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Sturtevants Edible Plants

Sturtevants Edible Plants

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STURTEVANTS EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD

EDITED BY U. P. HEDRICK
with updated botanical names by Michael Moore

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To the Board of Control of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station: GENTLEMEN.—It gives me peculiar pleasure to transmit to you for publication a manuscript prepared from notes by Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, the distinguished first Director of this Station, the publication to be known as " Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants." Dr. Sturtevant was one of that group of men who early espoused the cause of agricultural science in the United States, a field in which he became distinguished, his studies in economic botany being one of his notable achievements. When he retired in 1887 as Director of this Station, he left behind him a voluminous manuscript consisting of a compilation of existing knowledge on the edible food plants of the world, a piece of work involving a laborious and extended research in botanical literature. For twenty years this manuscript remained untouched, when Dr. U. P. Hedrick undertook its editing, a difficult and arduous task, well performed, in order that so valuable a collection of knowledge might become available to botanists and to students of food economics. It is especially appropriate that such a volume should be issued at this time. Food problems are becoming more and more acute as the demand for food increasingly overshadows the supply. Primitive peoples depended upon food resources which are now neglected. Other sources of possible human nutrition have doubtless remained untouched, and the time may come when a comprehensive utilization of food plants will be essential to human sustenance. It is believed, therefore, that the information so ably brought together by Dr. Sturtevant cannot fail to become increasingly useful. Very respectfully, W. H. JORDAN Director NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION GENEVA, N. Y. June 1, 1919.
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PREFACE All who have attempted to study the origin and history of cultivated plants must have been struck with the paucity and inaccuracy of information on the subject. For nearly nineteen hundred years, to be written in Pliny was proof sufficient; yet much of Pliny's history is inaccurate though still repeated in periodicals and popular works. Linnæus, the great system-atizer, gave the origin of most of the plants he described; but of these, De Candolle, by long odds the best plant historian, says, " three out of four of Linnaeus' indications of the original home of cultivated plants are incomplete or incorrect." De Candolle, in his turn, usually accurate, is exceedingly scant, giving the origin of but 249 cultivated plants, not all edible, while Sturtevant, in the text in hand, puts down 2897 which may be used for food, most of which are cultivated. The query at once comes to mind as to the respects in which Sturtevant adds new knowledge on an old subject. New knowledge may be found on the following subjects: (i) The original home of many esculents is given for the first time. (2) New landmarks in the histories of edible plants are pointed out. (3) An effort is made to mention all cultivated esculents. (4) Though the book contains much new information as to the history of the food plants of the Old World, it is especially full and accurate in the discussion of the esculents of the New World. (5) Sturtevant presents much new information on the variations that have been produced in plants by cultivation. (6) His book adds much to geographical botany. (7) He contributes much data for the study of acclimatization. It is pertinent to inquire as to the qualifications and opportunities Sturtevant may have had to illuminate so vast a subject as that of edible plants. To answer this query, and for the added reason that a book can be used with greatest profit only when its author is known, a brief biography of Sturtevant follows this Preface. Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants is a compilation from four sources, namely: the first seven reports of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station; a manuscript of 1600 closely written imperial octavo sheets entitled, Notes on Edible Plants, left at this Station by the author; a series of articles in the American Naturalist on the history of garden vegetables, running for four years beginning with 1887; and between forty and fifty thousand card index notes which belong in part
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to this Station and in part to the Missouri Botanical Garden. The material used was written previous to 1892, the author having spent at least a quarter-century in its preparation. The editor must now state what his task has been. With so great a wealth of material much has had to be discarded. A great mass of cultural notes has not been used. Descriptions of many varieties of many species were discarded. Vernacular names in many languages and dialects were omitted. Botanical synonyms have had to be left out. Sturtevant's discussions of edible fungi, while full for the time in which they were written, are, in the light of recent research, so scant and fragmentary that the editor, unable to revise or add to them, has with many regrets excluded them. The unused material amounts to several times that used. After sorting the material, the next task was to arrange it for publication. This work fell into four well-defined divisions of labor: First, some standard of botanical nomenclature had to be adopted that the many botanical names from the several hundred authors quoted by Sturtevant could be made to conform as far as possible to one standard. Index Kewensis was taken as the authority best suited for the work in hand; this standard has seldom been departed from even though departure seemed most necessary in the light of later botanical studies; to have begun making departures would have entailed too great a task. Second, Sturtevant's citations to literature1 , except in the series of articles in the American Naturalist, usually consist only of the name of the book and the author. Since a book such as this is almost worthless without full citations, these, as far as possible, have been completed and verified, a task requiring borrowed books from a dozen or more libraries and the labor of several persons for months. Even after great effort to insure fullness and correctness, no doubt many mistakes have crept into the citations. Third, bibliographical information is given in detail, since to cite unknown authors is a worthless procedure. It seems a simple task to catalog a collection of books. But the difficulties, especially in the case of early books, were found to be many. Anonymous writers, noms de plume, cross-references, borrowed material, numerous editions, works
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of commentators and editors bearing the names of original authors, all confuse and make the task of the bibliographer complex and difficult. Fourth, the material had to be arranged. Sturtevant in his discussions of vegetables in the reports of this Station, in his card index of edible plants and in his History of Garden Vegetables in the American Naturalist, arranges the plants in accordance with the English vernacular names; but in his partly completed manuscript, undoubtedly written with the expectation of publishing, the plants are arranged alphabetically according to genera. The last plan seemed to suit the present work best and was adopted. The natural order of the genera is given; species are alphabetically arranged under each genera; while, to make them as prominent as possible, English vernacular names are printed in capitals after the species. The vernacular names are those used by the authorities quoted or are taken from standard botanical text-books. While the changes and omissions made by the editor leave that which remains substantially as written by Dr. Sturtevant, yet there has been so much cutting and fitting that it would be unjust to hold Sturtevant responsible for infelicities that may appear. Despite the editor's efforts to retain the diction, style and individuality of Dr. Sturtevant, the quality of the work is no doubt marred by passing through hands other than those of the author. The following acknowledgments must be recorded: The editor is grateful to Dr. Sturtevant's children for permission to publish their father's work; and to his associates in the Horticultural Department of this Station for assistance in reading the manuscript and proof of the book, especially to J. W. Wellington who has had charge of standardizing botanical names, verifying references and preparing the bibliography. U. P. HEDRICK, Horticulturist, New York Agricultural Experiment Station.

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EDWARD LEWIS STURTEVANT Edward Lewis Sturtevant, farmer, botanist, physician and author, was one of the giants of his time in the science of agriculture. Through natural endowment, industry and rare mental attainments, he accomplished more than most men in scientific research by his own efforts. But, possibly, he achieved even more through his influence on his fellow-workmen than by his own endeavors. Rare, indeed, are the men in any field of attainment who have furnished so freely as he from an inexhaustible store of information unfailing aid and inspiration to those who worked with him. The happy combination of these two qualities, work and ability to help others work, led Sturtevant to success significant enough to make him one of the honor men of agriculture in the United States. From this brief and incommensurate tribute, we pass to a sketch of Sturtevant's active life. As to genealogy, the line of descent runs from Samuel, the first Sturtevant in America, who landed in Plymouth in 1642, through generations living in Plympton and Wareham, Massachusetts, to Consider Sturtevant who purchased a farm at Winthrop, Maine, in 1810. Here Dr. Sturtevant's father was born but later moved to Boston, the birthplace of Dr. Sturtevant. His mother was Mary Haight Leggett from a family of fighting Quakers who settled at West Farm, New York, about 1700. Born in Boston, January 23, 1842, Sturtevant, as a child, was taken by his parents to Philadelphia and here, with little time intervening, his father and mother died. Young Sturtevant's aunt, a Mrs. Benson, became his guardian, and with her the lad moved to Winthrop, Maine, the birthplace of his father. His early school days were spent in New Jersey, though later he prepared for college at Blue Hill, Maine. His preliminary education finished, Sturtevant, in 1859, entered Bowdoin College, to remain until 1861, when, at the urgent call of the country for college men to serve in the civil strife then raging, he enlisted in the Union army. To classical Bowdoin, Sturtevant owed much for his ability to write. Few scientists who have written so much and so rapidly, have written as well. His English is not ornate but is vivid, terse, logical, happy in phrasing and seldom at loss for the proper word. To classical Bowdoin, too, Sturtevant owes his remarkable ability to use languages. Greek,
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Latin, French and German in the written form were familiar to him, and he was able to read, more or less well, scientific treatises in several other of the European languages. Though he was not graduated with his class at Bowdoin, the college later gave him her degree of Bachelor of Arts and still later further honored him with her Master of Arts. Sturtevant entered the Union army in September, 1861, as First Lieutenant of Company G, 74th Regiment of Maine Volunteers. It speaks well for the youth of barely twenty-one that the following January he became Captain of his company. Company G was a part of the 19th Army Corps which, during Captain Sturtevant's service in it, was stationed on the lower Mississippi where, possibly, its most important work was the siege of Port Hudson. A part of Sturtevant's time in the army was spent on the staff of General Nickerson, 3d Brigade, 2d Division, serving with the rank of Captain. Possibilities of further service, higher promotion, or, on the other hand, death or wounds on the battle field, were cut short by an attack of typhoid malaria which so incapacitated him that he returned home in 1863, his career in the army ended. The next landmark in Sturtevant's life is a course in the Harvard Medical School from which he received a degree in 1866. But, possessed of a degree from one of the leading medical colleges in the country, he did not begin the practice of medicine, and, in fact, never followed the profession. We may assume, however, that the training in a medical school turned his attention to science, for, possibly, the best science in American institutions at this time was to be found in a few leading schools of medicine. The year following the completion of the medical course was spent with his brother Thomas in Boston. In 1867, E. Lewis, Joseph N. and Thomas L. Sturtevant purchased land at South Framingham, Massachusetts. The farm soon became famous, under the name "Waushakum Farm," for a series of brilliant experiments in agriculture which are still models in experimental acumen and conscientious execution. Here, almost at once, E. Lewis Sturtevant began the foundation of a great agricultural and botanical library, one possibly not surpassed in these fields of science by any other private collection, while, as it was eventually developed, for Prelinnean works it is still unsurpassed by any other American library. Here, too, almost at once, Sturtevant started the studies of cultivated plants recorded in this volume.
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The immediate concern of the Sturtevant brothers, however, was the development of a model dairy farm of Ayrshire cattle. Waushakum Farm soon became the home of this breed. Several scientific aspects of this work with Ayrshires are worth noting. Milk records of the herd and of individual animals, covering many milking periods, were kept and still constitute, according to dairymen of our day, a most valuable contribution to dairying. As an outcome of their researches with this breed, a monograph of 252 pages was published on Ayrshire cattle by the brothers in 1875. Out of their work with Ayrshires came the North American Ayrshire Register published by E. Lewis and Joseph N. Sturtevant in several annual volumes. These books are still in use by breeders of Ayrshires and are of permanent value as records of the breed. E. Lewis Sturtevant in particular gave attention to the physiology of milk and milk secretion. His studies of fat globules in milk of different breeds of cows attracted much attention in the agricultural press, and he was soon in great demand as a speaker before agricultural and dairy associations. But even in these first days on Waushakum Farm, the Ayrshires did not occupy all of his time. One is amazed in looking through the agricultural papers of the late sixties and early seventies at the number of articles signed by E. L. Sturtevant — still in his twenties. These early articles show originality, intense curiosity in regard to everything new, scientific imagination, a mind fertile in fruitful ideas and tremendous industry. These first articles in the press, too, show that he early possessed initiative, a trait which he retained throughout his scientific life. In all of his work it was seldom that he had to seek ideas or suggestions from others, though he was possessed of a mind which appreciated new trains of thought, and many there were of his day who could speak of his kindly interest in the work of others. Indian corn attracted Sturtevant from the first. No sooner had he settled on Waushakum Farm than he began a botanical and cultural study of maize which he continued to the time of his death. The first fruits of his work with corn was the introduction of an improved variety of Yellow Flint, the new sort being called "Waushakum." This variety was wonderfully productive, yields of 125 bushels of shelled corn to the acre being common. Breeding this new variety was a piece of practical work that brought the head of Waushakum Farm more prominence in agriculture than any of his scientific work, "scientific farming" at that time not being in high repute with tillers of the soil.
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Sturtevant wrote much on Indian corn, contributing many short articles on its culture on the farm and several long treatises on its botany and the classification of its many varieties. Perhaps the most notable of the scientific articles are in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Society for August, 1894, and Bulletin 57 on Varieties of Corn from the United States Department of Agriculture. The last-named work is a monograph on maize which is still the best authority on this valuable plant and a permanent tide mark, as it were, to show Sturtevant's ability in working up the history of cultivated plants. Besides setting forth the botany of corn, this bulletin describes 800 varieties, gives their synonyms and establishes a scientific nomenclature for Indian corn. The varieties are placed in groups in accordance with their relationship, thus giving to scientist and farmer a classification of this immensely variable plant. To Sturtevant is given the credit of having built the first lysimeter in America. This instrument, to measure the percolation of water through a certain depth of soil, was put in on the Waushakum Farm in 1875. It covered five-thousandths of an acre and measured water percolations to the depth of twenty-five inches. Records from the apparatus were kept from late in 1875 to the beginning of 1880—a little more than four full years. The results, presented in papers at several scientific meetings, and freely discussed in the agricultural press, gave him high standing among agricultural experimenters in America. In spite of duties that must have claimed much of his time on Waushakum Farm, Sturtevant found time to undertake investigations in many diverse fields of agriculture. As the years advanced, he put more and more energy in the rapidly growing field of agricultural research until finally experimentation came to claim most of his attention. His eminence in research on Waushakum Farm brought him many opportunities to speak and write on agricultural affairs, in which work his facile pen and ready speech greatly enhanced his reputation as an experimenter. A natural outcome of his growth in the work he had chosen was that his services should be sought in scientific institutions having to do with agriculture. In 1882, the Board of Control of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, located at Geneva, New York, selected him Director of the Station, an institution just created by the State Legislature, and asked him to organize the work. Perhaps Sturtevant was the more ready to give up Waushakum Farm
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and devote his whole time to scientific research for the reason that in 1879, the trio that had for twelve years made the farm famous was broken by the death of one of the three brothers, Joseph N. Sturtevant. The association of these two brothers had been so close that the obituary of Joseph, written by E. L. Sturtevant for the Scientific Farmer, becomes of interest in this biography. We publish it in full: "Joseph N. Sturtevant, born April i, 1844; died Jan. 19, 1879. Member of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture 1873-5. A brief record of a short but useful life. And yet this life, which struggled with the difficulties brought about by ill health from birth, made the most of the few well moments, and has made an impress upon agricultural thought which shall continue even if the originator be unrecognized and forgotten. Honest in thought as in action, caring nothing for applause, a true philanthropist in all that constitutes the word, a careful thinker, considerate towards the opinions of others, and yet possessing a positiveness of character which came through conviction, his advice was often sought and seldom unheeded. Without personal vanity, as delicate as a woman towards the rights of others, a mind trained to goodness for its own sake, one who believed in good because of the good, and hated evil because of the evil, the future life was lost sight of in the present, and there was nothing additional that religion could bring, because he was true religion itself in every fibre of body and movement of mind. His creed,— What is excellent, As God lives in permanent.' And his life and creed were as one; and he was one who held familiar converse with self, and was trustful of man's power to do the right as well as to think it, and looked upon wrong as the mar which came through the self rather than others, and in purity of thought sought that purity of life which distinguished him. "He has appeared before the public as one of the authors of The Dairy Cow, Ayrshire, as one of the editors of the North American Ayrshire Register, and as contributor to our various agricultural papers. In the Scientific Farmer he has contributed many articles without signature, some signed J. N. S., others signed Zelco, and a few under his own name. He commenced writing for the Country Gentleman in 1868, using the nom de plume of Zelco, and although this was his favorite paper before the close connection with the Scientific Farmer arose, yet
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he wrote occasionally for the Massachusetts Ploughman, New England Farmer, National Live Stock Journal, and other papers, but usually upon request. The series of 'In and Out Papers,' written under the nom de plume of Alex. B., in the Scientific Farmer, commencing with the May number for 1876, and continuing till the farewell in the April number for 1878, when his health broke down, has received marked attention, and showed the possibilities of a literary career, had only the health which admitted of close and continuous application been granted. "The trio at Waushakum Farm is now broken. Three brothers purchased the farm and formed one life in 1866, and for twelve years there have been harmonious thought and action,— and now — and now — a wearying sense of desolation." The invitation to take up work in New York was accepted and Dr. Sturtevant moved at once to Geneva to become, in his new work in agricultural research, an explorer in an almost virgin field. The splendid institutions we now have, created by the Hatch Act of Congress, did not come into existence until 1888. But six other States had planned to begin experimental work in agriculture, four of which had made modest starts, but as yet not much had been accomplished. There were but few models in the Old World, and these were established in very different environment. The financial support was meager, and encouragement from those the Station sought to serve was correspondingly small. The new Director had to deal with the fundamentals of agricultural research at a time when few men could see the need of such research, and almost no one could be found to help carry the work forward. Under many difficulties and discouragements, Dr. Sturtevant began to develop the Station. His plan was more comprehensive than any other yet conceived in America. All phases of agriculture as carried on in New York were to be recognized. Horticulture, live-stock and crop departments were organized with chemical and botanical departments as handmaids. A notable group of men was brought to form the new staff and within a few years, gauged by the time and opportunity, the Station was doing epoch-making work. One needs only to name the staff, everyone destined to make a high name for himself in his field of endeavor, to measure the high standard Sturtevant set. Thus, in the Third Annual Report of the Station, the Director has as his staff: C. S. Plumb, Assistant to the Director; Emmett S. Goff, Horticulturist; J. C. Arthur, Botanist; S. Moulton Babcock, Chemist; and E. F. Ladd,
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Assistant Chemist. These men helped to lay broad and deep the foundation of the Station. Dr. Sturtevant was Director of the New York Station from July, 1882, to March, 1887 — not quite five years. Much of his time must have been taken up with executive work incidental to a new institution. Yet the six reports of the Station show much real research material, and much extension work, more needed then than now, that speak well for the initiative and industry of the Director and his small staff. Be it remembered that in these early days there were no laboratories and but scant equipment, with only the small sum of $20,000 annually available for maintenance, salaries and improvements. The- Board of Control confessedly did not have clear ideas of the function of the Station, and there were many opponents in the press, and even on the farms, who lost no opportunities to criticise. One of the best measures of the man can be found in the initial policy of the Station as determined by Dr. Sturtevant. Widely divergent opinions prevailed as to the work of such institutions. Dr. Sturtevant asserted that the function of a Station was to " discover, verify and disseminate." He saw clearly from the very first the need of well-established fundamental principles in agriculture and set his staff at the work of discovering principles. His scientific work on Waushakum Farm had taught him that there were many possible errors in prevailing experimental work, and he at once set about determining their source and the best means of minimizing them. During his stay at the New York Station, in several reports he urged the importance of learning how to experiment, how to interpret results and pointed out errors in certain kinds of experimentation. He believed that the management and responsibility for a station should rest with the Director alone as the only way in which unity and continuity of direction could be secured. Those conversant with experiment stations must see how generally these views of Dr. Sturtevant now prevail and must give him credit for very materially helping to found the splendid system of present-day experiment stations. These five years at Geneva added greatly to Dr. Sturtevant's store of knowledge of cultivated plants. During the time he was Director, all the varieties of cultivated esculents that could be obtained were grown on the grounds of the Station. The early volumes of the reports of this Station are filled with descriptions of varieties of cultivated plants grown on the grounds. Now, it is certain that if additions are to be made to the
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knowledge of the origin of cultivated plants, such additions must come largely from experimental observations of the plants themselves to ascertain the stages through which they have come from the wild to the cultivated form. The remarkable collection of plants grown under Dr. Sturtevant's direction gave, as this text shows on many pages, an unsurpassed opportunity to study plants in the steps they have taken from first cultivation to their present forms. Dr. Sturtevant's opportunities for research in books during this directorship was hardly less remarkable. The Sturtevant Prelinnean Library, now in the Missouri Botanical Garden, numbers over 500 titles in several languages. These, with most of the more modem texts on plants, gave him sources of information then possessed by few other students of plants, for many of the rarer books were inaccessible to Americans of Sturtevant's time. In this great library, the patience and erudition of Dr. Sturtevant became priceless. Here, he sought historical mention of edible plants; travelers' descriptions of them; the names of the many esculents used by various peoples; their geographical distributions; their various uses; cultural treatments; the connections of food plants with great migrations of mankind both in ancient and modem times. He studied selection as affected by the likes and dislikes of various peoples, and gave particular attention to the studies of archaeologists on the material remains of plants. In 1887, Dr. Sturtevant gave up his charge of the Station at Geneva and returned to the old home at South Framingham. But the opportunity for experimental work on Waushakum Farm had passed. The city had encroached upon the country, and where had been pastures and farm fields were now town lots and dwellings. The inclination for research which throughout his life had animated Sturtevant, now took the turn, more than ever, of research in books. Near the old home, into which he moved with his family, he housed his library in a small building and set to work. Always diligent with the pen, and his favorite subject the history of plants, there is no question but that he now determined to put in permanent form the many articles he had printed here and there on the origin, history and variations in cultivated plants. His manuscripts, notes and the articles in American Naturalist indicate such a determination. Had not ill health and untimely death intervened, it is probable that Sturtevant would have put forth the volume which now, a quarter-century later, comes from the hands of an editor. The idea of writing a history of food plants came to Dr. Sturtevant long
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before his retirement from active professional work — in fact must have been in his mind from college days. His books were well under way and much had been accomplished as early as 1880, for in April of that year he wrote to the Country Gentleman asking its readers to give him information on the introduction of food plants, for seeds of new or curious esculents, for reports on the foods of agricultural Indians, stating the purpose of these questions as follows: "I am collecting the material for writing a Flora Dietica, or a history of food plants, with especial reference to the distribution and variation of cultivated plants. My inquiries thus far embrace 1,185 genera, and (including probably some synonyms) 3,087 species of food plants." Then follow numerous questions, after which he further states: "Geographical botany, acclimatization through variations, the increase of varieties with the increase of knowledge and the spread of civilization, what man has done and what man can hope to do in modifying vegetable growth to his use and support—is a subject of great interest as well as importance; and it seems desirable that information which can be obtained now, while our country is not yet wholly occupied, should be put upon record against the time when the ascertaining of these facts will be more difficult." The manuscripts at the disposal of the editor show Dr. Sturtevant to have been an omnivorous reader. A glance at the foot-note citations to literature in this text shows the remarkable range of his readings in agriculture, botany, science, history, travel and general literature. Besides the mass of material from which this text has been taken, there is in the possession of the Geneva Station the manuscript of an Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Allied Subjects, work at which, as the title page says, began March 3, 1879. This encyclopedia, unfortunately for all engaged in agriculture, was completed only to the letter M. Its 1200, closely written, large-size pages form, as far as they go, a full dictionary on agriculture. In addition to the manuscripts left at this Station, are card notes on agricultural, botanical and historical matters, while another set, with but few duplicates of cards, are in the possession of the Missouri Botanical Garden. This set, much the better of the two, was put in shape and presented to the Missouri Botanical Garden only a few weeks before Dr. Sturtevant's death. In addition to his experimental and executive work, his Notes on Edible Plants and the Encyclopedia of Agriculture, Sturtevant found time to contribute hundreds of articles, long and short, to the agricultural and scientific press. Those of most note are recorded in the bibliography
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which follows, but the total output of his thirty years of literary work is better gaged as to quantity by a series of scrapbooks in which he systematically preserved his pen contributions. There are twelve volumes of these scrapbooks filled with newspaper and magazine articles, the earliest written being dated November 2, 1867, and the last October 6, 1896. Besides these, there are two volumes containing sixtyfour pamphlets most of which are named in the accompanying bibliography. Thus roughly to state the quantity of a man's work may seem to indicate only the prodigality of his pen. So to judge Dr. Sturtevant does him a great injustice, for everything to which he set his pen is thoughtful, lucid and logical even if not always adorned by grace of expression. There is often in his writings a happy turn of phrase, and the inevitable word usually turns up at the right place The newspapers of the two States in which he lived furnished the medium through which Dr. Sturtevant reached the general reader, and for the farmer he had at his command the agricultural press of the whole country. Contributions of scientific character were published in American Naturalist, Botanical Gazette, Garden and Forest, Torrey Botanical Club Bulletin and Science. The indexes of the magazines, during the time of Sturtevant's active work, furnish sufficient clues to his contributions. For a little more than two years, Dr. Sturtevant was associated with E. H. Libby, as editor of the Scientific Farmer, after which, for nearly a year and a half, he was sole editor. The joint editorship began in March, 1876, and ended in May, 1878, the magazine being discontinued in October, 1879. The Scientific Farmer was in all matters pertaining to agriculture abreast of the times — in most matters in advance of the times — notwithstanding which it was not a financial success, and, becoming too heavy a drain on its owner's pocket, was discontinued. The magazine was published before the days of experiment station bulletins and contains the gist of the agricultural investigations then being carried on, most of it being reported by the investigators themselves. As editor, Dr. Sturtevant assumed the role of analyst of the scientific work in the agriculture of the times, using, as all must agree, singularly good judgment and discrimination in his discussions of the work of others. One of the great pleasures of Dr. Sturtevant's life seems to have been active participation in the several scientific societies to which he belonged. He was long a Fellow in the American Association for the
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In 1883. By this marriage there was one son. Dr. He was.Page 16 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and during his directorship of the New York Station was one of the leaders in the Western New York Horticultural Society. Sturtevant's wedded life began in 1864 when he married Mary Elizabeth Mann. a member of several general agricultural and dairymen's organizations. Grace Sturtevant. he passed quietly to sleep in the old home on Waushakum Farm to which his work had given distinguished name. on their part. he was active in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. July 30. He was never a passive member in any of the societies in which he was interested and to those named. speak of the devotion of the husband and father to his family and say that he rarely sought companionship outside the home circle and that. while those of maize. talented with pencil and brush. published in the Report of the New York Station for 1884. 1898. Dr. The eldest daughter. Sturtevant. sister to the first wife. while the minutes of the meetings record that his voice was heard in all important discussions. Sturtevant's colleagues at Geneva. He never fully recovered from this attack and his health began to fail until shortly it was found that tuberculosis had secured firm hold.com . two sons and two daughters. Dr. too. taking as his wife Hattie Mann. With the hope that the disease might be thrown off. while in Massachusetts. mother and children were devoted to the head of the household and constantly gave him substantial help in his work. It was a fitting death.Advancement of Science. three winters were passed in California with temporary but not permanent relief. In 1893. presented many papers. made the drawings and colored sketches to illustrate her father's writings on peppers and sweet potatoes. to several of whom the writer is indebted for much information. serving as its first secretary and fourth president. in particular. the wife and mother dying in 1875. he passed away. at various times.swsbm. he again married. he was one of the founders of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . To this happy union were born four children. were done by Mrs. Sturtevant was a victim of one of the epidemics of grippe which each returning winter ravaged the country.

The beauty of the seeds. The seeds are used in Egypt as a pulse. WILD LICORICE.NOTES ON EDIBLE PLANTS Aberia (Doryalis)2 caffra Harv.swsbm. KAI APPLE. A plant common within the tropics in the Old World. as a pickle. From various acacias comes gum arable which is stated by some to be a highly nutritrious article of food. but Don says they are the hardest and most indigestible of all the pea tribe. LOVE PEA. Leguminosae. Malvaceae. indicum Sweet Old World tropics. about the size of a small apple. their use as beads and for necklaces. South Africa. Abrus precatorius Linn.com . A. KEI APPLE. often several feet long. RED-BEAD VINE. without vinegar. Seashore of Oregon and California. KAU APPLE. CORAL-BEAD PLANT. Abronia arenaria Menzies. The Brazilians eat the corolla of this native plant cooked as a vegetable. They are used by the natives for making a preserve and are so exceedingly acid when fresh that the Dutch settlers prepare them for their tables. 2 Currently recognized genus and family are in parenthesis . Brazil.as defined by Willis. & Sond. The Chinook Indians eat it. The fruits are of a golden-yellow color. The root is stout and fusiform. the Moors of the desert live almost entirely upon it. ROSARY-PEA TREE.Page 17 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.MM STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Bixineae (Flacourtiaceae). Nyctagineae. The raw flowers are eaten in Arabia. and their nourishing qualities. The leaves contain a large quantity of mucilage. Acacia Leguminosae. Hil. principally upon the shores. St. have combined to scatter the plant. 8th edition . Brandis says the root is a poor substitute for licorice. During the whole time of the gum harvest in Barbary. Abutilon esculentum A.

arabica SUNTWOOD. says Drummond. East Indies. so far from having any value as an alimentary substance. is ground and mixed with flour in India. says Humboldt. mixed with the seeds of sesame. called manna by the natives. bidwilli Benth.swsbm. produces a large quantity of gum resembling gum arable. In Barbary. which is chiefly used for chewing in India as an ingredient of the packet of betel leaf. decora Reichb. Hammond believes that. A. the tree is called atteleh. KHAIR. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . A. A. The experiment of Magendie. abyssinica Hochst. and Dr. forms an important article of native food. Willd.Page 18 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. North and central Africa and Southwest Asia. catechu Willd. It is the fei-tsau-tau of the Chinese. CATECHU. SOAP-POD. concinna DC. is an article of food with the natives. It furnishes a gum arable of superior quality. Furnishes catechu. Hildebrant mentions that gum is collected from this species. GUM ARABIC TREE. The gum serves for nourishment. The leaves are acid and are used in cookery by the natives of India as a substitute for tamarinds.It is claimed that six ounces are sufficient for the support of a man during twenty-four hours. and Sparmann states that. in the absence of other provisions. Gum arable is also used as food by the Hottentots of southern Africa. showed that dogs could not support life on gum. Abyssinia. it is positively injurious. Tropical Asia. however. A.com . in times of scarcity. WADALEE-GUM TREE. Australia. and the gum. an acacia. the Bushmen live on it for days together At Swan River. The bark. A. The beans are about one-half to three-fourths inch in diameter and are edible after roasting. A.9 to several African tribes in their passages through the dessert. and this. Australia. BABOOL-BARK. The roots of young trees are roasted for food after peeling.

A. Dongola. glaucophylla Steud. This species furnishes gum arabic.4 A. farnesiana Willd. It yields gum arabic in northern Africa. This species is cultivated all over India and is indigenous in America. MYALL-WOOD. The flowers distil a delicious perfume. It is very astringent. It exudes a gum which is collected in Sind. India. ferruginea DC. to Buenos Aires and Chile.Australia. The bark steeped in "jaggery water"—fresh. Australia. Tropical Africa. A. flexicaulis Benth. A. HUISACHE. sweet sap from any of several palms — is distilled as an intoxicating liquor.swsbm. A. SILVER WATTLE. WEST INDIAN BLACKTHORN. The thick. decurrens Willd. BLACK WATTLE. ehrenbergiana Hayne Desert regions of Libya. Tropics. BARBARY-GUM. Cunn. It yields a gum arabic. A. when boiled. This species yields gum in Australia. GREEN WATTLE. The gum is gathered and eaten by Queensland natives. North Africa. VIOLET-WOOD. OPOPANAX. Nubia.com . homalophylla A. POPINAC. woody pods contain round seeds the size of peas which. It yields a gum not dissimilar to gum arable. Texas and Mexico. and is sometimes cultivated. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . CASSIE-OIL PLANT. Texas. A. from New Orleans. MOROCCO-GUM. SPONGE TREE. A. are palatable and nutritious.Page 19 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. gummifera Willd.

North Africa. Senegal Willd. Southern Nubia and Abyssinia. ground and mixed with flour. Australia. pallida F. The tree forms vast forests in Senegambia. A. The Tasmanians roast the pods and eat the starchy seeds. THIRSTY THORN. A. GUM ARABIC TREE. This is the dornboom plant which exudes a good kind of gum.A. The gum of this tree is extensively collected in the region between the Blue Nile and the upper Atbara. Australia. in Senegal. penninervis Sieber. stenocarpa Hochst. GUM ARABIC TREE.swsbm. A. horrida Willd. It furnishes the best gum arabic. It is called nebul by the natives and furnishes gum arable. MOUNTAIN HICKORY. or gonatic. The holes left by the departure of a gall insect are rendered musical by the wind. and the seeds are ground and mixed with flour. BLACKWOOD. A. India. The bark is largely used in the preparation of spirit from sugar and palm-juice. Upper Egypt and Senegambia. Muell. Southern. DORNBOOM. Old World tropics. seyal Delile WHISTLING-TREE GUM ARABIC TREE. KUTEERA-GUM. longifolia Willd. A. South Africa. The roots of the young trees are roasted and eaten. A. Australia. It is called glute by the Arabs of the upper Nile and whistling tree by the natives of Sudan. The pods are used as a vegetable. leucophloea Willd. and it is also used in times of scarcity.com . SYDNEY GOLDEN WATTLE. CAPE-GUM TREE. This species yields gum gonate. A. It is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 20 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

suaveolens Willd. Acanthorhiza (Cryosophila) aculeata H. Sugar is made from this species. It is grown in Trinidad.called taleh. however. delicate. is about 15-18 inches around and inside resembles a melon as to seed and pulp. Palmae. SOFT MAPLE. The aromatic leaves are used in infusions as teas. It is the piri-piri of the natives. and is obviously well suited for making palm-wine. talha or kakul.com . according to Lyall. Rosaceae. Mexico. by Andersonl as a creeper which produces a kind of prickly gourd about the size of a Swede turnip and of delicious flavor. The leaves are used as a tea by the natives of the Middle Island in New Zealand. Acaena sanguisorbae Vahl. rough with prickles. and the seeds are dried and preserved for winter consumption. spongy consistence and is pure white and shining on the outside. Wendl. but the produce is not STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It has a coriaceous rind. Acanthosicyos horrida Welw. Tropics of Africa. When ripe it has a luscious sub-acid taste. is abundant. (Aceraceae). A. Sapindaceae MAPLE. in districts where the tree abounds. tortilis Hayne Arabia. sweet flavor. Cucurbitaceae. The pulp of the fruit is of a peculiar. It constitutes for several months of the year the chief food of the natives. It furnishes the best of gum arabic. penetrating. A. SILVER North America. The juice has a peculiar.swsbm. The fruit is'oblong about one inch in longest diameter. The bushes grow on little knolls of sand. NEW ZEALAND BUR. Nubia and the desert of Libya and Dongola. Australia. It is described. The sap will make sugar of good quality but less in quantity than the sugar maple. NARAS. WHITE MAPLE. Acer dasycarpum Ehrh. Australia. without leaves and with opposite thorns. says Loudon.Page 21 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The fruit grows on a bush from four to five feet high.

North America. platanoides Linn. to the mountains in Georgia and from Nova Scotia to Arkansas and the Rocky Mountains. as in some sections of New England groves are protected and transplanted for the use of the tree to furnish sugar.Page 22 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. A. but the product is not more than half that obtained from the sugar maple. in 1784. handsome tree must be included among cultivated food plants. North America. RED MAPLE. the trees being first tapped when just coming into leaf. rubrum Linn. In Maine. Europe and the Orient. MOCK PLANE. ROCK MAPLE. The French Canadians make sugar from the sap which they call plaine. the Winnebagoes and Chippewas are said often to sell to the Northwest Fur Company fifteen thousand pounds of sugar a year. SWAMP MAPLE." and Jonathan Carver. and a single tree may furnish four or five pounds.swsbm. for Jefferys. children suck the wings of the growing keys for the sake of obtaining the sweet exudation that is upon them.com . sugar is often made from the sap. In the western Highlands and some parts of the Continent. 1760. In England. This large.above half that obtained from the sap of the sugar maple. the sap is fermented into wine. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The tree is found from 48° north in Canada. sugar may be made but not in remunerative quantities." In 1870. The sugar season among the Indians is a sort of carnival. A. pseudo-platanus Linn. From the sap. SUGAR MAPLE. Europe and the Orient. The manufacture of sugar from the sap of the maple was known to the Indians. A. says the Nandowessies Indians of the West consume the sugar which they have extracted from the maple tree. NORWAY MAPLE. and boiling candy and pouring it out on the snow to cool is the pastime of the children. sugar has been made in Norway. The sap from the trees growing in maple orchards may give as an average one pound of sugar to four gallons of sap. A. From the sap. says that in Canada "this tree affords great quantities of a cooling and wholesome liquor from which they make a sort of sugar. although extreme yields have been put as high as thirty-three pounds from a single tree. SYCAMORE MAPLE. Sweden and in Lithuania. saccharinum Wangenh.

" It is grown in gardens in Bengal. NASEBERRY. boil them in water and afterwards use them for food. THOUSAND-SEAL. SAPOTA. In some parts of Sweden. The berry is about the size of a small apple and has from 6 to 12 cells with several seeds in each. Umbelliferae. HUNDRED-LEAVED GRASS. Sapotaceae. which is so acerb that the fruit cannot be eaten until it is as rotten as medlars. Firminger says of its fruit: " a more luscious. hard at first. Achyranthes bidentata Blume.swsbm. but becoming soft when kept a few days to mellow. and to the continent of India. It has for a long time been introduced into the gardens of the West Indies and South America but has been recently carried to Mauritius. brown coat.A. Muell. " and Brandis says: "one of the most pleasant fruits known when completely ripe. is so full of milk that little rills or veins appear quite through the pulp. The fruit. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . NOSEBLEED. TARTARIAN MAPLE. South America. cool and agreeable fruit is not to be met with in any country in the world.Page 23 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The sapodilla bears a round berry covered with a rough. mixed with milk and butter. Linn. Bread made from the seeds was very good. and taste somewhat resembles the pear but is sweeter. YARROW. The Calmucks. to which it is supposed to add an intoxicating effect. Compositae. Amaranthaceae. Achras (Manilkara) sapota SAPODILLA. Tropical Asia. to the Philippines. This is a tree found wild in the forests of Venezuela and the Antilles. after depriving the seeds of their wings. yarrow is said to be employed as a substitute for hops in the preparation of beer. consistence. Europe. The seeds were used as food during a famine in Rajputana. Aciphylla glacialis F. MILFOIL. tataricum Linn. In India. to Java. India. This was considered the best of all substitutes for the usual cereals. surrounded by a pulp which in color. Asia and America. SANGUINARY.com . Achillea millefolium Linn. when treeripe. Orient.

by perfumers in the preparation of aromatic vinegar. BEAR'S-FOOT. GRASS-LEAVED SWEET FLAG. Japan. MUCUJA PALM. In Europe and America. napellus Linn. HELMET-FLOWER. ACONITE. Cultivated in gardens for its flowers. This is probably the macaw tree of Wafer. A. however. In Kunawar.swsbm. Northern temperate regions. globular and of a greenish-olive color. This species. calamus. TURK'S-CAP. Palmae.Page 24 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. gramineus Soland. MYRTLE FLAG. aconite. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . MACAW. with a thin layer of firm. does not possess such virulent properties as others. Aconitum lycoctonum Linn. is the product of this species and the plant is given by the Shakers of America as a medicinal herb. MONKSHOOD. LUCKIE'S MUTCH. is much esteemed and eagerly sought after by the natives. SOLDIER'SCAP. Aroideae SWEET FLAG. FRIAR'S-CAP. West Indies and Brazil. The root of this species is said to possess a stronger and more pleasant taste and smell than that of A. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens. the rhizomes are sometimes cut into slices and candied or otherwise made into a sweetmeat. The root is collected in Lapland and boiled for food. Northern temperate regions. Ranunculaceae. and. WOLFSBANE.Australia. edible pulp of an orange color covering the nut. The rhizomes are used by confectioners as a candy. though oily and bitter. the tubers are eaten as a tonic. These rhizomes are to be seen for sale on the street corners of Boston and are frequently chewed to sweeten the breath. (Araceae) . Acorus calamus Linn. by rectifiers to improve the flavor of gin and to give a peculiar taste to certain varieties of beer. Its fruit is the size of an apricot. A. Acrocomia lasiospatha Mart. Middle and northern Europe. This species is utilized as an alimentary root. says Masters in the Treasury of Botany. A narcotic poison. In France it is in cultivation as an ornamental water plant.

is eaten by the inhabitants but is not much esteemed. & Sav. seeds minute and skin thin. When fully ripe it possesses a very delicate flavor. in his Travels. The fruit is an oblong. as well as on the west coast of Africa. In Ceylon the berries are called jambol. It is cultivated in many of the warm parts of the world. the negroes use the pounded bark and the leaves as we do pepper and salt. Actinidia KOKUWA. edible kernel. This tree has been found in Senegal and Abyssinia. MUCUJA PALM. The young leaves of this palm are eaten as a vegetable. extending to Angola and thence across the country to Lake Ngami. This vine is common in all the valleys of Yesso and extends to central Nippon. in Mexico. Tropics of Asia. The husks are full of oil. A. JAMBOL. greenish berry about one inch in length. mexicana Karw. Japan and Manchuria. Hooker says STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Malvaceae (Bombacaceae). In Cochin China the young leaves are put in salads. It is cultivated in British hot-houses. sweetish-acid fruit is an esculent. The fruit is the size of a crab and contains a sweet. the pulp is of uniform texture. BAOBAB. Acronychia laurifolia Blume. COYOLI PALM.A. They have the smell of cumin and are not unpleasant. It is vigorous in growth and fruits abundantly. juicy. the Baobab is perhaps the most valuable of vegetables. A. Rutaceae. In Senegal. callosa. East Indies. callosa Lindl.swsbm. Its leaves are used for leaven and its bark for cordage and thread. The fruit. Adansonia digitata Linn. SOUR GOURD. Northern Japan.com . polygama Franch. Mexico.Page 25 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. states that to the negroes. Mollien. This is somewhat less desirable than A. as it fruits less abundantly and the vine is not so rich in foliage. The black. Ternstroemiaceae (Actinidiacea). sclerocarpa Mart. COQUITO HABRASO. Tropics of America. MONKEYBREAD. CORK TREE.

CREAM OF TARTAR TREE. SANDALWOOD. Muell. It has been introduced into the West Indies and various parts of South America. The earliest description of the Baobab is by Cadamosto. Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. The root is thick and esculent. Australia. acid taste like cream of tartar and is peculiarly refreshing in the sultry climates where the tree is found. who found at the mouth of the Senegal. RED One of the largest trees of tropical eastern Asia. A. Campanulaceae. The seeds are roasted in the coals and the kernels are eaten. The seeds are eaten by the common people.com . dry them and use them as a substitute for tea. DUDDER GRASS. the substance in which they are imbedded is also edible but strongly and agreeably acid. Adenophora communis Fisch. Muell. Eastern Europe. It contains a farinaceous pulp full of seeds. off the Galway coast of Britain. The pulp of its fruit has an agreeable. The fruit is much used by the natives of Sierra Leone. Leguminosae. the inhabitants collect the fronds of this fern. Adenanthera abrosperma F. Monteiro says the leaves are good to eat boiled as a vegetable and the seeds are. MAIDENHAIR FERN. pounded and made into meal for food in times of scarcity. Perrottet says he has seen these trees 32 feet in diameter and only 70 to 85 feet high. pavonia Linn. Northern temperate climates. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . BARBADOES PRIDE. Polypodiaceae. VENUS' HAIR. Brandis says it is used for preparing an acid beverage. 1454. CAPILLAIRE. CORAL PEA. A. in Angola. In the Isles of Arran.swsbm.the leaves are eaten with other food and are considered cooling and useful in restraining excessive perspiration. Northern Australia.Page 26 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. which tastes like gingerbread and has a pleasant acid flavor. gregorii F. trunks whose circumference he estimated at 112 feet. SOUR GOURD.

Aegle marmelos Correa. Roxburgh observes that the fruit when ripe is delicious to the taste and exquisitely fragrant. The perfumed pulp within the ligneous husk makes excellent marmalade. The orange-like fruit is very palatable and possesses aperient qualities. GOLDEN APPLE.swsbm. An annual. BELA TREE. East Indies. 6 The tenacious pulp of the fruit is used in India for sherbet and to form a conserve. The Bengal quince is grown in some of the gardens of Cairo. The Hindoo who expires under a bela tree expects to obtain immediate salvation. It is incumbent on all Hindus to cultivate and cherish this tree and it is sacrilegious to up-root or cut it down. The chestnuts are made into a gruel or soup by the western Indians. Sapindaceae. In France it is an inmate of the flower garden.Page 27 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ASHWEED. BISHOP'SWEED. It is mentioned by Gerarde. Aesculus californica Nutt. Rutaceae. BALL TREE. HERB GERARD.Aeginetia indica Linn. Amaranthaceae.com . A low-spreading tree of the Pacific Coast of the United States. it is there eaten as an antiscorbutic. BENGAL QUINCE. especially a variety with variegated leaves. Horsfield says it is considered by the Javanese to be very astringent in quality. growing on the roots of various grasses in India and the Indian Archipelago. GOUTWEED. Umbelliferae. Lightfoot says the young leaves are eaten in the spring in Sweden and Switzerland as greens. The Indians of California pulverize the nut. parasitic herb. It is sacred to Siva whose worship cannot be accomplished without its leaves. extract the bitterness by STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . this plant is used on the Upper Nile as a pot-herb. Tropical Africa and Arabia. Aegopodium podagraria Linn. Tropics of Asia. GROUND ASH. leafless. Orobanchaceae. Prepared with sugar and nutmeg. Aerva lanata Juss. Europe and adjoining Asia. CALIFORNIA HORSECHESTNUT. The Bengal quince is held in great veneration by the Hindus. According to Grant.

Afzelia africana Sm. MAKOLA. The seeds are bitter and in their ordinary condition inedible but have been used. and Emerson. that it was introduced into the gardens of France in 1615 from Constantinople.washing with water and form the residue into a cake to be used as food. ground and mixed with flour after steeping in water. hippocastanum Linn. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . according to Browne. indica Coleb. It is now known to be a native of Greece or the Balkan Mountains. The common horse-chestnut is cultivated for ornament but never for the purpose of a food supply. HORSE-CHESTNUT. The first mention of the agave is by Peter Martyr. may be eaten boiled or roasted as a chestnut. Agave americana Linn. Himalayas. quanzensis Welw. that it was cultivated in Vienna in 1576. A. A. It was introduced to northeast America. A. The fruit.Page 28 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Agapetes saligna Benth. & Hook. A. In times of scarcity. Tropical America.swsbm. BUCKEYE. A lofty tree of the Himalaya Mountains called kunour or pangla. Turkey. The young purple-tinted leaves are eaten as a spinach.com . John Robinson says that it was known in England about 1580. A portion of the seed is edible. Pickering says it was made known in 1557. parviflora Walt. as a substitute for coffee. says Balfour. by European colonists. East Indies. Brandis. Southern states of America. Upper Nile. Amaryllideae (Agavaceae). the seeds are used as food. says Pickering. Vacciniaceae. Leguminosae. MAGUEY. CENTURY PLANT. AMERICAN ALOE. African tropics. The leaves are used as a substitute for tea by the natives of Sikkim.

Hodge. from this pulque is distilled an ardent.contemporary with Columbus. or central portion. a fine spirit is prepared from the roasted heart by the Papajos and Apaches. who. The variety which furnishes sisal hemp was introduced into Florida in 1838 and in 1855 there was a plantation of 50 acres at Key West. speaking of what is probably now Yucatan. a paper resembling the ancient papyrus was manufactured by the Aztecs. not disagreeable but singularly deleterious spirit known as vino mescal. the leaf. readily ferments and forms a wine called pulque of which immense quantities are consumed now as in more ancient times. about Quito. writing of Arizona. parryi Engelm. charred to blackness and mingled with water. The agave was in cultivation in the gardens of Italy in 1586 and Clusius saw it in Spain a little after this time. A. MESCAL. the Pimas. which is an herbe much lyke unto that which is commonly called sengrem or orpin." The species of agave. New Mexico and northern Arizona. forms a black paint which is used by the Apaches to paint their faces. Bartlett5 mentions their use by the Apaches.Page 29 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the dried flower-stems constitute a thatch impervious to water. palmeri Engelm. subacid. is employed by the Indians for smoking like tobacco but being sweet and gummy chokes the pipe." From the leaves.swsbm. when washed and dried.com . the flower-stem is sweet. the bulbs. an extract of the leaves is made into balls which lather with water like soap. Arizona. says: " They say the fyrst inhabitants lyved contented with the roots of Dates and magueans. partly in and partly above the ground are rich in saccharine matter and are the size of a cabbage or sometimes a bushel basket and when roasted are sweet and are used by the Indians as food. the tough fibres of the leaf afforded thread of which coarse stuffs and strong cords were made. pronounces the bulbs delicious. The central bud at certain seasons is roasted and eaten by the Indians and a spirit is also distilled from it. A. It is now to be found generally in tropical countries. the Coco Maricopas and the Dieguenos Tubis. the thorns on the leaf serve for pins and needles. called by the natives maguey. The crown of the flower-stem. This plant constitutes one of the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . grows luxuriantly over the table-lands of Mexico and the neighboring borders and are so useful to the people that Prescott calls the plant the " miracle of nature.

Page 30 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The dried leaves are used by country people as a sort of tea but probably only for medicinal qualities. AGRIMONY. The seeds are used as food. cooling. Firminger says this plant never fruits in Bengal. This is a troublesome weed in many situations yet STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . QUACK GRASS.com . palatable and wholesome. Temperate regions. The fruit is edible. that the flowers are used for scenting tea and that the tender leaves are eaten as a vegetable. Smith says it is the san-yeh-lan of China. Gray. COCKLEBUR. succulent and edible. Chenopodiaceae. Rosaceae. Fortune says it is the lan-hwa u yu-chu-lan of China and that the flowers are used for scenting tea. utahensis Engelm.swsbm. Mexico. When properly prepared. who roast and prepare it for food which is said to be sweet and delicious. of the size and form of a pin head and are delightfully fragrant. odorata Lour. Siberia. China. Agrimonia eupatoria Linn. pleasant pulp. having a watery. The young stems when they shoot out in the spring are tender and sweet and are eaten with great relish by the Mexicans and Indians. laxative and antiscorbutic. Utah and Arizona. it is saccharine. Gramineae. The aril is large.staple foods of the Apaches. Meliaceae. Agriophyllum gobicum Bunge. The natives eat the aril which surrounds the seed and call it gumi. UTAH ALOE. The flowers are bright yellow. A. A. mildly acid. wislizeni Engelm. STICKLEWORT. The bulb of the root is considered a great delicacy by the Indians. LIVERWORT. North temperate regions. Fiji Islands and the East Indies. Aglaia edulis A. Agropyron repens Beauv. A.

somewhat astringent but is eaten. though somewhat insipid taste. Asia and tropical Africa. The fruit in India is mucilaginous. The tree is called nemu in Japan. oily seeds taste like a hazelnut. in times of scarcity. sweet. Smith says that the leaves are used to feed silkworms and.Withering states that bread has been made from its roots in times of want. TREE OF HEAVEN. A. It affords an edible fruit. are used as a vegetable. The edible. Cornaceae (Alangiaceae). montana Benth. Muell. monilifera F. The pulp is a homogeneous. Berberideae (Lardizabalaceae). China. Albizzia julibbrissin Durazz. VARNISH TREE. China. The fruit is of variable size but is usually three or four inches long and two inches in diameter. Leguminosae. Australia. It has a pleasant sweetish. A. the fruit is an article of food. A.com . yellowish-green mass containing 40 to 50 black.swsbm. Japan. The aromatic leaves are used by the Chinese as food. Akebia lobata Decne. lucida Benth. Simarubeae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The pods are roasted when young and are eaten by the natives. On the coast of Malabar.Page 31 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. A. Alangium lamarckii Thw. East Indies. quinata Decne. Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The leaves are said to be edible. oblong seeds. A small tree of the tropics of the Old World. The fruits of the wild vines are regularly gathered and marketed in season.

Alhagi camelorum Fisch. STAR GRASS. South Africa. palatable oil. Haemodoraceae (Liliaceae). the Indians eat its bulbs. Aleurites triloba (mollucana) Forst. COLIC-ROOT. A. Leguminosae. UNICORN-ROOT. In times of scarcity. Aletris farinosa Linn. according to Rafinesque. In the Hawaiian Islands. CROW-CORN. Liliaceae. When pressed they yield a large proportion of pure. This indigenous shrub furnishes a manna by exudation. says Masters. AGUE-ROOT. Tropical Asia and Pacific Islands. the bark is mixed with flour. procera Benth. Tropical Asia and Australia. it occurs in extensive forests. It is native to the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago and of the Samoan gr'oup. East Indies. is one of the most intense bitters known. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . CAMELSTHORN. myriophylla Benth. the mountaineers make an intoxicating liquor. also used as a drying oil for paint and known as walnut-oil and artist's-oil.Page 32 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Euphorbiaceae.com . MANNAPLANT. North America. This plant. but. With bark of this tree.swsbm. In Kaffraria. A. COUNTRY WALNUT. The Orient and central Asia. CANDLENUT TREE.Java. Sometimes used as a condiment in Java. This is a large tree cultivated in tropical countries for the sake of its nuts. which is rather mucilaginous. Thunberg says the succulent stalk. OTAHEITE WALNUT. Albuca major Linn. The kernels of the nut when dried and stuck on a reed are used by the Polynesians as a substitute for candles and as an article of food in New Georgia. is chewed by the Hottentots and other travellers by way of quenching thirst.

