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ABERDEEN DRILLING SCHOOLS
& Well Control Training Centre
ILL N DR IN G SC
OL S •
for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
1982 - 2002
LC & WEL
TRAINING MANUAL 2002 REVISED EDITION
ABERDEEN DRILLING SCHOOLS & Well Control Training Centre
for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
50 Union Glen, Aberdeen, AB11 6ER SCOTLAND U.K. Tel: (01224) 572709 Fax: (01224) 582896 e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
V4 Rev March 2002
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording without the written permission of the copyright holder, application for which should be addressed to: Aberdeen Drilling Schools Ltd., 50 Union Glen, Aberdeen, AB11 6ER. Such written permission must also be obtained before any part of this publication is stored in a retrieval system of any nature. Brand names, company names, trademarks, or other identifying symbols appearing in illustrations and/or text are used for educational purposes only and do not constitute an endorsement by the author or publisher. Illustrations have been included in this document with the kind permission of Cooper Cameron UK Ltd, Shaffer A Varco Co and Hydril UK Ltd.
V4 Rev March 2002
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
Introduction 1 1 Fundamental Principles of Well Control Causes of Kicks Kick Indicators Shut-in Procedures Methods of Well Control Well Control Equipment Inspection, Testing and Sealing Components Surface BOP Control Systems Subsea BOP Control Systems and Marine Riser Systems Formulae, Conversion Factors & Glossary of Terms
2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7
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The objective of this manual is to provide a good understanding of the fundamentals of Well Control that can be applied to most Well Control operations. In all cases, minimising the kick volume and closing the well in is our first priority. We have tried, as far as possible, to avoid using specialist terms and iconography. This manual describes industry recognised standards and practices and basic Well Control procedures. They differ from our advanced Well Control methods which tend to be well, formation, or rig specific. The manual covers the guidelines found in API 16E, API 53 and API 59 along with the International Well Control Forum syllabus. It also covers the basic requirements for IADC WellCap Certification at all levels. All Well Control principles rely upon an understanding that good planning and early recognition and close in, is the best form of Well Control. Not all kicks are swabbed kicks, many wells are drilled into unknown formation. It is recognised that equipment can fail despite all the correct procedures being followed. This is why you will find the equipment section comprehensive and useful for general trouble shooting ideas.
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SECTION 1 :
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL
1. 0 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 1. 9 1. 10 1. 11 1.12
Objectives General Information Hydrostatic Pressure Formation Pressure Normal Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Formation Fracture Pressure Leak-off Tests Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure - MAASP Casing Setting Depths Circulating Pump Pressure Choke Line Friction Workshop 1
1 1 3 4 4 7 12 14 21 21 23 25 30
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FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL
The objectives of this section are to introduce the Fundamental Principles of Well Control.
1.1 GENERAL INFORMATION
The function of Well Control can be conveniently subdivided into three main categories, namely PRIMARY WELL CONTROL, SECONDARY WELL CONTROL and TERTIARY WELL CONTROL. These categories are briefly described in the following paragraphs. Primary Well Control It is the name given to the process which maintains a hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore greater than the pressure of the fluids in the formation being drilled, but less than formation fracture pressure. If hydrostatic pressure is less than formation pressure then formation fluids will enter the wellbore. If the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the wellbore exceeds the fracture pressure of the formation then the fluid in the well could be lost. In an extreme case of lost circulation the formation pressure may exceed hydrostatic pressure allowing formation fluids to enter into the well. An overbalance of hydrostatic pressure over formation pressure is maintained, this excess is generally referred to as a trip margin. Secondary Well Control If the pressure of the fluids in the wellbore ( i.e. mud) fail to prevent formation fluids entering the wellbore, the well will flow. This process is stopped using a “blow out preventer” to prevent the escape of wellbore fluids from the well. This is the initial stage of secondary well control. Containment of unwanted formation fluids.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Tertiary Well Control Tertiary well control describes the third line of defence. We could also include operations like stripping or snubbing in the hole. Hole in drill string. Lost circulation. ‘Unusual well control operations’ listed below are considered under this term:a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) A kick is taken with the kick off bottom. The drill pipe plugs off during a kill operation. or drilling relief wells. 1-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . There is no pipe in the hole. Where the formation cannot be controlled by primary or secondary well control (hydrostatic and equipment). Gas percolation without gas expansion. The point to remember is "what is the well status at shut in?" This determines the method of well control. However in well control it is not always used as a qualitative term. Plugged and stuck off bottom. An underground blowout for example. Excessive casing pressure.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.052.1 Different shaped vessels Since the pressure is measured in psi and depth is measured in feet. A fluid weighing 1 ppg is therefore equivalent to 7.48 lbs –––––––– = 144 sq.052 Hydrostatic Pressure psi = Density in ppg X 0.052 psi 12" 12" Figure 1. TVD Figure 1. The conversion factor is 0.052 psi/ft per lb/gal is derived as follows: A cubic foot contains 7.48 lbs/cu. its shape is unimportant.052 X True Vert. Pressure Gradient psi/ft = Fluid Density in ppg X 0. it is convenient to convert mud weights from pounds per gallon ppg to a pressure gradient psi/ft.ft The pressure exerted by one foot of that fluid over the area of the base would be: 7.2 Area definition of a cubic foot V4 Rev March 2002 12" 1-3 . Hydrostatic Pressure = Fluid Density x True Vertical Depth Note: It is the vertical height/depth of the fluid column that matters.ins 0. Depth The Conversion factor 0.48 US gallons.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Hydrostatic pressure is defined as the pressure due to the unit weight and vertical height of a column of fluid.
normally between 0. 1-4 V4 Rev March 2002 . The North Sea area pore pressure averages 0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Example: The Pressure Gradient of a 10 ppg mud = = 10 x 0. The magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure gradient is affected by the concentration of dissolved solids (salts) and gases in the formation water. In the absence of accurate data.433 = Pressure Gradient psi/ft Pressure Gradient psi/ft Pounds per Cubic Foot ÷ 144 = 1. the normal formation pressure gradient in any area will be equal to the hydrostatic pressure gradient of the water occupying the pore spaces of the subspace formations in that area. Dividing this pressure by the true vertical depth gives an average pressure gradient of the formation fluid.465 psi/ft which is the average pore pressure gradient in the Gulf of Mexico is often taken to be the “normal” pressure gradient.465 psi/ft. Thus.4 NORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE Normal Formation Pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure of water extending from the surface to the subsurface formation.452 psi/ft.433 psi/ft and 0. 1.052 0. Note: The point at which atmospheric contact is established may not necessarily be at sea-level or rig site level.52 psi/ft Conversion constants for other mud weight units are: Specific Gravity x 0. Increasing the dissolved solids (higher salt concentration) increases the formation pressure gradient whilst an increase in the level of gases in solution will decrease the pressure gradient. 0.3 FORMATION PRESSURE Formation pressure or pore pressure is said to be normal when it is caused solely by the hydrostatic head of the subsurface water contained in the formations and there is pore to pore pressure communication with the atmosphere.
478 Gradient (SG) 1. Figure 1. USA Some area of Gulf of Mexico Example area Rocky Mountains and Midcontinent. However. Salinity varies with depth and formation type. Fresh water (zero salinity) has a pressure gradient of 0.44 psi/ft) to saturated saline (0.515 psi/ft may exist in formations adjacent to salt formations where the formation water is completely salt-saturated. formation water density may vary from slightly saline (0. the average value of normal formation pressure gradient may not be valid for all depths.452 0.000 ppm sodium chloride (common salt) at a temperature of 25°C.433 psi/ft.3 Average Normal Formation Pressure Gradients Formation Water Fresh water Brackish water Salt water Salt water Salt water Salt water Pressure psi/ft 0. For instance.10 Most sedimentary basins worldwide North Sea. 0. in the absence of accurate data.465 0.442 0. The following table gives examples of the magnitude of the normal formation pressure gradient for various areas.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL For example. In formations deposited in an offshore environment. Therefore.02 1. South China Sea Gulf of Mexico.01 1. Temperature also has an effect as hydrostatic pressure gradients will decrease at higher temperatures due to fluid expansion.465 psi/ft. USA V4 Rev March 2002 1-5 .438 0. it is possible that local normal pressure gradients as high as 0.465 psi/ft is often taken to be the normal pressure gradient.00 1. formation water with a salinity of 80.04 1.433 0.07 1.515 psi/ft). has a pressure gradient of 0.
1978) 1-6 V4 Rev March 2002 .4 Porosity % 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1000 2000 Depth (metres) Permian Pennsylvania and Oklahoma (Athy) Lias Germany (Won Engelwardt) 3000 Miocene and Pliocene Po Valley (Storer) Tertiary Gulf Coast (Dickinson) 4000 Tertiary Japan (Magara) Joides 5000 Reduction in clay porosity as a function of depth (modified from Magara.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Figure 1.
Compaction reduces the pore space in shale. If the balance between the rate of compaction and fluid expulsion is disrupted such that fluid removal is impeded then fluid pressures within the shale will increase. As a result. More than 50% of the total volume of uncompacted clay-mud may consist of water in which it is laid.5 ABNORMAL PRESSURE Every pressure which does not conform with the definition given for normal pressure is abnormal. Coarse-grained.4. shale has a high porosity. The inability of shale to expel water at a sufficient rate results in a much higher porosity than expected for the depth of shale burial in that area. water must be removed from the shale before further compaction can occur. See Fig 1. The principal causes of abnormal pressures are:1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.5a Quality of reservoir permeability. Figure 1. as compaction continues water is squeezed out. hydrocarbons may also be flushed from the shale. well sorted Good permeability Fine Grained Poorly-sorted Poor permeability V4 Rev March 2002 1-7 . a gradual reduction in porosity accompanied by a loss of formation water occur as the thickness and weight of the overlaying sediments increase.1 Under-compaction in shales When first deposited.5. Not all of the expelled liquid is water. During normal compaction.
and very coarse .5c WATER ESCAPE CURVE (SCHEMATIC) WATER AVAILABLE FOR MIGRATION % WATER 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 SEDIMENT SURFACE PORE WATER PORE AND INTERLAYER WATER EXPULSION 1st DEHYDRATION AND LATTICE WATER STABILITY ZONE WATER CONTENT OF SHALES BURIAL DEPTH (SCHEMATIC) INTERLAYER WATER LATTICE WATER STABILITY ZONE 2nd DEHYD'N STAGE 3rd DEHYDRATION STAGE 'NO MIGRATION LEVEL' INTERLAYER WATER ISOPLETH DEEP BURIAL WATER LOSS Water Distribution Curves for Shale Dehydration 1-8 V4 Rev March 2002 .grained Coarse .and medium .grained Silty Clayey PERMEABILITY (md) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 POROSITY % The relationship between permeability and porosity (from Chilingar.5b 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 2 1 Coarse .grained Fine .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Figure 1. 1964) Figure 1.
Figure 1. thereby exerting pressures equal to the overburden load in all directions.2 Salt Beds Continuous salt depositions over large areas can cause abnormal pressures. Its properties of pressure transmission are more like fluids than solids.3 Mineralisation The alteration of sediments and their constituent minerals can result in variations of the total volume of the minerals present. Salt is totally impermeable to fluids and behave plastically. An increase in the volume of these solids will result in an increased fluid pressure. In normal pressure environments water is expelled from clays as they are being compacted with increasing overburden pressures.6 EXTENSION EXTENSION COMPRESSION COMPRESSION COMPRESSION COMPRESSION Amount of Shortening POSSIBLE OVERPRESSURED ZONES Abnormal Formation Pressures caused by Tectonic Compressional Folding V4 Rev March 2002 1-9 . with a volume increase of around 35%. 1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.5. An example of this occurs when anhydrite is laid down. 1. If however an additional horizontal compacting force squeezes the clays laterally and if fluids are not able to escape at a rate equal to the reduction in pore volume the result will be an increase in pore pressure.5. It deforms and flows by recrystallisation. its structure changes to become gypsum.4 Tectonic Causes Is a compacting force that is applied horizontally in subsurface formations. The fluids in the underlying formations cannot escape as there is no communication to the surface and thus the formations become over pressured. If it later takes on water crystallisation.5.
Trap nomenclature (a) in a simple structural trap and (b) in stratigraphic traps. This upthrust disturbs the normal layering of sediments and over pressures can occur due to the folding and faulting of the intruded formations. IMPERVIOUS SHALE GAS OIL WATER This is a trap resulting from faulting in which the block on the right has moved up with respect to the one on the left. Formation slippage may bring a permeable formation laterally against an impermeable formation preventing the flow of fluids. Nonsealing faults may allow fluids to move from a deeper permeable formation to a shallower formation. while the size of the trap on the right is self-limiting.6 Diapirism A salt diapirism is an upward intrusion of salt to form a salt dome. In a reservoir in which a high relief structure contains oil or gas.5. 1 .10 V4 Rev March 2002 . If the shallower formation is sealed then it will be pressurised from the deeper zone.7 1. Cap Rock Gas Oil Water Water Salt Figure 1. Abnormally high pressures can develop in normally compacted rocks.5 Faulting Faults may cause abnormally high pressures. Figure 1.5.7 Reservoir Structure Salt domes often deform overlying rocks to form traps like the one shown here.5. Note that the size of the stratigraphic trap on the left is limited only by its petroleum content.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.9a WATER Figure1. an abnormally high pressure gradient as measured relative to surface will exist as shown in the following fig: a OIL Oil-Water Contact (OWC) Gas-Oil Contact (GOC) Gas Oil Water Spill Point Closure b Gas Water Gas Oil Figure 1. Anticline differs from a dome in being long and narrow.9b Gas-Water Contact (GWC) Gas-Oil Contact (GOC) An anticlinal type of folded structure is shown here.8 1.
5.11 V4 Rev March 2002 1 .5.11 .9 Typical hydrocarbon seals versus percentage of world total Types of seals and percentage of world’s petroleum occurrence for each.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1. 75% 1% 2% 3% 3% 7% 9% Anticlines Faults Salt Diapirs Unconformity Reef Other Stratigraphic Combination Structural Traps Stratigraphic Traps Combination Traps Figure 1. Major types of oil traps and percentage of world’s petroleum occurrence for each.10 1. 65% 33% 2% Shale Evaporite (salt) Carbonate (limestone & dolomite) Figure 1.8 Typical types of hydrocarbon traps versus percentage of world total.
These two factors combine to produce what is known as the overburden pressure.1000 ft 1000’ 6 GAS GRADIENT = 0. NORMAL COMPACTION Abnormally High Pressure Due to Hydrocarbon Column 0 1. Assuming the average density of a thick sedimentary sequence to be the equivalent of 19.6 FORMATION FRACTURE PRESSURE In order to plan to drill a well safely it is necessary to have some knowledge of the fracture pressures of the formation to be encountered. Abnormal Gradient at top Sand 2690 psi ––––––– = 0. the formation would break down as fracture was initiated.12 V4 Rev March 2002 . If wellbore pressures were to equal or exceed this fracture pressure.10 psi/ft Normal pressure at the Gas-Water contact . loss of hydrostatic pressure and loss of primary control. Less Gas Column Pressure = 0.0 psi/ft Since the degree of compaction of sediments is known to vary with depth the gradient is not constant.12 1 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.10 x 1000’ = 100 psi 3. Pressure at top of Sand = 2690 psi 4 4. The maximum volume of any uncontrolled influx to the wellbore depends on the fracture pressure of the exposed formations. above the zone of interest.465 x 6000’ = 2790 psi WATER 7 8 9 Figure 1. followed by loss of mud.2 = 1.538 psi/ft 5000 ft 5 DEPTH . Fracture pressures are related to the weight of the formation matrix (Rock) and the fluids (water/oil) occupying the pore space within the matrix.052 x 19.2 ppg then the overburden gradient is given by: 0. Pressure on the Gas-Water Contact 1 = 2790 psi 2.
445 = 667. since the sediments tend to be more compacted.93 psi/ft) Total Overburden 12000 psi (1. See Fig 1. however the overburden gradients at shallow depths will be much less than 1.13 V4 Rev March 2002 1 .5 psi (0.445 = 667.5 psi 1500 ft Pressure due to overburden 3000 x 1.0 psi/ft.5 psi (0. This makes surface casing seats in offshore wells much more vulnerable to break down and is the reason why shallow gas kicks should never be shut in.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Onshore.0 = 10500 psi 12000 ft Total Overburden 11167.13 Fracture Gradient Comparisons (for illustration purposes only) A B 0 ft Hydrostatic due to sea water 1500 x 0.0 = 1500 psi 3000 ft Total Overburden 2167.13 . Offshore.0 psi/ft due to the effect of the depth of seawater and large thicknesses of unconsolidated sediment.0 psi/ft) Figure 1. the overburden gradient can be taken as being close to 1.0 = 12000 psi Pressure due to overburden 10500 x 1.0 psi/ft) C 0 ft Hydrostatic due to sea water 1500 x 0.0 = 3000 psi Pressure due to overburden 1500 x 1.723 psi/ft) Total Overburden 3000 psi (1.5 psi D 1500 ft Pressure due to overburden 12000 x 1.
7. The upper pressure limit should be determined. gauges should be checked for accuracy. Circulate and condition the mud. Line up cement pump and flush all lines to be used for the test.10 ft of new formation. Leak-off tests should normally be taken to this leak-off pressure unless it exceeds the pressure to which the casing was tested. where the pressure is only increased to a predetermined limit. 1. lost to the formation.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1. 5) 6) 7) 8) 1 . Bleed off the pressure and establish the amounts of mud. With the well closed in. 1) 2) 3) 4) The casing should be tested prior to drilling out the shoe. exposing 5 . check mud density in and out. Drill out the shoe and cement. if any.14 V4 Rev March 2002 . the cement pump is used to pump a small volume at a time into the well typically a 1/4 or 1/2 bbl per min. In some instances as when drilling development wells this might not be necessary and a formation competency test. The test is performed by applying an incremental pressure from the surface to the closed wellbore/casing system until it can be seen that fluid is being injected into the formation. Monitor the pressure build up and accurately record the volume of mud pumped. It provides the basic data needed for further fracture calculations and it also tests the effectiveness of the cement job. Close BOPs.1 Leak-Off Test Procedure: Before starting.7 LEAK-OFF TESTS The leak-off test establishes a practical value for the input into fracture pressure predictions and indicates the limit of the amount of pressure that can be applied to the wellbore over the next section of hole drilled. Plot pressure versus volume of mud pumped. might be all that is required. Stop the pump when any deviation from linearity is noticed between pump pressure and volume pumped. Pull the bit inside the casing.
15 .14b and 1. a) Unconsolidated Formations b) Consolidated Permeable Formations PRESSURE CUMULATIVE VOLUME PRESSURE CUMULATIVE VOLUME c) Consolidated Impermeable Formations Final Pumping Pressure After Each Volume Increment Final Static Pressure After Each Volume Increment Leak-off Point PRESSURE CUMULATIVE VOLUME IDEALISED LEAK-OFF TEST CURVES Figure 1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL EXAMPLES OF LEAK-OFF TEST PLOT INTERPRETATION In non-consolidated or highly permeable formations fluid can be lost at very low pressures.14a will be obtained.14c show typical plots for consolidated permeable and consolidated impermeable formations respectively. In this case the pressure will fall once the pump has been stopped and a plot such as that shown in Fig 1. Figs 1.14 V4 Rev March 2002 1 .
Pump 1/4 bbl . Pump 1/4 bbl . be assured bit nozzles are clear. Continue this slow pumping. 1 . close choke/kill valves. Install circulating head on DP. g. perform leak-off as follows: 1. Position and set motion compensator. Upon drilling float equipment. Graph 1. d. have “handy” a piece of graph paper (see graph 1 ). Record pressure at 1/4 bbl increments until two points past leak-off. overpull drillpipe (+/. This test is not designed to break down or fracture the formation. 1/4 or 1/2 BPM). e.10. Be assured mud weight in and mud weight out balance for most accurate results. Utilising the high pressure cement pumping unit. Close pipe rams. clean out rat hole and drill 15 ft of new hole. Pump 1/4 bbl . Test lines to 2500 psi. Allow pressure to stabilize.) Upon two points above leak-off.16 V4 Rev March 2002 . 2. 3. Stop pumping when circulation established.record/plot pressure on graph paper.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Working example of leak-off test procedure (floating rigs) “Operational Drilling Procedures for Floating Rigs” is designed to determine the equivalent mud weight at which the formation will accept fluid. Pull bit up to just above casing shoe.record/plot pressure on graph paper.000 lbs). Record this stabilized standing pressure (normally will stabilize after 15 mins or so).e.record/plot pressure on graph paper.record/plot pressure on graph paper. pencil and straight edge (ruler). (See examples. This test is normally performed at each casing shoe. a. 6. Break circulation with cementing unit. stop pumping. 2 & 3. b. Rig up cement unit and fill lines with mud. Circulate and condition hole clean.record/plot pressure on graph paper. At a slow rate (i. pump mud down DP. c. Prior to the formation leak-off. 5. Pump 1/4 bbl . f. Pump 1/4 bbl . 4.
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Bleed back pressure into cement unit tanks. Record volume of bleed back. Set and position motion compensator, open rams. Rig down and cement unit lines. Proceed with drilling operations. Leak-off can be repeated after step 6 if data confirmation is required, otherwise leak-off test is complete.
i. j. k.
NOTE: For 20" and 13 3/8" csg leak-off tests, plot pressure every 1/2 bbl. Results will be the same. It should be noted that in order to obtain the proper leak-off and pumping rate plot, it will be necessary to establish a continuous pump rate at a slow rate in order to allow time to read the pressure and plot the point on the graph. (Barrels pumped vs. pressure - psi), normally 1/2 BPM is sufficient time. A pressure gauge of 0-2000 psi with 20 or 25 increments is recommended. NOTE: In the event Standing Pressure is lower than leak-off point. Use standing pressure to calculate equivalent mud weight. Always note volume of mud bled back into tanks.
1.7.2 Formation Breakdown Pressure (psi) = hydrostatic pressure of mud in casing + applied surface pressure = (mud wt. x constant x vert shoe depth) + surface pressure The formation breakdown pressure can be expressed as a GRADIENT. Formation Breakdown Pressure (psi) Formation Breakdown Gradient (psi/ft) = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Vert. Shoe Depth (ft) The formation breakdown gradient expressed as a maximum allowable mud weight: Maximum Allowable Mud Weight (ppg) = Formation Breakdown Gradient (psi/ft) ÷ 0.052 or Formation Breakdown Pressure (psi) Maximum Allowable Mud Weight (ppg) = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ÷ 0.052 Vert Shoe Depth (ft)
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Graph 1.1 Formation Pressure Test Work Sheet
SURFACE TEST PRESSURE - PSI
NOTE: Commence measuring volume NOTE: after pressuring up to 200 psi NOTE: Pump at a 0.3 BPM rate and NOTE: plot pressures and volumes NOTE: (BBL's MUD)
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
BARRELS MUD PUMPED
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Typical Pressure Test csg set at 5000' TVD w/12 lb mud in hole.
Required Test Pressure (Equivalent to 16,0 Mud)
705 psi 5 min stabilized pressure
SURFACE TEST PRESSURE - PSI
NOTE: Commence plotting pressure NOTE: and pumped volume after NOTE: pressuring up to 200 psi
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
BARRELS MUD PUMPED
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Formation Breakdown Pressure Leak-off Pressure
Typical Pressure Plot for Formation Breakdown and Fracture Propagation
SURFACE TEST PRESSURE - PSI
NOTE: Commence plotting pressure NOTE: and pumped volume after NOTE: pressuring up to 200 psi
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
BARRELS MUD PUMPED
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1.8 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE ANNULAR SURFACE PRESSURE - MAASP.
The leak-off test was used to determine the strength of the formations below the casing shoe. The Formation Breakdown Pressure = an applied surface pressure + hydrostatic pressure of mud in the casing The applied surface pressure at which leak-off occurred is the maximum allowable annular surface pressure with the mud weight in use at that time. MAASP is the maximum surface pressure that can be tolerated before the formation at the shoe fractures. MAASP = Formation Breakdown pressure at shoe – Hydrostatic Pressure of mud in use in the casing shoe or rewritten as: MAASP = (Fracture gradient – Mud gradient) x True Vert. Shoe Depth or as: MAASP = (Max equiv. mud wt. – Mud wt. in casing) x (0.052 x True Vert. shoe depth) MAASP is only valid if the casing is full of the original mud, if the mud weight in the casing is changed MAASP must be recalculated. The calculated MAASP is no longer valid if influx fluids enter into the casing.
1.9 CASING SETTING DEPTHS
The choice of setting depths for all the casing strings is a vital part of the well planning process. An incorrect decision with the casing setting depths too shallow could have serious consequences. An unnecessarily deep setting depth could have adverse economic consequences when considering the extra time needed to drill the hole deeper and the extra amount of casing required to be run and cemented.
Seabed 30" Casing (Conductor) 36" Hole 20" Casing (Surface String.) 26" Hole
13 1/8" Casing (Intermediate String) 17 1/2" Hole
9 5/8" Casing (Production String) 12 1/4" Hole
Figure 1.15 Typical Offshore Casing Program
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7" Liner 8 1/2" Hole
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1.9.1 Deep Casing Setting Depths The selection of deeper casing setting depths will use different criteria to those used for shallow casing seats. Initial selection of the setting depth is made with reference to the anticipated lithological column, formation pressure and fracture gradient profiles. Once all the information has been collated from offset well data a plot similar to that shown in Fig 1.16 can be drawn up. By studying the geology and pressure profiles, tentative setting depths can be chosen based on the prevention of formation breakdown by mud weights in use in the subsequent hole section. See Fig 1.17. From a Well Control point of view, it is necessary to determine whether this tentative setting depth will give adequate protection against formation breakdown when a kick is taken. A kick tolerance “factor” will normally be applied.
Preferred Setting Depths Required Setting Depths
(based on lithological column) (to prevent formation fracture due to weight of mud column)
Depth x 1000 ft
Depth x 1000 ft
Proposed Mud Weight program
Pore Pressure Gradient
Pore Pressure Gradient
Pressure Gradient - lb/gal Equivalent
Pressure Gradient - lb/gal Equivalent
PRESSURE PROFILE PREDICTIONS
PRESSURE PROFILES WITH CASING SETTING DEPTHS
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1.10 CIRCULATING PUMP PRESSURE
The pressure provided by the rig pump is the sum of all of the individual pressures in the circulating systems. All the pressure produced by the pump is expended in this process, overcoming friction losses between the mud and whatever it is in contact with: • • • • Pressure loss in surface lines Pressure loss in drill-string Pressure loss across but jets Pressure loss in annulus
Pressure losses are independent of hydrostatic and imposed pressures. Pressure losses in the annulus acts as a “back pressure” on the exposed formations, consequently the total pressure at the bottom of the annulus is higher with the pump on than with the pump off. Circulating bottom hole pressure = Static bottom hole pressure + Annulus pressure losses
STATIC Formation will Kick 0 psi
CIRCULATING Formation under Control 3000 psi
Annulus Pressure Loss = 250 psi 10 ppg MUD
BHP = 5200 psi 10000’ 5300 psi Formation Pressure Figure 1.18
BHP = 5450 psi
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL The total pressure on bottom can be calculated and converted to an equivalent static mud weight which exerts the same pressure. To approximate the new circulating pump pressure: P(2) = P(1) x New Mud Weight –––––––––––––––– Original Mud Weight 12 P(2) = 3000 x ––– 10 P(2) = 3600 psi when circulating with 12 ppg mud. If the mud weight in the system was changed to 12 ppg. The pump speed is increased to 120 spm.D = Mud Wt in use + –––––––––– 0.C.052 ÷ TVD a or APL Equivalent Mud wt E.24 V4 Rev March 2002 . Note: Changing either pump speed or mud weight will affect annulus pressure losses.052 X TVD Where: APL Pmud = = Annulus Pressure Loss Hydrostatic Mud Pressure in Annulus a Circulating pressure will be affected if the pump rate or the properties of the fluid being circulated are changed. To approximate the new circulating pump pressure: P(2) = P(1) x Where:- ( New Pump Speed 2 ––––––––––––––––– Original Pump Speed ) P(1) = Original pump pressure at original pump speed. P(2) = New circulating pressure at new pump speed. Example:Assuming a circulating pump pressure is 3000 psi when pumping at 100 spm. 1 . P(2) = 3000 x ( ) 120 2 –––– 100 P(2) = 4320 psi at 120 spm Example:Assuming a circulating pump pressure in 3000 psi with a 10 ppg mud weight pumping at 100 spm. Equivalent Mud Wt (ppg) = (APL + Pmud ) ÷ 0.
Since fracture gradients generally decrease with increased water depth. which are taken while circulating up the marine riser (see Fig 1.19). To accomplish this a method must be used to keep total applied casing pressures relatively constant while bringing the mud pump to kill rate. CLFL MEASUREMENT PUMPING DOWN CHOKE LINE CLCF = 200 PSI 500 PSI SHAKERS CONVENTIONAL SCF FLOW PATH Figure 1. This excess pressure can result in serious lost circulation problems during the kill operations. a pressure loss exists when circulating through the choke due to the friction losses in the extended choke line running up from the BOP.25 . it should always be considered while planning well control operations.20 DRILL PIPE 0 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 200 PSI CHOKE SHAKERS FROM PUMP V4 Rev March 2002 1 . choke manifold pressure maintained equal to SICP until kill rate is achieved).11 CHOKE LINE FRICTION LOSSES IN SUBSEA KILL OPERATIONS Figure 1. the method used is to merely keep choke manifold pressure equal to SICP until the pump is up to speed. If the normal method of bringing pumps to kill speed is followed (that is. bottom hole pressure will be increased by an amount equal to this choke line friction loss (CLFL). correct handling of the CLFL becomes more critical as water depth increases. Beyond approximately 500 feet water depth. This pressure loss is not accounted for in normal Slow Circulating Rate (SCR) measurements. In the absence of significant CLFL (surface stacks or shallow water). It is fundamental to all standard methods of well control to maintain constant bottom hole pressure (BHP) throughout kill operations.19 In subsea situations.20) and record the pressure reading on the choke manifold gauge.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1. It is possible to measure CLFL while taking SCR’s. One simple way to do this is to pump down the choke line at reduced pump rates (taking returns up the open marine riser as is shown in Figure 1.
21 DRILL PIPE 800 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 1000 PSI CHOKE DRILL PIPE 1500 PSI Figure 1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL But when CLFL exists. as shown in Figures 1.26 V4 Rev March 2002 . if the above method were used.22 Figure 1.21 and 1.22 CHOKE MANIFOLD 1000 PSI CHOKE RETURNS CLFL 0 PSI (STATIC) SUBSEA BOP SUBSEA BOP CLFL 200 PSI (DYNAMIC) APL 0 PSI APL NEGLIGIBLE BHP 6000 PSI BHP 6200 PSI Pf = 6000 psi Ph = 5200 psi (in annulus) PUMPS OFF (kick shut in) Pf = 6000 psi Ph = 5200 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT KILL RATE HOLDING CONSTANT CHOKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE CHANGE IN BHP = 200 psi increase 1 . total applied casing pressure varies from SICP at pump start-up to SICP + CLFL with the pump at kill rate. This would cause bottom hole pressure to increase by an amount equal to CLFL.
the choke operator switches over to the drill pipe gauge and follows the drill pipe pressure graph in the usual way. BHP 6000 PSI Well shut in Pf = 6000 psi Ph = 5200 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT KILL RATE HOLDING CONSTANT KILL LINE PRESSURE READING CHANGE IN BHP = 0 psi increase V4 Rev March 2002 1 . the effect of CLFL is eliminated. No precalculated or pre-measured CLFL information is required.24. The gauge reading choke manifold pressure will show a decrease after pump is up to speed. APL NEGLIGIBLE NOTE: If the second method of handling the CLFL situation is preferred.23). it would be advisable to rig a remote kill line pressure gauge which could be seen by the choke operator. by reducing choke manifold pressure by an amount equal to a known CLFL (adjusting choke manifold pressure to SICP -CLFL). two methods exist.23 To eliminate this problem. The amount of this decrease is equal to the CLFL. SUBSEA BOP 3. 1000 PSI DRILL PIPE 1300 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 800 PSI CHOKE RETURNS KLFL 0 PSI (STATIC) CLFL 200 PSI (DYNAMIC) 2. The kill line gauge can be subsequently used like the choke manifold pressure gauge on a surface stack for the purposes of altering pump rates or problem analysis. the effect of the CLFL is negated. given a choke manifold configuration with separate pressure gauges for choke and kill lines. thus eliminating friction) as a pressure connection to a point upstream of any potential CLFL (known or unknown).27 . First. Or secondly. Once kill rate pressure has been established. This is shown in Figure 1. DRILL PIPE 1300 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 800 PSI CHOKE RETURNS CLFL 200 PSI (DYNAMIC) SUBSEA BOP APL NEGLIGIBLE BHP 6000 PSI Pf = 6000 psi Ph = 5200 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT KILL RATE WITH REDUCED CHOKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE CHANGE IN BHP = 0 psi increase Figure 1. This is accomplished by reducing the original SICP by the amount of CLFL while bringing the pumps to speed (see Figure 1.24 Note the advantages of the second method: 1. If the kill line gauge in this instance is kept constant while bringing the pump to speed. it is possible to utilise the kill line (shut off down-stream of the gauge outlet to prevent flow.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Figure 1.
just as would be the case were CLFL absent. it will be unavoidable to apply excess pressure to the bottom of the hole using standard well control procedures. CLFL is recorded on the Kick Sheet for convenience only – it is not used in kick sheet calculations. total applied casing pressure needed to maintain constant bottom hole pressure will eventually drop below CLFL.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL It is extremely important to note that regardless of which method is used. Figure 1. Thus initial and final circulating pressures.28 V4 Rev March 2002 . If this is not true. by itself or choke and kill lines together. which are read on the drill pipe gauge. It should be noted that it will only be possible to use the above recommended methods when SICP is greater than CLFL. as kill mud comes up the annulus.26 These situations can be mitigated by use of unusually slow pumping rates or by taking returns up choke and kill lines simultaneously. are unaffected by CLFL.1. Note increase in BHP due to excess CL friction. After this point. They show an example in which a static SICP of 100 psi is reduced while pumping as result of the increase in back pressure created in circulating up the choke line. Also.25 . BHP 5300 PSI Pf = 5200 psi Ph = 5100 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT 4 BBL/MIN HOLDING 0 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE CHANGE IN BHP = 100 psi increase 1 .28 illustrate this problem and methods of dealing with it. Figures 1. they both accomplish the goal of maintaining constant bottom hole pressure equal to formation pressure. drill pipe pressures will exceed planned Final Circulating Pressure in spite of having the choke wide open with no choke manifold back pressure.25 DRILL PIPE 75 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 100 PSI CHOKE SUBSEA BOP CLFL 0 PSI (STATIC) APL 0 PSI BHP 5200 PSI Pf = 5200 psi Ph = 5100 psi (in annulus) PUMPS OFF (kick shut in) FCP @ 4 bbl/min = 400 psi FCP @ 2 bbl/min = 200 psi CLFL @ 4 bbl/min = 200 psi CLFL @ 2 bbl/min = 60 psi Figure 1. DRILL PIPE 575 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 0 PSI CHOKE RETURNS CLFL 200 PSI (DYNAMIC) a SUBSEA BOP APL NEGLIGIBLE Fig 24: Pumping 4 bbl/min with choke wide open. This is done without the need to alter any calculations on the kick sheet. Several additional points should be made about CLFL.
the same effect is achieved as in fig 1. Figure 1.28 DRILL PIPE 40 PSI 475 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 40 PSI CHOKE Figure 1.CLFL Fig 1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL Fig 1.27.27 DRILL PIPE 275 PSI CHOKE MANIFOLD 40 PSI CHOKE CHOKE RETURNS CLFL 60 PSI (DYNAMIC) RETURNS KLFL 60 PSI (DYNAMIC) 2 BBL/MIN 2 BBL/MIN RETURNS CLFL 60 PSI (DYNAMIC) SUBSEA BOP SUBSEA BOP 4 BBL/MIN APL NEGLIGIBLE APL NEGLIGIBLE BHP 5200 PSI BHP 5200 PSI Pf = 5200 psi Ph = 5100 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT 2 BBL/MIN WITH REDUCED CHOKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE CHANGE IN BHP = 0 psi increase Pf = 5200 psi Ph = 5100 psi (in annulus) PUMP AT 4 BBL/MIN USING CHOKE AND KILL LINES FOR RETURN FLOW CHANGE IN BHP = 0 psi V4 Rev March 2002 1 . but at a pumping rate of 4 bbl/min.29 . BHP is held constant at SICP .28: By taking flow up choke and kill lines simultaneously.27: Pump rate reduced to bbl/min.
0. 15.5 ppg mud at 18000ft TVD/21000ft MD =_____________ c. 12000ft MD/10500ft TVD with 9000 psi =_____________ =_____________ =_____________ 2 5. a. at 4000ft with 2787 psi c.889 psi/ft mud at 11000ft MD/9000ft TVD =_____________ 2 4. Would have no effect 2 1 . Convert the following mud densities into pressure gradients. 12 ppg 2.30 V4 Rev March 2002 . Calculate the hydrostatic pressure for the following. 16 ppg c.806 psi/ft b.494 psi/ft _____________ ppg _____________ ppg _____________ ppg 2 3. _____________ psi/ft _____________ psi/ft _____________ psi/ft 2 Convert the following gradients into mud densities. a. a. A decrease in the hydrostatic gradient c.5 ppg mud at 9000ft MD/8000 ft TVD =_____________ b. 0. 0. 0. High bottom hole temperatures could affect the hydrostatic pressure gradients resulting in: a. 13.WORKSHOP 1 SCORE 1. An increase in the hydrostatic gradient b. Convert the following pressures into equivalent mud weights in PPG. 9.598 psi/ft c.5 ppg b. 3495 psi at 7000ft b. a.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 1.12 .
..... When circulating a 12 ppg mud at 10000ft ECD is 12.... 2 d.............. what will the pump pressure be? Answer.. what would pump pressure be? Answer............. 2 V4 Rev March 2002 1 ......... What is the equivalent circulating density ECD? Answer.......... 2 e......... Assuming a 10 ppg mud is being circulated at 700 GPM at a depth of 10000ft TVD/MD the circulating pump pressure is 3000 psi.. What is the annular pressure loss? Answer....................... 1200 psi 1600 psi 200 psi When circulating what is the dynamic bottom hole pressure? Answer.....31 . if the mud weight being circulated at 700 GPM was 12 ppg rather than 10 ppg............... What is the static bottom hole pressure? Answer. 2 7.3 ppg. Referring to the data given above... Will this increase in the pump speed have any effect on bottom hole pressure? Answer YES/NO 2 f.... If the circulating friction losses in the system are as follows: Pressure losses through pipe/collars Pressure loss across the bit jets Pressure loss in the annulus a..WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL SCORE 6. 2 b. 2 c............... If the pump speed is increased to give 800 GPM...
486 psi/ft........... The yield point of the mud is 12lbs/100ft2............ Calculate the pressure that one barrel of 12 ppg mud Wt exerts..... a....32 V4 Rev March 2002 . If a formation pore pressure gradient at 8500ft is 0.. Answer.Answers 1 .. collar or pipe Hole diameter Collar or pipe diameter 12.... what mud weight is required to give an over-balance of 200 psi? Answer.............. Around the drill pipe if the annular capacity is 0... The mud weight = 12 ppg.. what is the reduction in bottom hole pressure if the mud weight is 12 ppg? Answer.... 10.......... If a 12 ppg mud over-balances the formation pressure by 240 psi theoretically how far could the mud level fall before going under-balance? Answer. 2 WORKSHOP 1 ..... Use the equation given below to determine ECD........ the drill pipe is 5" with 700ft of 6 1/2" collars.. Answer.... Drilling at 12700ft with an 8 1/2" bit........ Answer... b.. 11......... Around the drill collars if the annular capacity is 0....03 bbls/ft........05 bbls/ft..............WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL SCORE 8... Annular-pressure loss = YP x L ————— 200(DH-DP) 2 2 2 2 2 4 where YP L DH DP = = = = Yield point of mud in lbs/100ft Length of annulus. If the fluid level in a well bore fell by 480ft........ 9..
624 psi/ft GRADIENT ÷ 0. 0.V. b.494 ÷ 0.V.D ÷ .5 ppg 3. d. x MUD WT x . b.052 a. b. This calculation is the same relationship as Press-Strokes-Relationship.052) + 200 10000 x 10 x . c.702 psi/ft 0.052 9000 ÷ 10500 ÷ .L.0 x 0.0 x 0.Answers 1. c. c.052 0.832 psi/ft 0.5 ppg 9. c. b.052 18000 x 15.052 16.052 a.5) 5.5 x . T.052) + A.) P x (new S.052 5400 ÷ 10000 ÷ . a.5 ppg 11.V.33 . x MUD WEIGHT x 0.D. b. c.5 x .052 a.) V4 Rev March 2002 1 .052 a. (10000ft x 10ppg x .052 12.052 3000 x (800)2 —— (700) = = = = 5400 psi 5200 psi 10. MUD WEIGHT x 0.598 ÷ 0.e.052 = = = 9.D. 6. (T. 3495 ÷ 7000 ÷ .052 = = = 15. 2.M.38 ppg 3918 psi Note d.P.052 0. b. 13. 8000 x 9.052 9000 x 0.052 2787 ÷ 4000 ÷ .6 ppg 13.4) 16.052 = = = 0. (i.P.M)2 ————— (old S. PRESS ÷ T.P.39 ppg (13.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL WORKSHOP 1 .889 = = = 3952 psi 14508 psi 8001 psi 4.48 ppg (16.806 ÷ 0.5 x 0.
12) x (10000 x .052) (12. A.P. (ECD .8 psi/bbl b.MUD WT) x (TVD x .052 = 299. PRESS .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL e.624 psi/bbl —————— .P.05 = 12.52 psi (300 psi) 10. MUD g psi/ft ——— ANN vol psi/ft a. f. = 12 x . A.L.3 x 520 156 psi 8.03 20.34 V4 Rev March 2002 .624ft 384ft 1 .48 Psi/bbl 9. = . YES PRESS x (new MUD WT) ———————— (old MUD WT) 3000 x (12) —— (10) = = = = = 3600 psi 7.624 = —— .psi ——— MUD g psi/ft = 240 = —— .L.052) .3 .052 = . 480 x 12 .
A. around D/C = 12 x 700 = 21 psi ————— 200(8.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 1 : FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WELL CONTROL 11. around D/P = TOTAL A.5 .79 ppg = (9.8 ppg) V4 Rev March 2002 1 .486 = 4131 + 200 = 4331 psi 4331 ÷ 8500 ÷ .35 .052 = 9.L. 8500 x .34 PPG 12.P.L.L.P.5-6.052 12700 ECD = 12 + ECD = 12.5) = 227psi A.5) 12 x 12000 = 206 psi —————— 200 x (8. 227 —— ÷ .P.
1 2. 2 2.SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Page 2.How it is Affected Causes of Kicks and Influxes Hydrate Formation & Prevention Function of Drilling Muds Extracts From API RP59 Workshop 2 1 1 1 6 15 17 24 31 V4 Rev March 2002 . 7 Objectives Introduction Primary Well Control. 4 2. 5 2. 0 2. 3 2. 6 2.
1 INTRODUCTION Primary control is defined as using the drilling fluid to control formation fluid pressure.0 OBJECTIVES The objectives of this section are to Highlight the Causes of Kicks and Influxes. A trip sheet is used to record the volume of mud put into the well or displaced from the well when tripping. Mud Weight Mud into and out of the well must be weighted to ensure the correct weight is being maintained to control the well. If this overbalance is lost. V4 Rev March 2002 2-1 . This task is normally carried out by the shaker man at least every thirty minutes or less. depending upon the nature of the drilling operation and/or company policy. if not immediately recognised as an influx. Definition of Kick A kick is an intrusion of unwanted fluids into the wellbore such that the effective hydrostatic pressure of the wellbore fluid is exceeded by the formation pressure. 2.HOW IT IS EFFECTED To ensure primary well control is in place the following procedures and precautions must be observed. 2.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS CAUSES OF KICKS 2. but may do. Definition of Influx An influx is an intrusion of formation fluids into the wellbore which does not immediately cause formation pressure to exceed the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the wellbore. Tripping Procedures Tripping in or out of the well must be maintained using an accurate log called a trip sheet.2 PRIMARY WELL CONTROL . particularly if the formation fluid is gas. Preventing the loss of primary control is of the utmost importance. The drilling fluid has to have a density that will provide sufficient pressure to overbalance pore pressure. A calibrated trip tank is normally used for the accurate measurement of mud volumes and changes to mud volumes while tripping. even temporarily then formation fluids can enter the wellbore. The mud weight can be increased by increasing the solid content and decreased either by dilution or the use of solids control equipment.
calculate from strokes. Total This Trip Per ___ Std.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Figure 2. Mud Weight D.P.C. If trip tank is used. Displacement D. record level of decrease. Size D. Total Comments If rig pump is used. Total Per ___ Std.P. Displacement DISPLACEMENT Theoretical Last Trip Per ___ Std.C. 2-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . Size Fluid Loss D.1 Well Name Date Depth Time Trip Started Number of Stands Trip No.
and consideration given to going back to bottom to condition the mud and investigate the cause of the problem. a given volume of mud is put into the well for the volume of steel removed. Figure 2.3 Figure 2.e. then tripping must be stopped to ensure the well is stable.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS When tripping pipe or drill collars out of the hole. THE HOLE MUST BE KEPT FULL AT ALL TIMES A full opening or safety valve should be available at all times on the drill floor together with the required crossover subs. A non-return (i. V4 Rev March 2002 2-3 . grey) valve should also be readily available. If the volume required to fill the hole is significantly less than the volume of steel removed.2 NON RETURN SAFETY VALVE (GREY VALVE) FULL BORE OPENING SAFETY VALVE RELEASE TOOL VALVE RELEASE ROD Body Upper Seat Crank Ball VALVE SEAT Lower Seat VALVE SPRING Trip Margin (Safety Factor) Trip Margin (Safety Factor) is an overbalance to compensate for the loss of ECD and to overcome the effects of swab pressures during a trip out of the hole.
5 or 10 stands should be considered. The unit carries out some of the following services: • • • • • • • 2-4 Gas detection in the mud Gas analysis Cuttings density analysis Recording mud densities in and out Recording flow line temperatures Recording penetration rates Pore Pressure Trends V4 Rev March 2002 . The following equation is used to calculate the dry pipe volume for the slug pumped: Dry Pipe Volume = Slug Volume x (Slug Weight ÷ Mud Weight .1) This dry pipe volume can be converted to Dry Pipe Length by dividing this volume by the internal capacity of the pipe as illustrated in the following equation: Dry Pipe Length = Dry Pipe Volume (bbls) ÷ Drill Pipe Capacity (bbls/ft) Mud Logging A logging unit if available is extremely important particularly with respect to well control. Flow checks are usually performed when a trip is going to take place at the following minimum places: • • • on bottom at the casing shoe before the BHA is pulled into the BOP's Short Trips/Wiper Trips In some circumstances prior to pulling out of the hole a short trip. Flow checks should be carried out with the pumps off to check the well with ECD effects removed. The well is then circulated and mud returns carefully monitored.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Flow Checks Flow checks are performed to ensure that the well is stable. Pumping a Slug of Heavy Mud This is a practice often carried out to enable the pipe to be pulled dry and the hole to be more accurately monitored during the trip.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS A typical mud logging system is illustrated in Figure 2.4 below. KELLY POSITION ROP WOB DEPTH KELLY HOSE STAND PIPE STANDPIPE PRESSURE PUMP PUMP RATE SWIVEL KELLY SUCTION SUCTION PIT FLOWLINE PIT LEVELS SHAKER CUTTINGS DENSITY SHALE SLIDE GAS QUANTITY GAS TYPE MUD TEMPERATURE RETURN MUD WEIGHT P O E CE V S A S LU IN A G T A IO N N D R • ROTARY SPEED • TORQUE G GIN OG DL MU UNIT VDU IN COMPANY REP'S OFFICE V4 Rev March 2002 2-5 .
2-6 V4 Rev March 2002 . the logging unit must likewise be informed.making sure it gives up proper amount of mud and preventing lost circulation due to surges. Trip out . Abnormal pressured formations Shallow gas sands • Special situations. • • • Swabbing during pipe movement. Insufficient mud weight. Trip in . Drill stem testing Drilling into an adjacent well Excessive drilling rate through a gas sand Surveys in the past have shown that the major portion of well control problems have occurred during trips. Swabbing. Good communication all round is essential. The potential exists for the reduction of bottom hole pressure due to: • • • Loss of ECD with pumps off.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Communication If a transfer of mud to the active system is requested the driller will be informed. 2. Alarms The high and low settings for the pit level recorder and flow line recorder must be checked and are set to appropriate values.3 CAUSES OF KICKS AND INFLUXES The most common causes of kicks are: • Improper monitoring of pipe movement (drilling assembly and casing). Loss of circulation.making sure hole takes the proper amount of mud. Reduction in fluid levels when pulling pipe and not filling the hole.
2. The hole must be kept full with a lined up trip tank that can be monitored to ensure that the hole is taking the correct amount of mud. BELL NIPPLE RETURN LINE FLOAT FILL UP LINE TANK INDICATOR PUMP Figure 2.5 CONTINUOUS CIRCULATING TRIP TANK It is of the utmost importance that drill crews properly monitor displacement and fill up volumes when tripping. This type of swabbing can have drastic effects on bottom hole pressure. A trip tank line up is shown in Fig 2. If the hole fails to take the correct mud volume.) being balled up.2 SWABBING AND SURGING Swabbing is when bottom hole pressure is reduced below formation pressure due to the effects of pulling the drill string. reamers.3. The lack of this basic practice results in a large amount of well control incidents every year. When pulling the string there will always be some variation to bottom hole pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2. Swabbing can also be caused by the full gauge down hole tools (bits. A pressure loss is caused by friction. it can be detected. If the magnitude of the reduction exceeds the trip margin or safety overbalance factor a kick may occur. core barrels. the friction between the mud and the drill string being pulled. This can create a piston like effect when they are pulled through mud. which allows an influx of formation fluids into the wellbore. etc. V4 Rev March 2002 2-7 .1 FAILURE TO KEEP THE HOLE FULL DURING A TRIP If the fluid level in the hole falls as pipe is removed a reduction in bottom hole pressure will occur.5.3. stabilisers.
Pulling Speeds Tripping speeds must be controlled to reduce the possibility of swabbing. 2-8 V4 Rev March 2002 .6 PRESSURE SURGES SWABBING ACTION Swabbing is a recognised hazard whether it is “low" volume swabbing or “high” volume swabbing. Proper monitoring of the displacement volume with the trip tank is required at all times. Surging Surging is when the bottom hole pressure is increased due to the effects of running the drill string too fast in the hole. If the influx fluid is gas it can of course migrate and expand. It is normal practice for the Mud Logger to run a swab and surge programme and to make this information available to the Driller. Down hole mud losses may occur if care is not taken and fracture pressure is exceeded while RIH. A small influx volume may be swabbed into the open hole section.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS The factors affecting swabbing and surging are: • • • • Pulling speed of pipe. The expansion may occur when there is little or no pipe left in the hole. Figure 2. Viscosity. This will provide ample information to reduce the possibility of unforeseen influx occurring. The net decrease in hydrostatics due to this low density fluid will also be small. Hole geometry. The consequences of running pipe into the hole and into swabbed gas must also be considered. Mud properties.
ft APL = Annulus Pressure Loss If swabbing has been detected and the well is not flowing a non return valve should be installed and the bit returned to bottom. Strip in to bottom. Continuous monitoring of replacement and displacement volumes is essential when performing tripping. Once back on bottom the well should be circulated and the bottoms up sample checked for contamination. (bbls/ft) . (bbls/ft)) Pulling Dry Pipe: psi/ft or dry pipe pulled = –––––––--––––––––––––--––––––––––––––– (casing cap. (bbls/ft)) V4 Rev March 2002 ( ( ) ) 2-9 . Controlling water-loss to avoid thick wall cake will also help. + cap. (bbls/ft) . (bbls/ft) Pulling Wet Pipe: psi/ft or wet pipe pulled = –––––––--–––––––-–––––-–––––––––-–––––– (casing cap. (bbls/ft)) (mud grad. check bottoms up for contamination. Circulate the well. Shut the well in. (psi/ft) x metal disp. Prepare for stripping. + cap.metal disp. Trip Margin A safety factor to provide an overbalance to compensate for swab pressure can be: Trip Margin Factor APL psi ––––––––––––––––– = ––––––––––––––––– (psi/ft) True Vert. If there is a strong flow then a kelly cock may have to be installed first. (psi/ft) x metal disp. Depth. Useful formulae for calculating the psi reduction per foot of drill pipe pulled are as follows: (mud grad. A short wiper trip and circulating the well before pulling completely out of the hole will provide useful information about swabbing and pulling speeds.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Mud Properties Controlling the rheology of mud is important.metal disp. If the well is flowing or the returns from the well are excessive when tripping in then the following should be carried out: • • • • • Install a non return valve. Flow check each stand.
2. The amount the mud column can be shortened before taking a kick from a permeable zone can be calculated by dividing the mud gradient into the overbalance at the top of the permeable kick zone. the height of the mud column is shortened. This de-watering allowed the formations to continue to compact and thereby increase their density.10 V4 Rev March 2002 . Overbalance (psi) –––––––––––––––––––––– Mud Gradient (psi/ft) H (ft) = 2. these help us detect abnormal pressures. or an increase in flow-line temperature. 2 . a decrease in shale density. If the overpressurised formations have low permeability then traces of the formation fluid should be detected in the returns after circulating bottoms up. there were adequate sands that were continuous and open into the sea or to the surface. travelled through the permeable sands and was released to the sea or to a surface outcrop.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2. In some areas.3.3. an increase in background gas or gas cutting of the mud.3 LOSS OF CIRCULATION Another cause for a kick to occur is the reduction of hydrostatic pressure through loss of drilling fluid to the formation during lost circulation. When this happens. thus decreasing the pressure on the bottom and at all other depths in the hole. If the overpressured formations have a high permeability then the risk is greater and the well should be shut-in as soon as flow is detected. Some of these warning signals are: an increased penetration rate. etc.3. This is because we had ignored the warning signals that occur. an increase in cutting size.4 INSUFFICIENT MUD WEIGHT A kick can occur if a permeable formation is drilled which has a higher pressure than that exerted by the mud column. In these areas the water squeezed from the shale formations.5 ABNORMAL PRESSURED FORMATIONS A further cause of kicks from drilling accidentally into abnormally pressured permeable zones.
