method of sampling and testing shall be in accordance with M.18 mm 600 um 300 um 150 um 100 90 .

4% not exceeding 20% loss not exceeding 12% not exceeding 0.3 Water Water shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 30 M. 28.2.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 9. 30 AASHTO Test Method T104 B.S.3 .1 & Table 9.S.S.TESTING OF AGGREGATE Properties Test Methods Limits Grading Elongation Index Flakiness Index Water Absorption Clay.S 1377 Test 9 not exceeding 0. 9.S. It shall be clean and free from harmful matter and shall be from a source approved by the S.S. 30 M. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 30 M.5% not exceeding 2% not exceeding 0.S 812 Part 4 Table 9.2 not exceeding 30% not exceeding 25% not exceeding 1.5 Storage of Aggregates Separate storage facilities with adequate provision for drainage shall be provided for each different size of aggregate used. 30 M.S.O.L Page 213 .2. Cawangan Jalan. 30 M. Silt and Dust Organic Impurities Aggregate Crushing Value Soundness Test (Sodium Sulphate) Chloride Content M. Aggregate shall be handled and stored so as to minimise segregation and contamination.S.06% by weight of chloride ions Sulphate Content B. The Contractor shall make adequate arrangements to supply and store sufficient water at the work site for use in mixing and curing concrete.4% be weight of SO3 9. 30 M. K. All costs for installing and maintaining the supply shall be borne by the Contractor.

4 Admixtures Suitable admixtures may be used in concrete mixes with the prior approval of or as directed by the S.O. information to be provided by manufacturer. Table 9. independant tests. compliance and storage certificates and marking shall be in accordance with M. Cawangan Jalan.2. to produce approximately one cubic metre of fully compacted concrete.S. All requirements for sampling.1 Requirements for Prescribed Mixes Unless otherwise specified. 9. 9.4 of admixture acceptance test requirements shall be complied with.5 which shows the weights of cement and total dry aggregates. The trial mix shall be made using job-site materials and under job-site conditions. (b) Designed Mix The Contractor shall select the mix proportions and unless otherwise specified.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Admixtures which contain calcium chloride or calcium formate as the active constituents shall not be used for structural concrete containing reinforcement. acceptance tests. uniformity tests. A control mix shall be made using a conventional trial mix. The results of relevant tests obtained from the control mix and test mix shall be compared. The S. may allow the use of the admixture only when the results are found to be satisfactory and comparable to the effects as claimed by the manufacturer. to determine the water/cement ratio and mix proportions required to give the specified strength with the required slump. chloride content. K. the workability. Using the same mix proportions as in the control mix. prestressing tendons or other embedded metal.O. in kilograms.3.L Page 214 .3 CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIXES 9. All admixtures shall be used strictly in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. in order to satisfy the strength and other requirements of the Contract. Before allowing the admixture to be used in the work. relevant tests based on trial mixes shall be carried out. together with the percentages by weight of fine aggregates in total dry aggregates. The concrete mixes shall be classified as :(a) Prescribed Mix The Contractor shall provide concrete that contains constituents in the specified proportions. the concrete mix shall be as detailed in Table 9. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 922. a test shall be prepared using the recommended dosage of the admixture. that is without using the admixture.

This margin shall be used as the current margin only until sufficient data are available to satisfy (i) or (ii) above. but not less than 2.75 N/sq. ii) 1. However. Cawangan Jalan. the margin for the initial mix design shall be taken as 7.5 N/sq.2 Requirements for Designed Mixes 9. a smaller margin not less than 5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above may be used for the initial mix design.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 7.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 100 separate batches of concrete of nominally similar proportion of similar materials and produced over a period not exceeding 12 months by the same plant under similar supervision.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above. when the specified characteristic strength approaches the maximum possible strength of concrete made with a particular aggregate.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above. Ibu Pejabat JKR..mm for concrete of grade 15 or 7.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Where there are insufficient data to satisfy (i) or (ii) above.L Page 215 .3.5 N/sq.1 Target Mean Strength The concrete mix shall be designed to have at least the required minimum cement content and to have a target mean strength greater than the required characteristic strength by at least the current margin.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 40 separate batches of concrete of nominally similar proportions of similar materials and produced over a period exceeding 5 days but not exceeding 6 months by the same plant under similar supervision. K.mm for concrete of grade 15 or 3. 9.3. but not less than 5 N/sq.5 N/sq.mm for concrete of grade 15 and 12 N/sq. subject to the approval of the S. The current margin for each particular type of concrete shall be determined by the Contractor and shall be taken as the lesser of :i) 1.O.2.

45 280 1800 35 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 9. current margin. Cawangan Jalan.45 270 1800 30 .O.5 .2..L Page 216 . the following :- i) the nature and source of each material.40 360 1750 25 . ii) appropriate existing data as evidence of satisfactory previous performance for target mean strength.PRESCRIBED MIXES FOR GENERAL USE PER CUBIC METRE OF CONCRETE Grade of Concrete 28-day Characteristic Strenght of Concrete (N/sq. OR full details of tests on trial mixes carried out in accordance with SubSection 9.3. Sizes of Aggregate (mm) Workability Medium 40 20 High Medium High Slump Limits (mm) 15P 15 Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%) 50 -100 100 .45 Fine aggregate is expressed as a percentage by weight to the total dry aggregates. K.35 360 1750 25 .35 1750 25 – 40 1800 25 – 40 1750 20 . 9.150 25 .mm) Nominal Max.125 250 1850 30 .40 390 1700 30 .50 310 1750 35 – 50 20P 20 Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%) 300 320 320 350 1850 25 .2.45 25P 25 Cement (kg) Total aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (%) 340 1800 25 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.3.2 Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the S.3. prior to the supply of any designed mix. The lower value shall be used for finer grading.75 75 . workability and water/cement ratio.

S. 9. The Contractor shall prepare trial mixes. 26. Three from each set of six shall be tested at an age of 7 days and three at an age of 28 days.mm. for all grades to the satisfaction of the S. using samples of approved material typical of those he proposes to use in the Works. (b) Change of Current Margin A change in the current margin used for judging compliance with specified characteristic strengths becomes appropriate when the results of a sufficiently large number of tests show that the previously established margin is significantly too large or too small. the S.O.O.4. may require additional trial mixes to be made before a substantial change is made in the materials or in the proportion of the materials to be used.3. Changes in cement have to be declared. Such adjustment shall not be taken to imply any change in the current margin. shall be appropriate to the proposed uses and methods of placing and compaction of the mix and shall be approved by the S. prior to commencement of concreting. Cawangan Jalan. The average strength of the nine cubes tested at 28 days shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by the current margin minus 3. The workability of each of the three trial batches determined by means of the slump test.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works During production.O.2.3 Trial Mixes The Contractor shall give notice to enable the S.O. iii) the proposed quantities of each material per cubic metre of fully compacted concrete. K.O. Sampling and testing procedures shall be in accordance with M.L Page 217 .S. to be present at the making of trial mixes and preliminary testing of the cubes.4 Control of Strength of Designed Mixes (a) Adjustment to Mix Proportions Adjustment to mix proportions shall be made subject to the approval of the S. Six cubes shall be made from each batch. The approved trial mix shall then be designated as the "designed mix" and its corresponding workability as the "designed workability". compacting factor test or vebe consistometer test in accordance with M.3. in order to minimise the variability of strength and to maintain the target mean strength.2. Trial mixes need not be carried out when adjustments are made to the mix proportions in accordance with Sub-Section 9.2.3. 26. The specified limits of minimum cement content and maximum water/cement ratio shall be maintained. Three separate batches of concrete shall be made. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 9.5 N/sq.

3 Minimum Cement Content The minimum cement content shall be in accordance with Table 9.±25 mm or ± one-third of the "designed workability".1 Workability The workability of the fresh concrete shall be such that the concrete is suitable for the conditions of handling and placing so that after compaction.±0.8 and 0.3.3. K. 9. it surrounds all reinforcement.L Page 218 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works . iii) Vebe .±0. tendons and ducts and completely fills the formwork. a suffix `P' shall be added after `X').1.4 Maximum Cement Content The maximum cement content shall not exceed 550 kg/cu.3. For a prescribed mix.3.9 or more. whichever is the greater. On the adoption of a recalculated margin it shall become the current margin for the judgement of compliance with the specified characteristic strength of concrete produced subsequent to the change.2.±3 seconds or ±one-fifth of the "designed workability".9.03 where the "designed workability" is 0. ii) Compacting Factor .05 where the "designed workability" is 0.mm as determined from test cubes at 28 days.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 9. the adoption of the recalculated value will not generally be justified if the two values differ by less than 18% when based on tests on 2 separate batches or less than 11% when based on tests on 100 separate batches. and `Y' is the nominal size of aggregate in mm.3. whichever is less.m unless otherwise described in the Contract or agreed by the S.3.2 Concrete Grade The grade of concrete to be used in the Works shall be as stated on the Drawings and in the Bill of Quantities. Although a recalculated margin is almost certain to differ numerically from the previous value.8 or less.3. 9. Workability of the concrete shall be within one of the following limits :i) Slump .3.04 where the "designed workability" is between 0. .3. Cawangan Jalan.3 Requirements for Concrete 9. 9. Recalculation of the margin shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 9. (Concrete grade shall be designated as GRADE X/Y where `X' is the numerical value of the characteristic strength in N/sq. or less than 5% when based on tests on 500 separate batches.±0.3.6 unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.

size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 (kg/cu. to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded.m) 300 320 270 300 250 280 0.55 320 350 320 350 270 300 0.7 expressed as a percentage relationship between chloride ions and weight of cement in the mix. K.50 350 380 350 380 320 350 0.6 . Cawangan Jalan. Free Water/ Cement Ratio Surfaces sheltered from severe rain :1) surface protected by a water-proof membrane.L Page 219 . size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 (kg/cu.m) Reinforced Concrete Nominal max. 1881 for each grade of concrete.5 Total Chloride Content The total chloride content of the concrete mix arising from the aggregate or any other source shall not in any circumstances exceed the limits in Table 9.MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT AND MAXIMUM FREE WATER/CEMENT RATIO FOR DESIGNED MIX Prestressed Concrete Exposure Nominal max.in contact with backfill. Ibu Pejabat JKR.S. Tests shall be carried out in accordance with B. 1) soffits. Size of aggregate (in mm) 40 20 Max.3. alternate wetting and drying e.45 9.3. 1) surfaces exposed to the action of sea water with abrasion having a pH of 4.5 or less. 2) internal surfaces. 3) surfaces continuously buried and/or submerged under water. (kg/cu.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 9.m) Plain Concrete Nominal max. 2) surfaces exposed to driving rain.g. whether or not subject to condensation.

S.6 Maximum Sulphate Content The total estimated sulphate content of any mix.2 Prestressed Concrete and Structural Concrete that is steam cured. Concrete made with cement complying with B.35 for 95% of test results with no result greater than 0.0% by weight of cement in the mix.4. 1881 for each grade of concrete to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded. 0. 522.MAXIMUM TOTAL CHLORIDE Type of Concrete Maximum Total Chloride (%) Reinforced Concrete made with cement complying with M. (2) % Chloride ionsx 1.7 :(1) % Chloride ionsx 1. three test cubes shall be made. including that present in the cement shall not exceed 4.3.7 . 522. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 Page 220 .56 = % equivalent anhydrous calcium chloride. Cawangan Jalan.1 Notes on Table 9. The workability shall be chosen to suit the construction requirements.S.3. 4027. 0.50. 9. Plain Concrete containing embedded metal and made with cement complying with M.8.4 COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS Prescribed Mix A prescribed mix shall be judged on the basis of the specified mix proportions.S. Notwithstanding this. 9.S. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 9. strength tests shall be carried out during the progress of work. 0. One test cube from each sample-batch shall be tested for the 7-day compressive strength.L 9. Tests shall be carried out in accordance with B. For each sampling. The rate of sampling shall be as per Rate 2 for ordinary structural concrete as in Table 9.648 = % equivalent sodium chloride.

