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Components of the Nestlé environmental strategy 2 Evaluation of strengths and liabilities 3 Successful implementation? 5 2
Part II. The Nestlé Corporate Strategy iv. v. vi. Components of the Nestlé environmental strategy 6 Evaluation of strengths and liabilities 8 Successful implementation? 8
Part III. Analysis of Strategic Approach vii. viii. ix. Corporate and environmental strategy consistencies 9 ESM 210 Community Survey 9 Recommended strategic changes 10
Part IV. Appendices x. Tables and Figures 11
Bibliography 14 2 .x.
3 . and pharmaceuticals that amount to over 8. and systematic management that describes targets and performance measures for the future. The Nestlé Corporate Environmental Strategy Components of the Nestlé Corporate Environmental Strategy Nestlé has adopted an environmental business strategy that incorporates initiatives to address environmental policy and compliance. has been with the company since 1968. recognition of business opportunity. Nestlé has encouraged more responsible environmental performance with continuous improvement in research and development to support long-term growth and competitiveness through innovation and renovation (EPR 2000). etc. and response to public perception and expectations. Nestlé is committed to providing people around the world with the best food and increasing their quality of life. The current CEO of Nestlé. Peter Brabeck. a focus on the preservation of water resources. The ‘environmental management’ responsibility adopted by Nestlé incorporates an integrated approach through the supply chain process for preserving the environment (i. In fact. raw materials produced from sustainable methods.).000 in all (Tomlinson 2000). Nestlé is the world’s largest food company with 479 factories and over 200.e. Switzerland and has facilities worldwide. Nestlé’s commitment to the environment.000 employees worldwide. The primary corporate objective of the Nestlé Group is to create values for the internal and external market environments that will be sustainable in the long-term. The company was founded in 1867 in Vevey. focuses on three main areas of the company’s operations: Integrated approach throughout the supply chain Water as a key priority Systematic management of environmental performance Within these core areas. beverages. minimizing waste products. portrayed through this environmental management strategy.Introduction Nestlé is an international corporation that produces a variety of products including food.
and complete operational surveys and audits on a regular basis (Figure 3). and illustrates the amount of freshwater use worldwide by Nestlé is “relatively small” compared with other sources of consumption. Neither in this report nor the extended Nestlé 200 Environmental Progress Report. are these objectives elaborated upon.From production operations to distribution and consumer purchasing. reuse. established in 1996 to provide a mandatory framework for environmental management at all levels of organization. and claims to use recyclable packaging materials “wherever possible” (NESTEC 2001). The company’s Environmental Progress Report Highlights (2001) asserts that the packaging reduction results have been significant. and attempts to meet policies and guidelines. recycling and energy recovery to minimize the impact of waste on the environment. and are used to assess the progress toward “ecoefficient” objectives. Nestlé also participates actively in various national packaging waste recovery schemes established in the European Union. Nestlé has supported the long-term. as it does not own or operate farms where raw materials are obtained. This multistep approach has led to more structured management throughout the company. develop training and communication. The environmental performance of manufacturing processes is measured through worldwide factory surveys and environmental performance indicators (EPIs) that are verified against action plans. or to maximize the production of goods while minimizing the consumption of resources. Perhaps the most vivid display of Nestlé’s environmental business strategy is its Nestlé Environmental Management System (NEMS). 4 . Through innovative manufacturing practices and conservation programs to help drive initiatives for water reuse and reduction. Nestlé has developed an integrated approach for considering the environment throughout the supply chain process. however. Nestlé also claims the support of sustainable agricultural practices. Nestlé has increased its focus on the packaging process to favor source reduction. and boasts a monetary overall investment for the protection of the environment (Figure 1) that amounted to more than 3% of total capital expenditure from 1997 to 1999(NESTEC 2001). According to the Environmental Progress Report Highlights (2000). and that this progress is due to clear objectives and the implementation of a systematic approach. sustainable use of water. Figure 2 has been adapted from the Environmental Progress Report (2000). In addition to manufacturing efficiency. Nestlé states the objective in company factories is to maximize “eco-efficiency”. The conservation of water resources is also an important component of the Nestlé environmental management strategy. establish objectives and programs.