Abnormally high formation pressures are also termed surpressures. Figure 2. If a hole is drilled into an overpressured formation. overpressures and sometimes geopressures. Although the shale water was squeezed. More often. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . and a lower density. but assisted by the fluids in the shale.8 SEA FAULT ABNORMAL PRESSURE Abnormally high formation pressure is defined as any formation pressure that is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the water occupying the formation pore spaces. it could not escape. Since water is nearly incompressible.7 SEA PERMEABLE ZONE NORMAL PRESSURE In other areas. they are simply called abnormal pressures. or at other times.that is. both sand and shale. These formations. the sands did not develop or were sealed by deposition of salt or other impervious formations. weighted mud will be required to hold back the fluids contained in the pore space. than they would have had if the now pressured water had been allowed to escape. the shales could not compress past the point where the water in the shale started to bear the weight of the rock above. are then overpressured.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Figure 2. This section caused a condition in which the weight of the formation . the overburden was borne not by the shale alone. In this situation the shale will have more porosity.11 . or by faulting such as we have indicated here.
a gradient of 1. However. They may occur at depths as shallow as only a few hundred feet or exceeding 20. In the North Sea abnormal pressures occur with widely varying magnitudes in many geological formations.3 psi/ft have been encountered. gradients of 1. and the CIS. In the Jurassic of the Viking Graben.465 psi/ft) and the overburden gradient (generally 1. formation pressure gradients of 1. These super pressures can only exist because the internal strength of the rock overlying the super pressured zone assists the overburden load in containing the pressure. locally confined pore pressure gradients exceeding the overburden gradient by up to 40% are known in areas such as Pakistan. The consequent decrease in clay density would normally indicate an abnormal pressure zone but this is not the case. An expandible clay (gumbo) also occurs which is of volcanic origin and is still undergoing compaction. mud weights of the order of 0.69 psi/ft have been recorded. In the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan.000 ft and may be present in shale/sand sequences and/or massive evaporite-carbonate sequences.62 psi/ft or higher are required to keep the wellbore open because of the swelling nature of these clays.12 to 1. This is almost equal to the low overburden gradients in these areas. In the Mesozoic clays of the North Sea Central Graben. The Tertiary sediments are mainly clays and may be overpressured for much of their thickness.91 psi/ft in the Jurassic section.433 to 0.0 psi/ft are common and in Papua New Guinea. and may be as high as the overburden pressure. In one area of Russia. The causes of abnormally high formation pressures are related to a combination of geological.52 psi/ft are common with locally occurring gradients of 0. 2 .4 psi/ft. As defined. overpressures of 0. local formation pressure in the range of 5870 to 7350 psi at 5250 feet were reported. in some areas. One reported case indicated a formation pressure gradient of 0. Iran.0 psi/ft). Papua New Guinea. Pressure gradients of 0. However. the magnitude of abnormally high formation pressures must be greater than the normal hydrostatic pressure for the location.9 psi/ft have been recorded. abnormal formation pressure gradients of up to 0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS Abnormally high formation pressures are found worldwide in formations ranging in age from the Pleistocene age (approximately 1 million years) to the Cambrian age (500 to 600 million years). This equates to a formation pressure gradient of 1. In Iran.12 V4 Rev March 2002 . geochemical and mechanical processes. Abnormally high pressure gradients will thus be between the normal hydrostatic gradient (0.04 psi/ft has been reported. The overlying rock can be considered to be in tension. physical.8 psi/ft being encountered.
b) Drilling Into an Adjacent Well Drilling into an adjacent well is a potential problem. the formation fluid from the completed well will enter the wellbore of the drilling well. overpressures are often found in Permian carbonates. The potential for stuck tools. etc.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS In Triassic sediments.6 SHALLOW GAS SANDS Kicks from shallow sands (gas and water) whilst drilling in the top hole section with short casing strings can be very hazardous. If this occurs at a shallow depth. A drill stem test is performed by setting a packer above the formation to be tested. it is an extremely dangerous situation and could easily result in an uncontrolled blowout. is greatly increased. and at least a portion of the drill pipe or tubing. If the drilling well penetrates the production string of a previously completed well. At the conclusion of the test. injection operations. abnormally high formation pressures have been found in gas bearing zones of the Bunter Sandstone in the southern North Sea.7 SPECIAL SITUATIONS a) Drill Stem Testing (DST) The formation test is one of the most hazardous operations encountered in drilling and completing oil and gas wells. the bore hole or casing below the packer. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . and previous underground blowouts can produce charged formations.3.. improper abandonments. particularly offshore where a large number of directional wells are drilled from the same platform. blowouts.13 . Some of the kicks from shallow sands are caused by charged formations: poor cement jobs.3. and allowing the formation to flow. causing a kick. During the course of the test. as documented by many case histories. lost circulations. casing leaks. 2. is filled with formation fluid. Down hole chokes can be incorporated in the test string to limit surface pressures and flow rates to the capabilities of the surface equipment to handle or dispose of the produced fluid. Failure to follow the correct procedures to kill the well could lead to a blowout. this fluid must be removed by proper well control techniques to return the well to a safe condition. evaporates and sandstones sandwiched between massive Zechsteins salts. Also in the southern North Sea. 2.
Degassing is necessary to ensure that good mud is being pumped back into the hole to prevent the percentage of gas from increasing with each circulation. Figure 2.000' 5.000' 20. The importance attached to gas cutting is that gas is entering the wellbore in small quantities.000' 10. 2 .720 psi Reduced Head 866 psi 4. which would allow greater and greater bottom hole hydrostatic pressure reductions. the mud weight will be gas cut due to the gas breaking out of the pore space of the cuttings near the surface. Divert flow through choke manifold to prevent belching and to safely contain gas through mud gas separator. The severity of the influx will depend on the penetration rate.14 V4 Rev March 2002 . and is independent of mud weight. unless it is associated with pit gain.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS c) Excessive Drilling Rate Through a Gas Sand/Limestone When drilling a gas bearing formation.598 psi 9.000' Normal Head 18 ppg mud 936 psi 4. porosity and permeability.265 psi 18. Allowing the well to belch over the nipple could cause reduction in hydrostatic pressure to the point that the formation would start flowing. Gas cutting alone does not indicate the well is kicking.360 psi 18. resulting in a kick.680 psi 9. Time drill the gas cap to prevent severe gas cutting of mud.9 Reduction in Hydrostatic Head Due to Gas Cutting of the Mud 18 ppg mud cut 50% to 9.0 ppg Depth 1.615 psi Head Reduction 60 psi 82 psi 95 psi 105 psi Most of mud cutting is close to surface. which calls for caution.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2. water composition. However. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . liquid water. The formation of hydrates is governed by the crude composition. A very open. hydrates may form at relatively high temperatures. such as a stuffing box leak. at 2900 psi they can begin to form at about 77˚ F . At high pressures.4. Methane. the refrigeration effect from a small pressure drop. Hydrates do not require a pressure drop to form. and water vapour. During well operations. This structure which bears some resemblance to a steel lattice in a building can theoretically be formed in ice. hydrates will form spontaneously. ‘Undercooling’ is possible. e. The biggest risk area for this occurring is on offshore installations from the seabed upwards where temperatures are generally the lowest. In oil / gas systems they will occur when light hydrocarbons (or carbon dioxide) are mixed with water at the correct temperature and pressure conditions. hydrates are only formed in the presence of liquid water. temperature and pressure. Once the crystallisation has started. Ethane. In most cases the crude composition cannot be changed. Normal butane and heavier Hydrocarbons are too big and tend to inhibit hydrate formation. Hydrates can be dissolved / prevented by a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. but the slightest movement within and undercooled mixture.4 APPENDIX .15 .HYDRATE FORMATION & PREVENTION 2. or the presence of a few crystallisation nuclei will cause a massive reaction. may be sufficient to produce optimum pressure and temperature conditions for hydrate formation. In practice however.g.1 FORMATION OF HYDRATES Hydrates will only form if there is free water present in a system. hydrates may block a flowline completely within seconds. Hydrates are crystalline water structures filled with small molecules. A chemical hydrate inhibition can be performed by changing the composition of the water. Propane and Isobutane can only fill the larger cavities. The first indication of them forming in the tubing or annular flow string is a drop in flowing wellhead pressure followed by an initially slow then progressively rapid drop in wellhead flowing temperature. cage-like structure of water molecules is the backbone of hydrates. CO2 and H2S are the most suitable molecules to fill cavities. Hydrates can form under flowing or static conditions. Under the correct conditions of temperature and pressure. Tests indicate that Hydrate formation is comparable with normal crystallisation. The crystal framework is very weak and collapses soon if not supported by molecules filling the cavities in the structures. the greatest danger posed by hydrates is the plugging of the tubing string downhole.
being unable to run or pull wireline tools.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS A hydrate plug in the tubing string under flowing or static conditions results in.16 V4 Rev March 2002 . hydrates may prevent vital equipment. Thus a downhole hydrate plug gives rise to a potentially dangerous situation and must be avoided at all costs. Also. such as the Downhole Safety Valve from functioning correctly. and unable to flow the well to remove the hydrates. unable to squeeze or circulate the well dead. 2 .
The mud hydrostatic pressure must be at least equal to or greater than the reservoir pore pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2. (b) To carry the drill cuttings up the annulus and back to the surface by its upward motion and viscosity. by its gelling action. tripping and other operations. (e) To hold cuttings in suspension. (g) To help to support part of the weight of the drillstring by its buoyancy. (h) To help to prevent mud filtrate invasion of productive formations by an impermeable filter cake. (c) To maintain pressure balance in the well during drilling. (2) SECONDARY FUNCTIONS: (f) To provide a working fluid for downhole motors and turbines and for the transmission of coded downhole signals to the surface (MWD)+.17 . by outward hydrostatic pressure and mud filter cake. (d) To cool the bit and drillstring and to lubricate the cutting surfaces at the bit.5 THE FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING MUDS (1) PRIMARY FUNCTIONS: (a) To help maintain the stability of the wellbore. (i) To ease the movement of drillstring in the well and to reduce wear by its lubricity V4 Rev March 2002 2 . when circulation is stopped.
Mud yield strength in lbf/l00ft2. LUBRICITY: This is the ability of the mud to provide a degree of lubrication of the rubbing surfaces of the drillstring and the rock or the casing. (3): Synthetic or pseudo oil-based muds. the more difficult later logging of the well becomes. 2 . DENSITY: This is controlled by the weight additives in the mud. with oil:water ratios from 50:50 to 90:10. Those are : RHEOLOGY: This group of mud properties influences the hydrodynamics of the mud behaviour. The filter cake controls the outward flow of liquid filtrate from the mud into the reservoir formation. It includes: Mud (plastic) viscosity in centipoise units. FILTRATION: This is the ability of the mud to build a thin layer of filter cake on the wall of the hole. In addition to muds. lt is provided by the clays. and so reduce wear. Additionally.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS PROPERTIES of DRILLING MUDS Drilling muds need to have some essential properties. CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING MUDS Drilling muds can be divided into the following classes: (1): Water-based muds ie fresh water or sea water. gas and stable foams may be used as drilling fluids. (2): Oil-bascd muds: (a) Invert emulsions. The deeper the penetration of this filtrate into the rock. Gel strength at 10sec and 10 minutes. as in (a) but with low to base oils. It is of importance in pressure control. (b) Low toxic invert emulsions. the mud needs to have properties of resistivity and corrosion inhibition .18 V4 Rev March 2002 . drilling rate (ROP) and in wall stability of the well. polymers or oils in mud.
6) WEIGHTING: Barite (sg = 4. Salts.2) or. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . Magnetite (sg = 5. Gypsum. (SG= 2.03) VISCOSIFIER: Bentonite clays and/or co-polymers. BASE FLUID: Fresh water or sea water or brackish water.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS INGREDIENTS of DRILLING MUDS: All muds have 4 categories of ingredients: (a) A liquid base to support other components (b) A viscosifier. for inhibition.1) or.5) CHEMICALS: Caustic soda or lime for pH control. to produce viscosity and gel. Corrosion inhibitors' etc. Lignosulfonate derivatives. for thinning. Surfactants. to produce density. Galena (sg= 6. Starch and gums. (c) A weighting agent.19 . for inhibition of reactions. (d) Chemicals to control changes to the mud arising from interactions with the drilled formations. MUD CLASSlFICATION: WATER-BASED MUDS. (SG = l to 1.
May be used with small amounts of bentonites to give Low Solids Non-Dispersed muds. hydroxyethyl cellulose) to give viscosity and gel. Hi pump rates needed to give good holecleaning and wall support. (2) LIGNOSULFONATE MUDS: Used where active native clays have to be drilled. (4) SALT WATER MUDS: Used where salt formations or unstable shales are to be drilled. (5) POLYMER MUDS: Use high molecular weight polymers (CMC. Sodium or potassium salts (NaC1 or KCI) are used for inhibition. or native clays. Very low cost/bbl.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . pre-hydrated bentonite slurry must be used . 2 . Used for top-hole sections. If sea water is base fluid. (3) LIME .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS SOME TYPICAL MUDS: (1) SPUD MUDS: Very basic: Sea water and pre-hydrated clays.GYPSUM or CALCIUM TREATED MUDS: Used where shale/clays or anhydrites are present and may cause hole instability. Good ROP's and protection against formation damage. Give good control of the drilled solids and mud rheology. Lignite materials are added to control the thickening effect of those clays.
21 . Carries out cuttings a.M. Viscosity b. Bingham yield point c.000ft 5mls Hole troubles or producing zones <5 mls In unweighted muds < 10 % vol. Protects and supports bore .C. or THINNER Raise by adding WATER Keep as low as possible by continuous removal of unwanted clay. silt. Solid content WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 4.Function Increased mud density decreases penetration rate Raise by adding BARYTES Lower by adding WATER (check viscosity) Has to be calculated from well depth and expected pressures Safety factor: 2-300 psi overpressure ( 1500-2000 KPa) Relevant property Effect of property on penetration rate Chemicals for control Recommended value V4 Rev March 2002 Increase mud viscosity decreases penetration rate Keep as low as is practically possible 35-50 secs M. Lubricates and cools bit and drill string a.M.hole wall by the formation of an impermeable mudcake which also minimise contamination Increases solids content decreases penetration rate a. Gel Strength 3. Lower by adding C. Confines formation pressures Mud density 2. Increase yield point and gel strength decreases penetration rate Decreased fluid loss slightly decreases penetration rate 1. Water content Increased water content Increases penetration rate 2 . A. Fluid loss FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF OIL WELL DRILLING FLUIDS b.V 12-20 cp PV 10-15cp YP + 9 x mud density kg/L 0’ gel (mud density -1) x 10 10’ gel (mud density -1) x 15 Raise by adding BENTONITE or C. Lower by adding WATER (check density) or THINNER Raise by adding BENTONITE Lower by adding THINNER Spud mud + 20 mls Shallow no producing zones 10 mls Below 10. sand and cuttings In unweighted muds > 90 % vol.C.F.
dolomites and anhydrites: (c) Salt formations: (d) Formation brines: (e) Hydrogen sulphide. Mud contaminants arise from: (1) The formations which are drilled. (iii) thick.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS MUD CONTAMINATION: Mud contaminants are extraneous materials which enter the mud during the drilling process. carbon dioxide: (f) Retained small particles (< 2 microns) of cuttings. Those contaminants will generally cause adverse reactions in the muds ( particularly water-based muds). 2 . . such as: Flocculation. Viscosity changes. (2) Cement: this is a potential problem when cementing casings and on drilling out "green" cement plugs. (ii) high rates of fluid loss from mud. and which alter and degrade the essential mud properties.22 V4 Rev March 2002 . causing (i) rising gel strengths. Those contaminants are either solid or liquids or gases from: (a) Shales: (b) Limestones.soft filter cake. where dispersed bentonite clay platelets can aggregate.
when diluted.23 . which has calcium chloride (CaCl) dissolved to 250. when large volumes of gas can be released within the annulus or downstream of the choke. LT OBM's are generally more expensive than straight water-based muds and. the true volume of an influx may be substantially greater than the measured pit gain. Weighting agent ( barite) At atmospheric conditions.000 ppm. base oil should be used. A typical LT OBM would have the following categories of constituents: LT base oil (of the paraffin series). V4 Rev March 2002 2 . Secondary emulsifier and wetting agent. Due to the gas solubility. Unlike water based muds. Many governments have stringent regulations which limit or ban the discharge of oil impregnated cuttings. Oil to water ratios lie in the range of 50%: 50% to 90%: 10% . This problem is much more acute at bottom hole pressures around 4000 psi than at high bottom hole pressures. Lime. the filter cake from an OBM will be very thin and the filtrate loss negligible.000 ppm or which is saturated with salt (NaCI) to 315. there is a problem relating to the solubility of a gas kick in the base oil of the mud. Water. This problem is compounded when the dissolved gas breaks out of solution at the bubblepoint pressure. Primary emulsifier. Rig modifications are necessary to handle LT OBM's.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS LOW TOXIC OIL BASED MUDS: Generally all oil-based muds in Western activities are of the low-toxic base oil types. Organophilic clay ( for viscosity).
the drilling fluid volume increase at the surface should be no greater than predicted displacement. The hole should be filled after each stand of drill collars.3 through 4.3 Hole Not Full of Drilling Fluid. These problems can occur during any operation conducted on a well. the resultant reduced hydrostatic head can allow fluid entry from the formation. and/or 4) lost circulation. In running pipe back in the hole. Any significant reduction in hydrostatic pressure may result in loss of primary control. To maintain primary well control. drilling personnel should utilise all techniques at their disposal to ensure that the hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore is always greater than the formation pressure. hoisting operations should be suspended and an immediate safe course of action determined while observing the well.24 V4 Rev March 2002 . When the hole is filled continuously.15. The hole should be completely filled at intervals that will prevent an influx of formation fluid.4 Tripping Out of the Hole. The hole and fluid returns should be checked at frequent intervals. Some holes take significant volumes of drilling fluid during trips because of seepage loss. and 2) the kicking formation must have sufficient permeability to allow flow into the wellbore.6 EXTRACTS FROM API RP59 6.1 Introduction. It is necessary to keep a trip book (refer to Para. This usually requires returning to bottom and circulating the hole.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2. 6. 6.1) for ready comparison to determine if an abnormal condition occurs. 3) insufficient drilling fluid density. an isolated drilling fluid volume measurement facility (such as a trip tank) must be used. Continuous filling or filling after each stand of drill pipe may be advisable. When pulling pipe. 2 . 6. The goal of well control is to prevent a well kick (influx of formation fluid into the wellbore) from becoming a blowout (uncontrolled flow of formation fluid).3 and Table 10. The type of fluid measuring equipment used should be influenced by the anticipated well control operations involved in drilling the well.5 Tripping In the Hole. 2) swabbing. The frequency of filling the hole during tripping operations is critical in maintaining primary control. The gauging of fluid returns and comparison with prior trip records should provide a warning of possible loss of primary well control. A number of conditions which can cause or contribute to well kicks are discussed in Paras 4. Loss of primary well control most frequently results from: 1) failure to keep the hole full.2 Conditions Necessary for a Kick. its displacement volume should be replaced with the proper amount of drilling fluid to maintain constant hydrostatic pressure. 6. If the hole fails to take the proper amount of drilling fluid. 10. The rig should have drilling fluid measuring devices to determine that proper fluid replacement or displacement occurs when pulling or running pipe. The two conditions that must be present in the wellbore for a kick to occur are 1) the pressure in the wellbore at the face of the kicking formation must be less than the formation pressure. When the fluid level in the wellbore is allowed to drop or is maintained with a lighter density fluid.
or 5) packing off in the annulus. therefore.7 Swabbing. a reduction in bottom-hole hydrostatic pressure (swabbing) may occur. Time with pipe out of the hole should be minimised. In case of equipment repair on drilling rigs. The loss can result from natural or induced causes. 6. or swabbing in a producing well through tubing. and 3) drill string and hole configurations. Three prime factors in controlling swabbing are: 1) drilling fluid properties. or oil contamination will enable the evaluation of operating practices affecting swabbing. 4) breaking circulation. the pipe should be run to a sufficient depth to ensure that the well can be controlled.6 Out of the Hole. vugular. Induced loss can result from mechanical formation fracturing resulting from 1) excessive drilling fluid density. before repairs are undertaken. 3) pressure surges related to running pipe or tools. When pipe is pulled from a well. The additional hydrostatic pressure will permit some degree of swabbing without losing primary well control. When pipe is pulled from a well. Natural causes include fractured.25 . 6. 6.8 Trip Margin. 2) rate of pulling pipe. if possible. the pipe should be run at least back to the last easing shoe. After tripping and circulating “bottoms-up. The well may take some fluid as the pipe is withdrawn but less than the complete pipe displacement.” the amount of gas. In well servicing operations. can only be done by accurately measuring the drilling fluid added to the hole as pipe is pulled. which can be sufficient to permit the entry of formation fluid into the wellbore. A short trip and circulating “bottoms-up” before pulling out of the hole can also be used to determine the system’s swabbing characteristics. effecting routine maintenance. and/or drilling fluid density may be warranted. Bottom-hole pressure reduction of several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) can occur when swabbing takes place. or pressuredepleted formations. Lost circulation occurs in both drilling and well servicing operations and may quickly destroy the hydrostatic overbalance that constitutes primary control.9 Short Trip.11 Lost Circulation. 6. drilling fluid flow properties. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . Particular care should be taken when a servicing tool.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 6. The condition where formation pressure exceeds existing hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore is referred to as underbalance and can be caused be insufficient drilling fluid density. 2) excessive annular circulating pressure. such as a core barrel. with its length too great to clear the ram closure zone and/or its outside diameter too large to fit the pipe rams. salt water. swabbing can be difficult to detect. The use of a trip margin is encouraged to offset the effects of swabbing. The detection of swabbing. Adjustments in pulling speed. is one of the major reasons for losing primary well control. cavernous. 6.10 Insufficient Drilling Fluid Density. This type of swabbing action should not be confused with the more obvious concept of actually pulling fluid from a well with a balled up bit or packer. subnormally-pressured. to have the necessary crossover connection(s) readily available so that correct pipe movement can be effected to be able to close more than the annular blowout preventer. when making equipment repairs. or shutting down overnight. This pressure reduction.
or when differential fill equipment malfunctions. drilling. Frequently. the formation fluid from the completed well may enter the wellbore of the drilling well. or running and pulling pipe. gas from the drilled cuttings will mix with the drilling fluid. Depending on the length of hole below the packer. yet maintain control (underbalanced drilling). An abnormally pressured gas zone with low productivity (e. perforating. causing a kick.. the borehole or casing below the packer and at least a portion of the drill pipe or tubing is filled with formation fluid. fishing. shale gas) is a possible example where the well will not flow appreciably but gas exists after 2 . Excessive drilling rate through a shallow gas zone or coal bed can supply sufficient gas from cuttings to reduce the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid column through a progressive combination of density reduction and drilling fluid loss from “belching” to the point that the formation will begin flowing into the wellbore. The accurate prediction of pressure gradients. and the prevention of an insufficient drilling fluid density situation. 6. Primary control can also be lost while performing operations other than circulating.14 Excessive Drilling Rate Through a Gas Sand. type of fluid entry. A trip tank and pit watcher should be considered if vessel movement creates any problem in measuring drilling fluid requirements on trips. In some situations of insufficient drilling fluid density.16 Special Situations. Caution should be exercised to avoid swabbing when pulling the test string because of the large diameter packers. Special care should be exercised to avoid a collision course with another well.g. the fluid in the test string above the circulating valve must be removed by proper well control techniques. loss of well control can occur during coring.15 Others.26 V4 Rev March 2002 . At the conclusion of the test. All such operations require the accurate measurement and control or drilling fluid replaced or displaced in the well to maintain primary control. running casing or liner operations. Even if the drilling fluid density in the hole is sufficient to control gas zone pressure. a large number of directional wells are drilled from the same offshore platform or onshore drilling pad. During the course of testing. are highly desirable but not always attainable. such as reversing. the normal drilling hydrostatic overbalance can be reduced or lost. and formation pressure. 6. 6.12 Drill Stem Testing. to return the well to a safe condition. 6. Complications can occur in primary control during floating drilling operations due to distorted readings caused by motion and heave. operations can be safely handled and proceed without increasing drilling fluid density. The measurement of drilling fluid volume and flow rate is most critical in floating operations and requires pit level monitoring devices (floats) located in the centre of the pits or multi-floats with sequential integration utilised. Drill stem tests are performed by setting a packer above the formation to be tested and allowing the formation to flow.13 Drilling Into an Adjacent Well. performing primary or remedial cementing. particularly abnormal pressure. If a drilling well penetrates the production string of a previously completed well.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 6.
1. Variations in pump speed and/or standpipe pressure. short trip. in some fields. Depth of zones capable of flowing. 3. Fracture gradients. 10. and trip on shows and gains. Drilling breaks. 1. Changes in flowline temperature.17 General. 6. 4.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS a trip which may require use of blowout prevention equipment and/or rotating heads. Formation gradients. packing-off. the use of a lighter drilling fluid and another heavier drilling fluid to control the well on trips.27 . In this instance. Increase in drilling fluid return rate. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . 5. Pit gain or loss. Well control warning signals can be classified in three major general categories as follows: A. Sometimes fluid influx will occur when circulation is stopped. 9. Formation permeability. tight hole. Physical Response From the Well. B. Hole problems indicating underbalance (i. Previous Field History and Drilling Experiences.e. Excessive pressure or pressure changes between casing strings. 3. sloughing). Intervals of lost circulation. Effects of connections. 4. 7. 5. successful operations usually require an increase in drilling fluid density or. but will not occur during drilling operations due to the effect of annular circulating pressure. Formation content. 2. 8. 6. Swabbing. WELL CONTROL WARNING SIGNALS 6.. 2. Drilling fluid density reduction.
6. Circulate and condition the drilling fluid to minimise further swabbing. 6. As soon as swabbing is detected. Increased penetration rates due to higher pore pressures are usually not as abrupt as formation drilling breaks.22 Change in Pump Speed or Pressure. 2. 6. Oil show. thus the volume of fluid in the pit(s) increases. If the pumping rate is held constant.18 Volume of Drilling Fluid to Keep the Hole Full on a Trip is Less Than Calculated or Less Than Trip Book Record. The initial surface indication that a well kick has occurred could be a momentary increase in pump pressure. Shale density. 2 . In order to be certain that gradual increases in pore pressure are recognised. As the formation fluid feeds into the wellbore. Gas show (chromatograph). it causes more drilling fluid to flow from the annulus than is pumped down the drill string. 1. the additional flow is caused by formation fluid(s) feeding into the wellbore or gas expansion.28 V4 Rev March 2002 . a penetration rate versus depth curve plot is recommended to highlight the trend of increasing pore pressure. 4. It may be necessary to increase the drilling fluid density. Chemical and Other Technical Responses From the Well.21 Sudden Increase in Bit Penetration Rate. the flow from the annulus should be constant. but it has been noted on some pump pressure recording charts after a kick was detected. An unaccounted volume gain in the drilling fluid pit(s) is an indication that a kick may be occurring. 6. 7. 5. Electric logs. Chloride changes in the drilling fluid. This condition is usually caused by formation fluid entering the wellbore due to the swabbing action of the drill string. The pump pressure increase is seldom recognised because of its short duration.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS C. 3. Drilling equation exponents.19 Gain in Pit Volume. If the annulus flow increases without a corresponding change in pumping rate. but they can be. the drill string should be run back to bottom. it may also signal an increase in formation pore pressure. 6. A sudden increase in penetration rate (drilling break) is usually caused by a change in the type of formation being drilled: however. 6. but this should not be the first step considered because of the inherent potential problems of causing lost returns or differential sticking. Formation water.20 Increased Flow From Annulus.
B. Drilled Gas. Drilling fluid of proper density is still maintained in most of the hole. Gas-cut fluid occurs as a result of one or more of the following downhole conditions: 1) drilling a gas-bearing formation with the correct drilling fluid density in the hole (drilled gas). Quite often when the drilled gas reaches the surface. V4 Rev March 2002 2 . Until a confirmation can be made whether a washout or a well kick has occurred. If “belching” continues. it expands slowly until just before reaching the surface. gas from the drilled cuttings will usually mix with the drilling fluid causing the returns to be gas cut. there will be no influx of gas from the formation. and may be accompanied by an increase in pump speed. 2) swabbing while making connections or making a trip (trip or connection gas). Usually. a kick should be assumed. the pump pressure will drop and the pump speed will increase. As gas is circulated up the annulus. This prevents the expanding gas from “belching” fluid through the bell nipple. commonly referred to as a washout. When this occurs. a higher level of gas entrained in the drilling fluid returns may cause a short duration density reduction or gas unit increase. and 3) influx of gas from a formation having a pore pressure greater than the pressure exerted by the drilling fluid (gas flow). the hydrostatic head will be reduced due to loss of drilling fluid from the hole. An essential part of analysing this signal is being able to determine the downhole conditions causing the drilling fluid to be gas-cut. Trip or Connection Gas. As the lighter formation fluid flows into the wellbore. resulting in the drilling fluid density being reduced considerably upon leaving the annulus.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS The pressure increase is followed by a gradual decrease in pump pressure.23 Gas-cut Drilling Fluid. it is not a definite indication that a kick has occurred or is impending. After circulating “bottoms-up” following a trip or connection. A. If the well did not flow when the pumps were stopped during the trip or connection. When the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the drilling fluid is greater than the pore pressure of a gas-bearing formation being drilled.29 . The lower pump pressure and increase in pump speed symptoms are also indicative of a hole in the drill string. and the drilling fluid in the drill pipe tends to U-tube into the annulus. Gas-cut drilling fluid often occurs during drilling operations and can be considered one of the early warning signs of a potential well kick: however. it can be reasonably assumed that the gas was swabbed into the wellbore by the pipe movement. These symptoms can indicate increasing formation pressure when compared with previous trips and connections. Nevertheless. In some cases this reduction in density can be quite extreme but it may not mean that a kick is about to occur. the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the annular column of fluid decreases. 6. only a small loss in hydrostatic pressure results because the majority of gas expansion occurs in the top of the hole. the annular preventer must be closed and the drilling fluid circulated through the open choke manifold. The gas then undergoes a rapid expansion.
If a riser fails. If not. Gas Flow. the drilling fluid density may be sufficient to compensate for the loss of hydrostatic pressure. In order to prevent a rapid unloading of the riser due to trapped gas when the annular preventer is opened or the introduction of a secondary kick due to light density drilling fluid in the riser. Wellbore hydrostatic pressure is a function of height and density of the drilling fluid column from the flowline to the depth of interest. Open the preventer above the trapped gas and allow this gas to rise toward the surface. When a permeable liquid-bearing formation having pore pressure greater than the drilling fluid hydrostatic pressure is encountered. close the uppermost rams below the choke line and close the diverter. it will not significantly affect the drilling fluid density. This problem becomes more severe with increased water depth and/or preventer size. it is possible for this volume of gas to be quite significant. This type of underbalanced drilling is only practicable in certain well-known drilling areas where the geology is sufficiently known to allow preplanning for the rig equipment and drilling practices necessary. the drilling fluid gradient in the riser is lost and replaced by a sea water gradient (approximately 0. The first response should be to close the blowout preventers.30 V4 Rev March 2002 . 6. the loss of hydrostatic pressure should be restored prior to opening the blowout preventer. fluid will feed into the wellbore. the formation pore pressure must exceed the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid plus the circulating friction losses in the annulus for gas from the formation to flow into the wellbore. 2 . The volume of liquid contained in the cuttings is usually so small that unless accompanied by gas.24 Liquid-cut Drilling Fluid. Depending upon the pressure differential between the formation and the drilling fluid.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS C. In some situations. ADDITIONAL CAUSES OF KICKS UNIQUE TO SUBSEA OPERATIONS 9. Once influx begins.445 psi/ft — 8. The loss of wellbore hydrostatic pressure associated with this situation can sometimes be sufficient to allow the well to flow. continued circulation without the proper control of surface pressures will induce additional flow. or becomes disconnected. influx may be detected by: 1) a gain in pit volume. 2) lower density returns. If the closed preventer is an annular preventer. and/or 4) an increase in rotary torque.2 Loss of Integrity. 9.56 Ib/ gal) from the point of failure to sea level. 3) a change in drilling fluid chlorides. leaks. While drilling. Influx from a gas zone while drilling is a serious situation. Displace the riser with kill fluid and reopen the rams. NOTE: A rare exception to this rule is the very low permeability formation which can be drilled while allowing a continuous small influx to occur. free gas will remain trapped below the closed preventer.3 Trapped Gas Below Blowout Preventers Subsequent to control operations during which gas is circulated out the choke line. It may be necessary in extreme cases to close the bottom rams to isolate the hole and fill the riser by circulating through the kill line. since the density of the hydrostatic column (annulus) is continually lessened by the flow of formation fluid and expansion of gas.
... List 4 of the principle causes below..A. 2 b....S....P ANSWER... 2 c..6 ppg mud... There are a variety of mechanisms that can cause abnormal formation fluid pressures.31 ..............A..WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 2... If drilling was resumed and the mud weight was increased to 12.. a...7 .. Calculate M... What is the “Fracture Gradient?” ANSWER......WORKSHOP 2 SCORE 1... The casing shoe is at 4000ft TVD. What is the maximum pressure that the exposed formations below the shoe can support? ANSWER..... 2 V4 Rev March 2002 2 ......... Shown below is a pressure versus volume plot of a leak off test. Answer (a) ———————— (b) ———————— (c) ———————— (d) ———————— 2 2. 1200 PRESSURE (PSI) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 VOLUME The leak off was carried out with a 10... What is the maximum mud weight? ANSWER.. 2 d......6 ppg.
A.....WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 3. 3 If 5 stands of pipe had been pulled “wet” without filling the hole.. value is relevant.. a.. At the start of each shift As soon as possible after a drilling break When approaching a suspected transition zone When the mud weight has been increased in the system If a kick has occurred and the well is shut-in ANSWER. 3 c. b.........0075 bbl/ft 0.....6 ppg = = = = = = = 0..... the resultant reduction in bottom-hole pressure would be.32 V4 Rev March 2002 ..6 ppg mud was displaced to prevent a wet trip....P. The maximum allowable annular surface pressure should be re-calculated. As the influx approaches the surface ANSWER...0476 bbl/ft 0.. b. If 10 stands of pipe are removed “dry” without filling the hole.....A. e...A... Collars ..S.............. ANSWER.....0729 bbl/ft 94ft. SCORE 2 4........ 2 2 .... a.6 ppg mud gives an over-balance of 200 psi..600ft.... d.A. what would be the resultant reduction in bottom-hole pressure? ANSWER. Given the following data: Depth Bit size Shoe depth Mud weight 10000ft TVD 8 1/2" 8500ft TVD 12..0077 bbl/ft 0...... If prior to tripping a 20 barrel slug of 14.... a.....03 bbl/ft 0... M. The calculated M.. When the influx is in the open-hole section b... c.........0178 bbl/ft 0...P.......S. 2 SCORE 5.. capacity Metal displacement Drill-pipe 5" capacity Metal displacement Casing/pipe annular capacity Casing capacity One stand of drill-pipe Assuming the 12........ what would be the expected volume return due to the U-tubing of the heavy mud? ANSWER.
...... F... If the formation pressure gradient at 5000ft is 0. Swabbing is the reduction of bottom hole pressure due to the effects of pulling pipe.. Stop and shut the well in.... What mud weight is required to give an over-balance or trip margin of 200 psi? ANSWER.. An over-balance or trip margin is added to the mud. thread connections.. Answer (a) ——————— (b) ——————— (c) ——————— 2 8.... 8 10...... After pulling 10 stands of pipe the level in the trip tank is 27 barrels. The strength of the sub-sea formations is 0.. Prior to tripping out of the hole a trip tank and pump are lined up to keep the hole full as the pipe is removed..... The trip tank contains 30 barrels of mud. Flow-check. If no flow... To continue tripping but flow-check when bits at shoe.P....... Flow-check.. If no flow.47 psi/ft and at 8500ft it is 0. A well can be induced to flow by swabbing. 2 9. Sea-water gradient is 0.... The marine conductor has been set X ft below the sea-bed.. It is proposed to drill with 9....... What is the minimum depth that the conductor has to be set below sea-bed to prevent losses? ANSWER.. 4 2 .....2 ppg mud....33 V4 Rev March 2002 ... TRUE/FALSE 2 11. due to the swabbing effect of pulling the pipe.. Would the safest option be.. (Use data given in Question 6). A drill string consist of 5" 20 lb/ft drill-pipe and 8 1/2" drill-collars.476 psi/ft.... List below 3 conditions that can cause swabbing..... The spare kelly cock has 4 1/2" I... What crossover sub is required for the collars? ANSWER.. continue tripping ANSWER.. If no pressures seen open the well up and continue tripping.... b.......... go back to bottom and circulate....WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS 6. a.. c..445 psi/ft.. The flow line is 65ft above the mean sea-level. A fixed rig is set in 300ft of sea water......68 psi/ft.. Assume casing is set at 4800ft TVD/MD and that gas sands were encountered at 5000ft and at 8500ft. When tripping this will prevent a loss of B... 2 SCORE 7. d....H.. ANSWER..........
6 x .052) + 1100 = 3305 psi Frac g = Max press ÷ CSG TVD = 3305 ÷ 4000 = 0. 3. a.88 . Surface pressure = 1100 psi a.0075 .0178) = ————————— .655 (.0751 psi/ft 71 psi Mud g x (Met Disp + pipe cap) ——————————————— Ann Cap = . 4.052 x 4000 = 682 psi b.655 x .0751 x 940 b.0075 ————— .3525 psi/ft 166 psi 2 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS WORKSHOP 2 . Mud g x Met Disp ————————— CSG Cap .0049 ——— . c. (CSG TVD x MUD WT x .826 ÷ . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Under compacted shales Thick gas sands Faults Diaprism salt domes Shape of reservoir structure 2.88ppg MAASP = (Max mud wt .0075 + .34 V4 Rev March 2002 .0654 = = .6) x .052) + Surface pressure = (4000 x 10. d.Met Disp = .12.3525psi/ft = .047 470ft x .Answers 1.Drlg mud wt) x .052 = 1 5. d. = .052 x CSG TVD = (15.052 = . a.826 psi/ft Max Mud Wt = Frac g ÷ .0729 – . 5.
(a) (b) (c) 3.202 203 ft.445) ————————————— (.2 x . 8.478) 41.(Hyd sea water) —————————————————— (Frac g . 11.Mud g) = = (365 x 9..1 (mud wt) 20 X = ( 14.68 . 10. Profile of hole (Wellbore geometry).052) .1 —— .8 ppg If the 200 psi is to overbalance formation pressure at 8500ft mud wt would be 9.6 ppg. Mud Properties. c.052 = 9.Gel strength. Dry pipe vol = Slug vol x (slug wt) ————— .35 . False.(300 x .47 psi/ft = 2350 + 200 = 2550 ∴ 2550 ÷ 5000 ÷ . V4 Rev March 2002 2 . (Hyd mud to sea bed) .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 2 : CAUSES OF KICKS c.6 5/8" reg pin.17 bbls Pulling speed. This would overbalance the sands at 5000ft by 148 psi. Mud Wt to give 200 psi overbalance = 5000 x . 9.6 ) = 6. viscosity .6 ———– – 1 12. 7. 4 1/2" if box .
12 Objectives Early Warning Signs Increase in Drilling Rate of Penetration Drilling Break Increase Torque and Drag Decrease in Shale Density Increase in Cutting Size and Shape Mud Property Changes Increase in Trip. 0 3. Connection and a Background Gas Change in the Temperature of the Return Drilling Mud Decrease in D-Exponent Positive Kick Signs Hydrocarbon Kick Behaviour Workshop 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 8 10 15 V4 Rev March 2002 . 9 3. 1 3. 2 3. 4 3. 7 3. 5 3.11 3.SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS Page 3. 6 3. 3 3. 8 3.10 3.
as the bit wears. early warning indications can be found from the following list.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS KICK INDICATORS 3. V4 Rev March 2002 3-1 .0 OBJECTIVES The objectives of this section are to review the indication of a kick. Increase in cutting size and shape. Careful observance and positive reaction to these signs will keep the well under control and prevent the occurrence of a well flow situation. The signs however may have to be used collectively as one indicator may not accurately provide the warning of getting into an unbalanced situation. Mud property changes. a normal trend of decrease penetration rate should occur. • • • • • • • • Increase in drilling rate of penetration. Increase torque and drag. Increase in trip. Even though the series of signs may change between wells. 3. Decrease in D-exponent. Increase in the temperature of the return drilling mud.1 EARLY WARNING SIGNS The alertness in determining early warning signs in well control is of the upmost importance to wellbore safety. The various signs that have been recorded as early warning indicators are not consistent in all situations. an increase in the drilling rate occurs as the chip hold down effect is reduced. 3. A general and consistent increase in penetration rate is often a fairly good indicator that a transition zone may have been penetrated. Decrease in shale density.2 INCREASE IN DRILLING RATE OF PENETRATION .DRILLING BREAK When drilling ahead and using consistent drilling parameters. A rapid increase in penetration rate may indicate that an abnormal pressure formation has been entered and an underbalance situation has occurred. connection and/or background gas. If the differential pressure between the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid and formation pore pressure decreases. Early warning signs will be covered as well as positive kick signs.
Up drag and down drag as well as average torque figures should be recorded on each connection. The density of the cuttings can be determined at surface and plotted against depth. These trends are valuable when comparing other trend changes.3 INCREASED TORQUE AND DRAG Increased drag and rotary torque are often noted when drilling into overpressured shale formations due to the inability of the underbalanced mud density to hold back physical encroachment of the formation into the wellbore. Torque and drag trend increases often indicate to the driller that a transition zone is being drilled. Drag and rotating torque are both indirect and qualitative indicators of overpressure. 3-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . Figure 3.4 DECREASE IN SHALE DENSITY The density of shale normally increases with depth. A normal trend line will be established and deviations can indicate changes in pore pressure. but decreases as abnormal pressure zones are drilled.1 ∆W –––– drag (up) ∆W –––– drag (down) 3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3. They are also indicators of hole instability and other mechanical problems.
the viscosity will increase when salt water enters the wellbore and mixed with the mud. form little “groups” called flocs. Gas cut mud would be fluffy and would have higher viscosities (and lower mud weight). This is true when operating with low pH salt saturated water base muds. Normally pressured shales produce small cuttings with rounded edges and are generally flat. As reduction of hydrostatic differential between the pore pressure and bottomhole pressure occurs. In other type muds you might see a viscosity decrease caused by water cutting (weight decrease). In certain type muds. the hole cuttings will have a greater tendency to come off bottom. Severe sloughing will often cause changes in pressure and stroke relationship. and sloughing of the shales into the wellbore. The particles are often larger and may be sharp and angular in the transition zone. which are normally dispersed. Changes in the Shape of Shale Cuttings can occur as an underbalanced situation is developing. This is called flocculation because the little molecules of mud solids. 3. This can also lead to shale expansion causing cracking. V4 Rev March 2002 3-3 . Small chloride or calcium increases could be indicative of tight (nonpermeable) zones that have high pressure. Water wetting may further aggravate this problem.6 MUD PROPERTY CHANGES Water cut mud or a chloride (and sometimes calcium) increase that has been circulated from bottom always indicates that formation fluid has entered the wellbore. Changes in cuttings shape and cuttings load over the shakers needs to be monitored at surface. It could be created by swabbing or it could indicate a well flow is underway.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3.5 INCREASE IN CUTTING SIZE AND SHAPE In transition zones or in abnormally pressured shales (sandy shales and bedding sand streaks) the shales break off and fall into hole because of under balanced condition (pore pressure greater than mud hydrostatic pressure). In oil muds. any water contamination would act as a “solid” and cause viscosity increases. while cuttings from an over pressured shale are often long and splintery with angular edges. IT IS ESSENTIAL TO KNOW THAT TREND CHANGES ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN ACTUAL VALUE OF THE CHANGE. Extra fill on bottom may coincide with the trend change. These flocs cause viscosity and gel increases.
It should be noted that drilled gas will only be evident during the time taken to circulate out the cuttings from the porous formation. CONNECTION AND A BACKGROUND GAS Return mud must be monitored for contamination with formation fluids. Gas that enters the mud. 3-4 V4 Rev March 2002 . it must be treated as early warning of a possible kick. An essential part of interpreting the level of gas in the mud is the understanding of the conditions in which the gas entered the mud in the first place. Raising the mud weight will not prevent it. Gas cutting due to this mechanism will occur even if the formation is overbalanced. causing gas cutting at the flowline.7 INCREASE IN TRIP. Gas can enter the mud for one or more of the following reasons: • • Drilling a formation that contains gas even with a suitable overbalance. unless in solution with oil base mud and kept at a pressure higher than its bubble point. This is done by constantly recording the flowline mud density and accurately monitoring gas levels in the returned mud. will expand as it is circulated up the hole.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3. Gas cut mud does not in itself indicate that the well is flowing (gas may be entrained in the cuttings). • Gas due to one or a combination of the above. a certain quantity of the gas contained in the cuttings will enter the mud. Pore pressure in a formation being greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column. Therefore pit levels should be closely monitored if significant levels of gas are detected in the mud. can be classified as one of the following groups: Drilled Gas When porous formations containing gas are drilled. Temporary reduction in hydrostatic pressure caused by swabbing as pipe is moved in the hole. However.
therefore marked differences can give and early indication of abnormal pressures. The temperature gradient in abnormally pressured formations is generally higher than normal. 3. This is due to pump shut down and the swabbing action of the pipe. When an increase trend of connection gases are identified.8 CHANGE IN THE TEMPERATURE OF THE RETURN DRILLING MUD The temperature will normally take a sharp increase in transition zones. The circulating rate. Trip gas will be detected in the mud when circulating bottoms up occurs after a round trip. Significant trip gas may indicate that a close to balance situation exists in the hole. the trip gas will be caused by swabbing and gas diffusion. Figure 3. Drilling of a permeable formation that is significantly overbalanced will cause an immediate flow increase followed by a pit gain.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS Connection Gas Connection gases are measured at surface as a distinct increase above background gas as bottoms up occurs after a connection. Trip Gas Trip gas is any gas that enters the mud while tripping the pipe with the hole appearing static. as well as the formation permeability.2 shows plots of temperature increase while penetrating an abnormal pressure formation. The temperature gradient decreases before penetrating the interface and. Gas Due to Inadequate Mud Density Surface indication of an underbalanced formation depend on the degree of underbalance. This is usually a surface measurement which has a tendency to be influenced by operating factors. If the static mud column is sufficient to balance the formation pressure. V4 Rev March 2002 3-5 . elapsed time since tripping and mud volume will influence flowline temperature trends. consideration should be given to weighting up the mud before drilling. connection gases indicate a condition of near balance. In all cases. operations continue and particularly prior to any tripping operations. Connection gases are caused by the temporary reduction in effective total pressure of the mud column during a connection.
23 °F 100' 7 ∆T = 4.39 °F 100' 4 ∆T = 0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS Figure 3.0 °F 100' TOP OF ABNORMAL PRESSURE ZONE 110 120 130 140 150 9 TOP OF ABNORMAL PRESSURE ZONE ∆T = 3.20 °F 100' 3 TOP OF ABNORMAL PRESSURE ZONE 4 5 70 90 100 110 80 FLOWLINE TEMPERATURE = °F 120 Temperature data from North Sea well 3-6 V4 Rev March 2002 .70 °F 100' 5 ∆T = 10.38 °F 100' 10 6 11 120 130 140 150 160 7 100 FLOWLINE TEMPERATURE = °F FLOWLINE TEMPERATURE = °F Temperature data from Pacific Coast well 1 Temperature data from South China Sea well DEPTH 1000 ft 2 ∆T = 0.2 Flowline Temperature Data 5 8 DEPTH 1000 ft 6 DEPTH 1000 ft ∆T = 0.43 °F 100' ∆T = 5.53 °F 100' 9 ∆T = 0.08 °F 100' ABNORMAL PRESSURE ZONE 120 130 140 150 160 12 110 FLOWLINE TEMPERATURE = °F FLOWLINE TEMPERATURE = °F Temperature data from Gulf Coast well Temperature data from South Texas well 7 3 DEPTH 1000 ft 8 DEPTH 1000 ft ∆T = 0.33 °F 100' TOP OF ABNORMAL PRESSURE ZONE 9 90 100 110 120 130 10 8 11 TOP OF ∆T = 2.
3 A plot of Dc-Exponent versus depth in shale sections. log (R/60N) –––––––––––––– log (12W/10°D) d = Where: R N W D d = = = = = rate of penetration.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3. ins D-exponent The D-exponent may be corrected and normalised for mud weight changes and/ or ECD (equivalent circulating density) by the following: d x normal pressure (ppg) ––––––––––––––––––––––– mud weight or ECD (ppg) Figure 3.3. rpm weight on bit. An illustration of a Dc plot is attached as figure 3. ft/hr rotary speed.5 2. but in transition zones. has been used with moderate success in predicting abnormal pressure.0 dc = 10 - Depth (1000 ft) 11 - Normal Trend Line 12 - 13 17 16 15 14 13 12 10 11 9 V4 Rev March 2002 3-7 . Trends of Dc-exponent normally increase with depth.0 1. Mud logging companies have further variations/models which try to normalise for other parameters (such as bit wear and rock strength) to varying degrees of success.9 DECREASE IN D-EXPONENT The D-Exponent will be plotted by the well loggers and maintained current at all times. lbs bit size. This value was introduced in the mid sixties to calculate a normalised penetration rate in relation to certain drilling parameters. its value decreases to lower than expected values. SAMPLE PLOT OF Dc EXPONENT vs. DEPTH 1.
Detecting a change in pit level may be done by visual observation. This allows a constant watch on the pit level by the driller. then posting someone to keep a constant watch. this will occur only as the gas nears the surface. both while tripping and drilling. and increase in returns detected by a flow monitoring system will also be indicated by a gain in pit level. and is due to the drilled gas expanding and is not necessarily an indication that the well is underbalanced. they should also notify the driller when they stop adding volume. after the gas bubble has reached the surface. This is especially true during trips. However. This means placing some type of pit level marker in the tank. Recognising a Kick While Drilling Flow into the wellbore causes two changes to occur in the mud circulating system: • • Increase of active mud system volume. you know that to keep a constant watch on the pit level is next to impossible. when most kicks occur. The hole will also take the same volume of fluid that it gave up.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3. Good communication between crew members is essential on the rig. The mud return flow rate exceeds the mud flow rate into the well. The size or severity of a kick depends on the volume of foreign fluid allowed to enter the wellbore. 3-8 V4 Rev March 2002 . the drill crew should be able to recognise a 5-barrel kick or less. Since a rig’s fluid system is a closed system. which depends on the degree of underbalance. The timing of the increase in pit volume is important in distinguishing between a true kick and gas expansion only. stop the pump and check the well for flow. Drillers should make sure crew hands notify them if they do anything to change the level in the pits.10 POSITIVE KICK SIGNS A kick occurs when the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column in the well is less than the formation pressure provided that the formation has the ability to produce. if there is any question as to the cause of the pit gain. If crew hands are adding volume to the pits. A more accurate and reliable method is to use any of the several pit level measuring instruments with the recorder mounted at the driller’s console and supported by the mud logger’s monitoring system. On trips. the crews are generally able to recognise a 10 barrel kick or less. A kick is a positive indicator that formation fluid is entering the wellbore and Secondary Well Control must be initiated. From your own experience. During drilling. a minor pit level rise will be noted because of the core volume of gas being drilled. the formation permeability. When drilling a formation containing gas. However. and the length of time it takes the drilling crew to detect that the well is kicking.
trip tank should be used to ensure the correct mud displacement is taking place. It is recommended for floating drilling units that flow checks be performed on the trip tank with the hole fill pump circulating across the bell nipple to eliminate rig motion as much as possible. If the flow check is negative the drill string should be run back to bottom to circulate bottoms up (stripping may have to be used here). Trip tanks are recognised to be the safest and most reliable method of monitoring mud volumes on trips.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS Recognising a Kick While Tripping Flow into the wellbore will cause improper hole fill up. Situations that can mask a kick:• • • • • • • Mud weight adjustments while drilling. It is recommended that a continuous hole fill up be used when tripping out of the hole. Rig movement with a floating drilling rig makes it more difficult to recognise kick indicators while drilling or tripping. When tripping in the hole the. Mud transfers while drilling. For this reason additional fluid volume detection equipment is installed in the mud pits to compensation for rig motion. Partial lost circulation. Pump start up and shut down. Drain back. V4 Rev March 2002 3-9 . • • If the flow check is positive then the well should be shut in. Spills and leaks in surface equipment. Solids control equipment and degassing mud. if this is seen a flow check should be performed.
In the same way that gas in a disposable lighter remains in its liquid phase until the pressure is relieved.11 KICK BEHAVIOUR A Comparison Between Oil and Water Base Muds Due to high temperatures and pressure a small gas kick can turn into a serious well control problem with oil base muds.10 V4 Rev March 2002 .117bbls per stroke then in an 8. The gas can then be circulated through the choke in a safe manner utilising the first circulation of the drillers method.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3.4a three barrels of mud have entered the wellbore at 10. In fig 3. away from the surface without the driller realising anything is wrong. In extreme cases the gas could be 6000 .7000ft. for each minute that the kick is undetected. For example if the drilling rate is say 80 SPM and the pump output is .000 ft. The problem in OBM's is that if a kick has entered the wellbore undetected it is impossible to know where the top of the gas is. even though the first procedure may take a little longer. The reason for this is that the gas remains in solution until it reaches its bubble point.4b). Stop drilling. remember safety is always our main concern. Solution gas can become dissolved and miscible. The gas then expands rapidly and there is a real danger of blowing out sufficient mud to put the entire well underbalance. but we would see no pit gain while drilling until the gas has been circulated up to 2600 ft. Some procedures advise that the gas should be circulated to 2500 ft.5" hole section with 5" drillpipe the influx would travel 203 ft. shut off the pumps and close the well in. 3 . Under these conditions it may be prudent to count all drilling breaks as primary indicators. below the BOP before the well is shut in and the gas circulated through the choke. It may be the case that the bubble point is lower and unless this information is known. This problem is easier to detect in water based muds because the original volume of the gas will expand much earlier as the pressure above the gas is reduced (see fig. 3.
This cycle of influx and unloading has caused the loss of many wells.11 . the pressure is reduced by half in the bubble. P V = P V .g.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS GAS EXPANSION (UNCONTROLLED) (WELL OPEN) If a gas bubble is allowed to expand without control of any kind it will eventually unload the well. 1 1 2 2 It generally states that if the volume of gas doubles.D Original Pit Gain Hydrostatic press at secondary depth Gas volume @ surface or at secondary depth P1V1 ––– P2 V4 Rev March 2002 3 . causing more unloading. With the well unloaded. Boyles Law is shortened version of equation for gas expansion e. P1 V1 P2 V2 V2 = = = = = Hydrostatic Pressure (W/Gas bubble on bottom) =T. kick sizes increasing.
Moreover.g. and H2S dissolves in water base mud. 3 .12 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS GAS MIGRATION WHEN GAS IN SOLUTION (OIL BASE MUD) Well Control problems can result in blowouts because of the solubility of certain gases in specific types of mud e. Methane dissolves in oil base mud. Detecting the kick by observing flow-line or mud pits can be very difficult until the kick is very close to surface and expands rapidly. This fact makes it more difficult to detect a kick. gas dispersed in well bore fluids does not migrate up the hole therefore a flo-check may not show. until the hydrostatic pressure on top of the gas decreases to a certain point then the gas flashes or bubble point reached and gas comes out of solution. The influx is then circulated up the wellbore in the mud column. A large gas influx entering the wellbore may change the pit level very little if the gas dissolves in the mud.
. Gas or Gas bubbles float or migrate up the hole because they are lighter than mud. All pressures will increase during migration of gas except pressure in actual bubble which is usually at formation pressure. So lowering SIDPP to original value through choke and observing. will prevent this problem. V4 Rev March 2002 3 . Therefore if a well is shut in for a long time. etc. will increase causing lost circ. if not relieved by allowing gas to expand. Gas migration can cause confusion during a well control operation. wellbore surface etc.13 . all pressures. because it can be overlooked.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS GAS MIGRATION (WELL SHUT IN) When a well is shut in on a kick that contains gas the gas will percolate or migrate up the hole even if the well is allowed to remain static. When gas bubbles rise they expand or if they are not allowed to expand they cause an increase on all wellbore pressures and surface pressures. keeping SIDPP at original value.
3 . Gas in WBM will migrate and expand as pressure is reduced.000' 0 3 bbls Bbls 1.000' 5. Normal kick killing procedures apply.000' 6 bbls Gas Volume Bottom Hole Conditions 7000 psi 250°F 10.14 V4 Rev March 2002 .400 Solution gas will not migrate or expand until bubble point pressure is reached.000' 0 3 bbls Bbls Bottom Hole Conditions 7000 psi 250°F 10.Water Base Mud ASSUME: Three bbls of gas is swabbed into the hole during a connection (undetectable) 0 Surface Conditions 15 psi 70°F Bubble Point 1000' .500' Depth Detectable Pit Gain 5.4a . After the well is shut in.500' Depth 2.4b .400 1. NOTE:The dissolving of gas into oil base mud does not hinder the detection of large volume kicks (5 bbls +).WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS Figure 3.2000' 0 Surface Conditions 15 psi 70°F 100% of Total Expansion 12 bbls Gas Volume 2. normal kick detection applies.Oil Base Mud Figure 3.