K.O.O.4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 9.L Page 221 . the S.. 9. Such action may include demolition of the member. In the event that the results of the test do not meet the specified requirements. The Contractor shall.2.2 Designed Mix If the cube strength falls below 75% of the 28-day compressive strength. may direct the Contractor to take necessary steps to review the process of the production of concrete for future use. 9. below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall. sampling and testing of fresh and of hardened concrete shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of M. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Compliance with the specified characteristic strength shall be judged by tests made on cubes at an age of 28 days.2. then the S. Cawangan Jalan.4.1 Characteristic Strength The characteristic strength of concrete is that 28-day cube strength. The remaining two test cubes from the sample-batch shall be tested for the 28-day compressive strength.O.4. In particular. take cored samples from the hardened concrete member and carry out the compressive strength test.2 Sampling and Testing All sampling and testing of constituent materials shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the appropriate available Malaysian Standards.S. The rate of sampling shall be as given in Table 9. ii) the average strength of the two test cubes is not less than the specified compressive strength and the difference between the two strengths is not more than 20% of the average strength. 26. The appropriate strength requirement shall be considered to be satisfied if at least one of the following is complied with :i) none of the two test cubes is below the specified compressive strength.8. shall determine the action to be taken in respect of the concrete member represented by the sample-batch test cubes. if required by the S. but not less than one sample shall be taken from each source of production on each day that concrete of any particular grade is used.

The current margin shall be taken as 7. Cawangan Jalan. One test cube from each sample shall be tested for the 7-day compressive strength. then the Contractor shall take the necessary steps to review the process of the production of concrete and make certain adjustments where appli cable.MINIMUM RATE OF SAMPLING Rate Volume of concrete from which a sample shall be taken Rate 1 (Prestressed Concrete) Every 10 cu.mm for concrete of grade 20 or above unless.m or every group of 50 batches * * The sample shall be taken from one single batch randomly selected from the group of batches. in the case of ready-mixed concrete.5 times the curent margin. The samples shall be taken at the point of discharge from the mixer or. The average strength of the two cubes shall constitute the 28-day compressive strength of the sample.8 . 9.5 N/sq.2. If the cube strength falls below the 7-day strength as determined from the trial mixes.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. a smaller margin has been established to the satisfaction of the S. The remaining two test cubes from the same sample shall be tested for the 28-day compressive strength.3.4.m or every group of 10 batches * Rate 2 (Ordinary Structural Concrete) Every 20.1 or 9.L Page 222 .mm for concrete of grade 15 or 12 N/sq.2. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 9. at the point of discharge from the delivery vehicle.4 (b).m or every group of 20 batches * Rate 3 (Mass Concrete) Every 50 cu.3. in accordance with SubSection 9. For compliance purposes :i) the average 28-day strength determined from any group of four consecutive samples shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by at least 0.2.0 cu.3 Testing Plan Three test cubes shall be made from a single sample taken from a randomly selected batch of concrete.

The extra cubes shall be indentified at the time of making and shall not be used for the normal quality control or compliance procedures.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 9. at least four samples shall be taken of concrete on the first day of concreting for each grade of concrete to be used in the Works. For determining the cube strength of prestressed concrete before transer or of concrete in a member before striking formwork.S.O. 9. If the average strength of any group of four consecutive sample test results fails to meet the first requirement (i). fine aggregate and various sizes of coarse aggregate shall be measured by weight unless otherwise approved by the S. Alternatively the cement may be measured by using a whole number of bags in each batch. A separate weighing machine shall be provided for weighing the cement. then all the concrete in all the batches represented by all such sample test results shall be deemed not to comply with the strength requirements.5. 9. In all cases.5 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE Supervision The Contractor shall ensure the required standard of control over materials and workmanship. 26 but the methods of sampling and the conditions under which the cubes are stored shall be varied according to the purpose for which they are required.L . sampling shall be at the point of placing and the cubes shall be stored as far as possible under the same conditions as the concrete in the members. K. For the purpose of this Sub-Section. ii) Each individual sample test result shall be at least 85% of the specified characteristic strength.1 Cawangan Jalan. irrespective of the volume of concrete produced or the sampling rate. consecutive samples are samples taken at intervals not exceeding 14 days. to take any samples and to make any test. The quantity of water Page 223 In this respect. 9. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 Batching and Mixing The quantities of cement.5.O.4. or more than one sample test result in a group fails to meet the second requirement (ii). shall be afforded all reasonable opportunity and facility to inspect the materials and the production of concrete. batches of concrete represented by groups of four consecutive sample test results shall include the batches from which samples were taken to obtain the first and the last sample results in the group of four. then that result may be considered to represent only the particular batch of concrete from which the sample test cubes were taken.3 Additional Cubes Additional cubes may be reuqired for various purposes. If any one sample test result fails to meet the second requirement (ii). together with all the intervening batches. These shall be made and tested in accordance with M. The S.

3 Transporting Concrete shall be transported from the mixer to the formwork as rapidly as practicable by methods which will prevent segregation or loss of the ingredients and maintain the required workability. ±3% of the quantity of total aggregate per batch. each batch shall be placed and compacted with in 2 hours of adding the cement to the dry aggregates and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S..5. the first batch of concrete through the mixer shall then contain only two-thirds of the normal quantity of coarse aggregate. 4251 where applicable. For cements other than ordinary Portland cement. Concrete shall not be placed in any part of the structure until the S. All formwork and reinforcement contained in it shall be clean and free from standing water immediately before the placing of the concrete. Mixers that have been out of use for more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned before any fresh concrete is mixed. K. The mixer shall comply with the requirements of B. The batch weight of aggregate shall be adjusted to allow for the moisture content of the aggregate being used.O. Cawangan Jalan. The concrete shall be conveyed by chutes or concrete pumps only with permission from the S. It shall be deposited as near as practicable in its final position to avoid rehandling.O. 1305 or B. if admixture is used) of adding water to the cement and aggregates. Concreting shall be carried out continuously between and up to pre determined construction joints in one sequence of operation. ±3% of the quantity of water per batch. 9. approval shall again be obtained from the S. Unless otherwise agreed by the S. the mixing time shall not be less than that recommended by the manufacturer and subject to the S.5.L .O. The water content of each batch of concrete may be adjusted so as to produce a concrete of the workability required.'s approval has been obtained. ± 5% of the quantity of admixture per batch.S. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be within :± 3% of the quantity of cement per batch. The mixing time shall be not less than two minutes or more than five minutes after all the ingredients have been placed in the mixer.4 Placing For all concrete whether mixed on or off the site of the Works. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 9.S. If concreting is not started within 24 hours of approval given.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Mixing plant shall be thoroughly cleaned before changing from one type of cement to another. In the event of unavoidable stoppage in positions Page 224 shall be measured by volume or by weight.'s approval of the trial mix.O.O. Any solid admixtures to be added shall be measured by weight but liquid or paste ad mixtures may be measured by volume or weight.O.

L Page 225 . Where the concrete is placed by a tremie. When in situ concrete has been in place for 4 hours. concrete shall be deposited in horizontal layers to a compacted depth not exceeding 450 mm where internal vibrators are used. no further concrete shall be placed against it for a further 20 hours.1. Fresh concrete shall not be placed against in situ concrete which has been in position for more than 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S. Concrete shall not be dropped into place from a height exceeding 1500 mm. For 20 mm aggregate the tremie pipe shall be of diameter not less than 150 mm and for larger aggregate. permits them to continue. The bottom of the tremie shall be kept as far as practicable beneath the surface of the placed concrete. Cawangan Jalan.6. Underwater concrete if deemed unavoidable by the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. larger diameter tremie pipe shall be required. Except where otherwise agreed by the S.O.. The surface of the concrete shall be maintained reasonably level during placing.O. the following requirements shall be applicable :i) unless otherwise agreed by the S.O. the concreting shall be terminated on a horizontal plane and against vertical surfaces by the use of stopping-off boards. During and after concreting under water. When trunking or chutes are used. iii) the tremie pipe shall be large enough with due regard to the size of aggregate.O. or 300 mm in all other cases.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works No concrete shall be placed in flowing water. temporary casing shall be installed to the full depth of the borehole so that fragments of ground can not drop from the sides of the hole into the concrete as it is placed. pumping or dewatering operations in the immediate vicinity shall be suspended until the S. if admixture is used) unless a construction joint is formed in accordance with Sub-Section 9. shall be placed in position by tremies or pipelines from the mixer. The Contractor shall maintain an experienced steel fixer at the site of reinforced concrete works during the placing of concrete to reposition any reinforcement which may be displaced during the work. not predetermined. Concrete to be placed under water shall be an approved mix with the amount of cement increased by 20%. they shall be kept clean and used in such a manner as to avoid segregation. K.O. ii) the hopper and tremie pipe shall be a closed system. when concreting of bored piles is being carried out under water.

or duct formers. and they shall not be allowed to come into contact with Page 226 iv) unless otherwise agreed by the S. 9. the first charge of concrete shall be placed with a sliding plug pushed down the tube ahead of it to prevent mixing of concrete and water. 9. These precautions shall include :i) no concrete having an internal temperature exceeding 33ºC shall be deposited.5. Vibration shall be applied continuously during the placing of each batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased and in a manner which does not promote segregation of the ingredients. The internal vibrators shall be inserted at points judged by the area of mortar showing after compaction.5. Cawangan Jalan..O. Over vibration leading to segregation of the mix must be avoided. iii) newly placed concrete shall be protected from direct sunlight and from loss of moisture by covering.6 Compaction Unless otherwise agreed by the S.5 Temperature Requirements During hot weather. around embedded fixtures and into corners of the formwork to form a dense homogenous mass free from voids and which will have the required surface finish when the formwork is removed. with a certain allowance made for overlapping. shading or other means. v) the tremie pipe shall always penetrate well into the concrete with an adequate margin of safety against accidental withdrawal if the pipe is surged to discharge the concrete. The internal vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn slowly and at a uniform pace of approximately 100 mm per second. The concrete maintained between the two walls of formwork shall be compacted by vibrating of the internal type and concrete in slabs with no formwork on its upper surface shall be compacted either by vibrators of the pan type or by a vibrating screed.O. concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by vibration and thoroughly worked around the reinforcement. vii)all tremie pipes shall be scrupulously cleaned after use.. tendons. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Compaction shall be deemed to be completed when cement mortar appears in an annulus around the vibrator.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works iv) no concrete shall be placed when the air temperature at the point of deposition exceeds 36ºC.L . K. vi) the concrete shall be deposited wholly by tremie and the method of deposition shall not be changed part way up to prevent the laitance from being entrapped within the structure. additional precautions shall be taken to prevent premature setting and loss of water during placing of concrete in the formwork. ii) concrete shall not be placed in formwork or around reinforcement whose temperature exceeds 36ºC.