such as ISO 14001. the company’s approach to environmental responsibility is flawed.The components of the NEMS aim to facilitate continuous improvement and communication while integrating innovation and renovation strategies throughout Nestlé’s long-term environmental commitment (NESTEC 2001). Nestlé claims great achievement with the adoption of the ISO 14001 international standard for environmental performance in many of their factories. Establishing these frameworks for environmental management has focused Nestlé’s efforts on performance and continuous improvement. In 5 . the number of certified Nestlé factories implementing the voluntary ISO 14001 standards is 46. the NEMS is more of a superficial outline to company goals than an actively implemented strategy. and regulatory agencies. Pressure to meet environmental regulations and operational compliance has forced Nestlé to develop a systematic process to gauge environmental performance (NEMS). Driving this competitive force is the ability of Nestlé to maximize profits while at the same time addressing both societal and environmental concerns to establish acceptance and public position. In many cases. The NEMS also allows Nestlé to perform more compatibly with international standards for environmental management systems. however. Evaluation of Strengths and Liabilities The corporate environmental strategy that Nestlé has adopted illustrates the difficulties of global corporations and their struggle to maintain an environmentally responsible image to consumers. conflicts have arisen as a result of trying to satisfy both monetary success and environmental responsibility. The inadequacies of the Nestlé ’s strategic approach to environmental management arise from the competitive nature of the company as a global leader in food production. environmental organizations. The shear expanse of Nestlé operations also inherently leads to an incomplete environmental management strategy. the company has a long way to go to achieve a level of environmental responsibility that is respected by environmentalists and the public. of a total of 509 facilities worldwide a mere 46 of these are certified. Currently. Although Nestlé is on the right track toward successful environmental management with the established framework for environmental performance (NEMS). From poor information dissemination to safety concerns over Nestlé products. however. thus creating an adaptive ability to change with new environmental issues (NESTEC 2001).
Further. the certification process (including EPIs. Without money to buy milk.html#food). energy consumption.org/corplist. also reported that following Nestlé’s statement. large corporations are able to appear more environmentally responsible to consumers (Corpwatch 2002). This idea stems from the tendency of some global companies to associate themselves with the blue flag of the United Nations in order to connect themselves to United Nations themes such as human rights and environmental protection. and has led to serious conflicts over its products. many newborn babies in these developing countries suffered from severe malnutrition (http://www. in as far as practically possible” (FOE 2000). This type of disinformation dissemination is consistent through Nestlé’s corporate environmental strategy. The margin of error is much larger when considering that individual factories are manually reporting measurements of performance based on facility inputs and outputs (i.general.) The accurate consolidation of all this environmental performance data is skeptical. etc. Nestlé’s states their position in the following words: “In those countries where consumers are reluctant to accept the use of GM crops as a source for ingredients. Nestle products do not contain these ingredients. the company continues to use genetically modified foodstuffs in all other countries including the United States (Environment News 1999). and facility surveys) is inefficient and inaccurate for such a number of reporting facilities. Nestlé violated the World Health Organization’s Code of Marketing Breast-milk Substitutes with their promotion of inappropriate distribution of powder infant formulas to women in developing countries. and lack of clean water. as a global food company. greenhouse gases. The environmental group.corporations. auditing. waste water generation. Friends of the Earth. 6 . Although Nestlé recently phased out biotech foods in the UK.e. Nestlé was unable to list in which countries this policy operates. inadequate sterilization methods. Nestlé also distributed free samples of infant formula long enough to support the infants until the mother was not able to lactate. Many of the controversies over Nestlé food products have involved the promotion of infant formulas in developing countries and the company’s use of GMO ingredients in products. In this way. Nestlé has been criticized for establishing characteristics of “bluewashing” in its environmental strategy (Corpwatch 2002). Nestlé supplied information to women that promoted artificial feeding and did not educate them on the benefits of natural breastfeeding as the optimal form of infant nutrition. Nestlé’s position on GMO use in their food products has also attracted recent criticism from environmental groups.