It is not established that the shallot occurs in a wild state.swsbm. The Askolonion krommoon of Theophrastus and the Cepa ascolonia of Pliny. This manna is supposed by some to have been the manna of Scripture but others refer the manna of Scripture to one of the lichens. Liliaceae. SHALLOT. manna is found and collected on the bushes of this desert plant at flowering time after the spring rains. remarkable for the size of the bulbs.com . The solid part of the root contains farinaceous matter and. The peasants in certain parts of Southern Europe eat it raw and this is its only known use. Cultivated everywhere. mouse garlic. Alisma plantago Linn. LEVANT Europe and the Orient.Page 33 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and from early times collected and salted for winter use. Called on the upper Yenisei mischei-tschesnok. Siberia. GARLIC. This is a hardy perennial.A. A. North temperate zone and Australia. WILD LEEK. North Africa to Hindustan. This plant appears in the bazar in Teheren as a vegetable under the name of wolag. The whole of the young plant is considered a delicacy and is used as an addition to rice in a pilau. A. It also grows in the Alps. are supposed to be our shallot but this identity can scarcely be claimed as assured. and De Candolle is inclined to believe STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . A. Alismaceae. angulosum Linn. Near Kandahar and Herat. ampeloprasum Linn. MAD-DOG WEED. maurorum Medic. The leaves and stems somewhat resemble those of the leek. GREAT-HEADED GARLIC. ascalonicum Linn. WATERPLANTAIN. Allium akaka Gmel. Persia. MOUSE GARLIC. PERSIAN MANNA-PLANT. is eaten by the Calmucks. when deprived of its acrid properties by drying.

uliginosum. the stem produces bulbs instead of flowers and when these bulbs are planted they produce underground onions of considerable size and.com . like those of garlic. syn. cepa. Amatus Lusitanus. A. Italian. Brown says its roots are eaten by some Indians. Mueller says its top bulbs are much sought for pickles of superior flavor. Egyptian onion. onion. It is mentioned and figured in nearly all the early botanies. They are used in cookery as a seasoner in stews and soups. these onions formed almost the entire source of food. French and German names. which take their name from Ascalon. in his History of the Crusades. it is found throughout northern United States and Canada. WILD GARLIC. canadense Linn.it is a form of A.Page 34 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. when Marquette and his party journeyed from Green Bay to the present site of Chicago. these onions STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1554. cut into small sections.swsbm. canadense that it often bears a head of bulbs in the place of flowers. its flavor is very strong. gives Spanish. says that our gardens owe to the holy wars shallots. Michaud. form an ingredient in French salads and are also sprinkled over steaks and chops. The lumbermen of Maine often used the plant in their broths for flavoring. being much stronger flavored than those of any other variety. the cloves. Loudon refers to it as "the tree. a town in Syria. they do not seem to have been known to Gerarde in 1597. and many repeat the statement of Pliny that it came from Ascalon. the onion." It is a peculiarity of A. In 1674. Worlidge says "eschalots art now from France become an English condiment. North America. In 1633. There is some hesitation in referring the tree onion of the garden to this wild onion. cepa. var. TREE ONION. In China. as also in a raw state. A. viviparium. Vilmorin mentions one variety with seven sub-varieties. but McIntosh says they were introduced in 1548. On the East Branch of the Penobscot. "the bulb-bearing tree onion was introduced into England from Canada in 1820 and is considered to be a vivaparous variety of the common onion. they go farther in cookery. which go to show its early culture in these countries." Booth says. and are of milder flavor than other cultivated alliums. shallots are said to have been cultivated in 1633. whence the name. or bulbbearing. In England. It differs in its flower-stems being surmounted by a cluster of small green bulbs instead of bearing flowers and seed. the shallot is grown but is not valued as highly as is A. They make an excellent pickle. separating into what are called cloves. which it resembles in appearance." Shallots are enumerated for American gardens in 1806. The bulbs are compound.

as is also the appearance of the growing plants. the Sardian. D. Palladius.Page 35 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or covering an altar with a bundle of their leaves and roots. C. It is mentioned in the Bible as one of the things for which the Israelites longed in the wilderness and complained about to Moses. 230 A. Dioscorides.com . yellow or white.. Perhaps it is indigenous from Palestine to India. it may be allowable to suggest that the tree onion may be a hybrid variety from this wild species. which the country people call unionem. Theophrastus.occur in abundance and are bulb-producing on their stalks. 79 A. and says the round onion is the best. its apparent origination in Canada is in its favor. Europe. D. 60 A. all named from the places where grown. on the other hand. In the lack of definite information. who abstained from most kinds of pulse. gives minute directions for culture. cepa Linn. but they were not excluded from the altars of the gods. if Juvenal is to be trusted. C. Apicius. Samothracian and Setanison. which had been consumed by the laborers during the progress of its erection. is against this surmise. Herodotus says. 322 B. Columella. names a number of varieties. while. Egyptian onion.. Hippocrates says that onions were commonly eaten 430 B. radishes and garlic. and that red onions are more highly flavored than the white. 210 A. The name..swsbm. They grow in the clefts of ledges and even with the scant soil attain a foot in height. Its native country is unknown. onion. Cnidian. and this word seems to be the origin of our word. but all authors ascribe to it an eastern origin. ONION. Pliny. Cochin China. gives a STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . in his time there was an inscription on the Great Pyramid stating the sum expended for onions. speaks of the Marsicam. or possibly the wild species improved by cultivation. as 1600 talents. The onions of Egypt were mild and of an excellent flavor and were eaten raw as well as cooked by persons of all classes. Persia and Beluchistan. They were introduced at private as well as public festivals and brought to table. A variety was cultivated. D. At the present time it is no longer found growing wild.. 42 A. to the great amusement of the Romans... North and South Africa and America. Wilkinson says paintings frequently show a priest holding them in his hand. Japan. A. so excellent that it received worship as a divinity. D. speaks of the onion as long or round. whence it has extended to China. devotes considerable space to cepa. the French ognon. The onion has been known and cultivated as an article of food from the earliest period of history. Onions were prohibited to the Egyptian priests. D.

Chaucer. In 1570. at Amsterdam. and of various qualities. by which we would infer. He calls the Spanish onion oblong. leeks and garlic. fistulosum Linn. some sweet. Cortez. Laurembergius. mentions them: "Wel loved he garleek. and yet others intermediate in savor. says onions differ in form.Page 36 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. others dark red. now minor. some being round.. in color. the sort which brings the highest price in the markets is the Caieta. others." about 1340. In the thirteenth century. Albertus Magnus describes the onion but does not include it in his list of garden plants where he speaks of the leek and garlic. round and flat. as long as they deserve the appellation. red. Targioni-Tozzetti thinks the onion will probably prove identical with A. He says the Roman colonies during the time of Agrippa grew in the gardens of the monasteries a Russian sort which attained sometimes the weight of eight pounds. Sloane. oblong. bluish. onyons and ek leekes. what indeed seems to have been the case with the ancients. in speaking of the edibles which they found on the march to Tenochtitlan. In the sixteenth century. Omer. white and large. The onion has been an inmate of British gardens.swsbm. in size. Danish.com . had seen the onion only in Jamaica in gardens. long. De Candollel does not think that these names apply to the species cultivated in Europe. vegetables. Spanish. excelling all other sorts in sweetness and size and says it is grown in large abundance in Holland. onions sprang up from the spot where he placed his right foot and garlic from that where his left foot touched. as Glasspoole writes.number of recipes for the use of the onion in cookery but its uses by this epicurean writer are rather as a seasoner than as an edible. The word xonacati is not in Hernandez. the St. green and white. a species having a rather extended range in the mountains of South Russia and whose southwestern limits are as yet unascertained. in the seventeenth century. 1632. There is a tradition in the East. Matthiolus refers to varieties as large and small. others small. others strong. and Acosta says expressly that the onions and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . At Rome. some large. says McIntosh. as German." Humboldt says that the primitive Americans were acquainted with the onion and that it was called in Mexican xonacatl. cites onions. that when Satan stepped out of the Garden of Eden after the fall of man. in their origin. Amatus Lusitanus says the onion is one of the commonest of vegetables and occurs in red and white varieties. that it was in less esteem than these. some white.

STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . although they are not specifically mentioned. where they often equal a foot in length. It is possible that onions.Page 37 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. tapering towards stem. In 1779. But few of our modem forms are noticed in the early botanies. This last form seems to attain an exaggerated length in Japan. red. "Our onions do not have large. In form. says. but in establishing it. and were grown at Mobile. a rapidity of adaptation scarcely impossible to that civilized Aztec race. long. it must be noted that many of the figures upon which it is founded are quite distinct: I. In 1828. salmon-pink. such as white. coppery-yellow." Burr describes fourteen varieties. bright yellow. globular bulbs. aggregatum G. yellowishgreen. in 1775. pearly white. blood-red. salmon-yellow. They are grown just like celery and have long. Sullivan near Geneva. in 1648. coppery-pink. first introduced by the Spaniards to the West Indies. the potato onion. slender stalks. had already found admittance to Mexico. In 1886. The onion is described in many colors.garlics of Peru came originally from Europe..com . bright red. Wood. dark red. silvery white. purplish. Vilmorin describes sixty varieties. Onions are mentioned by Wm. 430. white. Don. Peter Martyr speaks of "onyons" in Mexico and this must refer to a period before 1526. flattened. Cepa. spherical-flattened. dull white.swsbm. McMahon mentions six varieties in his list of American esculents. greenish-yellow. seven years after the discovery of Mexico. onions were among the Indian crops destroyed by Gen. Bulb flat at bottom. is mentioned by Thorburn as a "vegetable of late introduction into our country. pale salmon. var. Y. and there are a number of varieties grown in France which are not noted by him. In 1806. 1629-33. a Japanese commissioner to this country. cepa. N. yet apparently improbable at first thought. Fuchsius. A. The following synonymy includes all that are noted. disc-form. are the top onion and the potato onion. the year of his death. Kizo Tamari. as cultivated in Massachusetts. It is probable that onions were among the garden herbs sown by Columbus at Isabela Island in 1494. Ala. pear-shaped. spherical. chamois. these may be described as flat." In addition to the forms mentioned above. 1542. they were cultivated in Virginia.

1570. 1651. American Seedsmen. White Portugal. Dod.com . flattened above and below. 73. IV. 134. Vilm. American Seedsmen. American Seedsmen. Caepa. Lob. 1561. American Seedsmen. American Seedsmen. Cepa. 1883. Geant de Rocca.swsbm. 215. Matth. Cepa rubra. tapering towards stem. Pictorius 82. III. Bulb round at bottom. Cepa. 787. American Seedsmen. Blanc hatif de Valence.Page 38 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1558. Wethersfield Large Red. Vilm. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1883. Zwiblen. Large Flat Madeira. 1644. Rouge gros-plat d'ltalie. Ger. Round White Silverskin. Cepa rotunda. Matth. Bermuda. 1581. American Seedsmen. Caepa capitata. 1597. II. American Seedsmen. Bauhin. 737. 378. Vilm. Cepe. J. 2: 549. 1:150. Silver White Etna. Paris Silverskin. 324. Mammoth Pompeii. Bulb roundish. Golden Queen. Trag. American Seedsmen. 1552.Cepa rotunda. Obs. 1576. 687. 121. 387. Cepa. 387. Cam. 1591. 388. 1550. Bodaeus. Pin. or Strasburg. 276. Philadelphia Yellow Dutch. Roeszl. American Seedsmen. American Seedsmen. flattened above. The difference at first sight between the crude figure of Fuchsius and the modern varieties is great. but ordinary experience indicates that the changes are no greater than can be observed under selection. 1883. i6i6. 1586. Bulb rounded below. Caepe sive Cepa rubra el alba. Neapolitan Marzajola. Icon. Epit.

1644. 1:150. Extra Early Red. Cepe alba. Icon. 1591. A. Icon. Caepa capitata. Piriform. canadense formed almost the entire source of food for Marquette and his party on their journey from Green Bay to the present site of Chicago in the fall of 1674. The top onion. 1591. Vilm. introduced into England in 1629. 73. Cam. This and A. TWO-BLADED ONION. CIBOUL. Ger. 1883. 1598. Danvers. Cepa oblonga.150. or nearly so. Linn. A. 737. American Seedsmen. 687. Dalechamp records with great surprise an onion plant which bore small bulbs in the place of seed. Lauremb. 1883. Western New York to Wisconsin and southward.Page 39 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 324. Cepe. VIII. 26. 1586. Bodaeus 786. 1. 380. WILD ONION. 1576. American Seedsmen.com . 1644. 1632. Trag. Bodaeus 787. Epit. fistulosum ONION. VI Bulb concave on the bottom. Cepa. Caepa. cernuum Roth. 1597. Obs. Vilm. Juane de Danvers. 134. Dod. Cepa rotunda. Lob. VII. 1616. Matth. 419. WELSH Siberia. 1552. Cepae Hispanica oblonga.V.swsbm. In 1587. Bulb oblong. The Welsh onion acquired its STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Bulb spherical. 388. Lob.

A. This onion is eaten as a vegetable in Japan. A. and the sectile.Page 40 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. oleraceum Linn. From early times the plant has been cultivated on the Tobol as a substitute for garlic. It is mentioned by McMahon in 1806 as one of the American garden esculents. it yields roots which are edible. flat. and Palladius. The young leaves are used in Sweden to flavor stews and soups or fried with other herbs and are sometimes so employed in Britain but are inferior to those of the cultivated garlic. FIELD GARLIC. Siberia. obliquum Linn. the porrum of the Romans. Europe. It is grown for its leaves which are used in salads. and in the earlier botanies some of the figures of the leek represent the two kinds of planting alluded to by the Roman writers.swsbm. According to Heldreich. It has been cultivated from the earliest times. FRAGRANT-FLOWERED GARLIC. In Europe. as Targioni-Tozzetti thinks. who distinguished two kinds. although Columella. or leek. neapolitanum Cyr. the chive-like form being produced by thick planting. the capitatum. DAFFODIL GARLIC. as at the present time. by Randolph in Virginia before 1818.com . brownish-green bulb which ripens early and keeps well and is useful for pickling. This vegetable was the prason of the ancient Greeks. A. In England. Siberia.name from the German walsch (foreign). the leek was generally known throughout the Middle Ages. tapering roots and strong fibers. porrum Linn. LEEK. Pliny. odorum Linn. Europe and the Orient. indicate these as forms of the same plant brought about through difference of culture. A. or chives. is probably the parent species of the onion. It is very hardy and. It never forms a bulb like the common onion but has long. A. McIntosh says it has a small. and was cataloged for sale by Thorburn in 1828. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Found growing wild in Algiers but the Bon Jardinier says it is a native of Switzerland. 1726.

that in his time the best leeks were brought from Egypt. The reference to leeks by Cortez is noticed under A. In 1806. McMahon named three varieties among American garden esculents." The Israelites complained to Moses of the deprivation from the leeks of Egypt during their wanderings in the wilderness. The leaves are eaten by the Greeks of Crimea. Buist names six varieties. The date of its introduction into England is given as 1562. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . rubellum Bieb. cepa. Leeks were brought into great notice by the fondness for them of the Emperor Nero who used to eat them for several days in every month to clear his voice. The leek may vary considerably by culture and often attain a large size. Vilmorin described eight varieties in 1883 but some of these are scarcely distinct. which practice led the people to nickname him Porrophagus. Pliny states. for it has been considered from time immemorial as the badge of Welshmen. reticulatum Fras.com . A.Townsend says that "leeks are mightily used in the kitchen for broths and sauces. This is a wild onion whose root is eaten by the Indians. North America. and names Aricia in Italy as celebrated for them. portion is the part generally eaten. or blanched. Europe and Asia Minor.. Leeks are mentioned by Romans as growing at Mobile. ROSY-FLOWERED GARLIC. but it certainly was cultivated there earlier.Page 41 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. this plant yields edible roots. one with the blanched portion a foot long and nine inches in circumference and the leaf fifteen inches in breadth and three feet in length has been recorded. According to Heldreich. Ala. A. roseum Linn. A. the onion. in 1775 and as cultivated by the Choctaw Indians. who won a victory in the sixth century over the Saxons which they attributed to the leeks they wore by the order of St. Mediterranean countries. The lower. A. The blanched stems are much used in French cookery.swsbm. David to distinguish them in the battle. It is referred to by Tusser and Gerarde as if in common use in their day. and this is used in soups or boiled and served as asparagus. rotundum Linn.

according to Pliny. Acosta says "the Indians esteem garlike above all the roots of Europe. It was ranked by the Egyptians among gods in taking an oath. Chive plants are included at present among the supplies offered in our best seed catalogs. It is not as much used by northern people as by those of the south of Europe. and to be found noticed in various Chinese treatises of the fifteenth. A. Chives are much used in Scotch families and are considered STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Siberia and the Orient. The plant has the well-known alliaceous odor which is strongly penetrating. north Africa and Europe. although McMahon. schoenoprasum Linn. Loureiro found it under cultivation in Cochin China.com . In seed catalogs. North temperate zone. A. It was in use in England prior to 1548 and both Turner and Tusser notice it. they are cultivated for the leaves which are used in salads. included it in his list of American esculents.Europe. It is believed to be the skorodon hemeron of Dioscorides and the allium of Pliny. The first mention of garlic in America is by Peter Martyr. C. The want of garlics was lamented to Moses by the Israelites in the wilderness. In European gardens. the common and the pink. The bulbs are eaten by the hill people of India and the leaves are dried and preserved as a condiment. who states that Cortez fed on it in Mexico. The Romans are said to have disliked it on account of the strong scent but fed it to their laborers to strengthen them and to their soldiers to excite courage. Machaon. CIVE. In Peru. There are two varieties." It was cultivated by the Choctaw Indians in gardens before 1775 and is mentioned among garden esculents by American writers on gardening in 1806 and since. especially at midday. This plant.swsbm. sixteenth. CLOWN'S TREACLE.Page 42 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This perennial plant seems to be grown in but few American gardens. well known to the ancients. sativum Linn. the sets are listed while seed is rarely offered. soups and for flavoring. the peasantry eat their brown bread with slices of garlic which imparts a flavor agreeable to them. Garlic is said to have been introduced in China 140-86 B. GARLIC. In many parts of Europe. 1806. Homer makes garlic a part of the entertainment which Nestor served to his guest. appears to be native to the plains of western Tartary and at a very early period was transported thence over the whole of Asia (excepting Japan). seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Europe. CHIVE.

Europe. however. 1688. and it is recorded as formerly in great request but now of little regard. Europe and Siberia. 1818. Bauhin. by Gardiner and Hepburn." by Worlidge in 1683." in 1783. A. 1806. SAND LEEK. 1690. This species grows wild in the Grecian Islands and probably elsewhere in the Mediterranean regions. of J. by Bryant in 1783. The only indication of variety is found in Noisette. In France it was grown by Quintyne.next to indispensable in omelettes and hence are much more used on the Continent of Europe. Loudon says it is a native of Denmark. milder in taste and are produced at the points of the stem as well as at its base. Rocambole is mentioned among American garden esculents by McMahon. only modified by soil. senescens Linn. Ray. This species is eaten as a vegetable in Japan. ROUND-HEADED GARLIC. In England. Its bulbs are smaller than those of garlic. for. the chive was among seedsmen's supplies in 1726. ROCAMBOLE. It is mentioned by Gerarde as a cultivated plant in 1596. chives were described by Gerarde as "a pleasant Sawce and good Potherb. It is not of ancient culture as it cannot be recognized in the plants of the ancient Greek and Roman authors and finds no mention of garden cultivation by the early botanists. Bryant classes it with edibles. who enumerates the civette. does not refer to its cultivation in England. formerly cultivated in England for the same purposes as garlic but now comparatively neglected. SPANISH GARLIC. 1601. particularly in Catholic countries. A. A.com . although it produces flowers. 1832. ophioscorodon dictum quibusdam. the cive d'Angleterre and the cive de Portugal but says these are the same. and by Bridgeman. scorodoprasum Linn. these are invariably sterile according to Vilmorin. 1651. The plant is an humble one and is propagated by the bulbs. It is the Scorodoprasum of Clusius. sphaerocephalum Linn.Page 43 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. From early times this species has been eaten by the people about Lake Baikal. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Townsend says it is "mightly in request. In 1726. but there is no indication of culture in either case.swsbm. Caucasus region and Syria. Europe and Siberia. and the Allii genus.

North America." A. though very strong.Page 44 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The stems sometimes grow to an immense size and can be preserved for a considerable time. are eaten by the natives.swsbm. In England. GIPSY ONION. In the Polynesian islands its large tuberous roots are eaten. For its esculent stems and small. The berries. Wilkes says the natives of the Kingsmill group of islands cultivate this species with great care. says the leaves were eaten in Holland. Araideae (Araceae). A. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . hence they are of great importance in jail dietary when fresh vegetables become scarce in the bazar or jail-garden. The fruit is eaten. A.com . stellatum Fras. Sapindaceae. FIELD GARLIC. Alocasia indica Schott. The Russians as well as the natives gather it for winter food. it is cultivated in Bengal and is eaten by people of all ranks in their curries. The bulbs were also used boiled and in salads. East Indies and south Asia. pendulous tubers of its root. ursinum Linn. They were also valued formerly as a pot-herb in England. Gerarde. Himalayas. STAG'S GARLIC. the leaves are used as are those of garlic. Europe and now naturalized in northern America near the coast.A. South Sea Islands and east Australia. BEAR'S GARLIC. RAMSONS. vineale Linn. "Bulb oblong-ovate and eatable. Eastern Asia. PAI. which are red in color and about the size of peas. Europe and northern Asia. CROW GARLIC. 1597. The root is said to grow to a very large size. The underground stems constitute a valuable and important vegetable of the native dietary in India. BUCKRAMS. Allophylus cobbe Blume. In Kamchatka this plant is much prized. zeylanicus Linn. HOG'S GARLIC.

The root is used in place of ginger in Russia and in some other countries for flavoring a liquor called nastoika. Australia and the islands of the Pacific.Page 45 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tropics of Asia.swsbm. The fruit is said to be edible. The large." In Cochin China the fresh root is used to season fish and for other economic purposes. and a pickle is thus formed. It furnishes the roasting eddas of Jamaica and the tayoea of Brazil. striata Hort. APE. Tropical eastern Asia. Java and other East Indian islands as far as Burma and produces the round cardamoms of commerce. but it is inferior to that of A. who cultivate it. ALOE. round China cardamons are supposed to be produced by this species. cut the leaves of an aloe into small pieces. according to Grant. macrorhiza Schott. East Indies. Scitamineae (Zingiberaceae). Tropical Asia. Alpinia galanga Willd. soak them in lime-juice. By the Tartars. GALINGALE. uviformis Horan. the roots of which. TARO. Wilkes states that this plant is the ape of the Tahitians and is cultivated as a vegetable. The Mongol conquerors of China set great store on this fruit as a spice. when roasted. China. A. Liliaceae. esculentum The roots are also eaten in tropical America as well as by the people of New Caledonia. Violaceae. Alsodeia (Rinorea) physiphora Mart. A. it is taken with tea. Aloe sp. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .A. GALANGAL. It is the taro of New Holland. globosa Horan. after being cooked. It is found in Sumatra. put them in the sun. afford a staple aliment to the natives. AMOMUM.com . A. The Banians of the African coast. This is probably the amomon of Dioscorides. The root is eaten in India. CARDAMOM.

Chile. HERB LILY.Brazil. MARSHMALLOW. revoluta Ruiz & Pav. A. WHITE MALLOW. A farina is obtained from its roots. Used as a spinach in Brazil. A farina is obtained from its roots. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Cyatheaceae. Alsophila (Cyathea) lunulata R. versicolor Ruiz & Pav. A. acting as a demulcent. A. A. ligtu Linn. It is cultivated extensively in Europe for medicinal purposes. TREE FERN. The plant is found wild in Europe and Asia and is naturalized in places in America. Johnson says its leaves may be eaten when boiled. Malvaceae. Amaryllideae Chile. This is the pugjik of the Lepchas who eat the soft. Charlemagne enjoined its culture in France. Chile and the mountains of Peru. watery pith. It is called in Peru Untu. Chile. in Chile utat. The green leaves are very mucilaginous. It is abundant in East Bengal and the peninsula of India. The young leaves are eaten in times of scarcity. spinulosa Hook. Br.com . A. rosea Cav.Page 46 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Its roots furnish a palatable starch. HOLLYHOCK. In 812. Its roots furnish a farina. & Pav. Viti. The plant furnishes a farina from its roots. and the negroes about Rio Janeiro eat them with their food. Althaea officinalis Linn. In France it is an inmate of the flower garden.swsbm. Alstroemeria haemantha Ruiz (Alstroemeriaceae).

which are esculent and are used in Egyptian cookery.com . This species grows wild in China and in the south of Europe. This species is one of the pot-herbs of the Hindus. the plant is eaten as a cheap. Albus. A. cooling. paniculatus Linn. Roxburgh says it will bear half a pound of floury. WILD BLITE. nutritious seed on a square yard of ground. AMARANTHUS. Amaranthaceae. is five to eight feet high with a stem as thick as a man's wrist. Rafinesque says the leaves are good to eat as spinach. A. Temperate and tropical zones. is most cultivated. This species is cultivated about Macao and the neighboring part of China and is the most esteemed of all their summer vegetables. or the tops are served as an asparagus. gangeticus Linn. A. It possesses similar properties to the marshmallow and is used for similar purposes in Greece. The plant is pulled up by the root and carried to market in that state. much cultivated in Bengal. The plant finds use as a pot-herb. campestris Willd. Amaranthus blitum Linn. Titford says it forms an excellent potSTURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . PRINCE'S FEATHER. The leaves are used as a spinach. RED AMARANTH. In China. a beautiful.swsbm. Roxburgh says there are four leading varieties cultivated as pot-herbs: Viridis. spring vegetable by all classes.The Orient. A. AMARANTHUS. the common green sort. diacanthus Rafin. Giganteus. It is much esteemed as a potherb by all ranks of natives. It is very productive. North America. East Indies. bright colored variety. Ruber. Forskal says it is cultivated at Cairo for the sake of its leaves. North America and naturalized in the Orient. This amaranthus is cultivated by the natives in endless varieties and is in general use in Bengal. Tropical zone. The soft. succulent stem is sliced and eaten as a salad.Page 47 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant is extensively cultivated in India for its seed which is ground into flour.

PIGWEED. Guiana. Tropical Africa and East Indies. WESTERN SERVICE STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . polystachyus Willd. This amaranthus is a common weed everywhere in India and is much used by the natives as a pot-herb. spinosus Linn. retroflexus Linn. Apocynaceae. Tropical regions. GREEN AMARANTH.herb in Jamaica when boiled. it is frequently used as a vegetable and is wholesome and agreeable. It is an interesting fact that it is cultivated by the Arizona Indians for its seeds. It seems to be the prickly calalue of Long. Africa and America. A.com . A. Drury says it is considered very wholesome. Tropics. A.swsbm.Page 48 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ainifolia Nutt. This plant is stated by Titford to be an excellent pot-herb in Jamaica and is said to resemble spinach when boiled Ambelania acida Aubl. The fruit is edible. A. THORNY AMARANTH. This weed occurs around dwellings in manured soil in the United States whence it was introduced from tropical America. In Jamaica. PRICKLY CALALUE. This species is the goose-foot of Jamaica. This is a weed in cultivated land in Asia. where it is sometimes gathered and used as a green. North America. East Indies. A. exactly resembling spinach. viridis Linn. polygamus Linn. Amelanchier BERRY. The species is cultivated in India as a pot-herb for its mucilaginous leaves but is tasteless. Rosaceae. GOOSE-FOOT. It has mucilaginous leaves without taste. This plant is cultivated in India and is used as a pot-herb. It is cultivated sometimes as a spinach.

North America. except the top. sandy waste. growing in favorable localities. canadensis Medic. Smith. A. Gray describes five forms.Page 49 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." It is very abundant in the hills. the whole plant. native of New Mexico (Nope . by the Indians of the Northwest. according to the variety. Amomum. A leafless plant. Col. The fruit is much larger than that of the eastern service berry. GRAPE-PEAR. each berry is full half an inch in diameter and very good to eat. This bush or small tree. This species has long been cultivated in England. where rain scarcely ever falls. is buried in the sand. In Oregon and Washington. a barren. AMELANCHIER. Lennoaceae." The plant is roasted upon hot coals and ground with mesquit beans and resembles in taste the sweet potato "but is far more delicate. The fruit is called by the French in Canada poires. JUNEBERRY. The berries are eaten in large quantities. found it in the country of the Papago Indians. Massachusetts. but "where nature has provided for the sustenance of man one of the most nutritious and palatable of vegetables. BERRY. is eatable. sweet taste.swsbm. Ammobroma sonorae Torr. SHAD. the original discoverer of this plant. The pea-sized fruit is said to be the finest fruit of the Saskatchewan country and to be used by the Cree Indians both fresh and dried. where its fruit. the berries are largely employed as a food by the Indians. and its fruit is of a purplish color and an agreeable. though not highly palatable. A. CARDAMOM. For many years a Mr. has cultivated var. is a native of the northern portion of America and eastern Asia. Mountains of Europe and adjoining portions of Asia. Scitamineae (Zingiberaceae). Cambridge. It is valued more for its flowers than its fruit. fresh or dried. vulgaris Moench. It is called grape-pear in places. SERVICE North America and eastern Asia. in Maine sweet pear and from early times has been dried and eaten by the natives.com . The aromatic and stimulant seeds of many of the plants of the genus STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Grey.MM). SWEET PEAR. oblongifolia in his garden and in 1881 exhibited a plate of very palatable fruit at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's show.

Amomum are known as cardamoms. as are those of Elettaria. granum-paradisi Linn. A. East Indies and China. angustifolium Sonner. round. A. The botanical history of the species producing the various kinds is in much confusion. GRAINS OF.swsbm. African tropics. JAVA CARDAMOM Java and other Malay islands. The seeds resemble and equal camphor in warmth and pungency.Page 50 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. BASTARD CARDAMOM. or great cardamoms of commerce. This plant is supposed to yield the hairy. In China. aromaticum Roxb. East Indies. Burma. The seeds are exported from Guiana where the plant. GREAT CARDAMOM. The fruit is used as a spice and medicine by the natives and is sold as cardamoms. melegueta Rose. This plant grows on marshy grounds in Madagascar and affords in its seeds the Madagascar. villosum Lour. A. xanthioides Wall. The seeds are made use of illegally in England to give a fictitious strength to spirits and beer.com . says Smith. One species at least is named as under cultivation. It is called there longouze. A. This species is said to be cultivated in the mountains of Nepal. supposed to have been brought from Africa. A. the seeds are used as a preserve or STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Madagascar. The hot and peppery seeds form a valued spice in many parts of India and Africa. China cardamoms. but they are not particularly injurious. African tropics.PARADISE. maximum Roxb. A. is cultivated by the negroes. A. MELEGUETA PEPPER.

swsbm. the lower ones subterranean and producing fruit. The root is very acrid in a raw state. however. At the Society Islands the fruit is eaten as bread. Brazil. MONKEY-NUT. to be carefully boiled several times and to be dressed in a particular manner in order to divest them of a somewhat disagreeable taste. WILD BEAN.Page 51 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is a native of eastern United States. TELINGA POTATO. A. nanum St. A wild. lyratus Kunth. it is eaten either roasted or boiled. A delicate vine growing in rich woodlands which bears two kinds of flowers. resembling that of carrion. monoica Ell. The roots are eaten by the natives and are thought to be very nutritious. Leguminosae.condiment and are used in flavoring spirit. and flies cover the club of the spadix with their eggs. The telinga potato is cooked in the manner of the yam and is also used for pickling. Anacardium humile St. The nuts are eaten and conserves are made of the fruit. A. A. This plant is much cultivated. bean-like plant. Brazil. Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume. Tropical Asia. HOG PEANUT. Anacardiaceae. The nuts are eaten and conserves are made of the fruit.com . Aroideae (Araceae). STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . AMORPHOPHALLUS. the odor exhaled is most overpowering. when breadfruit is scarce and in the Fiji Islands is highly esteemed for its nutritive properties. Porcher says that in the South the subterranean pod is cultivated as a vegetable and is called hog peanut. Hil. especially in the northern Circars. When in flower. Hil. the pods of which are gathered while green and used for food. Himalayas. North America. East Indies. where it is highly esteemed for the wholesomeness and nourishing quality of its roots. Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. They require.

The Portuguese transplanted it as early as the sixteenth century to the East Indies and Indian archipelago. climbing shrub found in the eastern part of the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . milky juice and are used for imparting a flavor to Madeira wine. In Panama. Japan. hence the name.Page 52 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. edible fruits like the cashew. while neither China. according to Fraas. distilled. the younger state of the kernel. This tree is indigenous to the West Indies. or the islands of the Pacific Ocean possess it. The thickened receptacle of the nut has an agreeable. called cadju gum. An edible oil equal to olive oil or almond oil is procured from the nuts but it is seldom prepared. the tree is called espave. A variety of the tree is grown in Travancore. probably elsewhere. Menispermaceae. Anamirta paniculate Colebr. Primulaceae. The shell of the fruit has thin layers. however. is eaten as greens in the Levant. and. A. Johnson says it forms a part of salads in France and Germany. occidentale Linn. called cardol. CASHEW. MAN'S WEATHERGLASS. Pimpernel. abounding in sweet. East Indies.com . yields a pleasant wine. South America. the intermediate one possessing an acrid. a spirit is drawn from the wine making a good punch. acid flavor and is edible. when fermented. Drury says the kernels are edible and wholesome. Its existence on the eastern coast of Africa is of still more recent date.A. Guiana. WILD CASHEW. similar to gum arable. which is destroyed by heat. Ground and mixed with cocoa. The flowers close at the approach of bad weather. A strong. The juice of the fruit is expressed. the kernels being used as a table fruit. Peru and Brazil in all of which countries it is cultivated. where it is called wild cashew. This is a noble tree of Columbia and British Guiana. according to Seemann. A gum. rhinocarpus DC. hence the kernels are roasted before being eaten. PIMPERNEL. the pericarp of the nuts of which has no oil but may be chewed raw with impunity. poor man's weatherglass. POOR Europe and temperate Asia.swsbm. SHEPHERD'S CLOCK. Central America. in New Granada caracoli. It has pleasant. they make a good chocolate. Anagallis arvensis Linn. is secreted from this tree. is pronounced wholesome and delicious when fresh. caustic oil.

found what seemed intended to represent a pineapple among the stucco ornaments of a ruin. set in a crosse. first saw the pineapple. Piso also mentions a pineapple having STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and Andre Thevet. Bromeliaceae.Page 53 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Acosta. and thence to the East Indies and China. 1578. We do not know what to make of Wilkinson's n statement of one instance of the pineapple in glazed pottery being among the remains from ancient Egypt. Humboldt mentions pineapples often containing seeds as growing wild in the forests of the Orinoco. Ananas sativus Schult. In 1493. in considerable quantity throughout Guiana. on the coast of Yucatan. at Guadeloupe island. and Schomburgk found the wild fruit. speaks of "great pineapples of a very good smell and exceeding good taste" in the Antilles. mentions in his book three kinds as being then known." He calls the plant ananas. 1557. at Tuloom. says that in his time." Stephens. mentions the finding by Columbus at Porto Bello of the delicious pineapple. who went to America in 1513. as Peter Martyr records. From this plant is produced a deleterious drug illegally used in England to impart bitterness to beer. PINEAPPLE. and is very pleasant and delightful in taste. Benzoni. Vitzili-putzli. it is full of juice.Indian Peninsula and Malay Islands. 1578. Las Casas.com .swsbm. the companions of Columbus. for he describes an idol in Mexico. Raleigh. whose History of the New World was published in 1568 and who resided in Mexico from 1541 to 1555." Acosta states that the ananas was carried from Santa Cruz in Brazil to the West Indies. speaks of the " great abundance of pinas. De Soto. also describes this fruit as of " an excellent smell. who reached the New World in 1502. Tropical America. and of a sweet and sharp taste. as it now rarely bears seeds. a monk. 1595. says that no fruit on God's earth could be more agreeable. as having "in his left hand a white target with the figures of five pineapples. made of white feathers. The first accurate illustration and description appear to have been given by Oviedo in 1535. the nanas was often preserved in sugar. It has probably been cultivated in tropical America from time immemorial. describes it in his Voyage to Brazil as being of such excellence that the gods might luxuriate upon it and that it should only be gathered by the hand of a Venus. but he does not pretend by this that pineapples were not to be found out of Brazil. Jean de Lery. 1555-6. bearing seeds. the princesse of fruits. especially those of Guiana. Oviedo. that grow under the Sun. at Esmeralda. the flavor and fragrance of which astonished and delighted them.

" In France. Titford says this delicious fruit is well known and very common in Jamaica. R. as at Tongatabu. The Jesuit. Afzelius says pineapples grow wild in Sierra Leone and are cultivated by the natives.swsbm. Compositae. Don states that they are so abundant in the woods as to obstruct passage and that they bear fruit abundantly. The pineapple is now grown in abundance about Calcutta. Boymins. that it was naturalized in Java as early as 1599 and was taken thence to Europe. but the first success at culture dates from 1712. as imported. Anaphalis margaritacea Benth. At Leyden. & Hook. PEARLY EVERLASTING. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . which has run wild. remarks of this plant that "the fishermen when they want tobacco. it is an inmate of the flower garden. brought thither perhaps from America by way of the Philippines. In Angola. Ainslie says that it was introduced in the reign of the Emperor Akbar by the Portuguese who brought the seed from Malacca. A white kind in the East Indies. In Italy. where there are several sorts. in 1592 it was carried to Bengal and probably from Peru by way of the Pacific Ocean to China. and the pineapple is noticed in East Africa by Krapf. Friendly Islands.com . and Society Islands. North America. An anonymous writer states that it was quite common in India in 1549 and this is in accord with Acosta's statement. Aroideae (Araceae). the first attempts at growing pineapples were made in 1616 but failed. The large bulb is boiled and eaten. wild pines are mentioned by Montiero. prior to 1670. The first plants introduced into England came from Holland in 1690. and Firminger describes ten varieties. Captain Cook planted pineapples in various of the Pacific Isles.Page 54 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Josselyn. take this herb: being cut and dryed. Unger says. In 1594. mentions it in his Flora Sinensis of 1636. was known in England in the time of Cromwell and is again noticed in 1661 and in 1688 from Barbados. In 1777. a Dutch gardener was successful in growing them in 1686. it was cultivated in China.many seeds growing wild in Brazil. The fruit. Eastern equatorial Africa. Anchomanes hookeri Schott. still contains seed in its fruit. It is now a common plant in Celebes and the Philippine Islands. Brown speaks of the pineapples as existing upon the west coast of Africa but he admits its American origin. says Unger.

Wendl. China. Filices (Angiopteridaceae). Europe. as also the thick part of the stipes. and her Royal Majesty was supplied with the plant from the Royal Gardens. Palmae. African tropics. The stems are cut into short lengths and are carried by the natives upon long journeys. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Gramineae. BUGLOSS. HOLY GHOST. says Wallich. GERANIUM GRASS. is of a mealy and mucilaginous nature and is eaten by the natives in times of scarcity. The caudex. This species is commonly cultivated for the fine fragrance of the leaves which are often used for flavoring custard. A fern of India. where it is common. Andropogon schoenanthus Linn. Commelinaceae. Mann & H.com .Anchusa officinalis Linn. Ancistrophyllum (Laccosperma) secundiflorum G. in the south of France and in some parts of Germany. the Asiastic and Polynesian Islands. Don says it is used as archangelica. LEMON GRASS. the young stems are eaten raw by the natives. The plant is cultivated and its tubers are eaten by the Chinese. They are also eaten in India. African tropics and subtropics. When fresh and young. but the flavor is more bitter and less grateful.Page 55 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the soft central parts being eaten after they have been properly roasted. the leaves are used in many parts of the country as a substitute for tea and the white center of the succulent leaf-culms is used to impart a flavor to curries. the young leaves are eaten as a green vegetable. ANCHU. GROUND ASH. Angelica sylvestris Linn. WILD ANGELICA. England. Umbelliferae. On the lower Volga. Asia. Johnson says. Kew. The tea made of this grass is considered a wholesome and refreshing beverage. OIL-PLANT. Aneilema loureirii Hance. Angiopteris erecta Hoffm. Boragineae.swsbm. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. CAMEL'S HAY.

It has been introduced into France.swsbm. montana Eckl. It has been carried to the Cape Verde Islands and to Guinea. CHERIMALLA. Originally from Peru. CHERIMOYA. Anona asiatica Linn. The root is eaten. this species seems to be naturalized only in the mountains of Port Royal in Jamaica. & Zeyh. Annesorhiza capensis ANYSWORTEL. Orchideae.com .Page 56 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The cherimoya is not mentioned among the fruits of Florida by Atwood in 1867 but is included in the American Pomological Society's list for 1879. CUSTARD APPLE. BOURBON TEA. The fruit is esteemed by the Peruvians as not inferior to STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Angraecum fragrans Thou. it is described by Don as being superior to any other which is tasted in Africa. Anisophyllea laurina MONKEY APPLE. The fruit is sold in the markets of Sierra Leone in the months of April and May. squamosa. The plant has an edible root. The leaves of this orchid are very fragrant and are used in Bourbon as tea. specimens were growing at the United States Conservatory in Washington. . South Africa. red on the outside. Ceylon and cultivated in Cochin China.eatable pulp but is inferior in flavor to that of A. The oblong-conical fruit. yellow on the other. et Schlecht. red on the sunned side. FAHAM TEA. Umbelliferae. Br. Rhizophoreae/Anisophylleaceae. CHERIMOYER. A. is filled with a whitish. New Granada and Brazil know it only as a plant of cultivation. Anonaceae. African tropics. It is of the size and shape of a pigeon's egg. Venezuela. Cham. its flavor being something between that of the nectarine and a plum. Cape of Good Hope. R. In 1870. American tropics. cherimolia Mill. A.

white and of a sweetish taste.Page 57 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It has a peculiarly agreeable flavor although coupled with a biting wild taste. covering a white. MONKEY APPLE. Humboldt speaks of it in terms of praise. says Lunan. unctuous pulp of a peculiar. ALLIGATOR APPLE. is soft. Peru and Mexico. Herndon says Huanuco is par excellence the country of the celebrated cherimoya. lie in an orange-colored pulp of an STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . which have a juicy flesh. that Europeans do not confirm the claims of the cherimoya to superiority among fruits. SWEETSOP. but delicious. according to Sloane. SUGAR APPLE. taste. A. Guiana. The seeds. paludosa Aubl. The pulp of the fruit. the size of a hen's egg. It is cultivated in the whole of Brazil. intermixed with oblong. West Indies. The species bears elongated. Masters says. dark colored seeds. The plant bears fruit the size of the fist. however. This tree grows wild in Barbados and Jamaica but in Surinam has only escaped from gardens. COROSSOL. yellow berries. palustris Linn. growing upon marshy meadows. Tropical America.swsbm. ANON.any fruit of the world. This species is placed by Unger among edible fruit-bearing plants. POND APPLE. A. The plant has quite recently been carried to Sierra Leone. Morelet says the rind of the fruit is thin. The smell and taste of the fruit. which leaves on the palate a flavor of perfumed cream. cinerea Dunal. flowers and whole plant resemble much those of the black currant.com . the fruit is sought after only by negroes. Church says its leaves form corossol tea. and the verdict is probably justified by the scant mention by travellers and the limited diffusion. It is not mentioned among the fruits of Florida by Atwood in 1867 but is included in the American Pomological Society's list for 1879. and that he has seen it there quite twice as large as it is generally seen in Lima and of the most delicious flavor. A. and. muricata SOURSOP. Linn. American and African tropics. A. In Jamaica. PRICKLY CUSTARD APPLE. as large as a bean. the unripe fruit dressed like turnips tastes like them. CORK-WOOD.

Brazil. Unger says it is highly prized but he calls the fruit brown. no certain proof. while Lunan says brown. The fruit is considered narcotic and even poisonous in Jamaica but of the latter we have. it is easily propagated from seed. the Philippines and India. The wood of the tree is so soft and compressible that the people of Jamaica call it corkwood and employ it for stoppers. The flesh is white. ANON. full of long. with a reddishness on one side when ripe. It is the pinaou of Guiana. SUGAR APPLE.com . Masters STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This delicious fruit is produced in Florida in excellent perfection as far north as St.Page 58 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. BULLOCK'S COROSSOL. gritty and filled with little seeds. in Jamaica.swsbm. or on the plains along the mouth of the Amazon. It has a good flavor and is eaten with pleasure. very aromatic and of an agreeable strawberrylike. scaly shell. Lunan says. reticulata Linn. Cochin China. imbricated. Tropical America. Cultivated in Peru. in Malabar and the East Indies. Von Martius found it forming forest groves in Para. It is uncertain whether the native land of this tree is to be looked for in Mexico. The plant bears a brown. A. A. to be superior to most of the other fruits of this genus. CUSTARD APPLE. oval. punctata Aubl. of a yellow or orange color. African tropics and Guiana. says Lunan. A. Guiana. the size of the fist. by Savine. Rhind says the pulp is delicious. smooth fruit about three inches in diameter with little reticulations on its surface. piquant taste. having the odor of rose water and tasting like clotted cream mixed with sugar. ANON. the fruit is much esteemed by some people.unsavory taste but which has something of the smell and relish of an orange. senegalensis Pers. HEART. Augustine . A. shining. squamosa Linn. brown granules. The fruit is conical or pearshaped with a greenish. SWEETSOP. CORAZON. The fruit is not much larger than a pigeon's egg but its flavor is said. Masters says its yellowish pulp is not so much relished as that of the soursop or cherimoyer. The flesh is reddish. It is cultivated in tropical America and the West Indies and was early transported to China.

Anthocephalus morindaefolius Korth. Gramineae. Umbelliferae. They are by no means unpalatable.swsbm. Europe. with wormwood. Rubiaceae/Naucleaceae. Liliaceae. says Carmichael. Anthericum hispidum Linn. This large tree is cultivated in Bengal. ST. and ate it STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This grass grows in great luxuriance in the Upper Nile region." Pliny mentions its use by the Syrians. In France it is grown in flower-gardens. Naturalized in Delaware. Anthriscus cerefolium Hoffm. South Africa. Lunan says it is much esteemed by those who are fond of fruit in which sweet prevails. Chervil is said to be a native of Europe and was cultivated in England by Gerarde in 1597. Parkinson says "it is sown in gardens to serve as salad herb. East Indies and Sumatra. It has been an inmate of American gardens from an early period. Anthistiria (Themeda) imberbis Retz.Page 59 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Orient and north Asia. It has long been cultivated in kitchen gardens. The sprouts are eaten as a substitute for asparagus. CHERVIL. This plant is largely cultivated for medicinal purposes in France. renders them at first unpleasant. Germany and Italy. and in famines furnishes the natives with a grain. which appears in garden catalogs. make to a certain extent a substitute for hops. North India and elsewhere. CAMOMILE. Africa. Compositae. that induces the sensation as of pulling hairs from between one's lips. the size of a small orange. an infusion of its flowers serving as a domestic remedy. This is an old fashioned pot-herb.says the fruit is highly relished by the Creoles but is little esteemed by Europeans.9 though a certain clamminess which they possess. The yellow fruit. The plant is a native of the Siamese countries. who cultivated it as a food. BERNARD'S LILY.com . Drury says the fruit is delicious to the taste and on occasions of famine in India has literally proved the staff of life to the natives. 5° 5' south. is eaten. The flowers are offered on Hindu shrines. Anthemis nobilis Linn. an annual. The flowers are occasionally used in the manufacture of bitter beer and. Europe.

in 1613. Chervil was cultivated in Brazil in 1647 but there are no references to its early use in America. Euphorbiaceae (Stilaginaceae). stews and salads. for preserving. from McMahon in 1806.swsbm. are eaten. Malay. The berries are eaten by the natives.com . Winslow says that the Pilgrims. Apium graveolens SMALLAGE. ghesaembilla Gaertn. during their first winter. GROUNDNUT." At Port Royal. Kalm says this is the kopniss of the Indians on the Delaware. The leaves are acid and are made into preserve. CELERY. Booth says the French and Dutch have scarcely a soup or a salad in which chervil does not form a part and as a seasoner is by many preferred to parsley. who ate the roots. the plant is grown in the flower garden. however. fruits are subacid and palatable. Amboina and Malabar. with pulp agreeably acid. "were enforced to live on ground nuts. The earlier writers on American gardening mention it. aromatic flavor to soups. Northeast America. WILD BEAN. A plant of marshy places whose habitat extends from Sweden STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The leaves. East Indies. A tree of Nepal. There are curled-leaved varieties Antidesma bunius Spreng. A. principally by Europeans. The small drupes. Australia and African tropics. Its shining. ACHE. Leguminosae. It seems still to find occasional use in England. Umbelliferae. and that in 1749 some of the English ate them instead of potatoes. are the parts used to impart a warm.both boiled and raw. In Java. that the Swedes ate them for want of bread. In France. deep red. Biencourt and his followers used to scatter about the woods and shores digging ground nuts. Apios tuberosa (americana) Moench. when young. A. diandrum Spreng. the fruits are used. Gerarde speaks of the roots as being edible. Linn. dark purple when ripe. The tubers are used as food. East Indies.Page 60 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

in California and in New Zealand. The first mention of the word celery seems to be in Walafridus Strabo's STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The number of names that are given to smallage indicate antiquity. probably smallage. says planted also in gardens. if smallage was meant. 1623. but at the same time praises Alexanders for its sweet roots as an article of food.Page 61 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Egypt. the selinon heleion of Hippocrates. celery.southward to Algeria. 1561. as did Walafridus Strabo in the ninth century. 1623. and Ruellius' Dioscorides. Camerarius' Epitome of Matthiolus. and J. The prevalence of a name derived from one root indicates a recent dispersion of the cultivated variety. and Miller says. and in England the seed was sold in 1726 for planting for the use of the plant in soups and broths. does not promise much satisfaction in the eating. in the sixteenth century. Bauhin's name. differing but little from the wild form. Pinaeus. was planted for medicinal use. 1640. According to Targioni-Tozzetti. Cultivated smallage is now grown in France under the name Celeri a couper. German Selleree. and is described as a cultivated plant in the Nung Cheng Ts'nan Shu. Abyssinia and in Asia even to the Caucasus. It does not seem to have been cultivated. Bauhin's names. can be identified in the Chinese work of Kia Sz'mu. 1616. Baluchistan and the mountains of British India and has been found in Tierra del Fuego. Flanders Selderij. Tragus. 1722. Vilmorinl gives the following synonyms: French Celeri. in his Pemptades. Denmark Selleri. 1552.. that smallage is one of the herbs eaten to purify the blood. Spain apio. the fifth century A. although by some commentators the plant known as smallage has a wild and a cultivated sort. English celery. Targioni-Tozzetti says this Apium was considered by the ancients rather as a funereal or ill-omened plant than as an article of food. the eleioselinon of Theophrastus and Dioscorides and the helioselinon of Pliny and Palladius. 1529. and Dodonaeus. 1570. We have mention of a cultivated variety in France by Olivier de Serres. According to Bretschneider. Italy Sedano. This seems true. and that by early modern writers it is mentioned only as a medicinal plant. 1542. Pena and Lobel. for Fuchsius. speaks of it. Celery is supposed to be the selinon of the Odyssey. and we may suppose that this Apium. D. Apium vulgare ingratus. indicate medicinal rather than food use. Nor is there one clear statement that this smallage was used as food. Apium palustre and Apium officinarum.com . 1586.swsbm. Portugal Aipo. for sativus means simply planted as distinguished from growing wild. does not speak of its being cultivated and implies a medicinal use alone. speaks of the wild plant being transferred to gardens but distinctly says not for food use. Alamanni.

Targioni-Tozzetti says. as a certainty that celery was grown in Tuscany in the sixteenth century." Tinburg says celery is common among the richer classes in Sweden and is preserved in cellars for winter use. however. Pena and Lobel. There is no mention of celery in Fuchsius. of his Complete Gardener was published. in France "we know but one sort of it. then. Matthiolus' Commentaries. Celeri Italorum by Toumefort. There is no clear evidence. 1623. 1561. who called it ache. one with the stalks hollow and the other with the stalks solid. The French also use the vegetable and the name.poem entitled Hortulus. In 1806. Parkinson's Paradisus. mentions Sellery as a rarity and names it Apium dulce. eaten with oil and pepper. Mawe and Abercrombie note two sorts of celery in England. Tragus. 1616. that smallage was grown by the ancients as a food plant but that if planted at all it was for medicinal use. Pinaeus. 1665.Page 62 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. yet the word celeri here may be translated quick-acting and this suggests that our word celery was derived from the medicinal uses. he was born A. Strabo wrote in the ninth century. 1570. Ray. the year in which the third edition. In 1778. 806 or 807. In 1726. whence in Italy and France the leaves and stalks are esteemed as delicacies. 1558." "The disease then to celery yields. because it is very hot." The Italians call this variety Sceleri or Celeri. where he gives the medicinal uses of Apium and in line 335 uses the word as follows: “Passio turn celeri cedit devicia medelae. and died in France in 849." as it may be literally construed. Camerarius' Epitome. says. in his Historia Plantarum. however. 1558. conquered by the remedy. Townsend distinguished the celeries as smallage and "selery" and the latter he says should be planted "for Winter Sallads. Clusius. Targioni-Tozzetti states. Dodonaeus. 1686. 1542. The first mention of its cultivation as a food plant is by Olivier de Serres.com . while Parkinson speaks of celery in 1629. The hollow celery is stated by Mawe to have been the original kind and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1629. who wrote prior to 1697. or in Bauhin's Pinax. McMahon mentions four sorts in his list of garden esculents for American use.swsbm. D. Gerarde. says." Celeri is mentioned. 1597. Ray adds that in English gardens the cultivated form often degenerates into smallage. 1623. 1601. 1552. it is certain that in the sixteenth century celery was grown for the table in Tuscany. Quintyne. It is curious that no mention of a plant that can suggest celery occurs in Bodaeus and Scaliger's edition of Theophrastus. published at Amsterdam in 1644. "smallage transferred to culture becomes milder and less ungrateful. and Ray indicates the cultivation as commencing in Italy and extending to France and England. as Apium dulce.

at Tripoli and Aleppo. graveolens CELERY. in treating of the ache. sive Buselini speciem. these bulbs should be solid. Orient.swsbm. celery is said by Robinson never to be as well grown as in England or America. and the words celery and (cultivated) smallage were apparently nearly synonymous at one time. This variety of celery forms a stout tuber. crisp. Among the earlier varieties we find mention of hollow-stalked. When well grown. tender and delicate. who travelled in the East. The seeds are also used for flavoring. cooked in soups or cooked and sliced for salads. TURNIP-ROOTED Europe. both raw and cooked. from a suspicious if not poisonous plant. is sometimes sliced and used in salads. it is grown only to a limited extent and is used only by our French and German population. Vilmorin describes twelve sorts as distinct and worthy of culture in addition to the celeri a couper but in all there is this to be noted. as named in Honorius Bellus. and solid-stalked forms. a variety with hollow stalks. and J. it is commonly used as a vegetable. celeriac is seldom grown. 1573-75. whose roots are eaten as delicacies. as being the best. CELERIAC. In England and America. who died in 1613. India and California. says the root is eaten. it is commonly grown in two varieties. has become transformed into the sweet. Rauwolf. generally eaten cooked. In this country. or uncultivated smallage as would appear from the context. In Italy and the Levant. hence it is often termed turnip-rooted celery.is claimed by Cobbett. Ruellius. as we find cultivated ache spoken of in 1623 in France and at later dates petit celeri or celeri a couper. irregularly rounded. frequently exceeding the size of one's fist.com . In Germany. speaks of Eppich. the green leaves and stalks are used as an ingredient in soups. stalks sometimes hollow. rapaceum DC. celery.Page 63 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with salt and pepper. the stalks are always blanched and used raw as a salad or dressed as a dinner vegetable. cultivated even at the present time for use of the foliage in soups and broths. A. In England. there is but one type. even as late as 1821. mentions a Selinum tuberosum. Bauhin. In France. wholesome and most agreeable cultivated vegetable. at the present time the hollow-stalked forms have been discarded. In France. which STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In 1536. The first celeries grown seem to have differed but little from the wild plant. but not blanched. By cultivation. where celery is much grown. The tuber.

chap. writes thus in his Villae. prostratum Labill. which is grown in the gardens of St. In Kaffraria. It is very sweet." A. Burr describes two varieties. In 1729. 10. this indicates that celeriac was little known in England at this date. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . nearly of the size of a man's head. The history of celeriac is particularly interesting. Mueller says this plant can be utilized as a culinary vegetable. CAPE POND-WEED. known as water untjie. South Africa. Aponogeton distachyum Thunb. furnished him with a supply from Alexandria.com . Except in rich land. Naiadaceae (Aponogetonaceae). as the earlier references quoted may possibly refer to the root of the ordinary sort. the translation being liberal: "There is another kind of celery called Capitatum.seems to be the first mention of celeriac. granted from nature and unseen and unnamed by the ancients. odorous and grateful. it degenerates. the roasted roots are reckoned a great delicacy. who had long been an importer of curious seeds. a Neapolitan. 1765. According to Unger. 21). Jo.swsbm. until it differs from the common apium in no respects. Australian and Antarctic regions. although probably not. Apocynaceae. AUSTRALIAN CELERY. Baptista Porta. Its flowering spikes. Its bulb is spherical. Switzer describes the plant in a book devoted to this and other novelties but adds that he had never seen it. This plant has become naturalized in a stream near Montpelier. for he adds that the gentleman. round like a head. In 1806. Theano and other places in Apulia. except in its root. and by succeeding writers but is little known even at the present time. McMahon includes this in his list of American garden esculents. as does Randolph for Virginia before 1818. East Indies. for at this date the true celery had scarcely been sufficiently developed. Agatha. published at Frankfurt in 1592 (lib. are in South Africa in high repute as a pickle and also afford a spinach. as we seem to have a record of its first introduction and of a size at that time which is not approached in modern culture. and two varieties are offered in our seed catalogs. DOGBANE. Celeriac is again named in England in 1752. France. Apocynum reticulatum Linn.Page 64 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. CAPE ASPARAGUS. this plant furnishes a food.