12 . V4 Rev March 2002 3 .) If the top 500 ft of this mud column is cut to 9 ppg and from 500 ft to 1300 ft the mud in the cut to 10. (a) (b) TRUE FALSE 2) The affect on bottom hole pressure of gas cutting will be greatest: (a) (b) (c) Initially when the gas enters into the mud. When the gas cut mud nears the casing shoe. this indicates: (a) (b) (c) That formation permeability has changed. Answer––––––––––––––––––––– 4) If the gas cutting of the mud is at a constant level but shows significantly bigger peak levels when connections are made. That it must be high pressure gas from the formations. When it gets near the surface.15 .5 ppg.WORKSHOP 3 1) GAS cutting of the mud could be prevented by having a mud weight that gives a large over pressure. That bottom hole pressure is increasing when the pumps are off. what is the reduction in bottom hole pressure. 3) Given the following data: Depth Shoe Mud 9850 ft TVD 5500 ft TVD 11 ppg (Assume this mud gives an overbalance of 150 psi. If the rest of the system is uncut.8 ppg.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 3. from 1300 ft to 1500 ft the mud is 10.
By an increase in permeability.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS 5) Generally predictions are based on the fact that abnormally pressured formations are not as “dense” as normally pressured formations at the same depth. By a change in one OR all of the above. 8) An increase in penetration rate of a drilling break can be caused: (a) (b) (c) (d) By an increase in formation porosity. 9) Connection gas as opposed to background gas can be caused: (a) Due to a temporary reduction in the overall mud pressure during a connection. Is this statement: (a) (b) TRUE FALSE 6) An increase in both the volume and size of cuttings at the shaker is an indication of overpressured formations: (a) (b) TRUE FALSE 7) Drilling in a deep high pressure high temperature well with oil based muds. A small gas kick that goes into solution: (Select two answers) (a) (b) (c) Will remain in solution until it gets to the surface. Will come out of solution when it reaches a bubble point pressure. Would be easier to detect in water based muds. 3 . By an increase in formation pressure.16 V4 Rev March 2002 .
By a reduction in the rate of penetration.17 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS (b) Due to a temporary increase in the overall mud pressure during the connection.ANSWERS V4 Rev March 2002 3 . (c) WORKSHOP 3 .
5ppg x . 7. 3.052 = 4776psi 5559psi 9850 9850 x 11ppg x . 2.Answers 1. B C 75 psi Reduction 500ft x 9ppg x .052 1500 = 112psi + 8350 x 11ppg x . 5.052 = 5634 .5559 = 75psi 4.8ppg x .052 1300 = 437psi + 200ft x 10. 6.052 500 = 234psi + 800ft x 10. 9.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 3 : KICK INDICATORS WORKSHOP 3 . 8.18 V4 Rev March 2002 . B A A B&C D A 3 .
5 4.SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES Page 4.12 4. 3 4.10 4.Subsea 11 19 23 V4 Rev March 2002 .Surface Workshop 4(b) .13 Objectives Introduction to Shut-in Procedures on a Fixed Rig Soft Shut-in Procedure While Drilling on a Fixed Rig Soft Shut-In Procedure While Tripping on a Fixed Rig Hard Shut-In Procedure While Drilling on a Fixed Rig Fast Shut-In Procedure While Drilling on a Fixed Rig Diverter Procedure While Drilling on a Fixed Rig General Introduction for Shut-In Procedure on a Floating Rig Soft Shut-In Procedure While Drilling on a Floating Rig The Hard Shut-In Procedure on a Floating Rig The Fast Shut-In Procedure on a Floating Rig Shallow Gas and Diverting Procedure on a Floating Rig 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 Surface & Subsea BOP's While Wireline Logging 10 Extracts from API RP59 Workshop 4(a) . 2 4. 8 4. 0 4. 6 4. 4 4. 1 4.11 4. 9 4. 7 4.
recommendations for these procedures which includes advantages and disadvantages. To cover the shut-in procedures and diverter procedures for a subsea BOP.I. If surface hole is being drilled and the conductor pipe is not set in a competent formation and a shallow gas kick is taken then the gas should be diverted. Shut-in procedure should be agreed by contractor and operating company and posted on rig floor before drilling the well begins.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. V4 Rev March 2002 4-1 . To cover A.0 OBJECTIVES To cover the shut-in procedures and diverter procedures for a surface BOP. The procedures which follow are generalised suggestions and not necessarily applicable to any specific rig. recommendations for these procedures which includes advantages and disadvantages. 4. To cover A.I. When any positive indication of a kick is observed such as a sudden increase in flow or an increase in pit level. then the well should be shut in immediately without doing a flow check. If the increase in flow or pit gain is hard to detect then a flow check can be done to confirm the well is flowing.P.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO SHUT-IN PROCEDURES ON A FIXED RIG Note: A fixed rig is defined as a drilling rig equipped with a surface BOP.P. This will be discussed at the end of this section.
if positive: Open choke line HCR valve. 59 section 3. Close BOP. 5. 5. that the well may be flowing.2 SOFT SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING ON A FIXED RIG 1. If the choke is not a positive closing choke then close a valve downstream of choke. Set the slips.P. 2. Install inside blowout preventer (Gray valve or Non-Return Valve). 10. 3. Stop pumps and check for flow. If there is an indication of swabbing and the well flows during a flow check proceed as follows. Open choke line HCR valves.P. Close BOP. Close choke. stop rotating the drill string. Call supervisors and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. Open safety valve.8 for the advantages and disadvantages of the soft shut-in. raise the drill string with pumps on until tool joint is above the drill floor.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. 8. 4. Install full opening safety valve (Kelly cock). Close safety valve. 4. Note: Choke in open position while drilling. When any indications are observed. R. 6. 6. Check pit volume gain. while drilling.I. 3.3 SOFT SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE TRIPPING ON A FIXED RIG 1. Close choke. 2. 7. 9. 4-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . 4. Call supervisor and check pressures. 7. Refer to A.
Open choke line HCR valve. stop rotating the drill string. 59 sections 3:7 for advantages and disadvantages of the hard shut-in. With a swabbed kick there are four options: 1.4 HARD SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING ON A FIXED RIG 1. Reduce annular preventer pressure and start stripping drill pipe in the hole. Stop pumps and check for flow.P. V4 Rev March 2002 4-3 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 11. 5.I. 4.P. R. Double check that the well is lined up through the choke manifold prior to circulating kick out. Perform off bottom kill then return to bottom and circulate well to desired mud weight. raise the drill string with pumps on until tool joint is above the drill floor. 2. 4. Note: Choke in open position while tripping. Refer to A. In any shut-in procedure it is prudent to line up the annulus to the trip tank above the annular or rams. 4. 3. Check pit volume gain. This will assist in double checking to see if they are leaking. Bullhead kick back into formation. 2. 3. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing. After the well has been shut in. 6. Call supervisor and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. Perform a volumetric bleed. Strip back in hole. if positive: Close annular or pipe rams.
An automatic diverter system should first:a) b) c) d) Open an alternative flow path to overboard lines. 2. also fast drilling can load up the annulus increasing the mud density leading to lost circulation and if the level in annulus drops far enough then well may flow. Call supervisors and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. fracture gradients will be low.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. If a shallow gas kick is taken while drilling top hole then the kick should be diverted. 5. Check pit volume gain. If there are two overboard lines then the upwind valve should be manually closed. Note: There are no A. Close diverter annular around drill pipe. It may be impossible to close the BOP on a shallow gas kick without breaking down the formation at the shoe.P.6 DIVERTER PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING ON A FIXED RIG 1. When drilling top hole a diverter should be installed and it is good practice to leave the diverter installed until 13 3/8" casing has been run. Stop pumps and check for flow. raise the drill string with pumps on until tool joint is above the drill floor. Where shallow casing strings or conductor pipe are set.5 FAST SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING ON A FIXED RIG 1. if positive: Open choke line HCR valve.I recommendations for the fast shut-in 4. Close shaker valve and trip tank valve. 3. 4-4 V4 Rev March 2002 . Close Annular. Drilling shallow sand too fast can result in large volumes of gas cut mud in the annulus and cause the well to flow. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing. 4. stop rotating the drill string.
If the increase in flow or pit gain is hard to detect then flow check can be done to confirm the well is flowing. It will also stop backflow through the drill string on connections. if there is an indication of gas on rig floor or cellar area then activate deluge systems. 3. If mud reserves run out then continue pumping with sea-water. close diverter immediately as the gas will reach surface in a very short time and it is inadvisable to attempt a flow check. Shut down all nonessential equipment. b) c) d) e) f) g) 4. While drilling top hole a float should be run. Suggested diverting procedure in the event of a shallow gas kick. This will prevent gas entering drill string if a kick is taken while making a connection. When any positive indication of a kick is observed such as a sudden increase in flow or increase in pit level. On jack-up and platform rigs monitor sea for evidence of gas breaking out around conductor.7 GENERAL INTRODUCTION FOR SHUT-IN PROCEDURE ON A FLOATING RIG Note: A floating rig is defined as a rig equipped with subsea BOP’s. V4 Rev March 2002 4-5 . It maybe difficult to obtain an accurate flow check by observing flow line on rig floor or flow line at shaker due to rig movement.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 2. Space out so that the lower safety valve is above the drill floor. Shut-in procedure should be agreed by contractor and operating company and posted on rig floor before drilling the well begins. a) Maintain maximum pump rate and commence pumping kill mud if available. With diverter line open close shaker valve and diverter packer. If any indication of flow is observed while drilling top hole. then the well should be shut in immediately without doing a flow check.
8 SOFT SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE DRILLING ON A FLOATING RIG 1. Stop pumps and check for flow. close annular. Close choke if the choke is not a positive closing choke then close a valve downstream of choke. open the choke line. Close shaker valve. Line up trip tank. Close hang off rams with reduced pressure. 4. If surface hole is being drilled and the conductor or surface casing is not set in a competent formation and a shallow gas kick is taken. if positive: Open fail-safe valve. stop rotating the drill string. With compensator at mid-stroke. Diverting procedure will be discussed at the end of this section. reduce annular pressure. 3. 6. slack off and land drill string on rams. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing. Check pit volume gain. Call supervisors and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. The procedure which follow are generalised suggestions and not necessary applicable to any specific rig. Increase manifold pressure to 1500 psi and open annular.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES To obtain an accurate flow check: a) b) c) d) e) Stop rotating. pick up and space out for hang off rams. 2. then the kick should be diverted and not shut in. 4. raise drill string with pumps running and space out for hang off rams. 5. Shut down rig pumps. 4-6 V4 Rev March 2002 . Half fill trip tank with mud and perform a flow check. 7.
Note: There will be pressure trapped between annular and rams. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 8. slack off on drill string and land tool joint on rams. stop rotating the drill string. V4 Rev March 2002 4-7 . R.000 lbs. R. hang off rams would always be upper or middle pipe rams but never lower pipe rams. adjust compensator to support drill string weight to BOP plus 20. This is because if a kill or choke line washes out beneath the lower pipe rams it would be impossible to secure the wall. if positive: With compensator at mid-stroke close annular or pipe rams.P.000 lbs. 59 section 3:7 for advantages and disadvantages of the hard shut-in. 3. Call supervisors and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. 9. 2.P 59 section 3:8 for advantages and disadvantages for the soft shut-in. Refer to A.P. Close wedge locks and adjust compensator to support drill string weight to BOP plus 20. 4. Increase manifold pressure to 1500 psi close wedge locks. 7. raise drill string with pumps running and space out for hang off rams.I. Note: Choke in open position while drilling. 6. Refer to A.9 THE HARD SHUT-IN PROCEDURE ON A FLOATING RIG 1. Stop pumps and check for flow. Check pit volume gain. 5. With a stack set up of three sets of pipe rams and one set of shear rams.I.P. 10. It has become accepted practice to the lower annular to minimise volume of gas trapped in BOP. Open fail-safe valves on the choke line. 4. If rams have been closed then reduce manifold pressure.
Call supervisors and commence plotting a graph of shut in drill pipe pressure. recommendations for the fast shut-in. Close wedgelocks and adjust compensator to support drill string weight to BOP plus 20. reduce annular pressure. 4. Note: There will be pressure trapped between annular and rams. stop rotating. These lenses maybe normally pressured. 4-8 V4 Rev March 2002 . 5. When any indication is observed while drilling that the well maybe flowing.P. 4. Increase manifold pressure to 1500 psi open annular. slack off and land drill string on rams. if positive: Open fail-safe valves on the choke line. permeable and relatively unconsolidated. 7.I. 3.11 SHALLOW GAS AND DIVERTING PROCEDURE ON A FLOATING RIG 1. 2. Shallow gas sand lenses are normally completely enveloped in mud stone and tend to be highly porous. Fast drilling leading to drilled gas unloading the annulus. There are no A.000 lbs. 2. 8. check pit volume gain. close annular. Shallow gas kicks happen when drilling into a sand lens and are generally caused by loss of hydrostatic head due to one or a combination of the following. raise drill string with pumps running and space out for hang off rams.10 THE FAST SHUT-IN PROCEDURE ON A FLOATING RIG 1. Stop pump and check for flow. With compensator at mid-stroke. Close hang off rams with reduced pressure. 6. but if they are lying at an inclination they may be overpressured. Improper hole fill while tripping if a riser has been run.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. a) b) c) Overloading the annulus with cuttings which may cause losses.
Drill with returns to sea-bed. 6. Suggested action to take if a shallow gas kick occurs while taking returns to sea-bed. Unlatch the connector with an overpull on riser tensioner lines. b) c) d) V4 Rev March 2002 4-9 . The following are the recommended procedures for drilling 36" and 24" hole from a floating rig if there is a risk of shallow gas. Move rig to a safe position up wind of gas plume. a) b) c) Attempt to control the well by pumping sea water or mud. Have a crew member observing surface of sea.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 3. attempt to drop drill string. a) b) c) If possible have camera on sea-bed observing for any sign of gas. a) b) c) Drill a pilot hole prior to drilling 24" hole. 4. Restrict penetration rate to avoid overloading annulus or having an excess of drilled gas in annulus. Suggested action to take if a riser and connector has been run and a shallow gas kick has been taken. d) e) 5. a) It is not recommended to divert as any solids in the gas influx will quickly erode overboard lines. A float should always be run in drill string. A procedure for moving the rig off location must be in place and this procedure should be practised prior to spudding the well. Drop the drill string. If gas flow is endangering personnel or rig. A reserve of weighted mud of twice hole volume should be mixed prior to spudding well. Move rig to a safe position outside and upwind of gas plume while slacking off on guide lines. Precautions to take while drilling top hole.
Decide on kill programme.10 V4 Rev March 2002 . Pass word to the OIL COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE and SENIOR DRILLING CONTRACTOR REPRESENTATIVE of the well condition. The shear rams should be considered as a last resort and used only if the annular(s) fail to secure the well. a surface hydraulic cable cutter should be used.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. Note: If at all possible the wireline should be pulled or stripped out of the hole. 4 .12 SURFACE & SUBSEA BOP’S WHILE WIRELINE LOGGING Direct the wireline loggers to cease operations and close the well on the upper annular. Open kill line valves and begin to record shut in pressure and pit gain. If the line needs to be cut and dropped.
7 Hard Close-in Procedure. 3. 3. Use of the hard close-in procedure is limited to well conditions in which the maximum allowable casing pressure is greater than the anticipated initial close in pressure and a well fracture would not be expected to broach to the surface on initial closure. the soft close-in procedure has a distinct advantage over the hard close-in procedure. In this situation. The choke line valves are aligned such that a flow path is open through the choking system. The major disadvantage of the soft close-in procedure is that the additional time involved in opening the choke line valve and closing the choke will allow additional influx into the wellbore. 2) blowout preventer is closed. can be performed by one man working on the rig floor. The soft close-in procedure provides a means of monitoring casing pressure and a more sensitive control of casing pressure buildup during closure than will be experienced using the hard close-in procedure. This is especially important if formation fracturing and broaching to the surface is likely to occur if the well is closed in without regard to the possibility of excessive initial closedin casing pressure. a choke is left open at all times other than during a well control operation. The choke line valves are aligned such that a flow path is open through the choking system with the exception of the choke(s) itself and one choke line valve located near the blowout preventer stack.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. For a soft close-in.11 . thereby minimising the amount of additional influx of kicking fluid to enter the wellbore. the choke line valve is opened with the choke or adjacent high pressure valve remaining closed so that pressure can be measured at the choke manifold. If the casing pressure cannot be measured at the wellhead. V4 Rev March 2002 4 . For a hard close-in. This procedure allows the well to be closed in the shortest possible time. the soft close-in procedure permits initiation of a low choke pressure procedure or other alternate procedures before maximum allowable casing pressure is reached. If the initial closed-in casing pressure is likely to exceed the maximum allowable casing pressure. This procedure will result in a larger kick volume and potentially higher casing pressure than obtained if the hard close-in procedure is used while circulating out the kick.13 EXTRACTS FROM API RP59 CLOSING IN KICKS 3. the blowout preventer is closed.8 Soft Close-in Versus Hard Close-in Procedure. the chokes remain closed at all times other than during a well control operation.6 Soft Close-in Procedure. and is more likely to be performed without inadvertent delays in closure than the soft closein procedure. This procedure allows the choke to be closed in such a manner to permit sensitive control and monitoring of casing pressure buildup during closure. When the hard close-in procedure is selected for closing in a well. When the soft close-in procedure is selected for closing in a well the: 1) choke line valve is opened. with the exception of one choke line valve located near the blowout preventer. The hard close-in procedure is somewhat less complicated. and 3) choke is closed.
i. When a kick is detected. which is equivalent to a 20. which is equivalent to a 15.3 shows a schematic diagram of a well shut in on a kick. The drill pipe gauge pressure plus the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid equals the formation pressure. 4 .12 V4 Rev March 2002 ..400 psi. The stabilised closed-in pressures are 500 psi on the drill pipe and 640 psi on the casing or annulus gauge. the bottom-hole pressure rises to 7800 psi.000 DRILL foot closed-in well with 10. When the gas reaches the surface. At 5000 feet the borehole pressure is equivalent to a 10 LB/GAL DRILLING FLUID 30. FORMATION PRESSURE The reduced hydrostatic head 10. This also requires that the pits be allowed to gain 20 BBL GAS ENTRY volume.5 illustrates an example of a 10. it is necessary to isolate and identify each one.000 feet with a 10. 500 PSI Figure 3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 3. the well should be closed in as quickly as possible to minimise kick influx volume. Such 10 LB/GAL excessive pressure should DRILLING FLUID be avoided whether gas rises through a static drilling fluid column or is circulated out by allowing the gas to expand as it rises. Figure 3.0 Ib/gal drilling fluid column. Figure 3. casing gauge pressure plus the hydrostatic pressure of the annulus drilling fluid plus the hydrostatic pressure of the influx equals the formation pressure. If a gas bubble is permitted to rise in a wellbore BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE without expanding.0 Ib/gal drilling fluid. a 20-barrel gas influx occurs when drilling at 10.4 illustrates various pressures in the wellbore.0 Ib/gal drilling 640 PSI PIPE fluid and a small volume of gas at bottom. To understand how the various pressures interact.0 Ib/gal drilling fluid column to that depth. the gas = 5700 PSI pressure will remain constant.9 Stabilised Pressures. The same pressure balance can be made for the annulus. bottom-hole pressure is 10. CASING When the gas rises to 5000 feet without expansion or temperature change.e. In this well.000 FT = 5700 PSI above the gas column must be overcome by increased WELL CLOSED IN ON A KICK surface pressure on the casing: in turn this increased pressure results in a higher bottom-hole pressure.0 Ib/gal drilling fluid column.
pumping should be stopped and the increase in casing pressure subtracted from drill pipe pressure.0 LB/GAL = 15. the borehole pressure will rise until equal to formation pressure.4 WELL CLOSED IN ON A KICK CLOSED-IN WELLBORE PRESSURE WITH TIME 3.5 FIG 3.10 Closed-in Drill Pipe Pressure. INCREASE DUE TO RISE OF GAS DRILL PIPE PRESSURE PSI DESIRED VALUE FIG 3. The drill pipe pressure at this time indicates the amount to increase the drilling fluid density. pressure should be increased slowly using the smallest pump available to determine the pressure at which the back-pressure valve opens. When the well is closed in. Drill pipe pressures read after the initial stabilized reading will indicate excessive drilling fluid density increase. the gas will slowly rise and increase both wellbore and drill pipe pressures. the choke should be used to bleed drilling fluid from the casing and maintain the initial shut-in drill pipe pressure. These conditions are illustrated in Figure 3. If the well is not circulated. If casing pressure is seen to rise while pumping on the drill pipe. As the drill pipe (and annulus) is in communication.13 .6. Formation pressure near the wellbore is reduced during flow. To avoid excess wellbore pressures.6 CLOSED-IN DRILL PIPE PRESSURE TIME V4 Rev March 2002 4 . the drill pipe pressure will also rise and stabilize.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES DRILL PIPE ANNULUS INITIAL SURFACE PRESSURE 0 FT FINAL 2600 PSI 5200 PSI GAS 5200 PSS 0 PSI 500 PSI 640 PSI DRILLING FLUID COLUMN PRESSURE DRILLING FLUID COLUMN PRESSURE 5000 FT DRILLING FLUID 5200 PSS GAS 5200 PSS DRILLING FLUID 5200 PSS 4980 PSI 5200 PSI 80 PSI GAS HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE 10000 FT BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE GAS 5200 PSS = 5200 PSI = 7800 PSI =10400 PSI 5700 PSI 5700 PSI FORMATION PRESSURE 5700 PSI EQUIVALENT DRILLING FLUID DENSITY = 10. To determine the closed-in drill pipe pressure when a back-pressure valve is in the drill string.0 LB/GAL FIG 3.0 LB/GAL = 20.
Fracture drilling fluid density (Ib/gal) = Leak-off pressure ––––––––––––––––––– . The pressure at which the plotted curve begins to flatten. It is useful to calculate the formation fracture gradient as equivalent or fracture drilling fluid density.052 x Drilling fluid density (Ib/gal)] x Casing TVD (ft).052 x Casing TVD (ft) x [Required test drilling fluid density b/gal) .12 Formation Competency Test. This pressure plus the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid is the formation fracture pressure. Pumping into the wellbore should be continued until reaching the predetermined test pressure as calculated below: Test pressure (psi) = . Formation fracture pressure (psi) = Leak-off pressure (psi) + [. 3. These tests may also be made on other casing strings. 4 .Present drilling fluid density (lb/gal)]. with blowout preventers closed and carefully plotting the resulting pressure versus the total volume pumped.14 V4 Rev March 2002 .052 x Casing TVD (ft) x [Fracture drilling fluid density (Ib/gal) .e.drilling fluid density currently in use (Ib/gal)]. The formation competency test is performed by pumping drilling fluid into the wellbore at a slow rate (typically one-half barrel per minute) with blowout preventers closed. i. when the pressure increases a smaller amount for a volume pumped. The pump should be stopped immediately.11 Leak-off Test. Fracture pressure is calculated as follows: Fracture pressure (psi) = .052 x Casing TVD (ft) + Drilling fluid density in use during test (Ib/gal). is the surface leak-off pressure. A leak-off test is performed by pumping drilling fluid into the wellbore at a slow rate (typically one-half barrel per minute). A formation competency test is made to determine if a wellbore will support drilling fluid of a higher density which may be required at some future time during the well drilling and completion operations. Fracture pressure is the maximum surface pressure that can be applied to a casing that is full of drilling fluid without fracturing the formation..WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES FORMATION INTEGRITY TESTS 3. Leak-off tests are usually run after drilling a short distance below the surface casing shoe. A leak-off test is made to determine the pressure at which a formation will begin to fracture.
V4 Rev March 2002 4 . while sounding the alarm. When the desired proficiency is attained. This. Pit Drill. e. If automatic equipment is not available. otherwise they should proceed with the complete blowout preventer drill). The supervisor initiating the drill should record response time. Signal given. periodic drills should be continued to maintain performance. B. On-bottom Drill.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES CREW DRILLS The proficiency with which drilling crews react to well control situations and follow correct control procedures can be enhanced by repetitive drills. Stop pump. c. diminishes the surprise element. Blowout Preventer Drill. Stop rotary. The drilling crew should immediately initiate one of the four procedures discussed in Paragraph B depending on the operation at the time of the drill. and proficiency levels are considered desirable: A. but the training is still effective. d. Thereafter the drill should be repeated weekly to maintain proficiency. The following drills. This drill should be repeated on a daily basis until each crew can close in the well within a span of two minutes. The on-bottom drill should be carried only to the point of driller recognition. This drill includes all steps of the pit drill (refer to Paragraph A) but is continued through all the steps of closing in the well as outlined below. of course. a. frequency. the drills may be signalled by word of mouth. 1.15 . the rig supervisor should simulate a gain in pit drilling fluid volume by raising a float sufficiently to cause an alarm to be activated. Crew response time should be one minute or less. Check for well flow. Raise kelly tool joint above the rotary. b. Without prior warning and during a routine operation. but not including. This is to avoid the danger of stuck pipe. signalled by raising the kelly and pump shutdown. A pit drill is terminated when the crew has completed the steps up to. closing the blowout preventers (Crews must be advised that this is a pit drill.
d. Tripping Drill Pipe Drill a.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 2. Safety valves must be clearly identified as to size and connection to avoid confusion and lost time when stabbing. Signal given b. a. Position the upper drill collar in rotary table and set slips. NOTE: Preparation for this operation must be made in advance. 3. 4 . Stab full-open safety valve made up on one joint of drill pipe with change-over sub onto collars. Position the upper tool job above rotary table and set slips. The full open safety valve is then made on the top of the joint of drill pipe. A full opening safety valve for each size and type connection in the string must be open and on the floor ready for use. b. Lower collars with joint of drill pipe into the hole. Close blowout preventer. e. a drill pipe to drill collar change-over sub must be placed on a single joint of drill pipe. e. Drill with Drill Collars in the Preventer. Under actual kick conditions (other than drill) if only one stand of drill collars remained in the hole it would probably be faster to simply pull that last stand and close the blind rams. Close the pipe rams above drill pipe tool joint. Prior to reaching the drill collars when pulling out of the hole.16 V4 Rev March 2002 . The joint of drill pipe picked up with the elevators will usually be easier to stab and make up than a safety valve alone. Flows that occur with drill collars in the preventers will generally be quite rapid since they are usually the result of expansion of a gas bubble that is quite close to the surface. Close drill pipe safety valve. d. Stab full-open valve on drill pipe. c. Close the drill pipe safety valve. f. Signal given. Drills while tripping drill pipe should be performed after the bit is up in the casing. c.
It is desirable to discharge into a trip tank to accurately monitor flow rates for correlation with choke opening. the crew should strip sufficient pipe into the hole to establish the workability of the equipment and to allow each crew member to learn to perform assignments. Choke drills should be performed before drilling out surface casing and each subsequent casing string.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. The performance of a stripping drill by at least one crew on each well should be considered. a. Actual hang-off will not normally be performed on subsequent drills. This drill will establish equipment performance and allow the crew to gain proficiency in choke operation. Stripping drills are not recommended for operations involving subsea blowout preventer stacks. Out of the Hole Drill. b. the crew should place the drill string in position for hang-off. E. This drill can be conveniently performed after casing is set and before drilling out cement. pump rates. D. Signal given. This is particularly important for subsea blowout preventer stacks in deep water. In addition to establishing equipment reliability. and pressure drops in the circulating system and across the choke. this will permit the training of at least one crew on each well. Close blind rams. Stripping Drill. This drill can be conveniently performed in conjunction with the pit drill. the choke should be used to control casing pressure while pumping down the drill pipe at a prescribed rate. Each crew member should be assigned a specific position. C. Choke Drill. With pressure trapped below a closed preventer. With drill pipe in the hole a blowout preventer should be closed and the desired pressure trapped. which may have significant circulating pressure losses in the choke lines.17 . One hang-off should be made before drilling out of surface pipe to ensure that all necessary equipment is on hand and in working condition. Over a period of time. all crews should become proficient in stripping operations. V4 Rev March 2002 4 . Following an acceptable procedure. Hang-off Drill (Subsea Blowout Preventers Only) Following prescribed procedures.
4 . preferably both. Tanks containing two compartments with monitoring arrangements in each compartment are preferred as this facilitates removing or adding drilling fluid without interrupting rig operations. The readout may be direct or remote. calibrated tank which can be isolated from the remainder of the surface drilling fluid system and used to accurately monitor the amount of fluid going into or coming from the well. The primary use of the trip tank is to measure the amount of drilling fluid required to fill the hole while pulling pipe to determine if the drilling fluid volume matches pipe displacement.18 V4 Rev March 2002 . A trip tank may be of any shape provided that it is calibrated accurately and a means is provided for reading the volume contained in the tank at any liquid level. The size of the tank and readout arrangement should be such that volume changes in the order of one-half barrel can be easily detected. It is important to keep this record in a "trip book" so that each trip may be compared with previous trips for anomalous behaviour.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES TRIP TANKS A trip tank is a low-volume. Other uses of the trip tank include measuring drilling fluid or water volume into the annulus when returns are lost. rather than to rely only on comparison with theoretical displacement volumes. TRIP BOOK A tally should be maintained showing the volume of drilling fluid required to fill the hole after pulling the specified number of stands along with the cumulative volume. etc. monitoring the hole while logging or following cement job. calibrating drilling fluid pumps. The trip tank is also used to measure the volume of drilling fluid bled from or pumped into the well as pipe is stripped into or out of the well. A similar record is made of drilling fluid returns while running pipe in the hole.
a.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 4. The valves shown are numbered 1 to 15.14 . pits and diverter lines CASING HEAD 5 6 14 Remotely operated choke . Referring to the above question indicate the position of the chokes.right hand P = Positive Closing Choke Questions 1-4 refer to the diagram above. 1. indicate below those valves that should be in the open position if the Manifold is lined up to suit a Soft Shut-in (excluding choke).left hand SHEAR RAM P 15 8 9 5" PIPE RAM HCR VALVE DRILL SPOOL 1 2 3 4 10 13 5" PIPE RAM P To mud/gas separators. pits and diverter lines Manual Adjustable Choke To pit HCR VALVE CHOKE 7 LINE 11 12 Bleed line To mud/gas separators. Remotely operated choke .WORKSHOP 4(a) . If all of the above valves were closed.19 . b. Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed V4 Rev March 2002 4 .Surface ANNULAR PREVENTER Note: The well will be killed using the left hand automatic choke. Answer: 2. c. when lined up for a Soft Shut-in .
Pick up and space out Stop Rotating Set Slips Open HCR valve Close HCR valve Install Safety Valve(FOSV) Open Safety Valve Close Safety Valve Open Ram Preventer Close Ram Preventer Open Annular Preventer Close Annular Preventer Stop pumping Install Inside B.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 3. 4. 2. 13.P (Grey Valve) Open Choke Close Choke Record Data For questions 5 to 8 refer to the list shown above. 10. 14. c. Indicate the position of the chokes. c. 1. when lined up for a Fast Shut-in . Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Soft Shut-in is to be used. b. Indicate the position of the chokes. or if the Well flows while Tripping. Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed If an indication of a Kick while Drilling occurs. 5. Answer: 4 . 5. 17. then the well must be closed-In. b. a. a. 9. Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed 4. (A Kelly is being used) The following is a list of possible Actions that could or could not be taken when shutting the well in. when lined up for a Hard Shut-in . 16.O. 7. 11. 6.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . 3. 8. 15. 12.
and assuming there is no float valve in the string. e. An I. A Safety valve closed with an IBOP valve below it. b. Answer: 8. V4 Rev March 2002 4 . valve on top of an opened Regan "Fast Shut-off valve". b.21 . a. close the flow line and then close the diverter. Shut the Well in as fast as possible. If a well starts to Flow due to Gas at shallow levels. b. in a static or dynamic condition. Answer: 9. Controlling formation fluids with the pressure of the mud column. Answer: 7.P. use a ram preventer. Open the vent line. A closed Regan "Fast Shut-off valve".B. Prior to Stripping back to bottom. Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Fast shut-in is to be used. c. Pump into the well at the fastest rate. Shut the diverter and then open the vent line and close the flow line. a.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 6. f.B.O. An I. 11. Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Hard shut-in is to be used.P valve on top of a opened Safety Valve. Secondary well control could be defined as initially. Controlling formation fluids with the pressure of the mud column and the well closed in. An Inside Blow-Out Preventer (Grey valve). c. e. the equipment made up on top of the string would generally be. Line up the returns to go through the Poor-Boy Degasser.O. If a well flow while Tripping. select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if the Fast shut-in is to be used. A Safety valve (Kelly cock) in the closed position. the safest action would be: (Select three answers) a. d. d. 10. f. Have all nonessential personnel removed from the rig.
closed Manual Adjustable choke. ref. 6. ch 4-5 7. 13. ref. 12 and 17 ref. 1. ref ch 6-43 2.closed Right hand remote choke. As Q 3. ch 5-29 9. Left hand remote choke. 14. 12. 13. ch 4-4 4 . 4 and 17 ref. 4. 1. 7. 3. 4. c. 12. 1. 7 and 17 ref. All chokes Closed 5. 16 and 17. c. d. ch 4-3 8. 2. ref. The valves which should be in the open position: numbers: 2. ch 5-29 11. 1.Answers 1.opened Manual Adjustable choke. 2. ref. and e.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES WORKSHOP 4(a) . Left hand remote choke. 2. 8. 8 and 15.closed 4. 10 or 12.closed 3. 13. b. ch 4-2 6. 4. ch 1-1 10. 3.closed Right hand remote choke.22 V4 Rev March 2002 .
23 .Subsea Vent to top of derrick From C&K manifold 4” pipe to mud-gas separator To port . REMOTELY ACTUATED VALVES Annular Preventer Kill line H-4 Connector Annular Preventer Choke line F5 F6 F7 F8 Shear Rams 5” Rams Variable Rams 5” Rams H-4 Connector F1 F3 F2 F4 SEA FLOOR Questions 1-4 refer to the stack and manifold diagram. The valves on the manifold are numbered 1 to 31. The upper pipe rams will be used during well kill operations.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES WORKSHOP 4(b) .Blow-down line flare line 28 27 10” Vent Blow-down line To starboard flare line 36” diameter separator Mud-gas separator To shale shaker L/hand remote choke 21 20 18 19 2 1 3 4 6 5 15 16 14 13 26 31 22 30 23 29 Manual choke 24 17 R/hand remote choke 25 11 12 10 9 7 Kill line To shale shaker To cement unit mud pumps 8 DECK LEVEL Choke line SEA LEVEL Flex joint NOTE: Right hand auto-choke will be used during well killing operations. V4 Rev March 2002 4 . The valves shown in the diagram are on the choke and kill line at the stack numbered F1 to F8.
1. a. a. If all of the above valves were closed. 6. b. b. 9. indicate below those valves that should be in the open position if the Manifold is lined up to suit a Soft Shut-in while drilling. 3. when lined up for a Fast Shut-in . a. c. 16. when lined up for a Soft Shut-in . Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed If an indication of a Kick while Drilling occurs. Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed 3. 4. Answer: 2. b. c. 8. Left hand remote choke Manual adjustable choke Right hand remote choke Opened Opened Opened Closed Closed Closed 4.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES 1. 12. (A Kelly is being used) The following is a list of possible Actions that could or could not be taken when shutting the well in. Indicate the position of the chokes. 15. Pick up and space out Stop Rotating Set Slips Open Fail-safe valves Close Fail-safe valves Close Ram preventer Open Ram preventer Close Upper Annular Close Lower Annular Open Annular Open Choke Close Choke Stop pumping Set compensator to mid stroke Hang Off Record Data 4 . 11. when lined up for a Hard Shut-in . 14. then the well must be closed-In. c. 13. 5. 10. or if the Well flows while Tripping. Referring to the above question indicate the position of the chokes. 2.24 V4 Rev March 2002 . 7. Indicate the position of the chokes.
9. To be able to make necessary adjustments to the riser tensioners To reduce the risk of collapsing the riser. a. c. b. Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Fast shut-in is to be used. particularly if a well has to be shut in. Some sensible precautions that could be taken while drilling top if there is any risk of shallow gas would be: (There is more than 1 answer) a.25 . To know the exact measured depth from the bit to the rig floor. b. d. d. It is much easier to detect any flow or pit changes. Answer: 7. From the following select the most important reason for this.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES For questions 5 to 7 refer to the list shown above. Answer: 6. Answer: 8. Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Hard shut-in is to be used. this is because: a. It is easier to control bottom hole pressure It is easier to move the rig off location in an emergency It is easier to close the well in. Select the correct sequence of actions which should be taken if a well kicks while drilling and the Soft Shut-in is to be used. To know where the tool joints are in relation to the ram that will be used. e. b. Monitor sea bed returns and observe surface of sea. V4 Rev March 2002 4 . Drill pilot hole Restrict penetration rate Close the well in at the first sign of flow All of the above. c. Having information about tides and rig heave on a floating rig is important for many reasons. d. 5. c. 10. Drilling for the 20 inch casing is generally done without a riser.
4. 1. 13. 11. 14. 2.closed Manual Adjustable choke. All chokes Closed 5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 4 : SHUT-IN PROCEDURES WORKSHOP 4(b) . 6. 4 . As Q 3. 13. 9. 12. 6. The valves which should be in the open position: numbers: 8. 1. 4. b and c 10. 10 and 16 7. 8. 25.closed Manual Adjustable choke.Answers 1. 27 and 30 2. 9. Left hand remote choke. 15. 2. 8. 4. 15. 1.closed Right hand remote choke. 12.closed 4. 14. 2. 10 and 16 8. 15. 26.opened 3. 10. a. 13. 6. Left hand remote choke. 8.closed Right hand remote choke.26 V4 Rev March 2002 . 14. c. b. 10 and 16 6.
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Page 5.10 5. 7 5. 0 5.11 Objectives Kill Methods General Constant Bottom Hole Pressure Kill Methods The Driller's Method The Wait and Weight Method Volumetric Well Control Volumetric Stripping Edited Extract From API RP53 Removal of Gas Trapped in BOP's Kick Detection and Well Control Problems on Deviated and Horizontal Wells Kick Tolerance Workshop 5 1 1 4 5 13 17 23 28 30 34 42 49 V4 Rev March 2002 . 3 5. 1 5. 8 5. 6 5. 4 5. 9 5. 5 5. 2 5.
This allows approximately constant bottom hole pressure which is slightly greater than formation pressure to be maintained as the kill circulation proceeds because of the additional small circulating friction pressure loss.0 OBJECTIVES To cover the methods of well control for fixed rigs. Generally. After circulation. 5. it is possible to open up the well and restart normal operations. V4 Rev March 2002 5-1 . the well is opened up again and the mud weight may be further increased to provide a safety or trip margin. to cover the special considerations for subsea rigs and to look at step down graphs for deviated and horizontal wells. a kill mud which just provides hydrostatic balance for formation pressure is circulated.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. then once the kill mud has been fully circulated around the well. If this can be done.1 KILL METHODS GENERAL The objective of the various kill methods is to circulate out any invading fluid and circulate a satisfactory weight of kill mud into the well without allowing further fluid into the hole. Ideally this should be done with the minimum of damage to the well.
Providing the bit is on bottom and the string is full with a known mud density this allows us to determine what the formation pressure is and hence what kill mud weight is required to achieve balance. Kill Mud Weight (ppg) = SIDPP (psi) Original Mud + –––––––––––––––––– ÷ 0. and converted to any desired mud weight unit. it can be calculated.1): Formation Pressure = [Hydrostatic Pressure of Mud in Drill pipe] + [Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure SIDPP] On the casing side of the U-tube: Formation = Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure + of Mud in Annulus Hydrostatic Pressure + Shut-in Casing of Influx Pressure The mixture of mud and formation fluid in the annulus makes it impossible to determine formation pressure using the casing information. is full of clean mud of known weight and can be used as a “barometer’ of what is happening downhole. What is lacking in hydrostatic head of fluid in the well is now being made up by surface applied pressure on the annulus and on the drill pipe. the mud weight required to balance.052 Weight (ppg) True Vertical Depth (ft) Once the formation pressure is known.052 True Vertical Depth (ft) [ ] 5-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . in this case ppg. On the drill pipe side of the U-tube.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL BALANCE OF PRESSURES Once the well is shut-in providing nothing has broken down. or ‘kill’. The kill mud weight required could also be described as the original mud weight increased by an amount which will provide a hydrostatic pressure equal to the amount of the drill pipe shut-in pressure over the vertical length of the hole. This can be expressed as a gradient. PF = Head of Mud In Drill pipe + SIDPP We require the mud to produce a hydrostatic pressure equal to the formation pressure over a length equal to the true vertical depth of the hole. since:Kill Mud Weight (ppg) = Formation Pressure (psi) ––––––––––––––––––– ÷ 0. The drill pipe. (Figure 5. however. the pressures in the well will be in balance.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.1 DRILL PIPE ANNULUS DRILL PIPE PRESSURE CASING PRESSURE 800 psi 1220 psi MUD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN THE DRILL PIPE MUD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN THE ANNULUS 8613 psi 9100 psi TOTAL PRESSURE ACTING DOWN (9100 + 800 = 9900 psi) 67 psi TOTAL PRESSURE ACTING DOWN (8613 + 1220 + 67 =9900 psi) 9900 psi 9900 psi 9900 psi FORMATION PRESSURE 9900 psi 9900 psi Drill Pipe: SIDPP + Hydrostatic Pressure of Mud = Formation Pressure Annulus: SICP + Hydrostatic Pressure of Mud + Hydrostatic Pressure of Influx = Formation Pressure V4 Rev March 2002 5-3 .
towards the kill weight. and the kick fluid is circulated out while this mud is circulated into the well. the kick fluid is circulated without changing the mud weight. In the Driller’s Method. a compromise is adopted between these two methods. and differ only in respect of when kill mud is pumped down. is weighted up in stages. The Wait & Weight method achieves both of these operations simultaneously.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. The kick fluid is circulated out while the mud being circulated in. the kill is split into two circulations. once the kick is out.2 CONSTANT BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE KILL METHODS There are three ‘constant bottom-hole pressure’ kill methods in common use today which are: • • • Driller’s Method Wait & Weight Method (also known as the ‘Engineer’s Method’) Concurrent Method These three techniques are very similar in principle. Kill mud is prepared before starting the kill. the mud is weighted up and pumped around the well on the second circulation. In the Concurrent method. During the first. 5-4 V4 Rev March 2002 .
Annular pressure will be at a maximum immediately before gas arrives at surface. and casing burst pressure limitations may be critical. It is also used on highly deviated and horizontal wells. as a minimum. Two complete circulations are thus required. SECOND CIRCULATION: Pump kill weight mud around the well. This method is most used on small land rigs where the Driller may have little help and limited equipment. using existing mud weight. Since it deals separately with the removal of the kick and the addition of kill weight mud. for this method. it is generally considered to be the simplest of well control methods.3 THE DRILLER'S METHOD In the Driller’s Method.can start kill at once Minimum Information Required Disadvantages of Driller’s Method: • • • Highest Annular Pressure Produced Maximum Well Under Pressure Time Longest ‘On-choke’ Time V4 Rev March 2002 5-5 . Advantages of Driller’s Method: • • • Minimum Arithmetic Minimum Waiting Around Time . To summarise: FIRST CIRCULATION: Pump the kick out of the well. care should be taken. CAUTION: because very high annular pressure may arise when killing a gas kick with this method. this results. with an increased possibility of choke problems. where the influx is likely to be a swabbed kick. In addition the simplicity of the Driller’s Method makes it useful when only limited information is available about the well conditions. possibly the longest of the three methods. Also. and it requires least arithmetic. the annular pressures produced during the first circulation are higher than produced with any other method. the kick is circulated out of the hole using the existing mud weight. The mud weight is then raised to the required level and circulated around the well. However.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. in the well being circulated under pressure for a relatively long time.
has been taken.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Procedure for Driller’s Method (See Figure 5. it will be necessary to increase the mud weight further to provide a trip margin. It is the lowest possible mud weight which will ‘kill’ the well. The well is closed in and the information recorded. start the pump and break circulation. 7.052 ) NOTE 1: This is a kill weight mud to balance formation pressure. 5-6 V4 Rev March 2002 . 6. then bring the pump up to the KILL RATE. If a slow circulating rate pressure. until all of the kick fluid has been circulated out of the well.in particular the choke. 5. the choke operator should operate the choke so as to keep the casing pressure at or near the closed in casing pressure reading. x 0. shut the well in and mix up the kill mud weight required. While the Driller is bringing the pump up to the KILL RATE. The pump rate must also be held constant at the KILL RATE throughout this period. though it does result in further wear and tear on equipment under pressure . FIRST CIRCULATION 2. Kill Weight Mud (ppg) = ( SIDPP ––––––––––––––– T. then calculate the pressure required on the drill pipe for the first circulation of the well.D. Initial Circulation = Slow Circulation Rate + Shut-in Drill pipe Pressure Pressure Pressure ICP = PSCR + SIDPP This is: or: 3. Once the well is dead. the choke operator should transfer his attention to the drill pipe pressure gauge and adjust the choke to maintain the INITIAL CIRCULATING PRESSURE on the drill pipe pressure gauge. PSCR. NOTE 2: Some operators prefer to continue circulating the well while kill weight mud is being mixed. The INITIAL CIRCULATING PRESSURE is held constant on the drill pipe pressure gauge by adjusting the choke throughout the whole of the first circulation.2) 1. Open the choke about one quarter. Original Mud Weight + 4.V. Once the kick is out of the hole. There is no theoretical reason why this should not be done. Once the pump is up to the KILL RATE.
A INITIAL CIRCULATING PRESSURE CASING PRESSURE RISING B C SIDPP CASING PRESSURE = SIDPP V4 Rev March 2002 ORIGINAL WEIGHT MUD SIDPP SICP DRILLER’S METHOD DRILLER’S METHOD GAS EXPANDING DRILLER’S METHOD FIRST CIRCULATION COMPLETE Well closed in Original weight mud all around well KICK SHUT IN CIRCULATING KICK OUT Gas Kick Expanding gas is pushing more mud out of annulus.small residual pressure on the casing is thus likely CIRCULATING KILL MUD IN WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Drill pipe pressure dropping (from I.P to F. on drill pipe.C.P.C. CASING PRESSURE BEING REDUCED Figure 5.2 DRILLPIPE PRESSURE DROPPING CASING PRESSURE STEADY 0 psi 0 psi KILL WEIGHT MUD DRILLER’S METHOD DRILLER’S METHOD KILL MUD COMING UP ANNULUS KILL MUD Choke being steadily opened to keep F.C. so Casing Pressure rising to compensate and KEEP CONSTANT BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE GAS Before start of first circulation D E F F.kill mud all round well Well clean up may take some time .C. hence Casing Pressure reducing WELL KILLED Shut in .P. as Kill Mud goes to bit ) 5-7 .P.
to F. While the Driller is bringing the pump up to the kill rate. start the pump and break circulation.P. as the kill mud starts down the drill pipe. Final Circulating Pressure = Slow Circulating Rate Pressure x Kill Mud Weight . the pressure held on the drill pipe is just that required to circulate the kill mud around the well. 10. Once the kill mud is ready. The drill pipe pressure will go down as the drill pipe is being slugged with the heavier mud. increased slightly for the extra mud weight. as kill mud goes to the bit.C.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL SECOND CIRCULATION 8. 5-8 V4 Rev March 2002 .H. if all the kick was properly removed in the first circulation. the choke operator should operate the choke so as to keep the casing pressure steady at the same pressure as when closed in. without the choke being moved. the choke should not need to be touched once the pumps are steady at the Kill Rate. until kill mud reaches the bit. In practice. reaching the final circulating pressure when the kill mud reaches the bit. either keep the casing pressure constant or make out a graph going from I.P.P.C. The drill pipe pressure should drop according to the graph. Then bring the pump up to the kill rate. Original Mud Weight The drill pipe pressure starts dropping below the initial circulating pressure. Thereafter the drill pipe pressure is held at the final circulating pressure by controlled opening of the choke. A graph showing how drill pipe pressure drops from the initial to the final circulating pressure is shown in Figure 3 and this can be used as a guide to the drill pipe pressures required. constant. the first option of keeping casing pressure constant could lead to higher annular pressures. While the drill pipe is being filled with heavy mud there are two options for keeping B. NOTE: If the influx was gas and all the gas was not removed in first circulation. 9. This is the slow circulating rate pressure. open the choke about one quarter. Once the kill mud reaches the bit. as the kill mud moves up the annulus.
so eliminating the possibility of small gas bubbles in the annulus producing misleading information. during the first circulation. V4 Rev March 2002 5-9 . it may be preferable to work out how the drill pipe pressure should vary as kill mud is pumped around the well.3 1500 1400 1300 ICP 1200 1100 1000 PRESSURE 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 FCP 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 STROKES Because of the possibility that the annulus may not be circulated completely clean.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5. The following graphs depict the variations in pressure during the well circulation. This will allow the drill pipe pressure to be used throughout.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.4 FIRST CIRCULATION START Circulating Pressure FINISH Pressure Constant Circulating Pressure at Reduced Rate Drill Pipe Closed in Pressure Time or Pump Strokes START Annular Pressure FINISH G I as nfl ux Water Influx Annular Pressure Time or Pump Strokes Profile of Circulating and Annular Pressure While Killing by Driller's Method 5 .10 V4 Rev March 2002 .
5 SECOND CIRCULATION START Circulating Pressure FINISH Circulating Pressure at Reduced Rate Pressure Constant Circulating Pressure with Kill Mud Well Dead in Drill Pipe Drill Pipe Closed in Pressure Surface to Bit Time or Pump Strokes START Annular Pressure FINISH Constant Annular Pressure Surface to Bit Time or Pump Strokes Profile of Circulating and Annular Pressure While Killing by Driller's Method V4 Rev March 2002 5 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.11 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Determination of Initial Circulating Pressure If no slow circulating rate pressure has been taken. in relation to kill rate 3. It is however preferable to maintain pump rate constant as much as possible. The procedure consists of: 1. Where the casing pressure has been held constant while the pumps are brought up to a kill rate. Adjusting choke to hold casing pressure constant at the value noted. Check choke orifice size. Noting casing pressure reading. Note this new reading is the circulating pressure for the new pump rate and maintain this. 5 . then the initial circulating pressure can be determined using the start-up procedures described in the circulations of the Driller’s Method. 4. return to the drill pipe pressure gauge. As soon as the driller has the pumps settled on the new rate. Any decision to change pump rate should be taken early. Adjusting pumps to new kill rate. the drill pipe pressure reading will be the initial circulating pressure. WARNING: the existence of a predetermined kill rate gives rig personnel a wrong impression that a kick must be circulated exclusively at this rate. NOTE: This procedure is satisfactory at any time during a kill providing the mud weight in the drill string is not changing during the process.12 V4 Rev March 2002 . 2.
this means less equipment stress. Procedure for the Wait and Weight Method The Wait and Weight method uses the same calculations already described for a drill pipe pressure schedule.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. The calculations are: Kill Mud Weight (PPG) = Original Mud Weight + (PPG) _______(SIDPP)_______ True Vertical Depth x.4 THE WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD The “Wait and Weight” is sometimes referred to as the ‘Engineers Method’ or the ‘One Circulation Method’. at least in theory. kill the well in one circulation. • Disadvantages of the Wait and Weight Method • • Considerable waiting time (while weighting up) . This total steadily decreases as the mud goes down to the bit. Advantages of the Wait and Weight Method • Lowest wellbore pressures. kill mud is pumped down the drill pipe. this is difficult to do uniformly in one stage. At commencement. and lowest surface pressures . the static head of mud in the drill pipe balances formation pressure. enough drill pipe pressure must be held to circulate the mud.13 . followed by drill pipe contents and the kill mud. as the influx is pumped to the surface. the shut in drill pipe pressure is used to calculate the kill mud weight. If large increases in mud weight required. Minimum ‘on-choke’ circulating time . For the remainder of the circulation. Once the well is shut in and pressures stabilised. Mud of the required weight is made up in the mud pits. plus a reserve equivalent to the original shut in drill pipe pressure.less chance of washing out the choke. It does. When ready.gas migration.052 V4 Rev March 2002 5 . the drill pipe pressure is held at the final circulating pressure by choke adjustment. The choke is adjusted to reduce drill pipe pressure while kill mud is pumped down the string. the required pressure is simply that needed to pump kill mud around the well. until with kill mud at the bit. With kill mud at the bit.
When the pump is up to the Kill Rate. As with the Driller’s method. However. the revised circulating pressure is read from the drill pipe gauge. While the pump rate is adjusted. 5 . As the kill mud proceeds down the drill pipe. until the kill mud returns to surface. where possible. If. the pump rate is felt to be wrong. adjusting pump rate by holding a steady casing pressure may significantly increase the bottom hole pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL At the start of the circulation.6) Once kill mud is ready.14 V4 Rev March 2002 . the choke operator works the choke so as to keep the casing pressure at or as near as possible to the closed in casing pressure reading. Alterations in pump rate are to be made early on! The following two graphs depict pressure variations during the Wait and Weight method. by choke adjustment. it is possible to draw a graph showing how drill pipe pressure varies as kill mud is pumped down to the bit. the start-up procedure is as previously described. it can be changed using the same procedure described previously. Little or no choke adjustment is required. Only in cases of diffused gas kicks with gas far up the annulus will significant choke adjustments be needed during this period. The choke is cracked open. If a gas influx is very near to the surface. After kill mud has reached the bit. pump rate changes should be avoided. this Final Circulating pressure is held constant as long as pump rate is held constant at the selected value. While the Driller brings the pump up to the Kill Rate. the pump started to break circulation. the casing pressure is held steady by adjusting the choke. the choke operator transfers to the drill pipe pressure gauge. the drill pipe pressure is maintained at the Final Circulating Pressure. Where the kick is a small one. for any reason. This is due to the rapid expansion of gas near the surface. Once the pump is stabilised at its new speed. and then brought up slowly to the Kill Rate. (See Figure 5. at or near the bottom of the hole. the drill pipe pressure is allowed to drop steadily from the Initial Circulating Pressure to the Final Circulating Pressure. with kill mud: Initial Circulating Pressure (ICP) = Slow Circulating Rate Pressure (SCRP) + Shut in Drill pipe Pressure (SIDPP) Once the capacity of the drill string is calculated. the drill pipe pressure tends to drop of its own accord as the kill mud moves down.
6 START Circulating Pressure FINISH Circulating Pressure at Reduced Rate Pressure Constant Circulating Pressure with Kill Mud Well Dead in Drill Pipe Drill Pipe Closed in Pressure Surface to Bit Time or Pump Strokes START Annular Pressure PH1 PH2 PH3 PH4 FINISH Annular Pressure Surface to Bit Time or Pump Strokes Profile of Circulating and Annular Pressure Killing by Wait and Weight Method V4 Rev March 2002 5 .15 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.