Sufficient vibrators in serviceable condition shall be on Site so that spare equipment is always available in the event of break down. 9. Provision shall be made for adequate water distribution to all parts of the Works.O. 9.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Concrete shall not be subjected to any disturbance within 24 hours after compaction. External vibrators shall be firmly secured to the formwork which must be sufficiently rigid to transmit the vibration and strong enough not to be damaged by it. so that if required. shall be protected from the sun and rain in a manner approved by the S. All concrete. this treatment can be continued efficiently throughout the whole period of construction.1 Normal Curing Exposed surfaces. after it has set. The pan vibrator shall be placed on the surface of the concrete which shall have previously been tamped and levelled leaving an allowance in height for compaction until the cement mortar appears under the pan.5. all exposed surfaces shall be covered with continuously damped gunny bags or shall have water impounded on them for the full period of curing which shall be not less than 7 days. Other methods of curing may be used subject to the approval of the S. Whenever vibration has to be applied externally. immediately after compaction. K. The mix shall be such that there will be no excess water on the top surface on completion of compaction. No standing or flowing water shall be allowed to come into contact with exposed concrete surfaces during the first two hours after placing and compaction of the concrete. Cawangan Jalan.7.L Page 227 .000 cycles per minute.O. etc. Internal vibrators shall be capable of operating at not less than 10. shall be kept continuously damp until thoroughly cured. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the formwork or the reinforcement and shall be inserted at a distance of not less than 75 mm from the former. Alternatively a vibrating screed spanning the full width of the surface may also be used. The vibrator shall then be lifted and placed on the adjoining surface and this operation shall be repeated until the whole surface has been compacted. In order to keep the concrete continuously damped.7 Curing and Protection All work shall be protected from damage by shock or overloading or falling earth or flowing water. the design of formwork and disposition of vibration shall receive special consideration to ensure efficient compaction and to avoid surface blemishes.5.000 cycles per minute and external vibrators at not less than 3.

type and size of aggregate. The use of accelerated curing methods for concrete containing other types of cement or any admixture shall be subject to the approval of the S. if admixture is used) after the addition of water to the cement-aggregate mix unless otherwise agreed by the S.1 Page 228 . The rise in temperature within any period of 30 minutes shall not exceed 10ºC and the maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 ºC. if admixture is used).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works relevant production details in suitable format.6 CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE Construction Joints The position and detail of any construction joints not described in the Contract shall be subject to the approval of the S. date and time of production. indicating the sources of supplies and other relevant details. type and dosage of chemical admixtures and other Cawangan Jalan. wherever possible.5. The rate of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of heating.O.O.O.S. The time of such introduction shall be recorded on the Delivery Note together with the weight of the constituents of each mix. additional construction joints shall be positioned and constructed as directed by the S. If for any reason the Contractor has to interrupt a planned pour for more than 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S. After the completion of the placing of the concrete. The concrete shall be compacted and in its final position within 2 hours of the introduction of cement to aggregate and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the S.O.L 9.6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The number of construction joints shall be kept as few as possible consistant with reasonable precautions against shrinkage. 523. grade of concrete. Concrete shall not be allowed to run to a feather edge and vertical joints shall be formed against a stop board. Concreting shall be carried out continuously up to construction joints. The joints shall be at right angles to the general direction of the member and shall take due account of shear and other stresses. Joint lines shall be so arranged that they coincide with features of the finished work. 4 hours shall elapse before its temperature is raised. test certificates for testing of materials.5.8 Ready-Mixed Concrete Ready-mixed concrete shall comply with the requirements of M. Ready-mixed concrete delivered to the job site shall be accompanied by manufacturer's certificates stating the details of mix proportions by weight. In addition the manufacturer shall supply to the S. 9.O.7. and shall be so arranged as to minimise the possibility of the occurance of shrinkage cracks. 9.O. The top surface of a layer of concrete shall be level and flat unless design considerations make this undesirable. 9.2 Accelerated Curing Elevated temperature curing may be used only with ordinary Portland cement.O. The concrete shall be carried in purpose-made agitators operating continuously or truck mixers. K.

Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings or instructed by the S. If a kicker (i. holes. chases. by spraying with a fine spray of air and water or brushing with a stiff brush sufficiently to remove the outer Cawangan Jalan. Bolts and other inserts to be cast into the concrete shall be securely fixed to the formwork in such a way that they are not displaced during the concreting operations. as the optimum time for treatment is usually two to four hours after placing. Page 229 . chases.O. brackets.mm in section shall be placed inside the forms along all exposed surfaces to ensure a straight joint on those surfaces. Built-InBolts.O.. Immediately before the fresh concrete is placed against the joint.. reinforcing bars shall be placed across the joints so as to make the structure monolithic.O. etc. sand blasting or a needle gun shall be used to remove the surface skin and laitance.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works mortar skin and expose the larger aggregates without disturbing them. Brackets.e. the surface of the concrete against which new concrete will be cast shall be free from laitance and shall be roughened to the extent that the largest aggregate is exposed but not disturbed. considers that special preparation is necessary. shall be accurately set out and formed and carefully sealed prior to the concrete being placed. preparation shall be carried out. Ibu Pejabat JKR. fresh cement mortar shall be applied to the exposed surface. holes.6. Hardened surfaces shall not be hacked. etc. Where the S. Holes. It is preferable for the kicker to be incorporated with the previous concrete. built-inbolts. Where this treatment is impracticable. and that there is no loss of materials from the wet concrete through holes in the form work. for an in situ structural connection. K. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the lines of the joint. reinforcement shall be locally moved so that the minimum specified cover is maintained at the locations of inserts.2 Fixing Blocks.g. all to the satisfaction of the S. etc. Chases. the formwork shall be designed to facilitate the preparation of the joint surface. Temporary plugs shall be removed and the threads of built-in-bolts shall be proved to be free and shall be greased before handing over any part of the Works. Where vertical construction joints are necessary in mass concrete structures. Prior to recommencement of concreting on a joint. preferably when the concrete has set but not hardened. gauge strips about 25 sq.L 9. starter stub) is used it shall be at least 70 mm high and carefully constructed. Care shall also be taken that the joint surface is clean and damp but not wet. Where possible. e. At horizontal construction joints. All fixing blocks. No cutting away of concrete for any of these items shall be done without the permission of the S.O.

they shall be firmly supported only at the points described in the Contract.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 9.3. Items shall be stacked in such a manner that their removal in cor rect order of age is facilitated. The accumulation of trapped water and deleterious matter in the units shall be prevented. the face that will be uppermost when the member is in its correct position in the Works.3 Handling and Transport Items shall be lifted only at points described in the Contract or otherwise agreed by the S.. in advance of the date of commencement of manufacture and casting of each type of item.O. shall be provided.O. if they are of symmetrical section. The Contractor shall inform the S.4 Assembly and Erection 9. no items to which the tests relate shall be dispatched to the Site until the tests have been satisfactorily completed and the results approved by the S.3. All items shall be indelibly marked to show the item mark as described in the Contract.O.6. the composition and water/cement ratio of the in situ concrete or mortar used in any connection and the packing of joints shall be in accordance with the assembly instructions.3 Precast Concrete Construction 9. the type of equipment and transport to be used.O. and the minimum age of the items to be handled shall be subject to the approval of the S. the date on which the concrete was cast and.6.1 Manufacture Off the Site After the method of manufacture has been approved. Unless otherwise agreed by the S. Care shall be taken to avoid rust staining and efflorescence.O.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The final structural connections shall be completed as soon as is practicable.L Page 230 .6.O. When the S. as necessary. temporary supports or connections between items. and shall be handled and placed without impact. and before the lifting equipment is removed.6.6.O. The method of lifting.O. Cawangan Jalan. K. no changes shall be made without the consent of the S.5 Forming Structural Connections No structural connections shall be made until approval has been given by the S.2 Storage When items are stored. requires tests to be carried out. 9. Levelling devices shall only be released or removed with the approval of the S.6.3.3. 9. 9.O. the production line on which they were manufactured. The method of assembly and erection described in the Contract shall be strictly adhered to on Site. Immediately a unit is in position.

The Contractor shall. The characteristic strengths of steel reinforcement are given in Table 9.S. Dowel bars shall be plain round bars conforming to the requirements of M. 4461 ) Hard drawn steel wire( M.O. They shall be free from burring or other deformations restricting slippage in the concrete. 146 ) Hot rolled grade 460 ( M.S. 144 ) All sizes 460 All sizes 460 Up to and including 12 485 Binding wire shall be 1.S. 4461. Cold worked steel bars shall comply with the requirements of B. 146.2 Materials Hot rolled mild steel and high yield bars shall comply with the requirements of M. 1052.CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OFSTEEL REINFORCEMENT 9. 144. and these shall be submitted for acceptance by the S. 146 ) Cold worked ( B.S.S. precast concrete units and other concrete associated therewith shall be properly protected to prevent damage to permanently exposed surfaces. not withstanding any previous acceptance on the manufacturer's test certificates. before any material is brought onto the Site. with samples of reinforcement brought onto the Site. Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of M. 146 and shall consist of bars of the sizes and spacings as shown on the Drawings. Dowel bar sleeves Designation Nominal Sizes ( mm ) All sizes Characteristic Strength. as denoted on the Drawings. Hard drawn mild steel wire shall comply with the requirements of M. 146.9. The closed end of the sleeve shall be filled with 25 mm thick compressible foam filler and the sleeve shall fit tightly over the length of bar to be debonded.mm ) 250 Hot rolled grade 250 ( M. 9. furnish the S.S.L . fy ( N/sq.7 STEEL REINFORCEMENT 9.3. K.O.S. The reinforcement represented by by the sample may Page 231 Cawangan Jalan. especially arrises and decorative features.S.S. Ibu Pejabat JKR.6.1 Description The work shall consist of furnishing and placing reinforcing steel in accordance with this Specification and in conformity with the Drawings or as directed by the S.6 mm diameter soft annealed steel wire complying with the requirements of B.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works used for debonding shall be of approved synthetic material. on request.7. 9.S. TABLE 9.7. The Contractor shall furnish manufacturer's certificates for rein forcement supplied by him. 145 and shall be delivered to the Site in flat sheets.6 Protection At all stages of construction.S.9 .O. Bar-mats shall conform to the requirements of M.

steady pressure or in an approved barbending machine. Unless specified otherwise. spacer bars and other parts of the steel reinforcement. Ibu Pejabat JKR. form and position of all reinforcing bars. 9.7.1 Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement Bars shall be of their correct lengths and bent to the exact shapes required before being fixed in the work.O.'s approval and under his supervision. mill scale.3. shall be in accordance with the Drawings. require its removal from the Works Site. 4466.3.L Page 232 . oil. Except where otherwise indicated on the Drawings. if it fails to meet the Specification. Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions.2 Fixing of Reinforcement The number. Cold worked and hot rolled bars shall not be straightened or bent again once having been bent. 9. Reinforcement shall be secured against displacement.O.O. Cawangan Jalan. grease. at the Contractor's expense. links. spacers between the links and formwork shall be of the same dimension as the nominal cover. all intersecting bars shall be tied together with binding wire and the ends of the wire shall be turned into the main body of the concrete. size. Bending at temperatures in excess of 100 oC may only be carried out with the S. stirrups.O. Unless otherwise permitted by the S. and shall. paint.3 Construction Methods 9.. bars shall be bent and measured in accordance with B. the steel shall be brushed or otherwise cleaned before use. In a member where the nominal cover is dimensioned to the links.7. length. K.. The Contractor shall take particular care that the reinforcement is laid out correctly in every respect and temporarily suspended by annealed wire or supported on concrete blocks or other approved spacers in the forms to prevent displacement before or during the placing and compacting of concrete.7. If directed by the S. When placed in the Works it shall be clean and free from loose rust. Bars shall be cut and bent cold by the application of slow. Where it is necessary to bend mild steel reinforcement already cast in the concrete. the actual concrete cover shall be not less than the required nominal cover minus 5 mm. the internal radius of bend shall be not less than twice the diameter of the bar. be rejected by the S. dirt or anything which may reduce its bond with concrete.S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Special care shall be taken that the overall length of bars with multiple bends is accurate and that after bending and fixing in position the bars remain in place without wrap or twist.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. sleeving. 5135 and B. All welding shall be performed by a competent welder approved by the S.O. If the reinforcement needs to be welded. They shall be made of concrete with 10 mm maximum aggregate size and they shall be of at least the same strength and material source as the adjacent concrete.S.7. Unless otherwise approved by the S. and designed so that they will not overturn when the concrete is placed.S.S.7. joints in parallel bars of the principal tensile reinforcement shall be staggered in the longitudinal direction at a distance not less than the end anchorage length for the bar. 709.5 Welding of Reinforcement Reinforcement in structures shall not be welded except where detailed on the Drawings or required by the Specification. 9. 4360.O. No concrete shall be placed until the reinforcement has been inspected and approved by the S.O.O.O. 9. threading and other mechanical connections shall be made strictly in accordance with the method specified and at the positions shown on the Drawings or as otherwise approved by the S. The method of making butt weld tests shall be that laid down in B.O. of a shape acceptable to the S.O. before approval is accorded to use the joint which the specimen represents.L Page 233 .7. Other types of spacers may be used only with the approval of the S. Welding shall be carried out in accordance with B..4 Supporting and Spacer Blocks Supporting and spacer blocks required for ensuring that the reinforcement is correctly ositioned shall be as small as possible consistent with their purpose. 9.3 Splicing Laps and joints including lapping bars. Reinforcement temporarily left projecting from the concrete at construction or other joints shall not be bent out of position during the periods in which concreting is suspended except with the approval of the S. The specimen shall pass the test to the satisfaction of the S. Butt welds shall be of the double V type and two butt weld bond tests shall be carried out on a specimen prepared to represent each form of butt welded joint used in welding the reinforcement and for each position of welding.3.3.. Wire cast in the block for the purpose of tying it to the reinforcement shall Cawangan Jalan. the reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of B.7.S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works be as described in Sub-Section 9.O.3. Welded joints shall not be made at bends in reinforcement. K. 638. Stirrups and distance pieces shall be kept tight to the bars they embrace or support and all reinforcement shall be kept away from the face of the concrete at the distances shown on the Drawings.