East Indies. when cooked. The small. who says "the Indians cultivate very much the fruit mani. is Oviedo in his Cronica de las Indias. GRASS NUT. berry-like fruit is edible. GROUND NUT.com . and are esteemed a great delicacy. McMahon included this plant among kitchen-garden esculents. EARTH NUT. they are said to be as good as potatoes. PINDAR. This plant is now under cultivation in warm climates for the seeds which are largely eaten as nuts. Ranunculaceae. Tropical eastern Asia. the French colonists. sent in 1555 to the Brazilian coast. yet. The roots are eaten by some Indians. since Squier has found this seed in jars taken from the mummy graves of Peru. Brown. but. LATTICE-LEAP. yielding a farinaceous substance resembling the yam. 1609. at certain seasons of the year.Page 65 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Madagascar. Euphorbiaceae. the mani of the Spaniards. according to R. Although now only under field cultivation in America. Aquilegia canadensis Linn. WATER-YAM. Arachis hypogaea Linn. WILD COLUMBINE. EARTH ALMOND. fenestralis Hook.A. GOOBER. Aporusa lindleyana Baill. as the anchic of the Peruvians. gather it as an article of food. 1625. f. PEANUT. became acquainted with it under the name of mandobi. and by Marcgravius. For a long time. the fleshy root.swsbm. Tropical America. and from which an oil is extracted to be used as a substitute for olive oil to which it is equal in quality. as being raised by the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . in 1806. writers on botany were uncertain whether the peanut was a native of Africa or of America. monostachyon Linn." Before this. Ellis says this plant is not only extremely curious but also very valuable to the natives who. It seems to be mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega. The peanut was figured by Laet. The natives relish the small tubers as an article of diet. 1648. Leguminosae. North America. The first writer who notes it. A. the question of its American origin seems settled.

Japan. describes three varieties. and it is chiefly to supply the wants of these that it is kept in the shops. In China. an author late in the sixteenth century. Each tribe of the natives has its own set of trees and each family its own allotment among them. A. UDO. 1829. Aralia cordata Thunb. peanuts are grown in large quantities and their consumption by the people is very great. having acquired a relish for its taste. and Piso. The peanut was included among garden plants by McMahon. 1648. Father Merolla. anchic.Indians under the name. Some persons in this country are in the habit of chewing the root. but the young stalks are likewise a delicious vegetable. the bunya-bunya of the natives. under the name of mandois. Coniferae BUNYA. 1682. 1863. under the name of mandubi. and the peanut was described among pot-herbs by Noisette.Page 66 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Its culture was introduced into France in 1802." This may be the peanut. According to Siebold. The Spaniards call it mani but all the names. as common and indigenous in Brazil. describes a vegetable of Congo which grows "three or four together like vetches but underground and are about the bigness of an ordinary olive. he says. which the Spaniards give to the fruits and vegetables of Peru belong to the language of the Antilles. as having found it in Peru with a different name. They are used in soups in Japan. The young shoots of this species provide an excellent culinary vegetable. They cite Monardes. describe and figure the plant. From these milk is extracted like to that drawn from almonds. The fruit is raised underground. The cones furnish an edible seed which is roasted. (Panax) quinquefolia Decne & Planch. and Jefferson speaks of its culture in Virginia in 1781. Burr. It is valued for its root which is eaten like scorzonera." Marcgravius. and "is very like marrow and has the taste of almonds. Araucaria bidwillii Hook. BUNYA- Australia. Araliaceae.com . especially in Kwangtung. Minnesota and other parts of eastern America for export to China where it is valued as a medicine.swsbm. 1806. western Virginia. ynchic. (Araucariaceae). GINSENG. in fields and gardens. North America. The root is collected in large quantities in the hilly regions of Ohio. 1658. These are handed down STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . this plant is universally cultivated in Japan. he observes.

MONKEY PUZZLE. MADRONA. and from them is distilled a spirituous liquor. A. Wilson says he can testify from repeated experience that the ripe fruit is really very palatable.swsbm. Eighteen good-sized trees will yield enough for a man's sustenance all the year round. boiled or roasted. ARBUTE. A. A. The seeds are eaten by the Indians. Brazil. Mediterranean countries.from generation to generation with the greatest exactness and are believed to be the only hereditary personal property possessed by the aborigines. Theophrastus says the tree produces an edible fruit. Canary Islands.Page 67 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Southern Chili. CHILIAN PINE. that it is not worth eating. Rich. GREAT ANGELICA. Ericaceae. Sir J. Pliny. East Mediterranean countries. They are sold as an article of food in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. In Spain. The seeds are very large and are eatable. but W. unedo Linn.com . When ripe they are quite ornamental and are said sometimes to be eaten. menziesii Pursh. Arbutus andrachne Linn. either fresh. The berries are made into a sweetmeat. BRAZILIAN PINE. Archangelica (Angelica) atropurpurea Hoffm. a sugar and a sherbet are obtained from it. Don says the fruit seems to be used in Greece. MASTERWORT. E. Umbelliferae. Its fruit was eaten during the Golden Age. Smith describes the fruit as uneatable in Ireland. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . canariensis Duham. brasiliana A. imbricate Pav. The berries resemble Morello cherries. STRAWBERRY TREE. STRAWBERRY TREE. Pacific Coast of North America. A. A. CANE APPLES.

A. gmelini DC. ANGELICA. Angelica is held in great estimation in Lapland. where it is abundant and called wild parsnip. and succeeding authors it receives proper attention. Heilige Geist Wurz. dug in the autumn of the first year. Wisconsin. The whole plant has a fragrant odor and aromatic properties. Angelica is cultivated in various parts of Europe and is occasionally grown in American gardens. Northwest Asia. implies the estimation in which it was held and offers a clue to the origin of the word Angelica. Stillel says the stems are sometimes candied.Page 68 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. By Fuchsius.North America. It is also found in Alaska. A. the roots are distilled and a kind of spirit is made from them. This plant is found from New England to Pennsylvania. In Kamchatka. and northward. The seeds enter into the composition of many liquors. after the outer skin has been pulled off. In the north of Europe. stalks. The plant is in request for the use of confectioners. where the natives strip the stem of leaves. is used in medicine as an aromatic tonic and possesses the taste and smell of the seeds. officinalis (archangelica) WILD PARSNIP. The German name. This species is used for culinary purposes by the Russians in Kamchatka.swsbm. In Pomet. The leaf-stalks were formerly blanched and eaten like celery.com . and ribs of the leaves candied with sugar. and the soft. Hoffm. nor is it mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century. as in Switzerland and among the Pyrenees. internal part. mountainous regions in south Europe. the leaves and stalks are still used as a vegetable. ARCHANGEL. Europe. is eaten raw like an apple or turnip. and on the islands of Alaska. 1542. who make an excellent sweetmeat with the tender stems. The medicinal properties of the root were highly prized in the Middle Ages. Angelica has been in cultivation in England since 1568. Siberia and Himalayan regions. The root. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Bryant deems it the best aromatic that Europe produces. This plant is a native of the north of Europe and is found in the high. it is stated by Dall to be edible. we read that the seed is much used to make angelica comfits as well as the root for medicine. ANGELICA. for there are no references to it in the ancient authors of Greece and Rome. The root is used in domestic medicines as an aromatic and stimulant. This plant must be a native of northern Europe.

STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. the tender stalks are eaten as an asparagus. says the roots vary. and its roots are said to be edible. GOBO. says: "and the governor told me that its tender shoots are eaten in spring as radishes. Belgium.Page 69 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Bauhin. that both are eaten in the autumn and. Richardson says there are two varieties. and Gesner is quoted by Camerarius as having seen roots of three pounds weight. CUCKOLD. writing of Ticonderoga. 1623. hard and fibrous. is pleasant to be eaten." In Japan. are not unpleasant. and Italian. burdock is said to be cultivated as a vegetable. CLOTBUR.. HARLOCK. and France.com . Penhallow says the Japanese cultivate the root. being eaten raw with salt and pepper. ALPINE BEARBERRY. the principal differences to be noted being in the size of the root. the Swissgrown being thick. though not equal to some of the other native fruits. Ericaceae. BEGGAR'S BUTTONS. Engelkruid in Flanders and Engelwortel in Holland. in his Travels in North America. N.or angel plant. after the exterior part is taken off. the rinde peelld off. Arctic regions and mountain summits farther south. Gerarde says "the staike of the clotburre before the burres come forth. note a smaller variety as cultivated in England. according to Linnaeus. says Johns. The various figures given by herbalists show the same type of plant. Portugese. Europe and Asia and occurring as a weed in the United States. They are called amprick by the Russians at the mouth of the Obi. glauca Lindl. and Angelickwurz in German. MANZANITA. Pena and Lobel. Arctium majus (lappa) Bernh. 1806. 1570." Kalm. and the seed is still sold by our seedsmen. those of Bohemia smaller and blacker. or boyled in the broth of fat meate. In Japan. Compositae. The berries are eaten in Lapland but are a mawkish food. becoming Angelique and Archangelique in French. Garden angelica is noticed amongst American garden medicinal herbs by McMahon. Spanish. A. Y. as in English. but as an article of food it is tasteless. BURDOCK. which occurs in so many languages. Other names of like import are the modern Engelwurz in Germany.swsbm.

ARECA NUT. The fruit is used when not quite ripe as a tart apple. put into a leaf of piper-betle over which a little quick-lime is laid. The fruit grows in clusters. The heart of the leaves. BRAWLINS. is first white. the drupes are eaten in Jamaica and are accounted a pleasant dessert. then red and finally black.swsbm. It is the iss-salth of the Chinooks. the nut is about the size of a nutmeg. MANZANITA Southern California. is eaten as a salad and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . These nuts are consumed. by the Chippewaians. West Indies. It tinges the saliva red and stains the teeth. then rolled up and chewed altogether. in great quantity. A. pinang and betel nut. According to Sloane. BEARBERRY. a small portion being separated. Areca catechu Linn.Page 70 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Whole shiploads of this nut. South America. The red berries are used by the Spanish inhabitants of Texas to make a cooling. A. CREASHAK. when dry. Myrsineae. PINANG. Malacca. the fruit is relished by the Indians. farinaceous berry is utterly inedible. Dried and made into bread and baked in the sun.com . in Ceylon and the west side of India for the sake of its seed which is known under the names areca nut. It is used for the same purpose by the Crees who call it tchakoshe-pukk. North America and Arctic regions. Siam and Cochin China. This berry is regarded as eatable but is dry and of little flavor. Palmae. and by the Eskimos north of Churchill. esculenta Pav. subacid drink. East Indies. tomentosa Lindl. Its dry. A.California. according to Seemann. BETEL NUT. by whom it is termed at-tung-a-wi-at. are exported annually from Sumatra. CATECHU. Ardisia coriacea Sw. BEAR'S GRAPE. who name it kleh. The Chinook Indians mix its dried leaves with tobacco. uva-ursi Spreng. This handsome palm is cultivated throughout the Indian Archipelago. MOUNTAIN BOX. The berries are esculent. BEEF-WOOD. so universally in use among the Eastern natives.

Moluccas. furnishes toddy and from this toddy. or cabbage. palm-wine and sugar. has a peculiar flavor. A. however. ARGAN TREE. Brandis says. the heart of the stem contains large quantities of sago. This palm has been called the most useful of all palms. Sapotaceae. Seemann says. SEA CHICKWEED. North temperate and Arctic regions. and the cut flower-stalks yield a sugary sap of which sugar and palm-wine are made. Arenaria peploides Linn.has not a bad flavor as Blanco writes. A. the bud. at Bombay this palm affords tolerably good sago and the sap. the young albumen preserved in sugar forms one of the well-known preserves of the Straits. however. Caryophylleae. eject them during the process of rumination. When ripe. The seed. Graham says. From the pith. In Iceland.com . Arenga saccharifera Labill. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Argania sideroxylon Roem. The nuts of this plant are used instead of the betel nut by the convicts confined on. swallow the fruit only for the sake of the subacid rind and.Page 71 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. being unable to digest the hard seeds. the fruit. laxa Buch.swsbm. The goats. Griffith says. et Schult. Andaman Islands. The sap. jaggery sugar is prepared. freed from its noxious covering. is made into a sweetmeat by the Chinese. which is an egg-shaped drupe. ARENG PALM. In Cochin China the leaves are chewed with the betel nut. From the seeds. Palmae. Morocco. glandiformis Lam. is eaten. Andaman Islands. MOROCCO IRON-WOOD. when they are gathered and added to the general store for oil making. the natives extract an oil that is used for cooking and lighting. Tropical eastern Asia.-Ham. a species of sago is prepared which. falls from the trees and the goats then enter into competition with their masters for a share in the harvest. the plant also forms a wholesome vegetable when boiled5 and is used for a pickle. of which some three quarts a day are collected. the plant is fermented and in that state used as food. like sauerkraut.

The root is considered esculent by the mountaineers of Nepal. which is frequently planted in dry ground. Aristotelia macqui MOUNTAIN CURRANT.Page 72 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the shredded roots and berries are said to have been boiled by the Indians with their venison. The Lepchas of India prepare a food called tong from the tuberous root. A. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The roots are buried in masses until acetous fermentation sets in and are then dug. DRAGON ROOT. A. contains an acid juice. as violent illness sometimes follows a hearty meal of tong. but not entirely. It is considered inferior to taro. washed and cooked. Mediterranean regions. Cutler says. In north Africa. seasons of scarcity.com . which is not as large as our ordinary walnut. Himalayas. Himalayas. L'Herit. be obtained from the root by boiling in order that the heat may destroy the acrimonious principle. though small. the starch of the root is delicate and nutritious. North America. A large shrub called in Chile. costatum Mart. called ape in Tahiti. This is said by Ellis to be a large aroid. maqui. This is. INDIAN TURNIP. tortuosum Schott. Tiliaceae (Elaeocarpaceae). Himalayas. curvatum Kunth. however. The root. JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT. Arisarum vulgare Targ. It must.Arisaema atrorubens Blume. removed by repeated washings and the residue is innoxious and nutritive. Aroideae (Araceae). by which means their poisonous properties are in part dispersed. The berries. Aroideae (Araceae). the roots are much used in. however. have the pleasant taste of bilberries and are largely consumed in Chile.swsbm. Bigelow says. which makes it quite uneatable in the natural state. A.

The roots are nutritious and palatable and there are yellow. purple and pale varieties. ABSINTHE. however. Bridge-man. Arracacha is preferred to the potato. it is tender when boiled and nutritious. absinthium Linn. Umbelliferae. New Granada and Ecuador. Arracacia xanthorrhiza PERUVIAN CARROT. mentioned in a few words by Alcedo. Bancr. analogous to arrowroot. Linn. water. It was. Northern South America. it is now fairly established there and Morris considers it a most valuable plant-food. The root is not unlike a parsnip in shape but more blunt. This plant has been cultivated and used as a food from early times in the cooler mountainous districts of northern South America. It was introduced into Europe in 1829 and again. with a flavor between the parsnip and a roasted chestnut. Attempts to naturalize this plant in field culture in Europe have been unsuccessful. Arracacha yields. Lately introduced into India. New Zealand. and in the temperate regions of these countries. The natives eat the berries. where the roots form a staple diet of the inhabitants. A. The plant is also found in the mountain regions of Central America. It was grown near New York in 1825 4 and at Baltimore in 1828 or 1829 but was found to be worthless. racemosa Hook.swsbm. WORMWOOD. becoming more palatable and desirable the longer it is used.com . in some continental beers. ARRACACHA. but trials in England. about 16 tons per acre. Artemisia abrotanum SOUTHERNWOOD. is the first writer on American gardening who mentions absinthe but now its seeds are cataloged for sale by all our STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1789. is obtained from it by rasping in.A. The first account which reached Europe concerning this plant was published in the Annals of Botany in 1805. A fecula. according to Boussingault. Europe and temperate Asia. in 1846. says Lindley. OLD MAN. Cultivated in Europe and in England in cottage gardens on a large scale. It is generally cultivated in Venezuela. This artemisia forms an ingredient.Page 73 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Compositae. 1832. France and Switzerland were unsuccessful5 in obtaining eatable roots.

Europe. Rauwolf. maritima Linn. The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau d'absinthe. served with horseradish. In Persia. in the middle of the twelfth century. Tarragon vinegar. dracunculus Linn. and in America in compounding bitters. A. the leaves are put in salads. It was formerly used to make a conserve with sugar. found it in the gardens of Tripoli. mutellina Vill. In America. The first mention on record is by Simon Seth. in recent times. They are also eaten with beefsteaks. The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau d'absinthe. which is in request amongst epicures. Together with the young tips. WORM-SEED. East Europe. The seed is used by the rectifiers of spirits and the plant is largely cultivated in some districts of England for this purpose. A. It is classed among medicinal herbs but is largely used in France to flavor the cordial. TARRAGON. are always barren.com . The flowers. It was brought to England in or about 1548. SPIKED WORMWOOD.larger dealers. says Mclntosh. and by succeeding authors on gardening. It is a bitter tonic and aromatic. Tarragon was brought to Italy. 1597. Caucasian region. Europe. ALPINE WORMWOOD. Siberia and Europe. 1573-75. Tarragon culture is mentioned by the botanists of the sixteenth century and in England by Gerarde. as Vilmorin says. 1806. A. A. it is mentioned by McMahon. but it appears to have been scarcely known as a condiment until the sixteenth century. in pickles and in vinegar for a fish sauce. spicata Wulf. probably from the shores of the Black Sea. is much esteemed.swsbm. the Orient and Himalayan regions. Its roots are now included in our leading seed catalogs.Page 74 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tarragon has a fragrant smell and an aromatic taste for which it is greatly esteemed by the French. absinthe. It is said occasionally to form an ingredient of sauces in cookery. so that the plant can be propagated only by division. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . it has long been customary to use the leaves to create an appetite.

On the continent. a kind of farina is prepared from the seeds. A. at Sao Matheus and occasionally as far south as Rio de Janeiro. who was commissioned by the British Government for this purpose. Jamaica. It is still used in England to flavor the home-made beer of the cottagers. It is first described by the writer of Mendana's Voyage to the Marquesas Islands. Brazil.Page 75 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. of all varieties. being sometimes a foot and a half in the longer diameter. Chamisso describes a variety in the Mariana Islands with small fruit containing seeds which are frequently perfect. Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez. Vincent and 347 at Port Royal. BREADFRUIT. by way of Celebes and New Guinea. however. In 1792.swsbm. This most useful tree is nowhere found growing wild but is now extensively cultivated in warm regions. culinary herb. JACK. FELLON-HERB. The fruit is of immense size. says Johnson. of which there are many. This seedlessness does not hold true. f. took a store of plants and in 1793 landed 333 breadfruit trees at St. A. Capt. It is more especially an object of care and cultivation in the Marquesas and the Friendly and Society Islands. it is occasionally employed as an aromatic. Bligh. Brazil. but this use is by no means general. leaving their places empty which shows that its cultivation goes back to a remote antiquity. Breadfruit is also naturalized in. In the cultivated breadfruit. The tree was conveyed to the Isle of France from Luzon in the Philippines by Sonnerat. The pulpy substance is much relished by the natives. Professor Hartt says the jack is cultivated in the province of Bahia and to the north. being almost as good as the fruit of the jack. The seeds are largely used as food and the pulp is nutritious. It has been distributed from the Moluccas. to a great extent for flavoring beer before the introduction of the hop. hirsuta Lam. Mugwort was employed. Urticaceae (Moraceae). In some parts. in tropical Americal and bears fruit in Ceylon and Burma. The fruit is the size of a large orange. from Tahiti and Timor. East Indies. MUGWORT. the seeds are almost always abortive. the Isle of France.A. Sonnerat found in the Philippines a STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Northern temperate regions. 1595. incisa Linn. throughout all the islands of the Pacific Ocean to Tahiti.com . vulgaris Linn.

ariena. describes the fruit as about the size and shape of a child's head. The jack seems to be the Indian fruit described by Pliny. in Cochin China and southern China. f. are sufficient for the support of from ten to twelve people during the eight months of fruit-bearing. If the breadfruit is to be preserved. as well as upon the island of Mauritius. JACK. It is scarcely to be doubted that it occurs here and there growing wild and that perhaps Ceylon and the peninsula of Further India may be looked upon as its original native land. whose "fruit is of such size that one is enough for five persons. and the color of the contents is a greenish-yellow. This tree affords one of the most generous sources of nutriment that the world possesses. According to Poster. which would cover an English acre with their shade. at Tahiti. A. with a slight sweetness. or native bread. of which several kinds are distinguished. it is scraped from the rind and buried in a pit where it is allowed to ferment. in which state it forms an agreeable and nutritious food. about 1330. in 1769. The eatable part of breadfruit lies between the skin and the core and is as white as snow and somewhat of the consistence of new bread. who gives the name of the tree as pala. which bears ripe seeds of a considerable size.Page 76 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. somewhat resembling that of the crumb of wheaten bread mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke. which he considered as wild. twenty-seven breadfruit trees. integrifolia Linn. and to be the chagui of Friar Jordanus. It must be roasted before it is eaten. In this state it is called mandraiuta.breadfruit. in Hawaii aeiore. It is said that it will keep several years and is cooked with cocoanut milk. Wilkes says the best varieties when baked or roasted are not unlike a good custard pudding. Nine varieties are credited by Wilkes to the Fiji Islands and twenty to the Samoan. with the surface reticulated not much unlike a truffle. East Indies. sour odor. In Tahiti. of the fruit. Breadfruit is called in Tahiti maiore." Firminger says the fruit of this tree is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . fetid.com . covered with a thin skin and having a core about as big as the handle of a small knife. there are eight varieties without seeds and one variety with seeds which is inferior to the others. the Antilles and the west coast of Africa.swsbm. Captain Cook. These pits when opened emit a nauseous. Its taste is insipid. It has only recently been introduced into the islands of the Pacific Ocean. On account of its excellent fruit. this tree is a special object of cultivation on the two Indian peninsulas. when it subsides into a mass somewhat of the consistency of new cheese.

a fact which he could otherwise have hardly credited.com . It is considered delicious by those who can manage to eat it. In former times. The interior is of a soft. with the presence of a large quantity of farina. The round seeds. of about the size and color of a small orange. eaten either raw or fried. the greater part is cut off from the leaves and the portion which is left attached to them is at once replanted. The arums form the most important plants of the tropics. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Firminger says also that he has met with those who said they liked it. Tahiti. the natives have names for 33 arums. which is preserved until wanted for use. the common spotted arum furnished food to the English during the periods of scarcity. The information given under the heading of the species will show the generality of their use and their importance. gelatinous covering which envelopes the seeds. the general name. is an important article of food in Burma. which can be separated from the poisonous ingredient by heat or water and in some instances by merely drying. lakoocha Roxb. or to those not accustomed to it. Brandis says the male flower-heads are pickled.Page 77 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Malay and East Indies. The ill-shapen fruit. spicy scent and flavor of the melon to such a powerful degree as to be quite unbearable to persons of a weak stomach. The tree has a very strong and disagreeable smell. is grown in vast quantities in the Fiji group on the margins of streams under a system of irrigation. about half an inch in diameter. It seems impossible to determine in all cases to which species of arum travelers refer in recording the use of this genera of plants. Arum Aroideae (Araceae). The fruit. unattractive-looking object. A. fibrous consistency with the edible portions scattered here and there. says Brandis.swsbm. Large quantities of taro are also stored in pits where it becomes solid and is afterwards used by the natives as mandrai. There are two varieties in India. The several species of arum possess a combination of extremely acrid properties. have a very mealy and agreeable taste. eaten roasted. Lunan says the thick. southern India and Ceylon. When the root is ripe.perhaps about one of the largest in existence and is an ill-shapen. is sometimes eaten. Taro. is delicious. but it possesses the rich. the size of an orange and of an austere taste. These roots are prepared for use by boiling and are then pounded into a kind of flour. In a single Polynesian Island.

Kentucky and southward. This is the species of cane which forms cane brakes in Virginia. & Zucc. dioscoridis Sibth. are used for food as we would employ young asparagus.A. BOBBINS. LORDS-AND-LADIES. says: "It produces an abundant crop of seed with heads very like those of broom corn." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Gramineae. Flint. The seeds are farinaceous and are said to be not much inferior to wheat. When the young shoots appear in early summer. "Dioscorides showeth that the leaves also are prescribed to be eaten and that they must be eaten after they be dried and boy led. they are carefully gathered and. they make a very desirable dish. Theophrastus mentions that the roots and leaves of this plant. & Sm. were eaten in ancient Greece. macrosperma Michx. are cooked and eaten in the Levant. the cooked root is further mentioned by Dioscorides as mixed with honey by the Balearic islanders and made into cakes. CANE. for which the Indians and occasionally the first settlers substituted it. East Mediterranean countries. ADAM-AND-EVE.Page 78 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in his Western States. STARCH-ROOT. The roots. while fresh. and in the isle of Portland the plant was extensively used in the preparation of an arrowroot. The leaves. italicum Mill. A. but by heat its injurious qualities are destroyed. are said by Pallas 5 to be eaten by the Greeks of Crimea. A. Northern Japan. who says its root is eaten either raw or cooked. Westward. and in Slavonia it is made into a kind of bread. North America. steeped in vinegar. A. LARGE CANE. even of this acrid plant. This plant was in cultivation for seven years in Guernsey for the purpose of making arrow-root from its conns. under the name of take-no-ko. The thick and tuberous root.4 its roots are cooked and eaten in Albania. Mediterranean countries. as Pickering remarks. though by no means so tender as the latter." Arundinaria japonica Sieb. This arum is described by Dioscorides.swsbm. is extremely acrid. WAKE ROBIN. maculatum Linn.com . ITALIAN ARUM. According to Sprengel. CUCKOO PINT. Europe.

sugar and spice. Gen. brown. Dearborn of Massachusetts recommended the use of the young shoots of milkweed as asparagus. Fremont found the Sioux Indians of the upper Platte eating the young pods.com . PAPAW. TUBERROOT. when ripe has a rich. Vasey says the fruit. preparing them like asparagus. too lucious for the relish of most people. luscious taste. Middle and southern United States. and the fruit is relished by few except negroes. a very good." says Flint. and Balfour says it is used as a spice in Canada.swsbm. WILD GINGER. and Dewey says the young plant is thus eaten. Northeastern America. BUTTERFLY WEED. MILKWEED. North America.Asarum canadense Linn. Bartonl says the dried. The tubers are boiled and used by the Indians. palatable sugar. which is reduced into sugar by boiling. All parts of the tree have a rank smell. Asclepiadeae. Jefferys. SILKWEED.Page 79 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The Sioux of the upper Platte prepare from the flowers a crude sugar and also eat the young seed-pods. Asclepias syriaca Linn. in his Natural History of Canada. Some of the Indians of Canada use the tender shoots as an asparagus. "The pulp of the fruit. Aristolochiaceae. boiling them with the meat of the buffalo." In 1835. these are shaken early in the morning before the dew is off of them when there falls from them with the dew a kind of honey. The fruit is nutritious and a great STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Kalm says the French in Canada use the tender shoots of milkweed in spring. Asimina triloba Dun. It has the same creamy feeling in the mouth and unites the taste of eggs. It is a natural custard. Annonaceae. PLEURISYROOT. says: "What they call here the cotton-tree is a plant which sprouts like asparagus to the height of about three feet and is crowned with several tufts of flowers. the seed is contained in a pod which encloses also a very fine sort of cotton. North America. about four inches long. In France the plant is grown as an ornament. tuberosa Linn. cream. A. SNAKEROOT. and that they also make a sugar of the flowers. pulverized root is commonly used in many parts of our country as a substitute for ginger. "resembles egg-custard in consistence and appearance.

It is now naturalized in many parts of the world. East Indies and Burma. bitter and often stringy. according to Modeen Sheriff. In the southern parts of Russia and Poland. albus Linn. A. Liliaceae. Mediterranean region. officinalis Linn. Unger says it is not found either STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . but they form but a poor substitute for cultivated asparagus. the genuine sufed mush. From this plant is made. A. Spain. Mediterranean regions. A. is a plant of the seashore and river banks of southern Europe and the Crimea. ASPARAGUS. The young shoots are eaten in Italy.swsbm. A. A shrubby species of South Africa. The young heads are cut from wild plants and brought to table in Sicily. The young shoots are collected and eaten in Greece. Europe. GARDEN-HEDGE. Portugal and by the Greeks in Sicily. called in the Deccan skakakul-hindi and used as a substitute for salep. Pappe says that it produces shoots of excellent tenderness and aromatic taste. A." Asparagus acerosus Roxb.com . the waste steppes are covered with this plant. acutifolius Linn.Page 80 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant. Himalayas and Afghanistan. Caucasian regions and Siberia.resource to the savages. Dr. aphyllus Linn. so much esteemed in its cultivated state. A. laricinus Burch. They are thin. Western Mediterranean region. This species was found by Mason to be a passable substitute for our garden asparagus. adscendens Roxb. ASPARAGUS.

an author of the third century. of all the plants of the garden. The Romans of the time of Cato. and this seems good evidence that the wild and the cultivated forms were then of the same type as they are today. beloved of Theseus.. receives the most praiseworthy care and also praises the good quality of the kind that grows wild in the island of Nesida near the coast of Campania. but he also gives full directions for garden culture with as much care as did Cato. says that asparagus. A. and that the wild asparagus is the more pleasant to eat. Columella. RACEMOSE ASPARAGUS. as saying that there are two kinds. knew it well.Page 81 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Suetonius. and the word asparagos seems to have been used for the wild plant of another species. in the first century. East Indies. who lived in the second century. so that any one may gather as found. the garden and the wild asparagus.wild or cultivated in Greece. he says: "Nature has made the asparagus wild. the highly-manured asparagus may be seen at Ravenna weighing three pounds. In India. rather praises the sweetness of the wild form found growing among the rocks and recommends transplanting it to such places otherwise worthless for agriculture. without indicating preference. Cultivated asparagus seems to have been unknown to the Greeks of the time of Theophrastus and Disocorides. however. Probably the mythological mention of the asparagus thickets which concealed Perigyne. about 200 B. racemosus Willd.'' Palladius. Pliny. who also wrote in the first century. recommends transplanting the young roots from a seed-bed and devotes some space to their after-treatment. and Booth says it is common. Gesner quotes Pomponius. In his praise of gardens.— the plant. being protected by law among the lonians inhabiting Caria—referred to another species. but Daubeny says at the present time it is known under the name of asparaggia. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Behold. in consequence. He offers choice of cultivated seed or that from the wild plant. has scarcely any other taste or flavor besides that of the sugar.swsbm. African tropics and Australia. This preparation. and Cato's directions for culture would answer fairly well for the gardeners of today. except that he recommends starting with the seed of the wild plant. Firminger says the preserve prepared from the blanched shoots is very agreeable. informs us how partial the Emperor Augustus was to asparagus.com . about the beginning of the second century. C. as Dutt states. the tubers are candied as a sweetmeat. and Erasmus also mentions it.

In Germany. the value of which cannot be too highly estimated. it is cultivated occasionally as a garden herb. woodroof is used for imparting a flavor to some of the Rhine wines. Northern Africa. a bread plant. A. It was fabled to grow in the Elysian fields.swsbm. according to Chaubard. KING'S SPEAR. It has long since given way to its successors in favor. are eaten in the Peloponesus. Asia. South Russia. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . after being gathered for a short time. in the candied state. being used for flavoring cooling drinks. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia.com . whitish root is used as food by the people of Ceylon and. The root is mentioned as an esculent by Pythagoras. is often brought to India from China. Phillips. says: "Asphodel was to the ancient Greeks and Romans what the potato now is to us. Liliaceae. The long. WOODROOF. verticillatus Linn. Compositae." Aster tripolium Linn. the Orient and Europe. fleshy. Woodroof will thrive in the shade of most trees and grows in all kinds of garden soil. Asphodeline lutea Reichb. it gives out the perfume of new hay and retains this property for years. The somewhat fleshy leaves of this aster are occasionally gathered to make a kind of pickle. The flowers are sweetscented. ASTER.Page 82 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. sannentosus Linn. Pliny says the roots of asphodel were generally roasted under embers and then eaten with salt and oil and when mashed with figs were thought a most excellent dish. and hence the ancient Greeks were wont to place asphodel on the tombs of their friends.A. exercising some imagination. East Indies. The herbage is not fragrant when fresh but. ASPHODEL. Rubiaceae. JACOB'S ROD. Its seed is advertised in American garden catalogs. The young shoots. Region of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. In England. Asperula odorata Linn. This plant is mentioned as covering large tracts of land in Apulia and as being abundant in Sicily.

caryocarpus Ker-Gawl. & Haussk. Greece. The plant affords an abundance of gum and also a manna. Asia Minor and Syria. Persia. florulentus Boiss. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In certain parts of Germany and Hungary.swsbm. Swedish coffee. the roots of the great.com . gummifer Labill. boeticus Linn. which are roasted. Leguminosae. hamosus Linn. A. A. The roots are eaten by the Cree and Stone Indians of the Rocky Mountains. A. The name applied to the seeds. Persia. christianus Linn. this plant is cultivated for its seeds. A. Syria. adscendens Boiss. A. A. Mediterranean region. ASTRAGALUS. This plant yields tragacanth. GROUND PLUM. A.Page 83 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This is another species supplying a source of tragacanth. SWEDISH COFFEE. The plant yields a manna. yellow milkvetch are sought as an article of food. Arctic North America.Astragalus aboriginorum Richards. Mississippi region of North America. would indicate that it is siso grown in Scandinavia. & Haussk. creticus Lam. Its culture is the same as that of the common pea or tare. A. The unripe fruits are edible and are eaten raw or cooked. In Taurus. ground and used as a substitute for coffee.

Athamanta cervariaefolia DC. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . A. has an agreeable flavor and at first a scent resembling musk but afterwards that of a melon. They are of a mediocre taste but are employed in salads chiefly to cause an innocent surprise. Upper Amazon and Rio Negro. Persia. DC. The root is said to be eaten. kurdicus Boiss. Brazil. according to Kunth.Mediterranean region to India. A tree of the Moluccas. The fruit. Melastomaceae. This is a palm of the Rio Negro. The yellowish. Kurdistan and Syria. before maturity. Tragacanth is produced by this plant. A. resemble certain worms. The unripe fruits are edible and are eaten raw or cooked by travelers. Astrocaryum acaule Mart. A. The fruit is edible. The plant affords tragacanth. Palmae. leioclados Boiss. The fleshy part of the fruit is esteemed for food by the Indians. A. MURUMURA. Open plains and prairies from Illinois westward and southward. Umbelliferae. Teneriffe Islands.swsbm. murumura Mart. SPIGNEL. A palm of the Brazilian forest.com . Wallace states that the fleshy covering of the fruit is rather juicy and is eatable. The plant is grown particularly on account of the singularity of its fruits which. A.Page 84 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. fibrous pulp is eaten by the natives. mexicanus A. tucuma Mart. Its subacid leaves are cooked as a sauce for fish. Astronia papetaria Blume.

COHUNE PALM. The plant has an edible root. the white and the dark green. Chenopodiaceae. In 1686. by Toumefort as eaten in Greece. Attalea cohune Mart. cretensis Linn. A. Monimiaceae/ Atherospermataceae. Cosmopolitan. as it still is. Palmae. by Dioscorides as cooked and eaten.Page 85 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is grown in three varieties.swsbm. CANDY CARROT. Bauhin mentions the red. who calls it areche. TASMANIAN SASSAFRAS TREE. An agreeable liquor is made from the seeds. Linn. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . SEA ORACH.com . Southern Europe. three kinds are named by McMahon as in American gardens. Sea orach is one of the few indigenous plants of Egypt that affords sustenance to man. MOUNTAIN SPINACH.A. Atherosperma moschatum Labill. Ray mentions the white and red. It was known to the Romans under the name of atriplex. It was known to the ancient Greeks under the name of atraphaxis and Dioscorides writes that it was eaten boiled. Orach was known to Turner in England in 1538. or red oreche. Orach has long been used as a kitchen vegetable in Europe. The men of the Euphrates expedition often used this species as a culinary vegetable. It is mentioned by Antipharues as esculent. In 1806. matthioli Wulf. In 1623. A. Australia. Southeastern Europe. in many countries to correct the acidity and the green color of sorrel. used as a substitute for tea. Atriplex halimus Linn. hortensis ORACH. Its aromatic bark has been. A plant of the seashores of Europe and the Mediterranean countries and salines as far as Siberia. as mentioned by Gerarde in 1597. BUTTER LEAVES. Orach was introduced into English gardens in 1548 and was long used.

Professor Buckman sowed a plat of ground with seeds collected in 1851 and in 1856 had for the produce poor. compta Mart. In some parts of France. It is now. Batesn says the fruit is similar in size and shape to the date and has a pleasantly flavored. FLY'S LEG. on account of its excellence for fodder. NAKED OAT. PILLCORN. nuda Linn. juicy pulp. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . where the country people call it piedo de mouche. In 1860. POTATO OAT. Europe. PEELCORN. This is the common wild oat of California. in 1538. A. Avena brevis Roth. excelsa Mart. A.Honduras. It was growing in England. WILD OAT. TARTAREAN OAT. The grain is gathered by the Indians of California and is used as a bread corn. samples of what are known as the potato and Tartarean oat. the produce was good white Tartarean and potato oats. The seed-vessels are eaten as a delicacy. The Chinese are said to cultivate a variety of it with a broad. It may have been introduced by the Spaniards but it is now spread over the whole country many miles from the coast. and has been for some time. Southern Europe. A. A. The Germans call this species a native plant and say that it grows wild among grain. growing in clusters resembling a bunch of grapes. as in those of Auvergne and Forez. according to Turner. The tree bears a fruit. flat rachis. because it ripens quickly. Amazon region. URUCURI PALM. Brazil. SHORT OAT. The kernel tastes somewhat like that of the cocoanut but is far more oleaginous and the oil is superior. but true.swsbm. DRAKE. Gramineae.Page 86 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. although its wholesomeness was questionable. about the size of a large egg.com . Europe. the Orient and Asia. FLAVER. In 1852. because of the appearance of the dark awns. or fly's leg. It is cultivated in mountainous districts of Europe. This is probably an oat produced by cultivation. it is called avoine a fourrage. among the seeds of our seedsmen. The Indians did not eat it but he did. fatua Linn.

A. orientalis Schreb. SIBERIAN OAT. TARTAREAN OAT. Southern Europe and the Orient. Although the name leads to the supposition that this oat had its origin in the dry table-lands of Asia, yet we are not aware, says Lindley, that any evidence exists to show that it is so. We only know it as a cultivated plant. Phillips4 says the Siberian oat reached England in. 1777, and Unger says it was brought from the East to Europe at the end of the preceding century. A. sativa Linn. HAVER. OAT. The native land of the common oat is given as Abyssinia by Pickering. Unger says the native land is unknown, although the region along the Danube may pass as such. The oat is probably a domesticated variety of some wild species and may be A. strigosa Schreb., found wild in grain fields throughout Europe. Professor Buckman believed A. fatua Linn., to be the original species, as in eight years of cultivation he changed this plant into good cultivated varieties. Unger says the Celts and the Germans, as far as can be ascertained, cultivated this oat 2000 years ago, and it seems to have been distributed from Europe into the temperate and cold regions of the whole world. It was known to the Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. De Candolle, however, writes that the oat was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks or the Romans and is now cultivated in Greece only as an object of curiosity. The oat is not cultivated for human food in India. This grain is not mentioned in Scripture and hence would seem to be unknown to Egypt or Syria. The plant is noticed by Virgil in his Georgics with the implication that its culture was known. Pliny mentions the plant. It is, hence, quite probable that the Romans knew the oat principally as a forage crop. Pliny says that the Germans used oatmeal porridge as food. Dioscorides and Galen make similar statements, but the latter adds that although it is fitter food for beasts than men yet in times of famine it is used by the latter. From an investigation of the lacustrine remains of Switzerland, Heer finds that during the Bronze age oats were known, the oat-grain being somewhat smaller than that produced by our existing varieties. Turner observes, in 1568, that the naked oat grew in Sussex, England. The bearded oat was brought from Barbary and was cultivated in Britain about 1640; the brittle oat came from the south of Europe in 1796; the Spanish oat was introduced in 1770; the Siberian, in 1777; the Pennsylvanian, in
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1785; the fan-leaved, from Switzerland in 1791. In Scotland, the oat has long been a bread grain and, about 1850, Peter Lawson gives 40 varieties as cultivated. This cereal was sown by Gosnold on the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts, in 1602; is recorded as cultivated in Newfoundland in 1622; was growing at Lynn, Mass., in 1629-33. It was introduced into New Netherland prior to 1626 and was cultivated in Virginia previous to 1648. The Egyptian, or winter oat, was known in the South in 1800. In 1880, 36 named kinds were grown in the state of Kansas. The oat grows in Norway and Sweden as far north as 64° to 65° but is scarcely known in the south of France, Spain or Italy, and in tropical countries its culture is not attempted. A. strigosa Schreb. BRISTLE-POINTED OAT. MEAGRE OAT.. Europe. Pickering says this plant is of the Tauro-Caspian countries; it was first observed in. Germany in 1771 by Retz in Sweden in 1779; and the same year by Withering in Britain. Lindley says it is found wild in abundance in grain fields all over Europe. The smallness of the grain renders this oat unfit for cultivation except on poor, mountainous places, where nothing better may be had. The Germans, however, have much improved it Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Geraniaceae (Averrhoaceae/ Oxalidaceae). BILIMBI. BLIMBING. CUCUMBER TREE. East Indies and China. The fruit is of the form and size of a gherkin, with a smooth, thin, pale green, translucent rind like that of a ripe grape. When ripe, the flesh is as soft as butter and has somewhat the flavor of an unripe gooseberry, too acid to be eaten except when cooked. Brandis speaks of it as pickled or preserved in sugar, and Smith writes that the flowers are made into conserves. A. carambola Linn. BLIMBING. COUNTRY GOOSEBERRY. CARAMBA. CARAMBOLA.

East Indies and China. This plant has been cultivated for its fruit for ages in tropical and subtropical India. The form of the fruit is oblong, with five prominent angles; its skin is thin, green at first and yellowish afterwards; the flesh is soft and exceedingly juicy like a plum, with a grateful, acid flavor. In Hindustan and Ceylon, the fruit is sometimes as big as the two fists. In Sumatra, there are two sorts which are used chiefly in cookery. In Bengal, there are two varieties, one with acid, the
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other with sweet fruit, as also in Burma. The fruit is used as a pickle by Europeans and the flowers are said to be made into a conserve. Avicennia officinalis Linn. Verbenaceae ZEALAND MANGROVE. (Avicenniaceae). NEW

Region of the Caspian. This plant transudes a gum which the natives of New Zealand esteem as a food. The kernels are bitter but edible. Aydendron (Aniba) firmulum Nees. Lauraceae. PICHURIM BEAN. TODA SPECIE. Brazil. The Portugese of the Rio Negro, a branch of the Amazon, gather the aromatic seeds, known in trade by the names of the pichurim bean and toda specie. The seed is grated like nutmeg. Babiana plicata Ker-Gawl. Iridaceae. BABOON-ROOT. South Africa. The root is sometimes boiled and eaten by the colonists at the Cape. Baccaurea dulcis Muell. Euphorbiaceae. Malayan Archipelago; cultivated in China. The fruits of this species are rather larger than a cherry, nearly round and of a yellowish color. The pulp is luscious and sweet and is greatly eaten in Sumatra, where the tree is called choopah and in Malacca, where it goes by the name of rambeh. B. sapida Muell. East Indies and Malay. This plant is cultivated for its agreeable fruits. The Hindus call it lutqua B. sp.? India. Royle says the plant yields the tampui, a fruit ranking in point of taste and flavor along with the lausch. Bactris gasipaes H. B. & K. Palmae. PEACH PALM. Venezuela. On the Amazon, says Bates, this plant does not grow wild
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but has been cultivated from time immemorial by the Indians. The fruit is dry and mealy and may be compared in taste to a mixture of chestnuts and cheese. Bunches of sterile or seedless fruit sometimes occur at Ega and at Para. It is one of the principal articles of food at Ega when in season and is boiled and eaten with treacle and salt. Spencer compares the taste of the mealy pericarp, when cooked, to a mixture of potato and chestnut but says it is superior to either. Seemann says in most instances the seed is abortive, the whole fruit being a farinaceous mass. Humboldt says every cluster contains from 50 to 80 fruits, yellow like apples but purpling as they ripen, two or three inches in diameter, and generally without a kernel; the farinaceous portion is as yellow as the yolk of an egg, slightly saccharine and exceedingly nutritious. He found it cultivated in abundance along the upper Orinoco. In Trinidad, the peach palm is said to be very prolific, bearing two crops a year, at one season the fruit all seedless and another season bearing seeds. The seedless fruits are highly appreciated by natives of all classes. B. major Jacq. PRICKLY PALM. West Indies. The fruit is the size of an egg with a succulent, purple coat from which wine may be made. The nut is large, with an oblong kernel and is sold in the markets under the name of cocorotes. B. maraja Mart. MARAJA PALM. Brazil. This palm has a fruit of a pleasant, acid flavor from which a vinous beverage is prepared. B. minor Jacq. PRICKLY POLE. TOBAGO CANE. Jamaica. The fruit is dark purple, the size of a cherry and contains an acid juice which Jacquin says is made into a sort of wine. The fruit is edible but not pleasant. Bagassa guianensis Aubl. Urticaceae (Moraceae). Guiana. The tree bears an orange-shaped edible fruit. Balanites aegyptica ZACHUN-OIL TREE. Delile. Simarubaceae (Balanitaceae).

Northern Africa, Arabia and Palestine. A shrubby, thorny bush of the
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southern border of the Sahara from the Atlantic to Hindustan. It is called in equatorial Africa m'choonchoo; the edible drupe tastes like an intensely bitter date. Balsamorhiza hookeri Nutt. Compositae. BALSAM-ROOT. Northwestern America. The thick roots of this species are eaten raw by the Nez Perce Indians and have, when cooked, a sweet and rather agreeable taste. B. sagittata Nutt. OREGON SUNFLOWER. Northwestern America. The roots are eaten by the Nez Perce Indians in Oregon, after being cooked on hot stones. They have a sweet and rather agreeable taste. Wilkes mentions the Orgeon sunflower of which the seeds, pounded into a meal called mielito, are eaten by the Indians of Puget Sound. Bambusa. Gramineae. In India, the Bambusa flowers so frequently that in Mysore and Orissa the seeds are mixed with honey and eaten like rice. The farina of the seeds is eaten in China. In Amboina, in the East Indies, the young bamboo shoots, cut in slices and pickled, are used as a provision for long voyages and are sold in the markets as a culinary vegetable. In the Himalayas, the young shoots are eaten as a vegetable, and the seeds of a variety called praong in Sikldm are boiled and made into cakes or into beer. Williams says: "In China the tender shoots are cultivated for food and are, when four or five inches high, boiled, pickled, and comfited." Fortune says: "In China the young shoots are cultivated for food and are taken to market in large quantities." B. arundinacea Willd. BAMBOO. East Indies. The seeds of this and other species of Bambusa have often saved the lives of thousands in times of scarcity in India, as in Orissa in 1812, in Kanara in 1864 and in 1866 in Malda. The plant bears whitish seed, like rice, and Drury says these seeds are eaten by the poorer classes. B. tulda Roxb. BAMBOO.
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East Indies and Burma. In Bengal, the tender young shoots are eaten as pickles by the natives. Banisteria (Heteroptyrys) crotonifolia A. Juss. Malpighiaceae. Brazil. The fruit is eaten in Brazil. Baptisia tinctoria R. Br. Leguminosae. HORSE-FLY WEED. WILD INDIGO. Northeastern America. Barton says the young shoots of this plant, which resemble asparagus in appearance, have been used in New England as a substitute for asparagus. Barbarea arcuata Reichb. Cruciferae. BITTER CRESS. Europe and Asia. The plant serves as a bitter cress. B. praecox R. Br. AMERICAN CRESS. BELLE ISLE CRESS. EARLY WINTER CRESS. LAND CRESS. SCURVY GRASS. Europe. This cress is occasionally cultivated for salad in the Middle States under the name scurvy grass and is becoming spontaneous farther south. It is grown in gardens in England as a cress and is used in winter and spring salads. In Germany, it is generally liked. In the Mauritius, it is regular cultivation and is known as early winter cress. In the United States, its seeds are offered in seed catalogs. B. vulgaris R. Br. ROCKET. WINTER CRESS. YELLOW ROCKET. Europe and temperate Asia. This herb of northern climates has been cultivated in gardens in England for a long time as an early salad and also in Scotland, where the bitter leaves are eaten by some. In early times, rocket was held in some repute but is now banished from cultivation yet appears in gardens as a weed. The whole herb, says Don, has a nauseous, bitter taste and is in some degree mucilaginous. In Sweden, the leaves are boiled as a kale. In New Zealand, the plant is used by the natives as a food under the name, toi. Rocket is included in the list of American garden esculents by McMahon, in 1806. In 1832, Bridgeman says winter cress is used as a salad in spring and autumn and by some boiled as a spinage.
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Barringtonia alba Blume. Myrtaceae (Barringtoniaceae). BOTTLEBRUSH TREE. Moluccas. The young leaves are eaten raw. B. butonica Forst. Islands of the Pacific. This plant has oleaginous seeds and fruits which are eaten green as vegetables. B. careya F. Muell. Australia. The fruit is large, with an adherent calyx and is edible. B. edulis Seem. Fiji Islands. The rather insipid fruit is eaten either raw or cooked by the natives. B. excelsa Blume. India, Cochin China and the Moluccas. The fruit is edible and the young leaves are eaten cooked and in salad. Basella rubra Linn. Chenopodiaceae NIGHTSHADE. (Basellaceae. MALABAR

Tropical regions. This twining, herbaceous plant is cultivated in all parts of India, and the succulent stems and leaves are used by the natives as a pot-herb in the way of spinach. In Burma, the species is cultivated and in the Philippines is seemingly wild and eaten by the natives. It is also cultivated in the Mauritius and in every part of India, where it occurs wild. Malabar nightshade was introduced to Europe in 1688 and was grown in England in 1691, but these references can hardly apply to the vegetable garden. It is, however, recorded in French gardens in 1824 and 1829. It is grown in France as a vegetable, a superior variety having been introduced from China in 1839. According to Livingstone, it is cultivated as a pot-herb in India. It is a spinach plant which has somewhat the odor of Ocimum basilicum. The species is cultivated in almost every part of India as a spinach, and an infusion of the leaves in used as tea. It is called Malabar nightshade by Europeans of India.
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Bassia (Madhuca) butyracea Roxb. Sapotaceae. INDIAN-BUTTER. PHOOLWA-OIL PLANT. East Indies. The pulp of the fruit is eatable. The juice is extracted from the flowers and made into sugar by the natives. It is sold in the Calcutta bazaar and has all the appearance of date sugar, to which it is equal if not superior in quality. An oil is extracted from the seeds, and the oil cake is eaten as also is the pure vegetable butter which is called chooris and is sold at a cheap rate. B. latifolia Roxb. EPIE. MAHOUA. YALLAH-OIL PLANT. East Indies. The succulent flowers fall by night in large quantities from the tree, are gathered early in the morning, dried in the sun and sold in the bazaars as an important article of food. They have a sickish, sweet taste and smell and are eaten raw or cooked. The ripe and unripe fruit is also eaten, and from the fruit is expressed an edible oil. B. longifolia Linn. ILLUPIE-OIL PLANT. ILPA. East Indies. The flowers are eaten by the natives of Mysore, either dried, roasted, or boiled to a jelly. The oil pressed from the fruits is to the common people of India a substitute for ghee and cocoanut oil in their curries. Batis maritima SALTWORT. Linn. Batidaceae. JAMAICA SAMPHIRE.