7 F. SLOWLY RISING B C F.5 .C. 0 WAIT & WEIGHT WAIT & WEIGHT WAIT & WEIGHT WELL KILLED GAS AT SURFACE DRILL PIPE CONTENTS AT SURFACE Small Casing Pressure still held .P .P. CASING PRESSURE AT MAXIMUM F. SMALL CASING PRESSURE WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team Figure 5. Kill Mud Weight CASING PRESSURE V. SLOWLY RISING I. Kill Mud Weight SICP Kill Mud Weight WAIT & WEIGHT CIRCULATING KILL MUD DOWN WAIT & WEIGHT WAIT & WEIGHT KILL MUD AT BIT START OF KICK Gas Kick SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Just starting kill mud down drill pipe Drill pipe pressure dropping from Initial Circulating Pressure to Final Circulating Pressure Casing Pressure rising very slowly (little gas expansion) Drill pipe Pressure now steady at Final Circulating Pressure D E F F. as small residual Casing Pressure is likely .C.16 A DRILLPIPE PRESSURE DROPPING CASING PRESSURE V.C.C.C.P.as light mud from drillpipe circulated out V4 Rev March 2002 Casing Pressure at its maximum value Well ‘clean up’ takes some time.P.P.
holding an ever increasing pressure on the gauge until the gas reaches the surface.choke Pa Ps = = = Pann + Ps + Pw Initial SICP Built in safety margin prior to volumetric well control commencing. Recommended safety margin = 100 .5 VOLUMETRIC WELL CONTROL The volumetric method is mostly used in workover and production operations.100 psi 5 . packer leaking.12 psi/ft 700 psi • 130 bbls Active pit volume before kick = 120 bbls Active pit volume after kick = 130 bbls For calculating safety margins and working margins use the universal volumetric well control equation below:P.) 1000' per hour. This is to ensure the BHP is constant.0 ppg 0. To allow the bubble to expand the casing gauge is held constant for a given volume of mud bled off.9 Example of volumetric well control with a plugged bit 0 700 WELL DATA TVD TVD Shoe DP/csg/OH cap DC/OH cap Mud wt Influx Grad Casing Press = = = = = = = 12000' 8000' 0. wireline logging and swabbed gas migrating.200 psi Working margin for volumetric well control Recommended working margin = 50 .17 Pw = V4 Rev March 2002 .0291 bbl/ft 12.0459 bbl/ft 0. This operation is repeated.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. The gas needs to migrate at over (approx. No drill string in the well. WHEN TO USE VOLUMETRIC WELL CONTROL • A gas kick is taken and is migrating and the drill string is plugged and only casing pressure can be read. It is a means of allowing the gas to migrate to surface under control. Figure 5.
Note the time taken for this pressure increase then estimate percolating rate in ft/hr.624 2.0291 50 X –––––– 0. Bleed off 50 psi equivalent mud at choke and repeat procedure until gas is at choke. The next step lubrication will be discussed later.choke = = = Pann + Ps + Pw 700 + 100 + 50 850 psi 5.5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL P.5. 5.2 When casing pressure is at 850 psi bleed off at choke a volume of mud equal to the working pressure (50 psi).5. After 50 psi of mud equivalent has been bled off at choke allow the gas to migrate unexpanded until a further 50 psi of overbalance is attained. 5.18 V4 Rev March 2002 . Around drill collars mud volume to bleed = OH/DC's Cap Pw x ––––––––––– Mud grad 0.3 bbls = = 5 .1 Allow the casing pressure to increase to 850 psi.624 psi/ft 962 ft/hr = = Note: With this percolating rate it will take approximately 12 hours to get the influx to the surface and it should also be noted percolating rate may increase when gas is close to surface. Note: Casing pressure must be kept constant at 850 psi during this operation.3 CALCULATIONS FOR MUD VOLUME TO BLEED FOR PW A. Example:Pressure increased by 150 psi in 15 minutes or 600 psi/hr Percolating rate= Pressure increase/hr ––––––––––––––––– Mud grad psi/ft 600 psi ––––––––– 0.
6 bbls Allow gas to migrate until casing pressure read 850 psi 900 2 4 Bleed off 3.4 GRAPHICAL EXAMPLE OF A VOLUMETRIC BLEED Figure 5.5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL B.0459 50 x –––––– 0.10 1000 Bleed off 3. Around Drill Pipe Mud volume to bleed = DP/OH Casg Cap Pw x –––––––––––––– Mud Grad 0.6 bbls 3 800 Bleed off 2.6 bbls = = 5.19 .pipe 5 Bleed off 3.624 3.3 bbl keeping choke pressure ± 20 psi either side of 850 psi influx around DC's 1 700 First build up when well was shut in 600 500 Time V4 Rev March 2002 5 .6 bbls keeping choke pressure ± 20 psi either side of 900 psi Influx around D.
careful records must be kept of pressure and volumes.5 Figure 5.5 bbls) (22. 2. Bleed mud at constant choke pressure using the manual choke. Gas may not conveniently migrate up the well in one bubble.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. Depending upon the size of the volume bled and the well depth more or less bleeds may be required than illustrated here. Important Points 1.9 bbls) (18. A major problem with the method could be boredom.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . stop bleeding until rest of gas catches up. Ensure crew trained not to be tempted to bleed off faster than this as more influx could be induced into the well.5. Figure 5.11 shows what is happening to the gas in the well.3 bbls) (15.1 bbls) Gas volume in bbls at the end of each mud bleed. Four bleeds are shown. As soon as gas reached choke. This may build up an unacceptable overbalance and each situation will have to be judged on the operational merits of the situation. Clearly the description outlined is simplified.11 0 700 0 850 0 850 0 900 0 950 0 1000 original volume (10 bbls) (10 bbls) (12. 5 .
2. Pump 3. Note: Pit volume should return to 120 bbls the volume in active pit before kick was taken. Pump slowly into kill line and let kill and choke line pressure equalise before opening kill line stack valves. The procedure for lubrication is as follows:1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5.1 bbls. then bleed off pressure at the choke equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the mud pumped into the annulus.624 0. Repeat the lubrication process until all the gas has been replaced with mud and referring to the drawing in figure 5. Example:Pressure to bleed = Pumped volume ––––––––––––– x Mud grad Ann Cap 3.21 .11.0459 50 psi = = 3.6 LUBRICATION Once gas is at choke stop the bleed operation and commence pumping mud into the well using the kill line.6 bbls mud into annulus and allow the mud time to fall through the gas.6 –––––– x 0. this will take approximately 22. V4 Rev March 2002 5 .5.
ls bb After pumping mud into annulus. This can be done by running wire line and perforating drill pipe or drill collars. waiting period allows mud to fall then bleed gas until casing pressure reduces by 50 psi below original pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.6 127 25.624) 550 + 7488 8038 psi 5. Formation pressure = = = = BHP after lubrication = = = = SICP + P° hyd mud + P° hyd gas 700 + (11656 x 0. 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 152.8 Pit Volume 138 14. 5 .5 21.4 Barrels Pumped 1.8 120 32.1 148.4 134 18 130.1 bbls 2.12 Graphical example of lubricating mud into annulus 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 Casing Pressure p m Pu 6 3.624) + (344 x 0.2 141 10.7 Once the volumetric bleed and lubrication has been completed then the well must be circulated to kill mud.5.2 123 28.5 3.22 V4 Rev March 2002 . Original Pit Volume = 120 bbls Pit volume after kick and volumetric bleed = 152.12) 700 + 7273 + 42 8015 psi SICP + P° Hyd mud 550 + (12000 x 0.6 145 7. If all the gas has been bled from the annulus then SICP can be used to calculate the kill mud.
b) c) d) Note: V4 Rev March 2002 5 . then consider volumetric stripping to get bit to bottom.6. If well is flowing and is shut in and the gas is percolating and no problems are anticipated in stripping back to bottom. Circulate influx out using first circulation of Driller's Method. Then circulate influx out of hole.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. If well is flowing and is shut in and the gas is percolating with the bit a long way off bottom and tight hole conditions have been experienced.6 VOLUMTRIC STRIPPING 5. If well is flowing and is shut in and the gas is percolating with the bit a long way off bottom and tight hole conditions have been experienced. trip back to bottom keeping a careful check on returns. then consider bullheading.1 Example of Volumetric Stripping The options available if an influx is swabbed or if the well starts flowing during a trip are as follows:a) If well is not flowing.23 . then consider doing a volumetric bleed. A swabbed kick well can be most effectively killed with bit on bottom. So every effort must be made to get bit safely back on bottom.
12 psi/ft Bit depth at original shut in = 11.000' 11.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. 24.13 108 108 Bit size TVD TVD shoe Bit Depth DP Cap DP Disp DP/OH cap Mud wt Pit Gain Influx Grad = = = = = = = = = = 8 1/2" 12.000' 0.000' 9.0459 bbl/ft 12.0 bbls 0.6.2 Well details Figure 5.14 0 560 Shut in pressures and influx size with bit on bottom.0 ppg 15.000' 15 bbls Figure 5.24 V4 Rev March 2002 .5 bbls 5 .02776 bbl/ft 0.0075 bbl/ft 0.
07 108 psi 100 + (0. Note: 5. 9.0.choke V4 Rev March 2002 . 7. prepare stripping sheet. Stab inside BOP (Gray valve).WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. Stab safety valve (kelly cock). Read casing pressure and if possible read drill pipe pressure. Close annular. 8. 2. 4. 5. The above procedure (steps 1 through 5) assumes there is no float or non-return valve in the drill string.6. Do stripping calculations. Open HCR fail safe valves.4 For calculating safety margins and working margins use the universal volumetric well control equation below:P. Reduce annular pressure and commence stripping drill pipe. 3. Close safety valve.H1) Working margin (Recommended working margin = 50 .3 Shut in procedure for a swabbed kick while tripping Fast shut-in 1.0292 = 514' Pw P. 6.214) 100 + 0.Influx grad x (H2 .25 = 214' H2 = 15 ––––– 0.12) x (514 .504 x 300 251 psi 50 psi 108 + 251 + 50 410 psi 5 .624 .choke Pa Ps Pw H1 Pa Ps = = = = = = = = = = = = Pann + Ps + Pw Initial SICP 100 psi + *Increase in casing pressure with influx around drill collars * ∆P.100 psi) 15 –––– 0.6.csg = Mud grad . Open safety valve.
0075 0.85 19.07 33.72 14.20 4. Figure 5. Excess vol.86 10.48 16.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Theoretical bleed off in bbl/ft while stripping = = = DP displacement + DP cap 0.0292 ––––––– 0.37 5.20 1.15 P° choke ACCUMULATIVE VOLUMES Average length = 94' Theoretical Actual vol.98 3.05 17.22 21.62 8.16 2. Stands vol.53 7. When excess bleed off is ± 2.48 9.01776 + 0.48 14.59 23. bleed off bleed off bleed off Step 1 108 –>410 410 410 Step 2 460 460 460 Step 3 510 510 510 Step 4 560 560 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1.66 7.3 bbls. 5.90 5. then build in another 50 psi working pressure. If gas is migrating then any excess bleed off is due to migration.15).84 30.45 After 50' pressure at 410 psi After 15' stripped pressure at 460 psi After 15' stripped pressure at 510 psi After 15' stripped pressure at 560 psi 5 .02526 bbl/ft Excess bleed off for each 50 psi working margin = Pw x = 50 x = Note: ( ( Ann Cap –––––––––– Mud grad ) 0.94 4. No.0624 ) 2.26 V4 Rev March 2002 .51 26.70 6. only theoretical bleed off will be seen in strip tank.74 7.3 bbls If the gas is not migrating while stripping.38 20.12 2.00 3.41 0.74 10.96 1.18 23.11 12. Refer to Volumetric Stripping chart (Fig.
16 600 Step 4 500 Step 2 Pressure Note: Step 2. V4 Rev March 2002 5 . gas influx has expanded by 9. It may take 2 . when the difference between the actual and theoretical bleed is 2.45 bbls and if it was possible to read drill pipe pressure it would read zero with drill pipe full of mud. Note: No kill mud will be required as this is a swabbed kick. then hold casing pressure constant by bleed off at choke.27 . Figure 5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Step 1 Allow casing pressure to increase to calculated Pchoke pressure while stripping first stand.5 With bit on bottom casing pressure reads 560 psi. With theoretical bleed already calculated. 3 & 4 Step 3 Step 1 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stands 8 9 10 11 12 5. The influx should now be circulated out using auto choke. record actual bleed. The casing pressure may not rise straight away because the gas has to be compressed.3 bbls allow annulas pressure to increase by Pw (50 psi).6.3 stands before a pressure build up is seen.
7 EDITED EXTRACT FROM API RP53 PIPE STRIPPING ARRANGEMENTS . the environment. with at least one sealing element closed to contain well pressure. casing. or drill pipe to be run or pulled while annular pressure is contained by blowout preventers. chokes. The number.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. and the equipment required depends upon the technique employed. completion. however. the primary surface equipment consists of blowout preventers. permits pipe to be pulled from or run into a well. This equipment should either be removable or designed so that its presence will not interfere with operations subsequent to stripping. The well site supervisor and crew must have a thorough working knowledge of all well control principles and equipment employed for stripping.SURFACE INSTALLATIONS PURPOSE During operations on a drilling or producing well. plans for certain drilling. Subsurface equipment is required to prevent pressure entry or flow into the pipe being stripped. type. operated prior to use.28 V4 Rev March 2002 . Equipment should be rigorously inspected. Stripping requires surface equipment which simultaneously: a. Each stripping operation tends to be unique. pumps. and degree of protection desired. c. and. Stripping is normally considered an emergency procedure to maintain well control. if practicable. EQUIPMENT Stripping techniques vary. Often the blowout preventer stack installed for normal drilling is suitable for low pressure stripping if spaced so that tool joints or couplings can be progressively lowered or pulled through the stack. a sequence of events may require tubing. provides a means of containing and monitoring annular pressure. and trip tanks (or other accurate drilling fluid measuring equipment). the equipment and the basic guidelines discussed herein are necessarily general in nature. Therefore. and permits measured volumes of fluid to be bled from or pumped into the well. b. such practice is called “stripping”. gauges. For stripping operations. closing units. and pressure rating of the blowout preventers required for stripping are based on anticipated or known surface pressure. requiring adaptation to the particular circumstances. or well work operations may include stripping to eliminate the necessity of loading the well with fluid. 5 .
V4 Rev March 2002 5 . bled from or pumped into the space between the preventers. Lubrication of the pipe with a mixture of oil and graphite or by permitting a small leakage of annular fluid will reduce wear on the packing element. Adjustable chokes which permit fast. This ram should be reserved as a means of shutting in the well if other components of the blowout preventer stack fail. Ram preventers must be opened to permit passage of tool joints or couplings. A trip tank or other method of accurately measuring the drilling fluid bled off.A.29 . Ram type preventers or combinations of ram and annular preventers are employed when pressure and/or Configuration of the coupling could cause excessive wear if the annular preventer were used alone.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Annular preventers are most commonly employed for stripping because tool joints and some couplings can be moved through the preventer without opening or closing of the packing element. 10. Parallel chokes which permit isolation and repair of one choke while the other is active are desirable on lengthy stripping operations. A spare packing element should be at the well site during any stripping operation. A pump truck or skid mounted pump is normally employed when stripping out. Pressure across the sealing element should be equalised prior to opening the preventer to reduce wear and to facilitate operation of the preventer. provision should be made for pumping into and releasing fluid from the space between preventers. or pumped into the well within an accuracy of one-half barrel is required. The lowermost ram should not be employed in the stripping operation. Fig. leaked from. Well fluid from below the preventer should not be used to equalise pressure across the stripping preventer. precise control should be employed. When stripping between preventers. Wear of the packing element limits the sole use of this preventer if high annular pressure must be contained while stripping.1 illustrates an example choke installation on the standpipe suitable for stripping operations. spare parts or spare chokes should be on location. respectively. After equalising the pressure and opening the lower preventer a volume of drilling fluid equal to that displaced as the pipe is run into or pulled from the well should be. Chokes are required to control the release of fluid while maintaining the desired annular pressure. The relatively small volume of drilling fluid required to replace the capacity and displacement of each stand or joint of pipe may be accurately measured and pumped at a controlled rate with such equipment. It should not be subjected to the wear and stress of the stripping process. To minimise wear the closing pressure should be reduced as much as possible and the element allowed to expand and contract (breathe) as tool joint pass through. Because of the severe service.
This has the potential to cause a serious problem if the gas is not removed in a controlled manner. As the gas migrated.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5. the gas would be released into the riser. Once the riser has been displaced to kill weight mud the lower rams can be opened and the well flow-checked.30.30 V4 Rev March 2002 . pressure can be bled off up the choke line and “U-tubed” up the choke line by opening the pipe rams. Calculate any new riser margin or trip margin that might have to be added to the mud weight. This sequence is shown in Fig 5.29 and 5.28. The surface diverter should be closed during the operations so that any residual gas from the riser can be safely dealt with. it would expand rapidly and cause the riser to unload mud onto the rig floor. Figure 5. By closing the kill line valves. During this time some of the gas may have become trapped under closed rams in the BOP stack as shown in Fig 5. If the rams were opened without removing the trapped gas.28 TRAPPED GAS IN BOP STACK KILL LINE UPPER ANNULA R LOWER ANNULA R CHOKE LINE BLIND/SHEAR RAMS PIPE RAMS PIPE RAMS PIPE RAMS 5 .8 REMOVAL OF GAS TRAPPED IN BOP’S In order to displace a gas kick completely from the wellbore several circulations of the well might be needed. The most thorough method of gas removal is to leave the well shut on the lower rams whilst displacing the choke and kill lines to water.
As the kill line is displaced to water. KILL LINE CHOKE LINE Slowly displace kill line to salt water. V4 Rev March 2002 5 . This will maintain the gas at original pressure with clean salt water returns at surface stop pumping close choke. Displace riser to kill mud using upper kill line. increase the kill line circulating pressure by an amount equal to the difference in hydrostatic pressure between kill mud and salt water at stack depth.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.31 .29 REMOVING TRAPPED GAS FROM BOP STACK KILL LINE CHOKE LINE KILL LINE CHOKE LINE Isolate the well from the BOP stack by closing the lower pipe rams.
Open the lower pipe rams and diverter element. Flow check the well. Bleed off pressure through the choke to allow the gas to displace water from the choke line.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Figure 5.30 REMOVING TRAPPED GAS FROM BOP STACK KILL LINE CHOKE LINE KILL LINE CHOKE LINE Close the subsea kill line valves.32 V4 Rev March 2002 . Close the diverter and line up to fill the riser. The gas bubble should now be at close to atmospheric pressure. At this point the pressure is still trapped in the gas bubble. Open the pipe rams and allow the riser to U-tube taking returns up the choke line. 5 . Fill the riser as necessary.
via the choke line with 16.7 = 1559 psi If the volume of gas trapped below the BOP = 5.5 x .052) + 14.33 .7 = = = = P1 V1 –––– P2 = = = = = 1000' 8 bbls 15 ppg 0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL Bubble Expansion Example:Choke Line Length Choke Line Volume Kill Mud Sea Water Grad V2 P1 V1 P2 Example: This example gives some idea of the large volumes of gas that could be released to atmosphere if the annular is opened without sweeping the stack.445 780 X 3 ––––––– 445 = 5. The hydrostatic head compressing the gas under the bag would be (1800 x 16. V4 Rev March 2002 5 .5 ppg mud.46 bbls then: P1 x V1 –––––– P2 = V2 1559 x 5.3 bbls = 780 psi 15 x 1000 x 0.052 3 bbls 0.46 –––––––––– = 579 bbls 14.445 x 1000 = 445 psi 573 bbls of gas released at surface. Lets say that we are drilling in 1800' of water and the well has been killed to surface.
If the increase in flow rate is not picked up then the second indication of a kick would be a pit level increase.SURFACE 30" Shoe TVD = 1000' 20" Shoe TVD = 2500' MD = 1000' MD = 2500' B . While drilling the horizontal section mixing chemicals or slow addition of mud into the active system should be avoided c) 5 .34 V4 Rev March 2002 . problems can be experienced getting the gas to move out of the horizontal section. Swabbed influxes can be hard to detect in horizontal sections and care must be taken while making connections or tripping in these sections of the hole.9. Drill pipe pressure graphs will also be significantly different for horizontal and deviated wells.B.P. 5. If influx is mainly gas.D. It maybe impossible to remove the gas if the horizontal section is greater than 90 degrees.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5.0 ppg 9 5/8" Shoe TVD = 9500' Formation Pressure = 4700 psi MD = 17500' D .1 KICK DETECTION AND PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE WHILE DRILLING a) b) First indication of a kick while drilling would be an increase in flow rate.TOTAL MEASURED DEPTH (M.) 13 3/8" Shoe TVD = 5000' MD = 5500' Mud Weight = 10.) MD at C = 12500' Well Depth TVD = 10000' MD = 15000' INTRODUCTION Kick behaviour can be significantly different in highly deviated and horizontal wells.END OF BUILD (E.9 KICK DETECTION AND WELL CONTROL PROBLEMS ON DEVIATED AND HORIZONTAL WELLS Figure 5.O.KICK OFF POINT (K.O.31 A .) C .
When tripping out of horizontal section there are two options available and a slug should not be pumped until bit is inside 9 5/8" casing. a) b) Mud loggers will calculate maximum tripping speed to avoid swabbing. 1. While drilling. the trip tank should be kept half full of mud when pumps are off. c) V4 Rev March 2002 5 . DISADVANTAGES: If an influx is swabbed in. If it is a gas influx in an oil base mud then no increase maybe seen until influx reaches bubble point usually ± 3000 feet beneath mud return flow line. If an influx has been swabbed in and not picked up during a connection no increase pit level will be seen until influx is out of horizontal section. a) The equivalent circulating density is relatively higher when drilling high angle wells.35 . it would be very hard if not impossible to detect. ADVANTAGES: While circulating annular pressure loss will be acting on formation and should prevent swabbing.3 KICK DETECTION AND PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE WHILE TRIPPING.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 5.9. Check mud rheology is within specifications prior to tripping. During a connection well should be lined up on trip tank as the most likely time to swab or take a kick is when APL is lost with pumps off. high mud rheology can lead to swabbing. DISADVANTAGES: Pulling out of hole with pumps off there is no APL to Act as a safety margin. b) 5. Line up to trip tank pull out to 9 5/8" shoe monitoring hole fill in trip tank ADVANTAGES: Accurate record of hole fill. 2.9. The driller and mud logger should pay particular attention to flow rates and pit levels when connection gas moves out of horizontal section or is ± 3000 feet beneath mud return flow line. Pull out of hole to 9 5/8" shoe back reaming and circulating.2 KICK DETECTION AND PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE WHEN MAKING CONNECTIONS.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
5.9.4 GAS KICK IN HORIZONTAL SECTION. a) b) c) Gas will not migrate if hole angle is 90 degrees or greater. Gas will not migrate if it is dissolved in oil based mud. Gas maybe trapped in undulations or washouts or in hole sections which are greater than 90 degrees. If gas cannot be removed from inverted sections then consider bullheading gas into formation. Slow circulating rates which give a flow rate greater than 130 ft/min while circulating gas out of horizontal section should be considered. Flow rates lower than this may not remove the gas from the horizontal section A swabbed influx will not give a SICP if shut in while it is in horizontal section. Referring to drawings on page 1 it would be impossible to take a kick if formation pressure remains at 4700 psi. If a fault is drilled and formation pressure increases and the well is shut on a kick then SIDPP = SICP and the gradient of the influx cannot be calculated.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
Drill pipe kill graph for a vertical well using well details from Fig 5.31 Additional Information SIDPP PSCR (Up Riser) Pump Output Drill Pipe Cap BHA Cap Drill String Cap = = = = = = 600 psi 700 psi 0.117 bbl/stks 0.01776 bbl/ft 1000' X 0.008 bbl/ft 9000 X 0.01776 = 159.8 1000 X 0.008 = 8.0 167.8 bbl 167.8 ––––– 0.117 = 1434 stks
Strokes to Disp D.string
Press Step Down psi/stks = 600 ––––– 10000 11.2 ppg 600 + 700 1300 psi
ICP - FCP 1300-784 –––––––––––––– = ––––––––– = 0.36 psi/stks Surface to bit stks 1434 ÷ 0.052 + 10.0
1. Kill Mud wt
11.2 700 x –––– 10 784 psi
V4 Rev March 2002
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
1500 1400 1300 ICP 1200 1100 1000
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
STROKES To construct this graph calculate ICP and FCP and strokes to displace the drill string then draw a line between the two points.
IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT THIS GRAPH IS MADE UP OF TWO DIFFERENT PRESSURES No 1 Is the SIDPP which will decrease from 600 psi to zero when kill mud is at the bit. No 2 Is the SCR pressure which increases from 700 psi to 784 psi when the kill mud is at the bit.
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V4 Rev March 2002
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
Drill pipe kill graph for a horizontal well using well details from Fig 5.31 Additional Information SIDPP PSCR (Up Riser) Pump Output Drill Pipe Cap BHA Cap Drill String Cap = = = = = = 600 psi 1050 psi 0.117 bbl/stks 0.01776 bbl/ft 1000' X 0.008 bbl/ft 14000 X 0.01776 = 248.6 1000 X 0.008 = 8.0 256.6 bbl 256.6 ––––– 0.117 = 2194 stks Figure 5.33
Strokes to Disp D.string
A - (SURFACE)
B - (K.O.P.)
MD = 2500' TVD = 2500'
MD = 12500' TVD = 10000'
C - (E.O.B.)
MD = 15000' TVD = 10000'
D - (M.D.)
1. Kill Mud wt
600 ––––– ÷ 0.052 + 10.0 10000 600 + 1050 11.2 1050 x –––– 10 =
V4 Rev March 2002
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
1700 A - (SURFACE) 1650 1600 B - (K.O.P.) 1521 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600
D - (M.D.) 1170 C - (E.O.B.) 1155
The calculations for Figure 34 are as follows:1. Pressure Drop from A to B Static drill pipe pressure drop to point (B) = SIDPP 2500 600 - ––––– x 600 10000
TVD(B) ––––––– x SIDPP TVD
= 600 - 150
= 450 psi
Frictional pressure increase at point (B) = SCR UP RISER +
MD(B) ––––– FCP-PSCR MD
2500 –––––– x 126 15000
= 1050 + 21 = 1071 psi = 1650 psi –> 1521 psi
Pressure drop from A–> B = 1650 –> (1071 + 450)
44.4 Strokes from A–> B 2500 x 0.01776 = –––––– = 380 strokes 0.117
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
2. Pressure drop from B to C Static drill pipe pressure drop to point (C) = SIDPP = 600 -
10000 ––––– x 600 10000
TVD(C) –––––– x SIDPP TVD
= 0 psi
Frictional pressure increase at point C = SCR +
MD(C) ––––– x ∆P SCR MD = 1155 psi
= 1050 +
12500 –––––– x 126 15000
Pressure drop from B to C = 1521 to 1155 psi Strokes from B to C = (12500 - 2500) x 0.01776 = Accumulative strokes = 380 + 1518
177.6 ––––– = 1518 strokes 0.117
= 1898 strokes
3. Frictional pressure increase from point C to point D Frictional pressure at C = 1155 psi Frictional pressure at D = 1176 psi Strokes from C to D = (12500 - 14000) x 0.01776 = 8 –––– 0.117 26.64 –––––– 0.117 = 228 strokes
1000 x 0.008
= 68 strokes 296 strokes
Accumulative strokes to point D = 380 + 1518 + 296
= 2194 strokes
V4 Rev March 2002
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL
5.10 KICK TOLERANCE
When a gas influx has entered a well there are 2 critical locations for the influx:a) When the influx is at the bottom of the well. In this case the SICP must not exceed the MAASP, if the formation is not fractured at the casing shoe. When the influx has been circulated up to the casing shoe, by a constant bottom hole pressure method. In this case, the pressure at the choke must not exceed the MAASP. KICK TOLERANCE DEPENDS UPON:Formation strength, fracture pressure or fracture gradient. Mud density or gradient. Gas influx density or gradient. Formation pore pressure, gradient or SIDPP. Drill string and wellbore geometries. The maximum tolerable length of gas influx in the annulus at any position between bottom hole and the casing shoe is:H (Max) Where:GM GI MAASP Gfrac DS SIDPP = = = = = = = MAASP - SIDPP G m - Gi (Eqn1)
mud gradient (psi/ft) influx gradient (psi/ft) (Gfrac - Gm) x Ds (psi) formation fracture gradient at the shoe (psi/ft) TVD to the shoe (ft) shut-in drillpipe pressure (psi)
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maximum tolerable length of expanded gas influx at shoe = HMAX. fracture pressure at shoe.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL KICK TOLERANCE : DRILLED KICK MAASP SICP 0 E L BDE BD PRESSURE = = pressure profile in annulus at shut-in. Hence HMAX = MAASP . by 'drillers method'. Well geometry assumed to be constant H max (gas) ine H1(gas) V4 Rev March 2002 5 . BMFKL = DEPTH (TVD) SK FK = = Mud Gra dien t/Pr effu re L ine S ∆le FKN = ∆le BDM.43 . initial gas influx height = H1 pressure profile in annulus when top of gas is circulated to casing shoe.SIDPP GM .GI Shoe N K Fra r ctu eL F M A Phyd D B Ppore C SIDPP NB.
(bbl) (Vertical) length of drill collars.44 V4 Rev March 2002 . which will not cause the formation to fracture when either the influx is at the bottom of the annulus or when it is circulated and expanded to the casing shoe by a constant bottom-hole pressure method.Ldc) V1g = Vdca + (HCdpa bbl (if H is >Ldc) where H is calculated from Eqn 1 OR b) V1g = Pfrac xx(MAASP . (Usually the Driller's method).SIDPP) bbl Ppore (GM .this will probably = Cdpa. Thus the kick tolerance is either a) or H V1g = Ldc x Vdca bbl (If H is <Ldc) . Kick Tolerance is the maximum allowable influx volume. (ft) Capacity of DC/OH annulus (ft/bbl) Capacity of DP/OH annulus (ft/bbl) Capacity of annulus (ft/bbl) at the casing shoe . but on occasion it may = Cdca fracture pressure at shoe (psi) pore pressure at bottom of hole (psi) Pfrac Ppore = = 5 . for a known or assumed SIDPP. Where:Vdca Ldc Cdca Cdpa Csa = = = = = Volume of DC/OH annulus.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL DEFINITION 1: for a kick taken while drilling into a high pressure formation.GI) x Csa The Lower value of V1g calculated from a) and b) is the Kick Tolerance.
without fracturing the formation when the well is closed in. Kick tolerance for a swabbed kick is the maximum allowable influx volume which may be swabbed into the bottom of a well. It is assumed that prior to tripping.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL DEFINITION 2: for a kick taken while tripping out of the hole. In this case Hmax = MAASP ft GM .G I and the kick tolerance is either V1g = or V1g = H Ldc x Vdca Vdca + (H .Ldc) Cdpa V4 Rev March 2002 5 .45 . and when the mud gradient is at the least equal to the formation pore pressure gradient. although initially SIDPP should = SICP (no float) when the well is closed in and the bit is above the influx. when the bit is eventually back at bottom SIDPP=0. In this case. the mud weight was correct.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL KICK TOLERANCE EXERCISE 1 A well has a TVD of 14500 ft with the casing shoe at 13200 ft TVD.314 ft/bbl = 21. The gas gradient is 0. The fracture gradient is 0. The mud gradient is 0. The annular capacities are:DC/OH DP/OH 1) = 34.87 psi/ft and the current mud is 15.1 psi/ft. 5 .787 ft/bbl Calculate the kick tolerance if the well is shut-in with the current mud and a SIDPP of 570 psi. There is 700 ft of 6 1/2" OD drill collar and the open hole diameter is 8 1/2". with 5" drill pipe. 2) Calculate the kick tolerance for a swabbed kick when the mud weight is equivalent to the formation pore pressure.3 ppg.46 V4 Rev March 2002 .835 psi/ft.
SIDPP) Ppore x Cdpa x (GM .SIDPP) x Dshoe Gpore x Cdpa x (GM .40 bbl Therefore: b) Kick tolerance (a) = 592.3 x 20.47 .7956) x 13200 = 982 psi Then H1 max = MAASP .1 = 592. V4 Rev March 2002 5 .3 x 0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL SOLUTION 1) MAASP = (Gfrac .GI) x TVD 15. influx is still within the DC/OH annulus. Kick tolerance (b) = Pfrac x (MAASP .3 ft a) For influx at the bottom of the well.87 x (982 .8 bbl 0.570 .835 psi/ft 14500 0.GM) x DShoe G = 15.787 x (0.7956 psi/ft M = (0.0.052 x 14500 + 570 = 0.0.87 .7956 .GI = 982 .3 bbl For kick at casing shoe.7956 .3 x 0.40 700 = 17.GI) Gfrac x (MAASP . 0.0.052 = 0.3 bbl when the kick is in the DC/OH annulus.835 x 21.SIDPP GM . Volume of DC/OH annulus= 700 34.314 = 20.1) x 14500 = Gpore = Therefore: kick tolerance (b) = conclusion: The smaller of those 2 values is the (a) value therefore kick tolerance = 17.570) x 13200 = 25. at its maximum. This is usually the case in short open-hole sections.
735 = 628. maximum allowable (SIDPP = 0) influx height is: Hmax = MAASP ft GM .0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 2) For a swabbed kick.G I = (0.6 ft Therefore swabbed kick tolerance with 0.6 x 20.3 bbl 5 .835 psi/ft mud.4 700 = 18.835) x 13200 New MAASP = 462 psi Therefore H1 max = 462 0.87 . = 628.48 V4 Rev March 2002 .
c. Pressure at the shoe will be constant Pressure at the shoe will reduce Pressure at the shoe will increase 5. b. b. c. Be increasing Be decreasing Being kept constant Referring to the question above. When pressures have stabilised at shut-in When the kick is going into the shoe When the kick is nearing the surface 4. the choke operator maintains a constant drill pipe pressure at a constant pump speed. 2. Referring to question 1 above if the kick was brine. c.49 . from the pump to the rig floor. b. During the first circulation of the Drillers Method. 1. What happens to pressure at the shoe as the brine kick is being moved into the casing shoe?: a. Pressure at the shoe increase Pressure at the shoe decrease Pressure at the shoe remain constant V4 Rev March 2002 5 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL WORKSHOP 5 The following questions 1-5 refer to the first stage of the Drillers Method. This will result in: a. Will bottom hole pressure: a. If the kick is gas rather than brine and as it is being circulated into the casing shoe will: a. b. c. the choke operator has not taken into account the large volume of the surface lines. c.e. A well was shut-in on a kick that occurred whilst drilling. (with no gas) Casing or Choke pressure will be at its highest : a. b. An increase in bottom hole pressure A reduction in bottom hole pressure No change to bottom hole pressure 3. i.
Would bottom hole pressure? a.P. would have remained constant as kill mud displaced the annulus.P. would be increased as kill mud displaced the annulus. then B.50 V4 Rev March 2002 . would be seeing an increase from the moment the pump reached kill speed until kill mud was at surface.H.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 6. b. if when starting the operation the choke operator maintained a constant initial circulating pressure in the drill-pipe until kill mud reached the bit. Shut-in drill pipe pressure will be higher than 200 psi Shut-in drill pipe pressure will be lower than 200 psi Shut-in drill pipe pressure should be 200 psi 5 . would have remained constant until kill mud at bit then B.H. 260 psi 226 psi 34 psi 9. B. What is the resultant reduction in bottom hole pressure due to this action ? Mud weight = 10 ppg Sea-water = 8. assuming all of the kick was removed during the first stage.H. 8. B. b. If at the start of the second stage of the Drillers Method. B.H. During the second stage of the Drillers Method. c. Sea-water is then pumped to the annulus. How would this action affect B. Assume the volume of water it took to fill the well to the top was equivalent to 500' of annulus.H.P. c. the choke operator maintained a constant Casing or Choke pressure until kill mud was at surface. b. c.P. b.P. Shut-in casing pressure reads 200 psi. Be increased Have reduced Be constant 7.7 ppg a. If total losses occur when drilling and with the bit off bottom and the mud pumps off. If the influx is below the bit: a.H. ? a.P. The well flows with the bit 10 stands off bottom. c. would have increased until kill mud was at the bit.
How far has the influx migrated if the mud weight is 10 ppg and the influx density is assumed to be . The Wait & Weight Method will always give a lower shoe pressure. b. There will be no great difference in shoe pressures whether the Drillers or Wait/Weight Method is used if the open hole volume is less than the string volume. If a well is shut-in on a gas kick and the gas is not allowed to expand as it migrates up the well-bore. 13. A well is shut-in on a kick whilst drilling and stabilised shut-in pressures have been established. Bleed mud off keeping a constant drill pipe pressure. To bleed mud off using the choke until casing pressure reduces by 100 psi. Then keep it constant. Due to a delay in starting the kill operation surface pressures have increased by 100 psi as the influx is migrating. a. When comparing the Drillers and Wait & Weight Kill Methods with regards to the pressures that will be exerted on the exposed foundations immediately below the casing shoe: Select 2 answers from the following statements. Referring to Q10. (i) It increases (ii) It decreases (iii) Stays more or less the same V4 Rev March 2002 5 . The Wait & Weight Method will give the lowest shoe pressure when the open hole volume is greater than the string volume. The Drillers Method will give the lowest shoe pressure when the open hole volume is smaller than the string volume. Leave it until the problem causing the delay has been resolved then increase the kill mud weight by . c.5 ppg. c.P. If surface pressure had increased by 200 psi due to migration of the influx. The safest action would be: a. d.51 .H. b. e.12 psi/ft ? Answer: 12.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 10. The Drillers Method will always give a higher shoe pressure. What happens ? a. To B. 11.
The result would be: a.P.52 V4 Rev March 2002 .H.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL b. Pressures in the gas influx. To pressures at the shoe (i) Will only increase if the influx is below the shoe (ii) Will continue to increase (iii) Will remain fairly constant d.P.H. Assuming no temperature change. The pump speed has been kept constant at kill speed and there was no change noted on the choke gauge.P 5 . b. A kick is being circulated out using the Wait & Weight Kill Method. b. What is the problem ? a. (i) Pressure in the gas will continue to increase (ii) Pressure in the gas will keep reducing as it migrates (iii) There should be no great change to the pressures in the gas influx 14. Shortly after pumping kill mud to the bit. would be increased no change to B. c. would be reduced B. B. If the choke operator opened the choke and reduced drill pipe pressure back to the calculated final circulating pressure in the problem as described in Question 14.H. final circulating pressure has suddenly increased by 200 psi. c. The choke has plugged A bit nozzle has plugged A pack-off has occurred around the bit 15. To surface pressures (i) They increase (ii) They stay more or less the same (iii) Only casing pressure will increase c.
052 = 33. Casing pressure should reduce as kill mud displaces annulus.P.P. 3. B. reducing pressure at the shoe. would have remained constant until kill mud at bit then B. 7. No change to bottom hole pressure Kill mud is not being circulated until the 2nd circulation. c. 8.Answers 1. a.H. reducing pressure at the shoe. Be increased Casing pressure should be constant while DP pressure should reduce from an ICP to a FCP.7) x . 4. b. 34 psi 500 x (10 . 6. c. b. c.8. 5. When pressures have stabilised at shut-in When the height of the kick is at its highest: ie around the drill collars. driller's method). Being kept constant Maintain ICP with present mud weight until bottoms-up (1st circ. Pressure at the shoe will reduce Kick fluid is being replaced with a heavier "mud". c. a.H. would be increased as kill mud displaced the annulus. Pressure at the shoe decrease Kick fluid is being replaced with a heavier "mud". 2.53 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL WORKSHOP 5 .8 psi V4 Rev March 2002 5 .
The Wait & Weight Method will give the lowest shoe pressure when the open hole volume is greater than the string volume. a. There will be no great difference in shoe pressures whether the Drillers or Wait/Weight Method is used if the open hole volume is less than the string volume.H. b. (iii) There should be no great change to the pressures in the gas influx A bit nozzle has plugged B.54 V4 Rev March 2002 . d. 5 .P. b.52 psift = 385' 12. a. 15. (i) (i) (ii) It increases They increase Will continue to increase 13. c. 10. e.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 5 : METHODS OF WELL CONTROL 9. Shut-in drill pipe pressure should be 200 psi Bleed mud off keeping a constant drill pipe pressure. Answer: 385' 200 psi . 11. would be reduced 14. c. b. d.
6 API Guidelines . 0 6.SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Page 6. 4 6. 3 6.API RP53 Ram Blowout Preventers Annular Preventers Diverters Gaskets. 1 6. 5 6. 2 6. Seals and Wellheads Manifolds Inside BOP’s 1 10 38 57 72 84 102 V4 Rev March 2002 .
1000 psi rated working pressure. RAM LOCKS Ram type preventers should be equipped with extension hand wheels hydraulic locks. 10M and 15M. Arrangements other than those illustrated may be equally adequate in meeting well requirements and promoting safety and efficiency. rotating head.1 to C. would have throughbore of 13 5/8 inches.SRRA This preventer stack would be rated 5000 psi working pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6. as operator prefers. triple ram type preventer with three sets of rams. such as: 5M -13 5/8 . either blank or for pipe.9 should prove adequate in normal environments. double ram type preventer with two sets of rams. drilling spool with side outlet connections for choke and kill lines.0 API GUIDELINES (API RP53) BLOWOUT PREVENTER STACK ARRANGEMENTS SURFACE INSTALLATIONS CLASSIFICATION OF BLOWOUT PREVENTERS API classification of example arrangements for blowout preventer equipment is based on working pressure ratings. V4 Rev March 2002 6-1 . Example stack arrangements shown in Figs. A blowout preventer stack may be fully identified by a very simple designation. and would be arranged as in Fig. 5M. STACK COMPONENT CODES The recommended component codes for designation of blowout preventer stack arrangements are as follows: A G R Rd Rt S M = = = = = = = annular type blowout preventer. positioned in accordance with operator’s choice. or from the bottom of the preventer stack. Components are listed reading upward from the uppermost piece of permanent wellhead equipment. positioned in accordance with operator’s choice. for API Classes 2M. 3M. C. C. single ram type preventer with one set of rams.5.
The reasons for using a drilling spool are to localise possible erosion in the less expensive spool and to allow additional space between rams to facilitate stripping operations. they should be coated with a protective coating to prevent rust. a complete set of drill pipe rams and ram rubbers for each size drill pipe being used. c. DRILLING SPOOLS While choke and kill lines may be connected to side outlets of the blowout preventers. studded. e. d. b. and 5M. Have side outlets no smaller than 2" nominal diameter and be flanged. one 3" and one 2" nominal diameter. when used. a complete set of bonnet or door seals for each size and type of ram preventer being used. ring gaskets to fit flange connections. 3M. and appropriate spare parts for annular preventers. many operators prefer that these lines be connected to a drilling spool installed below at least one preventer capable of closing on pipe. plastic packing for blow out preventer secondary seals. Utilisation of the blowout preventer side outlet reduces the number of stack connections by eliminating the drilling spool and shortens the overall preventer stack height. or clamped for API Class 2M. 6-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . API Class 10M and 15M installations should have a minimum of two side outlets. Have a vertical bore diameter at least equal to the maximum bore of the uppermost casinghead. Have a working pressure rating equal to the rated working pressure of the attached blowout preventer. PARTS STORAGE When storing blowout preventer metal parts and related equipment. b. c.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT SPARE PARTS The following recommended minimum blowout preventer spare parts approved for the service intended should be available at each rig: a. Drilling spools for blowout preventer stacks should meet the following minimum specifications: a.
Rd Optional.1 ARRANGEMENT S*A A S* FIG 6. wellhead outlets should not be employed for choke or kill lines Such outlets may be employed for auxiliary or back-up connections to be used only if a failure of the primary control system is experienced.0.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT For drilling operations. FIG C.4 ARRANGEMENT RS*R R S* R V4 Rev March 2002 FIG C. R R S* FIG C.1 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER ARRANGEMENTS FOR 2M RATED WORKING PRESSURE SERVICE – SURFACE INSTALLATION FIG C.3 ARRANGEMENT S*RR A S* R 6-3 .2 ARRANGEMENT S*RR Double Ram Preventers.
0.5 ARRANGEMENT S*RRA Double Ram Type Preventers.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT A A R R R S* S* R FIG C. Rd Optional.2 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER ARRANGEMENTS FOR 3M AND 5M RATED WORKING PRESSURE SERVICE – SURFACE INSTALLATION * Drilling spool and its location in the stack arrangement is optional 6-4 V4 Rev March 2002 .6 ARRANGEMENT RS*RA FIG 6. FIG C.
3 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER ARRANGEMENTS FOR 10M AND 15M WORKING PRESSURE SERVICE – SURFACE INSTALLATION * Drilling spool and its location in the stack arrangement is optional. Rd Optional. FIG C.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT G** A** A** A** R R R R R R S* R S* R S* R CASING SPOOL CASING SPOOL CASING SPOOL FIG C. can be of a lower pressure rating. FIG C. Rd Optional.7 ARRANGEMENT RS*RRA** Double Ram Type Preventers. Rd Optional. FIG 6.8 ARRANGEMENT S*RRRA** Double Ram Type Preventers. ** Annular Preventer A.9 ARRANGEMENT RS*RRA**G** Double Ram Type Preventers. V4 Rev March 2002 6-5 .0. and rotating head G.
d. Choke and kill lines normally are connected to ram preventer body outlets. Spools may be used to space preventers for shearing tubulars. The differences are: a. Choke and kill lines are manifolded for dual purpose usage.8. Ram preventers are usually equipped with an integral or remotely operated locking system. or stripping operations. STACK COMPONENT CODES The recommended component codes adopted for designation of subsea blowout preventer stack arrangements use the same nomenclature as surface installations with the addition of remotely operated connectors: CH =remotely operated connector used to attach wellhead or preventers to each other (connector should have a minimum working pressure rating equal to the preventer stack working pressure rating). c.1 through D. Blind/shear rams are normally used in place of blind rams. Example subsea blowout preventer stack arrangements are illustrated in Figs. D. b. C = low pressure remotely operated connector used to attach the marine riser to L the blowout preventer stack. 6-6 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT BLOWOUT PREVENTER STACK ARRANGEMENTS SUBSEA INSTALLATIONS VARIANCE FROM SURFACE INSTALLATIONS The arrangements of subsea blowout preventer stacks are similar to the example preventer surface installations with certain differences. hanging off drill pipe. e.
Optional.3 ARRANGEMENT HRRACL Double Ram Type Preventers.1 ARRANGEMENT CHSACL (2m rated working pressure only. Rd. WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT FIG 6. Optional.2 ARRANGEMENT HRACL CH CH FIG D.) FIG D.4 ARRANGEMENT CHRRCHA Double Ram Type Preventers.4 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER ARRANGEMENTS FOR 2M AND 3M RATED WORKING PRESSURE SERVICE – SUBSEA INSTALLATION 6-7 . Rd.V4 Rev March 2002 CL A* CL A CL CH A R A R S R R R CH CH FIG D.0. FIG D.
5 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER ARRANGEMENTS FOR 5M.7 ARRANGEMENT HRdRdA*CL CH FIG D.0. Rd Optional V4 Rev March 2002 fig 6.6 ARRANGEMENT HRdRA*CHA* CH CH FIG D.8 ARRANGEMENT CHRdRdA*CHA* FIG D.6-8 A* CL CH A* A* R R R R R A* CH A* CL A* SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT R R R R R R R R WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team R CH FIG D. 10M AND 15M RATED WORKING PRESSURE SERVICE – SUBSEA INSTALLATION .5 ARRANGEMENT CHRdRA*CL Triple Ram Type Preventers.
1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT V4 Rev March 2002 FIG 6.1 U Blowout Preventer 6-9 .
Seal integrity is actually improved by increased well bore pressure. the rams in the U BOP are pressure-energized. Figure 6.1.2 U Blowout Preventer Wedgelock Assembly 6 . wedgelocks.1 RAM BLOWOUT PREVENTERS . forged body and a wide selection of rams to meet all applications. Wellbore pressure acts on the rams to increase the sealing force and maintain the seal in case of hydraulic pressure loss.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6. Like all other Cameron preventers.CAMERON U BOP The Cameron U BOP is the most widely used ram-type BOP for land. platform and subsea applications worldwide and offers the widest range of sizes of any Cameron ram-type BOP. The operating system can be interlocked using sequence caps to ensure that the wedgelock is retracted before pressure is applied to open the BOP. Other features of the U BOP include: • Hydraulic stud tensioning available on larger sizes to ensure that stud loading is consistently accurate and even. For subsea applications. Hydraulically operated locking mechanisms. a pressure balance chamber is used with the wedge locks to eliminate the possibility of the wedgelock becoming unlocked due to hydrostatic pressure.10 V4 Rev March 2002 . lock the ram hydraulically and hold the rams mechanically closed even when actuating pressure is released. • • • Other features include hydraulically opening bonnets. Bonnet seal carrier is available to eliminate the need for high makeup torque on bonnet studs and nuts.
R am In C te yl rm in ed de ia r. on n g O pe Po . te R am Fl an C ge ha ng e S C ea on l R ne in ct gs in .1. Bo nn et Se al Si s ng le Si de Bo nn et Se al En try Po rt 'O 'R Pl in as gs tic Li .3 Figure Cameron U . g R od G ro ov e 6 .V4 Rev March 2002 R am s As se m bl y Bo dy .O r.Type BOP WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Lo H ck Bon Lo ou in si g net ck n Sc in g.11 . g re Sc w re w C ha ng e Pi st on .O C pe ra yl rt pe in rat tin de in ra g g tin r Pi g st on Figure 6.O C p In pe ylin Se je Pi ct ra de al st io tin .
12 V4 Rev March 2002 . • Cameron pipe rams are self-feeding and incorporate a large reservoir of packer rubber to ensure a long-lasting seal under all conditions.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT PIPE RAMS Cameron pipe rams are available for use in Cameron ram-type BOPs to fit all commonly used sizes of tubing. CAMRAM 350™ packers and top seals are available for high temperature service and for service in which concentrations of H2S are expected.4 . • • • • Top Seal Top Seal Packer Ram U BOP Pipe Ram Ram Packer U II BOP Pipe Ram CAMRAM Top Seal CAMRAM Packer Ram Wear Pads T BOP Pipe Ram Figure 6. Ram packers lock into place and are not dislodged by well flow All Cameron pipe rams are suitable for H2S service per NACE MR-01-75.PIPE RAMS 6 . drill pipe. drill collar or casing. CAMRAM™ top seals are standard for all Cameron pipe rams (except U BOPs larger than 13-3/4”).1.
SBRs can be used as blind rams during normal drilling operations.VBR'S Shearing Blind Rams Cameron shearing blind rams (SBRs) shear the pipe in the hole.5 . Features include: • VBR packer contains steel reinforcing inserts which rotate inward when the rams are closed so the steel provides support for the rubber which seals against the pipe.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT VARIABLE BORE RAMS One set of Cameron variable bore rams (VBRs) seals on several sizes of pipe or hexagonal kelly. eliminating the need for a set of pipe rams for each pipe size. • • • • V4 Rev March 2002 6 . then bend the lower section of sheared pipe to allow the rams to close and seal. CAMRAM™ top seals are standard for all Cameron SBRs. The single-piece body incorporates an integrated cutting edge. All VBRs are suitable for H2S service per NACE MR-01-75. CAMRAM™ top seals are standard for all Cameron VBRs. H2S SBRs are available for critical service applications and include a blade material of hardened high alloy suitable for H2S service. Features include: • Large frontal area on the blade face seal reduces pressure on the rubber and increases service life. • • Top Seal Ram Body CAMRAM Packer Ram Body CAMRAM Packer VBR Packer U and U II BOP Variable Bore Ram Wear Pads T BOP Variable Bore Ram Figure 6.1.13 . Cameron SBRs can cut pipe numerous times without damage to the cutting edge.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT DVS rams are shearing blind rams which are similar to SBRs with the following features: • DVS (double V shear) rams fold the lower portion of the tubular over after shearing so that the lower blade can seal against the blade packer DVS rams include the largest blade width available to fit within existing ram bores.14 V4 Rev March 2002 . • CAMRAM Top Seal Ram Body Slide Packer Blade Packer Lower SBR Upper SBR CAMRAM Top Seal Blade Insert Slide Packer U and U ll BOP Shearing Blind Ram Blade Insert Lower SBR Blade Packer Upper Blade Insert Slide Packer Screw CAMRAM Top Seal 2 Blade Packer Upper SBR U and U ll H S BOP Shearing Blind Ram Lower Blade Insert Lower SBR T BOP Shearing Blind Ram Wear Pads Upper SBR Top Seal Upper Ram Body Lower Ram Body Side Packer DVS Shear Ram Blade Packer Figure 6.6 .SHEAR RAMS 6 .1.
additional displacement of the piston will overcome the spring tension in the relief valve and plastic packing will begin to extrude from it. forcing them to flare out and provide a seal.SECONDARY SEAL V4 Rev March 2002 6 .7 . Further piston displacement causes pressure to build up between the swab cups.1. The secondary seal should be activated only if the primary connecting-rod seal leaks during and emergency operation. PROTECTOR PACKING PISTON PLASTIC PACKING CHECK VALVE RAM SIDE PRIMARY SEAL SECONDARY SEALS PACKING REGULATOR VALVE Figure 6.15 . The secondary seal is designed for static conditions and movement of the connecting rod causes rapid seal and rod wear.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT SECONDARY SEAL The secondary seal is activated by screwing down on the piston which forces plastic through the check valve and into the space between the two swab cup seals. When the pressure exerted by the plastic packing reaches the proper valve.
The operating system can be interlocked using sequence caps to ensure that the wedgelock is retracted before pressure is applied to open the BOP A pressure balance chamber is used with the wedgelocks to eliminate the possibility of the wedgelock becoming unlocked due to hydrostatic pressure.8 . Seal integrity is actually improved by increased well bore pressure. the rams in the U II BOP are pressureenergized.16 V4 Rev March 2002 . wedgelocks.000 and 15. lock the ram hydraulically and hold the rams mechanically closed even when actuating pressure is released. Hydraulically operated locking mechanisms. Bonnet seal carrier is available to eliminate the need for high makeup torque on bonnet studs and nuts.000 psi WP sizes. Other features include hydraulically opening bonnets.1. forged body and a wide selection of rams to meet all applications. Wellbore pressure acts on the rams to increase the sealing force and maintain the seal in case of hydraulic pressure loss.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT U II Blowout Preventer The Cameron U II BOP takes all of the features of the U BOP and adapts them for subsea use in the 18-3/4-10. Other features of the U II BOP include: • Internally ported hydraulic stud tensioning system ensures that stud loading is consistently accurate and even. Like all other Cameron preventers.18-3/4" DOUBLE U II BLOWOUT PREVENTER 6 . • • • Figure 6.
Large Bore Shear Bonnet Assembly Exploded View Figure 6. Tandem Boosters for U BOPS A BOP equipped with tandem boosters can deliver increased shearing force while not increasing the wear and tear on the packers. developed and performance-verified for use in newly manufactured BOPs or as a replacement seal assembly for BOPs where either the BOP body or the intermediate flange requires weld repair on the sealing surfaces. As an alternative to purchasing new large bore shear bonnets. UL and U 11 BOPS The bonnet seal carrier is a bore-type sealing assembly which replaces the face seal used as the previous bonnet seal. This process requires reworking and replacing several existing components.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Optional Equipment Bonnet Seal Carriers for TL. Large Bore Shear Bonnets Cameron developed large bore shear bonnets to increase the available shearing force required to shear high strength and high quality pipe. the standard shear locking mechanism can be installed on the outside end of the booster.9 V4 Rev March 2002 Tandem Booster Exploded View 6 .17 . In order to achieve this the large bore shear bonnet design increased the available closing area by 35% or more. One seal is captured in a machined bore in the BOP body while the other seal is captured in a machined bore in the intermediate flange. U. Cameron recommends large bore shear bonnets when larger shearing forces are required. Since the tail rod of the tandem booster has the same stroke as the BOP operating piston. Sealing capability is not dependent upon bonnet bolt torque. Tandem boosters approximately double the force available to shear pipe. The seal carrier was designed.1. some old shear bonnets can be converted.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.1.18 V4 Rev March 2002 .10 UII BOP Hydraulic Control System 6 .
11 UII BOP Part Numbers V4 Rev March 2002 6 .1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.19 .
Special Features • Flat doors simplify ram changes. Remove the ram from the ram shaft and replace it. Maximum ram hardness Is Rc22 to insure H2S compatibility of pipe and blind rams. Shear rams have some harder components. All major components conform to API and NACE H2S requirements. Lip-type ram shaft seals hold the well bore pressure and the opening hydraulic pressure.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . No known failures of this highly reliable high pressure seal have occurred. This fabric and phenolic backing prevents extrusion and pinching at all pressures to assure long seal life. SL designated models incorporate the improvements made in the LW S preventer line over the past 20 years—improvements resulting from a continuing research program to ensure that Shaffer preventers meet or surpass the latest industry requirements. Wear rings eliminate metal-to-metal contact between the piston and cylinder to increase seal life d virtually eliminate cylinder bore wear. Door seals on most sizes have a hard backing moulded into the rubber. Lip type piston seals are long-wearing polyurethane with molybdenum disulfide moulded in for lifetime lubrication. piston assembly and cylinder head. Secondary ram shaft seals permit injection of plastic packing if the primary lip-type seal ever fails. Manual-lock and Poslock pistons can be interchanged on the same door by replacing the ram shaft. To change the rams. apply opening hydraulic pressure to move the rams to the full open position. • • • • • • • • 6 . It is not necessary to apply closing hydraulic pressure to move the rams inward to clear the door.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT SHAFFER SL RAM BLOWOUT PREVENTERS Shaffer Model SL ram blowout preventers are the product of more than 50 years of experience in building ram BOP’s to meet the changing demands of the petroleum industry. Fluid dripping from the weep hole in the door indicates that the primary seal is leaking and the secondary seal should be energised.. Internal H2S trim is standard. Remove the door cap screws and swing the door open.