however. Nestlé by no means deserves acclaim for impressive implementation of environmental management strategies. Nestlé is showcasing the certification processes of ISO and NEMS as validities for successful implementation across all aspects of company environmental objectives. Nestlé has only achieved skeptical consumers and potentially excessive expenditures in the long-term that may result from implementation lags. Through the NEMS process. California. Although the ISO 14001 standard is a voluntary action adopted by corporations. 7 . Successful Implementation? Nestlé boasts many environmentally ‘sound’ strategic efforts within the confines of the World Wide Web and various environmental reports. and received a pamphlet describing recycling tips in the mail. but the majority that is listed is not accessible to the public. the achievement of most of these objectives rests within the superficial framework of the NEMS (Figure 3) and generalized statements regarding a focus on “improvement in all aspects of sustainability” (Nestec 2001). Nestlé aims to promote continual innovation and improvement while meeting current environmental regulations. but encourages more responsible environmental performance in the future. Incorporating environmental issues into the strategic planning process and achieving successful implementation requires that firms do more than merely comply with existing laws and requirements. are clouded in general language and fancy graphics. The strengths of the Nestlé Corporation lie within their establishment of an Environmental Management System. It seems that information is being hidden somewhere.A visit to the Nestlé website also reveals the company’s struggle with environmental information dissemination. and this does not make the company look very environmentally responsible. we requested the most recent corporate US annual report. Nestlé provides a few reports available for downloading from the site. Aside from the adoption of the NEMS as a corporate management tool for the company. adopting a framework for dealing with environmental performance is admirable. however. In our attempts to contact Nestlé USA in Glendale. Explanations and descriptions of company environmental activities. The site contains many different attributes of the corporate environmental approach that are accessible with the click of a button. This strategy has not been adequately developed. Efforts to implement environmental objectives may not be currently realized by the company. Not even for the 49 factories that are currently certified as ISO 14001 facilities. however.
Most of the principles existed when the company was formed back in 1867 (NCBP 2002). which is to create sustainable value in their products for the long-term. is based on a few basic principles. the relative bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. Nestlé’s corporate strategy can be more clearly evaluated once it has been assessed in terms of Porter’s five forces. A major part of corporate strategy. and respect for cultural diversity and acceptance of local laws and legislation. first published in 1998. which defines the industry or market a company competes in. The forces include the intensity of competition among existing competitors. Porter’s five forces model is a useful tool in evaluating the profitability of an industry.The Nestlé Corporate Strategy Components of the Nestlé Corporate Strategy Nestlé’s corporate strategy. The basic principles include a preference for long-term business development over short-term profit. although variation is determined by the 8 . The principles contain an objective. the threat of substitutes. and barriers to entry into the industry (Grant 2002). The degree of competition among existing competitors within the food products industry is quite intense. The major issues covered in the Nestlé Corporate Business Principles report are: National Legislation and International Recommendations Consumers Infant Health and Nutrition Human Rights Human Resources and the Workplace Child Labor Business Partners Protection of the Environment The Nestlé Water Policy Agricultural Raw materials Compliance The strategy of a company can be defined as the long-term objectives and the actions taken to effectively implement those objectives (Grant 2002). concern for maintaining responsible conduct through legislation or additional measures. is the evaluation of the industry attractiveness to determine its profitability. awareness that employees and management are vital to Nestlé’s success. recognition of consumer interest.