Jamaica. This low, erect, succulent plant is used as a pickle. Bauhinia esculenta Burch. Leguminosae. South Africa. The root is sweet and nutritious. B. lingua DC. Moluccas. This species is used as a vegetable. B. malabarica Roxb. East Indies and Burma. The acid leaves are eaten.
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B. purpurea Linn. East Indies, Burma and China. The flower-buds are pickled and eaten as a vegetable. B. tomentosa Linn. ST. THOMAS' TREE. Asia and tropical Africa. The seeds are eaten in the Punjab, and the leaves are eaten by natives of the Philippines as a substitute for vinegar. B. vahlii Wight & Am. MALOO CREEPER. East Indies. The pods are roasted and the seeds are eaten. Its seeds taste, when ripe, like the cashew-nut. B. variegata Linn. MOUNTAIN EBONY. East Indies, Burma and China. There are two varieties, one with purplish, the other with whitish flowers. The leaves and flower-buds are eaten as a vegetable and the flower-buds are often pickled in India. Beckmannia erucaeformis Host. Gramineae. Europe, temperate Asia and North America. According to Engelmann, the seeds are collected for food by the Utah Indians. Begonia barbata Wall. Begoniaceae. BEGONIA. East Indies and Burma. The leaves, called tengoor, are eaten by the natives as a pot-herb. Hooker says the stems of many species are eaten in the Himalayas, when cooked, being pleasantly acid. The stems are made into a sauce in Sikkim. B. cucullata Willd. BEGONIA. Brazil. The leaves are used as cooling salads. B. malabarica Lam. BEGONIA. East Indies. Henfrey says the plants are eaten as pot-herbs.
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B. picta Sm. BEGONIA. Himalayas. The leaves have an acid taste and are used as food. Bellis perennis Linn. Compositae. ENGLISH DAISY. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. Lightfoot says the taste of the leaves is somewhat acid, and, in scarcity of garden-stuff, they have been used in some countries as a pot-herb Bellucia aubletii Naud. Melastomaceae. Guiana. A tree of Guiana which has an edible, yellow fruit.7 B. brasiliensis Naud. Brazil. The fruit is edible. Benincasa cerifera Savi. Cucurbitaceae. WAX GOURD. WHITE GOURD. WHITE PUMPKIN. Asia and African tropics. This annual plant is cultivated in India for its very large, handsome, egg-shaped gourd. The gourd is covered with a pale greenish-white, waxen bloom. It is consumed by the natives in an unripe state in their curries. This gourd is cultivated throughout Asia and its islands and in France as a vegetable. It is described as delicate, quite like the cucumber and preferred by many. The bloom of the fruit forms peetha wax and occurs in sufficient quantity to be collected and made into candles. This cucurbit has been lately introduced into European gardens. According to Bret-schneider, it can be identified in a Chinese book of the fifth century and is mentioned as cultivated in Chinese writings of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 150308, Ludovico di Varthema describes this gourd in India under the name como-langa. In 1859, Naudin says it is much esteemed in southern Asia, particularly in China, and that the size of its fruit, its excellent keeping qualities, the excellence of its flesh and the ease of its culture should long since have brought it into garden culture. He had seen two varieties: one, the cylindrical, ten to sixteen inches long and one specimen twenty-four inches long by eight to ten inches in diameter, from Algiers; the other, an ovoid fruit, shorter, yet large, from China. The long variety was grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1884 from seed from France. The fruit is oblong-cylindrical,
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resembling very closely a watermelon when, unripe but when ripe covered with a heavy glaucous bloom. This plant is recorded in herbariums as from the Philippine Islands, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji Islands, Tahiti, New Holland and southern China and as cultivated in Japan and in China. This species is the Cumbulam of Rheede Hort. Mal., 8, p. 5, t. 3; the Camolenga of Rumphius Amb. 5, 395, t. 143; the Cucurbita Pepo of Loureiro Cochinch. 593. Berberis angulosa Wall. Berberideae. BARBERRY. India. This is a rare Himalayan species with the largest flowers and fruit of any of the thirteen species found on that range. In Sikkim, it is a shrub four or more feet in height, growing at an elevation of from 11,000 to 13,000 feet, where it forms a striking object in autumn from the rich golden and red coloring of its foliage. The fruit is edible and less acid than that of the common species. B. aquifolium Pursh. MAHONIA. MOUNTAIN GRAPE. OREGON GRAPE. Western North America. This shrub is not rare in cultivation as an ornamental. It has deep blue berries in clusters somewhat resembling the frost grape and the flavor is strongly acid. The berries are used as food, and the juice when fermented makes, on the addition of sugar, a palatable and wholesome wine. It is said not to have much value as a fruit. It is common in Utah and its fruit is eaten, being highly prized for its medicinal properties. The acid berry is made into confections and eaten as an antiscorbutic, under the name mountain grape. B. aristata DC. NEPAL BARBERRY. East Indies. The Nepal barberry produces purple fruits covered with a fine bloom, which in India are dried in the sun like raisins and used like them at the dessert. It is native to the mountains of Hindustan and is called in Arabic aarghees. The plants are quite hardy and fruit abundantly in English gardens. Downing cultivated it in America but it gave him no fruit. In Nepal, the berries are dried by the Hill People and are sent down as raisins to the plains.
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B. asiatica Roxb. ASIATIC BARBERRY. Region of Himalayas. According to Lindley, the fruit is round, covered with a thick bloom and has the appearance of the finest raisins. The berries are eaten in India. The plants are quite hardy and fruit abundantly in English gardens. B. buxifolia Lam. MAGELLAN BARBERRY. This evergreen shrub is found native from Chile to the Strait of Magellan. According to Dr. Philippi, it is the best of the South American species; the berries are quite large, black, hardly acid and but slightly astringent. The fruit, says Sweet, is used in England both green and ripe as are gooseberries, for making pies and tarts. In Valdivia and Chiloe, provinces of Chile, they are frequently consumed. It has ripened fruit at Edinburgh, and Mr. Cunningham enthusiastically says it is as large as the Hamburg grape and equally good to eat. It is also grown in the gardens of the Horticultural Society, London, from which cions appear to have been distributed. Under the name Black Sweet Magellan, it is noticed as a variety in Downing. It was introduced into England about 1828. B. canadensis Pursh. AMERICAN BARBERRY. North America; a species found in the Alleghenies of Virginia and southward but not in Canada. The berries are red and of an agreeable acidity. B. darwinii Hook. DARWIN'S BARBERRY. Chile and Patagonia. In Devonshire, England, the cottagers preserve the berries when ripe, and a party of school children admitted to where there are plants in fruit will clear the bushes of every berry as eagerly as if they were black currants. B. empetrifolia Lam. FUEGIAN BARBERRY. Region of Magellan Strait. The berry is edible. B. glauca DC. New Granada. The berry is edible.
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B. lycium Royle. INDIAN BARBERRY. Himalayan region. In China, the fruit is preserved as in Europe, and the young shoots and leaves are made use of as a vegetable or for infusion as a tea. B. nepalensis Spreng. MAHONIA. An evergreen of the Himalayas. The fruits are dried as raisins in the sun and sent down to the plains of India for sale. B. nervosa Pursh. OREGON GRAPE. Northwestern America; pine forests of Oregon. The fruit resembles in size and taste that of B. aquifolium. B. pinnata Lag. BLUE BARBERRY. Mexico; a beautiful, blue-berried barberry very common in New Mexico. It is called by the Mexicans lena amorilla. The berries are very pleasant to the taste, being saccharine with a slight acidity. B. sibirica Pall. SIBERIAN BARBERRY. Siberia. The berry is edible. B. sinensis Desf. China. The berry is edible. B. tomentosa Ruiz & Pav. HAIRY BARBERRY. Chile. The berry is edible. B. trifoliolata Moric. Western Texas. The bright red, acid berries are used for tarts and are less acid than those of B. vulgaris B. vulgaris Linn. BARBERRY. JAUNDICE BERRY. PIPRAGE.
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Europe and temperate Asia. This barberry is sometimes planted in gardens in England for its fruit. It was early introduced into the gardens of New England and increased so rapidly that in 1754 the Province of Massachusetts passed an act to prevent its spreading. The berries are preserved in sugar, in syrup, or candied and are esteemed by some. They are also occasionally pickled in vinegar, or used for flavoring. There are varieties with yellow, white, purple, and black fruits. A celebrated preserve is made from a stoneless variety at Rouen, France. The leaves were formerly used to season meat in England. The berries are imported from Afghanistan into India under the name of currant. A black variety was found by Tournefort on the bank of the Euphrates, the fruit of which is said to be of delicious flavor. Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. Myrtaceae (Lecythidaceae). AMAZON NUT. ALMONDS OF THE AMAZON. BRAZIL NUT. BUTTERNUT. CREAMNUT. PARA NUT. NIGGERTOE. Brazil. This is one of the most majestic trees of Guiana, Venezuela and Brazil. It furnishes the triangular nuts of commerce everywhere used as a food. It was first described in 1808. An oil is expressed from the kernels and the bark is used in caulking ships. Besleria violacea Aubl. Gesneraceae. Guiana. The purple berry is edible. Beta vulgaris Linn. Chenopodiaceae. BEET. CHARD. CHILIAN BEET. LEAF-BEET. MANGEL. MANGEL WURZEL. MANGOLD. ROMAN KALE. SEA BEET. SEA-KALE BEET. SICILIAN BEET. SPINACH BEET. SUGAR BEET. SWISS CHARD. Europe and north Africa. The beet of the garden is essentially a modem vegetable. It is not noted by either Aristotle or Theophrastus, and, although the root of the chard is referred to by Dioscorides and Galen, yet the context indicates medicinal use. Neither Columella, Pliny nor Palladius mentions its culture, but Apicius, in the third century, gives recipes for cooking the root of Beta, and Athenaeus, in the second or third century, quotes Diphilus of Siphnos as saying that the beet-root was grateful to the taste and a better food than the cabbage. It is not mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century, but the word bete occurs in English recipes for cooking in 1390.
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Barbarus, who died in 1493, speaks of the beet as having a single, long, straight, fleshy, sweet root, grateful when eaten, and Ruellius, in France, appropriates the same description in 1536, as does also Fuchsius in 1542; the latter figures the root as described by Barbarus, having several branches and small fibres. In 1558, Matthiolus says the white and black chards are common in Italian gardens but that in Germany they have a red beet with a swollen, turnip-like root which is eaten. In 1570, Pena and Lobel speak of the same plant but apparently as then rare, and, in 1576, Lobel figures this beet, and this figure shows the first indication of an improved form, the root portion being swollen in excess over the portion by the collar. This beet may be considered the prototype of the long, red varieties. In 1586, Camerarius figures a shorter and thicker form, the prototype of our half-long blood beets. This same type is figured by Daleschamp, 1587, and also a new type, the Beta Romana, which is said in Lyte's Dodoens, 1586, to be a recent acquisition. It may be considered as the prototype of our turnip or globular beets. Another form is the flat-bottomed red, of which the Egyptian and the Bassano of Vilmorin, as figured, may be taken as the type. The Bassano was to be found in all the markets of Italy in 1841, and the Egyptian was a new sort about Boston in 1869. Nothing is known concerning the history of this type. The first appearance of the improved beet is recorded in Germany about 1558 and in England about 1576, but the name used, Roman beet, implies introduction from Italy, where the half-long type was known in 1584. We may believe Ruellius's reference in 1536 to be for France. In 1631, this beet was in French gardens under the name, Beta rubra pastinaca, and the culture of "betteraves" was described in Le Jardinier Solitaire, 1612. Gerarde mentions the "Romaine beete" but gives no figure. In 1665, in England, only the Red Roman was listed by Lovell, and the Red beet was the only kind noticed by Townsend, a seedsman, in 1726, and a second sort, the common Long Red, is mentioned in addition by Mawe, 1778, and by Bryant, 1783. In the United States, one kind only was in McMahon's catalog of 1806 — the Red beet, but in 1828 four kinds are offered for sale by Thorbum. At present, Vilmorin describes seventeen varieties and names and partly describes many others.

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CHARD. Chard was the beta of the ancients and of the Middle Ages. Red chard was noticed by Aristotle about 350 B. C. Theophrastus knew two kinds—the white, called Sicula, and the black (or dark green), the most esteemed. Dioscorides also records two kinds. Eudemus, quoted by Athenaeus, in the second century, names four; the sessile, the white, the common and the dark, or swarthy. Among the Romans, chard finds frequent mention, as by Columella, Pliny, Palladius and Apicius. In China is was noticed in writings of the seventh, eighth, fourteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; in Europe, by all the ancient herbalists. Chard has no Sanscrit name. The ancient Greeks called the species teutlion; the Romans, beta; the Arabs, seig; the Nabateans, silq. Albertus Magnus, in the thirteenth century, uses the word acelga, the present name in Portugal and Spain. The wild form is found in the Canary Isles, the whole of the Mediterranean region as far as the Caspian, Persia and Babylon, perhaps even in western India, as also about the sea-coasts of Britain. It has been sparingly introduced, into kitchen-gardens for use as a chard. The red, white, and yellow forms are named from quite early times; the red by Aristotle, the white and dark green by Theophrastus and Disocorides. In 1596, Bauhin describes dark, red, white, yellow, chards with a broad stalk and the sea-beet. These forms, while the types can be recognized, yet have changed their appearance in our cultivated plants, a greater compactness and development being noted as arising from the selection and cultivation which has been so generally accorded in recent times. Among the varieties Vilmorin describes are the White, Swiss, Silver, Curled Swiss, and Chilian. SEA BEET. The leaves of the sea beet form an excellent chard and in Ireland are collected from the wild plant and used for food; in England the plant is sometimes cultivated in gardens. This form has been ennobled by careful culture, continued until a mangold was obtained. SWISS CHARD. Swiss chard is deemed by Ray to have been known to Gerarde, 1597,
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for Gerarde, in his Herball, indicates the sportive character of the seed as to color and mentions a height which is attained only by this plant. He says of it, "another sort hereof that was brought unto me from beyond the seas," and particularly notices the great breadth of the stalk; but the color particularly noticed is the red sort. Ray gives as a synonym Beta italica Parkinson. Swiss chard is quite variable in the stalks, according to the culture received. SILVER-LEAF BEET. The silver-leaf beet (Poiree blonde a carde blanche Vilm. 1883) is a lighter green form of swiss chard, as described by Vilmorin, but with shorter and much broader stalk. It seems to be a variety within the changes which can be effected by selection and culture and perhaps can be referred to the Chilean type. CHILEAN BEET. The Chilean beet is a form usually grown for ornamental purposes. The stalks are often very broad and twisted and the colors very clear and distinct, the leaf puckered and blistered as in the Curled Swiss. In the Gardeners' Chronicle, 1844, it is said that "these ornamental plants were introduced to Belgium some ten or twelve years previously." It is yellow or red and varies in all the shades of these two colors. In 1651, J. Bauhin speaks of two kinds of chard as novelties: the one, white, with broad ribs; the other, red. He also speaks of a yellow form, differing from the kind with a boxwood-yellow root. In 1655, Lobel describes a chard with yellowish stems, varied with red. The forms now found are described by their names: Crimson-veined Brazilian, Golden-veined Brazilian, Scarlet-ribbed Chilean, Scarlet-veined Brazilian, Yellowribbed Chilean and Red-stalked Chilean. The modern chards are the broad-leaved ones and all must be considered as variables within a type. This type may be considered as the one referred to by Gerarde in 1597, whose "seedes taken from that plant which was altogether of one colour and sowen, doth bring foorth plants of many and variable colours." Our present varieties now come true to color in most instances but some seeds furnish an experience such as that which Gerarde records.

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MANGOLD. Mangolt was the old German name for chard, or rather for the beet species, but in recent times the mangold is a large-growing root of the beet kind used for forage purposes. In the selections, size and the perfection of the root above ground have been important elements, as well as the desire for novelty, and hence we have a large number of very distinct-appearing sorts: the long red, about two-thirds above ground; the olive-shaped, or oval; the globe; and the flat-bottomed Yellow d'Obendorf. The colors to be noted are red, yellow and white. The size often obtained in single specimens is enormous, a weight of 135 pounds has been, claimed in California, and Gasparin in France vouches for a root weighing 132 pounds. Very little can be ascertained concerning the history of mangolds. They certainly are of modem introduction. Olivier de Serres, in France, 1629, describes a red beet which was cultivated for cattle-feeding and speaks of it as a recent acquisition from Italy. In England, it is said to have arrived from Metz in 1786; but there is a book advertised of which the following is the title: Culture and Use of the Mangel Wurzel, a Root of Scarcity, translated from the French of the Abbe de Commerell, by J. C. Lettson, with colored plates, third edition, 1787, by which it would appear that it was known earlier. McMahon records the mangold as in American culture in 1806. Vilmorin describes sixteen kinds and mentions many others. SUGAR BEET. The sugar beet is a selected form from the common beet and scarcely deserves a separate classification. Varieties figured by Vilmorin are all of the type of the half-long red, and agree in being mostly underground and in being very or quite scaly about the collar. The sugar beet has been developed through selection 6f the roots of high sugar content for the seedbearers. The sugar beet industry was born in France in 1811, and in 1826 the product of the crop was 1,500 tons of sugar. The use of the sugar beet could not, then, have preceded 1811; yet in 1824 five varieties, the grosse rouge, petite rouge, rouge ronde, jaune and blanche are noted and the French Sugar, or Amber, reached American gardens before 1828. A richness of from 16 to 18 per cent of sugar is now claimed for Vilmorin's new Improved White Sugar. The discovery of sugar in the beet is credited to Margraff in 1747,
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having been announced in a memoir read before the Berlin Academy of Sciences. A partial synonymy of Beta vulgaris is as follows: RED BEETS. I. Beta rubra. Lob. 124. 1576; Icon. 1:248. 1591; Matth. 371. 1598. B. rubra Romana. Dod. 620. i6i6. Common Long Red. Mawe. 1778. Betterave rouge grosse. Vilm. 38. 1883. Long Blood. Thorb. 1828, i886. II. Beta rubra. Cam. Epit. 256. 1586; Lugd. 535. 1587; Pancov. n. 607. 1673. Betiola rossa. Durc. 71. 1617. Betterave rouge naine. Vilm. 37. 1883. Pineapple beet. III. Beta erythorrhizos Dodo. Lugd. 533. 1587. Beta rubra radice crassa, alia species. Bauh. J. 2:961. 1651. B. rubra . . . russa; Beta-rapa. Chabr. 303. 1677. Turnip-pointed red. Mawe. 1778. Turnip-rooted red. Bryant 26. 1783. Early Blood Turnip. Thorb. 1828, i886. YELLOW BEETS. IV. Beta quarto radice buxea. Caesalp. 1603 from Mill. Diet. 1807. Yellow-rooted. Mill. Diet. 1807. Betterave jaune grosse. Vilm. 41. 1883. V. Beta rubra, lutea; Beta-rapa. Chabr. 305. 1677. Turnip-pointed yellow. Mawe. 1778. Yellow Turnip. Thorb. 1828. Betterave jaune ronde sucre. Vilm. 41. 1883.
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SEA BEET. VI. Beta sylvestris spontanea marina. Lob.Obs.125. 1576. B. sylvestris maritima. Bauh. Phytopin. 191. 1596. Sea Beet. Ray Hist. l :204. 1686. WHITE BEET. VII. Beta alba lactucaeand rumicis folio, etc. Advers. 93. 1570. B. alba vel pallescens, quawi Cicia officin. Bauh. Pin. n8. 1623. White Beet. Ray 204. 1686. Beta cicla. Linn. Sp. 322. 1774. Common White-Leaved. Mawe. 1778. White-leaved. McMahon 187. 18o6. Spinach-Beet. Loudon. 1860. Poiree blonde ou commune. Vilm. 421. 1883. SWISS CHARD. VIII. Beta alba? 3. Gerarde 251. 1597. The Sicilian Broad-Leaved Beet. Ray 205. 1686. White Beet. Townsend. 1726. Chard, or Great White Swiss Beet. Mawe. 1778. Swiss, or Chard Beet. Mill. Diet. 1807. Swiss Chard, or Silver Beet. Buist. 1851. Silver-Leaf Beet. Burr 292. 1863. Poiree a carde blanche. Vilm. 421. 1883. SILVER-LEAF BEET. IX. Poiree blonde a carde blanche. Vilm. 1883. CURLED SWISS CHARD. X. Curled-Leaf Beet. Burr 291. 1863. Beck's Seakale Beet. Card. Chron. 1865. Poiree a blanche frises. Vilm. 1883.

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Betula alba Linn. Cupuliferae (Betulaceae). CANOE BIRCH. LADY BIRCH. PAPER BIRCH. WHITE BIRCH. Europe, northern Asia and North America. The bark, reduced to powder, is eaten by the inhabitants of Kamchatka, beaten up with the ova of the sturgeon, and the inner bark is ground into a meal and eaten in Lapland in times of dearth. Church says sawdust of birchwood is boiled, baked and then mixed with flour to form bread in Sweden and Norway. In Alaska, says Dall, the soft, new wood is cut fine and mingled with tobacco by the economical Indian. From the sap, a wine is made in Derbyshire, England, and, in 1814, the Russian soldiers near Hamburg intoxicated themselves with this fermented sap. The leaves are used in northern Europe as a substitute for tea, and the Indians of Maine make from the leaves of the American variety a tea which is relished. At certain seasons, the sap contains sugar. In Maine, the sap is sometimes collected in the spring and made into vinegar. B. lenta Linn. BLACK BIRCH. CHERRY BIRCH. MAHOGANY BIRCH. SWEET BIRCH. North America. The sap, in Maine, is occasionally converted into vinegar. B. nigra Linn. RED BIRCH. RIVER BIRCH. From Massachusetts to Virginia. The sap contains sugar in the spring, according to Henfrey. Billardiera mutabilis Salisb. Pittosporeae. APPLE-BERRY. Australia. This species is said by Backhouse to have pleasant, subacid fruit. Bixa orellana Linn. Bixaceae. ANNATTO. South America. This shrub furnishes in the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds the annatto of commerce, imported from South America and used extensively for coloring cheese and butter. The culture of this plant is chiefly carried on in Guadeloupe and Cayenne, where the product is known as roucou. It is grown also in the Deccan and other parts of India and the Eastern Archipelago, in the Pacific Islands, Brazil, Peru, and Zanzibar, as Simmonds writes.
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Blepharis edulis Pers. Acanthaceae. Persia, Northwestern India, Nubia and tropical Arabia. The leaves are eaten crude. Blighia sapida Kon. Sapindaceae. AKEE FRUIT. Guinea. This small tree is a native of Guinea and was carried to Jamaica by Captain Bligh in 1793. It is much esteemed in the West Indies as a fruit. The fruit is fleshy, of a red color tinged with yellow, about three inches long by two in width and of a three-sided form. When ripe, it splits down the middle of each side, disclosing three shining, jet-black seeds, seated upon and partly immersed in a white, spongy substance called the aril. This aril is the eatable part. Fruits ripened in the hothouses of England have not been pronounced very desirable. Unger says, however, the seeds have a fine flavor when cooked and roasted with the fleshy aril. Boerhaavia repens Linn. Nyctagineae. HOG-WEED. Cosmopolitan tropics. According to Ainslie, the leaves are eaten in India, and Graham says in the Deccan it is sometimes eaten by the natives as greens. It is a common and troublesome weed of India. The young leaves are eaten by the natives as greens and made into curries. Bomarea edulis Herb. Amaryllideae (Alstroemeriaceae). WHITE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. Tropical America. The roots are round and succulent and when boiled are said to be a light and delicate food. A farinaceous or mealy substance is also made of them, from which cream is made, wholesome and very agreeable to the taste. The roots are sold under the name of white Jerusalem artichoke. B. glaucescens Baker. Ecuador. The fruit is sought after by children on account of a sweet, gelatinous pulp, resembling that of the pomegranate, in which the seeds are imbedded. B. salsilla Mirb.
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Chile. The tubers are available for human food. Bombax ceiba Linn. Malvaceae (Bombacaceae). GOD-TREE. SILKCOTTON TREE. South America. The leaves and buds, when young and tender, are very mucilaginous, like okra, and are boiled as greens by the negroes of Jamaica. The fleshy petals of the flowers are sometimes prepared as food by the Chinese. The tree is called god-tree in the West Indies, where it is native. B. malabaricum DC. COTTON TREE. East Indies, Malay and China. The calyx of the flower-bud is eaten as a vegetable. B. septenatum Jacq. Tropical America. The plant furnishes a green vegetable. Bongardia rauwolfii C. A. Mey. Berberideae (Leonticaceae). Greece and the Orient. This plant was noticed as early as 1573 by Rauwolf, who spoke of it as the true chrysogomum of Dioscorides. The Persians roast or boil the tubers and use them as food, while the leaves are eaten as are those of sorrel. Boottia (Ottelia) cordata Wall. Hydrocharitaceae. A water plant of Burma. All the green parts are eaten by the Burmese as pot-herbs, for which purpose they are collected in great quantity and carried to the market at Ava. Boquila trifoliata Decne. Berberideae (Lardizabalaceae). Chile. The berries, about the size of a pea, are eaten in Chile. It is commonly called in Chile, baquil-blianca. Borago officinalis Linn. Boragineae. BORAGE. COOL-TANKARD. TALEWORT.
STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD - Page 109 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm.com

Palmae. During several months of the year. North Africa and Asia Minor. Borassus flabellifer Linn. In Queen Elizabeth's time. In India. and the boiled roots are eaten in famines by the Wanyamwezi. It is at present cultivated for use in cooling drinks and is used by some as a. The leaves contain so much nitre that when dry they bum like match paper. The natives bury the nuts until the kernels begin to sprout. Livingstone says the fibrous pulp around the large nuts is of a sweet. but still more the young seedlings. when dug up and broken. A common tree in a large part of Africa south of the Sahara and of tropical eastern Asia. both the leaves and flowers were eaten in salads. The flowering parts of borage are noted or figured by nearly all of the ancient herbalists. The Greeks called it euphrosynon. palm wine. North America and Chile. The pulp of the fruit is eaten raw or roasted. Its leaves and flowers were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for cool tankards. TALA PALM. WINE PALM. Borage is enumerated by Peter Martyr as among the plants cultivated at Isabela Island by the companions of Columbus. The Palmyra palm is cultivated in India. and a preserve is made of it in Ceylon. It appears in the catalogs of our American seedsmen and is mentioned by almost all of the earlier writers of gardening. is obtained in large quantities and when fresh is a pleasant drink. it made those who drank it merry. But the most valuable product of the tree is the sweet sap which runs from the peduncles. are important as an article of food. after standing a few hours.swsbm. it is cultivated by Europeans for use in country beer to give it a pleasant flavor. and not at all intoxicating. when put in a cup of wine. somewhat like champagne. cut before flowering. Grant says on the Upper Nile the doub palm is called by the negroes m'voomo. The unripe seeds and particularly the young plant two or three months old are an important article of food. It has been used in England since the days of Parkinson. DOUB PALM. it becomes highly so.substitute for spinach. which are raised on a large scale for that purpose.Europe. the inside resembles coarse potatoes and is prized in times of scarcity as nutritious food.com . The fruits. The leaves also serve as a garnish and are likewise pickled. PALMYRA PALM. and is collected in bamboo tubes or in earthern pots tied to the cut STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . for. or sura. though.Page 110 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. fruity taste and is eaten. This plant has been distributed throughout the whole of southern and middle Europe even in the humblest gardens and is now cultivated likewise in India.

Borbonia (Aspalathus) cordata Linn. the trees are carefully watched and even sometimes propagated. The resin is used in the East for chewing as is that of the mastic tree. Bouea burmanica Griff'.swsbm. Capparideae. after peeling off the edges and prickles. Firminger says the insipid. Swartz. South Africa. Drury says the fruit and fusiform roots are used as food by the poorer classes in the Northern Circars. A good preserve may. This large. FRANKINCENSE TREE. The seeds are eaten by the negroes of the Senegal. Botrychium virginianum RATTLESNAKE FERN. pellucid pulp of the fruit is eaten by the natives but is not relished by Europeans. succulent fern is boiled and eaten in the Himalayas as well as in New Zealand. Boucerosia (Caralluma) incamata N.Page 111 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In times of famine. Boswellia frereana Birdw. Thunberg found the country people making tea of the leaves. Though growing wild. Leguminosae. The sap is also fermented into toddy and distilled.com . gelatinous. African tropics. that of one variety being intensely sour. India. says Thunberg.peduncle. Asclepiadeae. Ophioglossaceae. Tropics of Africa. Anacardiaceae. in 1772. E. At the Cape of Good Hope. The fruit is eaten. South Africa. The Hottentots eat it. B. the Khnoods and Woodias live on a soup made from the fruit of this tree. be made from it and is often used for pickling. however. of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . serrata Roxb. Burseraceae. Burma. Boscia senegalensis Lam. Br. Nearly all of the sugar made in Burma and a large proportion of that made in south India is the produce of this palm.

Thunberg says the Hottentots eat the fruit of this shrub and that it is sometimes used by the country people instead of coffee. Brabejum stellatifolium Linn. SAW PALMETTO. & Hook. This Mexican palm. roasted and ground like coffee.Page 112 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. West Indies. sweet and edible. succulent and eatable. South Africa. Boragineae (Ehretiaceae). Brachistus solanaceus Benth. This perennial merits trial culture on account of its large.? Asclepiadeae. This genus furnishes edible roots in South Africa and those of some species are esteemed as a preserve by the Dutch inhabitants.swsbm. The berries are the size of a pea. f. the outside rind being taken off and the fruit steeped in water to deprive it of its bitterness. Proteaceae. Brachystegia appendiculata Benth. Brachystelma sp. Leguminosae. saffron or orangecolored.another insipidly sweet. Solanaceae. Southern United States. Bourreria succulenta Jacq. pulpy. Brahea dulcis Mart. Tropical Africa. The seeds are eaten.com . called palma dulce and soyale. (Serenoa) serrulata H. WILD CHESTNUT. Nicaragua. sweet. A fecula was formerly prepared from the pith by the Florida Indians. shining. has a fruit which is a succulent drupe of a yellow color and cherry-size. Wendl. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . B. edible tubers. Palmae. CURRANT TREE. it is then boiled. South Africa. Peru.

in England. The cultivated plant appears to have been brought from central Asia to China. WHITE MUSTARD. CHARLOCK. where the herbage is pickled in winter or used in spring as a pot-herb. oleracea Linn. KALE. rapa Linn. CABBAGE. CAULIFLOWER. napus Linn. Australia. It is mentioned in American gardens in 1806.com . STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . B. the savoys with their blistered and wrinkled leaves. Gmel. as established by Bentham. All of these vegetables are referred by Darwin to B. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. CHINESE CABBAGE. RUTABAGA. Nymphaeaceae. and kohl-rabi. campestris Linn. BORECOLE. while others again strongly suspect that all these forms. (Cabombaceae) WATER SHIELD. RUTABAGA. which come nearest to the wild form.Page 113 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. RED CABBAGE. according to other botanists. The genus. Brassica. MUSTARD. In 1597. TURNIP. TURNIP. Japan. In the cabbage section we have the borecoles and kales. Fuchsius. cut close to the ground before the formation of the second series or rough leaves appear. from two species.Brasenia schreberi J. brussels sprouts with numerous little heads. both wild and cultivated. In 1542. and B. from three species. B. B. India. assumes protean forms. BROCCOLI. The tuberous root-stocks are collected by the California Indians for food. Cruciferae.. the stalked cabbage of Jersey. says it is planted everywhere in gardens. according to the view adopted by some. COLLARDS. TURNIPS. ought to be ranked as a single species. Tropical Africa and North America. BRUSSELS SPROUTS.swsbm. form an esteemed salad. alba Boiss. SAVOY CABBAGE. also includes the mustards. single heads. a German writer. the Portuguese couve tronchuda with the ribs of its leaves greatly thickened. The young leaves. green and red cabbage with great. which sometimes attains a height of 16 feet. Gerarde says it is not common but that he has distributed the seed so that he thinks it is reasonably well known. F. RAPE. broccolis and the cauliflowers with their flowers in an aborted condition and borne in a dense corymb. This genus. PORTUGAL CABBAGE. in its cultivated species and varieties. KOHL-RABI. but. RAPE. The other cultivated forms of the genus are descended.

especially in France. says Unger. Nowhere. He also speaks of the Mursian gongylis. campestris for its origin. Columella. as Pliny uses the word napus generically and says that there are five kinds. oleracea. it is a flatfish. 42.com . Asia and America.Page 114 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in which the name is applied to rape. D. an oil-reed plant of great value. are the first two varieties truly wild but both track cultivation throughout Europe. B. oleifera. and a second as B. De Candolle supposes the Swedish turnip is a variety. Spain. in course of cultivation. the Crimea and Great Britain but it is difficult to say whether or not it is truly wild. our white turnip. The cultivation of this plant. is derived from a species growing wild at the present day in Russia and Siberia as well as on the Scandinavian peninsula. which may be the round turnip. In its original wild condition. growing wild from the Baltic Sea to the Caucasus. the Corinthian. and that its culture. var. napus are but agrarian forms derived from B. The turnip is of ancient culture. Cleonaeum. campestris. campestris and B. Boeoticum and the Green. Buckman. campestris Linn. and the latter is the larger and greener. indigenous in the region between the Baltic Sea and the Caucasus. Germany and Switzerland but not of other districts. through hybridization. by seeding rape and common turnips in mixed rows. secured. the former does not have a swollen but a slender root. with many varieties. rutabaga. first starting in Belgium. he asserted. colza. it is the colsa.swsbm. napus with B. or B. the largest. with a very fine tail. the chou oleifere of the French. with an almost bare root. The Corinthian.. Don classifies the rutabaga as B. When little changed by cultivation. also called STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . a small percentage of malformed swedes. A. The Liothasium. colza Lam. under the soil. globular root. campestris oleifera DC. the result of Buckman's experiment does not carry the rutabaga outside of B. Liothasium. but with the root swollen instead of the stem. as being especially fine. campestris. Lindley says this plant. is the B. rapa Linn. a narrow neck and a hard. as do the rest. sub. is now extensively carried on in Holstein.. deep yellow flesh. Unger states that this plant. The distinction between the napus and the rapa was not always held. which were greatly improved by careful cultivation. was probably first attempted by the Celts and Germans when they were driven to make use of nutritious roots. has been found apparently wild in Lapland. a race has been produced as B. campestris Linn. From this. This is the colsa of Belgium. or colsat. says the napus and the rapa are both grown for the use of man and beast. Buckman was inclined to the belief that B. analogous to the kohl-rabi among cabbages. grows on the surface and not. If Bentham was correct in classing B.The turnip. the east of France. var.

in 1792. and third our own kind (the green?). the globular. succeeds best in a cool place. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . next the Nursian.swsbm. Booth says the turnip had become known to the Flemings and formed one of their principal crops. The first turnips that were introduced into England. turnips were used baked or roasted in the ashes and the young shoots were used as a salad and as a spinach. Worlidge. Ray says they are sown everywhere in fields and gardens. The common flat turnip was raised as a field crop in Massachusetts and New York as early as 1817. and as the most esteemed. a turnip is recorded of one hundred pounds weight. about 1830. 1668. In England. General Sullivan destroyed the turnips in the Indian fields at the present Geneva. In 1779. but the first notice of their field culture is by Weston in 1645. They are said by Francis Higginson n to be in cultivation in Massachusetts in 1629 and are again mentioned by William Wood. he says. In another place. Romans in his Natural History of Florida mentions them. 1629-33. is the hardest. those of Nursia. In the fifteenth century. are mentioned again in 1648. Worlidge says they are chiefly grown in gardens but are also grown to some extent in fields.Thracium. are believed to have come from Holland in 1550. The napus of Amiternum. 1558. They were also cultivated in Virginia in 1609. been exceeded in. In 1686. of a notable roundness and not very long as is the Cleonaeum. The turnip was brought to America at a very early period. In the time of Henry VIII (1509-1547) according to Mclntosh. weighing fifty and sixty pounds. Jared Sparks planted them in Connecticut in 1747. during his third voyage. In 1540. In California. 1524. mentions the turnip fly as an enemy of turnips and Houghton speaks of turnips as food for sheep in 1684. the Amitemian is in most esteem. The Boeoticum is sweet. modem times. of a nature quite similar to the rapa. he mentions the broadbottom (flat?). New York. Cartier sowed turnip seed in Canada. At Rome. Gerarde describes them in a number of varieties. Matthiolus. He mentions that the rapa sometimes attains a weight of forty pounds. in the course of his invasion of the Indian country. They are also mentioned in South Carolina in 1779.com . This weight has. under rapa. They were plentiful about Philadelphia in 1707. Amatus Lusitanus. speaks of turnips. however. and by Jefferson in 1781. had heard of turnips that weighed a hundred pounds and speaks of having seen long and purple sorts that weighed thirty pounds.Page 115 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1681. In 1775. Martyn says the greatest weight that he is acquainted with is thirty-six pounds.

and in Miller's Dictionary.Page 116 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Cam. Navet petit de Berlin. It seems to have been known from ancient times and is described and figured by the earlier botanists.) This turnip has a large root expanding under the origin of the stem into a think. yet its synonymy is difficult to be traced from the figures. Lob. Ger. It has white. Matth. Gasparin says the navet de Berlin. It surpasses other turnips by the sweetness of its flavor and furnishes white. 410. yellow and black varieties. Dur. Rapum sive rapa. 1597. Trag. Rapum. 1644. 1586. round. Vilm. Pin. Bunias silvestris lobelii. 1807. 674. 240. which often acquires a great size. 181. Fischer 1646. Bunias. 1561. It is grown in China. Vilm. napus esculenta DC. 1885. 1763. 1664. THE COMMON FLAT TURNIP. or French turnip. 1591. t. 304. 1616. Rapa. The synonymy is as follows: A. 240. This was apparently the napa of Columella. Bodaeus 733. rapa depressa DC. 218. 1586. 144. Vilm. Bunias sive napus. 1554. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1883. 1 :200.) This turnip differs from the Brassica rapa oblonga DC. Dur. Napi. OR FRENCH TURNIP. as the French turnip by Wheeler. is much grown in Alsace and in Germany. black. 583. by its smooth and glaucous leaves. Navet turnip. (B.1 This turnip was certainly known to the early botanists. Epit. (B. 1552. Epit. Icon. 1683. The navets are mentioned as under cultivation in England by Worlidge. Blackw. 1561. Flattened both above and below.com . yellow. This turnip was known in the fifth century. ?. Cam. flattened at the top and bottom. 1883. Pin. 360. according to Bretschneider. 1617. 730. red or purple and green varieties. 1617. 1765.NAVET. 580. C. the following are correct: Napus.swsbm. Napus dulcis. 222.386. Matth. Dod. 143. Teltow turnip. It is known as the Navet. fleshy tuber. However.

1883. the navette.Page 117 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 113. Orbiculatum seu turbinatum rapum. 588. Vilm." It can be believed quite rationally that the Swedish turnip may have originated in its varieties from B. Vilm. 1719. Yellow Dutch. rotunda. 33 kinds. Rapum oblongius. 673. 1586. Rapa. 370. 2:838. 120.. Darwin says B. in which he places rape. 729. 372. navette STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1616. Vilmorin's Wholesale Seed-list enumerates 31 kinds. Epit. the seeds of which yield oil.) This race of turnip differs from the preceding in having a long or oblong tuber tapering to the radicle. oleracea Linn. Bauh. 1651. as it deals with form only and not with color and habits. Trag. 1591. Trag. RAPE. Dod. Rapum tereti. Rave d'Auvergne tardive. Lob. 1: 197. Lob. 1552. 1591. perhaps the Cleonaeum of Pliny. Rapum sativum rotundum et oblongum. 1791 Rapum. THE LONG TURNIP. Toum. Rapum vulgare. 673. 219. It seems an ancient form. Vilm. 12 kinds were named by Pirolle in 1824 and by Petit in 1826. Rapum. Vulgare rapum alterum. Rapa. 13 kinds were in Thorburn's American Seed Catalog and in 1887. 1719. campestris Linn. In 1828. Phytognom. 1883. La Rave. Navet de Briollay. Vilm. La Rave. napus Linn. Rapum longum.swsbm. I :197. napus. 728. (B. or coles. 1885. Cam. Navet jaune d'Hollande. Porta. "has given rise to two large groups. This account by no means embraces all the turnips now known. rapa oblonga DC. Globular. oblongaque radici. Bentham classes rape with B. 16i6. In France. 1532. C. namely Swedish turnips (by some believed to be of hybrid origin) and colzas. 113. Flattened. Icon. J. Icon. In 1887.B. To this species.com . Tourn. and others are disposed to include it as an agrarian form of B. campestris and from hybridization with B. but pointed below. Dod. Lindley refers some of the rapes.

into the annual. of the French was introduced into England somewhere about the end of the eighteenth century. or winter rape. Six or more varieties are named in all seed catalogs and Burr describes 11 kinds. the Tetlow turnip. for the turnip has been observed by Koch and Godron to lose its thick roots in uncultivated soil and when rape and turnips are sown together they cross to such a degree that scarcely a single plant comes true. somewhat resembling a carrot. a correspondent. Its culture in England dates from 1790 but it was well known in 1671 and is noticed by Caspar Bauhin in his Pinax. The French call these two classes chou-navets and rutabagas respectively. or rabette of the French. praecox Waldst. RUTABAGA. The Bon Jardinier says. The rutabagas of our gardens include two forms. seems impossible to say. Swedish turnip. campestris Linn. or navette de mai and by the Germans summer reps. or summer rape. or navet de Berlin petit of the French. praecox. The rutabaga of the Swedes. It is much more delicate in flavor than our common turnip. Of this species there is also a fleshy-rooted variety. 1835. napus Linn.Page 118 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or chou rutabaga. Rape is used as an oil plant but is inferior to colza. In the east of France. the early turnips of round form and growing above ground belong to B. The evidence is unusually clear. one with white flesh. To what extent our common turnips are indebted to the rapes. while the summer rapes he refers to B. Yellow Finland and Montmaquy of our catalogs. & Kit. states that the rutabaga. for Metzger.d'hiver. Summer rape seems to be grown to a far less extent than winter rape. rapa Linn. napus and names the Yellow Malta.com . John Burston. converted the biennial. Rape is also referred to B. that rape and the turnip belong to the same species. varieties which Lindley believes to be specifically distinct. and winter rape to B. Some botanists refer summer rape to B. or chou navel jaune. it is called navette d'ete. the other with yellow.swsbm. In the Maine Farmer of May 15. by culture. Summer rape is referred by Lindley to B. ruhen or winter reps of the Germans. this Tetlow turnip is extensively cultivated. The chou-navet. or chou de Suede. and the repo. or Lapland turnip — for by all these names was it known — was introduced to this country since the commencement of the present century. in general. the navel de Suede. says Darwin. or Brassica napo-brassica STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the root long and spindle-shaped. In Prance and Germany. It is also used in a young state as a salad plant.

1821. 1883.swsbm. The white and the red-collared were named by Pirolle. which states that it is cultivated in Bohemia and is eaten. describes three varieties: one with a green collar. in 1700. calls it navet jaune. as noted above. while now the two forms are called by a common name. chou de Laponie. P. The rutabaga is said by Sinclair. it is named by Tournefort. is little known in English gardens. in 1669. 1623. 1807. In 1821 Thorbum calls it Ruta-baga. has either purple or white roots. or Rutabaga. Brassica radice napiformi. one with a purple collar and a third which is early.com . There are three varieties described by Vilmorin under the names chou-navet. As a matter of convenience we shall describe these two classes separately. and chou de Lapland. the distinction was retained in the United States. It is called Swedish turnip or Roota-baga by McMahon. In 1686. has a more regular root.. in 1806. yellow both without and within. or chou-navet. In 1778. to have been introduced into Scotland about 1781-2. chou turnip.. one of which is purple at the collar. yet formerly the first constituted the turnip-rooted cabbage. In France. as he quotes Bauhin's name and description. McMahon describing the turnip-rooted cabbage and the Swedish turnip. Pirolle. DC. though not uncommon in French horticulture. 1821. and in 1817 there is a record of an acre of this crop in Illinois. and by other authors to the present time. and it is named again in his Pinax. as Don says in 1831.Page 119 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in 1824. 1620. and a quotation in the Gardeners' Chronicle says it was introduced into England in 1790. This class. The vernacular names all indicate an origin in Sweden or northern Europe. by Miller's Dictionary. In English nomenclature. turnip-rooted cabbage. napo-brassica Ruta-baga A. and is called napo-brassica. by Cobbett. or Russian turnip. apparently these same varieties are named by Noisette in 1829. in the account of the system of husbandry in Scotland. Ray apparently did not know it in England. this was called in England turnip-cabbage with the turnip underground and in the United States. navet de Suede. catalogs it among the plants in the royal gardens. and a newspaper writer in 1835 calls it Ruta-baga. The first description of the white-rooted form is by Bauhin in his Prodromus.communis DC. Ruta-baga or chou navet de Suede. but Morison. 1806. Swedish turnip and Lapland turnip. round or oval. The foreign names given by Don in 1831 include many of the above named and the Italian navone di Laponia. and chou de Suede. In 1806. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It is mentioned in 1806 by McMahon as in American gardens. as does Noisette in 1829. De Candolle. Vilmorin in his Les Plantes Potageres. or B. in 1824. the rutabaga.

But little appears to be recorded concerning the varieties of this cabbage of which the Pak-choi and the Pe-tsai only have reached European culture. Introduced from China in 1837. CHINESE CABBAGE. that when sown at midsummer it will ripen seed the same season. This plant is said by Unger to be found wild and cultivated in Abyssinia although it furnishes a very poor cabbage. however. But. a common aspect and are annuals. however. dark shining-green leaves upon long. sixteenth. however. that the pointed-headed early cabbages appeared only at a comparatively recent date.com . B. Considering that the round-headed cabbage is the only sort figured by the herbalists. it has been cultivated and used as greens by a few persons about Paris but it does not appear likely to become a general favorite. The pe-tsai of the Chinese is an annual. It is. certain that occasional rare sports. carinata A. long-headed cabbages show the heavy veining and the limb of the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . chinensis Linn. rather full and compact and the leaves are a little wrinkled and undulate at the borders. Loureiro. It is allied to the kales.swsbm. and the results of hybridization are better understood. The Pak-choi has more resemblance to a chard than to a cabbage.B.Page 120 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. forming an elongated head. It is of much more rapid growth than any of the varieties of the European cabbage. until the cabbage family has received more study in its varieties. Its seeds are ground into a mustard. having oblong or oval. been long under cultivation in China. no certain conclusion can be reached. 1790. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. so much so. as it can be identified in Chinese works on agriculture of the fifth. however. says it is also cultivated in Cochin China and varieties are named with white and yellow flowers. from the seed of our early. very white and swollen stalks. and certain resemblances between Pe-tsai and the long-headed cabbages. or variables. not to be compared with ours. It has. Braun. apparently intermediate between cabbage and the turnip but with much thinner leaves than the former. Both varieties have. rather resembles a cos lettuce. The Pe-tsai. it is not an impossible suggestion that these cabbage-forms appeared as the effect of cross-fertilization with the Chinese cabbage.

The young shoots were formerly used in Greece. the god of medicine. and Ceres the goddess of seeds. B. CHINESE MUSTARD. B. The chief characteristics of this species of Brassica are that the plants STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . COLEWORT. 480 B. the Black Mustard of Sicily and the Large-seeded Black. BLACK MUSTARD. nigra Koch.swsbm.Page 121 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Italy. KALE. alba and the seeds now furnish the greater portion of our mustard. B. At present. the same as are those of B. more grown as a field crop for its seed. Two varieties are described. juncea Coss. C. The plant is extensively cultivated throughout India. According to the belief of the ancients. however. Black mustard is described as a garden plant by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century and is mentioned by the botanists of the sixteenth century. Mustard is mentioned by Pythagoras and was employed in medicine by Hippocrates. oleracea acephala DC. suggesting strongly the Chinese type. British India exported 1418 tons of seed. from which the mustard of commerce is derived. The powdered seeds furnish a medicinal and culinary mustard. Bohemia. The plant is found wild in most parts of Europe and has become naturalized in the United States.com . B. It is largely grown in south Russia and in the steppes northeast of the Caspian Sea. The young plants are now eaten as a salad. views as to the origin of various types of cabbage must be considered as largely speculative. The ancients ate the young plants as a spinach and used the seeds for supplying mustard. The oil is used in Russia in the place of olive oil. In 1871-72. Pliny says the plant grew in Italy without sowing. It is. it was first introduced from Egypt and was made known to mankind by Aesculapius. Mediterranean regions. This is the mustard of the ancients and is cultivated in Alsace. This mustard was in American gardens in 1806 or earlier. COLE. INDIAN MUSTARD. cretica Lam. Holland and England. BORECOLE. however. yet finds place also as a salad plant. central Africa and generally in warm countries.leaf extending down the stalk.

The kales represent an extremely variable class of vegetable and have been under cultivation from a most remote period.. The first American mention of coleworts is by Sprigley. Some are grown as ornamental plants. often a foot in diameter and late in going to seed. What the varieties of cabbage were that were known to the ancient Greeks it seems impossible to determine in all cases. the Pompeianum. C. the lenis. with very large leaves. for Virginia but this class of the cabbage tribe is probably the one mentioned by Benzoni as growing in Hayti in 1565. the head round. admired for its curled leaves. in the first century. This word coles or caulis is used in the generic sense. the Tritianom. had a generic meaning applying to the cabbage race in general. the leaves fleshy. the Siberian. large broad-leaves. whose thickness exceeds that of the stalk. sharp savored.are open. Cato. 200 years B. the Aricinum. but rather sharp-tasting. large-stalked. a stalk. sprouts. the Scotch and especially recommends Jerusalem kale. who lived about 201 B. by Columella the first STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the Lacuturres. Pliny. the leaves numerous and thick. McMahon recommends for American gardens the green and the brown Aypres and mentions the Red and Thick-leaved Curled. describes the Brassica as: the levis. laciniated and of beautiful colors. small-stalked. 1669. thickening along the leaves. of very sweet savor. In 1806. the crispa or apiacan. We may hence surmise that this was the common form in ancient times. not heading like the cabbages. In 1661. with also some distinguishing prefixes as Buda kale. innumerable leaves.Page 122 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. tender. by Cato. with sessile leaf and open head. Many varieties were known to the Romans. thin stalk. C. in like manner as coles or coleworts in more modern times imply the cultivation of kales." It is probable that this was the form of cabbage known to the ancients. the brutiana. being variously curled. German greens.com . The form of kale known in France as the chevalier seems to have been the longest known and we may surmise that its names of chou caulier and caulet have reference to the period when the word caulis.. for illustration. but we can hardly question but that some of them belonged to the kales. Ray journeyed into Scotland and says of the people that "they use much pottage made of coal-wort which they call keal. curlico. not excelled in height. the sabellica. the stalk thin at the base. very large headed. tall. The species has every appearance of being one of the early removes from the original species and is cultivated in many varieties known as kale. describes the Cumana.swsbm. greens. nor producing eatable flowers like the cauliflowers and broccoli.

1. 1651. 1591. 1598. Br. 1597. Vilm. Op. Icon. 244. 290. Fuch. a. Br. De Cand.century A. Kol. 1821. Cam. C. Chou a feuilles de Chene. Chou branchu du Poitou. by Vegetius in the fourth century A. Mem. 10. Brassica primum genus. Brassica vulgaris sativa. Caulet de Flander. 1863. Matth. rubra vulgaris. Chabr. D. this race of chevaliers has five principal subraces.Page 123 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 270. sometimes called caulodes. Chou vert commun. Flanders kale.com . by Palladius in the third. rubra prima species. Dur. 9. De Cand. Brassica. 1542. 87.swsbm. Brassica vulgaris alba. 9. Decand. DeCand. Mem. 1877. Roeszl. Bauh. Ger. Br. This race of chevaliers may be quite reasonably supposed to be the levis of Cato. Chou mille teles. Epit. 248. 1863. III. 1883. 122. Brassica laevis.. II. 1863. Dalechamp 523. 1651. b. vulgaris sativa. 1587. 1586. 413. Brassica. Thousand-headed. Cow Cabbage. Cavalier branchu. According to De Candolle. Vilrn. D. 1817. Red cavalier. Bauh. 720. 2:831. Burr 233. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . alba vulgaris. 1821. viridis. Ger. Obs. 2:829. 1821. 1550. Chabr. Mem. 1552. 1821. rubra. and Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth. Dalechamp 520. 134. Brassica alba vulgaris. 1:243. 1883. c. Vilrn. 134. Lob. 76. 366. 1576. Mem. Burr 232. D Br. 244. 1677. of which the following is an incomplete synonymy: I. Trag. Burr 236. Chou cavalier. 9. 135. II. 1587. 1883. rubra. J. Vilm. J. Br. 1597..

Obs. Br. 131. Brassica secundum genus. crispa Tragi. Bauh. Bauh. Burr 236. 1821. 1:246. Ger. Mem. 1821. 1883.com . Br. IV. n. Br. 1883. 247. Ornamental kales of our gardens. Icon. 1597. 248. 1587. Ger. as the plants in other respects are not similar:— Brassica asparagoides Dalechampii. Br. J. 246. Vilm. These forms occur in many varieties. b. 1597. 1863. Brassica tophosa. which also occur in several varieties. Br. Fuch. 141. Br. 1651. Br. 622. seu apiana. 133. 1576. 270. differing in degree only. 1591. 1591. Icon. Cockscomb kale. 1883. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1552. n. Dalechamp 524. 1885. tenuissima laciniata. 721. J.swsbm. 2:832. Chou frise prolifere. Lob. Tall Green Curled. In addition to the above we may mention the proliferous kales. Burr 232. 1547. Chou vert frise. 1597. Br. selenoides. Vilm. crispa. IV. Dod. 1587. Vilm. i6i6. i6i6. Brassica prolifera crispa. 1677. De Cand. 1651. 2:830. Vilm. Ger. Brassica prolifera. Ger. Chou palmier.Buda kale. Br. fimbriata. even variegated. crispa lacinosa. 1542. Brassica crispa. Trag. 414. Bauh. De Cand. selenoides. 1651. 1821. Lob. Chou plume ou Chou aigrette. 1597. 10. Chabr. Chou frise vert grand. 124. V. De Cand.Page 124 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The following synonyms refer to proliferation only. tophosa Tabernemontano. Mem. Dod. 133. 1863. tenuifolia laciniata. Ger. a. 2:832. Dalechamp 522. 245. Mem. 622. 244. and of various colors. Br. J. 245. sativa crispa.