This eliminates the cost of a second hydraulic function to lock. Poslock operators automatically lock the rams each time they are closed.SHAFFER SL-RAM BOP Ram shaft seal Roundhead ram shaft Piston seals Cylinder Weep hole Flat door Cylinder head Ram Wear rings Piston assembly Secondary ram shaft seal Ram shaft packing retainer V4 Rev March 2002 6 . • • Figure 6. These rams conform to H2S requirements.000 pounds when a tool joint is lowered onto the closed rams. Most common weights and grades of drill pipe are sheared with less than 1.12 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT • Rams are available which will support a 600.500 psi hydraulic pressure. It also simplifies emergency operation because the rams are both closed and locked just by activating the close function.21 . Shear rams cut drill pipe and seal in one operation.1.
13 .22 V4 Rev March 2002 .1.LOCKING SYSTEMS Poslock adjustment thread Piston Locking segment Locking shoulder Ram shaft 1) Poslock in open position Ram Cylinder Piston Locking segment Locking cone 2) Poslock piston in closed position Ram shaft Ram 1) Manual-lock piston in open position Cylinder Head 3) Manual-lock piston in closed position Locking shaft 2) Manual-lock piston in closed and locked position 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
Rams are opened by first turning both locking shafts to their “unlocked” position. MODEL SL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Hydraulic power to operate a Model SL ram BOP can be furnished by any standard oil field accumulator system. then applying opening hydraulic pressure to the pistons. The extra hydraulic ports facilitate connecting the control system to the preventer.500 psi hydraulic pressure. They cannot be manually reopened. Should hydraulic pressure fail. A 3. but this will accelerate wear of the piston seals and the ram rubbers.000 psi hydraulic pressure test is applied to all Model SL cylinders at the factory. However. the rams can be manually closed and locked.500-psi-output hydraulic accumulator will close any Model SL ram BOP with rated working pressure in the well bore except for the 11" and 13 5/8—15. However. Threads on the manual locking shaft are enclosed in the hydraulic fluid and are not exposed to corrosion from mud and salt water or to freezing. the rams can be manually locked in the closed position by turning each locking shaft to the right until it shoulders against the cylinder head. A 5. A 1. The manual locking shafts are visible from outside and provide a convenient ram position indicator. Hydraulic passages drilled through the body eliminate the need for external manifold pipes between the hinges. If desired.000 psi hydraulic pressure may be used.000 psi BOP’s. There are two opening and two closing hydraulic ports.100 psi. Each set of rams requires only one opening and one closing line. clearly marked.000 psi well pressure with less than 1. which move outward and pull the rams out of the well bore. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . it is recommended that this pressure not be used in the field application. these two will close against 10.23 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT MODEL SL MANUAL-LOCK SYSTEM Manual-lock pistons move inward and close the rams when closing hydraulic pressure is applied. which require 2. on the back side of the BOP.
over the locking shoulder as the locking cone is forced inward by the closing hydraulic pressure. NOTE: Poslock pistons are adjusted in the factory and normally do not require adjustment in the field except when changing between pipe rams and shear rams. The locking cone holds the locking segments in position and is prevented by a spring from vibrating outward if the hydraulic closing pressure is removed. Opening hydraulic pressure is required to reopen the pistons. As the piston reaches the’ fully closed position. It is forced inward by closing hydraulic pressure and outward by opening hydraulic pressure. a water-soluble oil such as NL Rig Equipment K-90 and water can be used for environmental protection. Some water-soluble fluids do not give adequate corrosion protection or lubrication and should not be used. The preventers will remain locked in the closed position even if closing pressure is removed. the locking cone is a second piston inside the main piston. along the tapered locking shoulder. The hydraulics required to operate the Poslock are provided through opening and closing operating ports. The piston is then free to move outward and open the rams. Ethylene glycol must be added to the K-90 and water solution for freeze protection if equipment is exposed to freezing temperatures. the locking segments slide toward the piston O. MODEL SL POSLOCK SYSTEM SL preventers equipped with Poslock pistons are automatically locked in the closed position each time they are closed. Operation of the Poslock requires no additional hydraulic functions. NOTE: Never use fuel oil of any kind as it causes the rubber goods to swell and deteriorate.D.24 V4 Rev March 2002 .D. When opening hydraulic pressure is applied.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT The hydraulic operating fluid should be hydraulic oil with a viscosity between 200 and 300 SSU at 100°F. The adjustment is easy to check and easy to change. the complete piston assembly moves inward and pushes the rams into the well bore. such as are required in some competitive ram locking systems. If necessary. Actually. When closing hydraulic pressure is applied. 6 . the locking cone moves outward and the locking segments slide toward the piston l.
14 .25 .FLUID CIRCUIT .1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT V4 Rev March 2002 Figure 6.SL RAM 6 .
S. Hydraulic opening pressure is required to re-open the preventer.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT ULTRALOCK™ LOCKING SYSTEM UltraLock. Existing BOPs with PosLock~ Cylinders can be upgraded to the UltraLock. no preset pressure ranges are needed. Once the UltraLock is installed. patent number 5. Stack frame modifications are not required because all operational components are in the hydraulic operating cylinders. BOPs that are equipped with the UltraLock are automatically locked in the closed position each time the BOPs are closed.1. even if closing pressure is lost or removed.26 V4 Rev March 2002 .708. and this opening pressure is supplied by the regular opening and closing ports of the preventer. No additional hydraulic lines or functions are required for operations of the locks. Blind/ Shear or MULTI-RAM assemblies.025. Secondary Unlocking Piston Locking Plate Locking Rod Plate Retaining Screw Locking Rod Locking Rod Plate Locking Ram Load Ultra Lock Shaft Dog Piston Spring Locking Dog Retainer Figure 6. The BOPs will remain locked in the closed position.ULTRALOCK . U. provides a maintenancefree and adjustment-free locking system that is compatible with any ram assembly that the blowout preventers can accommodate.15 . no further adjustments will be needed when changing between Pipe Rams. the most versatile locking system available.UNIQUE POSITION LOCKING SYSTEM 6 .
Closing motion of the rams continues until the ram block ends meet.736. Type 72 Shear Rams are covered by U.S. optional 14" pistons can be supplied for shearing instead of the standard 10" pistons.16) V4 Rev March 2002 6 .982. resulting in a tight sealing contact.500 psi for BOP’s with 14'’ pistons. the lower blade passes below the sharp lower edge of the upper ram block and shears the pipe. When shearing.1. 3. These pistons are standard in all BOP’s rated at 10. The horizontal seal has a moulded-in support plate which holds it in place when the rams are open. The lower section of cut pipe is accommodated in the space between the lower blade and the upper holder.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT TYPE 72 SHEAR RAMS Type 72 shear rams shear pipe and seal the well bore in one operation. Continued closing of the holders squeezes the semicircular seals upward into sealing contact with the seat in the BOP body and energises the horizontal seal. Patent No. The closing motion of the upper holder pushes the horizontal seal forward and downward on top of the lower blade. On lower pressure preventers.27 . (Ref fig 6.000 psi working pressure and higher. The hydraulic closing pressure required to shear commonly used drill pipe is below 1. The upper section of cut pipe is accommodated in the recess in the top of the lower ram block. They also function as blind or CSO (complete shut-off) rams for normal operations.
16 .TYPE 72 SHEAR RAMS 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT UPPER RUBBER LOWER RUBBER LOWER BLOCK UPPER BLOCK LOWER HOLDER SHEAR BLADE UPPER HOLDER HORIZONRAL SEAL SEMICIRCULAR SEAL SUPPORT PLATE SHEAR RAMS OPEN SHEAR RAMS CLOSING HORIZONRAL SEAL SEMICIRCULAR SEAL SUPPORT PLATE SHEAR RAMS CLOSED Figure 6.1.28 V4 Rev March 2002 .
economical repair. separate from the load hinges.29 . 12. The seal seat utilises specially selected and performance effective materials for maximum service life. 8. 5. Fluid Connections and Hydraulic Passages are internal to the bonnets and body and preclude damage during moving and handling operations. The Ram Body Casting has controlled and predictable structural hardness and strength throughout the pressure vessel. Fluid Hinges.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT HYDRIL RAM BLOWOUT PREVENTERS Features: (Refer to Fig 6. 3. 2.18) 1. Hydril pressure vessel material has equal strength along all axes to provide reliable strength and resistance to sulphide stress cracking in hydrogen sulphide service. Manual Locking utilises a heavy-duty acme thread to manually lock the ram in a sealed-off position or to manually close the ram if the hydraulic system is inoperative. 6. Replaceable Cylinder Liner has a corrosion and wear resistant bore for reliable piston operation. 9. Piston and Piston Rod Assembly are one piece for strength and reliability in closing and opening the ram which results in a secure operating assembly. Choice of Ram Locks—Automatic Multiple Position Locking (MPL) or Manual Locking is available on Ram BOPs.17 and 6.1. The cylinder liner is easily field replaceable or reparable for reduced maintenance cost and downtime. 4 Hinged Bonnet swing completely clear of overhead restrictions (such as another BOP) and provide easy access for rapid ram change to reduce downtime. This arrangement provides a reliable hydraulic seal and permits full pressure testing and ram operation with the bonnets open. Multiple-Position Locking (MPL) utilises a hydraulically-actuated mechanical clutch mechanism to automatically lock the rams in a seal off position. The fluid hinges and bonnet hinges contain all the seals necessary for this function and may be removed rapidly for simple. The Ram Assembly provides reliable seal off of the wellbore for security and safety.1. 11. The Field Replaceable Seal Seat provides a smooth sealing surface for the ram upper seal. 7. connect the control fluid passages between the body and bonnets. Load Hinges separate from the fluid hinge and are equipped with selflubricated bearings to support the full weight of the bonnet for quick and easy opening of the bonnet. The Ram accommodates a large volume of feedable rubber in the front packer and upper seal for long service life. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . 10.
Guide Rods align ram with bonnet cavity. preventing damage to the ram. therefore providing great versatility in stack design. (Shown out of position) 19. Bonnet Bolt Retainers keep the bonnet bolts in the bonnet while servicing the BOP. one on each side. 16. Two outlets. Side Outlets for choke/kill lines are available on all models. 24. Single and Double Configurations are available with a choice of American Petroleum Institute (API) flanged. outlets may be placed below the upper and lower ram. Sloped Ram Cavity is self-draining to eliminate build-up of sand and drilling fluid. below the bottom ram only. Piston Rod Mud Seal is a rugged. studded or clamp hub connections. indicates when seal is achieved and possible leakage in the primary seat. 15. This allows for the most-economical use of space for operation and service. This prevents excessive distortion during high pressure seal off. 18. bottom and side outlets) for corrosion resistance of the sealing surface. 23.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 13. piston rod or bonnets while retracting the rams. (Not shown) 22. Piston Seals are of a lip-type design and are pressure-energized to provide a reliable seal of the piston to form the operating chambers of the BOP. Secondary (Emergency) Piston Rod Packing provides an emergency piston rod seal for use in the event of primary seal leakage at a time when repair cannot be immediately effected. Bonnet Seal utilises field proven material in an integrated seal design which combines the seal and backup ring for reliability and long life. may be placed below each ram. or below the top ram only. 6 . 17. A Weephole to atmosphere isolates wellbore pressure. integrally designed lip seal and backup ring retained in the bonnet by a stainless steel spiral lock ring. 25. 14. Connector Ring Grooves are stainless steel lined for all connectors (top.30 V4 Rev March 2002 . field-proven. Closing forces are not required to retain an established ram seal off. 20. 21. In single and double configurations. Ram Seal Off is retained by wellbore pressures. Bonnet Bolts are sized for easy torquing and arranged for reliable seal between bonnet and body.
FLUID HINGES 5. FLUID CONNECTIONS AND HYDRAULIC PASSAGES 20. CONNECTOR RING GROOVES 1. A WEEPHOLE 2. PISTON SEALS Figure 6. PISTON ROD MUD SEAL 18. REPLACABLE CYLINDER LINER 14. BONNET SEAL V4 Rev March 2002 6. SECONDARY (EMERGENCY) (PISTON ROD PACKING) 22.31 . MANUAL LOCKING WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 19.000 PSI RAM BOP MANUAL LOCK 6 . THE RAM ASSEMBLY 17. BONNET BOLTS 11. SLOPED RAM CAVITY 22.214.171.124 . GUIDE RODS 7.13. LOAN HINGES 12. SLIDE OUTLETS FOR CHOKE/KILL 24. THE FIELD REPLACABLE SEAL SEAT 15. THE RAM BODY CASTING 3.13 5/8" .
THE RAM ASSEMBLY 1. BONNET BOLTS 6. BONNET SEAL 16. PISTON SEALS 7.000 PSI RAM BOP MULTIPLE POSITION LOCK (MPL) . CONNECTOR RING GROOVES 22. FLUID HINGES SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team 5.18 3/4" . THE RAM BODY CASTING 3. PISTON AND PISTON ROD ASSEMBLY 14. REPLACEABLE CYLINDER LINER V4 Rev March 2002 Figure 6. SLOPED RAM CAVITY 15. THE FIELD REPLACEABLE SEAL SEAT 13. A WEEPHOLE 19.1. MULTIPLE-POSITION LOCKING (MPL) 20.32 2. SIDE OUTLETS FOR CHOKE KILL 8. PISTON ROD MUD SEAL 18.18 .6 .15. LOAD HINGES 10.
33 . the lock nut and front clutch plate rotate freely. How MPL works This figure shows the ram maintained closed and sealed off by the MPL. Hydraulic opening pressure disengages the front and rear clutch plates to permit the lock nut to rotate and the ram to open. Hydraulic closing pressure has been released. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . MPL will maintain the seal off without closing pressure and with the opening forces created by hanging the drill string on the ram. MPL automatically locks and maintains the ram closed with the optimum rubber pressure required for seal off in the front packer and upper seal. The unidirectional clutch mechanism maintains the nut and ram in a locked position until the clutch is disengaged by application of control system pressure to open the ram. simultaneously. Multiple-Position Locking (MPL) allows the ram to seal off with optimum seal squeeze at every closure. MPL is available on all Hydril Ram Blowout Preventers.1. As the ram and piston move to the open position. The locking system maintains the ram mechanically locked while closure is retained and/or after releasing closing pressure. Ram closure is accomplished by applying hydraulic pressure to the closing chamber which moves the ram to a seal off position. Front packer seal wear (on any ram BOP) requires a different ram locking position with each closure to ensure an effective seal off. Multiple-Position Locking is required to ensure retention of that seal off position. A mechanical lock is automatically set each time the ram is closed. Locking and unlocking of the MPL are controlled by a unidirectional clutch mechanism and a lock nut.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT MPL AUTOMATIC RAM LOCKING (Refer to Fig 6. MPL will maintain the required rubber pressure in the front packer and upper seal to ensure a seal off of rating working pressure.19) Hydril Ram Blowout Preventers are available with automatic Multiple-Position Ram Locking. The Hydril Ram Blowout Preventer with MPL automatically maintains ram closure and seal off. The ram is opened only by application of opening pressure which releases the locking system automatically and opens the ram.
1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.19 .HYDRILL MULTI-POSITION LOCK (MPL) 6 .34 V4 Rev March 2002 .
11 5.9 10.35 .8 7.3 3.8 6.63 7.000 3.29 2. 1.2 5.15 0.3 9.3 7.1 4.3 2.54 5.4 9. 21 1/4 in.000 2.000 2.4 5.3 2.8 3.000 2.0 2. 3.2 10.27 5. 2.000 5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.98 0.9 6.7 6.00 3.1 2.11 26 3/4 in.6 7.85 2.8 3.000 10.6 10. 1.74 13 5/8 in.37 7.0 2.1 3.9 2.000 5.1.000 3.1 1.000 5.7 7.3 5.3 11 in.3 6.11 1.3 2.000 15.0 8.000 3.000 2. 2.62 2.6 5.0 7.4 7.000 15.000 2.8 7.000 10.0 V4 Rev March 2002 6 .11 7.1 6.9 7.5 1.3 2.5 1.00 4.9 6.000 15.6 2.9 3.000 5.6 18 3/4 in.000 10.6 9 in.11 2.2 2.000 2.000 3.000 10.000 15.6 5.14 7.0 6.11 10.6 7.3 2.6 7.3 1.24 2.5 2.000 10.3 5.98 1.5 2.2 7.3 7.83 1.3 7.4 8.4 3.000 5.5 2.2 7.3 5.0 7. 2.41 1.6 5.11 7.54 7.3 2.6 4.000 3.9 6.56 6.8 6.000 10.000 5.03 2.8 6.20 Ram Preventer Opening and Close Ratios Cameron U SIZE WP (psi) Open Close Shaffer 'SL' Open Close Hydril Ram Open Close 7 1/16 in.000 10.54 7.2 5.0 7.6 7.68 5.2 10.11 7.3 2.2 2.06 1.000 3. 16 3/4 in.0 7.5 2.
Working pressure of BOP stack 10.1. c) The string is stripped down until the tool joint is "hung off’ on the rams. the rotary table or top drive is shut off and both pumps are shut down. Operating ratio 10:56:1. The correct operating pressure to set on the manifold regulator is directly related to the well bore pressure. b) The tool joint is then spaced out for the correct pipe rams.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE CLOSING FORCES IN RELATION TO AREA a) When closing the well in on a floating rig the hard shut in method is usually applied.000 psi ––––––––– = 947 psi 10.56 ∴F=PxA This pressure does not include an allowance for friction losses so the minimum pressure would be say 1000 psi : 1000 psi x 10.56 = 10560 lbs closing force. The string is picked up say 20’ off bottom.000 psi.21 ➙➙ ➙➙ ➙ RAM SHAFT AREA ➙➙ CLOSING ➙ ➙ AREA 6 . F P = ––– A 10.36 ➙ ➙ ➙ ➙➙ ➙➙ CLOSING PRESSURE V4 Rev March 2002 . For example. The annular preventer is then closed and the fail-safe's opened against a closed choke. Figure 6.
22 RAM PREVENTERS -FLUID REQUIRED TO OPERATE V4 Rev March 2002 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.1.37 .
steel reinforcing inserts rotate inward to form a continuous support ring of steel at the top and bottom of the packer. closing pressure forces the operating piston and pusher plate upward to displace the solid elastomer donut and force the packer to close inward. These packers will also close and seal on open hole. • Packers for DL BOPs have the capacity to strip pipe as well as close and seal on almost any size or shape object that will fit into the wellbore.2 ANNULAR PREVENTERS In the unique design of the Cameron DL annular BOP.2. The design also provides visual indication of whether the top is locked or unlocked.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6. Components subject to wear are field-replaceable and the entire operating system may be removed in the field for immediate change-out without removing the BOP from the stack. • The DL BOP is designed to simplify field maintenance. As the packer closes. Other features of the DL BOP include: • The Cameron DL BOP is shorter in height than comparable annular preventers. High strength polymer bearing rings prevent metal-to-metal contact and reduce wear between all moving parts of the operating systems. DONUT PUSHER PLATE OPENING CHAMBER PISTON OPENING HYDRAULIC PORT CLOSING HYDRAULIC PORTS VENT Figure 6. The inserts remain in contact with each other whether the packer is open.1 DL ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTER 6 .38 V4 Rev March 2002 . ACCESS FLAPS LOCKING GROOVES PACKING UNIT CONSISTING OF: PACKER. Some annular packers can also be split for installation while pipe is in the hole. A quick-release top with a one-piece split lock ring permits quick packer change out with no loose parts involved. • Twin seals separated by a vented chamber positively isolate the BOP operating system from well bore pressure. Popular sizes of the DL BOP are available with high-performance CAMULAR™ annular packing subassemblies. closed on pipe or closed on open hole.
000 PSI WP ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTER SEALING ELEMENT OPEN CLOSED ON PIPE CLOSED ON OPEN HOLE V4 Rev March 2002 6 .2.2 CAMERON 20.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.39 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6 .40 V4 Rev March 2002 Figure 6.3 HYDRIL “GK” ANNULAR .2.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT OPERATIONAL FEATURES The Hydril GK Annular BOPs are particularly qualified to meet the industry’s needs for simple and reliable blowout protection. and more efficient mechanism requiring less maintenance and downtime. Back to Front Feedable Rubber on the Packing Unit enables the packing unit to close and seal on virtually any shape in the drillstring or completely shut off the open bore and to strip tool joints under pressure. making field repair fast and economical. The resulting ability to strip the drillstring to the bottom without first changing the packing unit means a safer operation. Piston Sealing Surfaces Protected by Operating Fluid lowers friction and protects against galling and wear to increase seal life and reduce maintenance time. quality performance. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . there is no metal-to-metal wear and thus longer equipment life results. This feature permits confident closure of the BOP at the initial indication of a “kick” without delaying to locate the tool joint.41 . Thus. This measurement indicates remaining packing unit life and ensures valid testing. The Conical Bowl Design of the Piston provides a simple and efficient method of closing the packing unit. field proven mechanism in the industry. Utilisation of Maximum Packing Unit life is made possible with a piston indicator for measuring piston stroke. testing wear has virtually no affect on stripping capability and greater overall life of the packing unit results. The BOP is thus a safer. This design ensures the packing unit will always reopen to full bore position. Greater Stripping Capability is inherent in the design of the packing unit since testing (fatigue) wear occurs on the outside and stripping wear occurs on the inside of the packing unit. Over 40 years of operational experience provide the simplest. which eliminates pulling the drillstring for replacement and reduces operating expenses with more options for well control techniques. lower operating costs and longer service life for the packing unit. A Field Replaceable Wear Plate In the BOP Head serves as an upper non-sealing wear surface for the movement of the packing unit. cuttings. The Packing Unit Is Replaceable with Pipe In the Bore. The piston serves as a sealing surface against the rubber packing unit. The Packing Unit Is Tested to Full Rated Working Pressure at the factory and the tests are documented— before it reaches the well site—to ensure a safe. Only Two Moving Parts (piston and packing unit) on the Hydril Annular BOP mean few areas are subjected to wear. Large Pressure Energised Seals are used for dynamically sealing piston chambers to provide safe operation. A Long piston with a length to diameter ratio approaching one eliminates tendencies to cock and bind during operations with off-centre pipe or unevenly distributed accumulation of sand. and less maintenance. long seal life. Flanged Steel Inserts In the Packing Unit reinforce the rubber and control rubber flow and extrusion for safer operation and longer packing unit life. or other elements.
casing.4/B) The packing unit is kept in compression throughout the sealing area. This position permits passage of tools.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT BOP CLOSURE SEQUENCE All Hydril Annular Blowout Preventers employ the same time-tested design for sealing off virtually anything in the BOP bore or the open hole. (See Fig 6. The BOP is maintained in the open position by application of hydraulic pressure to the opening chamber. v durable seal off against virtually any drill string shape—kelly. or tubing to full rated working pressure. (See Fig 6. This raises the piston. (See Fig 6.42 V4 Rev March 2002 . Guidelines for closing pressures are contained in the applicable Operator’s Manual. and other items up to the full bore size of the BOP as well as providing maximum annulus flow of drilling fluids. the BOP is kept fully open by leaving the piston down.4/A) The piston is raised by applying hydraulic pressure to the closing chamber.4/C) 6 . this ensures positive control of the piston during drilling and reduces wear caused by vibration. which in turn squeezes the steel reinforced packing unit inward to a sealing engagement with the drill string. Application of opening chamber pressure returns the piston to the full down position allowing the packing unit to return to full open bore through the natural resiliency of the rubber. thus assuring a tough. tool joint. During normal wellbore operations.2.2.2. pipe. The closing pressure should be regulated with a separate pressure regulator valve for the annular BOP.
4/A .2.4/C .CLOSURE SEQUENCE (OPEN) Figure 6.2.43 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT BOP CLOSURE SEQUENCE Figure 6.4/B .2.CLOSURE SEQUENCE (PART CLOSED) Figure 6.CLOSURE SEQUENCE (SEALED OFF) V4 Rev March 2002 6 .
as it will reduce the life of the packing unit. During CSO the flanges of the steel inserts form a solid ring to confine the rubber and provide a safe seal off of the rated working pressure of the BOP. it is sometimes advisable to add an accumulator to the opening chamber line to prevent undesirable pressure variations with certain control system circuits 6 . STRIPPING OPERATIONS Drill pipe can be rotated and tool joints stripped through a closed packing unit. If the pressure regulator valve cannot respond fast enough for effective control. an accumulator (surge absorber) should be installed in the closing chamber control line adjacent to the BOP—precharge the accumulator to 50% of the closing pressure required. This feature should be utilised only during well control situations.44 V4 Rev March 2002 . This leakage indicates the lowest usable closing pressure for minimum packing unit wear and provides lubrication for the drill pipe motion through the packing unit. while maintaining a full seal on the pipe. Longest packing unit life is obtained by adjusting the closing chamber pressure just low enough to maintain a seal on the drill pipe with a slight amount of drilling fluid leakage as the tool joint passes through the packing unit.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6. In subsea operations.5 Complete shut off (CSO) of the well bore is possible with all Hydril Annular BOP’s.2. The pressure regulator valve should be set to maintain the proper closing chamber pressure.
The GL BOP offers the longest life packing unit for annular blowout preventers available in the industry today . Operate as a secondary closing chamber. The proven packing unit provides full closure at maximum working pressure on open hole or on virtually anything in the bore . There are no loose parts to be lost downhole or overboard.especially for the combination of BOP testing and stripping pipe into or out of a well under pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT TYPE GL 5000 PSI ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTERS PATENTED Hydril GL Annular Blowout Preventers are designed and developed both for subsea and surface operations. while the entire mechanism remains inside the blowout preventer.casing. 2. 3. The Opening Chamber Head protects the opening chamber and prevents inadvertent contamination of the hydraulic system while the head is removed for packing unit replacement. which is unique to the GL BOP. drill pipe.45 . The Latched Head provides fast. Automatic Counter Balance can be achieved in subsea applications by selection of one of the optional hookups of the secondary chamber. Automatically compensate (counter balance) for marine riser hydrostatic pressure effects in deep water. Features of the GL make it particularly desirable for subsea and deep well drilling. The following outstanding features of the Hydril GL BOPs make these units particularly qualified to meet the industry’s needs for simple and reliable blowout protection. The latched head permits quick. The latching mechanism releases the head with a few turns of the Jaw Operating Screws. 4. The Secondary Chamber. or tubing. tool joints. kelly. The chamber can be connected four ways to optimise operations for different effects: 1. These drilling conditions demand long-life packing elements for drill pipe stripping operations and frequent testing. Reduce closing pressure. provides this unit with great flexibility of control hookup and acts as a backup closing chamber to cut operating costs and increase safety factors in critical situations. The GL family of BOPs represents the cumulation of evolutionary design and operator requirements. positive head removal for packing unit replacement or other maintenance with only minimum time required. Minimise closing/opening fluid volumes. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . positive access to the packing unit and seals for minimum maintenance time.
V4 Rev March 2002 Figure 6.6 .6 .000 psi bottom connections are available in hub. API flanged. 5000 or 10.46 PISTON INDICATOR HOLE WEAR PLATE PACKING UNIT LATCHED HEAD OPENING CHAMBER HEAD OPENING CHAMBER PISTON CHAMBER CLOSING CHAMBER SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECONDARY CHAMBER Cutaway View of GL BOP shown in Midstroke. or studded connection.2.
Inner 1 2.75 Slotted Body Sleeve 1 300 Outer Body Sleeve 1 1180 Non-extrusion Ring.Natural 1 910 Packing Unit .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.Complete ACCESSORIES Chain Sling Assembly Eye Bolts.7 GL 16 3/8" .5 Capscrew 14 .400 BOP Head 1 6.75 Part Name 3 1 4 1 99 .13 V4 Rev March 2002 6 .2.25 Jaw 20 12 Packing Unit . Lower 1 2.5000 PSI BLOWOUT PREVENTER Item No. BOP Assembly 1 28.06 Seal Set . Opening Chamber Head (7/8"-9NC x 2 1/4" LG) Protector Plate Protector Plate Screw 1 2 3 202 6 6. Piston (1"-8NC x 17" LG) Eye Bolts. Head (1 1/2"-6NC x 2" LG) Eye Bolts. Lower 2 2 Double "U" Seal.47 .06 Jaw Operating Screw 20 4 Sleeve Screw 20 .380 Non-extrusion Ring.105 "O" Ring 1 .25 Pipe Plug 20 .06 Pipe Plug 1 . Middle 1 3 Non-extrusion Ring. Middle 2 3 Double "U" Seal.641 "O" Ring 1 . Net Single Weight lb. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 27 29 32 33 34 No Req'd Approx.75 "O" Ring 20 .3 Opening Chamber Head 1 839 "U" Seal 2 3 Head Gasket 1 2. Inner 2 1 Double "U" Seal.5 Body 1 14.5 Pull Down Bolt Assembly 4 1 Relief Fitting 1 .25 Spacer Sleeve 20 .Synthetic 1 920 Piston 1 5.
48 HYDRIL 'GL' Subsea hook-up for water depths over 800 ft.8 FIG. WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team Figure 6.C) OPENING PRESSURE FIG. 3 SECONDARY CHAMBER connected to MARINE RISER (CB) SECONDARY CHAMBER connected to OPENING CHAMBER (S . Subsea hook-up for water depths up to 800 ft. 1 SECONDARY CHAMBER connected to CLOSING CHAMBER (S . 2 FIG.6 . SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Standard surface hook-up requires least fluid so gives a faster closing time.2.O) V4 Rev March 2002 CLOSING PRESSURE .
the rubber packing unit is squeezed inward to a sealing engagement with anything suspended in the wellbore. Compression of the rubber throughout the sealing area assured a seal-off against any shape.9 CONTRACTOR PISTON differential area exposed to mud column centre line opening pressure opening area packing unit closing area closing pressure operating piston well pressure well pressure area As the contractor piston is raised by hydraulic pressure.49 .2. V4 Rev March 2002 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
5000.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.PSI Operating pressure for Subsea Annular Preventers Adjustment Pressure (∆P) = Where: Wm Dw 0.13 = the ratio of closing chamber area to secondary chamber area for GL 16 3/4 . = = = = = drilling fluid density in lb. closure should be done carefully. water depth in feet conversion factor 2.45 x Dw) ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– p The optimum closing pressure for the standard hookup is obtained using the following formula: Closing Pressure = Surface Closing Pressure + Adjustment Pressure (∆P) 6 . Actual pressure required to affect seal-off will vary slightly with each individual packing unit.(0.10 Average Surface Closing Pressure (GL-16 3/4-5000 Standard Hook-up) CLOSING PRESSURE . Slightly higher closing pressure may be required for seal-off at higher well pressures.052 p 0.PSI SECONDARY CHAMBER CONNECTED TO OPENING CHAMBER 1500 CSO 1000 3 1/2" thru 7" Pipe 500 7 5/8" thru 13 3/8" Pipe CAUTION : Due to limiting properties of casing.433 psi/ft./gal.45 psi/ft.2. (0. pressure gradient for sea-water using a specific gravity of sea water = 1.04 and 0. 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 WELL PRESSURE .052 x Wm x Dw) .50 V4 Rev March 2002 . The closing pressures shown are initial closing pressures for most casing at O (zero) well pressure. NOTE : Pressures shown are average. using initial closing pressure to prevent collapse of casing. pressure gradient for fresh water.
V4 Rev March 2002 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Operating Pressure for Accumulator Bottles Example 1 3 1/ " .7" pipe.Surge Bottles The pre-charge pressure for the closing chamber surge absorber can be calculated using the following example: Example 2 1 3 /2" . Pre-Charge Pressures .45 psi/ft x 500 ft) Adjustment Pressure (∆P) = ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2. = Surface Closing Pressure = 600 psi. 16 lb.95 and 0. drilling fluid.433 psi/ft pressure gradient for fresh water. 0.51 . pressure gradient for control fluid (water and water soluble oil) using a specific gravity of the mixture = 0. 2 Closing Pressure = Surface Closing Pressure + Adjustment Pressure (∆P) From the Surface Closing Pressure graph Figure 6.41 psi/ft.41 x Dw)] Where: Dw = water depth in feet. 500 ft./gal.5. 3500 psi well pressure.(0. (0. Precharge = 0.41 psi/ft. Precharge = 0. x 500 ft)] = 644 psi. 500 feet water depth.052 x 16 Ib/gal x 500 ft) .13: Surface Closing Pressure = 900 psi.7" pipe. water depth.80 [600 psi + (0.80 [Surface Closing Pressure + (0. 13 Adjustment Pressure (∆P) = Closing Pressure = 90 psi 900 psi + 90 psi = 990 psi.
000 16 3/4 10.1 11.8 19.11 Packing unit selection (from Hydril) PACKING UNIT TYPE NATURAL RUBBER NITRILE RUBBER NEOPRENE RUBBER IDENTIFICATION Colour Black Code NR NBR Band CR OPERATING TEMP RANGE -30°F – 225°F DRILLING FLUID COMPATIBILITY Waterbase Fluid Oil base/Oil Additive Fluid Oil Base Fluid Red Green Band 20°F – 190°F -30°F – 170°F Figure 6.000 13 5/8 10.0 Close GL Open Balancing NL Shaffer Spherical Close Open 4.2 32.2 11.4 18.000 8 5.6 48.3 12.000 30 1.6 47.000 11 5.5 21.7 6.5 9.2 14.000 16 3/4 5. Figure 6.0 8.000 20 3.0 18.0 47.000 8 3.000 13 5/8 3.0 25.4 44.2 24.8 14.000 18 2.12 Annular Preventers Gallons of Fluid Required to Operate on Open Hole Size and Working Pressure Inches psi 6 3.2 4.8 19.52 V4 Rev March 2002 .2.8 58.6 61.6 14.5 6 . New or repaired units obtained from other service companies should not be used since the preventer manufacturers cannot be held responsible for malfunction of their equipment unless their elements are installed.000 11 10.000 Hydril GK Close 2.6 3.6 9.8 33.000 16 2.8 8.8 14.4 6.3 33.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Only packing elements which are supplied by the manufacturer of the annular preventer should be used.0 19.0 29.1 Open 2.0 44.0 5.2.000 10 3.6 8.3 3.0 34.4 37.1 11.8 17.9 14.0 28.000 6 5.6 33.8 25.2 3.2 23.7 21.000 16 3.6 17.000 30 2.5 23.000 13 5/8 5.000 10 5.9 9.000 18 3/4 5.000 20 5.2 7.000 12 3.000 16 3/4 3.000 7 1/16 10.7 5.4 37.5 17.6 3.000 20 2.7 17.8 5.8 7.0 20.9 3.4 4.0 58.
drill pipe. Figure 6.53 . Sphericals also provide positive pressure control for stripping drill pipe into and out of the hole. They are available in bolted cover.13 SHAFFER ANNULAR V4 Rev March 2002 6 . There are also special lightweight models for airlifting and Arctic models for low temperature service.2. drill collars. annular type BOP’s which reliably seal on almost any shape or size—kellys. wedge cover and dual wedge cover models. casing or wireline. tool joints.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT SPHERICAL BLOWOUT PREVENTERS Shaffer Spherical blowout preventers are compact.
2. This bottle should be precharged to 500 psi for surface installations and to 500 psi plus 45 psi per 100' of water depth for subsea installations.00 psi bolted-cover model. 3. 2. 10-gal. A control line to the closing (lower) port. Accumulator bottle (1-gal. capacity for all other bolted-cover models and 13 5/8"5. capacity for 1 1/16" . 4. capacity for all other wedge-cover models) Opening line Hydraulic unit Closing line Installation hookup for single Spherical BOP Accumulator bottles Opening line Closing line Opening line Closing line Station1 Station 2 Hydraulic unit Figure 6. The recommended installation requires: 1.54 Installation hookup for dual Spherical BOP V4 Rev March 2002 .000 psi wedge-cover model. ethylene glycol must be added to the K-90 and water solution for freeze protection. control line to the opening (upper) port. Several systems are available and those commonly used on drilling rigs work well. the user should ensure that it provides adequate lubrication and corrosion protection. a water-soluble oil such as Koomey K-90 and water can be used for environmental protection.14 6 . an accumulator bottle in the closing line adjacent to the BOP. If water-soluble oil is used.10. The hydraulic operating fluid should be hydraulic oil with a viscosity between 200 and 300 SSU at 100°F If necessary. If equipment is exposed to freezing temperatures. For stripping. A hydraulic regulator to allow adjustment of operating pressure to meet any given situation.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTALLATION A blowout preventer operating and control system is required to actuate the Spherical BOP. 5-gal. NOTE: Some water-soluble systems will corrode the metals used in BOP’s.
When closing on stationary pipe. continued upward movement of the piston forces the element to seal across the open bore (lower right). This prevents the rubber from flowing or extruding excessively when confining high well pressure. To prolong sealing element life. At complete shutoff.55 . 2. closing pressure will need to be incrementally increased to prevent excessive leakage. it pushes the element up.500 psi operating pressure is sufficient in most applications. reduce closing pressure to a value sufficient to allow a slight leak. As the sealing element wears.500 psi closing pressure. and the element’s spherical shape causes it to close in at the top as it moves upward. 3. STRIPPING OPERATIONS Stripping operations are undoubtedly the most severe application for any preventer because of the wear the sealing element is exposed to as the drill string is moved through the preventer under pressure. Just prior to commencing stripping operations. When there is no pipe in the preventer. If conditions allow. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . The recommended procedures are: 1. it is important to use proper operating procedures when stripping. Close the preventer with 1. stripping should be done with a slight leak to provide lubrication and prevent excessive temperature buildup in the element. the steel segments provide ample support for the top portion of the rubber. Recommended closing pressures for specific applications are given in the table at the bottom of the page. The element seals around the drill string as the piston continues to rise (middle right). Closing action begins when hydraulic fluid is pumped into the closing chamber of the Spherical BOP below the piston (upper right). 1. As the piston rises. Steel segments in the element move into the well bore to support the rubber as it contains the well pressure below. the.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OPERATING REQUIREMENTS Sphericals have relatively simple operating requirements compared to other annulars.
56 V4 Rev March 2002 .2.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.15 6 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6.57 .3 DIVERTERS Figure 6.3.1 Typical Diverter System Installed on a Floating Rig DIVERTER ELEMENT DIVERTER INSERT LOCK PRESSURE RELAX UNLOCK ADJUST CLOSED CLOSED OPEN OPEN PORT VENT STARBOARD VENT RETURNS TO SHAKER CLOSED PRESSURE BELOW DIVERTER BAG OPEN UPPER "WORKING" PACKING ELEMENT SLIP JOINT UPPER ELEMENT RIG AIR BLEED ADJUST LOWER PACKING ELEMENT CLOSED WHEN DIVERTER IS OPERATED SLIP JOINT UPPER ELEMENT PRESSURIZE RELAX ADJUST SLIP JOINT ANNULUS PRESSURE V4 Rev March 2002 6 .
For normal operation do not exceed 1250 psi. For insert packer lock down dogs.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Typical Operating Pressures The diverter packer regulator will provide a maximum pressure of 1200 psi on the packer. For normal pressure use 750 psi.58 V4 Rev March 2002 . Recommended pressure settings generally are: Hydraulic supply pressure Manifold pressure Diverter packer pressure 3000 psi 1250 psi 750 psi 6 . Diverter lock down dogs etc. The manifold pressure regulator provides a maximum pressure of 1650 psi.
2 Hydril FSP 28-2000 Diverter/BOP System Hydraulic Schematic HOSE BUNDLE LATCH UNLATCH HANDLING/TEST TOOL REGULATED HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUSH AND HOLD TO UNLATCH UNLATCH PORT STBD LATCH BELL NIPPLE LATCH SELECTOR PORT REGULATED HYDRAULIC SUPPLY OPEN CLOSE DIVERTER/BOP 5 GALLON ACCUMULATOR CERAMIC LINED AUTOMATIC OPENING TO DIVERTER LINES AS BAG CLOSES.59 . V4 Rev March 2002 6 .3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
3 Example diverter with annular packing element 6 .60 V4 Rev March 2002 .3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
61 .type packer V4 Rev March 2002 6 .4 Example diverter with insert .3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.62 V4 Rev March 2002 .3.5 Example diverter with rotating stripper 6 .
Integral sequencing NOTE: When the diverter closes.63 . the piston moves upward opening the flow path to the vent line while closing the flow path to the flow line.3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.6 Example diverter systems . V4 Rev March 2002 6 .
64 V4 Rev March 2002 .3 DIVERTER OPEN VALVE OPERATING PRESSURE OPEN VENT VALVE ACTUATOR DIVERTER CLOSE CLOSE OPEN FLOWLINE VALVE ACTUATOR CLOSE DIVERTED ANNULAR SEALING DEVICE OPERATING PRESSURE CLOSE ANNULAR SEALING DEVICE OPEN 6 . the lockdown function should be included in the automatic sequencing. Figure 6.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT If an Annular Sequencing Device which requires lockdown of an insert packer is in use.3.
3.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.4 DERRICK FLOOR BELL NIPPLE FLOW LINE INSERT TYPE PACKER HYDRAULIC VALVE OPERATOR BLEED-OFF LINE VALVE HEAVE COMPENSATOR LINE INNER BARREL OF TELESCOPING JOINT SEA LEVEL OUTER BARREL OF TELESCOPING JOINT RISER COUPLING FLEXIBLE JOINT GUIDE FRAME HYDRAULIC LATCH PERMANENT GUIDE BASE TEMPORARY GUIDE BASE When drilling surface hole from a template the cuttings are returned to surface for disposal to avoid spool build up on the template. V4 Rev March 2002 6 .65 .
66 V4 Rev March 2002 .5 21 in HST RISER COUPLING PIN MUD BOOST LINE CONNECTION 21 1/4 in – 2000 MSP ANNU-FLEX FLEX JOINT ANNULAR BOP 21in HYDRAULIC CONNECTOR 21 1/4 in – 2000 SHEAR RAM OUTLET NOZZLE(S) 21 1/4 in – 2000 FSS SPOOL BLIND FLANGE C K VALVE 30 in LATCH Sub-sea diverting stack (template operations).3. 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
6 (SURFACE DIVERTER) V4 Rev March 2002 6 .3.67 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
3.7 (MSP DIVERTER/BOP) 6 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.68 V4 Rev March 2002 .
3.ACCUMULATOR BANK PILOT CONTROL LINE TO DRILLING CONSOLE REGULATED HYDRUALIC SUPPLY RISER DIVERTER MANIFOLD (NEAR DRILLING MANIFOLD) VENT V4 Rev March 2002 FROM DRILLING CHOKE MANIFOLD 3"Ø 3"Ø MUD PUMP 6"Ø 6"Ø 6"Ø RIG FLOOR Bell Nipple Diverter VENT MUD GAS SEPERRTOR 3"CHOKE 12"Ø 6"Ø 16"Ø TO SHALE SHAKER Upper Flex Joint MOON POOL Figure 6.69 .8 Riser GPLG 12"Ø BELL NIPPLE DIVERTER OVERBOARD LINE RISER CHOKE LINE INNER BARREL TELESCOPIC JOINT OPEN CONTROL LINE OUTER BARREL CLOSE CONTROL LINE Riser GPLG 6"Ø RISER DIVERTER OVERBOARD LINE RISER BOOST LINE QUICK CONNECT COUPLING Riser Diverter RISER DIVERTER JOINT 6" DRAPE HOSE Riser GPLG KILL DRAPE HOSE CHOKE DRAPE HOSE WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6 .
Will close on open hole and hold 2000 psi (but not recommended). Greater stripping capability of the packing unit since (fatigue) wear occurs on the outside of the packing unit. Automatically returns to the open position when closing is released. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . 3.3. Primary usage is in diverter systems.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.TYPE “MSP” .70 . 5.2000 PSI Operating Features: 1. 2.9 HYDRIL ANNULAR PREVENTER . 4. Sealing assistance is gained from the well pressure.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT
ROTATING HEADS When used, rotating heads are installed above the BOP stack. They provide a seal on the kelly or drillpipe. A drive unit, attached to the kelly, locates in a bearing assembly above the stripper rubber. Some applications for rotating heads are: • • Drilling with air or gas, to divert the returns through a "Blooey line". To permit drilling with underbalanced mud, by maintaining a back pressure on the wellbore. As a diverter for surface hole. To keep gas away from the rotary table. This is especially important where Hydrogen Sulphide can be expected.
Realistic working pressures for rotating heads are 500 to 700 psi. It is recommended that they are not installed for routine gas cap drilling (unless sour gas is expected) since their use precludes observation from the rig floor of annulus fluid level. Figure 6.3.10
SWING-BOLT CLAMP ASSEMBLY DRIVE BUSHING ASSEMBLY SHOCK PAD
DRIVE RING AND BEARING ASSEMBLY
OUTLET FLANGE INLET FLANGE
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SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT
6.4 GASKETS, SEALS AND WELLHEADS
API Type 'R' Ring Joint Gasket The type ‘R’ ring joint gasket is not energised by internal pressure. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the gasket, on both the OD and ID of the gasket. The gasket may be either octagonal or oval in cross section. The type ‘R’ design does not allow face-to-face contact between the hubs or flanges, so external loads are transmitted through the sealing surfaces of the ring. Vibration and external loads may cause the small bands of contact between the ring and the ring grooves to deform the plastic, so that the joint may develop a leak unless the flange bolting is periodically tightened. Standard procedure with type ‘R’ joints in the BOP stack is to tighten the flange bolting weekly. Figure 6.4.1
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API Type 'RX' Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gasket The ‘RX’ pressure-energised ring joint gasket was developed by Cameron Iron Works and adopted by API. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves, and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened. The ‘RX’ design does not allow face-to-face contact between the hubs or flanges. However, the gasket has large load-bearing surfaces on the inside diameter, to transmit external loads without plastic deformation of the sealing surfaces of the gasket. It is recommended that a new gasket be used each time the joint is made up. Figure 6.4.4
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API Type 'BX' Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gasket Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves, and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened. Although the intent of the ‘BX’ design was face-to-face contact between the hubs and flanges, the groove and gasket tolerances which are adopted are such that, if the ring dimension is on the high side of the tolerance range and the groove dimension is on the low side of the tolerance range, face-to-face contact may be very difficult to achieve. Without face-to-face contact, vibration and external loads can cause plastic deformation of the ring, eventually resulting in leaks. Both flanged and clamp hub ‘BX’ joints are equally prone to this difficulty. The ‘BX’ gasket frequently is manufactured with axial holes to ensure pressure balance, since both the ID and the OD of the gasket may contact the grooves. In practice, the face-to-face contact between hubs or flanges is seldom achieved. Figure 6.4.6
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SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT
API Face-to-Face Type ‘RX’ Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gasket The face-to-face ‘RX’ pressure-energised ring joint gasket was adopted by API as the standard joint for clamp hubs. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves, and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened. Face-to-face contact between the hubs is ensured by an increased groove width, but this leaves the gasket unsupported on it’s ID. Without support from the ID of the grooves, the gasket may not remain perfectly round as the joint is tightened. If the gasket buckles or develops flats, the joint may leak. This type of gasket has not been accepted by the industry and is seldom used. Figure 6.4.9
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‘CIW’ Type ‘RX’ Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Groove CIW modified the API face-to-face type ‘RX’ pressure-energised ring joint grooves to prevent any possible leaking caused by the buckling of the gasket in the API groove. The same API face-to-face type ‘RX’ pressure energised ring joint gaskets are used with these modified grooves. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves, and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened. The gasket ID will also contact the grooves when it is made up. This constraint of the gasket prevents any possible leaking caused by the buckling of the gasket. Hub face-to-face contact is maintained within certain tolerances. The maximum theoretical stand-off from the stack-up of the tolerances of the gasket and the groove is 0.022 inches. Face-to-face contact cannot be assured with this ring/groove combination. This ring is seldom found in use. The ‘CX’ ring accomplishes the intent of the ‘RX’ faceto-face design. Figure 6.4.13
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The OD of the gasket is grooved. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. This allows the use of retractable pins or dogs to positively retain the gasket in the base of the wellhead or riser connector when the hubs are separated.4. Figure 6. The belt at the centre of the gasket keeps it from buckling or cocking as the joint is being made up. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves. External loads are transmitted entirely through the hub faces and cannot damage the gasket. The gasket design allows face-to-face contact between the hubs to be achieved with minimal clamping force.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Type 'AX' and 'VX' Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gasket The ‘AX’ pressure-energised ring joint gasket was developed by Cameron Iron Works.14 C L ENERGISED 6 .4. so the axial pressure load on the connector is held to an absolute minimum. The ID of the gasket is smooth and is almost flush with the hub bore. The ‘VX’ ring was developed by Vetco.78 V4 Rev March 2002 .13 C L Figure 6. Sealing occurs at a diameter which is only slightly greater than the diameter of the hub bore. and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened.
79 . for protection against keyseating. External loads are transmitted entirely through the hub faces and cannot damage the gasket.4.16 C L V4 Rev March 2002 6 . Figure 6. The belt at the centre of the gasket keeps it from buckling or cocking as the joint is being made up.15 C L Figure 6.4. The gasket design allows face-to-face contact between the clamp hubs or flanges to be achieved with minimal clamping force. The gasket is made slightly larger in diameter than the grooves. but is recessed.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT ‘CIW’ Type ‘CX’ Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gasket The ‘CX’ pressure-energised ring joint gasket was developed by Cameron Iron Works. rather than being flush with the well bore. it is suitable for use through the BOP and riser system. except at the base of the wellhead and riser connectors. The gasket is patterned after the ‘AX’ and ‘VX’ gasket. Sealing takes place along small bands of contact between the grooves and the OD of the gasket. and is compressed slightly to achieve initial sealing as the joint is tightened. Since the ‘CX’ gasket is protected from keyseating. The gasket seals on approximately the same diameter as do the ‘RX’ and ‘BX’ gaskets.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Application of Type 'AX'. The ‘CX’ gasket is recessed for protection against keyseating. The ‘AX’/’VX’ design ensures that axial pressure loading on the connector is held to an absolute minimum. The ‘AX’ gasket also is suitable for side outlets on the BOP stack.80 V4 Rev March 2002 . except at the base of the wellhead and riser connector.17 HYDRIL DRILLING SPOOL DATA 6 . Figure 6. since these outlets are not subject to keyseating. The ‘AX’ and ‘VX’ gasket is used at the base of the wellhead and riser connector when the hubs are separated. The ‘CX’ gasket is suitable for use throughout the BOP and riser system.4. ‘VX’ and ‘CX’ face-to-face pressure-energised ring gaskets allow face-toface contact between the hubs to be achieved with minimal clamping force. 'VX' and 'CX' Pressure-Energised Ring Joint Gaskets The ‘AX’.
4.81 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.18 V4 Rev March 2002 6 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.19 6 .4.82 V4 Rev March 2002 .
adapter flanges will be furnished with the specific API ring joint flange equipment listed below: RATING OF BOP STACK APPROVED * RING GASKETS MAXIMUM BOLT ** STRENGTH MINIMUM NUT STRENGTH APPROVED FLANGES 2000 psi wp and 3000 psi wp Installations API Type RX ASTM Grade B-7 API Type RX or API Type BX wp Type 6BX Flange ASTM Grade B-7 API Type 6B with Type R Flat Bottom Groove ASTM Grade 2H 5000 psi wp Installations API Type 6B with Type R Flat Bottom Groove or API Type 6BX w/Type BX Groove API Type BX ASTM Grade B-7 ASME Grade 2-H 10.4.83 . Sweet Oil - Low Carbon Steel WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Sour Oil or Gas - Type 316 stainless steel preferred but Type 304 stainless steel acceptable except for high risk H2S wells. ASTM A-193 Gr B/M with a maximum Rockwell hardness of 22 may be acceptable.Figure 6.20 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOP FLANGES.000 psi wp Installations API Type 6BX with Type BX Groove ASTM Grad 2-H * Acceptable material for flange ring gaskets as per API Spec 6A. drilling spools. RING GASKETS. ** In some H2S applications. flanges should be derated per Table 1. FLANGE BOLTS AND NUTS V4 Rev March 2002 All blowout preventers.4B of API 6A. "Wellhead Equipment". 6 . If used.
VALVES. many blowouts occurred due to swabbing or not keeping the hole filled while tripping the drill string out of the hole.0 barrel the influx or efflux of fluid from the wellbore.84 V4 Rev March 2002 . logging or other similar type operations.5 MANIFOLDS. it is possible to reduce hydrostatic pressure to less than formation pressure. The trip tank would be isolated from the surface mud system to prevent inadvertent loss or gain of mud from the trip tank due to valves being left open. SEPARATORS AND FLOW GAIN SENSORS 1. A calibrated read-out and audio alarm should be installed at the Driller’s station. MUD CONTROL AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT Correct installation and operation of this equipment is fundamental to effective primary and secondary well control. When this happens. The pump type system is better because it provides for safer and more expedient trip operation. monitor the hole when tripping. a kick will occur. The following are the most important aspects: a) Pit Volume Measurement A pit volume totalising (PVT) should be provided. measure mud or water into the annulus when circulation has been lost. There are two basic types of trip tanks . If mud is not added to the hole as pipe is pulled. b) Flow line Measurement A device should be provided for measurement of flow line and mud return rate. Swabbing can occur when pipe is pulled too fast and friction between the pipe and the mud column causes a reduction in hydrostatic pressure to a valve less than formation pressure. As the drill string is pulled from the hole.gravity feed and pump. the mud level will drop due to the volume of metal being removed. 6 . This (Flo Show) device should have a read-out and alarm at the Driller’s station. The following measurement devices are required for all tanks: • • • • A float for the PVT system.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6. A remote ladder-type scale. In the past. trip tanks were developed to accurately measure within ± 1. c) Trip Tank Trip tanks are used to fill the hole on trips. A small wireline can be used to connect a float in the tank to the scale on the rig floor. visible from the Driller’s station for the trip tank. An internal calibrated ladder-type scale. To provide exact fluid measurements for pipe displacement. to isolate other floats when the trip tank is in use.
85 .5.Series RETURN MUD FLOW SYSTEM 40 50 60 30 20 10 0 RETURN MUD FLOW 70 80 % 90 100 MFT2 MUD FLOW SENSOR LO ADJUST LO HI FLOW FLOW HI ADJUST MUD FLOO ON SMOOTHING LO MED HI 2 AMP RECORDER 115 VAC RETURN WARNING RETURN FLOW HI-LO WARNING FLOW SENSOR LINE H1240 WARNING SYSTEM WARNING LIGHTS (Optional) REMOTE INDICCTOR 115 VAC MFR2 or MFRE2 RECORDER (Optional) FROM MVT4 RETURN MUD FLOW SYSTEM (Optional) HORN Figure 6.1 MFC3 CONTROL CONSOLE MFS 3 .5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.2 MFTX2 FLOW SENSOR ASSEMBLY MVR2 ELECTRONIC RECORDER (Optional) MFCX RETURN MUD FLOW AND PUMP STROKE SENSOR CONSOLE 40 50 60 30 20 10 0 70 80 90 100 H1268 WARNING SYSTEM HORN H1234A PUMP STROKE SENSOR H1267 WARNING SYSTEM CONTROL BOX MFSX2 MUD FLOW FILL SYSTEM V4 Rev March 2002 6 .