construction and wind loads.. properly supported. 9. Cawangan Jalan. shape. with respect to the design submitted by the Contractor. The formwork shall be sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent loss of grout or mortar from the concrete at all stages of construction and shall be appropriate for the methods of placing and compacting. The supports shall be designed to withstand the worst combination of forces due to self weight.2 metres apart and through bolts will not be permitted on exposed faces. Except for ties used for anchoring void formers all ties shall be at least 1. formwork weight.8.8. No permanently embedded metal parts shall have less than the specified cover to the finished concrete surface. can be retained in position for such period as may be required by the condition of the maturing concrete or the Specification. disturbance or damage.8 FORMWORK AND SURFACE FINISH FOR STRUCTURE Design and Construction 9. formwork forces. strength and deflection calculations and drawings of the proposed form work shall be submitted by the Contractor for prior approval. wet concrete weight.O.O.1 9. together with all incidental dynamic effects caused by placing. The design and construction of formwork shall be carried out by competent persons. Where necessary. The formwork shall be so arranged as to be readily dismantled and removed from the cast concrete without shock. Not withstanding any approval by the S. profile and dimensions. Welding shall not be performed in the field during rain or other adverse conditions. Ibu Pejabat JKR. shall be informed in advance of when welding is to be carried out so that he may supervise and inspect the work. Where required by the S. reinforcement weight.1 Description Formwork shall include all temporary or permanent forms required for forming the concrete. All holes left by ties shall be made good within one day of the removal of the formwork using a mortar of the same strength as the cast concrete. the formwork shall be so arranged that the soffit form. K. If a component is to be prestressed Page 234 The S.O. Where internal metal ties are permitted they or their removable parts shall be extracted without damage to the concrete and the remaining holes filled with mortar of the same strength as the cast concrete. the responsibility or the adequacy and safety of the design shall remain with the Contractor.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Formwork (including supports) shall be sufficiently rigid to maintain the forms in their correct position.L . vibrating and compacting the concrete. together with all temporary construction required for their support.1.

2.1.4 Projecting Reinforcement. Void formers of expanded polystyrene need not be vented. all Page 235 . where shown on the Drawings. the Contractor shall construct a model of a size and form to be agreed with the S. Unless otherwise specified. provision shall be made to allow for elastic deformation and any vibration in weight distribution. 9.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works reinforcement and prestressing cable ducts. all exposed concrete surfaces shall be of Class F2. and simulating Cawangan Jalan.8. formwork joints shall coincide with construction joints.O.1. surrounded with properly compacted concrete of the required strength. during the concreting operation. metal.1. Anchor ties secured to the soffit form will be permitted providing they comply with the requirements of Sub-Section 9. plastic.8.O. 9. As soon as possible and at least three (3) months prior to the casting of the first deck slab with voids.O.2 Voids In Concrete Voids.8.) of the forms shall be ppropriate to the concrete finish required. K. Fixing Devices Where holes are needed in form to accomodate projecting reinforcement or fixing devices. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1. They shall not deviate by more than 12 mm from the positions shown on the Drawings.8. to demonstrate that the proposed methods of fixing the formers and placing concrete around them and the reinforcement will produce voids within the tolerances.L 9. nor shall the cross-section deviate from the specified shape by more than 12 mm. Concreting of voided slabs in structures shall not commence until the model test has been completed and approved by the S.O.1. Hollow void formers shall be vented by the provision of 50 mm diameter holes between each void and the soffit at positions approved by the S. care shall be taken to prevent loss of grout when concreting or damage when removing forms.8.8. 9. method of fixing.3 Form Lining The type and treatment of any lining (plywood. The attention of the Contractor is drawn to the inflammation nature of expanded polystyrene and he shall take all necessary precautions to minimise the risk of fire. 9. etc.2 Finishes whilst still resting on the soffit form. using the proposed formers.1 Formed Surfaces Formed concrete surfaces shall have one of the following classes of finish. As far as practicable. Void formers shall be secured and adequately anchored to prevent movement or flotation outside the limits specified above. or by other methods approved by the S. shall be formed with non-recoverable void formers of expanded polystyrene.

approved ply wood or other approved material. (b) Class F2 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed formwork of closely jointed wrought boards.2 Unformed Surfaces unexposed surfaces shall be of Class F1 and Class F3 finish shall be used only where shown on the Drawings. 9. the concrete Class U1 surface shall be floated by hand or machine to produce a uniform surface free from screed marks. The surface shall be improved by carefully removing all fins and other projections. thoroughly washing down and then filling the most noticeable surface blemishes with a cement and fine aggregate paste to match the colour of the original concrete. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. 9. (a) Class U1 The concrete shall be uniformly levelled and screeded to produce a plain. ridged or broom roughened surface. (b) Class U2 After the concrete has hardened sufficiently. the surface shall be rubbed down where necessary. Small blemishes caused by entrapped air or water may be expected but the surface shall be free from voids and honeycombing.8. (c) Class U3 When the moisture film has disappeared and the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent laitance from being worked to the surface.2. Only very minor surface blemishes shall occur.O. a Class U1 surface shall be steeltrowelled under firm pressure to produce a dense. to produce a smooth and even surface. following inspection immediately after removing the formwork and shall be carried out without delay.2. (c) Class F3 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed steel forms or plastic coated plywood or wrought boards or other approved material.3 Remedial Treatment of Surfaces Any remedial treatment of surfaces shall be agreed with the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works After the concrete has been properly cured. with no staining or discolouration. K. (a) Class F1 This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed formwork of closely jointed sawn timber or other approved material. No further work shall be applied to the surface unless it is used as the first stage for a Class U2 or Class U3 finish. smooth uniform surface free from trowel marks.L Page 236 .8. Form release agent shall be carefully chosen to ensure that the surface shall not be stained or discoloured.

9. the surface of which has been treated before being inspected by the S. K. but such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities for the safety of the work. or unless otherwise agreed by the S.O.8. whichever is the greater. foundation plinths and precast items.MINIMUM PERIODS BETWEEN CONCRETING AND REMOVAL OF FORMS Any concrete.O.. mud or other debris. the minimum periods between concreting and the removal of forms are given in Table 9.10 . Such release agents shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall not come into contact with the reinforcement or prestressing tendons and anchorages. and shall take place at times to suit the requirements for its curing. all forms shall be thoroughly cleaned out. after preparation and immediately prior to depositing concrete and no concrete shall be deposited until approval of the formwork has been obtained from the S.3 Preparation of Formwork Before Concreting Before concreting. 9. In the absence of such tests..O. Underside of slabs.L Vertical faces of beams.10.O. piles. free from sawdust shavings. TABLE 9. formwork supporting concrete in bending may be struck when the cube strength is 10 N/sq. 3 days 14 days 28 days Page 237 . Underside of beams. For any exposed surface only one release agent shall be used throughout the entire area. All formwork shall be inspected by the S.mm or twice the stress to which it will be subjected.4 Removal of Formwork The Contractor shall inform the S. be coated with an approved nonstaining form oil or other approved material to prevent adhesion of the concrete. except for permanent formwork.O. Cawangan Jalan. wall columns.8.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Where the concrete compressive strength is confirmed by tests on concrete cubes stored under conditions that simulate the field conditions. dust. The removal shall be done in such a manner as not to damage the concrete. The inside surfaces of forms shall. shall be liable to rejection. Ibu Pejabat JKR. and obtain his approval before striking any formwork.

Cawangan Jalan. K.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The periods stated above are based on the use of ordinary Portland cement. They may be changed if other types of cement are used. temporary supports shall not be removed until the deck is stressed to the satisfaction of the S.O. For prestressed in situ decks. Following the removal of formwork. subject to the S.L Page 238 . the concrete shall have attained sufficient strength to safely withstand such loads. no further loads shall be imposed upon concrete until at least after the completion of the curing period or until such later time as in the opinion of the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O.O. Full design loads shall not be applied to any structure until all load bearing concrete is at least 28 days old.'s agreement. Where it is intended that formwork is to be reused it shall be cleaned and made good to the satisfaction of the S.

K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 10 PILING WORKS Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 239 .

1 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES Description Materials Concrete Reinforcement Pile Shoes S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-246 S10-247 S10-247 S10-247 S10-247 S10-248 S10-248 S10-249 10.3 10.3 Manufacture and Storage of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10.2.2.3.2.3.4.3. K.2 10.L Page 240 .2 10.3.2 10.2.5 10.2 Handling and Storage 10.3 10.4.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TOLERANCE 10.1 DESCRIPTION S10-245 10.5 Installation of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles Pitching of Piles Driving of Piles Repair of Damaged Pile Heads Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads Cawangan Jalan.3 10.3.3.PILING WORKS Page 10.7 Setting Out Position Verticality Rake Forcible Corrections Piles Out of Alignment or Position Records S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 S10-245 10.3.3 10.6 10.2.2.3.4 10.3.1 10.4 10.1 Casting 10.3.3.4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works SECTION 10 .3.2.2.4.4 10.1 10.4.2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 10.2.2 10.3.3.3.3.

4.4.1 10.3.1 10.5.2 10.9 10.4 10.4 10.3.4.2 10.5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5.1 10.4 10.2 10.2.4.2 10.3 10.2.4.5.4.2.3.3 10.5.1 10.5.3.5 10.4.5.4 10.4.3.5.4.5.5.3.4.4.4.L Page 241 .3 10.4.3.6 10.5.2 10.10 10.2.3 10.5.7 10.5.5 BORED CAST-IN PLACE PILES 10. K.5.3 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-250 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251 S10-251 10.4.1 10.3.3 10.4.5.5.4.2.2.3.3.2 Description Materials Concrete and Reinforcement Permanent Casings Drilling Fluid Boring Operations Diameter of Piles Boring Temporary Casings Stability of Piling Excavations Using Drilling Fluid Spillage and Disposal Pumping of Boreholes Continuity of Construction Enlarged pile Bases Cleanliness of Pile Bases Inspection Placing of Reinforcement Joints in Longitudinal Bars Positions of Reinforcement S10-252 S10-252 S10-252 S10-252 S10-252 S10-252 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-253 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 Cawangan Jalan.2 10.3.2.5.1 PRESTRESSED SPUN CONCRETE PILES Description Materials Concrete Reinforcement End Plates Pile Shoes Manufacture and Storage of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles Casting Handling and Storage Installation of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads S10-250 10.2 10.1 10.3.4.8 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 10.4 10.4.1 10.5.5.