The omission is only explainable under the supposition that it was confounded with the cauliflower. Two kales have the extensive rib system and the general aspect of the Portugal cabbage. These bear the same relation to Portugal cabbage that common kale bears to the heading cabbages. De Candolle does not bring these into his classification as offering true types. the sprouting broccolis and the cauliflower broccolis.Page 125 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . THE PORTUGAL KALES. edition of 1724.swsbm. These excerpts indicate the sprouting broccoli. the leaves falling over in a graceful curve and reaching to the ground. as exists in Italy now. Hence two races can be defined.com . just as Linnaeus brought the cauliflower and the broccoli into one botanical variety. and the addition of the word cyma then." "Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma. with the word broccoli is used for a secondary meaning." says Pliny. oleracea botrytis cymosa DC. He also uses the word cyma for the seed stalk which rises from the heading cabbage. or through the preservation of a natural variation. This kale can be traced through variations and varieties to our first class. for the tender shoots which at the close of winter are emitted by various kinds of cabbages and turnips preparing to flower. and hence it has probably been derived in recent times through a process of selection. The differences between the most highly improved varieties of the broccoli and the cauliflower are very slight. There are but few varieties. It is certainly very curious that the early botanists did not describe or figure broccoli. The growth of the broccoli is far more prolonged than that of the cauliflower. Yet. There is an intermediate type between the Dwarf Curled and the Tall Curled forms in the intermediate Moss Curled. olericulturally considered. The first notice of broccoli is quoted from Miller's Dictionary. and in this perhaps he is right.THE DWARF KALES. and in the European countries it bears its heads the year following that in which it is sown. These are the chou brocoli and the chou frise de mosbach of Vilmorin. in the less changed forms they become great. The best marked is the Dwarf Curled. B. they are quite distinct. BROCCOLI. It is this circumstance that leads us to suspect that the Romans knew the plant and described it under the name cyma—"Cyma a prima sectione praestat proximo vere.

grown only in the gardens of amateurs. while the second is probably the sprouting form. Sometimes occurring as a monstrosity. Thorbum names the Cape. mentions the Early White. the White and the Purple. the Green and the Black. Vilmorin says: "The sprouting or asparagus broccoli. This vegetable. the Neapolitan or White. Mawe. bearing groups of leaf-buds in the axils of the leaves. others like the common sprouts and flowers of a colewort. none of them being as yet (at least that I know of) ever sav'd separate. in 1828." or Italian asparagus." B. these last named kinds are now known as cauliflowers.swsbm. we may assume that varietal distinctions had not as yet become recognized. Early Purple. in this country. names the Early Purple. however.com . about 1860. and that hence all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated from Italy. whitish-yellow flowers like the cauliflower. and. It is interesting to note. by continued selection and successive improvements. and thus is formed the Brassica capitata polycephalos of Dalechamp. 1587. In 1729. In 1821. has for a type-form a cabbage with an elongated stalk. The first and third kind of Switzer. Late Purple. which STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . branches instead of heads are developed. represents the first form exhibited by the new vegetable when it ceased to be the earliest cabbage and was grown with an especial view to its shoots. will develop small cabbages in the leaf-axils. white head. after this. after the true head is removed. White or Cauliflower-broccoli and the Black. all of which come mixed together. in his seed list. varieties were obtained which produced a compact.which he says it was a stranger in England until within these five years and was called "sprout colli-flower. Switzer says there are several kinds that he has had growing in his garden near London these two years: "that with small. the Large Purple Cape and the White Cape or Cauliflower-broccoli. with other variables. Quite frequently an early cabbage. and some of these varieties were still further improved into kinds which are sufficiently early to commence and complete their entire growth in the course of the same year. BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 1729. sorts of broccoli were produced. from the seed of wild cabbage." In 1778. are doubtless the heading broccoli. that at the Cirencester Agricultural College. oleracea bullata gemmifera DC. a third with purple flowers. yet deserving more esteem. In 1806.Page 126 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. These came from Italy and as the seed came mixed. McMahon mentions the Roman or Purple.

But two classes are known. 1655. the difference being no greater than would be explained by the observed power of selection and of the influence for modification which might arise from the influence of cabbage pollen. A correspondent of the Gardeners' Chronicle.swsbm. the Poiton cabbage. but his reference to Dalechamp would lead us to infer that the plant known to him was of the same character as that figured by Dalechamp above noted. Allied to this class is the Tree cabbage. and adds that some plants bear 50 heads the size of an egg. P. however. as the lack of early mention and the recent nature of modern mention presupposes. there is considerable variation to be noted in seedlings. the stems of which last are STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . refers to a like cabbage. gives the name Brassica ex capitibus pluribus conglobata. open cabbage on the summit. who would have certainly noticed a common plant of such striking appearance and have given a figure. the tall and the dwarf. even if with several variables. if this be so.he himself describes as a certain unused and rare kind.Page 127 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Bauhin.com . the former having less crowded sprouts and a more open character of plant. 1850. De Candolle. Ray. furnishing connecting links. bearing a comparatively small. 1623. however. it is mentioned in 1806 and this implies its general use in Europe. describes brussels sprouts as commonly cultivated in Belgium and implies its general use in French gardens. In American gardens. at some time scarcely preceding the last century. The tall is quite distinct in habit and leaf from the dwarf. but. in Belgium. he says he will affirm nothing. would seem to indicate a probability that the origin is to be sought for in a sport. 1686. As. with leaves scarcely blistered or puckered. but Booth says it is only since about 1854 that it has been generally known in England. Lobel. the two forms may legitimately be considered as one. as he had not seen it. or Jersey cabbage. and the Marrow cabbage. the Thousand-headed cabbage. indeed. which attains an extreme height of 16 feet. Authors have stated that brussels sprouts have been grown from time immemorial about Brussels. A. and but a few minor variations in these classes. and that our present forms have been derived from a suddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage type and. it is strange that they escaped the notice of the early botanists. refers to a cabbage like a Brassica polycephalos. 1821. This fact of their being of but one type. but. refers to the tall sorts as generally preferred to the dwarf by the market gardeners about London.

In 1828. Thorbum. wild cabbage varies considerably in its foliage and general appearance and in its wild state is used as a culinary vegetable and is of excellent flavor. from Greece to Great Britain in numerous localities. in fact. under the same name and with the additional names of Chou d'ltalie and Chou de Savoys. In 1806. but one variety only. Few plants exhibit so many forms in its variations from the original type as cabbage. McMahon describes brussels sprouts. B. SAVOY CABBAGE. This wild cabbage is undoubtedly the original of our cultivated varieties. mentions the Thousand-headed cabbage but it does not seem to have been known to him personally. judging from the name. At Dover. oleracea bullata major DC. being ascribed to Italy. there are no indications of a firm head. Lindley says. This form. oleracea capita DC. McMahon mentions three savoys for American gardens. Thorbum offers in his catalog seeds of five varieties and in 1881 offers seed of but three. over most of the world. This sort probably is the Brassica italica tenerrima glomerosa flore albo figured by J. It has been cultivated in English gardens for three centuries. In 1806. its origin. and at a later period this form is named as if distinctly Roman. In the Adversaria and elsewhere. in their descriptions. so carefully pictured as existing under culture.Page 128 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. offers its seed for sale. but he does not include them in his list of American garden esculents so they were not at that time in very general use. No kitchen garden in Europe or America is without it and it is distributed over the greater part of Asia and. The original plant occurs wild at the present day on the steep. as. describes under the name romanos a loose-heading sort of cabbage but does not describe it particularly as a Savoy. 1828. in his catalog for 1828. chalk rocks of the sea province of England. 1536. and in 1881.com . Fessenden. This race of cabbage is distinguished by the blistered surface of its leaves and by the formation of a loose or little compacted head. Bauhin. England. Ruellius. this kind is described as tender and as not extending to northern climates. 1677. Probably the heading cabbages of the ancient Romans belong to this class. two varieties. has doubtless been superseded by better varieties.succulent enough to be boiled for food. as experiments at the garden of the Royal Agricultural College and at STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Thus. on the coast of Denmark and northwestern France and. 1651. it is also figured by Chabraeus. CABBAGE. B.

the third with little stalks. likewise introduced into the gardens and established as cultivated plants.. Cabbages are mentioned by Benzoni as STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Dioscorides mentions two kinds of coleworts. and B.Page 129 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Pliny mentions it. and a cabbage at his feet appears on his monument. may have mixed with each other and thus have assisted in. very nearly allied to B. it becomes the heart cabbages. the cultivated and the wild. the swath cole and the wild cole.com . Cato describes one kind as smooth.swsbm. Other species of Brassica. cretica Lam. giving rise to some of the many races cultivated at the present day. sowed cabbages. for.. such as B. Regnier says cabbages were cultivated by the ancient Celts. If the stems swell out into a globular form. it forms what are called open cabbages (the kales). Lindley groups the leading variations as follows: If the race is vigorous. great. with a big stalk. they inform us that Jupiter. balearica Richl. 1649. It grows in Sweden as far north as 67° to 68°. the joints short and the leaves inclined to turn inwards. Cabbage is one of the most generally cultivated of the vegetables of temperate climates. tender and very much biting.. perspired and from this divine perspiration the colewort sprung. broadleaved. cabbages and greens from wild plants gathered from rocks overhanging the sea in Wales. when it was carried there by some of Cromwell's soldiers. long jointed and has little tendency to turn its leaves inwards. B. Cabbage is said to have been scarcely known in Scotland until the time of the Commonwealth. before his time they were brought from Holland. the cauliflowers are the result. laboring to explain two oracles which contradicted each other. Cabbage was introduced into America at an early period. The introduction of cabbage into European gardens is usually ascribed to the Romans. if the growth is stunted. oleracea Linn. but Olivier de Serres says the art of making them head was unknown in France in the ninth century. insularis Moris. and the Greeks and Romans ascribed to it the happy quality of preserving from drunkenness. the second ruffed. we have the turnip-rooted cabbages. belong to the Mediterranean flora and some botanists suggest that some of these species. Disraeli says that Sir Anthony Ashley of Dorsetshire first planted cabbages in England.Cirencester resulted in the production of sorts of broccoli. In 1540. The ancient Greeks held cabbage in high esteem and their fables deduce its origin from the father of their gods. if both these tendencies give way to a preternatural formation of flowers. The Egyptians are said to have worshipped cabbage. Theophrastus names the curled cole. Cartier in his third voyage to Canada.

They were seen by Nieuhoff in Brazil in 1647. indicates cabbage was then known and was distinguished from coles. used in England in the fourteenth century. who calls them capucos coles. of his variety. however. 1536. cabbages are mentioned among the Indian crops about Geneva. It does not appear. New York. the elliptic and the conical. McMahon mentions for American gardens seven early and six late sorts. In both cases the savoys are treated as a separate class and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 19. and the art of making them head was unknown in the time of Charlemagne. and this name and description." Albertus Magnus. but are not mentioned especially by Jefferson in 1781. Ruellius. The headed cabbage in its perfection of growth and its multitude of varieties. or to Theophrastus or Cato. even a foot and a half in diameter. who lived in the twelfth century.com . Romans found them in Florida in 1775 and even cultivated by the Choctaw Indians.swsbm. who. to have been known to Dioscorides. but a few centuries later the presence of cabbage is indicated by Columella and Pliny. but there is no description. or cabutos and describes the head as globular and often very large. The descriptions are.Page 130 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. however. speaks of the head being sometimes a foot in diameter and going to seed the latest of all the sorts known to him. by Shrigley. Thorbum offered 18 varieties in his seed catalog and in 1881. describes a loose-headed form called romanos. In Vilmorin's Les Plantes Potageres. Olivier de Serres says: "White cabbages came from the north. the round-headed. destroyed by Gen. and we may well believe that if the hard-headed varieties now known had been seen in Rome at this time they would have received mention. 1883. the egg-shaped. 70 varieties are described. In the Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1886. seems to refer to a headed cabbage in his Caputium. 57 kinds are described. In 1806. Our present cabbages are divided by De Candolle into five types or races: the flat-headed. Gregory tested 60 named varieties in his experimental garden and in 1875 Landreth tested 51.growing in Hayti in 1556. and others are mentioned by name. In 1869. obscure. also. In 1779. when we consider the difficulty of heading cabbages in a warm climate. Within each class are many sub-varieties. In 1828. Sullivan in his expedition of reprisal. bears every evidence of being of ancient origin. in Virginia in 1669. would lead us to believe that the Roman varieties were not our present solid-heading type but loose-headed and perhaps of the savoy class. excluding synonyms. Yet the word cabaches and caboches. The first unmistakable reference to cabbage is by Ruellius.

1763. 78. 612. 1591. 416. 1778. a great round cabbage of Lyte's Dodoens. This appears to be the earliest form. 1597. is mentioned by Wheeler. The descriptive synonymy includes the losed cabbage. Quintal. probably this form. The following synonymy is taken from drawings only and hence there can be no mistake in regard to the type: Brassicae quartum genus. The histories of De Candolle's forms are as follows: FLAT-HEADED CABBAGE. 1719. 247. Vilmorin remarks of this variety. Pin. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Pict. the Sugar-loaf. Dod. 623. the White Cabbage Cole of Gerarde. the Common Round White of Mawe. the Sugar-loaf. Trag. 1616. 1778. ROUND CABBAGE. A Common Flatwinter.com . 1765. 777. Roeszl. Chabr. Brassica capitata albida. EGG-SHAPED CABBAGE. Dalechamp 1:521.swsbm. Type. of Stevenson. 717. Brassica capitata. the chou pomme blanc of Toumefort. the White Cabbage of Ray. the English or Late. 1586. J. 1686. The first appearance of this form is in Pancovius Herbarium. 1763. or. 1673. 90.Page 131 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Lobel Icon. Brassica capitata alba. 1:243. Bauh. 1644. Brassica alba sessilis glomerata. Early Dutch Drumhead. C. Epit.are not included. 1550. as it is the only kind figured in early botanies and was hence presumably the only. 1558. the principal sort known during several centuries. the Flat-topped is described by Mawe. 1587. Caulis capitulatis. 1586. 1651. Cam. Matth. Kol oder Kabiskraut. The varieties that are now esteemed are remarkably flat and solid. 163. ant capitata Lactucae habitu. Dur. Bod. Brassica capuccia. the English of Townsend. 1:826. 1617. the Common White of Wheeler. 1542. Type. Fuch. 1581. 250. 1552. perhaps. No. 1726. Kappiskraut. 1677. Pempt. 87. 269. 1561. Type.

ELLIPTIC CABBAGE. It is mentioned by name by Townsend. it does not appear to be extensively grown anywhere.Page 132 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1763. 1783. Type. and he refers to it as a well-known sort. From the study of sports that occasionally appear in the garden.that. must be decided from a special study. On the other hand. named by Townsend in 1726 and by a whole line of succeeding writers. 1726. This is first mentioned by Stevenson. whereby form has become transferred while the other characteristics of the Chinese species have disappeared. which have been noted by the herbalists. kopee (Beng. 1765.swsbm. It is certainly very singular that but one of these races of cabbage received the notice of the older botanists (excepting the one flat-topped given by Chabraeus. 1677). Perhaps the Large-sided cabbage of Worlidge and the Long-sided cabbage of Quintyne belong to this division. kapsta (Tartar). We must. According to Burr. 1778. by Stevenson. cabbage (English). kaposta.com . believed to have origin from the same source as the cabbage. is found in the Battersea. has oval or oblong heads. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . kapost. although a very old variety and well known in every country in Europe. There are now many varieties of this class. kopi (Hindu). It is very remarkable. Early York. This race is described by Lamarck. 1765. It is called chou chicon in France and bundee kobee in India. and the spherical-headed. CONICAL CABBAGE. kraut. Filderkraut. it came originally from Flanders. hence. cabus (French). that the European and Asiatic names used for different species of cabbage may all be referred to four roots. kappes. and. as their characteristics are extremely well marked and form extreme contrasts between the conical. have a manifest relation to the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap. the suggestion may be offered that at least some of these races have been derived from crossings with some form of the Chinese cabbage. The names kopf kohl (German). the savoy class.). How they came and whence they came. in which the effect of hybridization may become a feature. if there is any constancy between the name and the variety during long periods. believe that they either originated or came into use in a recent period. Type. and by Mawe. by Wheeler. or pointed. says Unger.

B.com . The Celto-Germanico-Greek root caul may be detected in the word kaol. Matthiolus. are principally grown for pickling. In 1638. kohl. and one variety only by Thorbum. they have never attained much standing for general use. transplant when one month old in rows a foot apart each way. collards. 1863. In the Southern States. 1651.swsbm. coan. RED CABBAGE. July and August for succession. kaal (Norwegian).Page 133 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. COLLARDS OR COLEWORT. 1828 and 1881. The collard plants are kept for sale by seedsmen. 1597. The want of a Sanscrit name shows that the cabbage tribe first found its way at a later period to India and China. karumb of the Arabians. Bauhin. as in this country. This tribe is not mentioned as in Japan by Thunberg. describes three reds and one so deeply colored as to be called black.which in Celtic means head. Brassica of Pliny is derived from the Celtic. It is cultivated in a number of varieties and in 1854 the seed of Red Savoy was distributed from the United States Patent Office. but several distinct sorts can now be obtained from seedsmen. cavolo. or colewort. 1616. passes into krumb. and. are sowings of an early variety of cabbage in rows about one foot apart to be cut for use as a spinach when about six or eight inches high. These figures are all of the spherical-headed type. the Latin caulis. kohl (Swedish). and J. Ray notices the variability in the colors upon which a number of our seedsmen's varieties are founded. the Greco-Germanic root cramb. In England. Other directions for culture are to sow seeds as for cabbage in June. Burr. in Pena and Lobel's Adversarial and figures are given by Gerarde. The first certain mention of this cabbage is in 1570. oleracea capitata mbra DC. rather than the cabbage seed under this name. and hoe frequently. also in the words caulx. 1775. As grown in the United States. 1598. kale. 1806. finally. bresic cabbage. the Grecian kaulion of Theophrastus. Dodonaeus. This is a very distinct and probably a very ancient kind of a peculiar purple color and solid heading. krambe. collards are extensively grown and used for greens STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . One variety is mentioned for American gardens by McMahon. kelum (Persian). The solidity of the head and the perfectness of the form in this class of cabbage indicate long culture and a remote origin. col (Spanish). The oblong or the pointed-headed types which now occur cannot be traced.

for Galen says the root contained within the earth is hard unless cooked. 246. from which it is probably a derivation. 1677. and other of the older botanists figure or describe it as under European culture. KOHL-RABI. figures a plant as a kohl-rabi which in all essential points resembles a Marrow cabbage. This view is probably a mistaken one. 1617. Dalechamp. The figures given by Lobel. 1598. Pempt. 1616. Lobel. There is no certain identification of this race in ancient writings. Dod. J. and Castor Durante. 251. In 1554. II. Caulorapum. 1587. 1616. out of harmony with the other figures.swsbm. tapering from a small stem into a long kohl-rabi. peregrine. when compared with Camerarius' figure. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . as he says it is between a radish and a rape. B. thus. Camerarius. 1591. Dodonaeus. two kohl-rabi plants were growing in pots in the greenhouse at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 1591. Rapa Br. 1570. suggest the Marrow cabbage. 1597. 1586. and the modern form is given by Gerarde and by Matthiolus. A long. 1586. Camerarius. 1651.Page 134 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Matthiolus speaks of the kohl-rabi as having lately come into Italy. highly improved form. In 1884. Kohl-rabi. Icon.and after frost the flavor is esteemed delicious. and Bodaeus. Lob. and Chabraeus. is a cross between cabbage and rape.com . 1587. is given by Dalechamp. caule rapum gerens. Between 1573 and 1575. is figured by Gerarde. Epit. The gorgylis of Theophrastus and Galen seems also to be the rutabaga. caule rapum gerens. The bunidia of Pliny seems rather to be the rutabaga. The synonymy can be tabulated as below: I. and many of the names applied to it convey this idea. This idea of its origin finds countenance in the figures of the older botanists. Cap. as the plant in its sportings under culture tends to the form of the Marrow cabbage. not now under culture. Br. with a flat top like the Marrow cabbage. one of these extended itself until it became a Marrow cabbage and when planted out in the spring attained its growth as a Marrow cabbage. oleracea caulo-rapa communis DC. Rauwolf saw it in the gardens of Tripoli and Aleppo. 1586. 1644. This is a dwarf-growing plant with the stem swelled out so as to resemble a turnip above ground. in the view of some writers. A very unimproved form. Bauhin. 625.

and the artichoke-leaved variety is greatly prized for decoration by confectioners. 250. Bauh. V. Opera 367.Rapa brassica. Pena and Lobel say it came from Greece. Caulorapum rotundum.com . caulorapa. Ger. in Scotland in 1805. in some cases forming quite half of the leaf. it was mentioned by McMahon. as we have stated. or Neapolitan. This cabbage is easily recognizable through the great expansion of the midribs and veins of the leaf. Caulo rapum longum. Br. Brassica gongylodes. already including nine subvarieties. Matth. PORTUGAL CABBAGE. 1644. J. Dalechamp 522. Matthiolus. caulorapa sive Rapo caulis. Gerarde. 1617. Dur. app. whence he received seeds. These excerpts indicate a southern origin. one the aboveground and the other the below-ground tumip-rooted. for this vegetable and the Marrow cabbage are very sensitive to cold. in early and late forms. Fessenden. as figured in our synonymy. Two varieties are used in France in ornamental gardening.Page 135 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The varieties now grown are the White and Purple. Ger. 250. Bodaus 777. 1597. branching veins. olearacea costata oblonga DC. In the United States.swsbm. and in England in 1837. 2:830. B. Darwin speaks of the recently formed new race. 1677. In 1734. IV. Chabr. C. 1806. In some plants the petioles are winged clear to the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the leaves being cut and frizzled. it was first brought into field culture in Ireland. the Curledleaf. names two varieties. and the Artichoke-leaved. are in authors of northern or central Europe. 270. The more highly improved forms. while the unimproved forms are given by more southern writers. Spain and Germany. 1828. Bradica raposa. Br. that it grows in Italy. III. in which the enlarged part lies beneath the ground like a turnip. 1598. This plant was an inmate of the Old Physic Garden in Edinburgh before 1683. says the plant came into Germany from Italy. 1587. This indicates that the present kohlrabi received its development in northern countries. the midrib losing its identity in the multitude of radiating. 1597. 1651. Brassica raposa.

1789. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This cabbage varies in a direction parallel to that of the common cabbage. In seasons of scarcity. 4. In France. 1612. As to the origin of this form. Vilm. at the present stage of studies. CHARLOCK. about 1850. Brodiaea grandiflora Sm. 43. must be largely speculative but we may reasonably believe that it originated from a different form or a different set of hybridizations than did the common cabbage. Lond. hence atavism as the result of a cross can be reasonably inferred. Soc. Liliaceae. opinion. 2:584. Chou blond aux grosses cotes. It is so employed in Sweden and Ireland. Jard. sinapistrum Boiss. Solit. Bosc. in the Hebrides. Euphorbiaceae. from Portugal. DC. 1883. Its seeds form a good substitute for mustard. B. Bridelia retusa Spreng. CALIFORNIAN HYACINTH. under the name of Portugal Cabbage. Brassica oleracea aceppala costata. It should be remarked. Hort. or has forms which can be classed with the kales and the heading cabbages of at least two types. FIELD MUSTARD. it is grown in the flower garden. whence it reached English gardens about 1821 and American gardens. Trans. DC.swsbm. B.com . however. Its fruit is eaten by the Indians. Syst. The fruit is sweetish and eatable. A tree of eastern Asia. 5:12. The peculiarity of the ribs or veins occasionally appears among the variables from the seed of the common cabbage.Page 136 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. that a chou a la grosse cote was in French gardens in 1612 and in three varieties in 1824. Nearly all the names applied to this form indicate its distribution.base. This is an European plant now occurring as a weed in cultivated fields in America. Chou aux grosses cotes. at least in late years. Northwestern America. 1824. 1821. the soft stems and leaves are boiled in milk and eaten. The synonymy appears to be: Choux a la grosse cote. Diet. oleracea costata. M.

COW-TREE. others carry the juice home to their children. TAPA-CLOTH TREE. that it is drunk extensively." This tree seems to have been noticed first by Laet in 1633. Some empty their bowls under the tree itself. ALICASTRUM SNAKEWOOD. by accident. the polo de vaca.com . pork. according to Desvaux. PAPER A tree of the islands of the Pacific. on an island near Oeram. Don. It is cultivated for the inner bark which is used for making a paper as well as textile STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. on shell fish and on a few turtle's eggs. Urticaceae (Moraceae). galactodendron D. The plant. boiled with salt-fish. Its large. From incisions in the bark. This cow-tree is grown in Ceylon and India. is one of the polo de vaca or cow-trees of South America. which is drunk by the inhabitants as a milk. furnished with large bowls to receive the milk which grows yellow and thickens at its surface. milky sap is procured. Urticaceae MULBERRY. In the Malay Archipelago. BREADNUT. woody roots can scarcely penetrate into the stone. B. for Brandis says it yields large quantities of thick. Guiana.Bromelia Sp. but when the trunk is pierced there flows from it a sweet and nourishing milk. The negroes and natives are then seen hastening from all quarters. in the province of Camana. who "subsisted on the roots and tender flower-stalks of a species of Bromelia. Broussonetia papyrifera Vent. Its use is accompanied by a sensation of astringency in the lips and palate. beef or pickle." Brosimum alicastrum Sw.Page 137 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is at the rising of the sun that this vegetable fountain is most abundant. and that it is very wholesome and nourishing. (Moraceae). Its branches appear dead and dried. Wallacel left two men for a month. Bromeliaceae. The fruit. China and Japan. or cow-tree of Venezuela. gluey milk without any acridity. Humboldt says "On the barren flank of a rock grows a tree with coriaceous and dry leaves. For several months of the year not a single shower moistens its foliage. arbol de lecke. has frequently been the support of the negro and poorer sorts of white people in times of scarcity and has proved a wholesome and not unpleasant food. MILK-TREE. American tropics.

Drury says these kernels are a general substitute for almonds among the natives and are much esteemed in confectionery or are roasted and eaten with milk. Its fruit. Masters says that the plant has a fetid odor and possesses acrid. leaves and bark are eaten by the natives in the Malayan Archipelago. sweetish. The kernel of the seed tastes somewhat like the pistachio nut and is used largely in native sweetmeats. Torrey says the fruit is sweet STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . CHEEROJEE-OIL PLANT.fabrics. has a pleasant. Bumelia lanuginosa Pers. Loudon says the young shoots of red bryony are edible. In California. The tender. WILD HOP. WESTERN BUCKTHORN. B. Cucurbitaceae. The fleshy part of the compound fruit is saccharine and edible. Muddy tropical shores from Hindustan to the Samoan Islands. according to Nuttall. sub-acid flavor and is an important article of food of the hill tribes of central India. Europe and adjoining Asia. Rhizophoreae. B. This is a low bush of southern United States which. says Brandis.com . Sapotaceae. Anacardiaceae. bears an edible fruit as large as a small date.8\ Bryonia alba Linn. Loudon says the young shoots are edible. RED BRYONY. Tropical India and Burma. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Lam. The fruit. North America. Buchanania lancifolia Roxb. West Mediterranean countries. B. FALSE BUCKTHORN.swsbm. reclinata Vent. dioica Jacq. emetic and pungent properties. East Indies and Burma. Southwestern United States. unripe fruit is eaten by the natives in their curries. WHITE BRYONY. latifolia Roxb.Page 138 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

B." Burasaia madagascariensis DC. The leaves are used for food in China and Japan. orientalis Linn. Europe. Madagascar. Northern China. American tropics. Cruciferae. “Hippocrates hath commended it in meats for salads and potherbs. by Arthur Young. rotundifolium Linn. In Italy. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Northern Asia and Himalayan region. Bunias erucago Linn. Its stems are eaten raw. An infusion of the leaves is occasionally used as a domestic substitute for tea.and edible and nearly three-quarters of an inch long. This rocket was cultivated in 1739 by Philip Miller in the Botanic Garden of Chelsea and was first introduced into field culture in England as a forage plant. the tender shoots of this apparently foreign plant are edible. The young leaves are recommended by Vilmorin either as a salad or boiled.Page 139 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. HARE'S EAR. B. THOROUGH WAX. Mediterranean countries. Menispermaceae. Caucasus region and Persia. Orient. Unger says this species serves as a salad for the poor. This plant has edible fruit. Bupleurum falcatum Linn. Umbelliferae. TURKISH ROCKET. icicariba Baill. B. Burseraceae. AMERICAN GUM TREE.com . This plant is called dikaia retka on the Lower Volga. Europe. Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Bursera gummifera Linn. octoradiatum Bunge. HILL MUSTARD.swsbm. INDIAN BIRCH. B. In China.

BOX. In France and some other parts of the continent. acid berries are eaten. The tree is called meepampa in equatorial Africa. Byrsonima crassifolia H. SHEA TREE. It yields the elemi of Brazil. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . & K. Buxus sempervirens Linn. The small. Johns says. but Johnson says they cannot be wholesome and would probably prove very injurious. butter is obtained from the kernel of the fruit and serves the natives as a substitute for butter. acid berries are good eating but astringent. aromatic fruit. SHOEMAKER'S TREE. GRASSY RUSH. the rhizomes serve as material for a bread. Sapotaceae. A small tree of New Granada and Panama. as well as the seeds but are eaten among the savages. it is grown in flower gardens as an aquatic. WATER GLADIOLUS. In France. Unger says.Brazil. Tropical west Africa. The tree is said to have edible. Java.Page 140 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. FLOWERING RUSH. B.swsbm. Lindley says the rhizomes are acrid and bitter. Tropical America. Europe. in the north of Asia. Europe and adjoining Asia. the root is roasted and eaten. Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy. The yellow. the leaves of the box have been. javanica Baill. BUTTER TREE. who eat the leaves and fruit. Malpighiaceae. spicata Rich. Alismaceae (Butomaceae).com . B. B. Shea. This butter is highly commended by Park. Euphorbiaceae (Buxaceae). used as a substitute for hops in beer. or galam. Butomus umbellatus Linn. in Norway. This plant is the tingulong of the Javanese. Orient and temperate Asia.

It is now naturalized in the West Indies. At Zanzibar. a fact attested by its presence in ancient tombs. In India.com . Cruciferae. This variety is said by Pickering to be native of equatorial Africa. The variety Flavus grows from five to ten feet high and is called in Jamaica no-eye pea. northern Africa and North America.Cadaba farinosa Forsk. CONGO PEA. The variety Bicolor grows from three to six feet high and is called the Congo pea in Jamaica. The pigeon pea is a perennial shrub. growing 15 feet tall. TOOR. C. URHUR. Lunan says the pea when young and properly cooked is very little inferior as a green vegetable to English peas and when old is an excellent ingredient in soups. Leguminosae. third amongst their leguminous seeds. CATJANG. It is both cultivated and wild all over India as well as in all parts of tropical Africa. the seeds are a principal article of diet. PEACOCK FLOWER. Berianger says at Martinique there are several varieties greatly used. SEA ROCKET. though treated generally as an annual when in cultivation. DAHL. The green seeds are eaten raw and have the taste of peas. ranking. and that the seeds both fresh and dried are delicious. with the natives. PRIDE OF BARBADOS. Kalm says the sea rocket STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Elliott says the pulse when split is in great and general esteem and forms the most generally used article of diet among all classes in India. Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw. MacFayden says there are few tropical plants so valuable. Cosmopolitan tropics. Leguminosae. NO-EYE PEA.Page 141 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. East Indies. It certainly is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. PIGEON PEA. Cajanus indicus Spreng. In Egypt.swsbm. says Mueller. the seeds of the two varieties are much esteemed. in tropical America and in Africa. 4000 pounds of peas have been produced to the acre. GRANDUE.) Cakile maritima Scop. ANGOLA PEA. Spinach is made from the leaves. Europe. and the plant lasts for three years. Capparideae. pigeon pea and Angola pea6 Dr. Schweinfurth states that it is found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty (22002400 B. on the richest soil. A shrub of tropical Africa and Arabia.

When ripe this fruit is roundish. it was included in McMahon's list of aromatic. GOLDINS GOLDS. Caladium bicolor Vent. Thunberg saw the fruit of the rattan exposed for sale in Batavia. Northern Asia and North America. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Palmae. Scitamineae (Marantaceae). boiled as a vegetable. This palm furnishes rattan canes. as large as a hazelnut and is covered with small. WATER DRAGON. Calendula officinalis Linn. Calathea allouia Lindl. shining scales. Compositae.swsbm. This species is cultivated in the West Indies and. according to Lindley. mixed with flour and eaten. POT MARIGOLD. RATTAN CANE. The petals of the flowers are occasionally used in broths and soups in Britain and Holland and are also used for coloring butter. East Indies. Aroideae (Araceae).Page 142 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Aroideae (Araceae). South America. In 1806. There are a number of ornamental varieties. Sometimes the fruit is pickled with salt and eaten at tea-time. laid like shingles. furnishes one of the arrowroots of commerce. Calamus rotang Linn. Guiana. pot and sweet herbs of American gardens. prepared by drying and grinding them and then heating the powder until the acrid properties are dissipated. The rootstocks of this plant yield eatable starch. The leaves are eaten.com . when there is a scarcity of bread. The natives generally suck out the subacid pulp which surrounds the kernel by way of quenching their thirst. Europe. one upon the other. Calla palustris Linn. WATER ARUM. Southern Europe. The corms are eaten roasted or boiled. and the species is to be found in many of our country gardens. in the West Indies. This marigold was cultivated in England prior to 1573. The plant is described in nearly all of the early herbals and is mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century.furnishes a root in Canada which is pounded.

STAR TULIP. edible substance resembling gum tragacanth. a kind of beer is formed by fermenting a mixture of two parts of heath tops and one of malt. tapering root of this plant is said to be edible.Page 143 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Gray. made into bread. subaromatic and slightly bitter taste and is chewed by the Cinghalese when they cannot obtain betel leaves. are. It is an inmate of the flower garden in France. says Johnson. Calligonum pallasia L'Herit. Calluna vulgaris Salisb. which fall in great numbers. swept up. In the Hebrides. The roots of this species resemble those of a parsnip and are used as food by the Indians of Nebraska and Idaho. The abortive flowers. was their common drink at feasts. Russia and Siberia. The large.swsbm. The Celtic tribes had a method of preparing an intoxicating drink from a decoction of heath. This beverage. HEATH. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . PIMPLE MALLOW. in the south Punjab and sometimes in Sind. The bark has a peculiar. Northwestern America. Malvaceae. Calochortus elegans Pursh. Verbenaceae. Ericaceae. or cooked with ghee and eaten. In France it is grown in flower gardens. Gray. Northwestern America. polygonoides Linn. C. C. The roots when pounded are said to furnish a mucilaginous. Pacific northwest of America. The Picts had a mode of preparing beer or wine from the flowers of the heath.com . East Indies. Armenia. POPPY MALLOW. mixed with wild honey. The root of this plant is eaten by the Indians. Europe and North America.Callicarpa lanata Linn. Persia and northwestern India. Caspian region. Polygonaceae. Liliaceae. Callirhoe involucrata A. pedata A.

C. luteus Dougl. BUTTERFLY TULIP. SEGO LILY. Western United States. This plant has a small, bulbous root about the size of a walnut, very palatable and nutritious and much used by the Indian tribes of Utah as an article of food. The Mormons during their first years in Utah consumed the root in large quantities. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. LAUREL. POONAY-OIL PLANT. Guttiferae. ALEXANDRIAN

Old world tropics. The fruit when ripe is red and sweet and is eaten by the natives. An oil is expressed from it and is used in lamps. Calotropis gigantea Ait. Asclepiadeae. BOW-STRING HEMP. East India. According to Twemlow, an intoxicating liquor called bar is obtained from the plant by the Hill People about Mahableshwur. According to Royle, it yields a kind of manna. Caltha palustris Linn. Ranunculaceae. MARIGOLD. MEADOW BRIGHT. COWSLIP. MARSH

Of northern climates. This well-known plant, says Gray, is used as a potherb in spring when coming into flower, under the name of cowslip. In the Southern States, the flower-buds are pickled for use as a substitute for capers. Calycanthus ALLSPICE. floridus Linn. Calycanthaceae. CAROLINA

North America. The aromatic bark is said to be used as a substitute for cinnamon. Calyptranthes aromatica St. Hil. Myrtaceae. South Brazil. Mueller says the flower-buds can be used as cloves; the berries, as allspice. C. obscura DC. Brazil. The fruit is sold in Rio Janeiro as an aromatic and astringent.
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C. paniculata Ruiz & Pav. Peru. The fruit is used as a substitute for cloves. C. schiediana Berg. Mexico. In Mexico, the fruit is used as cloves. Calystegia sepium R. Br. Convolvulaceae. BINDWEED. Temperate climates. It has edible stalks which are eaten by the Hindus. The roots are said to be boiled and eaten by the Chinese, who manage, says Smith, to cook and digest almost every root or tuber in spite of the warnings of botanists and chemists. C. soldanella R. Br. SEA BINDWEED. Temperate climates. The tender stalks of the sea bindweed are pickled. The young shoots, says Johnson, were gathered formerly by the people on the southern coasts of England and pickled as a substitute for samphire. Camassia esculenta KAMOSH. QUAMASH. Lindl. Liliaceae. COMMON CAMASS.

Northwestern America. The root forms the greater part of the vegetable food of the Indians on the northwest coast of America and Vancouver Island and is called kamosh or quamash. This bulbous root is said to be of delicious flavor and highly nutritious, but Lewis says it causes bowel complaints if eaten in quantity. This plant covers many plains and is dug by the women and stored for eating, roasted or boiled. The bulbs, when boiled in water, yield a very good molasses, which is much prized and is used on festival occasions by various tribes of Indians. In France, it is an inmate of the flower garden. Camelina sativa Crantz. Cruciferae. FALSE FLAX. GOLD-OFPLEASURE. OIL-SEED PLANT. SIBERIAN OIL-SEED. Europe and temperate Asia. This plant occurs in northeastern America as a noxious weed in flax fields, having been introduced from Europe. It was regularly cultivated in the mediaeval ages in Germany and Russia
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and is now cultivated in Flanders. The stem yields a fiber, but the stalks seem to be used only in broom making. The seeds yield an oil which is used for culinary and other purposes. In 1854, the seeds of this plant were distributed from the United States Patent Office. It was called in Britain gold-of-pleasure even in the time of Gerarde. The seeds are sometimes imported into England under the name dodder seed, but they have no relation to the true dodder which is a far different plant. Camellia sasanqua Thunb. Ternstroemiaceae (Theaceae). TEAOIL PLANT. Japan and China. This plant was introduced from China to England in 1811. It yields a nut from which an oil is expressed in China, equal, it is said, to olive oil. In Japan the dried leaves are mixed with tea to give it a grateful odor. C. thea Link. TEA. China. This is the species to which the cultivated varieties of tea are all referred. In its various forms it is now found in China and Japan, in the mountains that separate China from the Burmese territories, especially in upper Assam, in Nepal, in the islands of Bourbon, Java, St. Helena and Madeira, in Brazil and experimentally in the United States. The first mention of tea seems to have been by Giovanni Pietro Maffei in his Historiae Indicae, 1589, from which it appears that it was then called by the Chinese chia. Giovanni Botero in his Delia Cause della grandezza...delta citta, 1589, says the Chinese have an herb from which they extract a delicate juice, which they use instead of wine. In 1615, an Englishman in Japan, in the employment of the East India Company, sent to a brother official at Macao for a "pot of the best chaw," and this is supposed to be the earliest known mention by an Englishman. Adam Olearius describes the use of tea in Persia in 1633, and says—his book being published in 164 —"this herb is now so well known in most parts of Europe, where many persons of quality use it with good success." In 1638, Mandelslo visited Japan and about this time wrote of the tsia or tea of Japan. Prior to 1657, tea was occasionally sold in England at prices ranging from $30 to $50 a pound. In 1661, Mr. Pepys, secretary of the British Admiralty, speaks of "tea (a China drink) of which I had never drank before," and in 1664, the Dutch India Company presented two pounds and two ounces to the King of England as a rare and valuable offering
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and in 1667 this company imported 100 pounds. In 1725, there were imported into England 370,323 pounds; in 1775, the quantity had increased to 5,648,188 pounds. In 1863, upwards of 136,000,000 pounds were imported of which 85,206,779 pounds were entered for home consumption. In 1863, the United States received 29,761,037 pounds and 72,077,951 pounds in 1880. In 1810, the first tea plants were carried to Rio Janeiro, together with several hundred Chinese experienced in its culture. The government trials do not seem to have resulted favorably but later, the business being taken up by individuals, its culture seems to be meeting with success and the tea of Brazil, called by its Chinese name of cha, enters quite largely into domestic consumption. In 1848, Junius Smith, of South Carolina, imported a number of shrubs and planted them at Greenville. At about the same time some 32,000 plants were imported from China and distributed through the agency of the Patent Office. In 1878, the Department of Agriculture distributed 69,000 plants. In Louisiana, in 1870, a plantation of tea shrubs, three to four hundred in number, is said to have existed. Campanula edulis Forsk. Campanulaceae. BELLFLOWER. Arabia. The root is thick, sapid and is eaten by children. C. persicifolia Linn. PEACH BELLS. Europe and north Asia. This plant has been used as food in England but has long since fallen into disuse. In France it is called cloche and is grown as a flowering plant. C. rapunculoides Linn. CREEPING BELLFLOWER. Europe and temperate Asia. This plant may be substituted in cultivation for rampion. It has long since fallen into disuse. C. rapunculus Linn. RAMPION. Europe, Orient, north Africa and northern Asia. This biennial plant was formerly much cultivated in gardens for its roots as well as its leaves. Loudon says the latter are excellent, eaten raw as a salad or boiled as a spinach, and the root, which has the flavor of walnuts, is also eaten raw like a radish or mixed with salads, either raw or boiled and cold. It is
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much cultivated in France and Italy, says Johns. Rampion is recorded in gardens by Pena and Lobel, 1570, and is figured by Tragus, 1552, Lobel, 1576, as well as by other writers of this period, as an improved root. In 1726, Townsend says it is to be found in only few English gardens; and Bryant, 1783, says it is much cultivated in France but in England is now little regarded. It is recorded in American gardens in 1806, 1819 and 1821. As late as 1877, an English writer says rampion is a desirable addition to winter salads. Campomanesia STRAWBERRY. aromatica Griseb. Myrtaceae. GUAVA

Guiana and Cayenne. At Martinique, where this shrub is cultivated, it is called guava strawberry, because the flavor of its delicate pulp reminds one of the Pine strawberry. The fruit is edible. C. lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav. Peru. This species furnishes edible fruit. Canarina campanulata Linn. Campanulaceae. Canary Islands. The fleshy capsule, roots and young shoots are said to be edible." Canarium album Raeusch. Burseraceae. CANARIUM A tree native of China and Cochin China, Anam and the Philippines. The fruit is pickled and used as olives. C. commune Linn. CHINESE OLIVE. JAVA ALMOND. Moluccas. This fine-looking tree is cultivated for the sake of its fruit which, in taste, is something like an almond. An oil is expressed from the seed which in Java is used in lamps and when fresh is mixed with food. Bread is also made from its nuts in the island of Celebes. In Ceylon, the nut is called wild almond by Europeans and is eaten. C. edule Hook. f. Tropical Africa. This is the safu of the island of St. Thomas in the Gulf of
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Guinea, where its fruit is much esteemed. In taste, the fruit is bitter and astringent; it is usually roasted. C. pimela Kon. Cochin China, China and Java. The black fruit is sometimes pickled. C. sylvestre Gaertn. Amboina. The plant bears nuts with edible kernels. Canavalia ensiformis DC. OVERLOOK. SWORD BEAN. Leguminosae. HORSE BEAN.

Tropical Africa. This climbing plant is commonly cultivated about Bombay. The half-grown pods are eaten. It is cultivated in the Peninsula for its esculent pods; in Burma to a small extent, where its young pods are eaten; and also in the Philippines. The plant is common in woods in the East Indies, tropical Africa, Mexico, Brazil and the West Indies. It is called overlook by the negroes of Jamaica.6 Elliott7 says it is found only in a cultivated state and is probably the domesticated form of C. virosa. Firminger says it is a native vegetable of India, the pod large, flat, sword-shaped, fully nine inches long, and more than an inch and a quarter wide. Though rather coarse-looking, yet when sliced and boiled, is exceedingly tender and little, if any, inferior to the French bean. Roxburgh describes three varieties: flowers and seeds red; flowers white and seeds red; flowers and large seed white. This last variety is considered the best and is used on the tables of Europeans as well as by the natives of Sylhet where it is indigenous. Drury says it is a common plant in hedges and thickets and in cultivation. It is called in India mukhun seen. Canella alba Murr. Canellaceae. WILD CINNAMON. West Indies. The bark is employed by the negroes as a condiment and has. some reputation as an antiscorbutic. Canna achiras Gill. Scitamineae (Cannaceae). CANNA. South Africa. This plant is said to furnish tubers used as food in Peru and Chile. It is one of the species cultivated in the West Indies for the manufacture of the arrowroot known as tous les mois according to
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Balfour. C. coccinea Mill. INDIAN SHOT. East Indies. This plant is said by Mueller and Balfour to yield the tous les mois of the West Indies. C. edulis Ker-Gawl. American tropics. This plant is cultivated in the islands of St. Christopher, Trinidad and probably elsewhere. The tubers are said to be quite large and when rasped to a pulp furnish, by washing and straining, one of the classes of arrowroot known as tous les mois. It is one of the hardiest of arrowroot plants. It is the adeira or ackiras of Peru. C. glauca Linn. Mexico and West Indies. This is one of the West Indian arrowroot cannas. Cannabis sativa Linn. Urticaceae (Cannabidaceae) . FIMBLE. GALLOW GRASS. HEMP. Caspian, central Asia and northwestern Himalayas. Hemp is spontaneous in the north of India and in Siberia. It has also been found wild in the Caucasus and in the north of China. Its native country is probably the region of the Caspian. Hemp was cultivated by the Celts. The Scythians, according to Herodotus, cultivated it. The Hebrews and the ancient Egyptians did not know it, for no mention is made of it in the sacred books and it does not appear in the envelopes of the mummies. Its culture is ancient throughout the southern provinces of India as a textile plant and for the stimulating properties of the leaves, flowers and seeds. Dioscorides alludes to the strength of the ropes made from its fibre and the use of the seeds in medicine. Galen refers to it medicinally. It was known in China as early as A. D. 220. It was introduced into the United States before 1639, as Wm. Wood n mentions it. Hempseed was served fried for dessert by the ancients. In Russia, Poland and neighboring countries, the peasants are extremely fond of parched hempseed and it is eaten even by the nobility. The oil
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expressed from the seed is much used as food during the time of the fasts in the Volga region. The plant is cultivated by the Hottentots for the purpose of smoking and it is used in like manner by the negroes of Brazil. In the East, hemp is grown largely for the sake of the churras, or resin, which possesses intoxicating properties. The Arabs smoke the sun-dried leaf mixed with tobacco in huge pipes, while the Africans smoke the hemp alone. For fibre purposes and for seed, the plant is largely grown in Russia and North America. Capparis aphylla Roth. Capparideae. CAPER. KUREEL. Northern Africa, Arabia and East Indies. In India, the bud of this plant is eaten as a potherb, and the fruit is largely consumed by the natives, both green and ripe and is formed into a pickle. In Sind, the flowerbuds are used as a pickle, and the unripe fruit is cooked and eaten. Both the ripe and unripe fruit, prepared into a bitter-tasting pickle, is exported into Hindustan. Its fruit, before ripening, is cooked and eaten by the Banians of Arabia. The African species is described by Barth as forming one of the characteristic features in the vegetation of Africa from the desert to the Niger, the dried berries constituting an important article of food, while the roots when burned yield no small quantity of salt. C. horrida Linn. f. CAPER. Tropical Asia and Malays. In the southern Punjab and Sind, the fruit is pickled. C. spinosa Linn. CAPER. Mediterranean regions, East Indies and Orient. This species furnishes buds which are substituted for the capers of commerce. It is used as a caper. The preserved buds have received wide distribution as a vegetable. The caper was known to the ancient Greeks, and the renowned Phryne, at the first period of her residence in Athens, was a dealer in capers. The Greeks of the Crimea, according to Pallas, eat the sprouts, which resemble those of asparagus, as well as the bud, shoot, and, in short, every eatable part of the shrub. Wilkinson states that the fruit of the Egyptian caper, or lussef, is very large, like a small cucumber, about two and a half inches long and is eaten by the Arabs. According to Ruellius, Aristotle and Theophrastus describe the plant as not cultivated in gardens, but in his time, 1536, it was in the gardens of
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France. In Sind and the Punjab, the fruit is pickled and eaten. It is now cultivated in the south of Europe for the flower-buds, which furnish the capers of commerce. About 1755, capers were imported into South Carolina by Henry Laurens. They were raised successfully for two years in Louisiana, before 1854, but the plants afterwards perished by frost. C. tomentosa Lam. KOWANGEE. This is the kowangee of tropical Africa. In famines at Madi, spinach is made from its leaves. Capraria biflora Linn. Scrophularineae. GOAT-WEED. JAMAICA TEA. SMART WEED. WEST INDIA TEA. Tropical America. Lunan says the leaves not only resemble those of tea but make an equally agreeable decoction. Titford says an infusion of them is a very good beverage. Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic. Cruciferae. MOTHER'S HEART. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Temperate regions. One of the commonest of weeds, this plant has accompanied Europeans in all their navigations and established itself wherever they have settled to till the soil. Johns says it was formerly used as a potherb. Johnson says, as improved by cultivation, "it is used in America as a green vegetable, being largely raised about Philadelphia for sale in the markets." Darlington, the botanist, who lived near Philadelphia, calls it "a worthless little intruder from Europe," and we are disposed to believe that the statement of its culture is one of the errors which are copied from book to book. In China, it is collected by the poor and largely eaten as food. Capsicum. Solanaceae. Tropical America. Ancient Sanscrit or Chinese names for the genus are not known. The first mention that is on record is by Peter Martyr in his epistle dated Sept. 1493, when he says Columbus brought home with him "pepper more pungent than that from Caucasus." In his Decades of the Ocean he says: "There are innumerable Kyndes of Ages, the varietie whereof, is known by theyr leaves and flowers. One kind of these, is called guanaguax, this is white both within and without. Another named guaraguei is of violet colour without and white within.
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Squi are whyte within and without. Tunna is altogether of violet colours. Hobos is yelowe both of skynne and inner substance. There is an other named atibunicix, the skynne of this is of violet coloure and the substance white. Aniguamar hath his skynne also of violet coloure and is white within. Guaccaracca hath a white skynne and the substance of violet colour. There are many other, which are not yet brought to us." This variability indicates an antiquity of cultivation. Veytia says the Olmecs raised chilis before the time of the Toltecs. Sahagun mentions capsium more frequently than any other herb among the edible dishes of the Aztecs. Acosta says it is the principal sauce and the only spice of the Indians. Bancroft says it was eaten by the Nahuathan natives both green and dry, whole and ground. Gardlasso de la Vega speaks of it as an ancient vegetable in Peru, and one variety was especially valued by royalty. The earliest reference to this genus seems to be by Chanca, physician to the fleet of Columbus, in his second voyage, and occurs in a letter written in 1494 to the Chapter of Seville. Capsicum and its uses are more particularly described by Oviedo, who reached tropical America from Spain in 1514. Hans Stade, about 1550, mentions the capsicum of the continent of America as being of two kinds: "The one yellow, the other red, both, however, grow in like manner. When green it is as large as the haws that grow on hawthorns. It is a small shrub, about half a fathom high and has small leaves; it is full of peppers which burn the mouth." Lignon in his History of the Barbadoes, 1647 to 1653, describes two sorts in Barbados: "The one so like a child's corall, as not to be discerned at the distance of two paces, a crimson and scarlet mixt; the fruit about three inches long and shines more than the best pollisht corall. The other, of the same colour and glistening as much but shaped like a large button of a cloak; both of one and the same quality; both violently strong and growing on a little shrub no bigger than a gooseberry bush." Long says there are about 15 varieties of capsicum in Jamaica, which are found in most parts of the island. Those which are most commonly noticed are the Bell, Goat, Bonnett, Bird, Olive, Hen, Barbary, Finger and Cherry. Of these the Bell is esteemed most proper for pickling. Wafer, 1699, speaking of the Isthmus, says: "They have two sorts of pepper, the one called Bell-pepper, the other Bird-pepper, each sort growing on a weed or shrubby bush about a yard high. The Bird-pepper has the smaller leaf and is most esteemed by the Indians." Garcilasso de la Vega in his Royal Commentaries, 1609, says the most
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common pepper in Peru is thick, somewhat long, and without a point. This is called rocot uchu, or thick pepper, to distinguish it from the next kind. They eat it green and before it assumes its ripe color, which is red. There are others yellow and others brown, though in Spain only the red kind has been seen. There is another kind the length of a geme, a little more or less, and the thickness of the little finger. These were considered a nobler kind and were reserved for the use of the royal family. Another kind of pepper is small and round, exactly like a cherry with its stalk. They call it chinchi uchu and it bears far more than the others. It is grown in small quantities and for that reason is the more highly esteemed. Molina says many species of the pimento, called by the Indians thapi, "are cultivated in Chili, among others the annual pimento which is there perennial, the berry pimento, and the pimento with a subligenous stalk." Capsicums were eaten in large quantities by the ancient inhabitants of tropical America, and the natives of Guiana now eat the fruit in such abundance as would not be credited by an European unless he were to see it. In Sonora and New Mexico, at the present time, they are universally grown, and the pods while green are eaten with various substances, under the name of chille verde, while the dishes prepared with the red pods are called chille colorom. Capsicum was brought to Spain by Columbus in 1493. It is mentioned in England in 1548 and was seen by Clusius in Moravia in 1585. Clusius asserts that the plant was brought to India by the Portuguese. Gerarde says these plants are brought from foreign countries, as Guinea, India and those parts, into Spain and Italy, whence we have received seed for our English gardens. There are many peppers, some of which it is more convenient to describe as species C. annuum Linn. CAYENNE PEPPER. CHILLIES. GUINEA PEPPER. PIMENTO. RED PEPPER. Tropical regions. Booth says this species was introduced into Europe by the Spaniards and that it was cultivated in England in 1548. The fruits are variable, some being yellow, others red and others black. The pods, according to London, are long or short, round or cherry-shaped. In lower Hungary, the variety now very largely cultivated for commercial purposes, has a spherical, scarlet fruit. It is cultivated in India, in America, and, indeed, almost everywhere in warm countries. C. baccatum Linn. BIRD PEPPER. BIRDS-EYE PEPPER.
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Tropical regions. Booth says this species is indigenous to both the East and West Indies and has been grown in England since 1731. The pods are erect, roundish, egg-shaped, very pungent. It was probably early introduced into India as shown by the belief that it is native. It is used like other red peppers by the Mexicans who call it chipatane. C. cerasiforme Mill. CHERRY PEPPER. Tropics. Its stem is 12 to 15 inches high; fruit erect, of a deep, rich, glossy scarlet when ripe; of intense piquancy. A variety occurs with larger, more conical and pendent pods, and there is also a variety with yellow fruit. C. frutescens Linn. AGE. CHILI PEPPER. GOAT PEPPER. SPUR PEPPER. Tropical America. This plant is considered by some botanists as a native of India, as it has constantly been found in a wild state in the Eastern Islands, but Rumphius argues its American origin from its being so constantly called Chile. It is the aji or uchu seen by Cieza de Leon in 1532-50, during his travels in Peru and even now is a favorite condiment with the Peruvian Indians. This pepper is cultivated in every part of India, in two varieties, the red and the yellow, and in Cochin China. In Ceylon there are three varieties, a red, a yellow and a black. It has been in English gardens since 1656. Its long, obtuse pods are very pungent and in their green and ripe state are used for pickling, for making Chile vinegar; the ripe berries are used for making cayenne pepper. Burr describes the fruit as quite small, cone-shaped, coral-red when ripe, and intensely acrid but says it will not succeed in open culture in the north. C. minimum Roxb. CAYENNE PEPPER. Philippine Islands. This is said to be the cayenne pepper of India. Wight says this pepper is eaten by the natives of India but is not preferred. It grows also on the coast of Guinea and is recognized as a source of capsicum by the British Pharmacopoeia. It is intensely pungent. C. tetragonum Mill. BONNET PEPPER. LUNAN PEPPER. PAPRIKA. TURKISH PEPPER.
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Tropical regions. This species is said by Booth to be the bonnet pepper of Jamaica. The fruits are very fleshy and have a depressed form like a Scotch bonnet. In lower Hungary, under the name paprika, the cultivation gives employment to some 2500 families. The fruit is red, some three and a half to five inches long, and three-quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter. McMahon, 1806, says capsicums are in much estimation for culinary purposes and mentions the Large Heart-shaped as the best. He names also the Cherry, Bell and Long Podded. In 1826, Thorbum offers in his catalog five varieties, the Long or Cayenne, the Tomato-shaped or Squash, the Bell or Ox-heart, the Cherry and the Bird or West Indian. In 1881 he offers ten varieties. GROUPS OF CAPSICUM. In the varieties under present cultivation, we have distinct characters in the calyx of several of the groups and in the fruit being pendulous or erect. It is worthy of note that the pendulous varieties have a pendulous bloom as well as fruit, and the erect varieties have erect bloom. Some heavy fruits are erect, while some light fruits are pendulous. Another distinct character is the flavor of the fruit, as for instance all the sweet peppers have a like calyx, and a like color. While again there may seem at first to be considerable variability in the fruits even on the same plant, yet a more careful examination shows that this variability is more apparent than real and comes from a suppression or distortion of growth, all really being of a similar type. This history of the botany of the groups can best be seen by the synonymy, which is founded upon figures given with the descriptions. I. THE CALYX EMBRACING THE FRUIT. (a) Fruits pendulous. This form seems to have been the first introduced and presents fruits of extreme pungency and is undoubtedly that described as brought to Europe by Columbus. It presents varieties with straight and recurved fruit and the fruit when ripe is often much contorted and wrinkled. Capsicum longum. DC. from Fingerhuth. Siliquastrum tertium. Langer Indianischer pfeffer. Fuch. 733. 1542.
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Siliquastrum minus. Fuch. 1. c. 732. Indianischer pfeffer. Saliquastrum. Roeszl. 214. 1550. Indianischer pfeffer. Trag. 928. 1552. Piper indicum. Cam. Epit. 347. 1586. Capsicum oblongius Dodonaei. Dalechamp 632. 1587. Piper indicum minus recurvis siliquis. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. Piper indicum maximum longum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. Capsicum recurvis siliquis. Dod. 716. i6i6. Piper Calecuticum, sive Capsicum oblongius. Bauh. J. 2:943. 1650. Siliquastrum, Ind. pfeffer. Pancov. n. 296. 1673. Piper Capsicum. Chabr. 297. 1677. Piment de Cayenne. Vilm. 151. 1885. Long Red Cayenne. Ferry. Mexican Indian, four varieties, one of the exact variety of Fuch. 1542. Siliquastrum majus. Fuch. 732. 1542. Long Yellow Cayenne. Hend. Capsicum longum luteum. Fingerhuth. (b) Fruits erect. Capsicum annuum acuminatum. Fingerhuth. Piper ind. minimum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. Piper ind. medium longum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. Piper longum minus siliquis recurvis. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662. Pigment du Chili. Vilm. 410. 1883. Chili pepper. Vilm. 151. 1885. Red Cluster. Vilm. Yellow Chili. Hend. II. CALYX PATERIFORM, NOT COVERING THE FLATTENED BASE OF THE FRUIT. (a) Fruits long, tapering, pendent. Piper indicum sive siliquastrum. Pin. 12. 1561. Capsicum actuarii. Lob. Obs. 172, 1576; Icon. l;3i6. 1591. Capsicum majus. Dalechamp 632. 1587. Capsicum longioribus siliquis. Ger. 292. 1597. Piper indicum. Matth. Op. 434. 1598. Capsicum oblongioribus siliquis. Dod. 716. i6i6.
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Pepe d'lndia. Dur. C. 344. 1617. Figures 13 and 14. Piso De Ind. 226. 1658. Guinea pepper or garden coral. Pomet 125. 1748. Piper indicum bicolor. Blackw. Herb. n. 129, f. 2. 1754. Piment rouge long. Vilm. 409. 1883. Long Red capsicum or Guinea. Vilm. 150. 1885. (b) Fruits short, rounding, pendent. Siliquastrum quartum. Fuch. 734. X542. Siliquastrum cordatum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586. Fig. 2 and 6. Piso 225. 1658. Piper cordatum. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662. Capsicum cordiforme, Mill. Fingerhuth. Oxheart. Thorb. New Oxheart. Thorb. III. CALYX FUNNEL-FORM, NOT EMBRACING BASE OF FRUIT. (a) Fruit pendent, long. Piper indicum medium. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. Piper siliquis flams. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. Piper indicum aureum latum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. Fig. in Hernandez. Nova Hisp. 137. 1651. Piper indicum longioribus siliquis rubi. Sweert. t. 35, f. 3. 1654. Piper vulgatissime. Jonston t. 56. 1662. Piper oblongum recurvis siliquis. Jonston t. 56. 1662. Capsicum fructu conico albicante, per maturitaken minato. Dill. t. 60. 1774. Piment jaune long. Vilm. 409. 1883. Long Yellow Capsicum. Vilm. 151. 1885. (b) Fruits pendent, round. Siliquastrum rotundum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586. Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Jonston t. 56. 1662. Figure 5. Piso 225. 1658. Cherry Red, of some seedsmen.
STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD - Page 158 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm.com

1691. Piment tomato. Dalechamp 632. Vilm. IV. 1587.. 1613. Capsicum luteum. p. Prince of Wales. Fingerhuth. CALYX SET IN CONCAVITY OF FRUIT. Pluk. it may answer our purpose here. This character perhaps results only from the swollen condition of the fruit as produced by selection and culture.com . Eyst. V. Vilm. Solanum mordeus. Piper capsicum siliqui latiori et rotundiore. C. 1885. i6i6. Fingerhuth. Bauh. PENDENT. (a) Fruit very much flattened. Fingerhuth t. 1883. angular. 1885. t. Golden Dawn. 297. AS LARGE AS BASE. Capsicum latis siliquis. the Giant Emperor. Dod. 1613.Page 159 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Hort. The varieties of this class seem referable to Capsicum annuum rugulosum Fing. however. Capsicum tetragonum.(c) Fruits erect. and Spanish Mammoth of Vilmorin. CALYX FUNNEL-FORM. of American seedsmen. very much swollen. 413.. 1651. Vilm. 1677. Monstrous. Lam. etc. Piper indicum rotundum maximum. it appears constant in our seedsmen's varieties. As. Bonnet Pepper. Cherry Pepper. Burr 621. Piment cerise. Eyst. Phyt. grossum pomiforme Fing. NOT POINTED. round. and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 152. 717.1713. 1863. 10. 2:943. of some seedsmen (yellow). (Perhaps) Capsicum latum Dodanaei. etc. Red Tomato capsicum or American bonnet. (b) Fruit squarish. Sweet Mountain. Chabr. This group includes the Bell. Piper minimum siliquis rotundis. t. J. 411. 1713. 8. Capsicum siliquis latiore and rotundiore. i. large. FRUIT MORE OR LESS IRREGULARLY SWOLLEN. 227. Vilm. Hort.swsbm. 154. i886. Capsicum cersasiforme.