government policies. Similarly. In 1977. Those crucial suppliers that have a contractual relationship with Nestlé are audited to ensure compliance with Nestlé Corporate Business Principles (NCBP 2002). the company took an interest in L’Oreal as strategic participation and currently owns 26. Alcon Laboratories Inc. The degree of competition from substitutes for Nestlé products varies depending on the product sector. Consumers of food products tend to be fairly price sensitive. in 1998 and Ralston Purina in 2001. In the case of Nestlé.e.nestlefaq. Nestlé’s close relationship with its farmers ensures that Nestlé’s policies for safety and quality are met. Nestlé has a direct procurement system with farms for agricultural raw materials. on the other hand. face competition from substitutes such as carob products. access to distribution channels. with food and beverages occupying their main business focus.4 billion in sales compared with about $275 million when it was acquired. and potential retaliation by existing firms (Grant 2002). One of the company’s only divestments was Findus brand frozen foods with 15 plants divested in Europe. Nestlé chocolates. cost advantages of existing firms. growth and profitability are the main drivers of diversification strategy.product sector.. In the early 1970s however. Supplier power is relatively low since Nestlé has contracts for specific raw materials and products with its suppliers. Nestlé is still outperforming Unilever and P&G. Around this time. Nestlé began exploring the possibilities of diversifying its product base. produce differentiation. Historically. 9 . and other sweet snacks (i. profitability and risk reduction. non-chocolate candies. Some of the barriers that potential competitors would have to overcome include high capital requirements. and baked goods).3% (Tomlinson 2000). Diversification is the process by which a company expands its product base across different product markets (Grant 2002). Nestlé truly began to diversify by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. so that customers influence pricing. economies of scale. Nestlé has maintained a relatively narrow range of products. Barriers to entry are high in the food products industry. The most common motivations for diversification include growth. arguably the most well know line of products. is quite high. two of its major competitors in the packaged-foods industry. a leader in pharmaceuticals for eye care (http://www. ice cream.com/). cookies. The bargaining power of buyers. is averaging about $2. More recent acquisitions include Spillers Petfood and Nestlé Philippines Inc. Nestlé’s approaches for increasing growth are geographic expansion.
The four pillars include innovation and renovation. Maggi. Preliminary training began in 2001 and will continue in all countries through 2005. Buttoni. The different product sectors in which Nestlé operates are beverages. Nestlé established a four-pillar strategy to improve all aspects of business. GLOBE will aim to standardize information systems and all master data thereby streamlining internal organization. diary. which is motivated by maximizing sales. nutrition. Evaluation of Strengths and Liabilities 10 . consumer communication. water.innovation and renovation and channel growth (Nestlé 2002). Nestlé implemented a manufacturing efficiency program entitled MH 97 that was successfully completed in 2001. ice cream. Nestlé’s six strategic brands include Nestlé. Nestlé has a variety of brands representing the different product sectors in which it operates. Nestlé saved a total of CHF 4 billion. and Friskies. The most successful brand is Nestcafé. Another program aimed at increasing internal operational efficiency is GLOBE. Nestea. In terms of geographic expansion. This program is intended to enhance performance and efficiency in all geographic areas where Nestlé operates in order to better compete and perform in the market. is realized by ensuring the distribution of the best products for consumers. The business activities in water and pharmaceutical products are managed on a global scale. the management of Nestlé’s businesses in the food industry takes place in three geographic zones: Europe. The strategy to maintain consumer communication focuses on building brand loyalty. Furthermore. the Americas. The company is more concerned with the priority and strategic brands than with the total number if brands. in order to achieve operational efficiency. Some of the benefits received from having these brands are the loyalty of the consumer base and the ability to command a price premium. Within this strategic pillar. Oceania and Africa (AOA). and food services. pharmaceuticals. and operational efficiency. Innovation and renovation is mainly implemented through marketing and research and development. Under this program. In 1997. Product availability. product availability. GLOBE’s mission is to utilize the flexibility in the size of the company as strength rather than a liability (Nestlé Investor Relations 2002). from the supply chain to consumers (Nestlé Investor Relations 2002). Target 2004 was subsequently created to continue these cost savings. and Asia. synergies are created so that inventions are applied across diverse product lines. Nestcafé. confectionary. Finally.