5.7.6 10.L Page 242 .6.5.6.5.3 Description Materials Manufacture and Storage of Steel H-Section Piles Manufacture Handling and Storage Installation of Steel H-Section Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile Heads S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 10.5.5.3.7.5.5 10.2 10.1 10.7 STEEL PIPE PILES 10.7.3 10.6.3 Concreting Operations Placing Concrete Workability of Concrete Compaction Placing Concrete In Dry borings Placing Concrete Under Water or Drilling Fluid Extraction of Casing Workability of Concrete Concrete Level Vibrating Extractors Construction of Pile Heads Water levels Cutting and preparation of Pile heads Temporary Backfilling Above Pile Casting Level S10-254 S10-254 S10-254 S10-255 S10-255 S10-255 S10-256 S10-256 S10-256 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 S10-257 10.5.1 10.5.7.3.2 10.4.3 10.6 STEEL H-SECTION PILES 10.6.1 10.3.3.2 10.2 10.6 10.5.1 10.3 10.7. K.4 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.5.5.3.6.7.5.5.2 10.7.5 10.6.2 10.6.5.3.6.4.3.7. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 10.6.6.3 10.3 10.3.5.7 Description Materials Manufacture and Storage of Steel Pipe Piles Welding Fabrication of Piles Matching of Pile Lengths Straightness of Piles Fabrication of Piles On Site Handling and Storage Marking of Piles S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-258 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 S10-259 Cawangan Jalan.4 10.4.7.7.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works page 10.7.4 10.5 10.5.6.5.3.1 10.7 10.5.5.7.1 10.7.6.

11.10.10 10.1 10.1 10.4 10.11.2 10.2 10.7 10.11.L Page 244 .11.4.11.4.10.4.4.10.9.3 PILE TESTING Test Piles Preliminary Pile Load Tests Production Pile Load Tests Testing Procedure Preparation of Test Pile Method of Loading Measurement of Settlement Method of Testing General Maintained Load Test Constant Rate of Penetration (CRP) Test Submission of Results Interpretation of Test Results Load Testing of Bakau Piles S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-267 S10-268 S10-268 S10-268 S10-269 S10-269 S10-269 S10-269 S10-270 10.9.2 10.2 10.2 10.4.5 10.11.4.2 10.10.9. Ibu Pejabat JKR.4 10.11.11 10.4.1 10.9.6 10.11.4.11.4 10.3 Installation of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles Pitching and Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and preparation of Pile heads S10-264 S10-265 S10-265 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Page 10.3 10.3 10.4.1 10.11.3 BAKAU PILES Description Materials Delivery and Inspection of Bakau Piles Installation of Bakau Piles Pitching of Piles Driving of Piles Lengthening of Piles Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads S10-265 S10-265 S10-266 S10-266 S10-266 S10-266 S10-267 S10-267 10. K.10.11.11.5.11.10.4.3 10.5.10.10.4 10.1 10.1 10.5.11.8 Cawangan Jalan.

10.3 and 10.O.2. The maximum permitted Cawangan Jalan.4 hereinbelow. if ordered by the S.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the supply.O.7 Records The Contractor shall keep records of the installation of each pile as required by the S. The cost of such extraction and reinstallation or any extra cost in the design and construction of a modified foundation shall be borne by the Contractor if.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TOLERANCES 10. levels. grades and crosssections shown on the Drawings and as directed by the S. pegs or markers. or alternatively the substructure shall be modified to the approval of the S.O. such extra works have been made necessary due to the error and/or negligence of the Contractor..4 Rake The piling rig shall be set and maintained to attain the required rake. Immediately before installation of the pile. no forcible corrections shall be made to piles which have deviated beyond the permissible limits specified in SubSections 10.2. 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake or the rake shown on the Drawings is 1 in 25. 10. 10.2.1 Setting Out Forcible corrections to concrete piles shall not be permitted. and shall submit two signed copies of these records to the S. 10. Any unexpected driving or boring conditions shall be noted in the records. K..2.L The Contractor shall.6 Piles Out of Alignment or Position Setting out shall be carried out using the data and reference points as shown on the Drawings.2. installation and testing of piles in accordance with this Specification and the lines.2.2 Position For a pile cut off at or above ground level the maximum permitted deviation of the pile centre from the centre points shown on the Drawings shall not exceed 75 mm in any direction.2. 10. in the opinion of the S.O.2.PILING WORKS 10.3 and 10. Page 245 .not later than at noon of the next working day after the pile has been installed.2. extract and reinstall any pile which has deviated out of position or alignment by more than the specified limit. The signed records shall form part of the records for the Works.2.O. the pile position shall be marked with suitable identifiable pins. 10.4 above. However.O. 10. Forcible corrections may be permitted to other types of piles if approved by the S.5 Forcible Corrections SECTION 10 .2.2.2.3 Verticality The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical is 1 in 75.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. For a pile cut off below ground level an increase in this tolerance is permitted in accordance with Sub-Sections 10.

lengthening and cutting and preparation of pile heads. the S.7.S. Joints shall be butt welded as specified in Sub-Section 9.O. K. 10.S. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site. The type of pile shoes to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with the following as relevant :i) "Chilled-hardened" cast iron shoes as used for making grey iron castings to B.L Page 246 .3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Joints in adjacent bars shall be staggered at least 1 m apart along the length of the pile. 10. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. Grade 10. Cawangan Jalan. 3100.O.3. The materials and workmanship shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification. 10.3. Grade 50B. 10.3.3 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES 10. 4360. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. such as by means of mechanical couplings shall be to the approval of the S.S.3 Pile Shoes 10. Mild steel straps cast into the shoes shall be as shown on the Drawings.2 Materials 10. or ii) Mild steel to B.5 of this Specification.2. In piles exceeding 12 m long. 1452.2. Rock shoes where required shall consist of wrought iron shoes and mild steel straps cast into "Chilled-hardened" cast iron blocks.2 Reinforcement The main reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 m in length shall be in one continuous length unless otherwise approved by the S. Grade A.1 Casting The length of piles to be cast shall be as shown on the Drawings. as shown on the Drawings. The grade of concrete and the details of reinforcement to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings. joints shall be permitted in main longitudinal bars at 12 m nominal intervals.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of precast reinforced concrete piles.3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Other means of jointing reinforcement. inclusive of pitching and driving.3.3.2.O. subject to revision by the S.3. ordinary Portland cement shall be used for the casting of piles. or iii) Cast steel to B.O.1 Concrete Unless otherwise specified.3 Manufacture and Storage of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10.

set shall be taken at approved intervals during the driving to establish the behaviour of the piles.3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works thicknesses shall be provided between piles at the lifting points. Any face of a pile shall not deviate by more than 6 mm from a straight edge 3 m long laid on the face. The concreting of each pile shall be completed in one continuous operation and no interruptions will be permitted.1 Pitching of Piles Piles shall be pitched accurately in the positions as shown on the Drawings. transporting and storing piles shall be such that piles are not damaged.5 m of pile penetration. During transport and storage. The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall not be less than those shown on the Drawings and shall not exceed them by more than 6 mm. and the length shall be clearly marked with indeletable marker on the top surface and on the head of the pile. temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling and damage to the piles.4. all exposed piles shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders.3. Only the designed lifting and support points shall be used.O. unless otherwise approved by the S. Lifting holes shall be formed during casting in the positions and in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.O. each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0. Page 247 Piles shall be cast on a horizontal platform in approved moulds to the dimensions as shown on the Drawings. After a pile has been cast. reference number.O. All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length.2 Handling and Storage The method and sequence of lifting. Where required by the S. In addition.2 Driving of Piles Each pile shall be driven continuously until the specified set and/or depth has been reached.3. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of each pile shall be kept. handling.5 m along its length before being driven. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3. Packings of uniform Cawangan Jalan. and the centroid of any cross-sections of the pile shall not deviate by more than 12 mm from the straight line connecting the centroids of the end faces of the pile. The log shall record the number of blows for every 0. the date of casting.L . 10.O.O. A follower (long dolly) shall not be used unless otherwise approved by the S. The Contractor shall inform the S.4. The driving equipment used shall be of such type and capacity to the approval of the S. without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is encountered. At all stages during driving and until the pile has set or been driven to the required length. trestles. K. piles shall be placed on adequate supports located under the lifting points of the piles.3. 10.4 Installation of Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 10. 10.

the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level as described above. unless otherwise approved. New binders of similar size shall be provided and spaced at half the centres of the binders in the main body of the pile and shall be securely bound with 1. to check driving resistances.4.3. The Contractor shall provide all facilities to enable the S. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The head shall be replaced with concrete of an approved grade.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works driving. and all loose particles shall be removed by wire brushing.O. 10. fol lowed by washing with water. shall be recorded as the penetration in millimeters per 10 blows. The lengthening bars shall butt on the exposed bars in true alignment and shall be butt welded as specified or shall be spliced with bars of the same diameter as the main pile bars. Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground. The final set of a pile other than as friction pile. Care shall be exercised to ensure that the reinforcement in the pile head is not in any way damaged. Piles which have been displaced as a result of driving adjacent piles shall be redriven to the required resistance. 10.3.L Page 248 . 60 diameters in length and lapping the main bars for a distance of 30 diameters above and below the joint.O.63 mm soft annealed iron wire and the pile extended by concreting in properly constructed mounds to the length required. concrete in the damaged pile head shall be cut off square at sound concrete. before and after driving subsequent piles.4 Lengthening of Piles Where piles have to be lengthened. K.O. A set shall be taken only in the presence of the S. careful levelling from a datum unaffected by the piling shall be made on the pile heads already driven.4. Any damaged reinforcement shall be made good to the satisfaction of the S. and shall be securely bound with 1. the reinforcement shall be stripped of all surrounding concrete for a distance equal to thirty times the diameter of the main reinforcement measured from the pile head for spliced joints and 300 mm for butt welded joints and all lateral reinforcement shall be removed. When required. If a pile has been driven to the required set or depth but sound concrete of the pile is below cut-off level. The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required. other than by means of welding of steel plates as detailed on the Drawings.63 mm soft annealed iron wire.3 Repair of Damaged Pile Heads If a pile is to be subjected to further driving. The new head shall be cast truly in line with the remainder of the pile and be properly cured and allowed to harden sufficiently to develop the strength necessary for further Cawangan Jalan.

K. The length of reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as shown or specified on the Drawings.3.L Page 249 . all to the satisfaction of the S.5 of this Specification. The concrete of the pile shall be made good either before or together with the casting of the pile cap. Care shall be taken to form the joint between the old and new concrete as specified hereinbefore. The extension shall be truly in line with the remainder of the pile. and be properly cured and allowed to harden sufficiently to develop the strength necessary for further driving. The extension bars shall be securely bound to the projecting bars with 1.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works (b) Splicing The projecting bars shall be stripped of all surrounding concrete as necessary to allow splices of length 60 diameters with extension bars.3. If the length of reinforcing bars left projecting is insufficient. the head of the pile shall be cut off to the level specified or shown on the Drawings. then they shall be extended by either of the following methods :(a) Butt Welding The extension bars shall butt on the projecting bars in true alignment and shall be butt welded in accordance with Sub-Section 9.63 mm soft annealed iron wire. 10. Care shall be taken to avoid cracking or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. . Ibu Pejabat JKR.4. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and made good with new concrete properly bonded to the old. Cawangan Jalan.5 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth.7.