8. 297. Europe and northern Asia. 1648. Caragana ambigua Stocks. Siberia. n. Its synonymy follows: Capsicum. North America. The long. etc. Baluchistan.1:317. Occasionally Capsicum baccatum Linn. BITTER CRESS. C. angulosum Fing. 1604. Icon . 1591. 1677. The seeds are of culinary value but are used particularly for feeding poultry. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Capsicum minimis siliquis. C. crisp rootstocks taste like water cress. as mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega. is not unpleasant. Dod. 4. Obs . Capsicum baccatum Linn. 717. Piper indicum brevioribus siliquis. 225. but the species is too southern for general use in the North. Fingerhuth t. Briggs Seed Cat. 1597. Fig.172. Sweet peppers are also referred to by Piso. arborescens Lam. siliqua parva. i6i6. 297. The flowers are eaten by the Brahmans in Baluchistan. Leguminosae. Group V embraces the sweet peppers and none other. 1658. Pancov. 1587. Piso De Ind. 292. Dalechamp 633. Peperis capsicivarietas.com . A sweet kind is noted by Acosta. is grown.Page 160 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1874. PEPPER-ROOT. Capsicum brasilianum.C. where it is called shinalak. mustard-like taste and are used by the natives as mustard. but these have not yet been sufficiently studied.swsbm. Johnson says the leaves are often employed by country people in salads. Cardamine amara Linn. although pungent and bitter. their caste. and it is perhaps the rocot uchu of Peru. Chabr. Pursh says they are of a pungent. 1576. Small Red Cayenne. Lightfoot says the young leaves are acrid and bitter but do not taste amiss in salads. Cruciferae. SIBERIAN PEA TREE. Lob. Ger. diphylla Wood. 1673.

but rarely. nasturtioides Bert. There is no record of its cultivation in England. FLOWER. Its seed is not offered in our catalogs. glacialis DC.C. Northern America. The plant is eaten as a cress. SCURVY GRASS. make a good salad. Elliott6 and Dewey both say the common bitter cress is used as a salad. as Decaisne and Naudin remark. It is recorded as cultivated in the vegetable garden in France by Noisette. in Scotland. Michx. pratensis Linn. Temperate zone. The leaves. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and Johns says the leaves and flowers form an agreeable salad. C. but in America it is described by Burr in four varieties. northern Asia and Arctic America.Page 161 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Ross calls this the scurvy grass of Tierra del Fuego. and as having become naturalized to a limited extent. Lightfoot says the young leaves. LAMB'S CRESS. f. extending to Vermont and Wisconsin. Temperate and subtropical regions. HAIRY CRESS. rotundifolia WATER-CRESS. This plant is eaten as a cress in New Caledonia. says Gray. ROUND-LEAVED CUCKOO FLOWERS. CUCKOO MAYFLOWER. Islands of the Pacific. 1829. 1883. In the United States. SCURVY GRASS. This is an insignificant and nearly worthless salad plant. C. hirsuta Linn.com ." C. and by Vilmorin. C. "have just the taste of the English water-cress. a fact which implies a certain cultivation.swsbm. Capt. it is edible. Cook found this scurvy plant in plenty about the Strait of Magellan in damp places and used it as an antiscorbutic. yet. native to the whole of Europe. sarmentosa Forst. LADY'S SMOCK. MEADOW CRESS. C. differing in the flowers. It has a piquant savor and is used as water cress. Chile.

swsbm. Its further distribution to China. Surinam and the West Indies and from these places has been taken to the Congo. Olacineae East Indies. C. In Burma. papaya Linn. seeds were brought from the East Indies to Nepal. it grows well. it is common and the leaves are made into spinach by the natives as Grant observed. Myrtaceae MATCH TREE. C. VINE. PAPAW. The papaw tree is indigenous in Brazil. eatable but insipid. MELON TREE. African Tropics. In east Florida. Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn.Page 162 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Carica citriformis Jacq. as early as 1626. BALLOON Tropics. HEART PEA. East India. American tropics. The plant bears fruit the size of a cherry. It has oleraceous leaves. microcarpa Jacq. Sapindaceae. according to Mason. Its transfer to the East Indies may have occurred soon after the discovery of America. Japan and the islands of the Pacific Ocean took place only in the last century0 Linschoten says. is said by Pickering to be native of subtropical North America and by Black to occur in all tropical countries. lobata Wall. This climbing vine. as Drury states. The fruit is eaten. writes that it is often as large as a melon. WINTER CHERRY. In the Moluccas. SLOW- . the leaves are cooked. S. ornamental on account of its inflated pods. Wm. In equatorial Africa.com (Barringtoniaceae). it is grown in great quantities as a vegetable. f. edible but almost insipid. Careya arborea Roxb. Of the fruit. for. Passifloreae (Caricaceae). it came from the East Indies to the Philippines and was taken thence to Goa. This plant bears a fruit the size of an orange. Alien of Florida. The fruit is used extensively in south Florida and Cuba for STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . yet the best varieties for eating — those having the best flavor — are no larger than a very large pear.Cardiopteris (Peripterygium) (Cardiopterygaceae). South America. PAPAYA.

South Africa. is melon-shaped. the meat will cleave from the bones and be as tender as one could wish. strong-flavored and used as a spice. Brandis also says. The ripe fruit is eaten with sugar or salt and pepper. the Chinese are acquainted with this property and make use of it sometimes to soften the flesh of ancient hens and cocks by hanging the newly-killed birds in the tree. edible fruit. which is eaten and is very sweet and of a delicate flavor.com . with a green skin and yellow pulp. Carissa grandiflora.swsbm. The leaves have the property of making meat wrapped up in them tender. A. Brandis calls the ripe fruit in India sweet and pleasant. and marked as melons are with longitudinally-colored stripes. and says the unripe fruit is eaten as a vegetable and preserved. ACANTHUS-LEAVED THISTLE.making tough meat tender. Carlina acanthifolia All. or by suspending the joint under the tree. the fruit is of the size of a common muskmelon. The seeds are egg-shaped. The Chinese also eat the leaves. The toughest meat is made tender by putting a few of the leaves or the green fruit of the pawpaw tree into the pot with the meat and boiling. The tree bears in a year or 18 months from seed and is cultivated in tropical climates. NATAL PLUM. This species bears yellow. Lugger in which the fruit is said to attain a weight of 15 pounds.Page 163 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. meat becomes tender by washing it with water impregnated with the milky juice. pear-shaped. Mediterranean region. Hemdon says. Morris read before the Maryland Academy of Science a paper by Mr. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Wilkes says. furnishes a large and savory fruit full of seeds. Peru and Chile. on the mountains of Peru. posopora Linn. C. a species of Carica in Brazil. CARAUNDA. DC. The receptacle of the flowers may be used like that of an artichoke. it is prized by the natives of Fiji. Apocynaceae. or by feeding them upon the fruit beforehand. Compositae. and Gray says the fruit is a favorite esculent of the Sandwich Islanders. The flavor is subacid and agreeable and the fruit is much prized in Natal for preserving. In a few minutes. The fruit may be sliced and pickled. Dr. AMATUNGULA. Hartt says the mamao. Williams says.

In American seed catalogs. The fruit is yellow externally. abounding with soft and nutritive fecula.com . CARLINE THISTLE. the seed is offered under the name of saffron but the true saffron is the product of a crocus. Pernambuco. The fruit has a sharp. says Drury. drought. in which many large seeds are found. in times of. Phillips says the flowers are used in Spain and in the Levant to color foods. is also agreeable and sweet. Pernambuco. much liked by the natives. extensively cultivated in India. Old World. speciosa Arruda. Linn. The receptacles of the flowers are used like an artichoke. it is. C. as Ainslie writes. In South America. however. When broken or cut i^ yields a quantity of sweet.Page 164 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The pulp. Sierra Leone. milky juice. acid taste. the flowers are used largely for dyeing. southern Europe and in South America. They were so used in England in the time of Parkinson. The tuberous roots have found use in Brazil. A climbing shrub of Sierra Leone. Apocynaceae. also in Egypt. The tuberous root.C. has afforded assistance to the people in parts of Brazil. dulcis Sabine. SWEET PISHAMIN. FALSE SAFFRON. The oil from the seeds in India is used for lamps and for culinary purposes. Carpodinus acida Sabine. as well as in Jamaica. Carlotea (Hippeastrum) formosissimum Arruda. the flowers are much used for coloring broths and ragouts. which prevents its being agreeable. Under the name of safflower. in size and appearance resembling a lime. Europe and northern Asia.2 Carthamus tinctorius SAFFLOWER. with some little bitterness.swsbm. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . vulgaris Linn.10 C. China and other parts of Asia. Compositae. Family unknown (Amaryllidaceae).

Lightfoot says the young leaves are good in soups and the roots are by some esteemed a delicate food. in Iceland where it is apparently wild. and caraway-seed bread may often be found in restaurants in the United States. It was cultivated in American gardens in 1806 and is still to be found. capense Sond.swsbm. and Fleuckiger and Hanbury think the use of this spice commenced at about this period. The tuberous roots serve as a culinary vegetable and the fruit as a condiment. The. a Mauro-Spaniard of the thirteenth century. South Africa. The seeds are used in confectionery and distillation. particularly in Essex. This fact renders it more probable that the Careum of Pliny is this plant. and that it is used chiefly in the culinary art. Russia. aromatic root is called feukel-wortel. which establishes the antiquity of the plant in Europe. Germany. In the Arab writings. Pallas says the roots are eaten by the Tartars. PIGNUT. as also its use by Apicius would indicate. Prussia. CARAWAY.com . Archbishop of Seville in the seventh century. North Holland and Morocco. Caraway is not noticed by St. Europe. edible. coriander. they are added to a skim-milk cheese called Kummel cheese. The seeds are exported from Finland. in Morocco and elsewhere. Umbelliferae.Page 165 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. it is likewise named. anise. nor is it named STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and parsley. Pliny states that it derives its name from its native country. Lightfoot says the roots are bulbous and taste like a chestnut. C. It is mentioned as cultivated in Morocco by Edrisi in the twelfth century. Caraway is now cultivated largely for its seed in England. the seed is used by cottagers to mix with their bread. although he notices dill. The roots are edible and were considered by Parkinson to be superior to parsnips and are still eaten in northern Europe. Heer in the debris of the lake habitations of Switzerland. In Schleswig-Holstein and Holland. This biennial plant is described by Dioscorides and mentioned by Galen. carvi Linn. Europe and Asia. C. Caria. Orient and northern Asia. In England. The seeds of caraway were found by O.Carum bulbocastanum Koch. quoted by Ibn Baytar. KUMMEL. in some parts of England they are boiled in broth and served at the table. The young leaves form a good salad and the larger ones may be boiled and eaten as a spinach. Isidore.

1538. edible tubers. Europe. C. Its whitish and bitterish roots are said by Dioscorides to be eaten both raw and cooked. In Cyprus. Western North America The root is a prominent article of food among the California Indians. on the other hand. these roots are still cooked and eaten. PARSLEY. Among STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 166 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. of a very agreeable taste. Old World.swsbm. 1390. The Nez Perce Indians collect the tuberous roots and boil them like potatoes. This plant is a perennial herb with small. which is still the popular name in southern Germany. two German medicine books of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries use the word cumick.by St. Mediterranean region. California. f. The seeds are said to have the flavor of thyme. Eaten with any dish strongly seasoned with onions. & Hook. and caraway was certainly in use in England at the close of the fourteenth century and is named in Turner's Libellus. f. C. C. The root is used by the Indians of California as a food. C. north Africa and northern Asia. They are the size of a man's finger. for use as a seasoning and as a garnish. In the same period the seeds appear to have been used by the Welsh physicians of Myddvai. The seeds have an aromatic smell and warm pungent taste and are used in India for culinary purposes as spices with betel nuts and paw leaves and as a carminative medicine. as also in The Forme of Cury. (Petroselinum) petroselinum (crispum) Benth. Gray. (Perideridia) gairdneri A. ajonan or javanee. ferulaefolium Boiss. it takes off the smell of onion and prevents the after taste. It excels other herbs for communicating flavor to soups and stews. But. where it is called ajowan. copticum Benth. (Perideridia) kelloggii A. EDIBLE-ROOTED CARAWAY. Hildegard in Germany in the twelfth century. & Hook. C. This small plant is very much cultivated during the cold season in Bengal. with a cream-like flavor.com . Parsley is cultivated everywhere in gardens. Gray.

Albertus Magnus speaks of apium and petroselinum as being kitchen-garden plants. and Pliny states that in his time there was not a salad or a sauce presented at table without it. about 210 A. D. In the thirteenth century. D.) Apicius.. Parsley is mentioned as seen on the coast of Massachusetts by Verazzano. the celery-leaved or Neapolitan. 1828. the selinon of Theophrastus. describes two varieties. and Thor-burn. dense leaves. In Achaea. are mentioned for our gardens by McMahon. but this is undoubtedly an error. the curled. Two kinds. 1806. speaks of the broad-leaved and curled sorts and gives directions for the culture of each. and says that some eat it with smyrnium mixed with the leaves of lettuce. C. he speaks of each as being an herb the first year. Columella. Booth states that parsley was introduced into England in 1548 from Sardinia. mentions the cultivated form as having varieties with a thick leaf and a crisp leaf. At the present time we have five forms.. 322 B. the other with more open and broader leafage. however. He adds. so he says. 164 A.. Galen. D. a vegetable the second year of growth. and Pliny. D. the common or plain-leaved. it is largely used in parsley pies. Palladius. four sorts. Parsley seems to be the apium of the ancient Romans. The ancients supposed that its grateful smell absorbed the inebriating fumes of wine and by that means prevented intoxication. He says apium has broader and larger leaves than petroselinum and that petroselinum has leaves like the cicuta. who. about 1524. that apium is in general esteem. it is used.. parsley formed part of the festive garlands.. names three sorts.the Greeks and Romans. one with crowded. Pessenden. sweet and grateful to the stomach. 230 A. apparently from his own observation. The plant is now naturalized in some parts of England and Scotland. 1881. praises parsley as among the commonest of foods. for the sprays find use in large quantities in broths and give a peculiar palatability to condimental foods. for the victor's crown in the Nemean games. mentions the method of procuring the curled form from the common and says that old seed germinates more freely than fresh seed.Page 167 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. (This is a peculiarity of parsley seed at present and is directly the opposite to that of celery seed. D.swsbm. makes use of the apium viride and of the seed. evidently copying from Theophrastus. a writer on cookery. In addition to its general use. 79 A.com . the fem-leaved and the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the common and curled. A little later.. 42 A. and that the petroselinum is more of a medicine than a food. in Cornwall where it is much esteemed.

1570.Hamburg. curled forms. Ray 448. Dalechamp 700. 1586. Plain parsley. Franc. Matthiolus. 1597. 706. 1883. The plain-leaved form is not now much grown. Mawe says it is the sort most commonly grown in English gardens but many prefer the curled kinds. 1863. under the same name. is scarcely known outside of Naples. 362. Don says it is seldom cultivated. Garden parsley. 433. Apium hortense. Ger. in 1834. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 694. but under that of latifolium. Icon. L'Hort. Persil grand de Naples. Burr 434. 696. 1596. 1623. Dod. 1591. 562. He does not mention it in his Pinax. In 1778. 1558 and 1570. Burr. He says it is now grown in gardens and was first called English Apium. Vilm. II THE CELERY-LEAVED OR NEAPOLITAN. Pliny mentions parsleys with thick stalks and says the stalks of some are white. 1863. 1561.Page 168 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 404. 1558. Mawe 1778. In 1552. Linnaeus considers this to be Ligusticum peregrinum. This may be the Apium hortense maximum of Bauhin. PLAIN-LEAVED PARSLEY. 1686. It differs from common parsley in the large size of its leaves and leaf-stalks and it may be blanched as a celery. Vilm. Common plain-leaved. 861. having been superseded by the more ornamental. Persil celeri ou de Naples. Plane parsley. Common parsley. It was in American gardens in 1806. 1587. or turnip-rooted. Matth. I. Pin. McMahon 127. or Neapolitan. Lob. Persil commun. 1598. It was introduced into France by Vilmorin in 1823. 1824. Don 3:279. 1616. The Celery-leaved. 403. 512. 1883.com . Tragus says there is no kitchen-garden in Germany without it and it is used by the rich as well as the poor. Naples or Celery-leaved. 18o6. 333. Lyte Dod. as the description applies well. says it is one of the most common plants of the garden. 1834.swsbm.

L'Hort. Diet. Apium crispatum. Curled or Double. there are many varieties. 1651. J. differing but in degree. mention this form and say it is very elegant and rare. 1586. thread-like segments and is of a very dark green color. Curled leaved. 861. 1731. Matth. 1828. Thorb.III. 1824. 526. Persil frise. the leaves curled on the borders. Of these. 1834. to be described by Bauhin in his edition of Matthiolus. Curled. 1883. Ger. Apium petroselinum. Dwarf curled. we make two divisions. Diet. Don 3:279. 1726. 1806. Advers. 1783. 1597. Moss Curled and Triple Curled. Petroselinum vulgo. Fessenden 222. cum ic. very graceful and tremulous. Dalechamp 700. (b) Very curled. Mawe 1778. The curled was in American gardens preceding 1806. such as the Curled. hence. Apium crispum sive multifidum.com . STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . many of the figures do not exhibit the curled aspect which the name and description indicate. but with very many extending from one branch. Fessenden 222. 2. It is included in American seed catalogs of 1878. 1828. The Fem-leaved has leaves which are not curled but are divided into a very great number of small. IV. 1570. 1587. the curled and the very curled. 404. 1863. with minute incisions. 1821. as a kind with leaves of the coriander. Op. 562. Bryant . Burr 432. 1570. In the synonymy. Apium. Vilm. (a) The curled. lacinate and the stem-leaves unlike the coriander because long and narrow. 97. Cam. Pena and Lobel. Kal.swsbm. Apium crispum. This form seems. from Mill. 315. CURLED PARSLEY. FERN-LEAVED PARSLEY. crispum. Apium crispum. Townsend. 1598. 1807. brought from the mountains the past year and grown in gardens.Page 169 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1598. cum ic. Mill. Extra Curled. Franc. McMahon 127. however. Bridgeman 1832. Epit. Bauh. 3:pt.

In 1726. In 1778. It seems to have been used in Germany in 1542. 526. Bryant mentions its frequent occurrence in the London markets. Cam. had heard that "the people in Holland boil the roots of it and eat it as a good dish. Petroselinum. Fuch. 1863. Thorb. McMahon 1806. Townsend. Hamburg parsley is grown for its roots. Apium latifolium. sylvestre Baill. a seedsman. In 1783. Epit. C. This is an aromatic. 97. 1542.Page 170 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant is used as a carminative by the natives. Franc. Mill. Franfais. 1586. Hamburg or large rooted. or earlier. which are used as are parsnips. 1883. A persil panache (plumed parsley) is mentioned by Pirolle. Mawe 1778. 459. Diet. 1737. but its use was indicated as of Holland origin even then in the name used. Trag. It did not reach England until long after. 1651. 1824. It was in American gardens in 1806. 1824. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Apium hortense Fuchsii. 1821. L'Hort. HAMBURG OR TURNIP-ROOTED. 3:pt. 573. in L'Hort. Hamburg parsley. Dutch parsley. J. Per sit a grosse racine. Kal. 1765. 2.V. Mawe 1778. C. Apium.com . Large rooted. Bauh. Broad-leaved. Gard. Oreoselinum. Kal. East Indies. Burr 433. 127. 405. segentum Benth. f. it is said to be called Hamburg parsley and to be in esteem.swsbm. & Hook. Persil tubereux. annual herb available for culinary purposes. 1552. Dutch parsley. Europe." Miller is said to have introduced it in 1727 and to have grown it himself for some years before it became appreciated. Vilm.

Page 171 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. The pecan is now extensively cultivated in the Southern States for its fruit. BIG SHELLBARK. C." The hickory nut now not only furnishes food to a large number of the Indians of the far West but is an important article in our markets and is even exported to Britain. North America. He says: "This milk they are very fond of and eat it with sweet potatoes in it. In 1775. Eastern North America. Its use at or near Madrid on the Mississippi by the Indians is mentioned in the Portuguese Relation of De Soto's expedition. SMALL-FRUITED HICKORY. PECAN. C. which they called milk of nuts. A slender tree of eastern North America from Illinois southward. PIGNUT. It was eaten by the Indians and called by them pecaunes. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In 1773. the kernel sweetish or bitterish but occasionally eaten by children.com . microcarpa Nutt. This is one of the species recommended for culture by the American Pomological Society.Carya alba Nutt. Bartram noticed a cultivated plantation of the shellbark hickory. Emerson says this tree ought to be cultivated for its nuts which differ exceedingly in different soils and situations and often on individual trees growing in immediate proximity. The nuts are variable in form. North America. olivaeformis Nutt. the trees thriving and bearing better than those left to nature. The nuts of this tree are eaten by the Indians and are considered of fine quality. C. Romans speaks of the Florida Indians using hickory nuts in plenty and making a milky liquor of them. SHELLBARK HICKORY. BROOM HICKORY. The nuts are edible but not prized. Pennsylvania to Illinois and Kentucky. porcina Nutt. sulcata Nutt. KING NUT. The delicious pecan is well known in our markets and is exported to Europe. and an oil expressed from it was used by the natives of Louisiana to season their food. The pignut is a large tree of Eastern United States. C. Juglandeae. hard and tough. SHAGBARK HICKORY. at an Indian village in the South.

of which the pulp is oily. It is the delight of the inhabitants of Ceara and Piauhy and is called piqui. CARYOCAR. and the trees are much used in shipbuilding and for other purposes. It is sometimes cultivated. These nuts are shaped something like a kidney STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . SQUARE NUT. containing a sort of chestnut eaten in times of famine. WHITE-HEART HICKORY. It furnishes edible nuts. tomentosa Nutt." C. nuciferum Linn.swsbm. This species bears an oily. It is called pekea by the natives of Guiana. A lofty tree of British Guiana which produces the souari or butternut of the English markets. Brazil. This is perhaps the Acantacaryx pinguis Arruda. a large tree that produces most abundantly a fruit the size of an orange. C.Page 172 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The kernel is sweet and in some varieties is as large as in the shellbark. A high tree in Ecuador.C. This is the almendron of Mariquita. This hickory bears a nut with a very thick and hard shell. The tree bears nuts that taste like almonds. PIQUIA-OIL PLANT. mucilaginous fruit. amygdaliforme Ruiz & Pav. Hil. called square nut. MOCKER NUT. BUTTERNUT. Ternstroemiaceae (Caryocaraceae). feculous and nourishing.com . glabrum Pers. "The nuts are fine. Caryocar amygdaliferum Cav. Eastern North America. C. C. Peru. It furnishes a timber valuable for shipbuilding. The natives make much use of the nuts. These are esculent and taste somewhat like a Brazil nut. The kernel of the nut is edible and has the taste of almonds. but the difficulty of extracting it makes it far less valuable. butyrosum Willd. A variety is found with prominent angles. brasiliense St. C. This plant is cultivated for its nuts in Cayenne. Guiana. Guiana.

Cassia auriculata Linn. woody shell of a rich. In some parts of the country. East Indies. The center of the stem is generally soft. urens Linn. tomentosum Willd. But the main value of this palm consists in the abundance of sweet sap which is obtained from the cut spadix and which is either fermented or boiled down into syrup and sugar. Leguminosae. MEXICAN APPLE. Guiana. Palmae. The leaves are eaten by the natives. Tropical Asia. It has a very rich. JAGGERY PALM. nutty taste yielding a bland oil by pressure. Samydaceae. pale yellow in color and is most palatable when near decay. Malabar. WINE PALM. and the native Californians are very fond of it. Caryota obtusa Griff. BUTTERNUT. white kernel of a pleasant. WHITE SAPOTA. C. TODDY PALM. This tree grows wild and is cultivated in the states of Sinaloa. Casimiroa edulis La Llave. a spirituous liquor is prepared by adding the bruised bark to a solution of molasses and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Durango and elsewhere in Mexico and is known by the name of zapote blanco. which encloses a large. The fruit is about an inch in diameter. subacid taste. CASSIA.Page 173 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.flattened upon two sides and have an exceedingly hard. The plant bears a sweet and edible nut. Assam and various other parts of India. the cells being filled with sago-like farina. Masters says its fruit has an agreeable taste but induces sleep and is unwholesome and that the seeds are poisonous. which is made into bread and eaten as gruel. Mexico.com . Bengal.swsbm. Rutaceae.5 Casearia esculenta Roxb. C. reddish-brown color. The central part of the trunk is used by the natives as food. A very large palm of the Mishmi Mountains in India. covered all over with round wart-like protuberances.

fistula Linn. Old World tropics. a strong purgative. (Fagaceae). Tropical Asia. sophera Linn. Castanea dentata Borkh. filiformis Linn.swsbm. C. The white drupes of this north Australian species are edible. however. It is found in tropical and subtropical America and in both Indies. the natives use the roasted seeds as a substitute for coffee. Cassytha cuscutiformis (?) Lauraceae. It has been carried to the Philippines. C. The plants are semi-parasitical and are often called dodder-laurel. the pulp apparently being eaten. STINKING WEED. whence its-pods are imported for use in medicine. This pulp about the seeds is. Cosmopolitan tropics. This handsome tree has been introduced into the West Indies and northern Africa. C. In Mysore. stalks of it are put in the ground and worshipped. AMERICAN Southward from Maine as far as Florida and westward as far as Michigan but not in the prairie regions. while tender. which the countrymen use instead of coffee. This plant is said by Unger to be used as a vegetable in Amboina. It is classed by Unger as among the little-used vegetable foods. The plant is put as a seasoning into buttermilk and is much used for this purpose by the Brahmans in southern India. Naturalized in the Mauritius. Livingstone found the seeds used as coffee in interior Africa. are eaten by boys. with many seeds. Cosmopolitan tropics. Rafinesque says the pods of this plant are long. occidentalis Linn. and its seeds.com . Cupuliferae CHESTNUT. In Yemen. DODDER-LAUREL.Page 174 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. its berries are eaten by boys. Chestnuts were mixed with STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . CACAY.allowing the mixture to ferment. C.

it is called Sardinian balanos by Dioscorides and Dios balanos by Theophrastus. Southern United States. In modern Europe. Xenophon states that the children of the Persian nobility were fattened on chestnuts. In Sicily. MORETON BAY CHESTNUT. pumila Mill. This species is enumerated by Thunberg n as among the edible plants of Japan. Leguminosae. Charlemagne commended the propagation of chestnuts to his people. they are ground into flour and chiefly used in the form of porridge or pudding. Other writers say it was first introduced into Europe from Sardis in Asia Minor. Peseta and Pistoja. In the valleys inhabited by the Waldenses. The native country of the chestnut is given by Targioni-Tozzetti as the south of Europe from Spain to Caucasus. in Savoy and the south of France. In Morea. C. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . chestnuts form the usual food of the common people. C. & Eraser. sativa Mill. in the Cevennes and in a great part of Spain. bread and puddings are made of the flour. Cunn.Page 175 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. EUROPEAN CHESTNUT. as in the Apennine mountains of Italy. muffins. Europe. CHINQUAPIN. dentata but are eaten by children.com . It is evident from the writings of Virgil that chestnuts were abundant in Italy in his time. Castanospermum australe A. In places. that they are not comparable to those of C. chestnuts afford the poorer class of people their principal food in some parts of the isle. Japan and North America. the chestnut furnishes nutriment for the common people. The American variety bears smaller and sweeter nuts than the European. chestnuts now form the principal food of the people for the whole year. There are now many varieties cultivated. They are used not only boiled and roasted but also in puddings. In Tuscany.pottage by the Indians of New England and they now appear in season in all our markets and are sold roasted on the streets of our cities. Pickering says. tarts and other articles are made of chestnuts and are considered delicious.swsbm. Pursh l says the nuts are sweet and delicious. cakes and bread. Chestnuts afford a great part of the food of the peasants in the mountains of Madeira. Chestnuts which bear nuts of a very large size are grown in Madeira. only the fruits of cultivated varieties are considered suitable for food. In the coffeehouses of Lucca. Vasey. eastern Asia. pates.

daucoides Linn. Catha edulis Forsk. This is a tall.Australia. and that it is esculent. It is the sesslis of the Egyptians. Eraser says the fruit is eaten by the natives on all occasions and when roasted has the flavor of a Spanish chestnut. from necessity. BASTARD PARSLEY.Page 176 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Celastraceae. ? Vacciniaceae (Ericaceae). now called in Arabic gezzer e'shaytan. ARABIAN TEA. Various virtues are attributed to the leaves which are eaten with avidity by the Arabs.swsbm. It is sometimes used as a food. Cavendishia sp. KAT. Catesbaea spinosa Linn. A shrub of the West. Western regions of America. says Pickering. Prior to the introduction of coffee. It was called a potherb by Dioscorides and Pliny. Gerarde calls this plant bastard parsley and hen's foot. says Rothrock. Umbelliferae.com . Indies. HEDGE PARSLEY. Wats. Caucalis anthriscus Huds. The leaves are used by the Arabs in the preparation of a beverage possessing properties analogous to those of tea and coffee. Wilkinson says this is the anthriscum of Pliny. A shrub of tropical Africa. Frigid regions of the Andes of Peru. HEN'S FOOT. evergreen shrub with STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Europe. Cruciferae. The shrub is called by the natives cafta. the use of kat was established in Yemen by Alt Schadheli ben Omar. WILD CABBAGE. when a better substitute cannot be found. and Galen says it is pickled for salads in winter. The fruit is yellow. pulpy and of an agreeable taste. the raw fruit griping but the roasted being innoxious. have subsisted on the fruit for two days. BUD PARSLEY. Europeans. Caulanthus crassicaulis S. Rubiaceae. Large quantities of twigs with the leaves attached are annually brought to Aden from the interior. C. Europe and temperate Asia.

Cedronella cana Hook. STAFF VINE. Cosmopolitan tropics. Celastraceae. Rhamnaceae. Cedrus libani Barrel. Coniferae (Pinaceae). The young buds are eaten as a potherb. in China the leaves of this tree are eaten in the spring when quite tender. Amaranthaceae. South America. Meliaceae. Asia Minor. Syria.Page 177 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Northern North America. scandens Linn. this plant is a troublesome weed in flax STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . WILD SNOWBALL.swsbm. INDIAN SNAKEWOOD. HOARY BALM OF GILEAD. Celastrus macrocarpus Ruiz & Pav. Cedrela odorata Linn. Smith says. In China. C. Himalayan region and Algeria. Ceanothus americanus Linn. The plant has a thick bark which is sweetish and palatable when boiled. Labiatae. Urticaceae. NEW JERSEY TEA. A kind of manna was anciently collected from this tree. alimentary buds. BITTER SWEET. BARBADOES CEDAR. North America. WAXWORK. Celosia argentea Linn. STAFF TREE. edible berries the size of a cherry. Linn. The seeds yield an edible oil. CEDAR OF LEBANON. Cecropia peltata TRUMPET TREE. Peru. Mexico. This pretty and very fragrant plant is useful for putting in a claret cup. CIGARBOX WOOD.pink. Afghanistan. It has savory. American tropics. MOUNTAIN SWEET. The leaves were used as a substitute for tea during the American Revolution.com . The Chippewa Indians use the tender branches.

according to Forskal. LOTE TREE. The modern Greeks are very fond of the fruits.Page 178 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Compositae. temperate Asia and East Indies.swsbm. oval. dark brown or black. HACKBERRY. orange-yellow and somewhat edible though astringent. "lotos to dendron" of Dioscorides and Theophrastus. are eaten raw in Egypt. In Algeria. C. Hogg considers it to be the lote tree of the ancients. The young stems and leaves.fields but is gathered and consumed as a vegetable. occidentalis SUGARBERRY. Urticaceae (Ulmaceae). The European nettle is a native of Barbary and is grown as a shade tree in the south of France and Italy. In France. In India. Tropical Africa. They are called in Greece honeyberries and are insipidly sweet. Mediterranean coasts. it is grown in flower gardens. they are also eaten in Spain. blackish or purple kind is called roku on the Sutlej. trigyna Linn. tala Gill. Sibthorp and Stackhouse are of the same opinion. Southern and Western United States. This is the cranjero or cranxero of the Mexicans. STAR Europe. Brandis says a large. HONEYBERRY. Celtis australis Linn. Europe. CELTIS. The fruit is about the size of a small cherry.com . Mexico. Linn. this plant is eaten as a potherb. The berries of this shrub are of the size of small peas. C. Centaurea THISTLE. NETTLE TREE. According to Grant. The fruits are sweet and edible. C. the root is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . north Africa and temperate Asia. CALTROPS. a smaller yellow or orange kind choku. according to Desfontaenes. calcitrapa Linn. EUROPEAN NETTLE. This celtis is a fine forest tree. Dr. C. chamaerhaponticum Ball. yellow.

Leguminosae. RED VALERIAN.swsbm. are eaten. Centrosema macrocarpum Benth. Red Valerian is said to be eaten as a salad in southern Italy.8 It was found by Denham and Clapperton in the Kingdom of Bornu. Valerianeae.com . Centranthus macrosiphon Boiss. Zucc. & Hook. Mediterranean countries. there are specimens STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . British Guiana. LONG-SPURRED VALERIAN.edible and not unpleasant to the taste. The pods being filled with a saccharine pulp. The beans are eaten by the Indians. according to Schomburgk. Greece and Grecian Islands. C. It appears to combine all that belongs to corn salad. Coniferae Japan. & (Cephalotaxaceae). in southern Italy. A. both green and dry and were a favorite food with the ancients. rose-colored flowers and is used as a salad in some countries. The flesh is thick. in Syria. This tree is indigenous in Spain and Algeria. the Balearic Islands. FOX'S BRUSH. Palestine and the north of Africa. ST. with a peculiar slight bitterness which imparts to it a more distinct and agreeable flavor. are also eaten.. f. in Turkey. CAROB TREE. and is found in Malta. according to A. in the center of Africa. Ceratonia siliqua Linn. The leaves. Cephalotaxus drupacea Sieb. ruber DC. The roots have an agreeable flavor and are eaten by the Arabs in some parts of Africa. C. Black.Page 179 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with a faint suggestion of the pine in its flavor. pygmaea Benth. in Asia Minor. Spain. PLUM-FRUITED YEW. ALGAROBA BEAN. LOCUST BEAN. juicy and remarkably sweet. the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. Leguminosae. JOHN'S BREAD. notably in France. The female plant bears a stone-fruit closely resembling a plum in structure. Valerian is an annual cultivated in gardens for its handsome.

Cereus (Echinocereus) Cactaceae. Leguminosae. pigs and cattle and are imported into England occasionally as a cattle food. These pods are imported into the Punjab as food for man. in Sicily. Cercis canadensis Linn. The fruit is of a purplish color and very good. C. green or greenish-purple. The Mexicans eat the fleshy part of the stem as a vegetable. The fruit. Texas. North America. The pods are gathered and used with other raw vegetables by the Greeks and Turks in salads. The Egyptians extracted from the husk of the pod a sort of honey. a spirit and a sirup are prepared from them. Vacciniaceae.swsbm. Mediterranean countries. rarely an inch long. resembling a gooseberry. The flowers are also made into fritters with batter and the flower-buds are pickled in vinegar. (Echinocereus) dasyacanthus Engelm. C. to which they give an agreeable odor and taste.preserved in the museum at Naples which were exhumed from a house in Pompeii. LOVE TREE. and the fleshy part of the stem is also eaten by the inhabitants of New Mexico. The French Canadians use the flowers in salads and pickles.l in the island of Diu or Standia. first carefully freeing it of spines. Southwestern North America. Ceratostema grandiflorum Ruiz & Pav. The fruit is one to one and one-half inches in diameter. seeds of this tree were distributed from the United States Patent Office. Gray. REDBUD. & A.com .Page 180 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. horses. the luscious pulp contained in the pod is eaten by the poor and children and is also made into a sherbet. is edible. Peruvian Andes. evergreen shrub produces berries of a pleasant. much like a gooseberry. with which they preserved fruits. JUDAS TREE. JUDAS TREE. siliquastrum Linn. caespitosus Engelm. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This tall. and when fully ripe is delicious to eat. acidulous taste. In 1854.

C. strawberry and fig. one to one and one-half inches long. Gay Chile. (Echinocereus)polyacanthus Engelm. C. Texas. having the combined flavor of the peach. The sirup manufactured from the juice is called sistor. (Echinocereus) fendleri Engelm.swsbm. It bears a berry of a pleasant taste. edible berry.com . C. (Echinocereus) enneacanthus Engelm. Texas. mucilaginous fruits are available for desserts. rather insipid and of the consistency of a fresh fig. C. This plant bears a deliciously palatable fruit. The berry is pleasant to eat. is insipid or pleasantly acid. fleshy. in Arizona. Hodge. The Mexicans call the tree suwarrow. The plant has a bright scarlet. (Peniocereus) greggii Engelm. (Echinocereus) dubius (enneacanthus) Engelm. quisco C.C. New Mexico. Southwestern North America. The ripe fruit. Engelmann says the crimson-colored pulp is sweet. Southwestern North America. This cactus yields a fruit sweet and delicious. C. C. The Indians collect it in large quantities and make a sirup or conserve from the juice. Southwestern North America. Texas. The purplish-green fruit is edible. green or rarely purplish. (Carnegia) giganteus (gigantea) Engelm. C. (Echinocereus) engelmanni Parry. calls the fruit delicious.Page 181 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. harsee. the Indians. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The sweetish. which serves them as a luxury as well as for sustenance.

according to Engelmann. New Mexico. but Haller affirms that the Kalmucks eat the roots STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .C. others of a grateful acid. and in others yellow but always of an exquisite taste. and pounded into a meal used in forming a food. after passing through the digestive canal. in his History of California.com . the pulp resembling that of a fig only more soft and luscious. black seeds. The fruit is. ICELAND MOSS. Every part is esculent. according to Baegert and Clavigero. the bitterness is first extracted with water. after which the plant is pounded up into meal for bread or boiled with milk. Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. East Indies. Lichenes. describes the fruit as growing to the boughs. Its seeds are edible. Cetraria islandica Linn. are collected. the roots are eaten raw.3 Chaerophyllum bulbosum Linn. this vegetable is found growing wild but is said to have been first introduced from Siberia. Roxburgh says. some again are wholly sweet. PARSNIP Europe and Asia Minor. The seeds. In Bavaria. TURNIP-ROOTED CHERVIL.swsbm. East Indies. Asclepiadeae." C. This plant grows in the Papago Indian country on the borders of Arizona and Sonora and attains a height of 18 to 20 feet and a diameter of four to six inches and bears two crops of fruit a year. "men eat every part. tuberosa Roxb. Iceland moss is found in the northern regions of both continents and on elevated mountains farther south. the crimson pulp being dotted with numerous. Umbelliferae. (Stenocereus) thurberi Engelm. CHERVIL. Peru. like a large orange. Santalaceae. it is white. This cactus is called pithaya by the Mexicans and affords a staple sustenance for the Papago Indians. in some red. In some. Venegas. Burnett alludes to it as deleterious.Page 182 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. three inches through. of delicious taste. Cervantesia tomentosa Ruiz & Pav. It serves as food to the people of Iceland and Lapland.

It was known in England in 1726 but was not under culture.com .Page 183 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. F. consul at Munich. humilis Linn. the root attains the dimensions of a small Dutch carrot. unexpanded flower-spikes are used as a vegetable. when still enclosed in the spathes. called cafaglioni. sent some seed to this country and says: "The great value of this vegetable. is not only its deliciousness to the epicure but the earliness of its maturity. Bavaria. As a cultivated plant. In Barbary. 1623. the lower part of the young stems and the roots are eaten by the Moors. It is outwardly of a grey color. This chervil appeared in American seed catalogs in 1884. in 1864. are eaten by the Italians. In size and shape. 1601. Palmae. DWARF FAN-PALM. mealy and by no means unpleasant to the taste. The young. South America. The wild plant is described by Camerarius. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The young shoots or suckers from the bottom of the plant. Booth says it is a native of France and. Chamaerops PALMETTO." The seed is now offered in our seed catalogs. when the root is described as seldom so large as a hazelnut. C. tuberosum Royle. C.with their fish and commend them as a nutritive and agreeable food. but when cut the flesh is white. fully supplying the place of potatoes. although known to British gardeners since its introduction in 1726. while in 1861 it had attained the size and shape of the French round carrot. In the Himalayas. 1588 and by Clusius. it seems to have been first noted about 1855. as an acquisition to an American gardener. are highly esteemed as a culinary vegetable. West Mediterranean countries. and was described by Burr for American gardens in 1863. the tuberous roots are eaten and are called sham.swsbm. or earlier. The flowers. Mexico. it is only within the last few years that attention has been directed to its culture as an esculent vegetable. Webster. Palmae. and is also named by Bauhin. tepejilote Liebm. Chamaedorea elegans Mart.

it was observed by Lightfoot to be boiled and eaten as greens. and the young shoots used to be peeled and eaten as asparagus.swsbm. all the tribes of Arizona. The plant is now but rarely STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . in Lincolnshire. MEXICAN TEA. and boiled as a spinach or are eaten raw. This herb is called in Mexican epazolt. This plant is a native of the interior of Australia and has lately come into use in England as a substitute for spinach. WHITE GOOSE-FOOT. The leaves were eaten as a food in China in the fourteenth century. Lightfoot says. ground into a flour and made into a bread or mush. Remnants of this plant have been found in the early lake villages of Switzerland. The seeds are gathered by many tribes. Temperate and tropical regions. now sparingly naturalized around dwellings in the United States. GOOSEFOOT. according to J. the Diggers of California and the Utahs. the young leaves in the spring are often eaten as greens and are very good. PIGWEED. auricomum Lindl. In the Hebrides.Chelidonium sinense DC. WILD SPINACH. Mueller calls this spinach palatable and nutritious. C. China. ALL GOOD. Papaveraceae. AUSTRALIAN SPINACH. ambrosioides Linn. it is used as a spinach. In the United States. The plant is cooked and eaten by the natives. FAT HEN. Australia. in 1745. Under the curious names of fat-hen and good-king-Henry. Chenopodiaceae. the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. bonus-henricus Linn. in Scotland. C. It was called at Verona. LAMB'S QUARTER. GOOD-KINGHENRY. and even in the beginning of the present century was still esteemed in Lincolnshire and some of the Midland counties but is now little used. Smith. it was preferred to garden spinach. Temperate and tropical regions. the allemand because drunk in infusion by the Germans.Page 184 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It seems to be indigenous to tropical America. this plant was formerly largely cultivated in the gardens in England as a potherb. C. Europe. Chenopodium album Linn. MERCURY. tender plants are collected by the Navajoes. The young. Glasspoole says.

capitatum Aschers. because they are savory and very wholesome. 1570 and 1576. prepared in various ways. Bryant. indigenous to the Pacific slopes of the Andes. Dalechamp. the seeds are very savory. There are several varieties. is said formerly to have been employed in cookery. Blitum capitatum. QUINOA. of which the white is cultivated in Europe as a spinach plant. says: "formerly cultivated in English gardens but of late neglected. Unger says even the blite or strawberry spinach finds consumers for its insipid. Peru and Chile at the time of the discovery of America. Lobel. while Ray. although certainly of sufficient merit. Camerarius. Gibbon. South America. the seed. little known outside of botanical gardens. Miller's Gardener's Dictionary says it is generally in gardens about Boston in Lincolnshire and is there preferred to spinach. The plant is found indigenous and common from Western New York to Lake Superior and northward. is unpalatable to strangers. Garcilasso de la Vegal says it was called quinua by the natives of Peru and mujo by the Spaniards. Matthiolus. 1586. 1686. Gerarde says: "it is one of the potherbes that be unsavory or without taste. Gerarde speaks of it in 1597 as a wild plant only. Its value as an antiscorbutic finds recognition in its names. He says: "Both the Indians and the Spanish eat the tender leaf in their dishes. during this time. The species was. and at the present day is still extensively cultivated on account of its seeds.com . 1686. This plant. Miller's Gardener's Dictionary refers it to J. whose substance is waterish. though insipid. 1623. 1783. refers to it as frequently among vegetables. 1587. quinoa Willd. rather than for its seeds. and Chabraeus.Page 185 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." A STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. strawberry-like fruit. Northern and southern regions. ELITE. PETTY RICE. The leaves have a spinach-like flavor and may be used as a substitute for it. It cannot ever have received very general culture as it is only indicated as a wayside plant by Tragus. However prepared. and by Ray." In 1807. 1598. says that when boiled like rice and eaten with milk. who saw the plant in Bolivia. C.cultivated. 1552. constituted the most important article of food of the inhabitants of New Granada. Bauhin who received the plant in 1651. was known to Bauhin. C. 1677. which are used extensively by the poorer inhabitants. They also eat the grain in the soups." The fruit. were distributed from the United States Patent Office in 1854. if Linnaeus's synonymy can be trusted. STRAWBERRY BLITE. Seeds from France but originally from Peru. says Thompson. bonus Henricus and tota bona.

black-seeded variety. CREEPING SNOWBERRY. Chloranthus inconspicuus Sw. Menispermaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Chondodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pav. preceding 1725. China and Japan. C. edible.Page 186 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It was introduced into France in 1785 but has not had very extended use. Peru. subacid taste with a pleasant checkerberry flavor. it is enumerated by Pliny as among the esculent plants of Egypt. prenanthoides Vill. This plant is called by the Peruvians wild grape on account of the form of the fruit and its acid and not unpleasant flavor. The leaves are also eaten and are tender and of an agreeable taste. This plant is mentioned by Dorotheus as good for cooking and for the stomach. that of the dahue. The berry is white. in Peru. The Indians of Maine use the leaves of the creeping snowberry for tea. The egg-shaped bulb is one to three inches in diameter. Salisb. lengthens out in the form of worms and is excellent in soup. is mentioned by Feuille. Chiogenes (Gaultheria) serpyllifolia (Ericaceae). WILD POTATO. wholesome food. This plant furnishes the flowers which serve to scent some sorts of tea.swsbm. particularly an expensive sort called chu-lan-cha. juicy and of an agreeable. cultivated in gardens. Compositae. Liliaceae. Cooking eliminates all the acrid properties. California. AMOLE. Southern Europe and adjoining Asia. on being boiled. Vacciniaceae North America and Japan.com . Chloranthaceae. The grain of the quinua serves for making a very pleasant stomachic beverage. Kunth. Molina says in Chile there is a variety called dahue by the Indians which has greyish leaves and produces a white grain. Chondrilla juncea Linn. Chlorogalum pomeridianum SOAPPLANT. WILD GRAPE. rendering the bulb good.

acid taste combined with a certain degree of astringency. acid beverages. hence the name alecost. Johnson says the leaves may be eaten as salad. Chorispora tenella DC. Europe. it is mentioned by Burr. WHITE DAISY. Compositae. early salad by Pallas in his Travels in Russia. who names one variety. This alga is found on the western coast of Ireland. IRISH MOSS. England and Europe and also on the eastern coast of the United States. balsamic odor and are sometimes put in salads but it has ceased to be grown for culinary purposes and even in France is only occasionally used. Chondrus crispus Lyngb. 1863. It is grown in Constantinople.com . The leaves were formerly used in England to flavor ale and negus. Central Asia. It has been used as a food and medicine by the Irish peasants from time immemorial. Chrysanthemum COSTMARY. WILD CURRANTS. CARRAGEEN. MARGUERITE. leucanthemum Linn. OX-EYE DAISY. Mixed with other fruit. This plant is common in every cottage garden in England.East Mediterranean countries and mountains of Yemen. Rhodophyceae. WHITEWEED. In the United States. Forskal says it is eaten raw in Yemen. Irish moss and pearl moss. It is collected for the market and is largely used as a food for invalids under the names carrageen. The plant is the well-known flower of our fields. They have a pleasant. C. A shrub bearing greenish-red berries which are called wild currants in New South Wales.Page 187 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The leaves possess a strong. where it has become naturalized STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . balsamita Linn. West Mediterranean countries.swsbm. Santalaceae. This plant is enumerated by Pliny as among the esculents of Egypt. Cruciferae. where it was introduced in 1568. The leaves of this plant are described as a good. Muell. PEARL MOSS. they are used for preserves and in the preparation of cooling. Choretrum candollei F. ALECOST.

grows wild as well as cultivated in the forests along the shores of South America and in Florida. with its fruit similar to the damson. Miss Bird describes a cultivated form of chrysanthemum as occurring frequently in patches and says the petals are partially boiled and are eaten with vinegar as a dainty. CORN MARIGOLD. COCO PLUM.Page 188 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Sabine says: "the fruit is about the size of an Orleans plum but is rounder. The fruit is eaten by the natives of Angola and. This tree-like shrub. Sapotaceae. tasteless and astringent." In northern Japan and China. according to Montiero. is like a round. COCO PLUM. C. African tropics. prepared with sugar.com ." Chrysophyllum africanum A.swsbm. thin skin and is eaten.from Europe. black-purple plum. The stalks and leaves. the flavor having much resemblance to that of noyau. Chrysobalanus ellipticus Soland. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Rosaceae (Chrysobalanaceae). The fruits in the West Indies. icaco Linn. CORN CHRYSANTHEMUM. argenteum Jacq. DC. and large quantities are annually exported from Cuba. This plant bears a damson-sized fruit with a black. African tropics. edible pulp. C. This is a tall tree of Sierra Leone. whose fruit is in request. "as Dioscorides saith. of a yellow color. bluish. Browne says in Jamaica the fruit is perfectly insipid but contains a large nut inclosing a kernel of very delicious flavor. north Africa and western Asia. the size of a plum. African and American tropics. with a flesh soft and juicy. contains a soft. The fruit. Europe. segetum Linn. form a favorite conserve with the Spanish colonists. On the African coast it occurs from the Senegal to the Congo. C. are eaten as other pot herbes are. Martinique.

roxburghii G. microcarpum Sw. West Indies This tree has been cultivated from time immemorial in the West Indies but nowhere is found wild. B. The fruit is the size of an apple. The fruit is oval and about the size of a Bergamot pear. The fruit is the size of a gooseberry. Martinique. clammy juice when fresh. & K.com . African tropics.swsbm. West Indies. Don. The fruit is of a plum-like appearance and is edible. Haiti. obovatum Sabine. which when soft is like jelly. cainito Linn. STAR APPLE. New Granada. becomes sweet. and delicious. with milky veins and has a sweet and pleasant taste. 1532-50. C.C. C. whitish and clammy inside and is very grateful. C. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . which. It seems to have been observed by Cieza de Leon in his travels in Peru. with a short apex and is much inferior to the star apple of the West Indies. DAMSON PLUM OF JAMAICA. The fruit is blue. Australia. pruniferum F. Lunan says some trees bear fruit with a purple and some with a white skin and pulp. michino H. It frequently contains four or five black seeds about the size of pumpkin seeds. PITAKARA. The fruit is yellow outside. C. of the form and size of a small olive and is seldom eaten except by children. C. C. glabrum Jacq. and is called caymitos.Page 189 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It contains a white. monopyrenum Sw. delicious taste. Muell. STAR APPLE. after being kept a few days. of a very sweet. C.