this program is only in the preliminary phase. particularly in Europe where employees have formed unions making cutbacks to the labor forces a difficult task. synergies do exist among the different product lines so that innovations in eye care or health care can be transferred over and applied to food and beverages. its adoption and implementation of a 11 . restructuring in order to downsize and increase efficiency has been a nightmare for Nestlé. In the U. for example. increasing more than 30% (Tomlinson 2000). Although GLOBE is targeted to improve the company from the inside. According to the Global 500: The World’s Largest Corporations. Overall. Nestlé is able to maintain a focused product line in those sectors in which it has already invested.6 billion. At the Perrier plant in France.S. Although Nestlé owns Alcon and L’Oreal. According to Fortune. In the first half of 2000. This was strategic decision on the part of the CEO and Nestlé in general since another acquisition would only counteract the company’s efforts to re4duce overcapacity.One of Nestlé’s strengths lies in ability to diversify while still maintaining a line of products and strategic brands that support the company. The company has had difficulty in doing this. As mentioned earlier. As a result. As a result. Nestlé ranks 59th with $48 billion in revenues and $3 billion in profit (Fortune 2002b). Nestlé’s success can be seen by the profits made on an annual basis.. Nestlé is using its current array of brands and products as a strength against uncontrolled growth and overcapacity accumulation. Successful Implementation? The degree of success Nestlé has achieved varies among the components of its corporate strategy. Nestlé stood on the sidelines while Unilever bought Bestfoods and Phillip Morris bid for Nabisco (Tomlinson 2000). Nestlé has not been able to cut back overcapacity and reduce inefficiency (Nestlé 2002). Analysis of Strategic Approach Corporate and Environmental Strategy Consistencies Although Nestlé may hold a diversified. Nestlé’s profit reached $1. competitive edge above other international food companies. With almost 500 facilities in nearly 80 countries worldwide. strong labor unions have formed strikes when Nestlé has tried to cut employees. Nestlé is ranked 39 out of the top 50 most admired companies (Fortune 2002a). Nestlé would like to turn its large size into a strength and eliminate liabilities associated with overcapacity. for example. One of the major areas in which Nestlé has not been so successful is in reducing its overcapacity.
however. Nestlé is contradicting vivid claims to support the sustainable use of water. ESM 210 Community Survey We created an electronic survey for the ESM 210 class regarding consumers’ feelings toward Nestlé. A result of Nestlé’s expansion of operations to include related firms within the food and beverage industry was the establishment of the Perrier Vittel water bottling company. brand loyalty. and profitability. but also sharply contrasts with the integrated environmental approach through the supply chain. In addition to conflicting claims made concerning the ‘environmental soundness’ of the company’s supply chain management.successful environmental strategy has yet to take the lead in the corporate ‘green’ competition. in light of profitability their claims apparently don’t hold water. In order to be competitive. The Nestlé Survey consisted of 10 multiplechoice questions that targeted willingness-to-pay.e. The Great Lakes Basin is one of the last available fresh water resources in the world. NEMS) that incorporates aspects of conservation. 12 . Nestlé also claims conservation of water resources that conflict with the diversification corporate strategy. Currently. Nestlé claims to recognize that the responsible management of worldwide water resources is an absolute necessity. By endorsing the extraction of water resources for bottling. This modification of the corporate strategy initiated to appeal to single consumers may increase profitability. Although both strategies exhibit a common organizational structure (i. Perrier facilities are drilling wells and extracting water from the Great Lakes Basin in North America. Nestlé has failed to create a convincing link between the company’s business and environmental strategies. and differentiation strategy. many of the claims Nestlé makes regarding its environmental management strategy are inconsistent with the components and objectives of the corporate strategy. The most noticeable inconsistencies exist between the efforts to maintain Nestlé ‘s competitive edge and environmental claims to reduce waste and conserve water resources. innovation. information/awareness. We wanted to gauge consumers’ desire for Nestlé to become more “environmentally friendly” in both its products and practices. one of Nestlé’s core areas of focus for an environmental management strategy. Nestlé had to actually increase packaging to provide more ‘single-serving’ food products that became more popular as lifestyle changes have resulted in shifts in food habits (NESTEC 2001). As a prominent corporation in the global market.