L . Each end plate shall be machinefinished and provided with a chamfer to accommodate the welding when two lengths of pile are jointed. 10. lengthening and cutting and preparation of pile heads.4.3.1 Casting The length of piles to be cast shall be as shown on the Drawings. ordinary Portland cement shall be used for the casting of piles. 10. The grade of concrete to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings. the type of pile shoes to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings and shall be in accordance with Sub-Section 10. K. Cawangan Jalan.2.2.3 End Plates Details of end plates of each length of pile shall be as shown on the Drawings.4. The external diameter and the thickness of the pile shall not be Page 250 10.4. Piles shall be hollow cylinders manufactured by the centrifugal casting process.inclusive of pitching and driving.3.O.2.4. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified.2 Materials 10.4. The materials and workmanship shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification. Moulds shall be of metal.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of prestressed spun concrete piles. the S. 10. 10.3 Manufacture and Storage of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles 10. well braced and stiffened against deformations caused by the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete while spinning.4 PRESTRESSED SPUN CONCRETE PILES 10. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.4 Pile Shoes If specified. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site. Any welding used shall not affect the strength of the pre stressing tendons.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10.2. The metal forms shall have smooth joints and inside surfaces.1 Concrete Unless otherwise specified.O. The pile shall not be removed from the moulds until after the specified transfer strength is achieved.3. The forms shall be accessible for adequate cleaning. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The spiral reinforcement shall be securely held to the longitudinal reinforcement during casting and spinning.4.2 Reinforcement The prestressing tendons and the non-prestressing reinforcement of the piles including workmanship shall be as specified under Sections 11 and 9 respectively of this Specification and to the details as shown on the Drawings. subject to revision by the S.4.4.

transporting and storing piles shall be such that piles are not damaged. reference number and length shall be clearly marked with indeletable marking on the top surface and on the head of the pile. All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Cawangan Jalan. When two lengths of pile are jointed.4. The Contractor shall submit to the S.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10. handling.2. for approval.L Page 251 . the date of casting. the head of the pile shall be cut off to the level specified or shown on the Drawings. each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.4. Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic strength.4.2 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening of piles is required.3. 10.3. less than that shown on the Drawings and shall be constant over the entire length of the pile and coaxial with the end plate at each end.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1 and 10. 10. 10.4. the end plates shall bear over their complete areas. Pile heads shall be constructed to details as shown on the Drawings. Packings of uniform thicknessess shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.4.4 Installation of Prestressed Spun Concrete Piles 10. his proposed method for cutting of piles. After a pile has been cast.4.4.O. In addition. Shims for packing shall not be accepted. Only the designed lifting and support points shall be used. K.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth.4. the details of the joint shall be as shown on the Drawings.4.2 Handling and Storage The method and sequence of lifting.5 m along its length before being driven.4.

10.1 Description This work shall comprise the boring or grabbing.2. 10.5. the Contractor shall take undisturbed soil samples while the pile is being bored. special precautions shall be taken to modify the bentonite suspension or prehydrate the bentonite in fresh water to render it suitable in all respects for the construction of piles. Where saline or chemically contaminated ground water occurs.2 Materials 10.O.2 Permanent Casings Permanent casings which form part of the designed pile shall be as specified in the Drawings. showing the properties of each consignment delivered to the site.O.3 Drilling Fluid Drilling fluid material.5.L Page 252 . on request..5.1 Diameter of Piles The diameter of piles shall not be less than the specified designed diameter at any level throughout its length. Cawangan Jalan.5. bentonite. This certificate shall be made available to the S.5. Sampling and all subsequent handling and testing shall be carried out in accordance with B. Boring shall be carried down to the depth as required and directed by the S. shall comply with Specification No.5.O. DF CP4 of the Oil Companies Materials Association or its equivalent.5930. 10.3 Boring Operations 10.2 Boring 10.5. and subsequently filling the hole with plain or reinforced concrete to form bored cast-in-situ piles. Preparation of the suspension shall comply with the manufacturer's instructions.5 BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES 10. 10. with or without casing.2.1 Concrete and Reinforcement The concrete and reinforcement to be used and workmanship for bored cast-in-situ piles shall be as specified under Section 9 of this Specification.2. The grade of concrete and the details of reinforcement to be used shall be as shown on the Drawings.3. The samples shall be taken to an approved Laboratory for testing. 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Bentonite shall be mixed thoroughly with clean fresh water to make a suspension which will maintain the stability of the pile excavation for the period necessary to place concrete and complete construction. K. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.S. When deemed necessary by the S. A certificate shall be obtained by the Contractor from the manufacturer of the bentonite powder. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5.3.

3. unless it can be shown that pumping will not have a detrimental effect on the surrounding soil or its properties. Cawangan Jalan. The disposal of bentonite water shall comply with the regulations of the Local Controlling Authorities. 10. shall be bored and concreted without delay to ensure that the soil char acteristics are not significantly altered. 10. such that a flow of concrete could be induced from or damage caused to any of the piles.L Page 253 . During concreting they shall be free from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of the piles being cast. K.5. Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion.5.6 Pumping of Boreholes Pumping from the borehole shall not be permitted unless a casing has been placed into the stable stratum to prevent the further ingress of water in significant quantities from other strata into the boring. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Discarded bentonite water shall be removed from the site without delay.5. They shall be of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length. shall be obtained prior to resuming boring at that location.3. 10. the level of fluid or column of water in the excavation shall be maintained such that the fluid pressure always exceeds the pressure exerted by the soil and external ground water and an adequate temporary casing shall be used in conjunction with the method to ensure the stability of the strata near ground level until concrete has been placed. The fluid water level shall be maintained at a level not less than 1 metre above the level of the external ground water. or.4 Stability of Piling Excavations Using Drilling Fluid Where the use of drilling fluid or a column of water is approved for maintaining the stability of boring.3 Temporary Casings Temporary casings of approved quality or an approved alternative method shall be used to maintain the stability of pile excavations which might otherwise collapse.3. All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of bentonite suspension or water on the site in areas outside the immediate vicinity of the boring operations.3. without the use of temporary casings or other support. the excavation shall be backfilled without delay and the instructions of the S.7 Continuity of Construction A pile constructed in stable soil.5.3.O.5. 10.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works In the event of a rapid loss of bentonite suspension or water from the piling excavation. 10.5 Spillage and Disposal Piles shall not be bored close to other piles which have recently been cast and which contain workable or unset concrete.

5.1 Placing Concrete The method of placing and the workability of concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic concrete shaft of the full crosssection is formed.5. K. 10.4.5. and lifting wires shall be provided so as to maintain the reinforcing steel in the positions as specified.O.0 metre below the bottom of the casing so that movement of the reinforcement during extraction of the casing is minimised.e.4 Placing of Reinforcement 10. loose.2 Positions of Reinforcement Adequate spacer blocks.5. 10. 10.5. a suitable probe shall be provided to ascertain the evenness and cleanliness of the pile base. The slump shall be measured at the time of discharge into the borehole.3.L The workability of the concrete shall be determined by the slump test as described in M. 10.5. adequate equipment conforming to B.5.1 below. The inspection shall be carried out from the ground surface in the case where the borehole diameter is less than 750 mm. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 10. holes filled with drilling fluid or water. A sloping surface of the frustum forming the enlargement shall make an angle to the horizontal of not less than 55º.5. 10. 26. the longitudinal reinforcement shall extend at least 1.5.1 Joints in Longitudinal Bars Reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of the bar is effective across the joint and the joint shall be made so that there is no relative displacement Cawangan Jalan.5 Concreting Operations 10. disturbed or remoulded soil or fragments of rock shall be removed from the base of the pile. Page 254 .8 Enlarged Pile Bases The enlarged pile base shall not be smaller than the dimensions specified and shall be concentric with the pile shaft diameter. 5930 shall be provided to enable the Contractor and the S. i.S.10 Inspection For dry boreholes.S. guide tubes. For wet boreholes. Where temporary casings are employed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works of the reinforcement during the construction of the pile and the spacing of the reinforcing bars shall be maintained in such a way that proper concreting shall not be impeded.3. to descend into the borehole for the purpose of inspection.4. each hole shall be inspected prior to the placing of concrete in it. Where the borehole diameter exceeds 750 mm.3.5.5.9 Cleanliness of Pile Bases On completion of boring. The suggested slump details for typical concreting situations shall be as specified in Table 10.2 Workability of Concrete 10.

Page 255 . concrete may be poured through a funnel with a length of tube so that the flow is directed and does not hit reinforcement bars or the side of the hole. Where pile diameter is less than 600 mm. Before placing concrete.5.3 Compaction Internal vibrators shall not be used to compact concrete unless it can be satisfied that they will not cause segregation or arching of the concrete.5.SLUMP RANGE FOR TYPICAL CONCRETING SITUATIONS Typical Conditions of Use Slump Range (mm) Placed into water-free unlined bore. Where casting level of concrete is within the casing. 10. Chutes extending to near the base shall be employed for raking piles of large diameter. measures shall be taken to ensure that there is no accumulation of silt or other material at the base of the boring. Where piles are vertical. 100 to 175 Where concrete is to be placed by tremie under water or drilling fluid. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works TABLE 10.4 Placing Concrete In Dry Borings Approved measures shall be taken to avoid segregation and bleeding and to ensure that the concrete at the bottom of the pile is not deficient in grout. 150 to collapse 10.L diameter. Widely spaced reinforcement leaving room for free movement between bars 75 to 125 Where reinforcement is not spaced widely enough to give free movement between bars.5.5 Placing Concrete Under Water or Drilling Fluid Concrete to be placed under water or drilling fluid shall be placed by tremie unless otherwise approved and shall not be discharged freely into the water or drilling fluid.5.5. For raking piles of small Cawangan Jalan. 10. an enriched mix shall be used in the first few batches of concrete to minimise segregation.1 .

5. it shall be placed continuously as the casing is extracted until the desired head of concrete is obtained. Where double casings are used in the boring.6 Extraction of Casing 10. allowing the tremie pipe to pass through the reinforcing cage without causing damage or uplifting.3 Vibrating Extractors The use of vibrating extractors shall be permitted subject to the condition that work shall be carried out in such a manner and at such times as to minimise nuisance and disturbance.1 Workability of Concrete Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted. a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within the tremie pipe to ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that from the water or drilling fluid. The tremie pipe shall be so designed that external projections are minimised. The hopper and pipe of the tremie shall be clean and watertight throughout. the proposed method of working shall be with the approval of the S. The tremie pipe shall at all times penetrate the concrete which has previously been placed and shall not be withdrawn from the concrete until the completion of concreting. drilling fluid or soil is exceeded and that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated.O. 10. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5.6. Cawangan Jalan.L Page 256 . Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where excess heads of water or drilling fluid could be caused as the casing is withdrawn because of the displacement of water or fluid by the concrete as it flows into its final position against the wall of the pile shaft. K. The pipe shall extend to the base of the boring and a sliding plug or barrier shall be placed in the pipe to prevent direct contact between the first charge of concrete in the pipe of the tremie and the water or drilling fluid.6.5. 10.2 Concrete Level When the casing is being extracted. At all times.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10. The internal face of the tremie pipe shall be from projections. The internal diameter of the tremie pipe shall not be less than 150 mm for concrete made with 20 mm aggregate and not less than 200 mm for concrete made with 40 mm aggregate.6. No concrete shall be placed in the boring once the bottom of the casing has been lifted above the top of the concrete.5. a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within it to ensure that the pressure from external water.

04 (L-4. each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0.5 m along its length before being driven.5) where L is the length of the pile in metres.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10. Unless otherwise approved by the S. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.5. 4 with regard to sectional dimensions and the steel shall comply with the requirements of B.1 Water Levels In the event of the ground water level being higher than the required pile head casting level shown on the Drawings.1 Manufacture 10. Cawangan Jalan. 10.5.2 Materials All steel H-section piles shall comply with B.6. 10.6.7. the Contractor shall submit his proposals for approval prior to placing concrete.S. Each pile shall be clearly marked with white indeletable marking at the flanged head showing its reference number and overall length. 10.6. For proprietary sections made up from rolled sections the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/1000 of the length of the pile. 4360.5. any empty bore remaining shall be protected and shall be carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.7 Construction of Pile Heads 10.7.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of steel H-section piles.3. K.7. lengthening and preparation of pile heads. Pile heads shall be constructed to the details shown on the Drawings.S. For standard rolled sections the deviation from straightness in millimetres shall not exceed 1. the strengthening of the toe in lieu of a shoe or the strengthening of the head of a pile shall be made from material of the same grade as the pile and to the details as shown on the Drawings.L Page 257 .O.2 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads The top of the pile shall be brought above the cut-off level of the pile to permit all laitance and weak concrete to be removed and to ensure that it can be properly keyed into the pile cap.6 STEEL H-SECTION PILES 10.6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The pile head shall not be left below the ground water level unless approved precautions are taken.5. 10. In addition.3 Temporary Backfilling Above Pile Casting Level After each pile has been cast.3 Manufacture and Storage of Steel H-Section Piles 10. The sections and grades to be used shall be as specified or as shown on the Drawings. inclusive of pitching and driving.