" In 1854. the latter naming the white and black. adhering to the lips or knife with great tenacity. they are ground into a meal and either eaten in puddings or made into cakes. mentions the red. The fruit is greedily eaten by the natives. Saxifrageae.Page 190 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says Wight: "The leaves of the plant secrete an acid which the natives collect by spreading a cloth over night on the plant and wringing out the dew in the morning. In some countries. and this mention of colors is continued by the herbalists of the sixteenth. EGYPTIAN PEA. Europe. in the Levant. and eighteenth centuries. It is the size of a small crab. oppositifolium Linn. in the thirteenth century. CHICK-PEA. Greeks and Egyptians cultivated it in ancient times. Leguminosae. in Egypt as far as Abyssinia and in India. This plant is represented as growing wild in the Caucasus. In India. seventeenth. which singularly resembles a ram's head. northern Asia and East Indies. The Jews. It was in common use in ancient Rome and varieties are mentioned by Columella and Pliny. and many kinds differing from each other in size. C. Chrysosplenium SAXIFRAGE. Europe. this plant is eaten as a salad. The white chick-pea is the sort now generally grown in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In Paris. smooth and is greedily eaten although insipid. may account for its being regarded as unclean by the Egyptians of the time of Herodotus. The pulp is tolerably firm but is exceedingly clammy. yellow when ripe.swsbm. The leaves are eaten as a salad in the Vosges Mountains. GOLDEN Europe. They then use it as vinegar or for forming a cooling drink. It is extensively cultivated at the present time in the south of Europe. in Greece and elsewhere. the white and the black sorts. They are also toasted or parched and made into a sort of comfit. The shape of the unripe seed. The seeds vary in size and color in the different varieties. they are much used for soups. it is also found escaped from cultivation in the fields of middle Europe.com . northern Asia and North America. Albertus Magnus.Asiatic tropics.6 The leaves are eaten in salad and soup. In India. Cicer arietinum Linn. the seed was distributed from the United States Patent Office. the Dove of Venus pea. altemifolium Linn. Orient and the East Indies.

The authors named furnish what may reasonably be considered as the types of the four kinds of broad-leaved endives described by Vilmorin. broad-leaved form is figured by Camerarius.com . 1586. but McMahon. of which Vilmorin describes twelve. The endives were in English gardens as well-known plants in 1778 and were named among seedsmen's supplies in 1726. White Curled and the Broad-leaved in cultivation. Cichorium endivia Linn. Albertus Magnus names also two kinds.swsbm. Endive is described in the Adversarial 1570. This is the Cichorium latioris folii of Dodonaeus. Compositae. "The same plant is met with wild about Patna and Kamaon. as well as in Nepal. Europe and the Orient. In 1828 and 1881. and in 1542 Fuchsius figures two kinds of like description. Dalechamp. is difficult to trace. The origin of the curled endives." Others deem it a native plant of Sicily. SUCCORY. BARBE DE CAPUCHIN. intybus Linn. There are two distinct forms of endive. In the thirteenth century. and Pliny states it was eaten in his time as a salad and as a potherb. where the dried seeds find large use in soups. This is a widely distributed plant. and like forms are noted in nearly all the earlier botanies. mentions the Green Curled. and the black sort is described as more curious than useful. but the resemblances are quite remote. CHICORY. They were in the United States prior to 1806. Wild chicory has been used from time STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the curled and the broad-leaved. The red variety is now extensively grown in eastern countries. WITLOOF. It was in cultivation in England as early as 1548. 1587. Europe and the Orient.. It is not known when the endive was first used in the United States. and Gerarde. It was used as an esculent from a very early period by the Egyptians and was known to the Greeks Ovid mentions it in his tale of Philemon and Bauds.Page 191 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1616. C. 1597.France. The peculiar truncate appearance of the seed-stalks is very conspicuous. where certainly. ENDIVE. 1806. Columella also refers to it as common in his day. says Unger. A curled. although Dioscorides and Pliny name two kinds. Thorbum offers the seed of these varieties only. The first does not seem to have been known to the ancients. probably of East Indian origin. and this feature would lead one to suspect that the type is to be seen in the Seris sativa of Lobel. the one with narrower leaves than the other.

1597. affords the highly-esteemed vegetable in France known as barbe de capuchin. The entire-leaved form with a tendency to a red midrib also occurs in nature and may be considered as the near prototype of the Magdeburg large-rooted and of the red Italian sorts. 1586. It is treated of by Tragus. Whether chicory was cultivated by the ancients there is reason to doubt. it is said not only to occur wild throughout all Germany but to be cultivated in gardens. the Adversarial 1570. The common.com . although they knew the wild plant and its uses as a vegetable. mentions two kinds but does not imply cultivation. It is not mentioned in the descriptive list of garden vegetables in use in the thirteenth century. as cultivated. Lauraceae. forced in darkness. China. Cinnamomum cassia Blume. 1616. It has also large-rooted varieties and these. Ceylorf and other parts of eastern Asia. yet. the spotted-leaved and the large-rooted were in French culture in 1826. who likewise names two kinds. one of which is our dandelion. Pliny and others of the ancient writers. The smooth. nor does Fuschius 1542. The variegated chicory. 1587. Although not mentioned in Lyte's translation of Dodonaeus. Cinnamon seems to have been known to the ancient natives inhabitating the countries bordering on the Levant. Nearly every STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Dalechamp. Matthiolus. 1586. is beautifully figured by Camerarius in 1586. 1552. 1535. Sumatra.Page 192 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." The seed occurs among seedsmen's supplies in 1726. in Dodonaeus' Pemptades. tapering root. Ruellis.swsbm. The inner bark of the shoots is the portion used. as given by Albertus Magnus. but with no mention of cultivation. Ray says "it is sown in gardens and occurs wild in England. 1576. This is the first mention of culture noted. a name which he states the Greeks learned from the Phoenicians.immemorial as a salad-plant and. Camerarius. At the present time. form the vegetable known in Belgium as witloof. when treated in like manner. Gerarde. The common chicory grown for salads is but the wild plant little changed and with the divided leaves as figured by the herbalists. chicory is grown for the use of its leaves in salads and for its root to be used as an adulterant for coffee. which seems such an improved form in our modern varieties. the curled-leaved and the broad-leaved may have their prototypes in nature if sought for but at present must remain unexplained. CINNAMON. In 1686. It is spoken of in Exodus. This plant yields a cinnamon of commerce. 1558. Lobel. It is the kinnamomon of Herodotus. Dioscorides. CASSIA. is referred to by Hippocrates.

nitidum Blume. C. The plant possesses an aromatic bark.Page 193 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In southern India. loureirii Nees. C. Cochin China and Japan. Malays. From the bark of this plant is made a cinnamon of which the finest kind is superior to that of Ceylon. the bark is put in curries as a spice. C. iners Reinw. coarser and not as delicately flavored. culilawan Blume. Malays. and nearly twice as many more in the eastern part of Asia and in the islands of the Eastern Archipelago. Moluccas and Cochin China. This plant furnishes a spice. the more mature fruits are collected for use but are very inferior to the Chinese cassia buds. C. the natives use the bark as a condiment in their curries. Its cultivation is said to have commenced about 1770. C. Himalayan region. C. East Indies and Malays. Malays and Java. zeylanicum Nees. sintok Blume. In India. Cassia bark resembles the true cinnamon but is thicker. This plant furnishes leaves that are essential ingredients in Indian cookery. but the plant was known in a wild state long before. Java. China. Burma. Both are used for flavoring confectionery and in cooking. tamala T. tropical Hindustan and Siam.species of the genus yields its bark to commerce. CINNAMON.com . Nees & Eberm. including not less than six species on the Malabar coast and in Ceylon. Ceylon and India. Among the Ghauts. C. Herodotus says: "the bark STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. The bark of this species is said to have the flavor of cloves and is used as a condiment. This plant is largely cultivated in Ceylon for its bark.

having been previously pierced all over with knives and then boiled in six or seven waters until all the bitterness disappears. C. Spain. This creeping plant grows abundantly in the Sahara.com ." It has been cultivated for some time in Mauritius. about one and one-half inches through and is eaten by the natives. that it is eaten by the natives and by the colonists. by being properly pickled. in Arabia. after being carefully deprived of their coatings. Captain Lyon speaks also of their use in northern Africa. NATIVE ORANGE. there is a sweet variety which is edible and cultivated. Cistus ladaniferus Linn. Australia. This species. Cucurbitaceae. This plant is used in Greece in preparing infusions similar to tea. BITTER GOURD. It is the cistus mas of the ancients. villosus Linn. ORANGE THORN. Tropical Africa. oleaginous and nutritious. subglobular. Citriobatus sp. is often to be met with in gardens.? Pittosporeae. Stille says they are reported to be mild. The gourds are also made into preserves with sugar. Western Mediterranean regions. SHAGGY ROCK-ROSE.swsbm. which furnishes the laudanum of Spain and Portugal. Fluckiger says the seed kernels are used as a food in the African desert. The fruit. Gypsies eat the kernel of the seed freed from the seed-skin by a slight roasting. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. COLOCYNTH. the West Indies. on the Coromandel coast and in some of the islands of the Aegean. Thunberg says this gourd is rendered so perfectly mild at the Cape of Good Hope.was the lining taken from birds' nests built with clay against the face of precipitous mountains in those countries where Bacchus was nurtured. In India. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . A species of this genera is the native orange and orange thorn of the Australian colonists.Page 194 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Loudonl says the gum which exudes from it is eaten by the common people. LAUDANUM. Cistaceae. from which the drug colocynth is obtained. according to Vaupell. which is about as large as an orange. contains an extremely bitter and drastic pulp. Brazil and other tropical countries. The fruit is an orange berry with a leathery skin.

by Camerarius. thirteenth century. sometimes larger. That none or few types have originated under modern culture is indicated by an examination into the early records. Grass-green and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and pink or red. The seeds are white. the varieties being many in number and continuously increasing. In 1686. vulgaris (lanatus) Schrad. 1556. by Garcia ab Horto. 1542. 1542. by Cardanus. 1597. dark brown. sometimes smaller. 1556. The watermelon has succeeded especially well under American culture. Subround or roundish. 1658. Tropical Africa. The flesh may be white. cream-colored tipped with brown and a brown stripe around the edge. 1567.—Cardanus. but it must be considered that this fruit even now is not as successfully grown in Europe as in more southern countries. 1790. Bauhin wrote many years earlier for he died in 1613. Lourerio. honey-color.C. 1686. by Fuchsius. Oval. russet-brown. of which there are many. The figures in the earlier botanies. Oblong by Garcia ab Horto. Marcgravius. all indicate a smalll-sized fruit. Shape. and Ray. Gerarde. Bauhin. 1596. this is what J.Page 195 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. 1597. 1648. 1567. Marcgravius. and Gerarde. The watermelon is mentioned by the early botanists and described as of large size. Ray says the size is such as to be scarcely grasped with the two hands. 1648. reddishbrown. Piso. Color. The varieties vary in shape from round to oblong and in color from a light green to almost a black.com . Elliptical. 1686. cream-color. The size has also become enormous selected specimens sometimes weighing 96 pounds or even more. pale red. sculptured or as if engraved with ornamental characters. 1648. black. 1586. white with two black spots. writes that the size is sometimes so great that a man can scarcely embrace the fruit with his expanded arms. and Ray. either through importation or through the process of selection.—Round fruits are mentioned by Fuchsius. Garcia ab Horto. although the description is usually of a "large" or "very large " fruit. Size. describes those of Brazil as being as large as a man's head.—Grass-green. red or scarlet. 1567. self-colored or striped with paler green or marbled. by Marcgravius. yellow with a black stripe round the margin and with black spots. by Albertus Magnus. Green. WATERMELON.

1570. Livingstone describes the wild watermelons of South Africa as some sweet and wholesome. Loureiro. others as insipid and acid. 1596. Purple-red. Camerarius. writes Livingstone. 1651. 1596. Brown. by Matthiolus. Pallas says in southern Russia the people make a beer from their abundant crops of watermelons. 1596. Scarlet. Camerarius.swsbm. 1651. 1677. by Piso. White. also. Marcgravius. 1570. 1596. 1542.—Chestnut-brown. Marcgravius. by J. 1597. 1783. by Forskal. with the addition of hops. by Bauhin. found the watermelon growing in abundance in the gardens of Tripoli. In years when more than the usual quantity of rain falls. Dalechamp. Yellow. by Matthiolus. by Bryant. and others so bitter that they are named by the Boers the "bitter watermelon. by Matthiolus. 1596. 1596. It is interesting to note that the older writers described some varieties as sweet. Rama and Aleppo under the name bathieca. In 1662. but the sweet are quite wholesome. the root of which word. by Bauhin. Pale red. 1790. by Bauhin. by Gerarde. Thompson. Reddish. the watermelon. 1587. 1623. The watermelon still forms the chief food and drink of the inhabitants of Egypt for several months in the year. is from the Hebrew abattichim. Bryant. 1552. says R.—Red. Seed. In Bagdad. They also make a conserve or marmalade from the fruit. which is an excellent substitute for syrup or molasses.com . 1648. by Marcgravius. vast tracts of the country are literally covered with these melons.spotted. 1648. Raven-black. by Tragus. 1783. is the kengwe or keme. 1696. by Marcgravius. 1663.Page 196 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Black. J. 1648. Green and spotted. by Camerarius. by Fuchsius. Bauhin. or a hybrid of the colocynth and the watermelon. 1574. White. Some are sweet. others bitter and deleterious. one of the fruits of Egypt which the Jews regretted in the wilderness. 1658. Rauwolf. Chabraeus. Sculptured. The most surprising plant of the South African desert. Bauhin. 1587. Bauhin. 1623. Nieuhoff found the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . it is a staple summer food. 1570. it is possible that this species may have been the colocynth. Red." The bitter ones are deleterious. Bauhin. 1596. by Bauhin. Flesh-color. Sloane. 1596. As this missionary observer was not a botanist. Flesh. Blackish. by Josselyn. 1648. The bitter or acid forms do not now appear in our culture. 1586. Citrullus colocynthis. 1775. Dalechamp.

Citrus aurantium. but cool and pleasant. McMahon describes four kinds. LIME. others red and the seeds black. and sweet and mawkish." In 1822. decumana. and white or pale on the inside. and C. POMELO SHADDOCK. and shortly after Josselyn speaks of it as a fruit "proper to the countrie. the citron. The flesh of it is of a flesh-colour.com . Linnaeus established two species. to the islands of the Pacific. The seeds are black. In 1673. speaks of melons. the shaddock. C. The determination of the species of this genus seems to be in confusion. especially those with a red seed. generally green. or. limetta. sap-green. This melon is said to have been introduced into Britain in 1597. but nothing near so big as a pompion. C.. They are round or oblong.swsbm. with many black seeds in them. watermelons were cultivated by the Florida Indians. the sweet lime with white flowers. GRAPE FRUIT. The mass of evidence collected by Professor Targioni-Tozzetti seems to show that oranges were first brought from India into Arabia in the ninth STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the flesh. who descended the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers.watermelon called batiek by the Indians of Batavia. comprising the lime. with some yellowness admixt when ripe. to New Zealand and Australia. or puipe. In 1799. "which are excellent.." "A large fruit. comprising the sweet and bitter orange and the shaddock. limonum. and of a sad grass-green. it was carried to Brazil and the West Indies. Watermelons are mentioned by Master Graves as abounding in Massachusetts in 1629. In 1806.Page 197 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rutaceae. Risso describes 169 varieties and figures 105. and Citrus medica. Jared Eliot mentions watermelons in Connecticut. rounder." In 1747. They are now cultivated throughout the warm regions of the globe. exceeding juicy. of vast size. In 1818. the seed of which came originally from Archangel in Russia. C. Father Marquette. or a green and whitish color on the outside. in flavor like rich water. C. Woods says of the Illinois region: "Watermelons are also in great plenty. very juicy. as might be expected from the great variability of this favorite fruit so long under cultivation. the lemon. They are more like pumpkins in outward appearance than melons.and excellent against the stone. bergamia. medica. LEMON. according to Hilton. C. some being white. the sweet lemon. watermelons were raised by the tribes on the Colorado River. Citrus. Risso and Poiteau recognized eight species. lemon and citron. By European colonists. the bergamot. says Pickering." Before 1664. BERGAMOT. lumia. CITRON. some I suppose weigh 20 pounds. ORANGE. more rightly. to eastern North America. colour smoother.

Page 198 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1693-94. They were in cultivation at Seville towards the end of the twelfth century. which bears the name of loranjo do terra and is found wild far from the habitations of man. C. who transported thither the agrumi of the gardens. as well as in Brazil and the Cape Verde Islands. Phillips says it was introduced at Lisbon in 1548 by Juan de Castro. South America. BITTER ORANGE. or at any rate in Italy." and he thinks the oranges. Lindley says those who have bestowed the most pains in the investigation of Indian botany. orange. the crusaders found citrons. oranges and lemons very abundant in Palestine. lemon. have come to the conclusion that the citron. Sabina in Rome in the year 1200. for it is said that St. that they were unknown in Europe. This tree was said to have been alive at Lisbon in 1823. SWEET ORANGE. are probably anterior to the arrival of Europeans. and in whose judgment we should place the most confidence. and off San Bias lemons and oranges were brought to the ships.century. BERGAMONT. In the course of the same century. Phillips speaks of the wild orange as apparently indigenous in Mexico. lime and their numerous varieties now in circulation. Cavendish found an orchard with lemons and oranges at Puna.com . One of the first importations of oranges into England STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . for Humboldt says "it would seem as if the whole island of Cuba had been originally a forest of palm. 1557.swsbm. bitter orange. They must have been early introduced to America. and from this one tree all the European orange trees of this sort were propagated. in 1587. which bear a small fruit. aurantium Linn. Caldlouch says the Brazilians affirm that the small. Porto Rico. Domine planted an orange for the convent of S. SEVILLE ORANGE. and at Palermo in the thirteenth and probably also in Italy. and in the fourteenth century both oranges and lemons became common in several parts of Italy. The citron appears to have been the only one of this genus known in ancient Rome and is probably the melea persike of Theophrastus and the persika mala of Dioscorides. Barbados and the Bermudas. lemon and wild orange trees. are all derived from one botanical species. but were shortly afterwards carried westward by the Moors. The sweet orange began to be cultivated in Europe about the middle of the fifteenth century. a celebrated Portuguese warrior. De Soto. mentions oranges in the Antilles as bearing fruit all the year. in the eleventh. Tropical eastern Asia. and. is of American origin.

" Oranges are also found in Louisiana and in California (they were seen by FatherBaegert in 1751) and are now quite extensively grown for market in the extreme soutliern states. The bergamot first appeared in the latter part of the seventeenth century. Gallesio says the sweet orange reached Europe through Persia to Syria. They are imported to our Atlantic ports from the Mediterranean. while the wild trees. and exists under many varieties. It reached Italy in the eleventh century and was in cultivation about Seville at the close of the twelfth and at Palermo in the thirteenth century. SOUR ORANGE.swsbm. 1690. Bartram refers to the orange as growing abundantly in Florida. bending with their golden fruit over the water. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . SEVILLE ORANGE. In the year 1500. and thence to the shores of Italy and the south of France. published at Lyons in 1693. BITTER ORANGE. being carried by the Arabs. There are numerous varieties grown. At San Francisco. some of which are so distinct as to be described as botanical species. It is not mentioned in the grand work on orange trees by Ferrari. pushing farther into the interior than Alexander the Great. especially in Spain. It was seen by Friar Jordanus in India about 1330. nor Quintinye.com . There are several varieties. there was only one orange-tree in France. and in 1871 Dr. found the orange. of this cargo the Queen of Edward I bought seven. 1692. BERGAMOT. large quantities are received from Tahiti and Mexico and a few from Hawaii. The sour orange is extensively cultivated in the warmer parts of the Mediterranean region.Page 199 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. BIGARADE ORANGE. D. as is apparent from the context. It was probably the first orange cultivated in Europe. present an enchanting appearance. and brought it into Arabia in the ninth century. Gallesio states that it was introduced from Arabia and the north of Africa into Spain. nor by Lanzani. but the Arabs. and this tree is still living. Baldwin writes. "you may eat oranges from morning to night at every plantation along the shore (of the St. which had been planted in 1421 at Pempeluna in Navarre. says Loudon. Johns).occurred A. 1676. In 1791. The sour orange was not mentioned by Nearchus among the productions of the country which is watered by the Indus. 1290. in which year a Spanish ship laden with this fruit arrived at Portsmouth. It seems to be first mentioned in a little book called La Parfumeur Francois. the Azores and also from the West Indies.

reddish-yellow fruit contains but five sections under a very thin skin. The sour orange had become naturalized in the forests of Essequibo. Cape Verde islands and in Florida at early dates. javanica Blume. in Porto Rico. Barbados and the Bermudas. It is cultivated in China and Japan and is found near Canton in China. oblong. states that the bitter orange was cultivated in Sicily in A. C. This fruit is rare in China but abundant in Cochin China. TANGERINE. red inside as well as out. limonia Osbeck. LEMON. and that its culture extended into the West only with the conquests of the Arabs. POMELO. The flesh. There are many varieties and the fruit of a curious one consists of an orange within an orange. C. Williams says it is the most delicious of the oranges of China. possesses a superior flavor. the pulp is sweet and agreeable. a little compressed.swsbm. In 1777. in 1568. slightly acid fruits. The small. of a deep orange color.com . roundish. KUMQUAT. C. De Candolle says the lemon was unknown to the ancient Romans and Greeks. 1002. Cook in his voyage of discovery. Japan and China. It occurs in several varieties and both the red and white kinds are considered by Wilkes indigenous to the Fiji Islands. japonica Thunb. It is mentioned in the Book of Nabathae on Agriculture which is supposed to date from the third or STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Pickering. It is the most agreeable of all oranges. Java. This cultivated species bears small. MANDARIN. decumana SHADDOCK. The shaddock was first carried from China to the West Indies early in the eighteenth century. JAVA LEMON. Tropical Asia. they were somewhat distributed by Capt. The fruit is about the size of a cherry or gooseberry. C. in Brazil in 1587. The fruit is round. PUMMELO. Loudon says the thin rind is loose. Murr. about Vera Cruz and near Mexico City. so much so that when ripe the pulp may be shaken about as a kernel in some nuts. D.Page 200 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tropical Asia. GRAPE FRUIT.

In Media and Persia. Rhind says it was first cultivated in Italy by Palladius in the second century. CITRON. writing in the thirteenth century. indigenous to and still found wild in the mountains of east India. the fruit of which was known in ancient Rome. About 1755. the lemon appears to have passed eastward into Cochin China and China and westward into Europe. The fruit is nearly globose. in its natural form. The Arabs brought the lemon in the tenth century from the gardens of Omar into Palestine and Egypt.fourth century of our era. it was much grown near Naples. Henry Laurens imported limes into South Carolina. it has become naturalized in the West Indies and various parts of America. Tropical Asia. saw in India "other lemons sour like ours" which would indicate its existence in India before that date. It is now distributed throughout the whole of southern Europe. pickled and in the form of lime juice. the lime is quite naturalized. yellow when ripe. very well describes the lemon. Jacques de Vitry. 322 B. Some are cultivated in Florida to a limited extent. Fruits are used chiefly in a candied form. and mela medika e kedromela of Dioscorides. which he had seen in Palestine. About 1330. The tree appears to have been cultivated in Palestine in the time of Josephus and was introduced into Italy about the third century. also in Brazil and in the Congo. This fruit is largely imported into the United States.com . small. the citron is found only in the cultivated state. LIME.. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In Jamaica. C.Page 201 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. There are many varieties in Italy. Friar Jordanus. SWEET LEMON. From the north of India. They are mentioned in California in 1751-68 by Father Baegert. There are numerous varieties. Royle found it growing wild in the forests of northern India. about the middle of the fifteenth century and as early as 1494 in the Azores. In 1003. acid juice. with a thin skin and an abundance of pure. medica Linn. The citron is the only member of the orange tribe. C. It was cultivated in Genoa. Hogg thinks this is the melea medike of Theophrastus. The fruit has the rind and the flesh of a lemon but the pulp is sweet.

California. being very grateful to the palate. grows plentifully in the woods around Quebec. Reindeer moss. California and Mexico. The succulent leaves are in popular use as a potherb in California. According to Schott. WHAMPLE. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . resembling. Claytonia caroliniana Michx. f. C. exigua Torr. Williams says in China it is pleasantly acid and held in esteem. The fruit is borne in clusters. The fruit has a good deal the taste of the grape. Amaranthaceae. as it also is in the Indian archipelago. but are seldom larger than a pigeon's egg. on their long voyages through the woods. Northern regions. Reindeer moss is sometimes eaten by the people of Norway and is crisp and agreeable.swsbm. Rutaceae. The fruits are fleshy and contain numerous seeds embedded in a pulp which is said to be eatable. the Mexicans use a decoction of the plant as a tea. a diminutive lemon. This plant has edible bulbs much prized by Indians. & Gray. It contains three large seeds which nearly fill the interior. says Kalm. sometimes boil this moss and drink the decoction for want of better food when their provisions are exhausted. REINDEER MOSS. Eastern United States. About two bushels are produced on a tree. in pursuit of their fur trade with the Indians.Page 202 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Lichenes. They vary in size.) Web. when ripe. Myrsineae (Theophrastaceae). This shrub of China and the Moluccas is cultivated in the West Indies. about the size of an acom. A genus of South American shrubs or small trees. accompanied with a peculiar flavor. The scanty pulp has an aniseseed flavor. M.com .Cladothrix (Tidestromia) lanuginosa Nutt. East India and Malay Archipelago. Clavija sp. Portulaceae. Claydonia rangiferina (Linn. Clausena excavata Burm. Gaulthier and several other gentlemen told him that the French.

It is now included by Vilmorin among French vegetables. This species has edible bulbs. This plant has a long. sibirica Linn. This species. C. CUBAN SPINACH. C. North America. according to Robinson. C. tuberosa Pall. perfoliata Donn. SPIDER-FLOWER. megarrhiza Parry. The foliage is used in England.swsbm. Northern Asia and northwestern North America. in 1855 it was said by De Candolle to be occasionally cultivated as a vegetable in England.10 is cultivated in France as a salad plant. when boiled. This species is eaten both raw and cooked by the Indians of Alaska. Ranunculaceae. as a spinach. C. according to Loudon. Capparideae. perfoliata of Cuba is an annual employed as a spinach in France in place of purslane.C. The tubers are edible. SPRING BEAUTY. fleshy taproot but it is confined to the summits of the Rocky Mountains and is seldom available. Kamchatka and eastern Siberia. The young shoots.Page 203 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. SIBERIAN PURSLANE. virginica Linn. Clematis flammula Linn. Western North America. Eastern United States. much prized by the Indians. C. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . on account of their pungency.com . It was first described in 1794 but in 1829 was not named by Noisette for French gardens. East Indies. VIRGIN'S BOWER. De Candolle says it is occasionally cultivated there. The seeds are used by the natives as a mustard in their curries. Mediterranean countries. Cleome chelidonii Linn. may be eaten.

Clidemia sp. Its flowers and leaves are eaten.Page 204 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. something like mustard. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . viscosa Linn. are used in curries as a mustard. the flowers are used to flavor salads. heptaphylla Linn. The leaves are eaten. In Jamaica the trees bear a green. C. Peru. In India. Verbenaceae. Don.? Melastomaceae.swsbm. This plant has an acrid taste. The seeds are used in curries. Clethra tinifolia Sw. C. This shrub furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value. brownish-black stone. mealy and includes a hard. dependens D. felina Linn. Its seeds are eaten as a condiment like mustard. These berries are gathered and eaten as a pleasant dessert. Jamaica and southern Brazil. roundish berry of which the pulp is sweet. Ternstroemiaceae (Theaceae). The seeds. f. white. (Clethraceae). Clerodendron serratum Spreng. Cleyera theoides Choisy. Ericaceae SWEET PEPPER. Old World tropics. Tropical America. and is eaten by the natives among other herbs as a salad. American tropics. SOAP-WOOD. West Indies. Tropical America. being pungent. WILD PEAR. Henfrey says the leaves of this plant furnish a tea in Panama.com .C. Tropical India and Burma. C. East Indies. A genus of shrubs the berry of which is fleshy and edible. INDIAN CURRANT.

Cliffortia ilicifolia Linn. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . C. The leaves of this thistle are cooked and eaten by the Russians. although he says it does not appear to be cultivated.com . Lecoq in France and is pronounced by him a savory vegetable. Siberia. Scitamineae East Indies and Malays. gathered before the plant flowers. In Amboina. Northern Europe and Asia. Europe and Asia Minor.Page 205 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. oleraceus Linn. Leguminosae. Clitoria tematea Linn. South Africa. It does not appear to have ever reached American gardens.6 Clinogyne (Marantochloa) (Marantaceae). for food. says Lightfoot. serratuloides Roth. Rosaceae. MARANTA dichotoma Salisb. EVERGREEN OAK. after being peeled and boiled. The maranta is cultivated in the East Indies for arrowroot. the stalks were employed. as were those of the milk-thistle. Compositae. Lightfoot says the stalks are esculent. palustris Willd. The receptacles of this plant.swsbm. the flowers are used to tinge boiled rice a cerulean color. BUTTERFLY PEA. are pulpy and esculent. it is in flower gardens. the pods are sometimes eaten. The plant is included among vegetables by Vilmorin. In France. was formerly used as a table-vegetable. The swollen rootstock. C. Mountains of Madagascar and Mauritius. The roots are eaten. In the Philippines. like those of the artichoke. Europe and Asia Minor. In Evelyn's time. This thistle is said to have been cultivated by M. The leaves have been used in Africa as a tea substitute. C. Cnicus eriophorus Roth.

pear-shaped.swsbm. so common in every hedge. Coccoloba uvifera Linn. SEASIDE GRAPE. and a spirituous liquor is obtained from them. Cruciferae. HORSERADISH. Coccinia indica Wight & Am. If it be the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . They are eaten by the western Indians. The fruit is eaten. Its fruit is eatable and commonly sold in markets but is not much esteemed. Cochlearia armoracia Linn. are sweet and well flavored but require a long preparation. Europe. Eastern Asia. RED COLE. KINO. Shores of the West Indies and neighboring portions of tropical America. As grown in India. C. moimoi M. North America. limacia DC. The roots are about the size of carrots. The ripe berries are acrid but edible. The berries are acid and edible. virginianus Pursh. Roem.C. This well-known condimental plant is indigenous to eastern Europe from the Caspian through Russia and Poland to Finland and is now spontaneous in the United States. C. The fruit of this plant. the fruit is reddish-purple. This plant cannot be identified with certainty with the armoracia of the Romans. Cocculus cebatha DC. SCARLET-FRUITED GOURD. Tropical Arabia and Africa. Cucurbitaceae. Tropical Asia. Polygonaceae.Page 206 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. sweetish-acid and is borne in drooping racemes. is eaten by the natives in their curries and when fully ripe is eaten by birds.com . Both the leaves and roots were eaten in Germany during the Middle Ages but their use was not common in England until a much later period. The fruit consists of the fleshy perianth which encloses a solitary seed. A woody vine of tropical Arabia. Menispermaceae.

and Lightfoot says "it is eaten in sallads as an antiscorbutic. horseradish is in general cultivation for market purposes. 1542. of the same century. SPOONWORT. C. In the United States. This species is employed as a salad plant. Palmae. Horseradish. C. in his list of garden esculents. is not mentioned by Turner as used in food. Cocos australis Mart. in 1563. Northern and Arctic regions. & Kit. The root may be used as a horseradish but it is less acrid. This palm bears a fruit somewhat the shape and size of an acorn. In Germany. danica Linn. Its culture in Italy. as indicated by him. and by later writers. 1617. is implied by Ruellius under the name armoracia but Castor Durante.Page 207 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. macrocarpa Waldst. in Adam in Eden.com . C. Lyte. it is very curious that its use is not mentioned by Apicius in his work on cookery. It seems to be the raphanus of Albertus Magnus. though known in England as red cole in 1568. who lived in the thirteenth century. states that the root sliced thin and mixed with vinegar is eaten as a sauce with meat as among the Germans. Hungary and Transylvania. he speaks of the plant as wild and domesticated. but its culture then was probably for medicinal purposes alone. SCURVY GRASS." It serves as a scurvy grass in Alaska. Gerarde speaks of it as used by the Germans. Zanonius deems horseradish to be the draba of Dioscorides. It is a common plant in some parts of Scotland. 1586. 1542.armoracia of Palladius. mentions the wild plant and its uses as a condiment in England but does not imply culture. which is a wild plant transferred to the garden.swsbm. Arctic regions. Paraguay. in his chapter on edible roots in the Dyetary of Helth. with a pointed tip and is of a beautiful golden-yellow color STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . nor is it noticed by Boorde. officinalis Linn. 1806. and Coles. In 1587. This species is used occasionally as a cress and is cultivated in gardens for that purpose. its culture as a condimental plant is mentioned by Fuchsius. It was included by McMahon. Dalechamp speaks of its culture in Germany but does not mention it in France. does not describe it.

having been first introduced about 1840 by the wrecking of a vessel that threw a quantity of these nuts upon the beach. and the pulp thus formed is mixed with grasses and scented woods and suffered to stand in the sun. Ellis says there are many varieties in Tahiti. When the embryo is unformed. The nuts are much used as a food. the cocoanut was seen by Pizarro in an Indian coast village of Peru. by Friar Jordanus. which causes the oil to rise to the top. This tree is cut down and a cavity excavated in its trunk near the top. the palm-tree wine is daily collected. In the Fiji Islands.com .swsbm. it finally becomes still firmer and then possesses a pleasant. a further development supplies a white. the last is less sweet but more alcoholic and more highly esteemed. In three days. About 1330. The flavor is delicious. C. is pounded or mashed.somewhat tinged or spotted with red when ripe. the fruit furnishes sweet palm-milk. which the Indians make into bread. In the vicinity of Key West and as far north as Jupiter Inlet. succulent and somewhat fibrous. and a nut from which an oil is extracted. Brazil. nucifera Linn. the kernel of the old nut is scraped. Tropics. with a sweet and vinous flavor. the cocoanut is found. or about three and a quarter gallons. each bottle containing 42 cubic inches. the flesh yellow.Page 208 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and quite correctly too. sweet and aromatic kernel. coronata Mart. At maturity. this cavity is found filled with a yellowish-white juice. Firminger mentions ten varieties in India. it is soft and pulpy. wrapped in banana leaves and then buried under salt water STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . C. COCOANUT. One tree yields as much as 18 bottles of sap. This is the palma de vino of the Magdalena. pressed through a grater. resembling that of a pineapple. This species yields a pith. called kora. South America. The residuum. f. butyracea Linn. very limpid. Captain Cook found several sorts at Batavia. sweet oil. under the name of nargil. C. Thirty species of cocoanut are said by Simmonds to be described and named in the East. WINE PALM. it was described in India. when it is skimmed off. In 1524. During 18 or 20 days. The centers of the geographical range of this palm are the islands and countries bordering the Indian and Pacific oceans but it is now extensively cultivated throughout the tropics. OIL PALM.

Codiaeum variegatum Blume. and Cairo. oleracea Mart. are edible. Coffea arabica Linn. or cabbages. Rubiaceae. This preparation is a common food of the natives. wild coffee is abundant. The Ugundi. Toddy or palm-wine. was the first European author who made any STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . says Long. have a plantation of coffee about almost every hut door. Arabia and African tropics. On or about the equator. hence it continued its progress to Damascus and Aleppo. writes Phillips. Rauwolf. C. says Livingstone. Medina. IRAIBA PALM. until an enterprising merchant carried the coffee plant. According to the Arabian tradition. COFFEE. says Burton. is also made from the sap of the flowerspathes. to Arabia where it soon became acclimated. C. says Grant. The Unyoro. the civet-cat brought the coffee-bean to the mountains of the Arusi and Ilta-Gallas. it was introduced into Constantinople in the year 1554. the use of coffee appears to have been introduced from Persia to Aden on the Red Sea. This shrub is found wild in Abyssinia and in the Sudan where it forms forests. Euphorbiaceae. It was progressively used at Mecca. never make a decoction of coffee but chew the grain raw. or coffee. About the fifteenth century.swsbm. where it grew and was long cultivated. and the people even make their huts of coffee trees. In the territory west of Braganza. this is a general custom. From these two places. Brazil. The pith contains a fecula which is extracted in times of want and is eaten. five hundred years ago. The leaf-buds. says Krapf.covered with piles of stones. India. The oily pulp of the fruit and the almond of the inner stone is eaten and is sold in the markets. This species is used as a vegetable. is cultivated in considerable quantities but the berry is eaten raw as a stimulant.Page 209 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. who was in the Levant in 1573. never drunk in an infusion by the Wanyambo. ventricosa Arruda. It is mentioned as seen from the mid-Niger to Sierra Leone and from the west coast to Monrovia. Brazil.com . the m'wanee.

England. Lord Bacon mentions it in 1624. Towards the end of the seventeenth century. but the first who has particularly described it. the Dutch transported the plant to Batavia. and thence a plant was sent to the botanic gardens at Amsterdam. whence its use gradually extended over Arabia. is cultivated in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . M. Coffee is said to have been first brought to England in 1641. It was introduced to Celebes in 1822. The Venetians seem to be the next who used coffee. 1637. It seems certain that we are indebted to the progeny of a single plant for all the coffee now imported from Brazil and the West Indies. by whom the plant had been cultivated from time immemorial. Tropical Asia. is Prosper Alpinus. which furnishes the Liberian coffee. One account asserts that the French introduced it to Martinique in 1717 and another states that the Dutch had previously taken it to Surinam. and was introduced to Aden in the early part of the fifteenth century. Cola acuminata Schott GOORANUT.Page 210 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tropical Africa. Tropical Africa. It was received in Trinidad from Kew Gardens. It reached Jamaica in 1728. in 1875. Gramineae. A tree was imported into the Isle of Bourbon in 1720.com . This beverage was noticed by two English travellers at the beginning of the seventeenth century. C. & Endl. KOLANUT. LIBERIAN COFFEE. the leaves of the coffee plant are used as a substitute for coffee.swsbm. where it was propagated. but Evelyn says in his diary. Thevenot taught the French to drink coffee on his return from the East in 1657. Sterculiaceae. a native of tropical Africa. In 1879. JOB'S TEARS. four trees were known to have been grown and successfully fruited in Florida. The seeds may be ground to flour and made into a coarse but nourishing bread which is utilized in times of scarcity. In Java and Sumatra. liberica Hiern. This tree. It was first publicly known in London in 1652.mention of coffee. Coix lacryma-jobi Linn. and 1592. It was fashionable and more widely known in Paris in 1669. According to other accounts. COLANUT. 1591. Biddulph about 1603 and William Finch in 1607. This seems to be a distinct species. and in 1714 a tree was presented to Louis XIV. the custom of drinking coffee originated with the Abyssinians.

COUNTRY BORAGE. About Bombay. Earth says the chief article of African produce in the Kano markets is the guro or kolanut.com . of a not very agreeable taste. East Indies. DASHEEN.swsbm. Madagascar. Wilkinson 8 quotes Pliny as saying that the Egyptians grew this plant for making chaplets and for food. There are several varieties.Brazil and the West Indies. Aroideae (Araceae). A purple coleus was observed in cultivation in northern Japan by Miss Bird. it is also supposed to improve the flavor of anything eaten after it or. are much sought after by the negroes. which are pickled. as Father Carli says. barbatus Benth. Labiatae. "they have a little bitterness but the water drank after makes them very sweet. Its amylaceous seeds. C. COLEUS. In Burma. Under the name of cola or kolla or gooranuts. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . spicatus Benth. Bignoniaceae. Colocasia antiquorum Schott. A small piece of one of their seeds is chewed before each meal as a promoter of digestion. it is in common use as a potherb. the seeds are extensively used as a sort of condiment by the natives of western and central tropical Africa and likewise by the negroes in the West Indies and Brazil. Every part of the plant is delightfully fragrant. C. which forms an important article of trade and which has become to the natives as necessary as coffee or tea is to us." This plant was introduced into Martinique about 1836. East Indies. Coleus aromaticus Benth. The fruit is eaten. East Indies and tropical Africa.Page 211 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The nuts contain the alkaloid thein. this species is commonly cultivated in the gardens of the natives for the roots. and the leaves are frequently eaten and mixed with various articles of food in India. the leaves of which are eaten as spinach. Father Carli noticed them in Congo in 1667 under the name of colla. This is the country borage of India. TARO. Colea telfairii Boj.

In Europe and America it is grown as an ornamental plant. dissolve and afford a rich. they are much consumed in the way of a substitute. as it is cultivated in the whole of central Asia in very numerous varieties and has a Sanscrit name. who call it taro. pleasing and mucilaginous ingredient. TARO. In India. This is very probably an Indian plant. but the chief use of the vegetable. In 1844. this species was cultivated by Needham Davis of South Carolina. says Firminger. Masters says it is called taro. resemble in outward appearance those of the Jerusalem artichoke. The tubers. C. At Hongkong. Their flavor is not unlike salsify. They are not in great request with Europeans in Bengal where potatoes may be had all the year through but in the Northwest Provinces. had seen it in Portugal. and it is as delicate. and agreeable a one as any in the world. Adams found the boiled leaves very palatable in the Philippines but the uncooked leaves were so acrid as to be poisonous. in a manner. KALO. In Jamaica.swsbm. who says one acre of rich.Page 212 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Clusius. This plant is largely grown in Tahiti. Nordoff says more than 30 varieties of kalo are cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and adds that all the kinds are acrid except one which is so mild that it may be eaten raw. Lunan says there are several varieties cultivated in Jamaica which are preferred by the negroes to yams." From the root a sort of paste called poi is made. damp soil will produce one thousand bushels by the second year. the tubers are largely consumed and the young leaves are eaten as a spinach. and Ellis says the natives have distinct names for 33 of the varieties. for such is the tenderness of the leaves that they. writing in 1601. Boissier cites it as common in middle Spain. antiquorum esculenta Schott. It is very generally cultivated in Jamaica. "Kalo forms the principal food of the lower class of the Sandwich Islanders and is cultivated with great care in small enclosures kept wet. where potatoes are unobtainable during the summer months. It was carried westward in the earliest times and is cultivated in the delta of Egypt under the name of Quolkas. The Spaniards are said to call it alcoleaz and to have received it from Africa. the tubers are eaten under the name of cocoas. says Lunan. The plant is cultivated extensively by the Polynesians. and the rootstocks furnish a staple diet. is as a green. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Sloane says the roots are eaten as potatoes. wholesome. colocasias are universally cultivated and the roots are without acrimony.com . Simpson says. In soup it is excellent. It is also grown in the Philippines and is enumerated by Thunberg among the edible plants of Japan. ELEPHANT'S EAR.Tropical Asia.

C.swsbm. indica Hassk. In China.C. BLUE SPIDERWORT. Commelina angustifolia? Commelinaceae. C. BURN-WOOD. pendulous tubers of its root. this plant is much cultivated as a potherb. communis Linn. Southern Asia. C.com . Roylel says it is much cultivated about the huts of the natives. Tropical America. PAPAW-WOOD. latifolia Hochst. The acridity is expelled from this plant by cooking. striata? The rhizomes are suitable for food. Tropical Africa. It is also cultivated in Brazil and is found in East Australia. says Morris. MAIDEN PLUM. Anacardiaceae. Comocladia integrifolia Jacq. which is eaten in spring. Combretum butyrosum Tul. C. The rhizomes contain a good deal of starch mixed with mucilage and are therefore fit for food when cooked. It is used as a potherb. which are eaten by people of all ranks in their curries. China. The Kaffirs call the fatty substance obtained from the fruit chiquito. Combretaceae. BUTTER TREE. Abyssinia. is grown as a fruit in the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . coelestis Willd. This plant is cultivated in Bengal for its esculent stems and the small. Lunan says the fruit is eatable but not inviting.Page 213 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The rhizomes are used as food in India. Mexico. It is largely used by them as an admixture to their food and is also exported. The maiden plum of the West Indies.

This plant is a shrub of San Antonio. The small. The berries are similar to those of C. Molina says the bulbs. Northern Mexico. when boiled or roasted. Conopodium denudatum Koch.Public Gardens of Jamaica. ARNUT. C. In England. Haemodoraceae (Tecophil- Chile. POISON HEMLOCK. Europe and the Orient. are used as food. Gray.com . Poison hemlock has become naturalized in northeastern America from Europe. they are very pleasant. Confervae. the tubers are frequently dug and eaten by children.Page 214 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Texas and westward. bifolia Ruiz & Pav. spathulata A. when boiled or roasted. edible and is used in jellies. says Johnson. PIGNUT. KIPPERNUT. says Carpenter. in the south of England. Rhamnaceae. Western Texas. Umbelliferae. Conium maculatum Linn. BLUE-WOOD. TEXAN LOGWOOD. Texas. tuberous roots of this herb. Umbelliferae. deep red berry is acidulous. C. Although poisonous. The small. which. obovata Hook. JURNUT. Conferva sp. are available for food and are known as earth chestnuts. The natives of the country make use of the root of this plant in their soups and it is very pleasant to the taste. it is comparatively harmless in London and is eaten as a potherb by the peasants of Russia. Conanthera aeaceae). Green cakes are made of the slimy river confervae in Japan. When boiled. HERB BENNET. EARTH CHESTNUT. says Don.swsbm. obovata. Condalia mexicana Schlecht. It is called illmu. The roots. Western Europe. obovata. The berries are similar to those of C. are an excellent food. pressed and dried. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .

India and in France.Page 215 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Old World tropics. FIELD BINDWEED. Cosmopolitan tropics. Copaifera coleosperma Benth. It reached Philadelphia in 1876 in the packing of exhibits at the Centennial. C. Cosmopolitan tropics. Old World tropics. C. it is grown by the Jews. Corchorus acutangulus Lam. It is cultivated in Egypt. Jew's mallow. This plant is extensively cultivated in Bengal for its fiber. a tree which yields a red-skinned. This plant yields some of the jute of commerce but is better known as a plant of the kitchen in tropical countries. in 1873. It was introduced into the United States shortly before 1870 and placed under experimental culture. In Aleppo. according to Lindley. fattening. and.swsbm. The whole plant is boiled as a potherb. antichorus Raeusch. C. This plant is the papau ockroe of the Barbados and is eaten by the negroes as a salad and potherb. Convolvulaceae. C. hymenaeifolia Moric. bean-like seed. The leaves are used as a potherb. The aril is used in preparing a nourishing drink. This species is said to be the mosibe of eastern tropical Africa. CORCHORUS. Leguminosae. capsularis Linn. The young shoots are much used as a potherb in Egypt and in India. Cosmopolitan tropics. Tiliaceae.com . middle Asia and naturalized in America from Europe. JEW'S MALLOW. hence the name. This plant gives its flavor to the liquor called noyeau. Tropical Africa. which forms one of the jutes of commerce so extensively exported from Calcutta. Cuba. olitorius Linn.are edible but are little eaten in England except by children. Convolvulus arvensis Linn. favorable reports of its success came from many of the southern states. JUTE. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . imported from Martinique.

Cosmopolitan tropics. siliquosus Linn. It is used as a potherb in Sennaar and Cordova. says that no herb is more commonly used among the Egyptian foods. In India. It is now cultivated in French gardens for its young leaves. It is used as a potherb in Egypt. the plant is frequently met with in gardens but has. C. The drupe is red. Old World tropics. in a great measure. it occurs wild and the leaves are gathered and eaten as spinach. This plant was carried to the Mauritius where it is cultivated in kitchen gardens. China. loureiri Roem. procumbens Boj. acid and edible. tridens Linn. Cordia collococca Linn. where it is native. trilocularis Linn.It is mentioned by Pliny among Egyptian potherbs. Forskal also mentions its cultivation in Egypt and notes it among the cultivated esculents of Arabia. with a sweetish pulp and is edible. C.Page 216 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Boragineae. ceased to be cultivated. small.com . et Schult. although the leaves are used as a spinach. Jamaica. C. C. CLAMMY CHERRY. It is recorded by Burr as in American gardens in 1863 but the plant seems not to have been mentioned by other writers as growing in this country. 1592. C. and Alpinus. BROOM-WEED. The fruit is red. In Jamaica. which are eaten in salads. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. In Arabia this plant is used as a potherb. In tropical Africa. it is both spontaneous and cultivated as a vegetable and it is in the vegetable gardens of Mauritius. This plant is called te by the inhabitants of Panama who use its leaves as a tea substitute. Tropical America. Tropical Africa.

The young fruit is pickled and is also eaten as a vegetable. C. rothii Roem. young fruit is eaten as a vegetable and is pickled in India. is fermented and then a very intoxicating liquor is obtained from it by distillation. mostly edible. TI. C. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The tender. or use it to sweeten puddings. & Thorns. some 20 varieties. The kernel tastes somewhat like a filbert and that of the cultivated tree is better. Cordyline (Dracaena) indivisa Steud. which is eaten and is preferred to that of C. The plant bears a mucilaginous. Florida. fleshy roots contain large quantities of saccharine matter and. In the Samoan Islands. ASSYRIAN PLUM. macerated in water. common in the islands of the Papuan Archipelago. are distinguished by name. sebestena Linn. when baked. et Schult. The ripe fruit is also eaten. tuberous roots are eaten by the natives of Viti. TI. become very agreeable to the taste. C. The berries are eaten by the New Zealanders.Page 217 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tropical Asia and Australia. The root is roasted and eaten. obliqua Willd.com . C. This plant. SELU. after being baked on hot stoves. Himalayan region. much resembles in taste and degree of sweetness stock licorice. DRACAENA. The Fijians chew it. Liliaceae. DRACAENA. Nuttall says it has been observed growing at Key West.C. Tropical Asia and Australia.swsbm. edible fruit. The thick. Tropical India. f. The fruit is eaten. Tropical America. says Ellis. The fruit is filled with a gelatinous pulp. vestita Hook. is there cultivated. Western India. New Zealand. (Dracaena) terminalis Kunth. myxa Linn. C. myxa. The tuberous root often weighs from 10 to 14 pounds and. The baked ti root. The large.

it is recorded as less grown than in China.Page 218 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. no indication of varieties under cultivation is found.swsbm. Himalayan region and China. ruscifolia Linn. in the third century before Christ. Brandis says the fruit is eaten but is said to cause thirst or colic. a thousand or so years later. fructiferous perianth yields a palatable. but the seeds are poisonous. Smith says the fruit is eaten and is not unwholesome. In Burma. which is much liked by the natives and from which a kind of wine may be made. its seeds having been found in Egyptian tombs of the twenty-first dynasty. Peru and Chili. it can be identified in an agricultural treatise of the fifth century and is classed as cultivated by later writers of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. They are largely used by the natives of India as a condiment and with betelnuts and pau leaves. it is largely used by the natives as a condiment.Coriandrum sativum Linn. The seeds of this plant were used as a spice by the Jews and the Romans. Coriarieae. In India. J. The plant was well known in Britain prior to the Norman conquest and was carried to Massachusetts before 1670. The plant was well known in Britain prior to the Norman conquest and was employed in ancient English medicine and cookery. The seeds are carminative and aromatic and are used for flavoring. purple juice. Coriander has reached Paraguay and is in especial esteem for condimental purposes in some parts of Peru. CORIANDER. Cato. In the environs of Bombay. recommends coriander as a seasoning. The young leaves are put into soups and salads. direct its planting. Umbelliferae. Coriaria nepalensis Wall. Southern Europe and the Orient. the seeds are used as a condiment in curries. The baccate. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . in the third. Pliny says the best coriander came to Italy from Egypt. DEU.com . The ripe fruits of coriander have served as a spice and a seasoning from very remote times. Coriander was cultivated in American gardens prior to 1670. Columella. in the first century of our era and Palladius. In Cochin China. In China. C. TANNER'S TREE. the seeds are much used by the Musselmans in their curries. in confectionery and also by distillers. Notwithstanding this extended period of cultivation.

mingled with a little bitter taste. This species occurs from Pennsylvania to Labrador on the east and to Sitka on the northwest. being pleasant but without much taste. acid fruits are scarcely eatable but are sold in the markets in some parts of Germany to be eaten by children or made into sweetmeats and tarts. Smith says the fruit is of a cornelian color. Europe and Asia Minor. C. capitata Wall. Cornus amomum Mill. KINNIKINNIK. The fruit affords a refreshing wine to the natives but the seeds are poisonous. SORBET. Don says the fruit is gratefully acid and is called sorbet by the Turks. not very palatable. The cornelian cherry was formerly cultivated for its fruits which were used in tarts. C. small berries are eaten in India. mas Linn. The scarlet berries are well known to children. They are sometimes made into puddings. serves as a flavoring for sherbets. CORNUS. The fruit is sweetish. smooth. it is also preserved. North America. In Louisiana. New Zealand. China and Japan. canadensis Linn. In Norway. BUNCHBERRY. but is eaten in some parts as a substitute for olives. C. The round. round fruit. Himalayan region. North America. one with wax-colored fruit. De Candolle mentions one with a yellow fruit.Page 219 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant was introduced into English gardens about 1833 as an ornamental.C. WINEBERRY. A. Cornaceae. sannentosa Forst. is used in confectionery and. Himalayan region. in Turkey. DWARF CARNEL. macrophylla Wall. another with white fruit and a third with fleshy. LARGE-LEAVED DOGWOOD. C. Duhamel says there are three varieties in France and Germany. f. the flowers STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . of the size of a small plum.com .swsbm. Smith says the harsh. CORNELIAN CHERRY. There are a number of varieties. J. and is eaten and made into preserves in India. this plant is said by Rafinesque to have black fruit very good to eat. It is called tutu.