A pressurised mud gas separator is designed to operate with moderate back pressure. • 6 .On A Floating Rig As illustrated in Figure 6. a centrifugal pump takes suction from the trip tank and fills the hole through a line into the bell nipple. The metal volume of the pipe being pulled can be calculated. or continuously. but mud additions necessary to replace hole seepage losses due to filtration effects can only be predicted by comparison with the mud volumes required to keep the hole properly filled on previous trips.5.3. The main advantage of this type of separator is its operational simplicity which does not require control valves on either the gas or mud discharge lines. generally 50 psi or less. using a trip tank to keep the track of the fluid volume required.86 V4 Rev March 2002 . A valve must be installed in the flow line downstream of this outlet to block all flow to the shale shakers while making a trip. The hole stays full as each stand of pipe is pulled and excess mud returns to the trip tank through an outlet on the main flow line. This provides a means of safely venting the gas and returning usable liquid mud to the active system. versus number of stands pulled be maintained on the rig in a trip book for every trip made. it is import that a record of mud volume required. Mud Gas Separator The separator is installed downstream of the choke manifold to separate gas from the drilling fluid. This type of separator is installed on rigs drilling in high risk H2S areas and for drilling underbalanced in areas where high pressure. A closed circulation system can be monitored by a float system and a digital read-out in 1-barrel increments on the Driller’s console. Pressurised separators are utilised to overcome line pressure losses when an excessive length of vent line is required to safely flare and burn the hazardous gas an extended distance from the rig. low volume gas continually feeds into the circulating fluid.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT To prevent loss of hydrostatic pressure it is necessary to fill the hole on a regular schedule. • The atmospheric type separator is standard equipment on nearly all rigs and is referred to in the field as a ‘gas buster’ or ‘poorboy' separator. The pressurised separator is considered special rig equipment and may not be provided by the contractor. There are two types of mud gas separators: Atmospheric and Pressurised. The pump runs constantly while the drill string is pulled from the hole. For this reason. Typical Trip Tank Hook-up .
Diameter and length of gas outlet. Figure 6. the mud gas separator should be capable of saving most of the mud. This will prevent the hazardous situation of blowing the liquid from the bottom of the separator and discharging gas into the mud system. • V4 Rev March 2002 6 . Since most drilling rigs have their own separator designs. the main purpose of a mud gas separator is to vent the gas and save the drilling fluid. however. but also to minimise the risk of circulating out a gas kick without having to shut down to mix additional mud volume. mud rheological properties vary widely and have a strong effect on gas environment. For both practical and cost reasons. which provides a method of inspecting plate wear.4 illustrates the basic design features for atmospheric mud gas separators. A U-tube arrangement properly sized to maintain a fluid head in the separator. the Drilling Supervisor must analyse and compare the contractor’s equipment with the recommended design to ensure the essential requirements are met. When a gas kick is properly shut in and circulated out. rig mud gas separators are not designed for maximum possible gas release rates which might be needed.5. This is important not only for economic reasons. the flow must be bypassed around the separator directly to the flare line. For production operations. gas oil separators can be sized and internally designed to efficiently separate gas from the fluid. they should handle most kicks when recommended shut-in procedures and well control practices are followed. In some situations the amount of mud lost can be critical when surface volume is marginal and on-site mud supplies are limited. A target plate to minimise erosion where inlet mud gas mixture contacts the internal wall of the separator. There are a number of design features which affect the volume of gas and fluid that the separator can safely handle. The essential design features are: • • • • Height and diameter of separator.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT During well control operations. Internal baffle arrangement to assist in additional gas break-out. This is possible because the fluid and gas characteristics are known and design flow rates can be readily established.87 . It is apparent that ‘gas busters’ for drilling rigs cannot be designed on the same basis since the properties of circulated fluids from gas kicks are unpredictable and a wide range of mixing conditions occur downhole. In addition. The atmospheric type separator operates on the gravity or hydrostatic pressure principle. When gas low rates exceed the separator capacity.
5.4 An Example Mud Gas Separator GAS OUTLET 8" ID MINIMUM GAS BACK PRESSURE REGISTERED AT THIS GAUGE (Typically 0 to 20 psi) STEEL TARGET PLATE INLET APPROX 1/2 OF HEIGHT INSPECTION COVER 30" OD SECTION A-A TANGENTIAL INLET 10' MINIMUM HEIGHT A INSPECTION COVER A 4" ID INLET-TANGENTIAL TO SHELL FROM CHOKE MANIFOLD BRACE HALF CIRCLE BAFFLES ARRANGED IN A 'SPIRAL' CORFIGURATION TO SHAKER HEADER TANK 10' APPROX MAXIMUM HEAD AVAILABLE DEVELOPED BY THIS HEIGHT OF FLUID eg 10 foot HEAD AT 1.5 psi MAXIMUM CAPACITY 8" NOMINAL 'U' TUBE 4" CLEAN-OUT PLUG 2" DRAIN OR FLUSH LINE 6 .5.88 V4 Rev March 2002 .5 SG GIVES 6.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.3 REMOTE CONTROL VALVE TRIP TANK LEVEL INDICATOR RIG FLOOR OVERBOARD ROTARY TABLE DIVERTER RETURNS TO SHAKERS FLOWLINE TELESCOPIC JOINT FROM MISSION PUMPS RISER CHECK VALVE HOLE FILL UP LINE DRAIN TRIP TANK PUMP Figure 6.
which creates a small centrifugal effect on the gas-fluid mixture and causes faster gas break-out. the vent line is extended straight up and supported to a derrick leg. The mud outlet line must be designed to handle viscous.096 psi. the operating pressure is atmospheric plus pressure due to friction in the gas vent line. Some separators use tangential inlet. On most offshore rigs.4. which is usually 4 in. The mud outlet downstream of the U-tube should be designed to maintain a minimum vessel fluid level of approximately 3 1/2 ft in a 16 ft high separator.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT The height and diameter of an atmospheric separator are critical dimensions which affect the volume of gas and fluid the separator can efficiently handle.89 . flame arresters should be installed at the discharge end of the vent line. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . The ideal line would be restricted to 30 ft in length and the top of the line should be bent outward about 30 degrees to direct gas flow away from the rig floor. The vertical distance from the inlet to the static fluid level allows time for additional gas break-out and provides an allowance for the fluid to rise somewhat during operation to overcome friction loss in the mud outlet lines. the fluid seal in the bottom is lost and gas starts flowing into the mud system. This line usually discharges into the mud ditch in order that good mud can be directed over the shakers and untreatable mud routed to the waste pit. If it is intended that the gas be flared. As stated previously. the gas-fluid inlet should be located approximately at the midpoint of the vertical height. line is recommended to minimise frictional losses. This provides the top half for a gas chamber and the bottom half for gas separation and fluid retention. contaminated mud returns.8 ppg mud and total U-tube height of 10 ft. diameter and 16 ft minimum vessel height requirements have proven adequate to handle the majority of gas kicks. the fluid seal would have a hydrostatic pressure equal to 5.5. This points out the importance for providing a large diameter gas vent line with the fewest possible turns to minimise line frictional losses. The baffle system causes the mud to flow in thin sheets which assists the separation process. The separator inlet should have at least the same ID as the largest line from the choke manifold. The 30 in. when the gas pressure in the separator exceeds the hydrostatic head of the mud in the U-tube. A 8 in. As shown in Figure 6.5. As shown in Figure 6. Assuming a 9. There are numerous arrangements and shapes of baffles used. minimum ID gas outlet is usually recommended to allow a large volume of low pressure gas to be released from the separator with minimum restriction.4 an 8 in. It is important that each plate be securely welded to the body of the separator with angle braces. As the mud and gas mixture enters the separator. Care should be taken to ensure minimum back pressure in the vent line.
The most commonly used degassers are vacuum tanks and centrifugal pump sprayers. vacuum degassers are very effective with heavy. In general. but many others are available. or a combination. residence time and extraction energy requirements are increased as mud viscosity and gel strength increases. Primarily.5. a pressurised chamber. a centrifugal spray. joints must be kept lubricated. In degassers that employ a float arm. In any degassing operation. the water knockout ahead of the compressor must be emptied daily. When a vacuum pump is used. a degasser may also be used. because the volume of gas actually entrained in the fluid is small. viscous muds from which it is difficult to extract gas with a separator alone. Degassers separate entrained gas from fluid using a vacuum chamber. it is a matter of correctly lubricating any pumps used in the system.90 V4 Rev March 2002 . Figure 6.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Degassers If a fluid's viscosity does not allow gas to break out completely.5 FLARE LINE DISCHARGE SUCTION 6 . A degasser is not designed to handle large volumes of gas. Properly maintaining degassers is not difficult.
Figure 6.91 .7 Remotely operated choke P To mud/gas separators and/or pit 2" Nominal 2" 2" To pit 2" Nominal Adjustable Choke Blowout Preventer Stack Outlet P CHOKE LINE 2" Bleed line To pit 3" Nominal Sequence Optional Remotely Operated Valve 2" 4" Nominal 2" To mud/gas separator and/or pit P 2" Nominal Remotely operated choke Typical Choke Manifold for 10.5.000 psi and 15.6 Adjustable choke P To pit and/or mud/gas separators 2" Nominal 2" Blowout Preventer Stack Outlet P Remotely Operated Valve 2" Bleed line To pit 3" Nominal Sequence Optional 2" 4" Nominal 2" To mud/gas separator and/or pit 2" Nominal Remotely operated or adjustable choke P Typical Choke Manifold for 5. lines and chokes which provide several flow routes to control the flow of mud.5. fittings.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Choke Manifolds The choke manifold is an arrangement of valves. gas and oil from the annulus during a kick.000 psi Working Pressure Service-Surface Installation V4 Rev March 2002 6 .000 psi Working Pressure Service-Surface Installation Figure 6.
2. 3. 5.92 V4 Rev March 2002 . BURNING LINE (PRODUCTION GAS SEPARATOR OFFSHORE RIGS) 6 . Manually adjusted chokes.000 psi gate valves. 4.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.000 psi gate valves. 10. Remote controlled chokes.5.8 BYPASS TO POORBOY DEGASSER TO POORBOY OR TRIP TANK DEGASSER TO MUD PITS 2 4 2 1 BOP STACK PRIMARY CHOKE LINE 3 1 1 1 1 1 CHOKE BYPASS LINE 2 RESERVE PIT (DERRICK FLARE OFFSHORE RIGS) KILL OR SECONDARY CHOKE LINE 1 1 3 2 BUFFER CHAMBER FROM KILL PUMP TO GAUGE 2 4 MANIFOLD CHOKE LINE FROM DST CHOKE MANIFOLD DST LINE 2 1.
When ordering. end connection. working pressure. pressure.9 E Figure 6. and service conditions (such as temperature.93 . body and trim materials. V4 Rev March 2002 6 .000 A 1 13/16 2 1/16 2 9/16 B 18 1/4 20 1/2 22 1/4 C 5 11/16 5 11/16 6 7/8 D 18 5/8 18 5/8 19 1/2 E 8 9 3/4 9 3/4 Wt 206 218 292 No of Turns to Open 12 1/2 13 1/2 16 Flange specifications conform to API standard 6A National Gate Valves are available with flanged ends in standard API bore sizes and working pressures.000 10. National Gate Valves meet the applicable standards set forth by the American Petroleum Institute.4.10 C A C B 10.000 lb Working Pressure (Inches) Size 1 13/16" 2 1/16" 2 9/16" WP 10.000 PSI Figure 6.5. Special trims are available for sour gas and oil service on request. and composition of flow material). be sure to specify quantity. 10. National Gate Valves are also readily available to accept most pneumatic or hydraulic operators.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION 1 13/16" THRU 2 9/16".000 10. size.
94 V4 Rev March 2002 . Figure 6.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT .Components 113/16" thru 21/16" 15.11 .000 psi Hex Nut Handwheel Stem Bearing Grease Fitting Bonnet Cap Grease Seal Set Screw O-Ring Flat Split Ring Stem Bearing Shoulder Split Ring Packing Gland Clevis Nut Clevis Pin Hub Seal Gate Stem Packing Packing Header Ring Plastic Packing Hex Nut Seat Assembll Stud Bolt Plastic Packing Injection Fitting Body Bonnet Grease Fitting Bonnet Gasket Grease Fitting 6 .4.
V4 Rev March 2002 6 . and 6-inch 3000 and 5000 psi working pressure with standard API flanges. The closing ratio of well pressure to hydraulic operating pressure is approximately 8 to 1.Type ‘HCR‘ pressure operated gate valve The type ‘HCR‘ pressure operated gate valves is a flow line valve requiring relatively low operating pressures.5.12 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.95 . Available sizes are 4-inch 3000 to 5000 psi working pressure. hydraulic gate valve packed with elements similar to the old ‘QRC‘ ram assembly. This is a single ram.
The valve is conduit type with no pockets for solids to deposit and hardened rotating seats which distribute wear. especially at high operating pressures.14 Cameron type “F“ Gate Valve The Cameron type “F“ gate valve is a commonly used valve on BOP system lines.000 working pressure. 6 . Line pressure tends to close the valve because the gate and stem move outward in closing.13 Figure 6.5. Control pressure is lower. Closing force is supplied by valve body pressure acting on the stem area. These valves may be equipped with either hydraulic or pneumatic operators. Gates and seats may be replaced without disconnecting the valves.5.96 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6. Sizes from 1-13/16 to 6-6/8 inch are available in ratings of 2. “fail-safe“ models close automatically upon loss of pressure and are ideally suited for subsea use. plus the action of a coiled spring. Fail-safe type “F“ valves are opened and held open by control pressure in the operating cylinder.000 to 10. Since operating pressure is low so that closing ratio is not a problem.
15) flow line pressure acting against the lower end of the balancing stem assists in closing the valve. V4 Rev March 2002 6 .5. A port in the operator housing allows the hydrostatic pressure due to water depth to balance the hydrostatic head of the operating fluid. especially in deep water. Due to space limitations the first valve out from the stack (the inner valve) is a 90 degree type with a target to avoid sand cutting.97 . The valves are always rated at the same pressure as the stack and choke and kill lines.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Fail Safe Valves High pressure choke and kill lines run from the stack to the choke manifold on the rig floor. away from the neighbouring valve. each is equipped with two fail safe valves. These can be opened hydraulically from the surface but when the opening pressure is released spring action automatically forces the gate closed. Liquid lock between the two valves in each line is eliminated by porting the fluid exhausted from the pressure chamber when opening the valve. Without this feature the hydrostatic head of the operating fluid acting on top of the piston would tend to open the valve itself. In the Cameron type AF fail safe valve (fig 6. The outer valve is straight through and must be able to hold pressure from on top as well as below when the choke and kill lines are tested. A resilient sleeve transmits the sea water pressure to an oil chamber on the spring side of the operating piston. To shut these lines off when not required.
5.98 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.15 Operator fluid inlet Retainer ring Piston Set screw "O" Ring Woodruff key Locking ring Sea water hydrostatic pressure Spring cartridge assembly Sea water hydrostatic pressure equalizing port Resilient sleeve Sleeve Clamp Ring "J" Packing Vent "O" ring "J" Packing Junk ring Retainer ring Pin Ring Pipe plug Anti-extrusion ring Bonnet stud Bonnet nut Bonnet Pipe plug Bonnet gasket Pin Adaptor stem Balancing stem "O" ring "J" packing "O" ring "O" ring "J" packing Nut "O" ring Gland Pipe plug Gate and seat assembly Body CAMERON TYPE AF FAIL SAFE VALVE 6 .
99 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.16 V4 Rev March 2002 6 .5.
5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.17 6 .100 V4 Rev March 2002 .
positive and combination. Accuracy levels are maintained over extended periods of use. The part numbers of the K1 and K3 bean wrenches are available on request. K2 combination bean sizes range form 6/64" to 128/64". Part numbers for K3 positive beans are available on request. The part number for K2 positive bean is 626397-( )-( ). Part numbers for the K1 and K3 combination beans are available upon request. The combination bean is used with an adjustable choke needle to make incremental changes to orifice sizes smaller than the fixed orifice. The combination bean has a fixed diameter and a throttling taper at the entry. K2 positive bean orifice sizes range from 4/64" to 128/64". Cameron K choke beans come in two styles. K3 combination bean sizes range from 6/64" to 192/64". The dash numbers indicate desired orifice size. K1 combination bean sizes range from 6/64" to 64/64".101 . K1 positive bean orifice sizes range from 4/64" to 64/64"/ Part numbers for K1 positive beans are available on request.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT K Choke Beans and Wrenches • • • Flared Orifice entrance reduces erosion on the entrance surface. for example. The part number of the K2 bean wrench is 626266-01. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . The part number for the K2 combination bean is 626396-( )-( ). The positive bean has a fixed orifice diameter. 626397-01-10 is a 110/64" diameter orifice. Choke beans save time and money because replacement intervals are extended. The part numbers of the positive and combination beans are determined by desired orifice size. K3 positive bean orifice sizes range from 4/64" to 192/64".
1 6 .102 V4 Rev March 2002 . Figure 6. Another advantage is that it prevents cuttings from entering the drill string. These valves provide instantaneous shut-off against high or low back pressure and allow full fluid flow through the drill string. thus reducing the likelihood of pulling a wet string. Expectations of abnormal pressures have shown the vented type of flapper valve to be the most popular because of the ease involved in recording shut-in drill pipe pressures. serve essentially the same purpose.6 INSIDE BOP'S Drill Pipe Float Valves The drill pipe float valve and the flapper type of back pressure valve. and reverse circulation is not possible.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 6. The disadvantages are that the pipe must be filled while tripping in. Abnormal pressures and anticipated subnormal pressure zones should be the deciding factor regarding what type of valve to run or the possibility of not running any valve at all. but differ in design.6.
Prior to shearing drill pipe. Checkguard control upward pressure in the annulus and in the drill pipe.3 .6. While tripping. It serves as a check valve to prevent upward flow through the drill string while permitting downward mud pumping or flow from injectors. Installation of the check valve simplifies well control. V4 Rev March 2002 6 . since formation pressures cannot communicate up the drill string.Gray Valve RELEASE TOOL VALUE RELEASE ROD Body Upper Seat Crank VALVE SEAT Ball Lower Seat VALVE SPRING Figure 6. allowing the top connection to be open. While stripping drill pipe into the hole.103 .6.2 .Kelly Cock Figure 6. Latching the check valve into the landing sub contains the pressure in the drill pipe. install the check valve to protect against the release of well pressures.4 Installing a Checkguard improves well control significantly.6. Checkguard contains upward well bore pressure in the drill pipe.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Figure 6.
6 . The valve should be stored in a protected area. Never oil rubber packer. Retrieve the check valve by installing a sinker bar above the retrieving tool and using a wire line. Another way is to trip the drill string and remove the check valve from the landing sub with the retrieval tool. away from sun and rain while not in use. The packer is engaged by the tapered body.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 6 : WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT Checkguard uses a spring and ball design. The check valve should be disassembled. Operating tips include ensuring the packer rubber is clean and pliable. Use the drill pipe safety kelly guard and lower the kelly guard if excessive back flow exists. Replace packer if condition requires. But when fluid tries to flow from the bottom to the top. This protects the working parts and packer. Fluid can be pumped through the valve from the top. Install the check valve by dropping it into an open tool joint. Check for cracking and embrittlement of packer. Use normal wire line procedure. grease and dirt on the packer surface. it is sealed by the spring-loaded ball against the seat. The more pressure from below. Connect the kelly and pump the check valve into the landing sub. cleaned and lubricated (not packer) once it is retrieved from the landing sub after downhole use. Position the landing sub in the lower end of the drill string. Check for foreign substances such as paint. Installation and Retrieval Install the landing sub in the drill string while tripping into the hole. the tighter the seal is. A large rubber packer provides sealing when fluid attempts to flow around the valve.104 V4 Rev March 2002 . The body is driven upward by pressure from below.
SECTION 7 : INSPECTION.Surface Installations Sealing Components .Subsea Installations 1 12 14 15 V4 Rev March 2002 . TESTING AND SEALING COMPONENTS Page 7A 7B 7C 7D Inspection and Testing .Surface Installations Inspection and Testing .Subsea Installations Sealing Components .
d. size.1 The field acceptance procedure should be performed each time a new or reworked blowout preventer or blowout preventer of unknown condition is placed in service. ram bores. Refer to Section 8-A for bolting recommendations. and trim of the preventers. Remove and replace packing if necessary. wear. 4) If preventer has secondary seals. for proper type. Refer to Section 8-A for ring joint gasket recommendations. ram connecting rod. Visually inspect ram type preventers for: 1) Wear. c.A. Check ring joint gaskets for proper type and condition. and ram operating rods.2 Following are recommended inspections and tests for this equipment: a. and pitting. and excessive hardness. b. Visually inspect the body and ring grooves (vertical. 2) Packer wear. or ram bore) for damage. cracking. Check bolting. and condition.) Probe the plastic packing to ensure it is soft and not energising the seal. This clearance is dependent on type. bonnet or door seal grooves. pitting. Remove the plastic injection screw and the check valve in this port. (Some preventers have a release packing regulating valve that will need to be removed.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING SECTION 7-A INSPECTION AND TESTING . both studs and nuts. size. inspect secondary seals and remove the plugs to expose plastic packing injection ports used for secondary sealing purposes. and or damage to the bonnet or door seal area.A. horizontal. 3) Measure ram and ram bore to check for maximum vertical clearance according to manufacturer’s specifications. V4 Rev March 2002 7-1 . Ram Type Preventers and Drilling Spools 7. Refer to Section 8-A for information on sealing components.SURFACE INSTALLATIONS FIELD ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION AND TESTING 7.
11) Release opening pressure and release pressure under rams. 10) Test the connecting rod for adequate strength by applying opening pressure as recommended by the manufacturer with rams closed and blowout preventer rated working pressure under the rams. If ram packer leaks. check for worn packers and replace if necessary. 6) Release opening pressure and reconnect closing line(s). and connect opening line(s). Hold for three minutes. 13) Test blind rams in same manner as pipe rams (step 1. remove closing line(s). refer to step 9. Continue testing until a successful test is obtained.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING e. 8) Check for ram packer leaks by increasing pressure slowly to the rated working pressure of the preventer. steps 3 through 9) with test plug installed but test joint removed. 7) Check for ram packer leaks at low pressure by closing rams with 1500 psi operating pressure and apply pressure under rams to 200-300 psi with blowout preventer test tool installed (when testing preventer containing pipe rams). If ram packer does not leak. 12) Repeat procedure (steps 1 through 9) for each set of pipe rams. Check for leaks. If ram packer leaks. Opening pressure should be equivalent to the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure for the preventer’s hydraulic system. 5) Check for opening chamber seal leaks by applying opening pressure to open rams and check for fluid leaks by observing closing line port(s). Check for leaks. Hydraulically test with water using the following procedure (refer to Para. 7. 7-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . proceed to step 9. Closing pressure should be equivalent to the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure for the preventer’s hydraulic system. 3) Check for closing chamber seal leaks by applying closing pressure to close the rams and check for fluid leaks by observing opening line port(s). 9) If rams leak.A.5 for test precautions): 1) Connect closing line(s) to preventer(s). If the preventer is equipped with an automatic locking device. 2) Set preventer test tool on drill pipe below preventer(s) if testing preventer with pipe rams. check same for proper adjustment in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications. proceed to step 8. Hold for three minutes. 4) Release closing pressure.
5) Packer for wear. c) If fluid is coming out of the opening chamber opening. 2) Set blowout preventer test tool on drill pipe below preventer. V4 Rev March 2002 7-3 . 7) Ring-joint gaskets for proper type and condition. this seal should also be tested. Refer to Section 8-A for bolting recommendations.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING Annular Blowout Preventers and Diverters 7. refer to step 13. cracking excessive hardness. b) If pressure does not hold and no fluid is running out of opening chamber opening. and condition. thereby preventing full movement of the piston. proceed to step 5.3 Following are recommended inspections and tests for this equipment: a. 6) Bolting (both studs and nuts) for proper type. Look through slots in base of inner liner for cuttings that might be trapped. Refer to Section 8-A for information on sealing components. Visually inspected: 1) Studded face of preventer head for pitting and damage. indicating the seal between the closing chamber and opening chamber is leaking. Refer to Section 8-A for ring-joint gasket recommendations. 4) Inner sleeve for pitting and damage. Hydraulic test using the following procedure: 1) Connect closing line to preventer.A. 3) Test the seals between the closing chamber and wellbore and between the closing chamber and opening chamber by closing preventer and applying manufacturer’s recommended closing pressure. 3) Vertical bore for wear and damage from drill string and drill tools. and correct elastomer composition. size. particularly in ring groove and stud holes. 4) a) If pressure holds. 2) Body for wear and damage. the seal between the closing chamber and the wellbore or other operating chambers is leaking. b. Refer to step 11. If other chambers are located between the wellbore and operating chamber.
7-4 V4 Rev March 2002 . 13) To test the seal between the wellbore and the closing chamber. or if opening line is equipped with a valve install opening line and close valve. Caution: If the closing line does not have a valve installed. Observe to see that pressure holds. 14) Release wellbore pressure. 10) Apply 1500 psi closing pressure. 9) Remove plug in opening chamber opening and install opening line or open valve in opening line. Close valve on closing line and disconnect closing line from valve on closing unit side of valve. 15) Release closing pressure. Verify this visually. operating chambers. the seal between the opening chamber and the piston is leaking. proceed to step 17. 6) Install plug in opening chamber opening. 17) Release opening pressure. 12) Bleed closing pressure to 1000 psi. and wellbore by applying manufacturer’s recommended closing pressure. Install pressure gauge on closing unit side of valve and open valve. b) If pressure does not hold and no fluid is running out of the closing chamber opening. 16) a) To test the seals between the opening chamber and the closing chamber and between the opening chamber and the piston. indicating the seal between the opening chamber and the closing chamber is leaking.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING 5) Release closing pressure. apply manufacturer’s recommended opening pressure. If pressure holds. 7) Test seals between the closing chamber. refer to step 21. the closing line will have pressure greater than 1000 psi. If this seal is leaking. c) If fluid is coming out of the closing chamber opening. the closing line should not be disconnected with pressure trapped in the closing chamber. 11) Apply 1500 psi wellbore pressure. 8) Release closing pressure. Refer to step 21.
or by closing an upper preventer and the annular preventer.A. Verify this visually. and pressuring up between preventers. and assembly are not plugged.). c. Refer to step 22. diesel or other fluid to prevent freeze-up in cold weather.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING 18) Install closing line and block flow (close valve in closing line. The test should be conducted as follows while tripping the drill pipe with the bit just inside casing: a. 21) Release opening pressure. b. Operate the choke line valves. if available). replace closing line. etc. 22) If closing line has a valve installed. removing the opening line. lines. some other method should be devised to ensure manifold. NOTE: This procedure tests all seals except the seal between the wellbore and the opening chamber. Operate adjustable chokes. seal between the opening chamber and the preventer head is leaking. make certain that valve is open at the end of the test. Position blowout preventer equipment to check choke manifold. Caution: Certain chokes can be damaged if full closure is effected. Install drill pipe safety valve. If pressure does not hold. and pressuring the preventer stack. It can be tested as follows: a) To rated working pressure by running a test joint and plug. If choke manifold contains brine.4 A preventer operating test should be performed on each round trip but not more than once per day. Open adjustable chokes and pump through each choke manifold to ensure that it is not plugged. 20) Release opening pressure and replace necessary seals. V4 Rev March 2002 7-5 . and replace necessary seals. closing an upper preventer. removing the opening line. 19) Apply 1500 psi opening pressure. d. b) To 1500 psi maximum. This seal should be tested in the bottom annular preventer if two annular preventers are being used or if a stack is nippled up on an annular preventer (for snubbing. PERIODIC FIELD TESTING Blowout Preventer Operating Test 7.
however. operate these rams while out of the hole. If blind rams are in the stack. g. g. Verify wellhead type and rated working pressure. They should. j. be operated at an interval not to exceed seven (7) days. f. 7-6 V4 Rev March 2002 . Verify the type and pressure rating of the preventer tester to be used. h. and valve types and rated working pressures. spacer spool. unless pressure on the casing or hole is intended. Verify preventer type and rated working pressure. Open casing valve during test. Verify ram placement in preventers and pipe ram size. c. i. Return all valves and preventers to their original position and continue normal operations. Check for wellhead bowl protector. Close each preventer until all pipe rams in the stack have been operated. Record test results. e.A. b. Verify drill pipe connection size and type in use. Verify drilling spool. Test pressure should not exceed the values for tensile yield. Caution: Do not close pipe rams on open hole.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING e. d. f. Blowout Preventer Hydraulic Tests 7. Test pressure should not exceed the manufacturer’s rated working pressure for the body or the seals of the assembly being tested. Annular preventers need not be operated on each round trip.5 The following items should be checked each time a preventer is to be hydraulically tested: a. collapse and internal pressure tabulated for the appropriate drill pipe as listed in API RP 7G: Recommended Practice for Drill Stem Design and Operating Limits*.
2535 One Main Place. valves. *Available from American Petroleum Institute.A.A.300 psi. intermediate casingheads. but limited to the lesser of the rated working pressure of the wellhead or 70 percent of the minimum internal yield pressure of the upper part of the casing string: however. All ram type preventers 2. Hydraulically operated valve.A. Rated working pressures of preventers or 3000 psi. manifold. An exception is the annular preventer which may be tested to 50 percent of its rated working pressure to minimise pack-off element wear or damage. Conduct each component pressure test for at least three minutes. or upper part of the casing string.. Notes: 1. prior to entering a known pressure transition zone. 4.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING TABLE 7-A Test Pressure Recommendations Blowout preventer stack rated working pressure (or as specified in Notes below.) Preventer Equipment Tested 1. A companion test flange will be required. V4 Rev March 2002 7-7 . 7. A means should be provided to prevent pressure build up on the casing in the event the test tool leaks. All choke manifold components upstream of chokes. All kelly valves. Casing string. 1. Choke manifold components downstream of chokes 1. Any blind rams below drilling spool. 1.6 An initial pressure test should be conducted on all preventer installations prior to drilling the casing plug. Production Department. Monitor secondary seal ports and operating lines on each preventer while testing to detect internal seal leaks. Dallas TX 75202-3904. 2. Closing unit valves and manifold 2. 3. Precautions should be taken not to expose the casing to test pressures in excess of its rated strength. Initial test pressure for the blowout preventer stack. Entire blowout preventer stack. and tubing safety valves. drill pipe. 7. and after a preventer ram and/or any preventer stack or choke manifold component change. and side outlet valves. 1.6 and Table 7-A. After a preventer stack or manifold component change.a rated working pressure test on top flange of the annular preventer. 3. Drilling spools. etc. wellhead.7 Subsequent pressure tests of blowout preventer equipment should be performed after setting a casing string. whichever is less Casing test pressure Fifty percent (50%) of rated working pressure or components 200 . in no case should these or subsequent test pressures be less than the expected surface pressure. should be the lesser of the rated working pressure of the preventer stack. 2. Annular preventers 3. hydraulically test in accordance with the provisions in Par. 2. Equipment should be tested to at least 70 percent of the preventer rated working pressure. All operating lines. 7. but no less than once every 21 days. Primary casinghead and side outlet valves. Optional test .
A. kelly. c. This equipment should be tested with pressure applied from below.A.A. Proper use of a regulator or accumulator when stripping tool joints.A.A.A. 7. and coated with a rust inhibitor.12 The service life of annular preventer packing units can be extended by: a. Using closing pressures recommended by the manufacturer.21 for closing unit pump capability test details.22 and 5.A. Closing on pipe rather than full closure.A.23 for accumulator tests details.10 The lower kelly valve. steamed. The rams (sealing element) should be removed and the ram bore washed inspected.14 When a blowout preventer is taken out of service. Auxiliary Equipment Testing 7. Flanged faces should be protected with wooden covers. and oiled.A. Any burrs or galled spots should be smoothed. 5. kelly cock. Rapid movement of a tool joint through the preventer packing unit may cause severe damage and early failure of the packing unit. 7. Refer to Section 8-A for information on extending the life of elastomers for preventers and related equipment.A. it should be completed washed. b. and inside blowout preventer should be tested to the same pressure as the blow out preventer stack at the same time the preventer assembly tests are made. 7-8 V4 Rev March 2002 .11 Field welding on a blowout preventer or related equipment is not recommended. Accumulator Tests 7. 5.13 If elastomer parts are to be stored for a long time period. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES 7. 7. Utilising the type of elastomer packing unit that best suits the drilling fluid conditions and environment expected . d.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING Closing Unit Pump Capability Test 7. sealed containers will help extend their useful life.9 Refer to Paras.8 Refer to Par.
Also. These testers can be provided with a plug to test blind rams with the drill string removed.A. The cup type test plug (refer to Figs. Fig. Other types of seals should also be capable of holding pressure from above or below the plug.4) consists of a mandrel threaded with a box on top and a pin on bottom. weight. Several makes of test plugs are available for testing preventer stacks.17 Casing Ram Test Sub. b. A casing ram test sub can be made by welding tool joint connections on the ends of a short length of casing of desired diameter. 7. 7.6 illustrates a casing ram test sub. Weep holes may be drilled in the pin end of the test joint or may be installed in the test plug.1 and 7. Test plugs generally fall into two types. The hanger type test plug has a steel body with outer dimensions to fit the hanger recess of corresponding types of casinghead. for a tool joint connection. 7. 7. An O-ring pressure seal is provided between the tester and the hanger recess (refer to Figs 7. 7. should have a tapped or welded connection below the box end connection equipped with a valve.A.5). if used.A. Weep holes may be drilled in the pin end of the test joint or may be installed in the test plug.A. The test joint should be made of pipe of sufficient weight and grade to safely withstand tensile yield. collapse or internal pressures that will be placed on it during. Dallas TX 75202-3904. These plugs should be constructed with an upper bevel and/or bevelled groove (refer to Figs.A. a set of snap plugs (usually 4) can be provided integral to the mandrel so that the snap plugs can be broken off by dropping a bar inside the pipe. *Available from American Petroleum Institute. Casing rams can be tested by connecting this test sub between the test joint and the test plug so that the sub can be placed in the casing rams to be tested. Some models (refer to Fig. gauge. The O-ring groove. 7. 7. thereby allowing the annulus to be connected with the inside of the drill pipe to permit pulling the tool without swabbing the hole. and class (condition of pipe).15 Test Plugs.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING TEST PLUGS AND TEST JOINTS 7.1) contain a back pressure valve to bypass fluid when going in the hole. V4 Rev March 2002 7-9 . 2535 One Main Place. Production Department.A.A.A.1 and 7.16 Test Joints. The test joint (refer to Fig. A cup type pressure element holds pressure from above.2). The tester is available in various sizes depending on wellhead type and size and is equipped with tool joint connections. testing operations Refer to API RP 7G: Recommended Practice for Drill Stem Design and Operating Limits* for tabulated data listed by pipe size. should be machined to permit a pressure seal from above or below the plug.A.A. hanger type and cup type. a. and fittings having a working pressure at least equal to the rated working pressure of the preventer stack. The tester can be retrieved with the drill string. grade. The testing tool arrangement should provide for testing the bottom blowout preventer flange.A.2) to facilitate the use of locking screws.A.3 and 7. or a box and pin sub on top of a standard joint of drill pipe.
A.4 EXAMPLE CUP TYPE TEST PLUGS 7 .A.10 V4 Rev March 2002 .A.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING LOCKING FLANGE MUST BE REMOVED BEFORE NEXT SECTION OF WELLHEAD IS INSTALLED Figure 7.1 HANGER TYPE TEST PLUG HELD IN PLACE WITH LOCKING FLANGE LOCK SCREWS Figure 7.A.3 Figure 7.2 HANGER TYPE TEST PLUG HELD IN PLACE WITH CASINGHEAD LOCK SCREWS EXAMPLE OF HANGER TYPE TEST PLUGS MANDREL SNAP PLUGS 90° SPACING RETAINING NUT RETAINING PLATE PRESSURE SEAL SIZE PLATE TAPPED FOR 1" SNAP PLUGS 90° SPACING CUP MANDREL SUB 'O' RING LOWER VALVE SNAP BAR RETAINING SLEEVE Figure 7.
11 . 7.A.6 EXAMPLE CASING RAM TEST SUB 1" OR LARGER VALVE WEEP HOLE WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING FIG. 7.V4 Rev March 2002 STEEL PLATE (WELDED TO CASING SUB AND TOOL JOINT BOX) TOOL JOINT BOX TO MATCH TEST JOINT CASING SUB OF SUFFICIENT LENGTH TO TEST CASING RAMS WEEP HOLE STEEL PLATE (WELDED TO CASING SUB AND TOOL JOINT BOX) TOOL JOINT PIN TO MATCH TEST PLUG FIG.5 EXAMPLE TEST JOINT 7 .A.
whichever is greater. install the unitised blowout prevention system on a prepared test stump.B. Full rated working pressure tests should be limited to one test following any major ram cavity repair work. machined surfaces. 7. after setting casing.12 V4 Rev March 2002 . and before drilling into any known or suspected high pressure zones. spools. and kill and choke valves for condition of bodies. be operated in conjunction with the required pressure tests and at an interval not to exceed seven days.6 Pressure tests of the subsea system should be conducted after installation. actuating rods. 7. 7.B. The annular preventers need not be operated on each trip. The periodic actuation test is not required for the blind or blind shear rams.e. however. 7. These rams need only be tested when installed and prior to drilling out after each casing string has been set.B. A low pressure and rated working pressure test of each component as in the off-site procedure (Para.B.2) should be repeated and properly recorded in the well log. seals. visually inspect the preventers.e. 7. 7. Test the closing system to 3000 psi. Test record should include opening and closing times and hydraulic fluid volumes required for each function. Following unitisation in the shop.B.B. SUBSEA TESTING 7.B. Subsequent pressure tests should be limited to 70% of the rated working pressure of the blowout preventer stack or the anticipated surface pressure. They must. these tests should be conducted at regular intervals but not 7 .3 before returning on a well. grooves. and gaskets. Inspect in accordance with procedures in Para.A. rams.A. test entire unit for proper operation using the hydraulic closing system. 7.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING SECTION 7-B INSPECTION AND TESTING—SUBSEA INSTALLATIONS SURFACE INSPECTION AND TESTING 7.7.3 After delivery to an offshore drilling unit.5 The blowout prevention system should be operated on each trip but not more than once every 24 hours during normal operations.B.4 The blowout prevention system should be visually inspected and pressure tested in accordance with Para.1 Prior to delivery to an offshore drilling unit.2 Test each individual component of the blowout prevention system to be utilised in test facilities under shop conditions to rated working pressure utilising procedures outlined in Para. high pressure connector. Pressure test each preventer and high pressure connector for low pressure (200 psi) leaks and to rated working pressure. A record of these tests should be maintained in the well log and should include closing and opening times and pressures and volumes of hydraulic fluid for each function.2. Record the date and results of inspection and tests on the shipping tags.2. Otherwise.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING more than once every week. pneumatic. provided the test pressure equals or exceeds the maximum pressure expected inside the upper part of the casing.7 The subsea blowout prevention system is dependent on surface actuated hydraulic. A means should be provided to prevent pressure build up on the casing in the event the test tool seals leak. and electric controls.B.13 . The design of this prevention system is dependent on water depth and environmental conditions and should have an adequate backup system to operate each critical function. each component including the high pressure connectors should be individually pressure tested at a low pressure (200 psi) and to the greater of 70 percent of rated working pressure or the maximum pressure expected in the upper part of the casing. A test plug or cup type tester should be used (refer to Section 7-A). It is equally important to pressure and operationally test this system concurrently with the blowout preventers and connectors. Precautions should be taken not to expose the casing to test pressures in excess of its rated internal yield strength. V4 Rev March 2002 7 . On installation of the blowout preventer stack. 7. Subsequent pressure tests may be limited to the lesser of 70 percent of the rated working pressure of the blowout preventers or 70 percent of the minimum internal yield strength rating of the upper part of the casing. Actuation testing of pipe rams should not be performed on moving pipe. An exception is the annular preventer which may be tested to 50 percent of its rated working pressure to minimise pack-off element wear or damage.
000 (5 M) 6 10 13 5 / 8 16 3/ 4 18 3/ 4 21 1/ 7 / 16 9 11 13 5/ 8 16 3/ 3 4 18 / 4 21 1/ 7 1/ 16 9 11 13 5/ 7 1/ 8 16 4 1 4 10.000 (15 M) 20. 29 1/ 16 20 26 3/ 6 8 10 12 20 26 3/ 2 Minimum Vertical Bore in.1 The following tabular data detail sizes in use on blow out preventers Rated Working Pressure psi 500 (0.000 psi test pressure) flange in lieu of 5000 psi rated working pressure (7500 psi test pressure) flange in June 1969.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING SECTION 7-C SEALING COMPONENTS—SURFACE INSTALLATIONS FLANGES AND HUBS 7. 1 7 .000 (2 M) Flange or Hub Size in. 29 1/ 16 3/ 4 21 1/ 4 26 3/ 7 / 16 9 11 13 5/ 8 20 3/ 4 26 3/ 7 / 16 11 13 5/ 8 16 3/ 4 18 3/ 4 21 3/ 7 / 16 9 11 13 5/ 8 16 3/ 3 4 18 / 4 21 1/ 7 1/ 16 9 11 13 5/ 7 1/ 8 16 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 2 Ring-Joint Gaskets RX BX 65 73 45 49 53 57 74 46 54 160 162‡ 163 165 156 157 158 159 162 164 166 156 157 158 159 156 4 3.000 (10 M) 15.000 (3 M) 4 5.5 M) 2.14 V4 Rev March 2002 .000 (20 M) Notes: * Replaces 20 /4" subsequent to January 1974. ‡ Replaces BX-161 subsequent to adoption of 5000 psi rated working pressure (10.C.
7. MARINE RISER 7. Some wellhead connectors are equipped with resilient secondary seal which may be energised should the primary seal leak. or face sealing types.4 The primary telescopic joint seal assembly consists of a hydraulic or pneumatic pressure energised resilient packing element.D.D. This seal should be utilised under emergency conditions only.6 The hydraulic junction boxes consist of stab subs or multiple check valve type quick disconnect couplings.2 The primary seal for the wellhead connector is a pressure energised metalto-metal type seal. 7. These seals are not recommended for reuse.D. These non-API components are described in the following paragraphs.D. Manufacturers should be consulted for specifications and spare parts recommendations.7 The primary pod valve seals vary according to the manufacturer with both resilient and lapped metal-to-metal type seals used. SUBSEA CONTROL SYSTEM 7. The primary seal for choke and kill line stab subs on the integral riser connector consists of pressure energised resilient seals or packing. Other sealing components are covered in Section 7-C.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 7 : INSPECTION & TESTING SECTION 7-D SEALING COMPONENTS—SUBSEA-INSTALLATIONS GENERAL 7. The primary seals are O-rings. WELLHEAD CONNECTOR 7. Initial seal requires that the metal seal be coined into contact with the mating seal surfaces.15 .D.D.5 Primary hydraulic system seal between the male and female sections of the control pods is accomplished with resilient seals of the O-ring.D. 7.1 Operation of the subsea blowout preventer stack and marine riser system requires particular attention to the availability and correct usage of sealing components which are peculiar to subsea equipment. V4 Rev March 2002 7 . Care should be taken to carefully clean and inspect all seals prior to running the marine riser. pressure energised. These seals should be inspected each time the junction box is disconnected.3 The primary seal for the marine riser connector consists of resilient type O-Ring or lip-type seals.
Subsea Installations 1 7 21 V4 Rev March 2002 .SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Page 8.Surface Installations Closing Units .0 8A 8B BOP and Control Systems Closing Units .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS 8.0 SURFACE BOP AND CONTROL SYSTEMS Figure 8.0.1 Land Rig Operation V4 Rev March 2002 8-1 .
2 8-2 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS TYPICAL SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEM T-SERIES Figure 8.0.
TR™ Regulator contains internal by-pass for pressures up to 3000 PSI or 5000 PSI. 21. set for 6 drops per minute. 24. Close when servicing pumps. (Transmitter converts hydraulic pressure to air pressure and sends a calibrated signal to corresponding air receiver gauges on the Driller’s air operated remote control panel. Normally open. 3-15 PSI air output. 2. 4. 3.Clean every 30 days. Air Junction Box . 11. 31. 315 PSI air output.Precharge per label. Air Supply Valves -Normally open. Manifold Pressure Transmitter . 27. Normal Pressure Isolation Valve -Normally open. 12. Chain guard . Triplex or Duplex pump. Manually adjustable from 0 to 1500 PSI.0 to 300PSI. Connection for separate operating fluid pump. Air Operated Pumps . Accumulator Pressure Transmitter . 18. Manifold Protector Relief Valve . NEVER leave in the centre position. Air Filter .0 to 3000 PSI. Clean every 30 days.000 PSI.Gauge . Close when servicing pump.3. 13. Duplex or Triplex Pump Fill crankcase with SAE 20 oil for 40F to 115F ambient temperature range. 41. 20. Air Lubricator -Fill with SAE 10 lubricating oil. Suction Valve.Set at 5500 PSI. Manifold Pressure Gauge . 29. Annular Pressure Transmitter . Explosion-Proof Electric Motor. 26. Air Pressure .0 to 6000 PSI hydraulic input. 14. 15. Check oil level weekly. 40. Sub-Plate Mounted Four-way Control Valve . Accumulator Bank Isolation Valve -Manually operated. 6.clean every 30 days.0 to 10. 16. 38. Air Operated Pump. 33.) 35.) 32. 36.Stores operating fluid at atmospheric pressure.Fill with SAE 40 oil for operation above 20F ambient temperature. Electric Motor Starter .0 to 6000 PSI. Discharge Check Valve. Warning! USE NITROGEN ONLY-DO NOT USE OXYGEN! Check every 30 days. (See 39 option) 25.Normally closed. Close when servicing air operated pumps.000 PSI W. 8-3 . Accumulator Bank Bleed Valve . Suction Valve. Air Operated Pump. Accumulator Pressure Gauge . move to high pressure position (handle right).15 PSI air output. Accumulator Relief Valve Set at 3300 PSI. Sight glass. V4 Rev March 2002 17. Duplex or Triplex Pump.0 to 10. Shut Off Valve . TURN OFF power at main panel when servicing. 22. High Pressure Strainer Clean every 30 days. Check oil level monthly.Available on units with 5000 PSI working pressure manifold valves and piping. Close for pressure above 3000 PSI. Check oil level monthly. 28. fluid level (T-Series units). 5.Used for connecting the air cable from the air operated remote control panels. 34. 19. Manifold Regulator Internal Override Valve .Direct the flow of operating fluid pressure to the preventers and gate valves. Manifold Bleeder Valve. Discharge Check Valve. TR Regulator can provide regulation up to 3000 PSI for Cameron Type D annulars and contains a manual override to prevent loss of operating pressure should remote control pilot pressure be lost. Clean out man-way (T-Series units).Automatic Drain. Adjustable from 0 to 1500 PSI.Normally close.000 PSI hydraulic input. Air Operated Pumps -Normally open. 7. Annular Regulator Provides independent regulation of the annular operating pressure.Hydraulic input. 39. 23. normally open. Triplex or Duplex pump . (0-6000 PSI for Cameron D Annulars. Fill to within 8 inches from top with Welkic™ 10 or SAE 10 oil. Reservoir . 9. Accumulators . Electric Pressure Switch Automatically stops pumps when accumulator pressure reaches 3000 PSI and starts pumps when pressure drops to 2700 PSI nominal. For operating pressures above l 500 PSI (ram preventers and gate valves).Keep starter switch in “Auto” position except when servicing. Hydro-pneumatic Pressure Switch -Automatically stops air operated pumps when pressure reaches 2900 PSI and starts pumps when pressure drops approximately 400 PSI.P. 8.Normally in low-pressure (handle left) position. Suction Strainer. By-pass Valve Hydro-pneumatic pressure switch. Suction Strainer.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS TYPICAL SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEM 1. 5. This feature can be used for shearing. Option. Manifold Regulator Regulates operating pressure to ram preventers and gate valves. 10. Annular Pressure Gauge . 37. 30.
Figure 8. It includes accumulators. reservoir. capacities and pressure ratings. These accumulators are available in a variety of sizes. The following text gives a brief description of the equipment and some of its major components.0. Bottom loading accumulators must be removed from the accumulator unit to be serviced. Top loading means the bladder or float can be removed from the top while it is still mounted on the accumulator unit. electric motor driven pumps and the hydraulic control manifold. The two (2) basic types are bladder and float which are available in cylindrical or ball styles. Accumulators Accumulators are ASME coded pressure vessels for storage of high pressure fluid.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION GENERAL A Blowout Preventer (BOP) Control System is a high pressure hydraulic power unit fitted with directional control valves to safely control kicks and prevent blowouts during drilling operations. The accumulators can either be bottom or top loading. A typical system offers a wide variety of equipment to meet the customer’s specific operational and economic criteria.3 ACCUMULATOR UNIT MODULE The primary function of the accumulator unit module is to provide the atmospheric fluid supply for the pumps and storage of the high pressure operating fluid for control of the BOP stack. types. Bladder and buoyant float type accumulators can be repaired in the field without destroying their stamp of approval. accumulator piping and a master skid for mounting of the air operated pumps. 8-4 V4 Rev March 2002 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
Reservoir A rectangular reservoir is provided for storage of the atmospheric fluid supply for the high pressure pumps. It contains baffles, fill and drain ports and troubleshooting inspection ports. For filling and cleaning procedures see the Maintenance section. It should be able to store 2 times the capacity of the usable fluid capacity. Accumulator Piping This piping connects the high pressure discharge lines of the pumps to the accumulators and the hydraulic manifold. It is comprised of 1 or 1-1/2" Schedule 80 or 160 pipe, isolator valves and a 3300 psi relief valve to protect the accumulators from being over pressured. Cylindrical type accumulators are mounted on machined headers to minimise line restrictions and leaks. AIR PUMP ASSEMBLY The air pump assembly consists of one (1) or more air operated hydraulic pumps connected in parallel to the accumulator piping to provide a source of high pressure operating fluid for the BOP Control System. These pumps are available in a variety of sizes and ratios. Figure 8.0.4
V4 Rev March 2002
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
ELECTRIC PUMP ASSEMBLY The electric pump assembly consists of a duplex or triplex reciprocating plunger type pump driven by an explosion-proof electric motor. It is connected to the accumulator piping to provide a source of high pressure operating fluid for the BOP Control System. It is available in a variety of horsepower and voltage ranges.
V4 Rev March 2002
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
SECTION 8.A CLOSING UNITS—SURFACE INSTALLATIONS ACCUMULATOR REQUIREMENTS General 8.A.1 Accumulator bottles are containers which store hydraulic fluid under pressure for use in effecting blowout preventer closure. Through use of compressed nitrogen gas, these containers store energy which can be used to effect rapid preventer closure. There are two types of accumulator bottles in common usage, separator and float types. The separator type uses a flexible diaphragm to effect positive separation of the nitrogen gas from the hydraulic fluid. The float type utilises a floating piston to effect separation of the nitrogen gas from the hydraulic fluid. Volumetric Capacity 8.A.2 As a minimum requirement, all blowout preventer closing units should be equipped with accumulator bottles with sufficient volumetric capacity to provide the usable fluid volume (with pumps inoperative) to close one pipe ram and the annular preventer in the stack plus the volume to open the hydraulic choke line valve. 8.A.3 Usable fluid volume is defined as the volume of fluid recoverable from an accumulator between the accumulator operating pressure and 200 psi above the precharge pressure. The accumulator operating pressure is the pressure to which accumulators are charged with hydraulic fluid. 8.A.4 The minimum recommended accumulator volume (nitrogen plus fluid) should be determined by multiplying the accumulator size factor (refer to Table 8-A) times the calculated volume to close the annular preventer and one pipe ram plus the volume to open the hydraulic choke line valve. TABLE 8. A
Accumulator Operating Pressure psi 1500 2000 3000 Minimum Recommended Precharge Pressure psi 750 1000 1000 Usable Fluid Volume* (fraction of bottle size)
1 / 1 8 / 1 3 / 2
Accumulator Size Factor* 8 3 2
*Based on minimum discharge pressure of 1200 psi.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
Response Time 8.A.5 The closing system should be capable of closing each ram preventer within 30 seconds. Closing time should not exceed 30 seconds for annular preventers smaller than 18 3/4 inches and 45 seconds for annular preventers 18 3/4 inches and larger. Operating Pressure and Precharge Requirements for Accumulators 8.A.6 No accumulator bottle should be operated at a pressure greater than its rated working pressure. 8.A.7. The precharge pressure on each accumulator bottle should be measured during the initial closing unit installation on each well and adjusted if necessary (refer to Para. 8.A.4). Only nitrogen gas should be used for accumulator precharge. The precharge pressure should be checked frequently during well drilling operations. Requirements for Accumulator Valves, Fittings, and Pressure Gauges 8.A.8 Multi-bottle accumulator banks should have valving for bank isolation. An isolation valve should have a rated working pressure at least equivalent to the designed working pressure of the system to which it is attached and must be in the open position except when accumulators are isolated for servicing, testing, or transporting (refer to Fig. 8.A.1). Accumulator bottles may be installed in banks of approximately 160 gallons capacity if desired, but with a minimum of two banks. 8.A.9 The necessary valves and fittings should be provided on each accumulator bank to allow a pressure gauge to be readily attached without having to remove all accumulator banks from service. An accurate pressure gauge for measuring the accumulator precharge pressure should be readily available for installation at any time. CLOSING UNIT PUMP REQUIREMENTS Pump Capacity Requirements 8.A.10 Each closing unit should be equipped with sufficient number and sizes of pumps to satisfactorily perform the operation described in this paragraph. With the accumulator system removed from service. The pumps should be capable of closing the annular preventer on the size drill pipe being used, plus opening the hydraulically operated choke line valve and obtain a minimum of 200 psi pressure above accumulator precharge pressure on the closing unit manifold within two (2) minutes or less.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
Pump Pressure Rating Requirements 8.A.11 Each closing unit must be equipped with pumps that will provide a discharge pressure equivalent to the rated working pressure of the closing unit. Pump Power Requirements 8.A.l2 Power for closing unit pumps must be available to the accumulator unit at all times, such that the pump will automatically start when the closing unit manifold pressure has decreased to less than 90 percent of the accumulator operating pressure. 8.A.13 Two or three independent sources of power should be available on each closing unit. Each independent source should be capable of operating the pumps at a rate that will satisfy the requirement described in Para. 8.A.10. The dual source power system recommended is an air system plus an electrical system. Minimum recommendations for the dual air system and other acceptable but less preferred dual power source systems are as follows: a. A dual air/electrical system may consist of the rig air system (provided at least one air compressor is driven independent of the rig compound) plus the rig generator (refer to Fig. 8.A.2). A dual air system may consist of the rig air system (provided at least one air compressor is driven independent of the rig compound) plus an air storage tank that is separated from both the rig air compressors and the rig air storage tank by check valves. The minimum acceptable requirements for the separate air storage tank are volume and pressure which will permit use of only the air tank to operate the pumps at a rate that will satisfy the operation described in the pump capacity requirements (refer to Para. 8.A.10). A dual electrical system may consist of the normal rig generating system and a separate generator (refer to Fig. 8.A.3). A dual air/nitrogen system may consist of the rig air system plus bottled nitrogen gas (refer to Fig.8.A.4). A dual electrical/nitrogen system may consist of the rig generating system and bottled nitrogen gas (refer to Fig. 8.A.5).