Therefore. we evaluated the consumers’ feelings on Nestlé’s potential for environmental differentiation by asking whether they thought Nestlé would be successful if it used environmental differentiation as a strategy. 86% said they would buy Nestlé products knowing they were “environmentally friendly”. Although Nestlé does not support “green claims” asserting the benefits are often questionable (Nestec Ltd. it is clear from our survey that consumers do benefit from “greenness” as 86% would be willing to pay for it. We were able to retrieve 14 surveys from a class of about 40. it important to assess how the company could improve its environmental strategy to benefit consumers and simultaneously maintain a competitive advantage. Of the 14 participants. we asked how much more consumers would be willing to pay if Nestlé used a) non-GMO raw materials/ingredients in their products. We also asked whether consumers own pets and whether they purchase pet care from Nestlé.In order to determine willingness-to-pay. Similarly. Information availability was assessed by asking consumers if they were aware of some of Nestlé’s main brands other than chocolate. organic ingredients and recycled packaging by males and females are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Recommended Strategic Changes Nestle provides a variety of food products that we use in our every day lives. Finally. 2001). we recommend that Nestlé develop and advertise “greenness” by using non-GMO ingredients. and using recycled packaging as assessed in the Nestlé Survey. and c) recycled packaging materials for their products. One of our recommendations regarding Nestlé’s current advertising policies is that the company use marketing to promote responsible environmental practices or products they may have or may develop in the future. the consumers’ demand for Nestlé products as well as those of their competitors is shown in Figure 6. We found that only 43% of consumers surveyed were aware of other Nestlé brands other than Nestlé chocolate and confectionary products. 13 . To assess brand loyalty. b) organic food ingredients in their products. None of our survey participants that owned pets bought Nestlé pet care or pet food. using organic ingredients. exactly 50% were male and 50% female. Therefore. The results quantifying the willingness-to-pay for non-GMO raw materials. we asked a) what consumers’ favorite chocolate candy manufacturer is and b) whether consumers purchase from a variety of manufacturers or from one. Finally.
4 0.1 0. 2001).2 0. The ESM 210 consumer survey illustrates this.05 0 % Byproducts/waste Packaging Energy Water Figure 2. Current developments in consumer behavior and lifestyle that may threaten Nestlé’s efforts to be “green” is the increasing demand for single servings and more ‘convenient’ food products that require more packaging (Nestec Ltd. Through these actions. (Adapted from NESTEC 2001) Environm nta Inve e e l stm nts 0. Unfortunately for the environment. Appendices Tables and Figures Figure 1. This change in consumer demand will require Nestlé to look more closely at their corporate strategy if they wish to make their corporate environmental strategy consistent with their corporate strategy.3 0. Worldwide Freshwater Use 14 Other Air . it would be in the best corporate interest of Nestlé to establish an environmental eco-labeling program to identify and promote environmental responsibility. Nestlé’s mission is to provide consumers with the products they want in a highly competitive market.35 0.25 0. and Nestlé would benefit from taking a more global proactive approach to environmental management as opposed to instating changes in the environmental program in response to criticism and regulation. industry also has the opportunity to "reinvent" itself in the eyes of many who have otherwise been adversaries in the past in reaction to boycotts and publicized safety concerns.15 0.In addition to a revised marketing program.
Adapted from the Nestlé Environmental Progress Report 16 .Figure 3.
7 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.5 Ma W le illingne To Pa For ss y Environm ntally Diffe ntia d Ne e re te stle Products % 0. Fa vorite Chocola Ca te ndy Ma nufa cture r Other 7% $ Mars 7% Nestlé 28% 29% Ghiradelli Fa vorite Chocola Ca te ndy Ma nufacture r 29% Hershey’s 7% Other Mars 7% 28% Figures 4-6.75 0.5 0.2 0.6 0. Results from community survey Hershey’s 29% Ghiradelli 17 29% Nestlé .3 0.1 0 0 0.Figure 4.3 0. 0.5 Fe a W m le illingne To Pay For ss Environm nta Diffe ntia d Ne e lly re te stle Products % 0.3 0.75 Non-GMO Org anic Re cycle Pa g d cka ing $ Figure 5.6 0. 0.2 0.4 Figure 6.5 0.7 0.1 0 0 0.4 0.
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