O.6. 10.O.7.S. Pile heads shall be constructed to the details as shown on the Drawings.7 STEEL PIPE PILES 10.S. Piles that are damaged during handling and transporting shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense.O.3.S. Page 258 . inclusive of pitching and driving. 6323 with regard to sectional dimensions and the steel shall comply with the requirements of B. All weldings shall be continuous and complying with B.S.2. 10.3.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles 10. B.7. Piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports.4 Installation of Steel H-Section Piles 10.4.S.7.3. 5950 for arc welding and B.3 Manufacture and Storage of Steel Pipe Piles 10.2 Materials Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10. the piles shall be jointed by butt welding. The type and size of weld shall be as detailed on the Drawings. 4360.L All steel pipes shall comply with B.4.4.1 and 10. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.2 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening of piles is required. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site. lengthening and preparation of pile heads. Cawangan Jalan. All damaged and rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10. 638. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Butt welded joints shall be stiffened with plates fillet welded on all four sides as detailed on the Drawings.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of steel pipe piles. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. 10. 10. the S. the piles shall be cut to within 20 mm of the levels shown on the Drawings. 10. The remaining section which can be reused for lengthening of piles shall be stored and protected as directed by the S. 5153. all welds shall be full penetration butt welds complying with the requirements of B.6.4.6.7.3. The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S.6. 5135 and B.2 Handling and Storage All operations such as handling and transporting of piles shall be carried out in such a manner that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised.6.S.S. K.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth and before encasing in concrete.1 Welding Unless otherwise specified. 4577 for resistance welding as appropriate.4.

7. or by more than 3 mm for piles exceeding 12 mm in thickness. The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S.O.7.3.6 Handling and Storage All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports.L Page 259 . 10. When two or more such lengths are joined.O. Cawangan Jalan. When piles of unequal thickness are to be butt welded together.5 Fabrication of Piles on Site When pile lengths are to be made up on Site. be evenly staggered.7. Pile lengths shall be set up so that the differences in dimensions are matched as evenly as possible. However. Adequate facilities shall be provided for supporting and aligning the lengths of pile. then they shall be staggered by at least 100 mm. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 10.4 Straightness of Piles Unless otherwise approved.3 Matching of Pile Lengths Longitudinal seam welds and spiral seam welds of lengths of pipe piles forming a completed pile shall.7. the longitudinal seams or spiral seams are brought closely to one alignment at the joint.5 metre along its length before being driven. the S.3. the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/600 of a length not exceeding 10 m. 10. K.3.3.3. All operations such as handling. the thickness of the thinner material shall be the criterion. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified. In addition. All damaged and rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith. if in order to obtain a satisfactory match of the ends of piles or the specified straightness. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site.7 Marking of Piles Each pile shall be clearly marked with white indeletable marking showing its reference number and overall length. the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/960 of the completed length. Piles that are damaged during handling and transporting shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense. 10.7.2 Fabrication of Piles The root edge or root face lengths of piles that are to be butt welded shall not differ by more than 25% from the thickness of piles not exceeding 12 mm in thickness. 10. transporting and pitching of piles shall be carried out in a manner such that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised.3. whenever possible.7. each pile shall be marked at intervals of 0. all test procedures and dimensional tolerances shall conform to the Specification for the supply of pipe materials.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10.

4. Cawangan Jalan.4.3 Radiographs During production of welded tube piles.4 Acceptance Standards If the results of any weld test do not conform to the specified requirements. 10. continuous ultra-sonic examination over the whole weld.2 Application and Type of Primer Immediately after surface preparation. Tests shall be undertaken as may be required by the S.S. 10.5. full details of the welding procedures and electrodes with drawings and schedules as may be necessary. 10.S.1 Welding Procedures The Contractor shall submit for approval. and spot check radiographs as required by the S.5 Protective Coatings If protective coatings are specified. the length of pile covered by the test shall be rejected. 4232 or SIS 05 59 00 grade Sa 2 1/2. 10. three spot check radiographs. to provide a finish to second quality (near white) of B. 10.7.L . No coat shall be Page 260 10. two additional specimens from the same length of pile shall be tested. 4870. and shall be in accordance with the requirements of B. Ibu Pejabat JKR. one at each end of each length of the tube as manufactured and one at a position to be chosen at the time of testing by the S.7. mill scale and other adhering materials.2 Welders' Qualifications Only welders who are qualified in the approved welding procedure shall be employed. all surfaces to be coated shall be blast cleaned with an approved abrasive in accordance with B.7. 10. 4232 or SIS 05 59 00 to remove rust. K.S. For spirally welded piles.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works ii) for tubes of any wall thickness.7. supplemented where necessary by radiographs to investigate defects revealed by the ultrasonic examination.4.4.7. at least one radiograph approximately 300 mm long shall be required on each completed length as a spot check on weld quality. on the weld joints between strip lengths.5.7. the surface shall be coated with an approved primer or the specified coating to avoid recontamination. one of the following tests shall be carried out :i) for tubes of wall thickness 12 mm or less.1 Surface Preparation Unless otherwise specified.O.O.4 Workmanship 10. the preparation of surfaces and the application of the coatings shall be carried out by skilled labour having experience in the preparation of the coatings specified. In the case of failure of one or both of these additional tests.7.O. This shall be taken on a circumferential or longitudinal weld and its position shall be as directed by the S.. Copies of certificates relating to welders' tests shall be made available to the S.O.7. on request.O.

6.6.7.3.O.1 and 10. the pile shall be cut to within 20 mm of the levels shown on the Drawings and protective coatings shall be removed from the surfaces of the pile head 100 mm above the soffit of the concrete.7. where lengthening of piles is required. The primer shall be compatible with the specified coating.7. 10.5. 10.5.4. 10.7.7.6 Installation of Steel Pipe Piles 10.7.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles applied to a metal surface which is not thoroughly dry. 10. Ibu Pejabat JKR. including the minimum dry film thickness of each coat and the minimum number of coats that are to be applied. The completed coating shall be checked for thickness and continuity by an approved magnetic gauge or detector.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10.3.5 Inspection of Coatings and Acceptibility The finished coating shall be generally smooth.6. shall be as specified and shown on the Drawings. the shaft shall be filled with concrete in a continuous operation. Coatings shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Number and Colour of Coats The minimum dry film thickness of the finished coating.2. the piles shall be jointed by butt welding along the entire periphery as detailed on the Drawings. Pile heads shall be constructed to details as shown on the Drawings.4 Thickness. Cawangan Jalan.4 Concreting of Pile Shaft If concreting is specified or shown on the Drawings after the pile has been cut off to the specified level.4. 10. The reinforcement cage in the pile shall be made sufficiently rigid and kept in its correct position during concreting.5.3 Part to be Welded The coating within 200 mm of a weld shall be applied after welding.7.L Pitching and driving of piles shall be in accordance with SubSections 10. 10. The method of placing shall be approved by the S.7. Areas where the thickness is less than that specified shall receive approved additional treatment.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth and before encasing in concrete.2 Lengthening of Piles Unless otherwise approved. shall be recleaned to the original standard and recoated with the specified sequence of coats. Any coat damaged by subsequent processes or which has deteriorated to an extent such that proper adhesion of the coating may not be obtained or maintained. Page 261 . of a dense and uniform texture and free from sharp protuberances or pin holes. K.6.

4550. Drilling operations shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant requirements of SubSection 10. grade. the diameter and/or thickness.S.1 Reinforcement Unit The type of reinforcement unit to be used.1 Diameter of Piles The diameter of piles shall not be less than the specified/designed diameter at any level throughout its length. Grout shall be pumped into its final position in one continuous operation as soon as possible and in no case more than half an hour after mixing.8 MICROPILES 10.O. the grout shall be non-shrink cement grout.2 Grout Unless otherwise specified.O.4.8.3.2 Testing Grout Grout shall be tested in accordance with B.4. The grout mix design such as the water-cement ratio. yield strength and working stress shall be as specified or as shown on the Drawings.3.8.2. Cawangan Jalan. 10. the minimum cement and grout strength at 7 and 28 days shall be as specified and shown on the Drawings. K. 10.5.8. The use of the admixture shall fully comply with the manufacturer's instructions. grouting equipment and techniques employed in grouting underwater shall also be furnished for approval.8. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. details of drilling equipment and drilling procedure for approval before commencement of works. Further information such as grouting pressure. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 1881 and B.8.3 Drilling Operations 10. 10.8. details of admixtures shall be submitted to the S. Grout shall be mixed on Site and shall be free from segregation. 10. for approval before commencement of works. placing of reinforcement unit and subsequently filling the hole with grout to form micropiles.S.8.2.1 Mixing and Placing Grout The Contractor shall provide details of the method and equipment used in grout mixing. grouting procedure.L Page 262 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10. 10.8.3.8. If admixtures are used. slumping and bleeding.8.2 Drilling The Contractor shall submit to the S.2 Materials 10.1 Description This work shall comprise the drilling of a hole. The length of the reinforcing bars projecting above the pile cut off level shall be as shown on the Drawings.4 Grouting Operations 10. 10.

5.S.9. the pile reinforcement unit shall be connected on Site to the details shown on the Drawings.1 Manufacture Before commencement of work the Contractor shall notify the S. 10.O. The depth of penetration of preservative shall be a minimum of 25 mm and the net dry salt retention in the treated part of the timber shall be a minimum of 16 kg/cu.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of pressure-treated timber piles. 10. Ibu Pejabat JKR.8. that for a ten year period. 10. 229. Piles shall be within -2 mm and +6 mm of their specified crosssectional dimensions.9. 822 and shall be approved by SIRIM.m.5 Construction of Pile Heads 10. Kempas (Koompassia Malaccensis) shall be used and this shall not be of a lesser quality than the grading specified in Appendix A of M.2 Materials Unless otherwise approved by the S.2 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads Pile heads shall be constructed to the details as shown on the Drawings.8. 10. Other means of jointing reinforcement shall be to the approval of the S.9.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Pressure-treated timber piles shall conform to M.O. 10.S. of the name of the supplier and manufacturer for approval. The centroid of any cross-section of a pile shall not deviate by more than 25 mm from the straight line connecting the centroids of the end faces of the pile. 360. The preservative used shall comply with M. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings.S. Cawangan Jalan.5. 822.S. Before the treated timber pile is accepted for the work the Contractor shall obtain from the manufacturer of the treated piles a warranty on an approved form which provides. 733..8. The method of preservative treatment for timber piles shall be the full-cell process as described in M.S. The timber terms used in this Specification shall have the meanings assigned to them in M.L Page 263 . lengthening and preparation of pile heads.O.1 Lengthening of Piles Where lengthening is required.9 PRESSURE-TREATED TIMBER PILES 10. inclusive of pitching and driving. K.3.9. the treated piles shall be free from fungus and insect attack.3 Manufacture and Storage of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles 10.

