David G. Havard, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Havard Engineering Inc.

January 12, 2010 Conductors and Accessories WG Meeting Disney Contemporary Resort Orlando, FL

Examples of conductor fatigue Conductor types Clamp types Fretting behaviour in stranded conductors Design tools Aeolian vibration Assessment of vibration severity on actual lines Determination of fatigue endurance capability Examples of conductor fatigue data Evaluation of conductor residual life Conductor and clamp types lacking fatigue data

•Conductor fatigue occurs when wind induced vibration is not controlled •Fatigue damage occurs most often next to the suspension clamp •Fatigue usually takes many years to become apparent •Steel core can fail by overheating after aluminum layers are separated Fatigue failure of a conductor next to a metal clamp

EXAMPLE OF FATIGUE DAMAGE Conductor fatigue damage visible at a clamp due to aeolian vibration after five years service • Showing the conductor after removing the clamp • Damage locations are at both ends of the keeper • Includes damage in the second layer .

TYPICAL CONDUCTOR CONFIGURATIONS Conductors comprise layers of strands wound in alternate directions around a central "king" wire The conductor size is chosen to suit electrical and mechanical requirements The conductor cost is up to about 40% of total capital investment. The most common conductor type is ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) The ratio of steel to aluminum areas vary widely .

SOME SPECIAL CONDUCTORS Trapezoidal Z-shaped compact Self-damping Expanded Optical Ground Wire TP conductor .

minor loss of conductivity) – Annealed aluminum (ACSS) (low tensile and fatigue strengths) .COMMON CONDUCTOR MATERIALS Core: – Mainly galvanized steel (sometimes greased) – Some aluminized steel – Aluminum alloy 6201-T6 – “Composite” Outer layers: – Electrical grade aluminum (high conductivity. low strength) – Aluminum alloy (higher strength.

above or at the conductor axis to allow rotation in the plane of the conductor .SOME CHARACTERISTICS METAL SUSPENSION CLAMPS The ideal profile of the clamp body follows the natural curvature of the conductor The ends of the clamp body and the keeper must be rounded to avoid indenting the conductor The clamp incorporates a pivot either below.

OTHER SUSPENSION CLAMPS Armor grip suspension (AGS) – Elastomeric bushing with cage of preformed rods Metal clamp with elastomeric insert Special river crossing clamp – Long saddle to reduce contact stress .

CONTACT AREAS BETWEEN ROUND STRANDS Fatigue of conductors is due to microslip movements of wires inducing fretting fatigue The phenomenon is complex and its exact modelling has yet to be completed Fatigue of conductors is due to microslip movements of wires Contact areas between round strands are elliptical Fretting and microslip occur in these contact areas Fatigue cracks develop out of these contact areas Fatigue cracks can occur on top and on bottom of the strand in the second layer .

CONTACT AREAS BETWEEN TRAPEZOIDAL STRANDS Contact areas between trapezoidal strands are diamond shaped Stress levels are lower between trapezoidal strands Poorly formed trap wire can have small contact areas and higher stresses The knowledge on fatigue performance of conductors mostly relies on results of laboratory tests made on conductors in fixed short metallic clamps It is not possible at the moment to determine the fatigue endurance of a conductor alone There is a wide diversity of design and geometry of conductors and supports .

DESIGN TOOLS: AEOLIAN VIBRATIONS AND CONDUCTOR FATIGUE There is no analytical solution that will predict fatigue of conductor-clamp systems due to the complex fatigue process and the variety of conductors and clamps Approximate engineering solutions have been developed and serve as reliable design tools When applied correctly. they lead to an acceptable level of control of the vibration to avoid fatigue The CIGRÉ report includes a review of those design tools and gives to the transmission line engineer a clear indication of the limits to their application .

PREDICTION OF AEOLIAN VIBRATION AMPLITUDES Many utilities have their own design rules (for number of dampers) based on past experience Vibration severity can also be measured on existing lines A useful analytical approach is the "Energy Balance Principle“ (EBP) The EBP leads to an estimate of conductor vibration amplitude based on equating the energy input from the wind with the energy absorption (damping) of the conductor and dampers The EBP can also be used for the direct design of the damping system for a new line The estimate of the expected vibratory motion from EBP is considered an upper bound and is therefor a safe value .

LIMITATIONS ON THE USE OF EBP "The strains predicted by the different researchers exhibit considerable variability. No 223.28-36 . December 2005.11. Greater accuracy can be obtained by evaluating damper dissipation on laboratory span rather than on the shaker" Ref: "Modelling of aeolian vibrations of a single conductor plus damper: assessment of technology " CIGRÉ TF B2. It should be used with circumspection and be supplemented by references to field experience. pp. Nevertheless analytical methods based on the EBP and shaker-based technology can provide a useful tool for use in design of damping systems for the protection of single conductors against aeolian vibrations. Electra.01.

CONDUCTOR PROFILE DURING AEOLIAN VIBRATION Parameters describing conductor vibration include: Bending amplitude Yb. Wave length λ and Loop length ℓ This representation applies to metal clamps. not to elastomer lined clamps . Free loop amplitude ymax Bending angle β.