8.A.14 On shallow wells where the casing being drilled through is set at 500 feet or less and where surface pressures less than 200 psi are expected, a backup source of power for the closing unit is not essential.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
REQUIREMENTS FOR CLOSING UNIT VALVES FITTINGS, LINES, AND MANIFOLD Required Pressure Rating 8.A.15 All valves and fittings between the closing unit and the blowout preventer stack should be of steel construction with a rated working pressure at least equal to the working pressure rating of the stack up to 3000 psi. Refer to API Spec 6A: Specification for Wellhead Equipment* for test pressure requirements. All lines between the closing unit and blowout preventer should be of steel construction or an equivalent flexible, fire-resistant hose and end connections with a rated working pressure equal to the stack pressure rating up to 3000 psi. Valves Fittings and other Components Required 8.A.16 Each installation should be equipped with the following: a. Each closing unit manifold should be equipped with a full-opening valve into which a separate operating fluid pump can be easily connected (refer to Fig. 8.A.1). Each closing unit should be equipped with sufficient check valves or shut-off valves to separate both the closing unit pumps and the accumulators from the closing unit manifold and to isolate the annular preventer regulator from the closing unit manifold. Each closing unit should be equipped with accurate pressure gauges to indicate the operating pressure of the closing unit manifold, both upstream and downstream of the annular preventer pressure regulating valve. Each closing unit should be equipped with a pressure regulating valve to permit manual control of the annular preventer operating pressure. Each closing unit equipped with a regulating valve to control the operating pressure on the ram type preventers should be equipped with a bypass line and valve to allow full accumulator pressure to be placed on the closing unit manifold, if desired. Closing unit control valves must be clearly marked to indicate (1) which preventer or choke line valve each control valve operates, and (2) the position of the valves (i.e., open, closed, neutral). Each blowout preventer control valve should be turned to the open position (not the neutral position) during drilling operations. The choke line hydraulic valve should be turned to the closed position during normal operations. The control valve that operates the blind rams should be equipped with a cover over the manual handle to avoid unintentional operation.
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WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team
SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
Each annular preventer may be equipped with a full-opening plug valve on both the closing and opening lines. These valves should be installed immediately adjacent to the preventer and should be in the open position at all times except when testing the operating lines. This will permit testing of operating lines in excess of 1500 psi without damage to the annular preventer if desired by the user.
*Available from American Petroleum Institute. Production Department, 2535 One Main Place Dallas TX 75202-3904.
REQUIREMENTS FOR CLOSING UNIT FLUIDS AND CAPACITY 8.A.17 A suitable hydraulic fluid (hydraulic oil or fresh water containing a lubricant) should be used as the closing unit control operating fluid. Sufficient volume of glycol must be added to any closing unit fluid containing water if ambient temperatures below 32 F are anticipated. The use of diesel oil, kerosene, motor oil, chain oil. or any other similar fluid is not recommended due to the possibility of resilient seal damage. 8.A.18 Each closing unit should have a fluid reservoir with a capacity equal to at least twice the usable fluid capacity of the accumulator system. CLOSING UNIT LOCATION AND REMOTE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 8.A.19 The main pump accumulator unit should be located in a safe place which is easily accessible to rig personnel in an emergency. It should also be located to prevent excessive drainage or flow back from the operating lines to the reservoir. Should the main pump accumulator be located a substantial distance below the preventer stack, additional accumulator volume should be added to compensate for flow back in the closing lines. 8.A.20 Each installation should be equipped with a sufficient number of control panels such that the operation of each blowout preventer and control valve can be controlled from a position readily accessible to the driller and also from an accessible point at a safe distance from the rig floor.
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e. Record the time (in seconds) required for the closing unit pumps to close the annular preventer plus open the hydraulically operated valve and obtain 200 psi above the precharge pressure on the closing unit manifold. foreign fluid.A. 8 . The closing unit pump capability test should be conducted on each well before pressure testing the blowout preventer stack. f. b. both power supplies should be tested separately. Test should be conducted according to the following procedure: a. isolate the rig air system from the pumps. V4 Rev March 2002 b.A. rocks. Measure the nitrogen precharge pressure on each accumulator bottle. d. ACCUMULATOR TESTS Accumulator Precharge Pressure Test 8.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS CLOSING UNIT PUMP CAPABILITY TEST 8. When a dual power source system is used. This test can be conveniently scheduled either immediately before or after the accumulator closing time test. Open the bottom valve on each accumulator bottle and drain the hydraulic fluid into the closing unit fluid reservoir. or other debris.22 This test should be conducted on each well prior to connecting the closing unit to the blowout preventer stack. Open the accumulator system to the closing unit and charge the accumulator system to its designed operating pressure using the pumps. A separate closing unit air storage tank or a bank of nitrogen bottles should be used to power the pumps during this test. Isolate the accumulators from the closing unit manifold by closing the required valves. It is recommended that the time required for the closing unit pumps to accomplish these operations not exceed two minutes. Test should be conducted as followsa. Close the hydraulically operated valve and open the annular preventer. Simultaneously turn the control valve for the annular preventer to the closing position and turn the control valve for the hydraulically operated valve to the opening position. Position a joint of drill pipe in the blowout preventer stack. and adjust if necessary. c. If the accumulator pumps are powered by air.21 Prior to conducting any tests.12 . using an accurate pressure gauge attached to the precharge measuring port. the closing unit reservoir should be inspected to be sure it does not contain any drilling fluid.
recharge the accumulator system to its designed operating pressure using the accumulator pumps. Close off the power supply to the accumulator pumps. Record the time required for the accumulators to close the preventers and open the hydraulically operated valve. Test should be conducted as follows: a.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Accumulator Closing Test 8. After the preventers have been opened. Simultaneously turn the control valves for the annular preventer and for one pipe ram (having the same size ram as the pipe used for testing) to the closing position and turn the control valve for the hydraulically operated valve to the opening position. This final pressure should be at least 200 psi above the precharge pressure.A. c.23 This test should be conducted on each well prior to pressure testing the blowout preventer stack. b. Record the final accumulator pressure (closing unit pressure). Record the initial accumulator pressure. f. V4 Rev March 2002 8 . This pressure should be the designed operating pressure of the accumulators. Position a joint of drill pipe in the blow out preventer stack. d. Adjust the regulator to provide 1500 psi operating pressure to the annular preventer.13 . e.
14 NEEDLE VALVES ACCUMULATOR BANKS FULL-OPENING VALVES PRESSURE REGULATOR (1500-3000 PSI) VALVE AND GAUGE RELIEF VALVE CHECK VALVE FULL OPENING VALVE CONNECTION FOR ANOTHER PUMP BLOWOUT PREVENTER TEST LINE TEST FLUID LINE FLUID RESERVOIR PUMP SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS PUMP CHECK VALVE PRESSURE REGULATOR (0-1500 PSI) WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team FULL-OPENING VALVE CONNECTION FOR ANOTHER PUMP FOUR-WAY VALVES (NOTE: SHOULD NOT CONTAIN CHECK VALVE AND SHOULD BE IN POWER ON POSITION) TO RAM BLOWOUT PREVENTERS REGULATOR BY-PASS LINE VALVE AND GAUGE TO CHOKE LINE VALVE NOTE: PLUG VALVE IN CLOSING LINE ADJACENT TO ANNULAR PREVENTER TO FACILITATE LOCKING CLOSING PRESSURE TO ANNULAR ON PREVENTER. BLOWOUT PREVENTER V4 Rev March 2002 Figure 8.1 EXAMPLE BLOWOUT PREVENTER CLOSING UNIT ARRANGEMENT .8 .A.
15 .2 EXAMPLE REDUNDANT AIR/ELECTRIC SYSTEMS FOR OPERATING CLOSING UNIT PUMPS RIG GENERATOR CLOSING UNIT PUMPS TO CLOSING UNIT MANIFOLD AND ACCUMULATORS SEPARATE GENERATOR Figure 8.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS TO RIG CHECK VALVE AIR COMPRESSORS CLOSING UNIT PUMPS TO CLOSING UNIT MANIFOLD AND ACCUMULATORS STORAGE TANK FOR RIG AIR ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY Figure 8.3 EXAMPLE REDUNDANT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR OPERATING CLOSING UNIT PUMPS V4 Rev March 2002 8 .A.A.
5 EXAMPLE REDUNDANT ELECTRIC/NITROGEN SYSTEMS FOR OPERATING CLOSING UNIT PUMPS 8 .A.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS TO RIG CHECK VALVE CHECK VALVE CLOSING UNIT PUMPS OPTIONAL TO CLOSING UNIT MANIFOLD AND ACCUMULATORS STORAGE TANK FOR RIG AIR NITROGEN Figure 8.16 V4 Rev March 2002 .4 EXAMPLE REDUNDANT AIR/NITROGEN SYSTEMS FOR OPERATING CLOSING UNIT PUMPS RIG GENERATOR CLOSING UNIT PUMPS TO CLOSING UNIT MANIFOLD AND ACCUMULATORS OPTIONAL NITROGEN Figure 8.A.
(Recommended minimum is1200 psi) V = Total volume of accumulator (fluid and nitrogen) V1 = Nitrogen gas volume in accumulator at maximum pressure P1. V2-V1 = Total usable fluid with safety factor usually 50% included.17 . V2 = Nitrogen gas volume in accumulator at minimum pressure P2.0. V = 3V1 P1 P2 = = V4 Rev March 2002 8 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Figure 8. V2 = V. plus usable fluid maximum to minimum pressure. 3000 psi system precharged to 1000 psi.6 ACCUMULATOR SIZINGS Calculation of Accumulator Size The volume of the accumulator system as calculated by using “Boyle’s law”: P1V1 = P2V2 where Maximum pressure of the accumulator when completely charged Minimum pressure left in accumulator after use.
3.33 gals) at 3000 psi to V2 (8.33 gals 1200 psi and V3 = 1000 psi x 10 gals = 3.1 gal) V2 = bladder internal volume at minimum operating pressure.33 gals . In an 11 gallon accumulator bottle the volume of nitrogen it contains before any fluid is pumped in will be 10 gallons (the rubber bladder occupies a volume of 1 gallon).V3 = 8.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Surface Accumulators (Refer to Fig 8. P2 (in gals) V3 = bladder internal volume at maximum operating pressure.18 V4 Rev March 2002 .0.6) For the purpose of simplicity.33 gals = 5 gals 8 .33 gals) at 1200 psi will be equal to:V2 . the effects of temperature and nitrogen gas compressibility will be ignored and Boyle’s gas law applied to determine the volume of nitrogen present in the accumulator bottle when fully charged and when usable hydraulic fluid has been expelled to operate the BOP functions. P3 (in gals) therefore:1000 psi x 10 gals = 1200 psi x V2 and 1000 psi x 10 gals = 3000 psi x V3 giving V2 = 1000 psi x 10 gals = 8.33 gals 3000 psi The usable volume of hydraulic fluid expelled from the bottle as the nitrogen expands from V3 (3. According to Boyle’s gas law: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 and also P1 x V1 = P3 x V3 where:P1 = nitrogen precharge pressure of 1000 psi P2 = minimum operating pressure of 1200 psi P3 = maximum operating pressure of 3000 psi V1 = bladder internal volume at precharge pressure (11 gal .
V3 = 8.93 gals and V3 = 1668 psi x 10 gals = 4. given the following opening and closing volumes of hydraulic fluid for a typical 18.5 or 668 psi (rounded off).4. 1000 psi + 668 psi = 1668 psi.6 gals to open 0.445 psi/ft = 667. P2 (in gals) V3 = bladder internal volume at maximum operating pressure.e.55 gals 1868 psi 3668 psi The usable volume of hydraulic fluid per subsea bottle in 1500 ft of water would be the difference between these two volumes.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Subsea Accumulators The nitrogen precharge pressure must be increased in the subsea accumulator bottles in order to account for the hydrostatic pressure of the hydraulic fluid in the power fluid supply hose.e. therefore:P1 = nitrogen precharge pressure of 1668 psi (1000 psi + 668 psi) P2 = minimum operating pressure of 1868 psi (1200 psi + 668 psi) P3 = maximum operating pressure of 3668 psi (3000 psi + 668 psi) V1 = bladder internal volume at precharge pressure (11 gal .55 gals = 4.6 gals to open 8 . when calculating the amount of usable fluid volume.1 gal) V2 = bladder internal volume at minimum operating pressure. the hydrostatic pressure would be:1500 ft x . i.75 inch subsea BOP stack Annular preventer Ram preventer Failsafe valves V4 Rev March 2002 44 gals to close 17. As an added safety factor the sea water gradient is used for this purpose. .445 psi/ft. If operating in 1500 ft of water.38 gals.19 . Thus the nitrogen precharge would need to be increased by 668 psi. i.1 gals to close 0.93 gals . P3 (in gals) therefore:1668 psi x 10 gals = 1868 psi x V2 and 1668 psi x 10 gals = 3668 psi x V3 giving:V2 = 1668 psi x 10 gals = 8. V2 .6 gals to close 44 gals to open 15. Application of the above calculation now makes it possible to determine the total number of accumulator bottles required both on the surface and subsea.
4 gal 4 x 15.20 V4 Rev March 2002 .8 gal 8 x 0.5 gal) = 411.2 gal Including a 1.22 or 83 bottles will be required on surface.38 gals then: 63.6 gal = 62. the usable fluid from each surface accumulator bottle is 5 gals therefore: 411.6 gals. the surface accumulators will have to supply (474.1 gal + (4 x 0. 4.49 or 15 bottles will be required subsea. As calculated above.63.5 gals are available subsea.5 = 474.2 gal + 155.5 gals and since each bottle can deliver 4.5 gals = 14.1 gal = 68.6 gal = 4.5 safety factor will give a grand total of (161. Since 63.2 gal) x 1.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS Assuming that company policy is to have sufficient subsea accumulator capacity to close: 1 annular 1 ram preventer 4 failsafe valves then the usable volume required will be 44 gal + 17.1 gals = 82. 5 gal/bottle 8 .6 gal) = 63.1 gals.6 gal .38 gal/bottle If the BOP stack consists of: 2 annular preventers 4 ram preventers 8 failsafe valves then the total volume of hydraulic fluid required to open and close all of the BOP functions together will be: CLOSE OPEN 2 x annular preventers 2 x 44 gal = 88 gal 2 x 44 gal = 88 gal 4 x ram preventers 4 x 17.8 gal ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– TOTAL 161.4 gal 8 x failsafe valves 8 x 0.2 gal 155.6 gal = 4.
5 Multi-bottle accumulator banks should have valving for bank isolation. Accumulator Types 8. Closing time should not exceed 60 seconds for annular preventers. ACCUMULATOR REQUIREMENTS Volumetric Capacity 8.B.B.4 The closing system should be capable of closing each ram preventer within 45 seconds.6 Both separator or float type accumulators (refer to Para. The valves must be in the open position except when the accumulators are isolated for servicing.2 As a minimum requirement.B. V4 Rev March 2002 8 . the additional precharge pressure required to offset the hydrostatic head of the sea-water column and the effect of subsea temperature should be considered.21 . The isolation valves should have a rated working pressure at least equivalent to the designed working pressure of the system to which they are attached. testing.3 In sizing subsea mounted bottles.B.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS SECTION 8-B CLOSING UNITS—SUBSEA INSTALLATIONS VARIANCE FROM SURFACE INSTALLATIONS 8.B.l) may be used.B. or transporting. 9.1 Closing unit systems for subsea installations are basically the same as those used in surface installations except more accumulator volume is normally required and some of the accumulator bottles may be mounted on the subsea blowout preventer stack. Response Time 8. Usable fluid volume is defined as the volume of fluid recoverable from an accumulator between the accumulator operating pressure and 200 psi above the precharge pressure.A. Requirements for Accumulator Valves 8. 8. closing units for subsea installations should be equipped with accumulator bottles with sufficient volumetric capacity to provide the usable fluid volume (with pumps inoperative) to close and open the ram preventers and one annular preventer.
the mixing system will turn on and water and hydraulic fluid concentrate will be mixed into the mixed fluid reservoir. This mixing system should be automatically controlled so that when the mixed fluid reservoir level drops to a certain point. this should be a manifold capable of controlling all the hydraulic functions on the blowout preventer stack. PUMP REQUIREMENTS 8.8 A subsea closing unit control system should include a combination of air and electric pumps. which when opened allows hydraulic fluid from the power fluid section to operate the blowout preventers. The combination of air and electric pumps should be capable of charging the entire accumulator system from the precharge pressure to the maximum rated charge pressure in fifteen minutes or less. CENTRAL CONTROL POINT 8. In this system. 8.10 An Electro-hydraulic system should have a central control point which interfaces various signals electronically and sends one set of signals electrically to the subsea solenoid valves.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS HYDRAULIC FLUID CONTROL MIXING SYSTEM 8. The mixing system should be designed to mix at a rate equal to the total pump output. The hydraulic manifold should be located in a safe but readily accessible area. a pressure switch is triggered and the pumps are automatically turned on. A minimum of two air pumps should be in every system along with one or two electric powered triplex pumps. and the other section containing the concentrated watersoluble hydraulic fluid to be mixed with water to form the mixed hydraulic fluid. The pumps should be installed so that when the accumulator pressure drops to 90 percent of the preset level.7 The hydraulic fluid reservoir should be a combination of two storage sections.B. a signal is sent subsea to a control valve. When a valve on the control manifold is operated. a flow meter should be used to provide an indication of the proper flow of hydraulic fluid and proper operation of the blow out preventer. The surface control system should also include a flow meter which. For a hydraulic system.B.22 V4 Rev March 2002 . one section containing mixed fluid to be used in the operation of the blowout preventers. The hydraulic control system should consist of a power section to send hydraulic fluid to subsea equipment and a pilot section to transmit signals subsea via pilot lines.B. by a measure of the volume of fluid going to a particular function. 8 . which direct the flow of hydraulic fluid to operate a blowout preventer function.9 A subsea closing unit control system should have a central control point. will indicate if that function is operating properly. Pressure regulators on the surface control manifold send pilot signals to subsea regulators to control the pressure of the hydraulic fluid at the preventers.B.
13 The hose reels should be equipped so that some functions are operable while running or pulling the blowout preventer stack or lower marine riser package. and a power hose which is one inch inside diameter. and. ram locks. The working pressure rating of the hose bundle should equal or exceed the working pressure rating of the control system. HOSE AND HOSE REELS 8.* Another remote panel is sometimes located in the toolpusher’s office. This panel should comply with API RP 500B: Recommended Practice for Classification of Areas for Electrical Installations at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and on Marine Fixed and Mobile Platforms. one set of pipe rams.B.11 Subsea control systems should have at least one remote control panel. while the main hydraulic fluid is supplied through a hose or rigid line to the pod and accumulators on the blowout preventer stack. The pilot hoses.23 . The panel should have a schematic outline of the blowout preventer stack and provide for remote panel activation.B. if applicable. The hoses from each control pod should be connected to a shuttle valve that is connected to the function to be operated. carry the signals to the subsea valves on the blowout preventer stack. The hydraulic power supply line may be integrated into an electrical cable bundle or may be run separately. 8. Recommended functions to be operable at these times are the stack connector.12 A hydraulic hose bundle may consist of pilot hoses which have an inside diameter of 3/16" or 1/8" or both. pod latches. Each control pod should contain all necessary valves and regulators to operate the blowout preventer stack functions.B. V4 Rev March 2002 8 . One control station should be located at least 50 feet from the centre line of the wellbore.14 There should be two completely redundant control pods on the blowout preventer stack after drilling out from under the surface casing.B. The control pods may be retrievable or non-retrievable. riser connector. SUBSEA CONTROL PODS 8. as previously described. There should be a remote control panel located on the rig floor adjacent to the driller’s station.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 8 : SURFACE BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS OTHER CONTROL PANELS 8. A shuttle valve is a slide valve with two inlets and one outlet which prevents movement of the hydraulic fluid between the two redundant control pods. For an Electro-hydraulic system. electrical cables are run subsea to the solenoid valves.
1 9. 2 Subsea BOP Control Systems Marine Riser Systems 1 35 V4 Rev March 2002 .SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS AND MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Page 9.
For subsea drilling operations. direct control cannot be applied since the resulting control lines connecting the BOPs to the surface would be prohibitively large to handle. • Transmitting hydraulic signals down smaller lines to pilot valves which in turn direct the operating power fluid to the appropriate BOP function. jack-up or platform drilling operations the control of the BOP is easily achieved in a conventional manner by coupling each BOP function directly to a source of hydraulic power situated at a safe location away from the wellhead. it is necessary to control larger.hydraulic and multiplex electro-hydraulic of which the indirect hydraulic system is by far the most common. This system uses the minimum number of controlling valves to direct the hydraulic fluid to the required function. It also enables the returning fluid to be returned to the control unit for further use. V4 Rev March 2002 9-1 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9 . Reaction times would also be unacceptable due to the longer distances to the BOP functions and the consequent pressure drop. The pilot valves are located in control pods on the BOP stack. No attempt is made to recover the hydraulic power fluid once it has been used to operate a function since this would increase the number of lines required in the umbilical.1 SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Every component in a blowout preventer assembly is operated hydraulically by moving a piston up and down or back and forth. Thus the function of a BOP control system is to direct hydraulic fluid to the appropriate side of the operating piston and to provide the means for fluid on the other side of the piston to be expelled. There are two types . In order to provide a complete back-up of the subsea equipment there are two control pods . In order to overcome these problems indirect operating systems have been developed. INDIRECT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM This reduces the size of the control umbilical by splitting the hydraulic control functions into two • Transmitting hydraulic power to the BOP down a large diameter line. In this instance. Instead the fluid is vented subsea from the control pod. Operation of a particular BOP function is then accomplished by directing hydraulic power from the control unit back and forth along two large bore lines to the appropriate operating piston.usually referred to as the blue and the yellow pods. On land. more complex BOP assemblies which are remotely located on the sea-bed.
NL Shaffer. Fluid used to operate the functions on the BOP stack is delivered from the hydraulic power unit on command from the central hydraulic control manifold. 9-2 V4 Rev March 2002 . In order to overcome them the hydraulic lines controlling the pilot valves were replaced by separate electrical cables which operate solenoid valves. An electric power pack with battery back-up provides an independent supply to the panels via the central control manifold. The time division multiplexing system provides simultaneous execution of commands and results in a relatively compact electrical umbilical. This typically consists of four power conductors. In principle this is similar to the other two systems but with the hydraulic or electrical commands to the pilot valves being replaced with acoustic signals. the subsea BOP stack can also be equipped with an acoustic emergency back-up system. ACOUSTIC SYSTEM In addition to either of the primary control methods mentioned above. The NL Shaffer and Koomey systems will be discussed in detail to illustrate the general concept since these are probably the most common types.1. Koomey. 9. and the Valvcon Division of Hydril. In this way the manifold can be controlled remotely via the actuators from the master electric panel (usually located on the rig floor) or from an electric minipanel (located in a safe area).1 OVERVIEW Fig 9 . five conductors for signal transmission and additional back-up and instrumentation lines.1 shows the general arrangement.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS MULTIPLEX ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SYSTEM As greater water depths were encountered the problems of umbilical handling and reaction times became significant. These valves then send a hydraulic signal to the relevant pilot valve which in turn is actuated and directs power fluid to its associated BOP function. The system may include several remote mini-panels if desired. Being a purely back-up system the number of commands is limited to those which might be required in an absolute emergency. With the armoured sheath the umbilical has a resulting diameter of some 1.5 inches with a weight of about 3 Ib/ ft in air. INDIRECT HYDRAULIC BOP CONTROL SYSTEM The main manufacturers of control systems are Cameron Iron Works. This contains the valves which direct pilot pressure to the pilot valves in the subsea control pods and which are operated either manually or by solenoid actuated air operators.
Some accumulators (usually two) are dedicated to storing fluid for use in the pilot line network and the remaining accumulators contain the fluid that is used to power the various BOP functions. Each umbilical is run over a special sheave and terminates in its control pod.2 is a block diagram of the hydraulic flow system for a stack function. Fig 9. Hydraulic jumper hose bundles connect the central hydraulic control manifold to the two hose reels.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS The pilot fluid is sent to the subsea control pods through individual. In order to do this. the umbilical is run attached to the riser in order to give it more support and reduce fatigue at hose connections. In some designs of control system. The hydraulic hose bundles (or umbilicals) are stored on two hose reels. each of which is equipped with a special manual control manifold so that certain stack functions can be operated whilst the stack is being run. This design has the advantage of not having to handle the umbilicals whenever the pod is pulled but has the disadvantage of requiring more subsea remote hydraulic connections. the pod and umbilical is run on a wireline which is usually motion compensated. The hydraulic fluid is prepared and stored under pressure in the accumulators. The pod is still attached to a wireline for retrieval purposes. V4 Rev March 2002 9-3 . For repair purposes each pod along with its umbilical can be retrieved and run independently of the BOP stack. In order to provide complete redundancy for the subsea portion of the control system there are two independent hydraulic hose bundles and two independent control pods. small diameter hoses bundled around the larger diameter hose which delivers the power fluid. Guidance of the pod is provided by the guidewires and guideframe as shown.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9.1 9-4 V4 Rev March 2002 .
2 SUBSEA CONTROL SYSTEM .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS WATER CONCENTRATE MIXED FLUID RESEVOIR ISOLATION VALVE AIR PUMP (PILOT FLUID) CHECK VALVE AIR & ELECTRIC PUMPS (POWER FLUID) ACCUMULATORS (POWER FLUID) ACCUMULATORS (PILOT FLUID) POD SELECT VALVE VENT JUNCTION BOX (BLUE) JUNCTION BOX (YELLOW) HOSE REEL (BLUE) SHUTTLE VALVE HOSE REEL (YELLOW) SPM PILOT ISOLATION VALVE SPM PILOT ISOLATION VALVE REGULATOR ACCUMULATORS (STACK MOUNTED) SHUTTLE VALVE KEY BOP STACK PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.BLOCK DIAGRAM V4 Rev March 2002 9-5 .
located on the BOP stack. When the pilot fluid for a particular function reaches each pod it lifts the spindle of its associated SPM (sub plate mounted) pilot valve. Each piece of equipment on the BOP stack has a corresponding pilot control valve on the central hydraulic control manifold which actuates the appropriate SPM valve. A summary of this operating sequence is shown in Fig 9. the power fluid then travels through the shuttle valve to the ‘close’ side of the BOP ram cylinder. The line to the non-selected pod is vented. 9.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS The power fluid is routed to the subsea control pod selected by the pod selector valve which is located in the central hydraulic control manifold. it is combined with fluid stored at the same pressure in subsea accumulators. Adjustment of this regulator is performed from the surface via dedicated pilot and read-back lines in the hose bundle. From the bottom of the female section. In the pod to which the power fluid has been sent this will allow the fluid to pass through the SPM valve and be routed to the stack function via a shuttle valve.1. three position valve and can be functioned manually or by an air operator. The pressure of the combined fluid is then reduced. When power fluid reaches the pod. Pushing the ‘close’ button on this panel actuates the solenoid valves on the hydraulic manifold thus allowing air pressure to move the pilot control valve to the ‘close’ position. CLOSE FUNCTION In Fig 9. by a subsea regulator situated in the control pod.3a b and c. to that required to operate the stack function. The solenoid valve on the right in the diagram vents the other side of the air cylinder. With the pilot control valve in the ‘close’ position.3. Pilot fluid is always directed to both pods at the same time.3a one of the BOP rams is being closed using the drillers master control panel.2 OPERATING SEQUENCE A more detailed description of the sequence of events that occur when a function is operated will now be given with reference to the flow diagram in Figs 9. thus blocking the vent . The pressure lifts the spindle in this valve so that it seals against: the upper seat. The control valve is a four-way. Simultaneous reciprocal action in the RAMS OPEN SPM valve vents the hydraulic fluid from the ‘open’ side of the BOP ram. 9-6 V4 Rev March 2002 . pilot fluid at 3000 psi is sent down the umbilical to the RAMS CLOSE SPM valve in the subsea control pods. At the same time power fluid at its regulated pressure is allowed past the bottom of the spindle and into the valve block in the male and female sections of the control pod.
GENERAL V4 Rev March 2002 9-7 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9.3 OPERATING SEQUENCE .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS POWER FLUID ACCUMULATORS SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE PILOT CONTROL VALVE AIR OPERATOR MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR POD SELECT VALVE YELLOW POD REGULATOR BLUE POD CLOSE SPM OPEN SPM INACTIVE POD SHUTTLE VALVE SHUTTLE VALVE BOP RAMS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.CLOSE FUNCTION 9-8 V4 Rev March 2002 .A OPERATING SEQUENCE .3.
3.B OPERATING SEQUENCE .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS POWER FLUID ACCUMULATORS SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE PILOT CONTROL VALVE AIR OPERATOR MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR POD SELECT VALVE YELLOW POD REGULATOR BLUE POD CLOSE SPM OPEN SPM INACTIVE POD SHUTTLE VALVE SHUTTLE VALVE BOP RAMS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.BLOCK V4 Rev March 2002 9-9 .
OPEN FUNCTION 9 .3.10 V4 Rev March 2002 .C OPERATING SEQUENCE .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS POWER FLUID ACCUMULATORS SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE PILOT CONTROL VALVE AIR OPERATOR MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR POD SELECT VALVE YELLOW POD REGULATOR BLUE POD CLOSE SPM OPEN SPM INACTIVE POD SHUTTLE VALVE SHUTTLE VALVE BOP RAMS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.
3c. both the solenoid valves are actuated in such a way as to apply pressure to both sides of the air operator. This causes the pilot control valve to be centred which then allows both the pilot ‘open’ and ‘close’ lines to be vented. provide readback pressures. The springs in both the SPM valves then push the spindles down so that they seal against the bottom seats and block the flow of any power fluid through the valves. These reduce the fluids pressure to that required to operate the particular BOP function desired. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . Referring to Fig 9. By centring and venting all the valves when the accumulator unit is first being pressurised unintentional and inadvertent operation of the various other positions and functions can be eliminated. As shown in Fig 9. A pilot operated accumulator isolator valve is provided to allow the pumps to charge the subsea accumulators. The fluid is also routed to a SPM valve in the pod which is controlled by the accumulator isolator valve on the hydraulic control manifold. In the open position this SPM valve allows the control fluid to charge the stack mounted accumulator bottles. latch/unlatch the subsea control pods and charge the subsea accumulators. CONTROL FLUID CIRCUIT In addition to the control fluid circuits used to operate stack functions such as ram or annular preventers. Simultaneous reciprocal action in the RAMS CLOSE SPM valve allows the fluid from the ‘close’ side of the operating cylinders to be vented. Shuttle valves allow the bottles to be charged from either pod. When control fluid is used. The solenoid valve on the left in the diagram vents the ‘close’ side of the operating piston.3b. By doing this individually on each valve a leak in the control system or the preventers can be located and isolated. Fig 9.11 . it passes through a totalising flow meter in the hydraulic control manifold and then through the pod selector valve which directs it to the chosen subsea pod. when the ‘block’ button is pressed.4 shows a typical control fluid circuit. At the same time this also vents both sides of the BOP ram operating cylinders. when the ‘open’ button is pressed. the fluid supplies the hydraulically operated subsea regulators. The pilot fluid can then flow down to the subsea control pod where it lifts the spindle in the RAMS OPEN SPM valve thus blocking the vent and allowing power fluid to flow through the valve. OPEN FUNCTION This sequence is the parallel opposite of the CLOSE function. the solenoid valves on the hydraulic control manifold are actuated and allow air pressure to move the operator on the pilot control valve to the ‘open’ position. pressurised and stored in accumulator bottles by the hydraulic power unit. From the pod the power fluid travels through the ‘open’ shuttle valve to the ‘open’ sides of the BOP ram operating cylinders.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS BLOCK FUNCTION The block function is used to vent a pilot control valve. After passing through the jumper hose and the subsea hose bundle to the control pod. The hydraulic fluid is mixed. the control system must also perform other functions such as control of subsea regulators.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS ACCUMULATOR UNIT ACCUMULATOR PRECHARGED TO 1000 PSI FLUID MIXING SYSTEM WATER SUPPLY WATER SOLUBLE CONCENTRATE MIXED FLUID RESERVOIR PRESSURE SWITCH SET AT 3000 PSI ACCUMULATOR ISOLATOR VALVE M ACCUMULATOR ISOLATOR VALVE (PILOT) FLOW METER TRIPLEX PUMP PILOT SUPPLY POD SELECTOR VALVE QUICK DISCONNECT JUNCTION BOX BLUE YELLOW HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD TO YELLOW HOSE REEL QUICK DISCONNECT JUNCTION BOX BLUE HOSE REEE BLUE POD HYDRAULIC REGULATORS CONTROL FLUID TO SPM VALVES POD MOUNTED ACCUMULATOR ISOLATOR VALVE FROM YELLOW POD 1/4" SHUTTLE VALVE FROM YELLOW POD 1 1/4" SHUTTLE VALVE STACK MOUNTED ACCUMULATOR ISOLATOR VALVE STACK MOUNTED ACCUMULATOR Figure 9.HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC 9 .4 SUBSEA CONTROL SYSTEM .12 V4 Rev March 2002 .
The control valve.6. A pressure switch is connected to each discharge line of the control valve and will transmit a signal to the appropriate control panel lamp whenever a pilot signal is present. It requires the use of three solenoid valves.5 shows a typical 2-position function pilot circuit. Any BOP stack function such as a failsafe valve. A BOP stack function requiring pressure to both open and close is called a 3position function. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . The latter position is used to release pressure from the operating side of the pilot valve. The hydraulic pilot fluid circuit for a 3-position function is shown in Fig 9. The main components of the control system and some of the other operating sequences are now described in more detail.13 . There is an ‘operate’ position and a ‘vent’ position. Fig 9. The operation of the 3-position pilot circuit is as described above. A pressure switch connected to the discharge line of the control valve is activated when a pilot signal is present and lights up the appropriate lamp on the control panel. These control valves can be operated either manually from the control manifold itself or remotely from an electrical panel via pneumatic solenoid valves. a 1/4'.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS PILOT FLUID CIRCUIT The pilot valves in the subsea pods are controlled from the surface by means of control valves located in the hydraulic control manifold. can be controlled from a remote panel via the two solenoid valves which can place the valve either in the ‘open’ or ‘vent’ positions. four-way manipulator valve. In the ‘open’ position the pilot signal is transmitted to the subsea control pods where it operates its associated pilot valve which then allows the power fluid to flow through the selected pod to the BOP function. the ‘block’ solenoid valve being used in conjunction with two shuttle valves in order to centre the control valve. which requires pressure only to open or close it is called a 2-position function.
14 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Solenoid Hydraulic Pilot Supply Open Air Supply Vent 1/4" Manipulator Valve Or Selector Valve With 2 Position Air cylinder Pressure Switch Quick Disconnect Junction Box Blue Yellow Vent Hydraulic Manifold Quick Disconnect Junction Box To Yellow Hose Reel Quick Disconnect Junction Box Blue Hose Reel Blue Pod SPM Valve Hydraulic Regulator Control Fluid Supply Shuttle Valve From Yellow Pod Open Failsafe Valve Operator Showing Spring Housing And Gate Figure 9.5 PILOT FLUID CIRCUIT (2-POSITION FUNCTION) 9 .
15 .Three Solenoid Valves Can Be Used For Critical Functions. Such As Shear Rams Blue Hose Reel Quick Disconnect Junction Box Control Fluid Supply SPM Valve Blue Pod From Yellow Pod Shuttle Valve From Yellow Pod Close Open Ram Type BOP Figure 9.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Hydraulic Pilot Supply 1/4" Air Shuttle Valve Solenoid Air Supply Open Block 1/4" Manipulator Valve Pressure Switch Close Vent BLUE YELLOW Quick Disconnect Junction Boo To Yellow Hose Reel NOTE: .6 PILOT FLUID CIRCUIT (3-POSITION FUNCTION) V4 Rev March 2002 9 .
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9. a double acting motor valve and a water flow rate indicator.4. All the tanks are fitted with sight glasses and a low-level alarm system which activates a warning light and horn on the control panels. under pressure. soluble oil. During normal operation the electric pumps are used to recharge the system. then the air powered pumps can assist or take over completely. A minimum rig water supply pressure of 25 psi is typically required for the correct operation of the mixing system and to provide a fluid supply at least equal to the rate at which mix fluid is drawn from the tank by the high pressure pumps. The electric pump assemblies consist of a heavy duty triplex reciprocating plunger pump with a chain and sprocket drive and powered by an explosion-proof motor. or fail in some way.13 HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT This unit contains the mixing system. glycol (for freeze protection). three air powered and two electrically powered pumps are used. high pressure pumps and accumulator banks as shown in Fig 9. compressed air and electrical power for operation. a water pressure regulator. Two small reservoirs contain the soluble oil and glycol which are automatically blended with fresh water to make up the hydraulic fluid which is then stored in a large reservoir known as the mixed fluid tank. Water/additive concentrations can be adjusted by setting the mixing pump to run at the appropriate rate. However if these cannot keep up with demand. Additives to prevent bacteria growth and to inhibit corrosion are also frequently included in the mix water. MIXING SYSTEM The hydraulic power unit supplies hydraulic fluid to the entire control system. 9 . It requires fresh water. The soluble oil reservoir has a capacity of at least 110 gal whilst the mix fluid tank should be capable of holding sufficient fluid to charge the system accumulators from their pre-charge condition to their maximum operating pressure. A reservoir float switch is used to control operation of the mixing system in order to maintain the correct level of fluid and to ensure a continued supply for the control system. Pump capacity should be such that they can charge the system accumulators from their pre-charge condition to their maximum operating pressure in less than 15 minutes. Typically. See Section 9. HIGH PRESSURE PUMPS These are the pumps which take the fluid from the mix tank and transfer it to the accumulator bottles. where it is stored ready for use by the system. the type of soluble oil used must be completely biodegradable.16 V4 Rev March 2002 . The proper mixing fluid ratio is maintained by air operated hydraulic pumps.4 below for calculations involving accumulator and charging pump capacities. Since the control system is an ‘open’ one in that the used hydraulic power fluid is vented into the sea.1.
17 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS SELECT 'BLOCK' SELECT 'CLOSE' PILOT PRESSURE From 'CLOSE' SPM From 'OPEN' SPM SELECT 'OPEN' PILOT PRESSURE To 'CLOSE' SPM From 'OPEN' SPM Both Lines Vented From 'CLOSE' SPM To 'OPEN' SPM Vent Vent PV A) SUBSEA MANIPULATOR VALVE AB SELECT 'BLOCK' SELECT 'CLOSE' Power Fluid Power Fluid Blocked SELECT 'OPEN' Power Fluid From Close From Open To Close Side From Open Side Both Lines Blocked From Close Side To Open Side Vent Vent to Mix Tank PV B) SURFACE SELECTOR VALVE AB Figure 9.9 ROTARY SHEAR SEAL TYPE VALVES V4 Rev March 2002 9 .
Pressure transducers transmit the readback pressures to remote panels.10 PILOT CIRCUIT REGULATOR CONTROL Since the power fluid arrives at the subsea control pod at 3000 psi and the BOP functions have a maximum normal operating pressure of 1500 psi. When operated from a remote panel a solenoid valve is used to increase the air pressure by allowing rig air to flow into a 1 gallon receiver connected to the air pilot line. A 1/2" air operated pilot regulator in the control manifold transmits pilot pressure to the subsea regulator in order to adjust its setting. 9 .18 V4 Rev March 2002 . All the electrical components are housed in separate explosion proof housings on the control manifold unit. A shuttle valve also in the manifold unit connects the lines from both umbilicals and isolates the active and inactive pods. The receiver acts as a surge protector for the pilot regulator. when the pressure falls to below 700 psi. The output of each subsea regulator is connected through a 1/8" hose in the umbilical back to a pressure gauge in the control manifold.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS PILOT ACCUMULATORS SUPPLY FROM POWER UNIT TYPICAL PILOT CONTROL VALVE VENT TO MIX FLUID TANK MANUAL CONTROL HANDLE AIR OPERATOR PRESSURE SWITCH PRESSURE SWITCH 'OPEN' PILOT LINE 'CLOSE' PILOT LINE JUMPER HOSES FIGURE 9. Fig 9. regulators are needed in the pods . Decreasing the air pressure is achieved by using a solenoid valve to vent the line to atmosphere. PRESSURE READBACK In order to ensure that the subsea regulator has set the desired operating pressure the manifold incorporates a readback system.11 shows how the subsea regulator is controlled from the surface.one is provided for the annular preventers and one for the ram preventers. The pressure switches are typically set to be activated ‘on’ when pressure in the pilot line to the ram or failsafe SPM reaches 1000 psi and to switch ‘off. One housing contains the solenoid valves and another contains the transducers and pressure switches. The air operator can be manipulated either manually using an air regulator on the control manifold or remotely from another control panel.
19 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS REGULATOR PRESSURE READBACK DECREASE INCREASE REMOTE PANEL REGULATOR PRESSURE VENT AIR SUPPLY DECREASE SOLENOID INCREASE SOLENOID AIR SUPPLY 1 GALLON AIR RECEIVER REGULATOR PRESSURE REGULATOR PRESSURE READBACK PILOT SUPPLY 1/2" AIR PILOT REGULATOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCER PRESSURE TRANSDUCER QUICK DISCONNECT JUNCTION BOXES BLUE YELLOW HYDRAULIC CONTROL MANIFOLD TO YELLOW HOSE REEL BLUE HOSE REEL QUICK DISCONNECT JUNCTION BOX BLUE POD REGULATED FLUID SUPPLY TO SPM VALVES HYDRAULIC REGULATOR POWER FLUID SUPPLY Figure 9.11 SUBSEA REGULATOR CONTROL CIRCUIT V4 Rev March 2002 9 .
Other mini-panels can be integrated into the system if desired. A digital readout of the flow meter located on the control manifold is also provided. the actual position of the function (the red or green light) will also be displayed. The mini-panel is usually not required to be explosion proof. Although the lights on the panels show the position of the BOP functions.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . close) and there is a memory system so that when a function is in block with the amber light on. They also contain alarms for low hydraulic fluid level. Lights on the panels (red. The sequence of events that occur is as follows - 9 . It operates in the same way as the master panel but does not include the pressure gauges. Many types of drillers panel also include controls for the operation of the rig diverter system which is controlled in a similar way to a surface BOP system. the control buttons are not active until a ‘push and hold’ button is depressed in order to allow the supply of electrical power to the panel. The drillers master panel is normally explosion proofed or air-purged since it is located in a hazardous area.1. It contains a set of graphically arranged push-button/ indicating lights for operation and status indication of each stack function. low accumulator pressure. low rig air pressure and an alarm to indicate that the emergency battery pack is in use. The remote panels contain all the necessary electrical switches to operate the solenoid valves on the hydraulic control manifold which in turn control the air operators of the pilot control valves. green) indicate the position of the 3-way valve (open. Fig 9. Usually two remote panels are used . block.6 CONTROL PANELS These panels permit the operation of the manifold unit from remote locations. and a minipanel in a relatively safe location such as a rig office. The regulator pressures are controlled by increase/decrease push-buttons and there are gauges for monitoring pilot and readback values.12 shows in more detail the operation of a BOP function from a remote panel.a master one on the drill floor. Both panels include ‘lamp test’ facilities to check for burnt out lamps. amber.
The air operated piston moves the pilot control valve to the ‘closes position and pilot pressure is sent to the subsea control pod. 6. Current flows to the ‘close ‘ solenoid valve which lifts to supply air to the 3-position air operator. the ‘close’ lamp remains illuminated. 5. The ‘close’ button is pressed. Current flows through an electronic card which illuminates the lamp of the ‘close’ button indicating that the function is now closed.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS CLOSE 1. The ‘press and hold’ button is released. 2. 3. The ‘press and hold’ button is held in to activate the panel. Successful pressurisation of the pilot line to the control pod actuates a pressure switch on the control manifold. 'PUSH AND HOLD' BUTTON CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS ELECTRIC SUPPLY ELECTRONIC CARD SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR 'CLOSE' PRESSURE SWITCH AIR OPERATOR PILOT CONTROL VALVE 'OPEN' PRESSURE SWITCH PILOT LINES TO SUBSEA PODS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.12A REMOTE OPERATION -CLOSE FUNCTION V4 Rev March 2002 9 . 4. 7.21 .
PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS ELECTRIC SUPPLY ELECTRONIC CARD SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR 'CLOSE' PRESSURE SWITCH AIR OPERATOR PILOT CONTROL VALVE 'OPEN' PRESSURE SWITCH PILOT LINES TO SUBSEA PODS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9. 6. The ‘press and hold’ button is held in to activate the panel.OPEN FUNCTION 9 .12B REMOTE OPERATION . The ‘open’ button is pressed. 5.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS OPEN 1. The ‘press and hold’ button is released. the ‘open’ lamp remains illuminated. Current flows to the ‘open ‘ solenoid valve which lifts to supply air to the 3-position air operator.22 V4 Rev March 2002 . Successful pressurisation of the pilot line to the control pod actuates a pressure switch on the control manifold. Current flows through an electronic card which illuminates the lamp of the 'open’ button and extinguishes the ‘close’ lamp indicating that the function is now open. 'PUSH AND HOLD' BUTTON CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN 4. 3. 2. 7. The air operated piston moves the pilot control valve to the ‘open’ position and pilot pressure is sent to the subsea control pod.
The electronic card senses that no pressure switch has been operated and illuminates the ‘block’ lamp. The ‘press and hold’ button is held in to activate the panel. the ‘block’ lamp remains illuminated. 2.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS BLOCK 1. neither pressure switch is activated. 6. 'PUSH AND HOLD' BUTTON CONTROL PANEL CLOSE BLOCK OPEN PILOT FLUID ACCUMULATORS ELECTRIC SUPPLY ELECTRONIC CARD SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE MIX WATER TANK RIG AIR 'CLOSE' PRESSURE SWITCH AIR OPERATOR PILOT CONTROL VALVE 'OPEN' PRESSURE SWITCH PILOT LINES TO SUBSEA PODS KEY PILOT psi ACCUMULAT OR psi REGULATOR psi VENT psi Figure 9.BLOCK FUNCTION V4 Rev March 2002 9 . 4.12C REMOTE OPERATION . Current flows to both the ‘close ‘ and ‘open’ solenoid valves which lift to supply air to both sides of the 3-position air operator piston. The air operated piston moves to a central position which places the pilot control valve in the middle ‘block’ position so that no pilot pressure is sent down either the ‘close’ or ‘open’ pilot line.23 . The ‘press and hold’ button is released. 3. 7. 5. The ‘block’ button is pressed. Since no pilot line is pressurised.
the junction box for the jumper hose is disconnected from the hose reel. An emergency battery pack supplies the electric panels with power for a period of up to 24 hours (depending on use) in case of failure of the rig supply. The reels are driven by reversible air motors and include a disc brake system to stop the reel in forward or reverse rotation. two pipe rams and the pod latch.7 HOSE REELS The hose bundles are mounted on heavy duty reels for storage and handling and are connected to the hydraulic control manifold by jumper hoses. 9 . A battery charger is also included to maintain the batteries in a fully charged condition ready for immediate use. Note that the illumination of a push button lamp only indicates that a pilot pressure signal has been generated and not that a function has been successfully operated subsea. The flow meter shows that the correct amount of power fluid has been used. the control points on the side of the reel are shut down and isolated to prevent interference with the full control system. 9. b.1. destroyed or malfunctions then it will not interfere with the operation of the system from any other panel. 4-way valves are used to vent any pressure that may remain trapped in a pilot line holding an SPM valve open.24 V4 Rev March 2002 . When the subsea control pod is run or retrieved. Indications of a successful subsea function movement are a. Fig 9. c.12b). There are fluctuations in manifold and readback pressure readings. Once the BOP has been landed and latched on to the wellhead. There is a noticeable drop in accumulator pressure. However in order to keep selected functions ‘live’ during running or retrieval operations. These live functions include at least the riser and stack connectors. These valves look similar but do not vent when placed in the ‘block’ position (see Fig 9. This is necessary since the reel is fitted with a different type of valve to the control manifold manipulator valves. The power pack typically consists of ten 12 volt lead-acid batteries. The regulators on the reel which control the manifold and annular pressures must also be isolated in case they dump pressure when the jumper hose RBQ plate is attached. It is also used to depressurise the pilot lines when attaching junction boxes to the umbilical hose reels. Electrical cable connects the remote panels and the battery pack to the junction boxes on the hydraulic control manifold. If one panel or a cable to a panel is damaged. five or six control stations are mounted on the side of the reel.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS The ‘block’ position is of use to try and locate the position of a hydraulic leak in the system by systematically isolating the various BOP stack functions. The BOP functions can be controlled from any panel at any time during normal operations. With the supply pressure isolated the 3-position.13 is a schematic of the hydraulic system through which the power fluid flows to the controlled functions during reel rotation.
13 HOSE REEL CONTROL MANIFOLD V4 Rev March 2002 9 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS MANIFOLD REGULATOR MAIN HYDRAULIC SUPPLY THROUGH SWIVEL JOINT 1/4" SELECTOR VALVES JUMPER HOSE FROM HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD BLUE POD HOSE REEL VALVE MANIFOLD MOUNTED ON SIDE OF HOSE REEL HOSE BUNDLE BLUE POD JUNCTION BOX OPEN SPM SHUTTLE VALVE REGULATOR OPEN CLOSE SPM FROM YELLOW POD BLUE POD SHUTTLE VALVE CLOSE Figure 9.25 .
Roller sheaves are used to support the umbilical and provide smooth and safe handling where it leaves the hose reel and goes over the moon pool area. A typical pod assembly (Fig 9. whereas pilot pressure is normally supplied to both the active and inactive pods. The power fluid is supplied only to the umbilical of the selected active pod. For those functions which are part of the main BOP stack. Special clamps are used to attach the hose bundle to the pod wireline at intervals that correspond to the lengths of riser in use. For those functions which are part of the lower marine riser package the fluid is then routed out of the upper female receptacle and directed via a shuttle valve to the functions operating piston. Not all the functions on the BOP stack are controlled through pod mounted pilot valves.26 V4 Rev March 2002 . Low volume functions such as ball joint pressure are actuated directly from surface through 1/4" lines. These are generally referred to as straight through functions. An outer polyurethane covering protects the whole bundle.9 SUBSEA CONTROL PODS The subsea control pods contain the equipment that provides the actual fluid transfer from the hose bundle to the subsea stack. the fluid is routed through the upper female receptacle and into the lower female receptacle from where it goes via a shuttle valve to the appropriate operating piston. 9. The most common umbilicals contain a 1" ID supply hose for the power fluid which is surrounded by up to sixty four 1/8" and 3/16" hoses for pilot valve activation and readbacks. When a SPM pilot valve is actuated it allows the control fluid to pass through it to one of the exit ports on the lower part of the male stab and into the upper female receptacle attached to the lower marine riser package. Hydraulic pressure from the regulated side of the subsea regulators is also transmitted through the umbilical to pressure readback gauges at surface.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9.14) consists of three sections • a retrievable valve block • an upper female receptacle block permanently attached to the lower marine riser package • a lower female receptacle permanently attached to the BOP stack Control fluid enters the pod at the junction box and is routed either direct to an SPM valve or to one of the two regulators (one for the BOP rams and one for the annular preventers) from where it is sent to the appropriate SPM.8 UMBILICAL HOSE The umbilical transmits all power fluid and all pilot signals from the surface to the subsea control pods. 9 .1.1.
27 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9.14 KOOMEY V4 Rev March 2002 9 .
9 . A more recent design utilises the same concept but consists of a cube shaped retrievable valve block which latches over two tapered blocks mounted on a base plate permanently attached to the lower marine riser package. A helical groove on the outside of the lower skirt of the pod ensures correct alignment of the fluid ports. Locking is accomplished by hydraulically extending two dogs that locate under the bottom of the upper female receptacle. valve or connector operating piston and vent the fluid from the other side of the piston to the sea. Besides the latching system. The valve is a poppet type in which a sliding piston seals at the top and bottom of its travel on nylon seats. When pilot pressure is applied to the valve the sliding piston moves up and seals against the upper seat which blocks the vent ports and allows regulated power fluid to flow through the bottom section of the valve to function the BOP.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS The integrity of each fluid route between the different sections is achieved by using a compression seal that is installed in the retrievable valve block section of the pod. also assists in keeping the valve closed by acting on a small piston area on the spindle. packer seals and piping. the locking pressure is bled off and the dogs are retracted mechanically when an overpull is taken on the retrieving wire.3 two SPM pilot valves are required to operate a BOP function. the principal components of the retrievable valve blocks are the SPM pilot valves and regulators. Fig 9. which is permanently present. As illustrated in Fig 9. To retrieve the pod independently of the lower marine riser package. Note that the pilot fluid therefore operates in a closed system whilst the hydraulic power or control fluid is an ‘open’ circuit with all used fluid being vented to the sea.28 V4 Rev March 2002 .15 shows a NL Shaffer 1 in SPM valve. A single tapered block mounted on a spring base is permanently attached to the BOP stack. the ram preventers use 1" valves and the other functions such as failsafe valves and connectors use 3/4" valves. The packer seals on the retrievable valve block are pressure balanced in a breakaway condition so that there is no tendency for it to be blown out of the pocket if the pod has to be released under pressure. In the normally closed position a spring attached to the top of the piston shaft keeps the piston on the bottom seat and prevents the power fluid from passing through the valve to the exit port. The annular preventers typically use large 1 1/2" SPM valves in order to provide sufficient fluid flow. Power fluid pressure. Compression between the three sections is achieved by hydraulically locking the pod into the lower receptacle (which is spring mounted on the BOP stack in order to facilitate easier engagement). In this position fluid from the valve’s associated operating piston is vented through the sliding piston at ambient conditions. SPM VALVES As described above these valves direct the regulated power fluid to the desired side of the preventer.
1. Once the yellow pod SPM valve ‘fires’. Typical regulators are 1 l/2" hydraulically operated. Some control systems incorporate a third regulator so that the operating pressure of each annular preventer can be individually manipulated. The fluid then passes through the shuttle valve to move the ram to the close position.29 .15 NL SHAFFER 1" SPM VALVE REGULATORS Each subsea control pod contains two regulators . regulating and reducing valves. the power fluid passes through it to a shuttle valve.M. the shuttle piston of which moves across and seals against the blue pod inlet.11 the output line of each regulator is tapped and the pressure roused back to a surface gauge through the umbilical. If the pod selector valve is set on yellow then power fluid is sent only to this pod and it is only through the SPM valve in this pod that the fluid will reach the ram operating piston. As shown in Fig 9. The pod selection has no effect on the pilot system. 9. When a pilot control valve (rams close for example) is operated on the hydraulic control manifold a pilot signal is sent down both umbilicals so that the associated SPM valve in each pod ‘fires’. Fluid from the opposite side of the operating piston is forced out through the ‘ram open’ shuttle valve and vented through the ‘ram open’ SPM valve and into the sea.P. "ACTIVATED" Sea Water Hydrostatic Upper Seat Pilot Pressure In 3000 PSI Lower Seat Power Fluid Vent Power Regulated Fluid In Power Fluid Out Figure 9.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Compressed Spring S. This readback pressure is used to confirm that the subsea regulator is supplying the power fluid at the pressure set by the pilot surface regulator. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . stainless steel.10 REDUNDANCY The two subsea control pods are functionally identical.one to regulate pressure for the ram preventers and one to regulate the pressure for operating the annular preventers.
Subsea control systems are very complex in their detail and there are always minor variations and modifications even between similar models therefore trouble shooting should always be carried out with reference to the relevant schematics. If a flow is indicated when no function is being operated or if the flow meter continues to run and does not stop after a function has been operated then a leak in the system is implied.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Note that if the blue pod was now selected to open the rams.16 N LN SHAFFER SHUTTLE VALVE 9. LEAKS A fluid leak is usually detected by watching the flow meter. 9 . Figure 9.1. The shuttle valves should be located as near as possible to their relevant ports on the BOP stack since the system is redundant only down as far as the shuttle valves. Fig 9.16 shows a NL Shaffer shuttle valve. then the power fluid would flow to the ram through the ‘open’ SPM on the blue pod but the fluid from the ‘close’ side of the piston would be vented through the yellow pod SPM since the ‘close’ shuttle piston would still be sealing the blue pod inlet port.11 TROUBLE SHOOTING Trying to locate a fluid leak or a malfunction of the subsea control system requires a very thorough knowledge of the equipment and a systematic approach to tracing the source of the problem.30 V4 Rev March 2002 .
it will allow fluid pressure to be forced back through one of the surface regulators and vent into the mix water tank thus indicating a leak) If this fails to locate the source of the leak then return to the hydraulic control manifold for an item-by-item check of the system USE THE POD SELECTOR VALVE TO OPERATE THE SYSTEM ON THE OTHER POD • If the leak does not stop then it must be located either in the hydraulic control manifold or downstream of the subsea control pods • if the leak does stop then it will be known which side of the system it is in Further checks would then be as follows If the Leak Stops • assuming conditions permit.31 . switch back to the original pod and block each function in turn (allow plenty of time for the function to operate and check the flowmeter on each operation) • if the leak stops when a particular function is set to block then the leak has been isolated and it is somewhere in that specific function • in this case run the subsea TV to observe the pod whilst unblocking the function • if the leak is coming from the pod it will be seen as a white mist in the water and a bad SPM valve or regulator can be assumed and the options are •pull the pod to repair the faulty component • leave the function in block until the stack or lower marine riser package is retrieved V4 Rev March 2002 9 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Once it has been determined that there is a leak then the following steps could be used to try and locate its source CHECK THE SURFACE EQUIPMENT • examine the hydraulic control manifold for a broken line or fitting • examine the accumulator bottles for signs of a fluid leak • check the jumper hoses for signs of damage • check the hose reels and junction boxes for loose connections • examine the hose reel manifold to ensure that all the valves are centred make certain that the shut-off valve to the reel manifold pressure supply is tightly closed (if this is left open when the junction box is connected to the reel.