Cawangan Jalan.3. a metal helmet shall be fitted to the top of the pile. if necessary.2 Delivery and Storage The Contractor shall notify the S.9.O. Accepted piles shall be marked and stacked in lengths on drained hard ground. If during driving the head of the pile becomes excessively broomed or otherwise damaged.9. The top of the pile shall first be trimmed to fit closely into the recess of the underside of the helmet. 10. The S.O. Page 264 Each treated pile shall be permanently marked with identifications which indicate that they comply with this Specification.O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works The length of piles to be supplied shall be as shown on the Drawings subject to revision by the S. 10. All rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith.1 Pitching and Driving of Piles Pitching and driving shall be in accordance with Sub-Sections 10. The piles shall be separated by sticks or blocks placed vertically one above the other and closely spaced horizontally to avoid sagging of the piles. the damaged part shall be cut off and the helmet refitted.L . Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the Site.0 m each unless otherwise approved. K.O. The pile head shall be fitted with toothed metal plates as approved by the S. unless otherwise approved by the S. and the Contractor shall furnish such records for the piles supplied when requested by the S.1 and 10. Each pile shall be stacked clear of the ground and have an air space around it.3.4. Piles shall be provided in one single length of 6. Any pile driven to the required set at a depth of 6. so that brooming and splitting do not occur. during normal driving.4. may require inspection and testing at the treatment plant to observe and ensure that the manufacturing process and control testings of the piles are carried out in accordance with this Specification.3. and provide the necessary facilities to enable the S. The end plates of each pile shall have SIRIM Control Labels. type of treatment. The pile head shall be adequately protected during driving.4. charge number and date of treatment and the length of the pile.2. to inspect each pile and take random sampling for determination of depth of penetration and the net dry salt retention. Records of the actual treatment schedule shall be kept during the treatment process.9. may from time to time order the lengths of piles to be modified.0 m or less shall be in one continuous length. A hard wood dolly and. of the delivery of timber piles to the Site.4 Installation of Pressure-Treated Timber Piles 10. the S.O..O. a packing piece shall be used above the helmet.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. manufacturer's trade mark. In the case of hard driving.O.

lengthening and preparation of pile heads.4. inclusive of pitching and driving.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works i) the cut-offs or bored holes shall be given two flood coats of 10% m/v solution of the preservative.0 m each. When fissures appear in a pile during driving. only Bakau Minyak (Rhizophora Apiculapa) or Bakau Kurap (Rhizophora Mucronata) shall be used.9. The pile head shall be embedded for a depth of not less than 150 mm in the concrete cap which shall be at least 150 mm thick round the piles.S.2 Materials Unless otherwise approved by the S. all cut-offs and bored holes shall be treated as follows :- 10. allowing each application to soak thoroughly into the cut or bored surface. the pile heads shall be heavily coated with a bituminous compound which conforms to B. 10. 822.1 Description This work shall comprise the supply and installation of bakau piles. The internal dimensions of the box shall be 3 mm undersize of the pile cross-sectional dimensions. K.3 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When a pile has been driven to the required set or depth. which in the opinion of the S. ii) immediately after the preservative solution has dried. 3416 for the whole depth that the pile is to be enclosed in the pile cap. all in accordance with this Specification and to the details shown on the Drawings. pile joints shall be made by using Mild Steel Welded Boxes 450 mm long fabricated from 5 mm thick plates unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. The joint and the ends of the piles to be jointed shall be constructed so that the necessary strength and stiffness are developed at the joint.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR.10.S.10. or as specified in accordance with M.O. will affect its strength.S.4.9. 10. 360. 10. the head of the piles shall be cut off square to sound wood and treated with an approved preservative and a waterproof coating all in accordance with M.10 BAKAU PILES 10.L Page 265 . Bakau piles shall be provided in one single length of not less than 5.2 Lengthening of Piles If jointing is required. Cawangan Jalan. Joint boxes shall be painted with red lead paint or otherwise protected against corrosion to the satisfaction of the S. The diameter of piles at the small end shall not be less than 75 mm unless otherwise specified. the pile shall be rejected and replaced at the Contractor's expense. When piles are cut-off at the pile cap level.O.

O. if necessary. The pile head shall be flat and at right angles to the axis of the pile. All bakau piles shall be free from rot.O. K. the Contractor shall submit to the S. may. 10. If any pile rise occurs as a result of adjacent piles being driven. Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground. If during driving the head of the pile becomes excessively broomed or otherwise damaged. of the delivery of piles to the Site and provide labour and facilities to enable the S.O. bakau piles shall be driven by means of a drop hammer of at least 250 kg in mass. from time to time order the lengths or spacing of piles to be modified. the head retrimmed and the helmet refitted.10. Accepted piles shall be stacked on an approved surface in an approved area and kept constantly in a damp condition.4. 10. 10. the S. his proposals for correcting this and to avoid the same in subsequent work. A hard wood dolly and. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Unless otherwise approved.10. to inspect and measure each pile at the time of unloading. its edges chamfered to minimise splitting during driving. The Contractor shall take precautions to avoid damage to the pile head during hard driving by providing a suitable metal helmet.O. for approval. When required.O. suspended from a shear-leg or approved pile-frame.4.2Driving of Piles The length of piles to be driven shall be as shown on the Drawings.10. Based on the results of pile driving resistance and/or load tests carried out on piles driven on the site.10. The piles shall be reasonably straight and circular in cross-section with all branch joints trimmed off to the general outline of the piles but leaving the bark intact on the piles. the damaged part shall be cut off.4 Installation of Bakau Piles 10. fungal or pest attack and any other defects.1Pitching of Piles Piles shall be pitched accurately in the positions and at spacings as shown on the Drawings or as approved by the S. Rejected piles shall be removed from the Site forthwith.3 Delivery and Inspection of Bakau Piles The Contractor shall notify the S. levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or any pile resulting from the driving process.L Page 266 . a packing piece shall be used above the helmet. Cawangan Jalan.

10. The two pile ends to be jointed shall be of the same diameter and each shall be cut at right angles to its axis to make contact over the whole cross-section when the two timbers are co-axial.O. The pile head shall be cut off or built up to the necessary elevation and shall be capped appropriately to produce a bearing surface perpendicular to the axis of the pile.O. The steel tube connector shall be painted with red lead paint or otherwise protected against corrosion all to the satisfaction of the S.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works 10.3 Production Pile Load Tests Load tests shall also be carried out during the installation of piles for the permanent Works.11.4.4 Testing Procedure 10. 10. The arrangement shall be such that none of the test load is carried by the ground under the cap.11.2 Preliminary Pile Load Tests Preliminary pile load tests shall be carried out before the S.11. instructions on the pile length and pile length combinations for the manufacture and supply of the piles. 10. The lengths of the piles for the preliminary load tests shall be determined by the S. K. issues to the Contractor. 10. Ibu Pejabat JKR.11. the Contractor shall drive test piles as shown on the Drawings and/or as instructed by the S. A mild steel tube connector of No. 6323 shall be used to join the two pile ends.4 Cutting and Preparation of Pile Heads When the piles have been driven to the required depth. The pile ends shall be trimmed or packed in the connector to provide a tight fit. Page 267 .11 PILE TESTING 10. 10.4.L The test load shall be applied in one of the following ways :i) by means of a jack which obtains its reaction from kentledge heavier than the required load.1 Test Piles In order to determine the required length of pile at each location.3 Lengthening of Piles Where a pile has to be jointed.10.O. 9 gauge to B. Only one joint shall be allowed.4. Such pile load tests shall be referred to as production pile load tests. it shall be to the details as shown on the Drawings.11. Cawangan Jalan.O. in writing.O. The Contractor shall not proceed to manufacture or supply the piles until he has received instructions in writing to do so from the S. Test piles shall be driven with the same hammer that is used for driving foundation piles.S. the top of the piles shall be cut off to a uniform level.2Method of Loading 10.O.11.1Preparation of Test Pile 10. The cut-off level shall be below the lowest dry season ground water level as shown on the Drawings or as approved by the S.4.

Kentledge shall not be used for testing raked piles. When instructed or approved by the S.5 mm for reference Cawangan Jalan. If the anchor piles are to be permanent working piles. Horizontal supports shall provide full support without restraining the vertical movement of the pile in any way.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works wires. The reference beam supports shall be located at least 3 m from the load test pile.11.1General Maintained Load Tests shall be conducted on test piles as selected by the S. Horizontal supports to ensure buckling stability shall be provided to the pile to be loaded whenever the ratio of the unsupported height to the least cross-sectional dimension is 20 or more.. The nearest edge of the crib supporting the kentledge stack shall not be closer than 1. The load shall be measured using a calibrated load gauge and also a calibrated pressure gauge in the hydraulic system. Settlements shall be measured to the nearest 0.5.3Measurement of Settlement Settlements shall be measured by use of a reference beam or wire supported independantly of the load test pile. their levels shall be observed during application of the test load to ensure no residual uplift occurs.O. Such submission shall include design calculations of lateral supports or other methods to be used in ensuring against buckling.11. Page 268 ii) by means of a jack which obtains its reaction from tension piles or other suitable anchors. centre to centre.5. Constant Rate of Penetration Tests shall also be conducted on other piles. 10.5. K. The tests shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 10. working drawings showing the method and equipment he proposes to use in the performance of the load test and the measurement of settlements. 10.O. When method (ii) is used.11. The loading tests shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section 10.1 mm for reference beams or 0. and in no case shall they be less than 2 m from the test pile.5 Method of Testing 10. reaction pile or piles supporting reaction loads. The jack and load gauge shall be carefully aligned so that the load applied is co-axial with the pile. for his approval.11. all anchor piles shall be at a distance of at least three (3) pile shaft diameters from the test pile.4. care shall be taken to ensure that the centre of gravity of the kentledge is on the axis of the pile.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3 m to the surface of the test pile. The reference beams or wires shall be protected from the effects of temperature changes.L . When method (i) is used. the Contractor shall submit to the S. reaction pile or piles supporting reaction loads. Prior to the performance of any load test.11.O.

ii) the full test load shall be maintained on the pile for at least 48 hours and settlements shall be recorded at intervals of not more than 12 hours.'s interpretation and conclusions on the test results shall be final. and shall consist of the following :- 10. An interval of at least 15 minutes shall elapse before the next CRP test is commenced. Ibu Pejabat JKR. until the rate of settlement is reduced to less than 0.O. 10.2Maintained Load Test The Maintained Load Test shall be carried out as follows :i) the full test load on a pile shall be twice the design load noted on the Drawings and it shall be applied in twelve equal increments. At least twelve readings of settlements and their Cawangan Jalan.5.O. the load and the maximum settlement. At least two hours shall elapse between the addition of each load increment.O.11.7 Interpretation of Test Results The S.6 Submission of Results Full test data and results shall be jointly signed by the S. Settlement readings shall be made immediately after and before every load increment is applied or removed. The test pile shall then be unloaded in four equal increments at one hour intervals until the full load is removed. 10. The rate of movement of each pile to be tested shall be agreed upon with the S. three cycles of pile loading test at a constant rate of penetration shall be carried out to a full test load equal to twice the design load.11. 10. prior to the start of the test. the pile so tested shall be deemed to have failed if :i) the residual settlement after removal of the test load exceeds 6. K. ii) for the CRP test. the load shall gradually be released and at least four readings of settlement and their corresponding loads shall be made during the unloading process. After attaining a test load equal to twice the design load. The rate of loading shall be such that a constant rate of penetration is maintained throughout the test insofar as is practicable. These are to be plotted as time-settlement graphs.L i) for the Maintained Load Test.11. Unless otherwise specified.50 mm.e. for each stage of loading. the maximum load reached and a graph of load against penetration.11.5.25 mm/hour and slowing down.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works corresponding loads shall be made in the loading process.'s representative and the Contractor's authorised agent immediately upon completion of the test. i. the period for which the load was held. The settlement obtained when the load has been completely released shall also be recorded. or Page 269 .3Constant Rate of Penetration (CRP) Test For each pile load test.

The failure load (i. 10. or 10% of pile diameter/width whichever is the lower value. The loading pedestal shall be short to ensure stability.50 mm.O. except that what is understood as single test piles in these Sub-Sections shall mean a group of test piles for bakau piles. The load testing of bakau piles shall be carried out on a group of nine bakau piles. Cawangan Jalan. loadtime and load-settlement. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0 mm. made up of three rows of piles. The load shall be applied centrally on to the steel plate. K.25 mm per hour. Graphs of time-settlement. For each increment of load. ultimate load) is that load at which the piles continue to settle at a constant rate without further increase of applied load. or iii) the total settlement under twice the Working Load exceeds 38.L Page 270 . all relevant Sub-Sections stated hereinbefore shall apply to the load testing of bakau piles.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Standard Specification For Road Works Bakau piles shall be tested to failure by the Maintained Load Test as described hereinbefore. shall be plotted and submitted to the S. with all records of the readings. The load at each increment shall be maintained at a constant value throughout the test.O. An approved reinforced concrete pile cap with a loading pedestal shall be cast centrally over the group of piles to be tested. ii) the total settlement under the Working Load exceeds 12.11. The load on the pile group shall be applied in 2 to 4 equal increments as directed by the S.8 Load Testing of Bakau Piles In general. and it shall have an approved mild steel bearing plate cast on top.e. until the failure load is reached. to a suitable scale. the settlement readings shall be recorded at 15 minute intervals until the rate of settlement is less than 0. three in a row.

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