MEASUREMENT OF CONDUCTOR MOTIONS The bending amplitude Yb is the most practical field measurement : The peak to peak displacement of the conductor at 89 mm (3.5 inch) from the last point of contact with the clamp Recommended by IEEE in 1966 (also in the 2007 revision IEEE P1368) Recommended in CIGRÉ SC22 WG04 1979 and SC22 WG11 TF02 1995 .

MEASUREMENT OF CONDUCTOR MOTIONS Ontario Hydro Recorder ALCOA Scolar III Vibrec 400 Vibration recorders sample conductor vibration for a few seconds every 15 minutes Each record is summarized as the maximum peak to peak amplitude and the average frequency The records are stored for subsequent analysis Pavica .

.ANALYTICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FATIGUE PHENOMENON σa = 4 e − px − 1 + px ( Ea d p 2 ) Yb p= H EI An idealized bending stress in the top-most outer-layer strand in the plane of the last point of contact) is calculated from the bending amplitude (Poffenberger-Swart formula) Ea: modulus of elasticity of outer wire material (N/mm2) d: diameter of outer layer wire (mm) H: conductor tension at average temperature during test period (N) EI: sum of flexural rigidities of individual wires in the cable (N mm2) x: distance from the point of measurement to the last point of contact between the clamp and the conductor.

mm2) . which is the vibration parameter often measured in indoor test spans Ea: Young’s modulus for the outer-layer strand material (N/mm2) d: diameter of outer layer wire (mm) f: frequency of the motion (Hz) m: conductor mass per unit length (kg/m) EI: sum of flexural rigidities of individual wires in the cable (N.ANALYTICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FATIGUE PHENOMENON σ a = π d Ea m fymax EI The same idealized bending stress can be derived from the free loop amplitude. ymax.

5 2m Suspension clamp End clamp Turnbuckle • Constant amplitude excitation • Measurement of the bending amplitude Yb and/or the free loop amplitude ymax • Most tests with conductors supported in short metallic clamps • Clamps usually held in a fixed position on the test bench .LABORATORY FATIGUE TESTS ― RESONANT TYPE TEST BENCHES Pneumatic tensioning system Dynamometer Amplitude measuring system Rubber dampers Wire break detection Slider 2m Vibrator Active length : 7 m 5.

5 MPa for single-layer ACSR – 8.5 MPa for multi-layer ACSR .FATIGUE ENDURANCE DATA The results of fatigue tests ultimately lead to the presentation of a fatigue (S-N) curve Note scatter in the data The endurance limit is determined at 500 megacycles Idealized bending stress at conductor surface vs megacycles to failure Endurance limits – 22.




04 5.65 5.CONDUCTOR ENDURANCE LIMITS (IN METAL CLAMPS) CONDUCTOR TYPE ALL ALUMINUM ALL 5005 ALLOY ALL ALDREY or 6201 ACSR (Except 7/1) ACSR (7/1) COPPER (Cu) COPPERWELD (Cw) 6 Cu/1 Cw 2 Cu/1 Cw EHS Steel (Galv) EHs Steel (Aluminized) ALUMOWELD ENDURANCE LIMIT σa ksi 3.66 3.18 3.08 5.71 10.08 5.19 3.58 fymax in/sec 5.08 5.43 4.19 5.61 3.19 2.08 27.87 .85 19.82 15.19 3.58 19.87 3.39 4.04 3.16 10.

EVALUATION OF CONDUCTOR RESIDUAL LIFE (CIGRÉ) Based on Cumulative damage theory (Miner’s rule) Total damage D at several stress levels σi cumulates linearly: D = Σ ni/Ni Failure is predicted when D = Σ ni/Ni =1 The accuracy of the resulting estimate of lifetime is between 50% and 200% .

IEEE P1368.RULE OF THUMB APPROACH TO INTERPRETING FATIGUE DATA (IEEE) Widely used set of empirical criteria (“Guide for Aeolian Vibration Field Measurements of Overhead Conductors”. 2007) The bending amplitude may exceed the endurance limit during no more than 5% of total cycles No more than 1% of total cycles may exceed 1.5 time the endurance limit No cycle may exceed 2 times the endurance limit .

CONDUCTOR AND CLAMP TYPES LACKING FATIGUE DATA The extrapolation of fatigue data available to other types of conductors or to different types of support is not recommended Bending amplitude method is valid only for armored or unarmored conductors fitted with solid metal-to-metal clamps Not valid for cushioned clamps (armored or unarmored) Little test data for conductors except ACSR and aluminum alloys Some data for ACSR conductors with armor rods There is a need for more published data on conductor fatigue .

Second Edition. 2007 “EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind–Induced Conductor Motion”. 2006 “Guide for Aeolian Vibration Field Measurements of Overhead Conductors”.CONDUCTOR FATIGUE . (The Orange Book).SOURCES “Engineering Guidelines Relating to Fatigue Endurance Capability of Conductor/Clamp Systems”. Chapter 3 Fatigue of Conductors. CIGRÉ Technical Brochure No. 2007 (a revision of IEEE 1966 Report) . 332. IEEE P1368.

Tel: 1-905-273-3076 Fax: 1-905-273-5402 E-Mail: dhavard@rogers.com Web Page: www. Ontario Canada.com Address: 3142 Lindenlea Drive Mississauga.SPEAKER’S CONTACT INFORMATION President: Havard Engineering Inc.havardengineering . L5C 2C2 .

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