A slow reaction time could be due to • low accumulator pressure • a bad connection between the jumper hose and hose reel • a partially plugged pilot line In this case the trouble shooting sequence would be - 9 .one at a time (fluid flow from a discharge line indicates a faulty valve) • if the discharge lines do not show any signs of a leak then disconnect the discharge lines from the regulators in the same way It can sometimes be the case that the system is operating normally until a particular function is operated and the flowmeter continues to run after the time normally required for that function to operate. Observe the flowmeter to see if the leak stops. MALFUNCTIONS Typical control system malfunctions are slow reaction times or no flowmeter indication when a button is pressed to operate a function. In this case there is a leak in that function with a likely reason being foreign material in the SPM valve not allowing the seat to seal thus causing the system to leak hydraulic fluid. A possible remedy is to operate the valve several times to try and wash out the foreign material.32 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS • If the leak is seen to be coming from below the pod then the options are • attempt repairs using divers • leave the function in block until the stack is brought to surface If the Leak Does Not Stop • check the return line to the mix water tank (if there is fluid flowing from this line then there is a leaking control valve or regulator) • check that all the control valves are in either the open closed or block position (a partially open valve can allow fluid to leak past it) • if the valve positions are correct then disconnect the discharge line from each valve . If the leak still persists then it will be a case of running the subsea TV to try and locate the leak visually.
33 . the flow rate through the connection can be restricted and cause the function to operate slowly) CHECK THE PILOT LINES • if the above checks fail to locate the problem then the final option will be to retrieve the pod and check the pilot line for any sludge that may have settled out from the hydraulic fluid (disconnect each pilot line from the pod one at a time and flush clean fluid through it In the situation where there is no flowmeter indication when a function button is pressed.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS CHECK THE PRESSURES • verify that the gauges are indicating the correct operating pressures • if a low pressure is indicated then verify correct operation of the high pressure pumps and check the level of hydraulic fluid in the mix water tank • check that the shut-off valve between the accumulators and the hydraulic control manifold is fully open CHECK THE HOSES • if the pressures are good then check all the surface hose connections • check the junction box connections (if they are not tightly seated. this could be due to no accumulator or pilot pressure • the control valve on the hydraulic manifold did not shift • the flowmeter is not working properly • there is a plugged pilot line or a faulty SPM valve CHECK THE PRESSURES • verify that the gauges are indicating the correct operating pressures • if a low pressure is indicated then verify correct operation of the high pressure pumps and check the level of hydraulic fluid in the mix water tank • check for correct operation of the pressure switches • check the fluid filters to make certain they are not plugged • check the accumulator pre-charge pressures V4 Rev March 2002 9 .
34 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS • bleed the fluid from the bottles back into the tank and check the nitrogen pressure in each bottle CHECK THE HYDRAULIC CONTROL MANIFOLD • use the ‘test’ button on the control panel to make certain that the position lamps are not burnt out check the air and electrical supply to the hydraulic control manifold • check the electrical circuits to the control panel and also the solenoid valves and power relays • if the air supply pressure is sufficient to work the control valve operator check for an obstruction to the manual control handle • if the valve can be easily operated manually then replace the entire valve assembly with a valve known to be in good working order CHECK THE FLOWMETER • if the regulator pressure drops by 300 to 500 psi when the function is operated and then returns to normal. the function is probably working correctly and the flowmeter is faulty • monitor the flowmeter on the hydraulic manifold to verify that the one on the drillers panel is not at fault (the impulse unit that sends the flowmeter signal to the panel could malfunction) 9 .
flexible joints (balljoints). consideration should be given to similar forces and loads with the exception of vessel displacement. b.* 9.2. In deeper waters. d. c.2 For a drilling vessel.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS SECTION 9.2.1 A marine riser system is used to provide a return fluid flow path from the wellbore to either a floating drilling vessel (semi submersible or hull type) or a bottom supported unit.2. vessel movement. the marine riser system should have adequate strength to withstand: a.3 For bottom-supported units. are included in this Section. connectors. drilling fluid weight. cyclic forces from waves and vessel movement. and to guide the drill string and tools to the wellhead on the ocean floor. with only lateral support at the surface and minimal tension being required to provide a satisfactory installation. riser collapse resistance. internal pressure rating of the marine riser system (pipe. telescopic joints.2 MARINE RISER SYSTEMS GENERAL 9. may be a consideration if circulation is lost or the riser is disconnected while full of drilling fluid. and tensioners. dynamic loads while running and pulling the blowout preventer stack. and high axial loads. API RP 2K: Recommended Practice for Care and Use of Marine Drilling Risers* and API RP 2Q: Recommended Practice for design and Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems.35 . Components of this system include remotely operated connectors. together with information on care and handling of the riser. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . riser sections. e. Unless otherwise noted. and axial tension from the riser tensioning system at the surface (which may be somewhat cyclic) or from buoyancy modules attached to the exterior of the riser. lateral forces from currents and acceptable vessel displacement. and any free standing pipe within the riser. axial loads from the riser weight. in addition to internal pressure rating. and flexible joint) should be at least equal to the working pressure of the diverter system plus the maximum difference in hydrostatic pressures of the drilling fluid and sea water at the ocean floor. 9. Data on these components. Operating water depths for bottom-supported units are often shallow enough to permit free standing risers to be used without exceeding critical buckling limits.
Production Department.2.5 A remotely operated connector (hydraulically actuated) connects the riser pipe to the blowout preventer stack and can also be used as an emergency disconnect from the preventer stack.) or to the rated working pressure of the blowout preventer stack (in case special conditions require subsequent installation of additional preventers on top of the original preventer stack). even for those conditions here some degree of misalignment exists. Additional factors to be H considered in selection of the proper connector should include ease and reliability of engagement/disengagement.8 A flexible joint is used in the marine riser system to minimise bending moments. and mechanical strength.6 Engagement or disengagement of connector with the mating hub should be an operation that can be repeatedly accomplished with ease. 9. should conditions warrant. 9 . Dallas TX 75202-3904 MARINE RISER SYSTEM COMPONENTS (NOTE: Additional details are contained in API RP 2K: Recommended Practice for Care and Use of Marine Drilling Risers and API RP 2Q: Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems. 2535 One Main Place.36 V4 Rev March 2002 . Marine Riser Flexible Joint (Ball Joint) 9. *Available form American Petroleum Institute.2. 9. The angular freedom of a flexible joint is normally 10 degrees from vertical. Connector internal diameter should be at least equal to the internal bore of the blowout preventer stack. etc. Connectors with the lower pressure rating are designated CL while those rated at the preventer stack working pressure are designated C .7 Mechanical strength of connector should be sufficient to safely resist loads that might reasonably be anticipated during operations.2. angular misalignments. Its pressure rating can be equal to either the other components of the riser system (connectors. This would include tension and compression loads during installation.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9.2. or above the annular preventer when the annular preventer is placed above the remotely operated connector. flexible joint. and tension and bending forces during both normal operations and possible emergency situations.) Remotely Operated Connector 9.4 Information presented in this Section applies primarily to floating drilling vessels. stress concentrations. since more demanding conditions normally exist for these marine riser systems than for those installed for bottom-supported units. and problems of misalignment engagement. A flexible joint is always installed at the bottom of the riser system either immediately above the remotely operated connector normally used for connecting/disconnecting the riser from the blowout preventer stack.2.
This pressure balancing also provides lubrication for flexible joints. The flexible joint angle. and applied (riser) tension are indications of stress levels in the riser section. It should be noted. a second flexible joint is sometimes installed between the telescopic joint and the diverter to obtain required flexibility.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9. For continuous drilling operations. In addition.10 Mechanical strength requirements for flexible joints are similar to those for the remotely operated connector. the riser should have a minimum yield strength and fatigue characteristics well in excess of those required not only for the present but for reasonably anticipated future conditions.e. consequently. another flexible joint may be installed immediately below the telescopic joint. normally at an angle of less than 3 degrees: greater angles cause undue wear or damage to the drill string. 9.2. For riser survival (i.12 Specifications for riser pipe depend upon service conditions. vessel offset.2. and environmental conditions. that drilling vessels normally encounter a wide variety of environments during their service life. both normal and emergency.11 Technical investigations and experience have shown the importance of close monitoring of the flexible joint angle during operations to keep it at a minimum. drilling fluid density. They should be capable of safely withstanding loads that might reasonably be encountered during operations. and sea water density.9 For those vessels having a diverter system.37 .2.2. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . the flexible joint should be maintained as straight as possible. blowout preventers. Drill pipe survival must also be considered if the pipe is in use during those critical times of riser survival conditions. Hydraulic “pressure balancing” is recommended for ball-type flexible joints to counteract unbalanced forces of tensile load. wellhead or casing. 9. One method of accomplishing this is by the use of an angle-azimuth indicator. riser. applied tension. however. For deep water operations or unusually severe sea conditions. the angular freedom of up to approximately 10 degrees should be accomplished with minimum resistance while the joint is under full anticipated load. to prevent overstressing) the maximum angle will vary from about 5 degrees to something less than 11 degrees.) 9. vessel offset. depending upon parameters such as water depth. Marine Riser Sections (Refer to API RP 2Q: Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems* for additional details. or some type of gimbal arrangement may also be used.
joint should be free of deformation. when made up and tested under reasonable maximum anticipated service loads.16 Marine riser connectors should provide a joint having strength equal to or greater than that of the riser pipe. compensating principally for heave of the vessel.). packoff units. 9 .e.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9. For severe service. 9.2. vertical. galling or irregularities. the. Marine Riser Telescopic Joint 9. 2535 One Main Place. 9.15 The internal diameter of the riser pipe is determined by size of the blowout preventer stack and the wellhead.torque requirement. environmental.2.38 V4 Rev March 2002 . †Available from American Petroleum Institute.2. The joint. Drilling fluid can be pumped into the lower section of the riser system to maintain adequate annular velocities while drilling small diameter holes.13 Riser pipe steel should conform to ASTM Designation A-530: General Requirements for Specialised Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe† and be fabricated and inspected in accordance with API Spec 5L: Specification for Line Pipe*.000 psi) have proven satisfactory if used in those areas where only light to moderate service conditions are encountered. Risers with lower minimum yield strength (35. the outer barrel (lower member) and the inner barrel (upper member). size. or rotational movement. etc.000 psi. *Available from American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia Pennsylvania 19103. It consists of two main sections. Specifications that provide riser pipe with a reasonable service life for operation in most parts of the world include a steel having a minimum yield strength of between 50. 9. and pressure rating will be determined by flow rates and pressures required. and should be used for installations where previous experience is limited or lacking.2. For any combination of service conditions (i. should have essentially no lateral. casing and accessories. drilling fluid weight riser weight. including bolt. wear bushings. quench and tempering and shotpeening the connector pin end are sometimes done. there is an optimum riser tension for which static and dynamic riser stresses are minimum.17 Auxiliary drilling fluid circulation lines are sometimes required and included as an integral part of large diameter riser systems. hangers. with adequate clearances being necessary for running drilling assemblies. Make-up practice. should be specified by the manufacturer.18 The telescopic joint serves as a connection between the marine riser and the drilling vessel.14 Computer programs are available for determining riser stresses under various operating conditions. 9. The number of lines. 1916 Race St. After release of load. Permissible operating stresses are normally expressed as a percent of minimum yield strength and depend upon the preciseness of the data input. etc. vessel offset. Production Department. Dallas TX 75202-3904.2.2.000 psi and 80.
packing element life.22 Selection of a telescopic joint should include consideration of such factors as size and stroke length. and efficiency in attachment of appurtenances (i.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9. As tension is increased. which reciprocates within the outer barrel. Marine Riser Tensioning System 9. mechanical strength. either in the extended or contracted position. c. is connected to and moves with the drilling vessel and has an internal diameter compatible with other components of the marine riser system. as it attempts to maintain the riser profile as nearly straight as practicable and reduce stresses due to bending.2. hydropneumatic accumulators/air pressure vessels. axial stress in the riser also increases. and is connected to the underneath side of the rig sub structure.). Tensioning at the top of the riser is one of the more important aspects of the riser system.2.2. 9.20 The inner barrel (upper member). vessel offset. The system consists of the following major components: a. an optimum tension exists for a specific set of operating conditions (water depth. 9. ease of packing replacement with the telescopic joint in service. control panel and manifolding. diverter systems. d. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . tensioner cables.). connected to the riser pipe and remaining fixed with respect to the ocean floor.21 The telescopic joint. choke and kill lines.19 The outer barrel (lower member). drilling fluid density.39 . Therefore. and stand-by air pressure vessels. 9. etc. should be capable of supporting anticipated dynamic loads while running or pulling the blowout preventer stack and should have sufficient strength to safely resist stresses that might reasonably be anticipated during operations.2. etc. A pneumatically or hydraulically actuated resilient packing element contained in the upper portion of the outer barrel provides a seal around the outside diameter of the inner barrel. The top portion of the inner barrel has either a drilling fluid return line or diverter system attached.23 The marine riser tensioning system provides for maintaining positive tension on the marine riser to compensate for vessel movement.e. tensioner cylinders and sheave assembly. current. is attached to the riser tensioning system and also provides connections for the kill and choke lines. Stroke length of the inner barrel should provide a margin of safety over and above the maximum established operating limits of heave for the vessel due to wave and tidal action. e.2. riser weight. high pressure air compressor units. b.
000 pounds and allowing maximum vertical vessel motion of 30 to 50 feet.28 For deeper waters. wave height and period and vessel motion. and ease of servicing. as the vessel heaves upward.000 to 80. Particular care should be taken to establish a wireline slipping and replacement program based on ton cycle life for the particular rig installation. since the system can cycle approximately 6000 times per day. 9. pressure integrity.2.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS 9. As the vessel heaves downward pressure of the compressed air will cause the hydraulic cylinders to stroke in the opposite direction . maintenance requirements.* 9.26 The number of tensioners required for a specific operation will depend on such factors as riser size and length. vessel offset. These cylinders are energised by high pressure air stored in the pressure vessels. weight of suspended pipe inside the riser. Computer programs are available for riser analysis. ocean current. these 9 .27 Periodic examination of riser tensioning system units should be made while in service. Recommendations for marine riser design and operation of riser tensioning systems are contained in APl RP 2K: Recommended Practice for Care and Use of Marine Drilling Risers and API RP 2Q: Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems.2. buoyancy tanks. Selection of the optimum method and/or material for obtaining buoyancy requires careful consideration of a number of factors. including tensioning requirements. Users should consult the equipment manufacturer for general maintenance procedures and specifications recommendations.25 Selection of tensioners should be based on load rating. In general. abuse resistance. drilling fluid density. and manufacturer's quality control. Consideration should also be given to operating difficulties that might occur should one of the tensioners experience wireline failure.24 Wirelines from the multiple hydraulic tensioner cylinders are connected to the outer barrel of the telescopic joint. stroke length. As water depth increases.) Buoyancy reduces the top tensioning requirements but loses some of its effectiveness as a result of the increased riser diameter exposing a greater cross sectional area to wave forces and ocean currents.2.40 V4 Rev March 2002 . In these cases. some types of riser buoyancy may be the solution (flotation jackets. maintenance costs. Several of these factors are time and water-depth dependent. Design of the wireline system that supports the riser must take into consideration the angle between the wireline and the axis of the telescopic joint and its influence on stresses. 19. service life. speed of response. it may be impractical from an operating view point to install sufficient units capable of providing adequate tensioning. etc. fluid is forced out of the hydraulic cylinders thereby compressing air. typically ranging from 45. Tension on the wirelines is directly proportioned to the pressure of stored air.2. including water absorption. Maximum load rating of individual tensioners depends on the manufacturer.2. Buoyancy 9.
WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS factors become more critical. 2535 One Main Place. and surface relubricated as required.41 . consideration should be given to maintaining records of individual riser joint placement in the riser string and periodic testing (non-destructive) of the connector and critical weld areas to reduce failures. surfaces visually inspected for wear and damage. running. These tools include a flare-end guide tube for guiding the riser through the rotary table and a joint laydown trough installed in the V-door. Dallas TX 75202-3904.29 Well trained crews and close supervision are needed for maximum efficiency and to preclude any failure from improper handling or make-up of marine riser connectors. For those operations where environmental forces are severe and/or tensioning requirements are high. if installed. V4 Rev March 2002 9 . particularly if the riser has been idle for some time or previous inspection procedures are unknown. Some special equipment and tools for handling.2.30 As marine riser joints are removed from service. thorough inspection of all components may also be warranted. each joint and connector should be cleaned. damaged packing or seals replaced. should also receive close inspection. both in protecting the riser and improving efficiency. Prior to running a riser. Riser Running and Handling 9. Buoyancy material and/or systems. Marine Riser Inspection and Maintenance 9.2. Production Dept. Refer to APIRP2K: Recommended Practice for Care and Use of Marine Drilling Risers* for specific information. A part of any analysis for an optimum safe system should include consideration of the consequences of buoyancy failure during operations. *Available from American Petroleum Institute. and make-up/break-out may also be beneficial. Care should also be taken in protecting riser joints stored on the vessel.
9 . Minimum swallow of pin mandrel assures quick separation.42 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9.18 H-4 High-Angle-Release Connector SEAL RING LOCK PORT PISTON SEAL RING RETAINER SCREW CAM RING CONNECTING ROD PRIMARY LOCK PORT VENT PORT SECONDARY RELEASE PORT PRIMARY RELEASE PORT PIN MANDREL PROFILE LOCKING DOG Vetco's H-4 High-Angle-Release Connector maintains releasing capability under high angles of up to 15° of riser deflection.
This seal is independently energised. Various override mechanisms available. The 5. Mandrel type construction provides stable engagement before energisation.43 .000 psi. As a riser connector. as a riser connector above the BOP. The connectors are available in a range of sizes at working pressures of 2. facilitates choke and kill line stabs. five inches before make-up. secondary resilient seal can be incorporated.000.000 and 10. Positive mechanical dogs ensure easy unlatching. Unit can be serviced without removal from the BOP stack.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS EL Style BOP and Riser Connectors . 5. They can be used as a BOP connector. or between BOP components. • • • • • • • • V4 Rev March 2002 9 . Optional. Self alignment. interchangeability of parts with the BOP connector is possible.General Description EL Connectors are hydraulically actuated units which provide ease of operation. positive sealing and field repairability.000 psi system is completely internally piped. The large number of locking dogs distribute the load evenly throughout the body and mandrel of the connector. Features:• • Metal-to-metal primary seal.
V4 Rev March 2002 • • • • • 9 . • • The valve is compact and bolted sideways to the side of the BOP.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9. Seat and body bushings have been combined into one piece.44 . Retained seats prevent erosion of the valve.20 MCK Valve The Cameron MCK valve is designed for the rugged service requirements of subsea choke and kill lines. reducing the number of cavity parts and seals. Stem packing can be changed without removing the bonnet from the valve. Balance stem design improves performance. A detachable actuator allows maintenance to be performed without removing the valve body from the line. The MCK valve is available in a full range of pressure and bore sizes.
During normal drilling operations. the pressure head created by the mud column inside the riser keeps the valve's internal sleeve closed. the valve fully opens to rapidly fill the riser. When pressure is equalized. When riser pressure drops.45 . loss of circulation. SD–8140 V4 Rev March 2002 9 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 9 : SUBSEA BOP CONTROL SYSTEMS & MARINE RISER SYSTEMS Figure 9. The riser fill-up valve is activated by the pressure sensory sleeve when the pressure inside the riser is from 250 350 psi below the ambient ocean pressure.21 Marine Riser Fill-up Valve Riser Fill-up Valve The Cameron riser fill-up valve is designed to prevent the riser from collapsing if the level of drilling fluid drops due to intentional drive-off. the pressure sensor returns to its normal position and the internal sleeve closes. the valve can also be manually operated through control lines to the surface. or accidental disconnection of the line. When activate. ocean pressure pushes the sleeve up. Although the unit is totally selfcontained and independent of any control lines. initiating a sequence which fully opens the valve to allow sea water to enter the riser. equalizing the pressure and preventing riser collapse.
0 10.SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Page 10. 1 Formulae and Conversion Factors Glossary for Well Control Operations 1 5 V4 Rev March 2002 .
= = SCR psi x (Kill Mud Weight ppg ÷ Original Mud ppg) (SIDPP psi ÷ TVD ft ÷ 0. 4.052 Mud Weight ppg x 0. 2.052) –––––––––––––––– Influx Height ft (Safety factor psi ÷ TVD ÷ 0. Pump Pressure/Pump Stks Relationship psi = V4 Rev March 2002 . 7. Gradient of Influx psi/ft = 15.052) + Original Mud ppg 10. Trip Margin/safety factor ppg = 16. 8.0 EQUATION SHEET FOR OILFIELD/FIELD UNITS 1.052) + Original Mud ppg [(Mud Grad psi/ft .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Height of influx ft = Kick size bbls ÷ Annulus Volume bbls/ft (SICP psi . 11. 3. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS FORMULAE AND CONVERSION FACTORS 10. Pressure Gradient psi/ft Mud Weight ppg = = Mud Weight ppg x 0.052 Pressure Gradient psi/ft ÷ 0.052 Pump Output bbls/stk x Pump Speed spm Pump Output bbls/min ÷ Annulus Volume bbls/ft SCR psi + SIDPP psi 6.Influx Grad psi/ft) x Influx Height ft] + SIDPP psi (Annulus Pressure loss psi ÷ TVD ft ÷ 0. Annulus Velocity ft/min = Initial Circulating Pressure psi Final Circulating Pressure psi Kill Weight Mud ppg Shut in Casing Pressure psi Equivalent circulating density ppg = 9.1 14.052) + Mud Weight ppg Present Pressure psi x (New SPM ÷ Old SPM)2 10.SIDPP psi) (Mud weight ppg x 0. Equivalent Mud Weight ppg Pump Output bbls/min = = Pressure psi ÷ True vertical Depth ft ÷ 0. = 13.052 x True Vertical Depth ft Hydrostatic Pressure in Drill String psi + SIDPP psi Hydrostatic Pressure psi = Formation Pressure psi (with bit on bottom) = 5. = 12.
tripping wet pipe = 25. Barite to raise mud weight lbs/bbl Percolation Rate ft/hr = 20.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.pipe disp bbls/ft) ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Mud gradient psi/ft x pipe Disp bbls/ft Mud grad psi/ft x Casing Cap bbls/ft x differential height ft –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– (casing capacity + Annulus capacity bbls/ft) 24. Allowable Mud Weight ppg = (Surface Leak Off psi ÷ Shoe TVD ft ÷ 0. tripping dry pipe = Mud grad psi/ft x Metal Disp bbls/ft –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Casing cap.SIDPP or [–––––––––––––] = Max Tol Length of Influx GM. bbls/ft . Pressure drop per ft.Old mud weight ppg) x 1500 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– (35. Max. Length of pipe to pull before well starts to flow ft = 27.kill weight mud ppg) Drill pipe pressure increase psi/hr ÷ Mud gradient psi/ft (MAASP . bbls/ft Overbalance psi x (casing cap. Hydrostatic Pressure loss if casing float fails = 10.(Mud gradient psi/ft . = 21. Pressure drop per ft. New MAASP psi = (Max.052 MAASP .8 .GI P1V1 P2 = –––– V 2 19. Allowable Mud Weight ppg Current Mud Weight ppg) (Kill mud weight ppg .Metal Disp bbls/ft Mud grad psi/ft x (Metal disp bbls/ft + Pipe disp bbls/ft) ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Annulus Volume bbls/ft Length of collars ft x metal disp bbls/ft ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Casing cap. Kick Tolerance ppg = Kick tolerance in feet 22. Level drop for pulling collars out of hole ft = 26. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS 17. bbls/ft .Influx Grad ft)) x Influx Height ft –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– TVD x 0.2 V4 Rev March 2002 .052) + Test Mud ppg 18. Boyle’s Law: P1V1 = P2V2 V1P1 V2 = ––––– P2 23.
M] Riser Sea-water 33.42 D2 . Riser Margin W2 = Slug Vol x ––– .[L of Riser RKB/BML] or the total increase in mud Wt required before disconnected. 'U' Tube formula SIDPP + [Pmud]DS = [SICP] + [Pmuda] +[Psasa] V4 Rev March 2002 10.3 .G. Estimated Casing setting depth beneath sea floor [P Mud] .B. [Pmuda + Psw] = P0 30.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.TVD] ÷ [. Max Mud Wt [Offshore] [Psw] + [Pf] ÷ [BML .d 2 ––––––– = bbls/ft 1029.052 R TVD [ ] Where ∆P = [Pmud] .[P sw] ÷ [G. Volume displace by slug 29.F.42 or 31.[Psw] Riser Sea-water R TVD = [L of hole RKB/TVD] . .1 W 1 ∆P = ––––– ÷ .052] 32. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS 28. D2 Conversion of pipe diameter to bbls/ft = ––––––– = bbls/ft 1029.
4 3 or .159 to give Cubic Metres per Minute (M3/min) x 6.1590 to give Cubic Metres (M3) x 6. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS APPROPRIATE CONVERSIONS DEPTH VOLUME Feet Metres (U.052 to give Pounds per Square Inch per Foot (psi/ft) [Pressure Gradient] x .2026 to give Pounds (lbs) x 22.) x 6.3048 to give Metres per Minute (m/min) x 3.1 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa) x 100 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa) x 119.62 to give Kilo Pascals per Metre (K/Pa/m) x 0.00835 to give (Pounds per Gallon) x 0.00982 to give Kilo Pascals per Metre (K/Pa/m) V4 Rev March 2002 MUD WEIGHT PPG TO PRESSURE GRADIENT SG b/ft3 Kg/m3 Kg/m 10.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.000434 to give Pounds per Square Inch ÷ 2303 per Foot (psi/ft) x 0.003785 to give Cubic Metres (m3) x 0.14503 to give Pounds per Square Inch (psi) x 98.003785 to give Cubic Metres per Minute (m3/min) x 0.) Gallon (U.2472 to give Pound Force x 0.2808 to give Feet per Minute (ft/min) x 0.3048 to give Metres (m) x 3.) Barrel Cubic Metre PSI KPA Kg/cm2 Bar x 0.433 to give Pounds per Square Inch per Foot (psi/ft) ÷ 144 to give Pounds per Square Inch per Foot (psi/ft) x 0.S.895 to give Kilo Pascals (KPa) x 0.445 to give Decanewtons x 2.2905 to give Barrels per Minute (bbl/min) x 264.8 to give Kilogram per Cubic Metre (Kg/m3) x 0.2 to give Gallons per Minute (gals/min) x 0.2905 to give Barrel (U.454 to give Kilograms (Kg) x 1017 to give Kilograms (Kg) PRESSURE MUD WEIGHT PPG Kg/m3 ANNULAR VELOCITY FLOW RATE Feet/Minute Metres/Minute Gallons/Minute Barrels/Minute Cubic Metres/Minute Cubic Metres/Minute FORCE Pound Force (eg WEIGHT ON BIT) Decanewtons MASS Pounds Tons (Long-2240 lbs) Tonnes (Metre-2205 lbs) Kilograms PRESSURE GRADIENT PSI/Foot KPa/Metre x 1001 to give Kilograms (Kg) x 2.S.04421 to give Pounds per Square Inch per Foot (psi/ft) x 0.S.2808 to give Feet (ft) x 0.
accumulators. V4 Rev March 2002 10.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.The assembly of pumps.1 GLOSSARY FOR WELL CONTROL OPERATIONS Abnormal Pressure .The temperature of all the encompassing atmosphere within a given area.The opening and closing device located in the piping line that draws fluid from the reservoir into the fluid end of the pump when the air motor is operating. lines.A device permitting air movement between the atmosphere and the component in which it is installed. Air Breather . Accumulator Unit .The opening and closing device in the connecting line of the compressed air routed to flow into the accumulator system lines as a power source for components.The opening and closing device located in the air supply line which blocks air flow in one line to be redirected through another. Accumulator Relief Valve . One ampere represents a flow of one coulomb per second. Air Regulator . Air Pump Suction Valve . air flow is not routed through the air pressure switch for automatic shutoff thereby allowing the air pumps to continue to run.The unit used for measuring the quantity of an electric current flow. Accumulator .The adjusting device to vary the amount of air pressure entering as to the amount to be discharged down the piping lines.The automatic device located in the accumulator piping that opens when the pre-set pressure limit has been reached so as to release the excess pressure and protect the accumulators. Accumulator Bank Isolator Valve . Accumulators supply energy for connectors and valves remotely controlled. valves. Air Pressure Switch Bypass Valve . Ampere . In open position. Air Supply Valve .The opening and closing device located upstream of the accumulators in the accumulator piping which stops flow of fluids and pressure in the piping.5 .A vessel containing both hydraulic fluid and gas stored under pressure as a source of fluid power to operate opening and closing of blowout preventer rams and annular preventer elements.Pore pressure in excess of that pressure resulting from the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a vertical column of water salinity normal for the geographic area. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS 10. and other items necessary to open and close the blowout preventer equipment. Ambient Temperature .
usually installed above the ram preventers. Master) . Baffle .Controlled release of fluids form a closed and pressured system in order to reduce the pressure. with inside diameter equal to or greater than the blowout preventer bore. Blind Rams (Blank.A partition plate inside the reservoir to prevent unbalancing by sudden weight shifting of the hydraulic fluid. chemicals. thus allowing the blind rams to seal the hole.A device which can seal around any object in the wellbore or upon itself.The device located in the annular manifold header to enable adjustment of pressure levels which will flow past to control the amount of closure of the annular preventer. Annular Regulator . They seal against each other to effectively close the hole. Bell Nipple (Mud Riser. Choke Pressure) .A settled volume of barite particles from a barite slurry placed in the wellbore to seal off a pressured zone.The pressure existing at the surface on the casing side of the drill pipe/annulus flow system. Usually has a second side outlet for the fill-up line connection. the outer wall of which may be the wall of either the borehole or the casing.A large valve. Bleeding . 10. Belching . Back Pressure (Casing Pressure. connected to the top of the blowout preventer or marine riser with a side outlet to direct the drilling fluid returns to the shale shaker or pit.A slang term to denote flowing by heads. Used primarily in subsea systems. and water of a unit density between 18 and 22 pounds per gallon (lb/gal). Annulus Friction Pressure . CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Annular .Circulating pressure loss inherent in annulus between the drill string and casing or open hole. Annular Preventer . Barite Plug . Blind/Shear Rams .A piece of pipe.A mixture of barium sulphate. that forms a seal in the space between the pipe and wellbore or on the wellbore itself.6 V4 Rev March 2002 . Compression of a reinforced elastomer packing element by hydraulic pressure effects the seal.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.Blind rams with a built-in cutting edge that will shear tubulars that may be in the hole. Barite Slurry .Rams whose ends are not intended to seal against any drill pipe or casing. Flow Nipple) . The space around a pipe in a wellbore.
A term to denote pumping into a closed-in well without returns. The BOP allows the well to be sealed to confine the well fluids and prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe or in an open hole. either a pressure exerted by a column of fluid contained in the wellbore or the formation pressure at the depth of interest. spools.The equipment installed at the wellhead to enable the driller to prevent damage at the surface while restoring the balance between the pressure exerted by the column of drilling fluid and formation pressure.An opening and closing device for removal of pressurised fluid. oil. Blowout Preventer Drill .The assembly of well control equipment including preventers . Bottom-hole Pressure . or gusher.An uncontrolled flow of gas. Blowout Preventer Test Tool . Blowout Preventer . or other well fluids into the atmosphere.A training procedure to determine that rig crews are completely familiar with correct operating practices to be followed in the use of blowout prevention.Venting of fluids to the surface or to the sea-bed through channels external to the casing. valves and nipples connected to the top of the wellhead. Blowout Preventer Stack . Bleeder Valve .A tool to allow pressure testing of the blowout preventers stack and accessory equipment by sealing the wellbore immediately below the stack. A blowout. Casing Pressure . Casinghead/Spool . The blowout preventer is located beneath the rig at the land’s surface on land rigs or at the water’s surface on jack-up or platform rigs and on the sea floor for floating offshore rigs. A dry run of blowout preventive action.The assembly of pumps.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. V4 Rev March 2002 10. valve.7 .The part of the wellhead to which the blowout preventer stack is connected. lines.Depending upon context. Borehole Pressure . occurs when formation pressure exceeds the pressure applied to it by the column of drilling fluid.Total pressure exerted in the wellbore by a column of fluid and/or back pressure imposed at the surface. Bullheading . CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Blowout .see Back Pressure. accumulators and other items necessary to open and close the blowout preventer equipment. Broaching . Blowout Preventer Operating and Control System (Closing Unit) .
the ratio of the wellhead pressure to the pressure required to close the blowout preventer.The metal enclosure surrounding the electric pump driving chain to protect and contain an oil lubricate for the chain. Choke Pressure .See Back Pressure. These hubs are held together by a clamp containing two to four bolts. Circulating Head .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Choke Manifold (Control Manifold) . accumulators and other items necessary to open and close the blowout preventer equipment. The two items to be sealed are prepared with clamp hubs. Clamp Connection . Circuit Breaker . Check Valve . Choke Line .A procedure whereby the formation immediately below the casing shore is subjected to a pressure equal to the pressure expected to be exerted later by a higher drilling fluid density or by the sum of a higher drilling fluid density and back pressure created by a kick. Usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being one hundred 100 10.The high pressure piping between blowout preventer outlets or wellhead outlets and the choke manifold.A pressure sealing device used to join two items without using conventional bolted flange joints.The capability of a material to carry an electrical charge.The system of valves.An electrical switching device able to carry an electrical current and automatically break the current to interrupt the electrical circuit if adverse conditions such as shorts or overloads occur. Choke Line Valve . Closing Unit . Chokes also control the rate of flow of the drilling mud out of the hole when the well is closed in with the blowout preventer and a kick is being circulated out of the hole. chokes. Conductivity .The valve(s) connected to and a part of the blowout preventer stack that control the flow to the choke manifold. Chain Guard .A device attached to the top of drill pipe or tubing to allow pumping into the well without use of the kelly. lines. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Casing Seat Test . Choke .8 V4 Rev March 2002 . Closing Ratio .A valve that permits flow in only one direction. valves. and piping to control flow from the annulus and regulate pressures in the drill pipe/annulus flow system.A variable diameter orifice installed in a line through which high pressure well fluids can be restricted or released at a controlled rate.The assembly of pumps.
Discharge Check Valve . It consists of a movable element such as a piston and piston rod. Continuity .Any substance which slows or prevents the chemical reactions of corrosion. Control Pod . Conductor . heat. plunger or ram. Remote .The device located in the expelling line of a pump (air or electric) which allows fluid to flow out only and thereby prevents a back flow of fluid into the pump.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Contract Block . Control Panel. Displacement . V4 Rev March 2002 10. light.The volume of steel in the tubulars and devices inserted and/or withdrawn from the wellbore. Conductor pipe is usually cemented.The uninterrupted flow of current in a conductor. Corrosion Inhibitor .An assembly of subsea valves and regulators which when activated from he surface will direct hydraulic fluid through special apertures to operate blowout preventer equipment.9 . Cylinder . Conductor Pipe .The substance or body capable of transmitting electricity.A device which converts fluid or air power into linear mechanical force and motion.Well control fluid which has been reduced in density or unit weight as a result of entrainment of less dense formation fluids or air. Conductivity is expressed for a standard configuration of conductor. or sound. Control Manifold .The system of valves and piping used to control the flow of pressured hydraulic fluid to operate the various components of the blowout preventer stack. plunger rod. Cut Drilling Fluid .A panel containing a series of control that will operate the valves on the control manifold from a remote point.A vessel which utilizes pressure reduction and/or inertia to separate entrained gases from the liquid phases.The conductor located in the electric panels which bring together the electrical connections of the operation pushbuttons with those of the operator valves.A relatively short string of large diameter pipe which is set to keep the top of the hole open and provide a means of returning the upflowing drilling fluid from the wellbore to the surface drilling fluid system until the first casing string is set in the well. Degasser . operating within a cylindrical chamber. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS percent).
10. Element (Filter) . drilled solids.An instrument in the drilling fluid system which continuously measures drilling fluid density. Feed-in (Influx. This valve is used to close off the drill pipe to prevent flow.An essentially full-opening valve located on the rig floor with threads to match the drill pipe in use.The plugged opening in the top of the fluid reservoir through which hydraulic oil is added.The opening and closing device located in the piping line that draws fluid from the reservoir into the pump inlet when the motor is operating.A test conducted to determine production flow rate and/ or formation pressure prior to completing the well.The substance of porous nature which retains foreign particles that pass through the containing chamber to separate and clean the gas or liquid flow. Drilling Fluid Weight Recorder . Drain Port . Drilling Spool . CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Diverter .A check valve in the drill string that will allow fluid to be pumped into the well but will prevent flow from the well through the drill pipe. Fill Port . It must have an internal diameter at least equal to the bore of the blowout preventer and can have smaller side outlets for connecting auxiliary lines. Dust Cap . Drill Stem Test (DST) .The flow of fluids from the formation into the wellbore.The sum of pressure exerted by hydrostatic head of fluid.A device attached to the wellhead or marine riser to close the vertical access and direct any flow into a line away from the rig. if ECD is to be expressed in pounds per gallon (lb/gal).A connection component with ends either flanged or hubbed. and friction pressure losses in the annulus divided by depth of interest and by 0. and through which the reservoir can be cleaned.A relatively short string of large diameter pipe driven or forced into the ground to function as conductors pipe. Electric Pump Suction Valve . Drill String Float .The screw on covering for the electric panel connector receptacles which protect the electrical contacts from foreign matter and moisture.The plugged openings on the lower side portions of the reservoir which can be opened to empty or release the hydraulic fluid. Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) . Inflow) .10 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Drive Pipe . Drill Pipe Safety Valve .052.
An event occurring when borehole pressure is of magnitude that the exposed formation accepts whole fluid from the borehole. Flowline Sensor .The unit weight of fluid.Pressure exerted by fluids within the pores of the formation (see Pore Pressure). pounds per gallon (lb/gal). or a combination of both. Formation Competency Test (Formation Integrity Test) ..A device whose function is the retention of insoluble contaminants from a fluid.A line usually connected into the bell nipple above the blowout preventers to allow adding drilling fluid to the hole while pulling out of the hole to compensate for the metal volume displacement of the drill string being pulled. The accumulator system pressurises fluid to be used as a source of power to open and close valves and rams on the BOP stack.See Formation Competency Test.Application of pressure by superimposing a surface pressure on a fluid column in order to determine ability of a subsurface zone to withstand a certain hydrostatic pressure.A substance that flows and yields to any force tending to change its shape.The volume. used from the time kill drilling fluid reaches the bottom of the drill string until kill operations are completed or a change in either kill drilling fluid density or kill rate is effected.Drill pipe pressure required to circulate at the selected kill rate adjusted for increase in kill drilling fluid density over the original drilling fluid density. mass.Apparatus used to clean air flow of dirt. or weight of a fluid passing through any conductor.The ability of the formation to withstand applied pressure.A device to monitor rate of fluid flow from the annulus. Gradient) .The pressure gradient (psi/ft) at which the V4 Rev March 2002 10. Filter (Hydraulic) . that travels through a conductor such as pipe or tubing. Fracture Gradient (Frac. Final Circulating Pressure . Formation Integrity . Formation Competency (Formation Integrity) . Fluid Density . such as pipe or tubing. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Fill-up Line .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Filter (Air) . moisture and other contaminants.11 . Formation Integrity Test . Flow Rate . Liquids and gases are fluids. per unit of time.g. Formation Pressure (Pore Pressure) . Fluid . total flow.A device which indicates either flow rate.See Formation Competency. Formation Breakdown . e. Flow Meter .
Gas Buster . or another large conducting body to serve as earth.The term given to the duty of operating the control valves of the accumulator system. The action performed by the control valves when operating the ram preventers or gate valves. The valve may or may not be full-opening. Gland .The pressure which exists at any point 10.12 V4 Rev March 2002 .An instrument for measuring fluid pressure that usually registers the difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the fluid by indicating the effect of such pressure on a measuring element (as a column of liquid. Gauge . a bourdon tube. 1 mil equals . Gunk Plug .An abbreviation for hydrogen sulphide.A volume of gunk slurry placed in the wellbore. Gage . a weighted piston. Hydrostatic Pressure (Hydrostatic Head) .A standard method of specifying the physical size of a conductor (wire) diameter based on the circular mil system.To close in a well by closing a blowout preventer with the choke and/or choke line valve closed. 2 Hard Close In .001. thus making a complete electrical circuit.The cavity of a stuffing box. Hydrostatic Head . Full Load Current . Gate Valve . Function .A slang term to denote a mud gas separator. Gunk Squeeze .Relating to liquids at rest and the pressure they exert. a diaphragm. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS formation accepts whole fluid from the wellbore.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.The true vertical length of fluid column.An electrical term meaning to connect to the earth. the smaller the diameter. H S .A valve which employs a sliding gate to open or close the flow passage. Hydrostatic .The amount of current used by an electrical circuit when the circuit is operating at its designed or rated maximum capacity.Procedure whereby a gunk slurry is pumped into a subsurface zone. Ground . normally in feet. or other pressuresensitive devices). The conducting connection of a circuit to the earth. Gunk Slurry . The higher the number.A slang term to denote a mixture of diesel oil and bentonite.
which is to be used to circulate under kick conditions. numerically equal to kill rate circulating pressure plus closed-in drill pipe pressure. Inside Blowout Preventer . Initial Circulating Pressure . Indicating Light . transducers. Kelly Valve . This line allows heavy drilling fluids to be pumped into the well or annulus with the blowout preventer closed to control a threatened blowout.See Feed-in. Kick .The plugged openings on the sides of the fluid reservoir which can be opened to view the interior fluid level and return lines from the relief.A valve immediately above the kelly that can be closed to confine pressures inside the drill string. Insulation . The electric panel bulbs make circuit contacts through pressure switches. pounds per gallon (lb/gal). Kelly Cock . Inspection Port .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. control valves. kill rate is usually some selected fraction of the circulating rate used while drilling. selected for the fluid to be used to contain a kicking formation. and regulators. Kill Rate .A predetermined fluid circulating rate. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS in the wellbore due to the weight of the vertical column of fluid above that point. and solenoid valves to demonstrate activation. Inflow . An essentially full opening valve installed immediately below the kelly with outside diameter equal to the tool joint outside diameter.A high-pressure fluid line connecting the mud pump and the wellhead at some point below a blowout preventer. Kill Drilling Fluid Density .13 .The bulbs of the electric control panels that shine to point out which electrical contacts have made a circuit. V4 Rev March 2002 10.Lower. bleeder.A device that can be installed in the drill string that acts as a check valve allowing drilling fluid to be circulated down the string but prevents back flow. expressed in fluid volume per unit time.A non-conductive material usually surrounding or separating the current carrying parts from each other or from the core.Intrusion of formation fluids into the wellbore.Drill pipe pressure required to circulate initially at the selected kill rate while holding casing pressure at the close-in value.g. Kill Line .The unit weight e.See Feed-in. Influx .
Meter Circuit Board . The manifold regulator controls the pressure level of the fluid flowing through and out the 4-Way control valves.The piping system which serves to divide a flow through several possible outlets.See Lost Circulation. Leak-off Test .A device which adds controlled or metered amounts of a substance into the air line of a fluid power system to prevent or lessen friction.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Kill Rate Circulating Pressure . The 4-Way control valve inlets connect to the piping so that high pressure fluid is available to pass through any or all of the valves. Alternately pumping a relatively small volume of fluid into a closed wellbore system and waiting for the fluid to fall toward the bottom of the well. thereby protecting the manifold header. Micron . Lubrication. Manifold Relief Valve . Lubricator (Air) . and which can be opened to release the fluid pressure and vent it back into the reservoir. Manifold Header . Lost Circulation (Lost Returns) .(A millionth of a meter or about 0.Pump pressure required to circulate kill rate volume under non-kick conditions. The measuring unit of the 10. Manifold Regulator . Manifold Bleeder Valve .An instrument. Manifold Regulator Bypass Valve . Lost Returns .Application of pressure by superimposing a surface pressure on a fluid column in order to determine the pressure at which the exposed formation accepts whole fluid.The loss of whole drilling fluid to the wellbore.The opening and closing device in the piping that connects the manifold header and the reservoir.0004 inch). operated by an electrical signal.The automatic opening device located on the manifold header that opens when the present pressure limit has been reached so any excess pressure is released. thereby allowing higher pressure fluid to be available to the 4-Way control valves.Printed circuit board used with the electrical meters to provide the circuits necessary for calibration of the meter. This valve is located in the manifold piping so that in the open position the high pressure fluid does not flow through the regulator in the manifold header. Meter .The opening and closing device which blocks flow in one line to be redirected through another. that indicates a measurement of pressure.14 V4 Rev March 2002 .The device located in the manifold header which can vary the amount of pressure that enters and exits its chamber.
the resistance of a circuit in which a potential difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere. Used primarily to run or pull pipe under low or moderate pressures. Mil . For practical purposes this pressure can be estimated at 1 psi/ft of depth. This device is not dependable for service under high differential pressures. Petcock . Ohmmeter .The measuring instrument which indicates resistance in ohms.The lowest pressure at which permanent deformation will occur. Normal Pressure . Overburden .The amount by which pressure exerted by the hydrostatic head of fluid in the wellbore exceeds formation pressure.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Needle Valve . Minimum Internal Yield Pressure . Overbalance .The small faucet or valve used to release compression or drain moisture accumulated in the anterior chamber of the lubricator.15 .A particular stage or point of advancement in an electrical cycle. Packoff or Stripper . V4 Rev March 2002 10. Motor Starter .Automatic device which starts or stops the electric motor driving the duplex or triplex pump which works in conjunction with the automatic electrical pressure switch for pressure limits of pump start-up and shutoff. Ohm . The fractional part of the period through which the time has advanced.A device with an elastomer packing element that depends on pressure below the packing to effect a seal in the annulus.A vessel for removing free gas from the drilling fluid returns. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS porosity of filter elements.The ration of the well pressure to the pressure required to open the blowout preventer. Opening Ratio . Mud-gas Separator . The area of a circle one 1/thousandth inch in diameter.The pressure on a formation due to the weight of the earth material above that formation. Phase (3-Phase Motor) .A unit of electrical resistance.A shutoff (2-Way) valve that incorporates a needle point to allow fine adjustments in flow.A measurement used in determining the area of wire.Formation pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a vertical column of water with salinity normal for the geographic area. measured from some arbitrary point usually expressed in electrical degrees where 360° represents one cycle.
10. Pressure Gradient. Turning the plug 90 opens or closes the valve.Rams whose ends are contoured to seal around pipe to close the annular space.Pressure exerted by the fluids within the pore space of a formation.An electrical switch. which automatically starts and stops the electrical pump when the present pressures are reached. Pressure Transmitter . Pore Pressure (Formation Pressure) . The lines of pipe are laid together and are often covered with a grating to create a walkway. Pipe Rams . Separate rams are necessary for each size (outside diameter) pipe in use.A device installed in the drilling fluid tank to register the fluid level in the tank. The valve may or may not be full-opening. Primary Well Control . The air output pressure in proportion to the hydraulic input pressure. Pressure Switch (Air) .The connecting pipelines between the control valve outlets and the BOP stack preventers which carry the high pressure operating fluid.A device that increases the pressure on a fluid and moves it to a higher level using compression force from a chamber and piston that is driven by an electric motor. Pump (Air) .A device that increases the pressure on a fluid or raises it to a higher level by being compressed in a chamber by a piston operated with an air pressure motor. Pit Volume Totaliser .A liquid that is suitable for drinking.A valve whose mechanism consists of a plug with a hole through it on the same axis as the direction of fluid flow.Device which sends a pressure signal to be converted and calibrated to register the equal pressure reading on a gauge. Normal . Pit Volume Indicator . Pressure Switch (Electric) . CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Pipe Rack . Pump (Electric) . Potable . Plug Valve .A device that combines all of the individual pit volume indicators and registers the total drilling fluid volume in the various tanks.The automatic device to start and stop the air pump operation when the present pressure limits are reached.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. operated by fluid pressure.Prevention of formation fluid flow by maintaining a hydrostatic pressure equal to or greater than formation pressure.The normal pressure divided by true vertical depth.16 V4 Rev March 2002 .
The property of an electrical circuit which determines for a given current. The reservoir houses hydraulic fluid at atmospheric pressure as the supply for fluid power. Resistance .The container for storage of liquid.A rotating. mounted in a stack on top of the wellbore. Relay Socket . shear rams cut through drillpipe and then form a seal. seal around the pipe.An offset well drilled to intersect the subsurface formation to combat blowout. Blind rams. Safety Factor . when closed. multiplied by the resistance.17 .A device that varies and controls the amount of pressure of a liquid or gas that passes through its chambers. Rupture Disk .An electrical device to automatically control the operation of another device in another circuit by passing on an electric current. Relief Well . gives the power converted. an incremental increase in drilling fluid density beyond the drilling fluid density indicated by calculations to be needed to contain a kicking formation. Rotating Head .The control valve operates with bulbs on the electrical remote panel which change and indicate the position of the control valves. The rupture disk is contained as a safety device for the test unit system.blind.A device whose breaking strength (the point at which it physically comes apart) works to relieve pressure in the system. Reservoir . when closed. Relay . Recorder .The process whereby a volume of fluid equal to the volume of steel in tubulars and tools withdrawn from the wellbore is returned to the wellbore. the rate at which electrical energy is converted into heat and has a value such that the current squared. low pressure sealing device used in drilling operations to seal around the drill stem above the top of the blowout preventer stack. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Pushbutton/Indicating Light .may be installed in several preventers. or shear . form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it. pipe rams. Ram .The closing and sealing component on a blowout preventer. pipe.In the context of this publication. One of three types .A device used to interconnect a relay with its circuitry and which allows quick and easy removal of the relay without special tools. Replacement . V4 Rev March 2002 10. Regulator .An automatic device that reads and records pressure outputs continually on a revolving chart to provide continuous evidence of pressures.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE.
The one quart capacity bladder accumulator used to absorb the shock and waves caused by an initial flow of high pressure fluid. The valve position is controlled by an electromagnetic bar. and houses solenoid valves. enclosed by a coil.A porous material which retains contaminants passing through a line along with the gas or liquid flow.Pumping fluid into one side of the drill pipe/annulus flow system with the other side closed so as to allow no outflows.Natural gas containing hydrogen sulphide.18 V4 Rev March 2002 .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Suction Strainer . CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Salt Water Flow .The control to vary the space between the electrical contact points in the electrical pressure switch. which contains the electrically powered actuators for the remote control electrical panel. located on the accumulator unit.The assembly of well control equipment including preventers. Space-Out Joint .Blowout preventer rams with a built in cutting edge that will shear tubulars that may be in the hole. 10. Sour Gas .Procedure conducted to position a predetermined length of drill pipe above the rotary table so that a tool joint is located above the subsea preventer rams on which drill pipe is to be suspended (hung-off) and so that no tool joint is opposite a set of preventer rams after drill pipe is hung-off. Stack . Solenoid Valve . Squeezing . Solenoid Valve Box . Strainer .An influx of formation salt water into the wellbore.The explosion proof enclosure.The joint of drill pipe which is used to hang off operations so that no tool joint is opposite a set of preventer rams. valves.To close in a well by closing a blowout preventer with the choke and choke line valve open. pressure switches and transducers. which cleans the hydraulic fluid or air of contaminants before entering the pumps. Surge Damper . and nipples connected to the top of the casing head. then closing the choke while monitoring the casing pressure gauge for maximum allowable casing pressure. located in a “y” shaped fitting of the pump suction lines. Shear Rams . Span Adjustment . spools. Soft close In .The opening/closing device which is activated by an electrical signal to control liquid or gas pressured flow to be sent to open or close the 4-Way control valves. Space Out . The box is wired to the electrical supply.The porous element. Located in the downstream line of the annular regulator.
The manipulator style valve vents all pressure outlets when placed in the centre position. The valve position determines the source of flow supply and subsequently controls the location of operation. Manipulator .Drill pipe. Valve. depending on the position of a lever connected to a buoyant material sitting in the fluid to be monitored. and casing.The opening and closing device in a line of flow which restricts flow by lowering a piston type plunger into the valve passageway. Target . Underbalance . Swivel Joint .Grouped electrical conductor endings where screw connections are made. drill collars. Swivel joints are used at the ends of the pipe rack to ease connections to the control valve outlets and to the BOP stack. giving four direction selections for flow which alternately pressurises and vents the pressure outlets. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Swabbing . Terminal Strip . Valve. Tubulars . joining parts so that each can pivot freely. V4 Rev March 2002 10.A bull plug or blind flange at the end of a T to prevent erosion at a point where change in flow direction occurs. Unit/Remote Selector . Float .The valve located on the manifold header whose ports allow flow into the annular regulator. Transducer .19 . Trip Margin .WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Poppet . Targeted .The device located in the solenoid valve box which is actuated by hydraulic pressure and converts the force to an electrical force for indication on a meter. Underground Blowout .A connecting device.A control device having three positions. The electrical output signal is in proportion to the hydraulic input pressure.Refers to a fluid piping system in which flow impinges upon a leadfilled end (target) or a piping T when fluid transits a change in direction.The lowering of the hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore due to upward movement of tubulars and/or tools. Trip Gas .An uncontrolled flow of formation fluids from a subsurface zone into a second subsurface zone.A device that is positioned as either open or closed.An incremental increase in drilling fluid density to provide an increment of overbalance in order to compensate for effects of swabbing. Valve.An accumulation of gas which enters the hole while a trip is made. tubing.The amount by which formation pressure exceeds pressure exerted by the hydrostatic head of fluid in the wellbore.
Viscosity . Control used to make the meter read 0 by applying an offset voltage to the meter to offset any positive voltage present at the meter. Valve.The device located on the accumulator bladder ports which open and close for the nitrogen pressure contained. giving four direction selections for flow which alternately pressurises and vents the pressure outlets.WELL CONTROL for the Rig-Site Drilling Team SECTION 10 : FORMULAE. Valve. The preventer packing will close around the wireline. Wireline Preventers .A valve that opens at a present pressure to relieve excessive pressures within a vessel or line whose primary function is to limit system pressure. Pre-charge . Relief .A unit of electrical power. Watt .A control device having three positions.20 V4 Rev March 2002 . Shuttle . The selector style valve blocks all pressure points if placed in the centre position. Weight Cut . Selector .A measure of the internal friction or the resistance of a fluid to flow.A valve which operates fully open or fully closed to control the flow through the lines.The control to move the meter gauge indicator for resetting calibration accuracy. CONVERSION FACTORS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS Valve. Zero Adjustment . Volt . Shutoff .A unit of electromotive force. the power of one ampere of current pushed by one volt of electromotive force. 10.Preventers installed on top of the well or drill string as a precautionary measure while running wirelines.The amount by which drilling fluid density is reduced by entrained formation fluids or air. Valve. even though there is no pressure at the input of the transducer.A connective valve which selects one of two or more circuits because flow or pressure changes between the circuits. Valve.
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