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C403/025 Improved safety and reliability in fluid machinery through co-operative development NM WALLACE. B5e, CEng, FIMechE and PD CARLISLE, BSe S1W0RSIS Centrifugal punps are criti Benefits 3 that have been ade. in the 21 Ue dard rat a increasing ‘pressures to improve reliability and safety toe “scongae and’ environeaneal Pe Seals) and power tranamission couplings are,in\ turnrinportart ‘components, of wprovenents have been ade to seals and couplings and an’ important etewent. in the peccess ha al chose Usex/supplier “relationship. ‘The improveonts ads have reauiced “in aesonseeabey has a two piece rotery seal ring with a Cenposite” fare” of geaction’ bonded silleon Getbide Inserted into “s auplex stainless. steel boay(atst” 529). fhe” following table, shows how this natecial otters “a better ‘cenbination of Materials, AIST 916 and arsr 434 (a) The reasons for upgrading The seal illustrated in tig 1 is a balanced process industries seal which has een aovtied sesstully” ince the atiy T3l0'S." the’ seat ‘Deen! available in| aany base. materials and ions depending on the product to be EechnoLogy, oth in-house and with the snterials Popular seal "and provide users "with. wane Saditional beneties. Phe pniiosopiny adopted for ftoa other advanced seal ranges, + To maintain component interchangeabitity to facilitate, “Upgrading of existing [nstallations: ters,the revised design vome simplicity and advancages of the ign with’ an” inereared” technical fod reduced variety for reduced ‘Hockholding and siaplifiea Selection: Hiustrated in fig 1 are the original and the Eevised designs. ‘he existing design is shows with traditional stellite/eathen faces and sof Diece rotary seal Ping whilst the revised design Taverat [exyens lve] serengpn] corrosion er ant” | reetstance iatsi 329 | 13.0 ee] 680 ood ar an [a 350 Fale Fange,lover” insect dlatortion “and” better She features of the cevined design are: 4) Simple single spring drive retained Te large section single spring provides both the axial Toad. and nd 209 nated and” the denger’ of hang. up ‘This type Of" spring also hast Low ‘stiftness which’ gives a) high dogres of folerance to fiteing errors and face “sear. The Iarge section wire has good corrosion resistance compared to "aulei springs and has auch” betcer 44) two plece rotary seat cing ‘One probloe area with the original seal was that the "radial gripping load “of the, spring on the fnin “of vehe "rotary "seal. fing “could cause Gistortions on the runnt ye ot the newer materials Ike silicon Carbide! ‘rhe "problem is elinineted by the use "of & two piece construction which also makes the £itting lgid secondary seal materials, such as" PTFE, mice 144) Reduced axial friction ‘wang-up" 1s @ major cause of excessive Leakage in'"nechanical “seals. The” *posher aeel" ia Soaetines displaced by “the wetal’ bellows seal for this sole reason although the pusher seal iz fatigue. tallures ave ‘hanges" “wilh ince ‘ie does the bellows Seal (ae much ar 20\'at 10 bes) snd failures tend £0°be" auch less. dramatic ana se'"has™ been addeesond” in" the cavised +k lover hardness secondary aeal is used to Feauce friction. (see later’ eests) + the radia clearance between the rotary seal Hing‘ and" sieeve har Deen increased Seat “ting preveneeaccagental” aechanical Ginage “eo tne silicon carhide insert and aces lv) tow distortion rotary seal ring renege SS TOMSSEELA, Phy zien Fecbeetnct SSaSsDee then alt” DOES Seghltne SIGE allah alcderetdlen Svesen Sut Sth fie nat eterno presse INSTAMEL Usa deter anes hoe Baving decided on the desian principles, it var (e) Testing SIE, Mewes cercing were competed an ene Siicon carbide is normally used in corbination Gntisony) the traditlonal counterface for stenlfte’ faced seais and "hela in'stock by any ica the suitabitity jsten carbide countextaces for abrasive Many hours of testing vere performed on 2 70am Maxious "FU" Limits (ax n/a) Sealed fluid “yates [hydrocarbon] Resin” carbon a 620 1850 NevattiSed carbon Tungsten carbige | 260 | 1050 44) Evaluation of new design features Aokasy seal ring thermal distortion thermal Gistortion” charecterseties ef the seal Elngs can’ be. observes. dicectiy.. conceneric fringes indicate “conical distortion, the level St “aitferent temperatures Each Tight band of Honochconatis sediua Light represents 0.0003 0 Of slope With che new insect design, values auch lover than Steliited seaintess steel {itself low) were ‘Husenah—aistorsion ovex asa tace width in she bands 7 © teliited stainless steel | 0.13 (eliseon carbide in 0.05 Jtupiex seSintess steet) Rotary seal tina axial friction forces Tests wore carried out to deternine lubricated Silding"triceion values for the rotary seal thay sing’ secondary ‘seal elastomers of” gitterene haraneszes.” "0" ring badness [Friction force hore) Cneweon ) ‘The results confirmed the superiority of the 60 Shore hatdvess rubber adopted Fig 1 shows how the heat dissipation Gharacteristies of silicon’ carbide combine with ineeeased "PY" values to give as auch larger ure’ /eenperature operating envelope © Neen 1990 choarees (a) Application ‘At presont, over one ehousand of the new sea ze “In'“operation. the explanation for this Change” can Dest be" represented by. the etveriences at "one plant)” Mobil Refinery “at Conpton in Eagia Mobil vere first introduced to the ANA seal in arly 1386.. the above benagite, were explained feithen and, on the “strength of that, fitted Se seat to. one end of a aplit caste puwp ons They chose this pump , as iz had a history of Seal ‘probiens andy since 1903." when precioe Fecords vere Hept, the geal had failed at Filiures vere,almost always, duet haiy up “of the rotary sea! ing. Me_neW REA seal has now been in operation for To instigate the change smoothly, Hobit boushe Gpores kite “which atloued Zoupiaes Interchangeabiliey with" the exacting seals for 4am to fen sizes. this change over ‘has been Progressive vith abour half "the “seste on the Ungraded faces have increased the secvice Lifes and the ability to replace the sliding "9" rina! Particularly wlth the PTFE geadess has taprowed Melneainabi lity Elnalty, the. introduction ot the spares 4it phlloaoiny "where all” the necessety “Spazer are Un Feducing the Fisk’ "of incoreect parte being cletea,” a5 well “as ensuring all. weneing patts 2:2 Secondary containment seale (a) Development and application biquid tandem seals provide an accepted solution fou the probles of” secondary containacnt, of angerous” Fluide “although it is "act aways Donsible tol apply “it for" reasons of cost ee Soace. “there ris) hence a “Fequitesent for a he devalopnent of two new dry running secondary containment” seals has "been fully” described ik Previous” papers” (refecences Ed). the objective hese is eo outline the designs. look ee : seal i itiuseratea in fig 2. This seal waz originally developed in Howiane with Dutch State mines for the Sealing The seal ws put ehrough a second phase of deveiopsent following a wave of interest troe °S umber’ of major operating companiss including ‘ranco,0P and Ease. faces are ‘non-contacting, in the abeyant ode and hence the seal_ has infinite Iie in chat state. In the event of primaty seal failure,the. stationary slonent 22 “urged Into contact and ettects "a seal, allowing for sate Shut down ofthe pump” The, seal docs,owever allow a small amount of Isakage™ prior'to closure.” (axe Lain gat Following sudden primary seal failure) This is normally perfectly acceptable aithough ‘thete has been recent demand to ase this seal se ‘The seal illustrated has been used by an end weer “in iolland' with" simple “addition” for Benzene’ service” X'low interferenco Lip seal iz fitted outboard of the non-contacting secondary Seal. to divert “any initial teakage’ to a at Grain. The long life, low cost and slapticity ef inital Restage eliminated Eatally. offactive with teadings of sero pee Deing taken at the shatt curtaces tt ts believed Components assist in achteving this, See section b} for other applications: The contacting standby asad ( a2 s1lustrated in fig a.) Bas also -develoosd following, strony interest fren the” coapaniss already described plus Conoco’ and’ shell This seat_vses_springe fo keep the faces in itetines Mtbasea On wear) auch “work han” been icaas, face wlaths and balance eatioe he seat vas subjected to extensive testing under the close ‘scrutiny of Aramco and bp in “psrticuisr and" has “subscauently, Sccumulatel «large number of running “hours Sh the fied raboratory Vetkage "at" all tinesvaibeit with Enige Life. “te"is also capable et’ pressures up to'f00 bar and iz” thus = "éull guy. seconiasy Containment Sea) gyrectations andthe following sxample serves. to TSE pipeline, The operator previously used a iocally sseoct foal from another inctuting tintaned product and aleeiculeies had Deen experienced Me seals in fig 3 were supplied in 1986 following nigh pressure testing at 155 bar om