CORNEL DOGWOOD. stolonifera (sericea) Michx. this plant is called kinnikinnik by the Indians. North America. North America. The nuts are extensively gathered as a food by the Indians in some places. suecica Linn. furnishes the Kalmuck Tartars with a starchy substance much eaten by them. Europe and northern Asia. PEGWOOD. Corylus americana Walt. HAZELNUT. In central New York. KINNIKINNIK. FUMEWORT. Correa alba Andr. Corydalis bulbosa DC. Indian tobacco. DOGWOOD. though bitter and unpalatable. Henfrey says the leaves are used by the Australian settlers for a tea. which.com . Cupuliferae (Corylaceae).are used for flavoring distilled spirits. sanguinea Linn. This species has a tuberous root. Northern Europe. C. DOGBERRY. RED-OSIER. FILBERT. C. This species bears well-flavored nuts but they are smaller and thicker shelled than the European hazel.Page 220 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. HAZELNUT. avellana Linn. C.swsbm. under the name magnoxigill. COBNUT. Papaveraceae/Fumariaceae. Rutaceae Australia. C. North America. This species includes not only the hazelnut but STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Nuttall says the fruit. Thoreau found the bark in use by the Indians of Maine for smoking. The berries are gathered in the autumn by the western Eskimo and preserved by being frozen in wooden boxes out of which they are cut with an axe. is eaten by the Indians of the Missouri River. The fruit is said to contain a large quantity of oil used for the table and in brewing. when boiled. Europe and Asia Minor.

The nuts are known in England as cobnuts or Turkish nuts. a king of France. tubulosa Willd. Anacardiaceae (Corynocarp- STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . C. Asia Minor and Southern Europe. This species bears a small. The kernels form an important article of food in some parts of the hills of India. In Peacham's Emblems.all of the European varieties of filbert. we find it stated that the name filbert is derived from Philibert. keraclotic nuts. thick-shelled nut. Filberts were among the seeds mentioned in the Memorandum of Mar. Corynocarpus laevigata Forst. C. Pliny adds that it had been brought into Greece from Pontus. LAMBERT'S NUT." There are a number of varieties. or Lambert's nut. 16. COBNUT. ferox Wall. from Heraclea — now Ponderachi — on the Asiatic shore of the Black Sea.com . This plant furnishes the imported cobnuts of Britain. These names probably refer to particular varieties as the species is common in Europe and adjoining Asia.Page 221 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. C. LOMBARDY-NUT. rostrata Ait. It was brought to Germany in the sixteenth century. who "caused by arte sundry kinds to be brought forth. hence it was also called nux pontica. Eastern Europe. Russia. supposed to be the valley of Damascus. the nuts are so plentiful that an oil used as food is expressed from them. in taste like the common hazel. Himalayan region. The best nuts come from Spain and are known as Barcelona nuts. This species furnishes the Lombardy. It was cultivated by the Romans. BEAKED HAZELNUT. The nut was called by Theophrastus. England. columa Linn. Asia Minor and Himalayan region. and Pliny says the name is derived from Abellina in Asia. In Kazan. C. This tree was carried from Pontus to Macedonia and Thrace and has been distributed throughout Italy. Cobnuts and filberts are largely grown in Kent.swsbm. The plant bears a well-flavored nut. Northeastern America. to be sent to the Massachusetts Company and are now to be occasionally found in gardens in Virginia and elsewhere. 1629.

guianensis Aubl. California. The seeds are used in times of scarcity and contain a tasteless. The seed is edible. Brazil. The Indians plant it near their houses for the sake of its edible fruits.aceae). spinosa Linn. Bennett says it is valued for its fruit and seeds. NAVELWORT. North America. umbilicus Linn. C. Scitamineae (Costaceae). Rosaceae (Chrysobalanaceae). farinaceous substance. WILD GINGER. Costus speciosus Sm. Cotyledon edulis Brewer. The new seeds are. East Indies and Malay. poisonous until steamed for a day and soaked. however. The leaves are agreeably acid and are eaten. This beautiful tree is said by Mr. The pulp of the drupe of this tree is edible. Crassulaceae. Ainslie says the natives of India preserve the root and deem it very wholesome. The fruit contains a sweet oil like that of the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The pithy substance of the trunk yields a sort of sago. Guiana. Malay. GEBANG PALM. New Zealand. pulpy in the interior and sweet.com . C. Spruce to grow plentifully along the Amazon River from the Barra upward. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. C. Browne says this species is found everywhere in the woods of Jamaica. This plant is classed by Loudon as a spinach. Palmae. the former of the size of a plum. Lunan says the roots of wild ginger are sometimes used as ginger but are not as good. Corypha gebanga Blume. The young leaves are eaten by the Indians. NEW ZEALAND LAUREL. but the embryo is considered poisonous until steeped in salt water.swsbm. Couepia chrysocalyx Benth.Page 222 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

Although Crambe is recorded by Pena and Lobel. Dalechamp. It appears to have been known to the Romans. It is recorded that bundles of it were exposed for sale in the Chichester markets in 1753 but it was not known about London until 1767. According to Heuze.com . C. Guiana and Cayenne. Brazil.swsbm. saying the people of Sussex gather the wild plants in the spring. who gathered it in a wild state and preserved it in barrels for use during long voyages. yet it was brought into English culture from Italy. but it is not mentioned in Quintyne of 1693. about 1783. it was advertised in the London market. SCURVY GRASS. it is said to "be now cultivated in many gardens as a choice esculent. Parkinson notices it in England in 1629 and Bryant does also. Aubl. Cruciferae. Couroupita guianensis CANNON-BALL TREE. Crambe cordifolia Stev. Persia and the Caucasus to Thibet and the Himalayas." in 1795. maritima Linn. Sea kale is now very popular in English markets and is largely used in France. COLEWORT. white. The root and foliage afford an esculent. In 1789. SEA KALE." constituting when boiled a great delicacy. acid and not disagreeable. it was first cultivated in France by Quintyne. In 1778.Page 223 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Couma utilis Muell. Gerarde. Apocynaceae. however. This species bears a fruit known as couma which is said by Bates to be delicious. is mentioned by the French works on gardening of 1824 and onward. This plant is found growing upon the sandy shores of the North Sea. a few years preceding 1765. The pulp of the fruit is vinous. the blanched stems and leaf-stalks being the parts STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . it. Lightfoot speaks of "the young leaves covered up with sand and blanched while growing. gardener to Louis XIV. the Atlantic Ocean and of the Mediterranean Sea. and Ray as wild on the coast of Britain and as fit for food. The fruit is a berry containing several seeds embedded in a pulp. but Philip Miller first wrote upon it as an esculent in 1731. Myrtaceae (Lecythidaceae). and the seed sold at a high price as a rarity.almond.

in his seed catalog of that year. The fruit is said by Elliott to be large. as is the case with the young shoots of the stem. orientalis Linn. azarolus Linn. The root is dug for the use of the table as a substitute for horseradish. says it "is very little known in the United States. Tropical America. Asia Minor and Persia. says Unger. The tree bears a juicy. Roxbury. which are the size of a cherry. John Lowell. Pedalineae (Martyniaceae). AZAROLE. CRATAEGUS. Its roots resemble those of horseradish. Thorbum.used. though a most excellent garden vegetable and highly deserving of cultivation. cultivated it and in 1814 introduced it to the notice of the public. and are said to have a very agreeable flavor.Page 224 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. as well as cooked. The fleshy and sweet root is preserved in sugar by the Creoles as a delicacy.swsbm. acid and used for tarts and preserves. Crataegus aestivalis Torr & Gray. with sometimes a tinge of yellow. North America. it is probable that it was the chara caesaris which the soldiers of Julius Caesar used as bread. This is a plant of the steppes region along the Lower Danube." The same might be said now. but they are often thicker than the human arm. Eastern Europe and northern Asia. Rosaceae. Massachusetts. Dneiper and the Don. Asia Minor and Persia. in Italy STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . C.com . Azarole is much cultivated for its fruits. Craniolaria annua Linn. In 1828. pleasant-flavored fruit which is much used. 1609. In times of famine. although its seeds are advertised for sale in all leading seed lists. red. and the younger stalks may be dressed in the same manner as broccoli. sweet and the thickness of a man's arm. in his list of American esculents. Pallas says the Russians use it. TARTAR BREAD-PLANT. C. red. The root is fleshy. In 1809. C. it has been used as bread in Hungary and. It is eaten raw as a salad in Hungary. The fruit is eaten in Sicily. It is mentioned by McMahon. tatarica Jacq.

C. being sometimes served as dessert. parvifolia Ait. C. much improved by grafting.com . sweet. In India. oxyacantha Linn. Gray says the fruit is scarcely eatable. douglasii Lindl. Europe and temperate Asia. QUICK-SET THORN. Greece and Asia Minor. red and well flavored. Michigan and the Northwest. North America. DWARF THORN.swsbm. It is. In Kamchatka. The fruit is said by Don to be mealy. The fruit is said by Elliott to be oval. C. It is common about Jerusalem. Lightfoot says that when thoroughly ripe it is eaten by the Highlanders. where its fruit is collected for preserves. black fruit ripening in August. Johnson says it is seldom eaten in England except by children. C. says Brandis. EASTERN THORN. the mespile anthedon of Theophrastus. sometimes of a bright yellow and at other times of a lively red color.Page 225 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. HAWTHORN. Eastern United States. C. coccinea Linn. This species bears a small. this species bears little apples. insipid. C.and the Levant. YELLOW-FRUITED THORN. North America. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . purplish fruits are edible. an agreeable fruit. It is largely collected by the Indians. SUMMER HAW. WHITE THORN. The fruit is eaten fresh or mingled with choke cherries and service berries and is pressed into cakes and dried for winter use by the western Indians. large and eatable. QUICK. orientalis Bieb. according to Stackhouse. and is much used for preserves. The greenish-yellow fruit is eatable. the tree is cultivated for its fruit. flava. the natives eat the fruits and make a kind of wine by fermenting them with water. The small. dark red and occasionally yellow. Elliott says the fruit is red. In the Crimea.

and is eaten in Armenia. subvillosa Schrad." Josselyn says of it: " Hawthorn: the berries being as big as services and very good to eat and not so stringent as the hawes in England.C. In Germany. Russia and Siberia. a little hairy. C. often of pleasant flavor but which varies much in quality. sanguinea Pall. The plant grows wild in the hills west of Pekin. to bear an edible fruit. with five roundings like the ribs of a melon. which resemble small apples.com . Wood says: "The white thorn affords hawes as big as an English cherrie which is esteemed above a cherrie for his goodneese and pleasantnesse to the taste. is edible and of an agreeable flavor. this species yields edible fruits. Europe and Asia. Probably. The large. often downy. Francis Higginson. Mexico. Armenia. pentagyna Waldst. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . with a raised navel of five leaves. about an inch in diameter. pubescens Steud." noted by Rev.swsbm. C. The fruit resembles a small apple. C. resembling that of the quince. A jelly is made from the fruit. Eastern Asia and North America. & Kit. red fruit.Page 226 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in the Michigan Pomological Society's catalog of 1879. C. this is the "hawes of white thorn neere as good as our cherries in England. PEAR THORN. BLACK THORN. pale green inclining to yellow. tomentosa Linn. it is collected and an excellent sweetmeat is prepared therefrom." The fruit is somewhat hard and tough but is eatable and rather agreeable to the taste. Eastern United States. tanacetifolia Pers. The red fruit is much larger than the ordinary crataegus. C. The Armenians relish the fruits. This species is said.

Capparideae. the fresh shoots are made into spinach and the young branches into tooth-scrubbers. C. orange-sized. and near the center there are many kidney-shaped seeds. tapia Linn. They only suck out the juice and spit out the rest. South America. obovata Vahl. f. It is edible but not very pleasant.com . In India. this plant furnishes food for man. apparently. the fruit is spherical. eat them frequently on a march. woody shell of the fruit is made to serve many useful domestic purposes in the household economy of the people of these countries. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The fruit is eatable. CALABASH TREE. Madagascar. speaks of this tree and of C. The substance of both is spongy and juicy. Seemann. spoons. that of the one being sweet." Henfrey says the subacid pulp of the fruit is eaten. GARLIC PEAR. In equatorial Africa. eatable but not pleasant. C. tho they are not very delightful. In Jamaica. Florida. The hard. cucurbitina during his visit to the Isthmus.Crateva magna DC. a mealy pulp like that of a pear. cups. Tropical America. the other bitter. that it affords food to the negroes. The plant is found wild or cultivated in various parts of tropical America and in the West Indies. The fruit of this tree resembles a gourd.Page 227 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The Indians. and that the fruit is eaten by the Indians in time of scarcity while the unripe fruit is candied with sugar. The fruit is edible but not very good. Old World tropics. That of the sweeter sort does not incline to a tart. sweetish. water-bottles and pails. Wafer. such as basins. Crescentia cujete Linn.religiosa Forst. however. It is the size of a small orange.swsbm. Bignoniaceae. smelling like garlic. C. with a hard. Cochin China. ash-colored fruits are eatable. 1679-86: "There are two sorts of these trees but the difference is chiefly in the fruit. Nuttall says the plant is found at Key West. The roundish. brown shell. sourish taste. The bitter sort is not eatable.

the plant is alluded to by Solomon." Samphire is cultivated in English gardens for its seed pods. It was not cultivated in France before the Crusades.com . This plant was formerly cultivated in England and is now spontaneous. It is noticed in American gardens in 1821. which make a warm. enter into salads and seasonings. preserves and liquors and is used for coloring butter and cheese.Page 228 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It was declared by Gerarde to be "the pleasantest sauce. England. as well as a pickle. as Titford declares. This is a seaside plant. Asia Minor. which are used in salads. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1765. is noticed by Bryant8 1783. This plant is said by Linger to be brought to market in Damascus. sativus Linn. SEA Europe. and its use as a potherb by the poor. biscuits. Under the Hebrew name. it is again mentioned by Stevenson. Irideae. 1690. The whole plant is "of a spicie taste with a certaine saltnesse" on which account it has been long held in great repute as an ingredient in salads. Hippocrates. In France. In Jamaica. it forms an agreeable and wholesome pickle. Theophrastus and Theocritus. carcom. when the bulb is about sprouting. and as krokos. and is much prized as a vegetable. by Homer. In England and France. aromatic pickle. Greece and Asia Minor. frequent notices are found of its occurrence in commerce and in cultivation.swsbm.Crithmum FENNEL. France and Spain for the deep. the bulbs from Avignon being introduced about the end of the fourteenth century. SAMPHIRE. found on rocky shores from the Crimea to Land's End. Umbelliferae. Throughout the middle ages. Loudon says saffron is used in sauces and for coloring by the Spaniards and Poles. maritimum Linn. it is cultivated for its leaves which. in France. but it is oftener collected from the shores. Virgil and Columella mention it and Cilicia and Sicily are both alluded to by Dioscorides and Pliny as localities celebrated for this drug. Crocus cancellatus Herb. The Mongols use it in cooking. it enters into creams. It is cultivated in Austria. and for its leaves. in England. C. SAFFRON. which are used for coloring. and extends even to the Caucasus. orange-colored stigmas of the flowers. The first mention of its culture is by Quintyne. pickled with vinegar.

Tropical Africa. C. African tropics. Cryptocarya moschata Nees & Mart. HONEWORT. Cucurbitaceae. Croton corymbulosus Rothr. Cryptotaenia canadensis DC. GHERKIN. The people of Madi eat its flowers. Cucumis anguriaLinn. ENCENILLA. BUR CUCUMBER. the blanched stems are used as a salad and a potherb. the root also is utilized. North America. Leguminosae. CHAPARRAL TEA. North America. S. Cucumeropsis edulis Cogn. bearing short. black and light brown beans the size of soy beans. perennial plant. BRAZILIAN NUTMEG. WILD CUCUMBER. This is an upright.swsbm. This is the wild cucumber of Hughes. Lauraceae. GOAREBERRY GOURD. WEST INDIAN GHERKIN.Crotalaria glauca Willd. West Indies. peumus Nees. laburnifolia Linn.Page 229 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com . Euphorbiaceae. one much used by the Mexicans and Indians as well as by colored (U. This species is very generally cultivated in Japan.) soldiers who prefer it to coffee. It is sometimes cultivated. An infusion of the flowering tops makes a very palatable drink. It is a native of the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This is a cucumber-like plant which bears edible fruits of one foot in length and three inches in diameter. Asiatic tropics. This tree produces the spice known as Brazilian nutmegs. Chile. The tips are used as greens and to flavor soups. pods and leaves as spinach. C. Umbelliferae. Cucurbitaceae. The fruit is edible. Brazil.

however. it yet does not appear to be in the vegetable gardens of England in 1807. Ten years later. those with yellow flesh. in continental tropical and subtropical America. as the Christiana. as big as a walnut. The melons of our gardens may be divided into two sections: those with green flesh. C. by Long. cantaloupe and Persian melons. It is not mentioned as cultivated in Jamaica by Sloane. The fruit tastes like a cucumber. thick tubercles. In France. 1686 and 1704. Although described by Ray. In France. f. blunt. This vegetable is described by Marcgravius in Brazil 1648. and grown by Miller in his botanic garden in 1755. It is. as the citron and nutmeg. New Granada and South Florida. 1812. 1814. which differ not only in their fruits but also in their leaves and their entire habit or mode of growth. it was under cultivation in 1824 and 1829 but apparently was abandoned and was reintroduced by Vilmorin in 1858. MELON. Its fruit is mentioned as being used in soups and pickles. and that within the pulp are a great many small seeds like those of other cucumbers. one variety has a scarlet fruit. melo Linn. apparently gathered from the wild plant. but oftener the fruits are collected from the wild plants.com . the name Cucumis sylvestris Brazileae indicating an uncultivated plant. with very thin skins and melting honey-like flesh of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1774. It is cultivated in Jamaica. MUSKMELON. one Algerian variety suddenly splits up into sections when ripe. Some melons are no larger than small plums. another is only one inch in diameter but three feet long and is coiled in a serpentine manner in all directions. sharper than those of other cucumbers. 1696. Naudin divides the varieties of melon into ten sections. The fruit of one variety can scarcely be distinguished from cucumbers.Page 230 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. having many short. Piso also described it as a wild plant of Brazil under the name guarervaoba or cucumer asinius and gives a figure. C. Sloane says the fruit is of a pale green color. oval. It has also been found in the Antilles and. others weigh as much as 66 pounds. cultivated in French Guiana and Antiqua. longipes Hook. the fruit being called sweet and excellent when grown under good circumstances of soil. and Lunan. and the green fruit is eaten there but it is far inferior to the common cucumber. although it was known in the gardens of the United States in 1806. it is called Concoinbre arada and is sometimes grown in gardens. Old World tropics.West Indies.swsbm. Titford. CANTALOUPE.

says. as De Candolle observes." When we consider. in 1542. have the seed and the flower very nearly like those of the cucumber and also says. melons. but the pepo is commonly yellow and of an uneven surface and as if round. even if known. The names used by the ancient writers and translated by some to mean melon. Roeszlin figures the melon under the name of pepo. that the seeds are like those of the pepo. in the thirteenth century. and white flesh are cultivated. we may believe that although "a kind of gourd not eaten until fully ripe " may have been cultivated in ancient Greece and Rome. citrullus. but figures it under the name of pepo. the sikua of Theophrastus was the melon. In Liddell and Scott's Lexicon. on the other hand. it is called meloni. seem also in doubt. yet the admiration of the authors of the sixteenth century for the perfume and exquisite taste of the melon. semi-circular sections were orderly arranged together.com . as contrasted with the silence of the Romans. Fuchsius describes the melon. the rapidity of its diffusion through the savage tribes of America to remote regions. where it is remarked by De Candolle that Roman traditions are well preserved. The Lexicon says "sikuos pepon. in speaking of the cucumber. green. Thus. or more frequently o pepon." Andrews' Latin Lexicon gives under melopepo "an apple-shaped melon. he calls the melon pepo. as Unger asserts. we cannot believe that a fruit so easily transported through its seed could have remained secluded during such a long period of history. is assuredly a proof that the melon had not at that time. and it is an indication. or even by the Jews under their Kings." Pliny. In England. moreover." Fraas says the melon is the pepon of Dioscorides. In 1550. according to Fraas. in 1539. and in 1558 Matthiolus STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. and says it has a smooth. the names of pepone. the term melon has been used to signify watermelons." Fraas says " he melon is the melopepon of Galen and the melo of Pliny. and it has even been applied to pumpkins by our early horticulturists.delicious flavor. green skin. melone and mellone were applied to it. In Sardinia. "of the novelty of the fruit in Europe. Albertus Magnus. In Italy. As a summary. not eaten till fully ripe. says in Greece in his day it was named peponia. Ruellius describes our melon as the pepo. the Macock gourd of Virginia. cucumber melon. melons with red. which some call pepones.Page 231 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1536. By the earlier and unscientific travellers. attained its present luscious and perfumed properties. Under the head of watermelon. the definition is given "a fruit like the melon or gourd but eaten ripe. a kind of gourd or melon not eaten till quite ripe. who were not less epicurean.

a writer on cookery. Whether the ancients knew the melon is a matter of doubt. in addition to their color and odor. ripe) do not excite vomiting as do the unripe. In the seventh century. although not suspended. melones sive pepones are used by Pinaeus. who says. a characteristic of no other garden vegetable. mentions the medicinal properties of the melopepo as being of the same character but less than that of the pepo. D. The Greek name of pepon. says a new form of cucumber has lately appeared in Campania called melopepo. and the melon is called muskemelon or million. grapes and pomegranates of excellent quality in Turkestan. A halfcentury later. Tch'ang Te. about the same period. as a remarkable circumstance. Palladius gives directions for planting melones and speaks of them as being sweet and odorous. others as thicker skinned. directs that pepones and melones be served with various spices corresponding in part to present customs.. 1597. 1561. as Amatus Lusitanus.swsbm.figures it under the name of melon. treating of medicinal properties. and further says mankind abstains from the inner flesh of the pepo. in the first century.com . says the autumn fruits (i. Melons and pompions are used synonymously. 1554. we are inclined to believe that these references are to the melon. where the seed is borne but eats it in the melopepo. variously spelled. a medical writer. and separates these from the cucurbita and cucumis. and the mention of the spontaneous falling of the ripe fruit. 1617. others white. are given among synonyms by various authors of the sixteenth century. according to Bretschneider.. not differing from Galen. Dioscorides. speaks of cucumbers which are odoriferous. already quoted. In 1259. where Loureiro states the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Paulus Agineta. that when ripe. in the second century. some red fleshed. This Chinese traveller may have brought seeds to China. e. Pliny. an author of the sixth century. quorum varietas ingens est. and the Italian. found melons. Apicius. Spanish and French of melon. about 230 A. and by Gerarde in England. says the flesh or pulp (cara) of the pepo used in food is diuretic. and Nonnius. and proceeds to mention some as thin skinned. From these remarks concerning odor and sweetness. which grows on the ground in a round form. yet the fruit separates from the stem at maturity. German.Page 232 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Galen. and more especially so as the authors of the sixteenth and following centuries make mention of many varieties. melone and pepone by Castor Durante. and he adds. which particularly apply to our melon.

They were perhaps known commonly in Spain before 1493. The melon has been cultivated in England. "if the melon is good." In 1507. its flavor bringing his native country to his recollection. Smith. the Lefooga Islands. tho' it was not above two months since the seed was put into the ground. many excellent varieties were cultivated. South Russia. We find a statement by J. October. Herrera. but the precise date of its introduction is unknown. and none other is preferable to it. however. for Columbus on his second voyage found melons "already grown. is of poor quality. who brought them from Italy. though originally brought from Jamaica. travelling in Palestine. says De Candolle. Ispahan. Italy and the shores of the Mediterranean. the noted legate of the Han dynasty. In 1513. fit to eat. the Emperor Baber is said to have shed tears over a melon of Turkestan which he cut up in India after his conquest. King of France. Cook apparently distributed the melon in suitable climates along his course around the world. Columbus is recorded as finding melons at Isabela Island in 1494 on his return from his second voyage. In 1516.com . It is now extensively cultivated in Armenia. Martin Baumgarten. as. If it is bad. says Chang K'ien. it is a bad thing. but the more recent writers on Japan are very sparing of epithets conveying ideas of qualities. where it is now largely cultivated and eaten both raw and in a pickle. melons were unknown in central or northern Europe until the reign of Charles VIII. and the first grown in the New World are to be dated March 29. According to Pasquier. in Africa. In Japan. and the plant has never been found wild in the Mediterranean region. as Loureiro says. May 1777. it is cultivated but. About 1519. Smith that they were supposed to have been first introduced from Egypt into Rome.swsbm.Page 233 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says. Thunberg. as he has left record of so doing at many places. for Rumphius asserts that melons were carried into the islands of the Asiatic Archipelago by the Portuguese. we are wont to say that the good are like good women. 1776. at Hiraheime. says Don. since 1570. The culture of the melon is not very ancient. 1483-1498. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1777. seems to have brought this "foreign cucumber" from central Asia to China. The rapidity and extent of their diffusion may be gathered from the following mentions. in India or the Indian Archipelago. says the melon is much cultivated. mentions melons as brought to him by the inhabitants. In China. in Greece. Capt. 1570.melons are of poor quality and whence they did not spread. 1494. and the bad like bad women. in his Materia Medica of China. it is the best fruit that exists. a Spanish writer. Bokhara and elsewhere in Asia." In the time of Matthiolus.

an occasional experiment has been made in converting a surplusage of melons into syrups with considerable success. During the Civil War many farmers in the southern states made molasses and sugar from muskmelons and cantaloupes. According to Hilton's Relation. Woods says: ''There are many sorts of sweet melons. melons are reported by Benzoni as abounding in Hayti. In Kentucky. Kalm found at Quebec melons abounding and always eaten with sugar. the army of the Viceroy of Mexico sent to Cibolo found the melon already there. In Sept. pale colored melon of a rich taste. In Brazil. the melon is mentioned as cultivated by the Coco Maricopas Indians by Father Sedelmayer.. China. and melons are mentioned on the Colorado River by Vinegas. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and a small. the seeds are collected and an oil expressed which is used for food and other purposes and is also exported. and nutmeg. melons are mentioned by Nieuhoff. In 1749. Woods. and a considerable amount was shipped from Chefoo. In 1744. In 1609. as in Senegal and Abeokuta. Muskmelons are said to have been grown in Virginia in 1609 and are again mentioned in 1848. Antonis de Espejo found melons cultivated by the Choctaw Indians. especially those with a red seed. In 1583. In 1673 the melon is said to have been cultivated by the Indians of Illinois. In 1542." In 1881. a smaller one. 1647. and in China. I have only noticed musk. In 1822. and Father Marquette n pronounced them excellent. in the expedition to New Mexico. muskmelons from Montreal appeared in the Boston market. according to Kalm. 1535. Jacques Cartier mentions the Indians at Hochelega. and by Father Angelo.266 kilos. The Indians about Philadelphia grew melons preceding 1748.com . in 1875. some melon seeds were sown by the Spaniards on the Island of California."melons different from those here " were seen by Pascual de Andagoya in Central America. the production in Senegal was 62. now Montreal. Lopez de Gomara." In 1683. In 1540. but there are other sorts with which I am unacquainted. 1758. Muskmelons are mentioned by Master Graves in his letter of 1629 as abounding in New England and again by Wm. In 1565. In various parts of Africa. In 1860. as having "musk mellons. makes several mentions of melons. musk-melons were cultivated by the Florida Indians prior to 1664. but melon seeds appear not to have been planted in the Bermudas until 1609. of a large size. melons are mentioned by Hudson as found on the Hudson River.Page 234 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and much difference in size in the various kinds. 1666.swsbm. 1629-33.

yellowfleshed by Dodonaeus. POMEGRANATE MELON. 1623. depressed. 1623. insipid pulp. C. 3. 5. Equatorial Africa. but is generally pickled in its green state like the common cucumber and adds that it is not worthy of cultivation. summer and winter. the oblong.14 C. as also the ribbed. 1586. QUEEN ANNE'S-POCKET MELON. or flat.NOTES ON CLASSIFICATION. 1554. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . by Bauhin. 2. 1623. 1587. as large as a lemon. as also winter melons. 4.Page 235 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. DUDAIM MELON. green. by Bauhin. and noi edible but is cultivated for its strong and pleasant odor. 1536. flaccid. Burr says the fruit is sometimes eaten boiled. White. golden. 1597.and red-fleshed are described by Amatus. SNAKE MELON. Netted melons are named by Camerarius. by Dalechamp. warted and smooth. the quince form.com . by Dodonaeus. C. 1677. by Bauhin. succrades rouges and succrades blanches by Chabraeus. The flesh of this cucumber is scanty and too bitter to be edible. Early and late melons. long.swsbm. 1587. 1623. rough. melo flexuosus Naud. oblong. The warted are mentioned in the Adversaria 1570. 1616. GLOBE CUCUMBER. It has a very fragrant. green-fleshed by Marcgravius 1648. Sugar melons are named sucrinos by Ruellius. prophetarum Linn. oval and pear-form are mentioned by Gerarde. pale yellow and ashen by Bauhin. 1. East Indies. Arabia and tropical Africa. The round. SNAKE CUCUMBER. are described by Amatus. who includes it among the plants of the kitchen garden. and succris and succredes by Dalechamp. musky smell and a whitish. 1616. 1554. The fruit is globose-ovate. This melon is cultivated in Japan and is called by the Dutch banket melon. the round. melo dudaim Naud. says Vilmorin.

Cartier mentions "very great cucumbers" cultivated by the Indians about Hochelaga. In 1535. According to Capt. onward. and that the Emperor Tiberius had cucumbers at his table every day in the year. and Pliny even mentions their forced culture." and they are thus eaten and relished at the present day in southern Russia and in Japan. The cucumber is believed to be the sikus hemeros of Dioscorides. Y. cucumbers STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . although its culture in western Asia is indicated from philological data as more than 3000 years old. Dr. Parkinson says "in many countries they use to eate coccumbers as wee doe apples or Peares.swsbm. in 1562. Cucumbers were among the Indian vegetables destroyed by General Sullivan in 1779 in the Indian fields about Kashong. "cowcumbers" were planted in 1609. In Brazil. Cucumbers were known to the ancient Greeks and to the Romans. but during the wars of the houses of York and Lancaster. and the sikuos of Theophrastus. Cucumbers were grown by Columbus at Hayti in 1494. John Smith. It has been a plant of cultivation from the most remote times. and they were reintroduced only in 1573. William Wood mentions them in his New England's Prospects. now Montreal. 1327. for Charlemagne ordered cucumbers to be planted on his estate. We find reference to them in France in the ninth century. N. Hooker believes the wild plants inhabit the Himalayas from Kumaun to Sikkim. The origin of the cucumber is usually ascribed to Asia and Egypt. Ribault mentions them as cultivated by the Florida Indians. They find mention in the Middle Ages and in the botanies from Ruellius. cucumbers are stated to have been common in England in the time of Edward III.. At the Bermudas. sativus Linn.com . they are mentioned in 1629 by Rev. 140-86 B. but De Candolle finds no support for the common belief of its presence in ancient Egypt at the time of the Israelite migration into the wilderness. Captains Amidos and Barlow mention cucumbers in Virginia in 1584 and they are mentioned as being cultivated there in 1609. CUCUMBER. C. 1536. In Gough's British Topography. In 1629. De Soto found in Florida atApalache "cucumbers better than those of Spain" and also at other villages. The cucumber is said to have been brought into China from the west. In 1539. East Indies. near the present Geneva.Page 236 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.C. In Massachusetts. 1629-33. their cultivation was neglected. Pliny says cucumbers were much grown in Africa as well as in Italy in his time. the plant was lost. Francis Higginson. it can be identified in a Chinese work on agriculture of the fifth century and is described by Chinese authors of 1590 and 1640. and.

Chabr. Concombre. t. Early Cluster of American seedsmen. yet there are many kinds which are extraordinarily distinct. 697. 1807. Matth. Mill. 1558. 1597. very near to the above. ?Short Green Prickly. Cucumis sativus vulgaris. Dalechamp 1:620. ?Short Green. Toum. A second form. if not all. Ger. 134. and other places where the cucumber grows almost wild. Diet. describes 30 varieties. 1677. Early Green Cluster. 1807. II.com . but longer. 1586. 1828.Page 237 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1542. but the fruit is far inferior in appearance to those we grow today.were seen by Nieuhoff in 1647 and by Father Angelo in 1666. Trag. which in flavor equals and perhaps surpasses the finest produce of the olive. 116. At Unyanyembe. Cucumis. Fuch. 282. The cultivated gherkin is a variety used exclusively for pickling and was in American gardens in 1806. Central Africa. The following synonymy is established from figures and descriptions: I. less rounding and more prickly has a synonymy as below: Cucumeres. 1550. Roeszl. 294. Cam. 1552. the Arabs derive from its seed an admirable salad oil. Green Cluster. There are a great number of varieties varying from the small gherkin to the mammoth English varieties which attain a length of twenty inches or more.swsbm. Mill. 1629. 762. Park. The types of our common cucumbers are fairly well figured in the ancient botanies. 32. Diet. says Burton. TYPES OF CUCUMBERS. Cucumis vulgaris. being apparently more rugged and less symmetrical. Par. Epit. 1719. 1883. Thorb. While some of the varieties grown differ but little. 1587. Vilmorin in Les Plantes Potageres. Cucumis sativus. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . of these as well as others including 59 different names have been grown on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Cucumis sativus. Fischer 1646. Most. 831. Mawe 1778.

V. doubtless. 1883. Dur. Cedruolo. the fruit being ovoid. i6i6. 1885. The synonymy for these would scarcely be justified had it not been observed that the tendency of the fruit is to curve under conditions of ordinary culture: Cucumis longus. 1651. Epit. 1617. J. Concombre. 1783. is quite distinct from all other varieties.Page 238 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. thus producing an angular appearance. J. Cat. Early Frame. 1778. 103. and albis. which came from Spain into STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . while they have a diversity of size. Cam. 32. The Bonneuil Large White Cucumber. 1:638. Long Smooth Green Turkey.swsbm. 2 46. Thorb. 1828 and 1886. 1807. Mawe. 1828. smoothness and freedom from seeds. Greek. which. Pin. Landreth. Icon. Mill. Such are: ? Cucumer sativus. 1591. Long Green English varieties. or Athenian. Vilm. Cucumis vulgaris Dod. 1586. 1885. Cucumis longus eidem. 2:2 48. Tourn. 295. 1719. 163. 1807. IV. grown largely about Paris for the use of perfumes. from which. III. 1561. they have originated. viridis. which are distinct in their excessive length. Cat. Vilm. Mawe 1778. Bryant 267. yet have a common shape and smoothness. The fourth form includes those known as English. Baugh. Diet. Thorb. 1807. Long Green Turkey. Bauh. Diet. 662. Cucumis vulgaris. C. 1651. Mill. t.com . Turkey Long Green or Long Green. although in a botanical classification they would be united with the preceding. The third form is the smooth and medium-long cucumbers. Diet. Long Green Prickly. perceptibly flattened from end to end in three or four places.Cucumeres sativi and esculenti Lob. We may suspect that Gerarde figured this type in his cucumber. 2. Green Turkey Cucumber. 192. Mill. ? Large Smooth Green Roman.

small. White Dutch. Cucurbita maxima Duchesne. Blanc.com . 222. (excl. the concombre of Tournefort is also a highly improved form. as his figure bears a striking resemblance in the form of the fruit and in the leaf: Cucumis ex Hispanico semine natus. In 1856. the latter of recent introduction from South America. it will be noted that some of the figures represent cucumbers as highly improved as at the present day. Nothing is known of their history. They are very distinct and resemble a melon more than a cucumber. Nativity undetermined. 6133. 310.) Bonneuil Large White. Vilm. oval and densely covered with a fine net-work. Cucurbitaceae. and said by Vilmorin to have STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . If the synonymy be closely examined. The Russian Netted. Bauhin in 1607. Fuch. 3.Page 239 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. VI. 1623. The Zapilliot. the pulp sweet and tasting like the sweet potato. A. advertised by Gregory in 1880.Germany. No. The Turban squash is easily recognized by its form. 2. This is possibly the Chilean mamillary Indian gourd of Molina. to which it is indebted for its name. Cucumis sativus major. obovate and ribbed like a melon. The Cucumis longus of J. oval and smooth. 1596. 764. The Turkie cucumber of Gerarde is not now to be recognized under culture. seen by J. at least in external appearance: 1. Ger. TURBAN SQUASH. Bauh. Bauhin is figured as if equalling our longest and best English forms. Phytopinax. described as with spheroidal fruit with a large nipple at the end. The Russian Gherkin. The Early Russian. Another type of cucumbers is made up of those which have lately appeared under the name of Russian. 1885. Bauhin and the Cucumis pyriformis of C. Bauhin. from Brazil. nor are the Cucumer minor pyriformis of Gerarde and of J. as is also the cucumeres of Matthiolus. Naudin describes le turban rouge and le turban nouveau du Bresil. The appearance of new types indicates that we have by no means exhausted the possibilities of this species. Pin. 1597. 1558. Its description accords with the Cucurbita clypeiformis tuberoso and verrucoso.

its introducer in 1857. courge de la Florida. This form was grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1884 from seed obtained from the Seminoles of Florida and appears synonymous with the Neapolitan. Josselyn refers to a cucurbit that may be this. September 11." the very comparison made by Ray. answers to Beverley's description of a form which he calls Cushaw. In the New England Farmer. The squashes of our markets." and Carver.com . The Hubbard squash is said by Gregory. CUSHAW. was introduced in 1832 and was exhibited at the rooms of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. speaks of "crane-necks" being preserved in the West for winter supply. except as hereinafter noted for Lobel. are the marrows and the Hubbard. with other varieties of the succulent-stemmed.reached France from South America about 1860. These found representation in our seed catalog in 1828. C. WINTER CROOKNECK. Nativity undetermined. It has apparently been grown in New England from the earliest times and often attains a large size. moschata Duchesne. The Autumnal Marrow or Ohio. who received the seeds from Sir Hans Sloane and planted them in his garden. 1776. Kalm mentions a winter squash in New Jersey called "crooked neck. resembles the Turban squash in shape. par excellence.Page 240 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This is the variety now known as the Striped. an Indian name recognizable in the Ecushaw of Hariot. 1824. notice is made of a kind of melon-squash or pumpkin from Chile.swsbm. A sub variety. to be of unknown origin but to resemble a kind which was brought by a sea captain from the West Indies. the Puritan. is said to have come directly from the West Indies. CANADA CROOKNECK. 1586. also introduced by Gregory and distributed in 1867. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . which is possibly the Valparaiso. This evidence. the fruit " longish like a gourd. such as it is. The Marblehead. points to South America as the starting point of this form. in the variety called Corn. The Turban squash does not appear in any of the figures or descriptions of the herbalists. The Winter Crookneck squash seems to have been first recorded by Ray. which was brought from Chile shortly after the war of 1812. Porter's Valparaiso. to which Vilmorin applies the French synonym.

"squashes. after speaking of the pumpkins of New Netherlands. by name at least.. 1703. as the plant was not known to us before our intercourse with them. and about the bigness of a pome water—is the best kind.Page 241 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is even now known to culture but is rarely grown on account of its small size. and when it is planted in the middle of April. SQUASH. writing. others round.C.com . It seems to have been originally applied to the summer squash. THE SQUASH. Van der Donck. saying: "There are lesser sorts of them (pompeons) that are lately brought into request that are called 'squashes. about the bigness of apples. some yellow." Kalm. who describes them "as big as the fist." This apple squash. as well to the eye on account of its fine variety of colors. belong to those kind of gourds which ripen before any other.' a kind of mellon or rather gourd. Some of these are green. But the yellow squash — called an apple squash (because like an apple). of several colors. like a gourd."—"their vine apples. adds: "The natives have another species of this vegetable peculiar to themselves. all of them pleasant food boyled and buttered." Lahontan. says distinctly: "The squashes of the Indians. the fruit is fit for eating by the first of June. 1605. for they sometimes degenerate into gourds. The word " squash " seems to have been derived from the American aborigines and in particular from those tribes occupying the northeastern Atlantic coast. and seasoned with spice.swsbm. as also by the description so far as applicable.' the edible fruit whereof. in his Travels. a name derived from the aborignes. boyled and serv'd up with powdered beef is esteemed a good sawce. It is a delightful fruit. They do not wait for it to ripen before making use of the fruit. pepo Linn. which indicates a round form. . called by our people quaasiens. like an apple. Worlidge uses the word squash. It is gathered in summer. They gather the squashes." These squashes of New England were apparently called "sitroules " by Champlain. 1642-53." Josselyn gives another form to the word. which now are cultivated by Europeans. but only until it has attained a certain size. some longish.—which the English from them call squashes.. and immediately place them on the fire without any further trouble. PUMPKIN. Roger Williams writes the word "askutasquash. as to the mouth for its agreeable taste. calls the squashes of southern Canada citrouilles " and compares them with the melon. GOURD." In 1683. Nativity undetermined. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD ." "but more truly 'squoutersquashes.

1881. now Montreal.com ." Captain John Smith "pumpions and macocks. mention is made STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . introduced in 1881.Page 242 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Icon. seems to belong to this class and is very correctly figured by Tragus. Dalechamp l:n6. "Pumpions and gourds" are named by Smith for New England in 1614. who says they are called Mala indica. in 1535. so also the leaf. in German. The Maycock. Fuch. Dod. 1550. it appears to be the same in all but color. color alike. which indicates an early squash. The Perfect Gem squash. The distinctions between the various forms of cucurbits seem to have been kept in mind by the vernacular writers. Indianisch apffel. 1587. Pepo minor rotundis. Bodaeus 783." The plants are runners in both. In 1648. The Perfect Gem. if the proportions between leaf and fruit as figured may be trusted. may seem un justifiable. orange. 1673. 919. 116. and the names zucco de Syria and zucco de Peru. Thus. To identify this squash. The Perfect Gem and Tragus plants have the following points in common: fruit of like form and size. A careful comparison with the figures and the description given would seem to bring together as synonyms: Cucumis marinus. 1552. Chabr. Trag. and gourds." now nearly abandoned in culture. as synonymous with Tragus' Cucumis. Cartier mentions as found among the Indians of Hochelega. 130. mentions "macocks and pumpions" as differing. Pepo rotundis minor. which indicate a foreign origin.These "squashes. He also gives the name Sommer apffel. A curious instance of survival seems to be here noted. would seem to be synonymous. who did not use the words pompion and gourd.. with the Maycock of Virginia and the Virginian watermelon described in Gerarde's Herball as early as 1621. "Quae Candida foris and quae ex pallido lutea swit poma. and black. seed sweet in both. sive zucckae." In 1586. Ger. Cucurbita indica rotunda. or else the regaining of a lost form through atavism. 1552. Hariot mentions in Virginia "pompions. Roeszl. 835. 1633. i6i6. IV. 1542. as synonyms. 666. at the mouth of the Susquehanna.swsbm. or. with its claim of recent introduction. "pompions. and occur in four colors. 1644. 699. who was in Virginia in 1610. creamy-white. in some of their varieties at least. saffron-yellow. seu zucco marinus. Cucurbitae folio aspero. gourds. melons. Cucumis vel zucco marinus. Compared also with the description of the Maycock." Strachey.

1591. gourds. the latter name and contemporary use gives the impression of roundness and size.swsbm. in the eighteenth century. by Dodonaeus. the gourd includes the late sorts useful for winter supplies. and similar fruit with the vine and leaf. Thomson. pumpkins." or "Simnel-Gourd. by Dalechamp. It was first noticed STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . are included sorts grown for stock. and marrows being the equivalent English names.of " symnels and maycocks." The word "squash. the crookneck or craneneck. 1686. Bauhin. Jonathan Carver. At the present time. The form of cucurbit now so generally known as Bush or Summer Squash is correctly figured in 1673 by Pancovius. Dodonaeus. gourds and squashes. which Kalm classed among gourds. and by J. soon after Kalm. as its use has not been transferred to Europe. 1616." in its early use. uses the word "cimnel. the word pumpkin applies to those varieties grown in fields for stock purposes. Cymling or Patty-pan. it is the Scalloped Squash. Kalm." Jefferson wrote the word "cymling. the word squash is used only in America. Gerarde." This word cymling or cymbling. or melon. gives indication of the confusion now existing in the definition of what constitutes a pumpkin and a squash when he says "the melon or pumpkin. and under the term pompion. What may be the fruit. in a poem entitled New England's Crisis. under the name of Melopepo clypeatus Tab. which by some are called squashes. the latter name derived from the resemblance to a crimped pan used in the kitchen for baking cakes. 1597. and the word gourd to those ornamental forms with a woody rind and bitter flesh. There is no clue as to the origin of the word. By Ray. applied to those varieties of cucurbits which furnish a summer vegetable and was carefully distinguished from the pumpkin. we may conclude. in the United States generally. The latter are the early sorts. distinguishes between pumpkins." In 1675. and the American use of the word is so confusing that it can only be defined as applying to those varieties of cucurbits which are grown in gardens for table use. though locally. 1587. but it was very possibly of aboriginal origin.Page 243 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. used at the present day in the southern states for the Scalloped Bush Squash in particular. or to the Lagenaria. as he calls it. 1651. In England this squash is called Crown Gourd and Custard Marrow. was figured by Lobel. 1616." and distinguishes it from the pumpkin. it is called in the vernacular "the Buckler." and he names among other forms the same variety. was used in 1648 in A Description of New Albion but spelled "Symnels.com . from its shape.

2:224. Dalechamp. who were so apt to figure new forms. 1:6481. 1686. i6i6. Cucurbita clypeiformis sive Siciliana melopepon latus a nonnulis vocata. The word "pumpkin" is derived from the Greek pepon. Summer Scolloped. Lob. Dod. The word pepo was transferred in Latin to large fruit. This variety was introduced in 1884 by Land-reth from seed which came originally from Chile. 1566. Pepo latiorus fructus. by Theophrastus peponeas and Hippocrates sikuon peponia. and it is perhaps referred to by Champlain in 1605. it does not seem to have received much mention by the early colonists and seems to have escaped the attention of the pre-Linnean botanists. creamy white when harvested.swsbm. for Pliny says distinctly that cucumeres. is of a remarkably distinctive character on account of its acorn shape and regular projection. Dod. 1591. It is now recommended in France rather as an ornamental plant than for kitchen use. 666. 1:642. 667. and Scaliger. J. As grown. and Castor Durante. Bauh. In the ancient Greek. it was used by Galen as a compound to indicate ripe fruit as sikuopepona.) Melopepo clypeatus. ripe cucumber. of a deep yellow at a later period. The Bush Crookneck is also called a squash. 1587. or Simnel-Gourd. Pepo maximum clypeatus. Melopepo latior clypeiformis'. Fuchsius. The most we know is that the varietal name Summer Crookneck appeared in our garden catalogs in 1828. also. are called pepones. The Pineapple squash. The Bucklet. 1597. 1686. Ger. pfeben. as. 774. when of excessive size. 1617. Latin pepo. (First known to him in 1561. i6i6.in Europe in the sixteenth century and has the following synonymy: Cucurbita laciniata. Pepo latus. Pancov. apply this term pepo or pepon likewise to the melon. By the commentators. The derivatives STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . the fruit is quite variable and can be closely identified with the Pepo indicus angulosus of Gerarde and is very well described by Ray. German. in its perfect form. figures the melon under the Latin name pepo. however. Icon. 1587. THE PUMPKIN. the word pepo is often applied to the melon. 920. Dalechamp 1:618. Ray Hist. It is a winter squash. 1542. 1651. Notwithstanding its peculiar shape and usually warted condition.Page 244 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1653. n.

Our earliest travelers and historians often recognized in the pumpkin a different fruit from the courge. English: pepon. 1597. pompion. pumpion. or the Cucumis marinus of Fuchsius. and so also spring from one seed. a French name for what appears to be the summer squash is given by Lyte as concombre marin. Cartier. as by Cartier. Swedish: pumpa. Ger. J. Lyte 1586. pumpkins. 1883. appears identical with the type of the Perfect Gem squash. Lyte 1586. and courge. Ruel. French: pompons. and seems to have been used as applicable to the pumpkin by early navigators. as the shape and hard shell of this variety would suggest the gourd or lagenaria. 1597. discriminates by using the words "gros melons. Pumpkins were called gourds by Lobel. The word courge was also applicable to the lagenarias 1536. winter crooknecks. as we have shown in our notes on squashes. 1597. summer squashes. In English. 1561. concombres and courges" or in a translation ''pompions. Smith 1606. 1834. apparently. gourds. called by us pompions. 1559. Diet. because they are of the like forms as those kinds in England. according to their several forms.com . the words "melon" and "million" were early applied to the pumpkin.Page 245 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. the gourd. Gerarde 1597 and 1633. the round ones his melons. 1576. Marcg. or the melon. and was shared with the pumpkin and squash in 1883. 1558. on the St. such of several forms are of one taste. In Virginia.from the word pepo appear in the various European languages as follows: Belgian: pepoenem. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD ." Hariot. we may interpret Cartier's names into gros melons. 1587. The larger sorts may be his pompions. the word courge is given by Matthiolus. In France. says: "Macoks were. Lawrence. With this class. melons and gourds. 1598. concombres. 1648. 1536. pumpkin. which. 1584. pompa. 1586. Webst. Vilm. and the word gourd is at present in use in England to embrace the whole class and is equivalent to the French courge. in Virginia. Italian: popone. and by a number of the early narrators of voy ages of discovery. as by Lyte 1586. They are of two sorts: one is ripe in the space of a month. Obs. and Pinaeus. 1561. pompeon. cucumbers. Tengborg 1764. Townsend 1726. Hariot. Gal. 1535. In 1586. Lob. 1673 and 1772. Don. pepon. 1617. Dod. and very good." In 1586. and the cushaw type his gourds. 1651. 1586. and the other in two months. confuses all the forms with the macock. pompon. and by Gerarde.

18 in. Common Yellow. "gourds.swsbm.. the crane-neck for winter use and names the Large Oblong. a hard rind. about the same period. Acosta. Deep orange-yellow. Bright orange-yellow. of comparatively large size. deep. names "squashes of the Indians. deep. 10 in. Jonathan Carver. Rev. and says the smaller sorts are for summer use. Francis Higginson to pompions. and Wood to pompions and isquoutersquashes in New England soon after its colonization. Flattened. The common field pumpkin of America is in New England carried back traditionally to the early settlement and occurs under several forms. Nantucket. in Illinois. 10 in. Woods speaks of pompons.for. from Burr: Canada. 14 in. I. however." meaning the winter crookneck.. indeed. as usually seen. diam." which are a summer fruit.. speaks of "pumpions and gourds. 12 in. about the middle of the eighteenth century. 16 in. diam. Form oblate. THE CANADA PUMPKIN. which have received names that are usually quite local.. traveling in New Jersey. deep. 10 in. as below.Page 246 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1822. speaks of the melon or pumpkin. diam. and that of gourd. Capt. Clear orangeyellow. John Smith. Master Graves refers to Indian pompions. Various. the use of the word pompion seems to include size. Kalm. 20 in. 1614. The following synonymy is justified: STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Oval. It is somewhat variable in size and shape." This would seem to indicate that he had a distinction in mind. Such formvarieties may be tabulated alphabetically. in his Virginia. Long Yellow. deep. both planted by the Indians amongst their corn and in his description of New England. as we shall observe. and we may infer that the word pompion was used for the like productions of the two localities and that the word gourd in New England referred to the hard-rind or winter squashes. Deep green. speaks of the Indian pompions in treating of the large-sized fruits. diam. when well grown. Cheese. deep. for. The Canada pumpkin is of an oblate form inclining to conic. 10 in. or pumpions.. as often weighing from 40 to 60 pounds. 1776." which we may conclude are pumpkins. Rounded. 14 in. Josselyn. names also gourds. as quoted in our notes on the squash. and "melons.com . and is deeply and regularly ribbed and. separates his pumpions and macocks. diam. called by some squashes. Deep reddish-orange.

Bauh. 1576. Fessenden 1828. was extensively disseminated in the United States at the time of the American Revolution and was introduced into New England by returning soldiers.Ger. II. i6i6. Epit. 191. The fruit is rounded. 1:643. Common Yellow Field Pumpkin. deeply and rather regularly ribbed. zucha. 1587. J. Melopepo. t. 1591. 1597. 773.swsbm. Melopepo compressus alter. 1719.642. 1561. a little deeper than broad. Cucurbita genus. 34. broadly dishing about cavity and basin. Melopepo teres. Cucurbita aspera Icon. Pepo rotundus compressus melonis effigie. Cucurbita indica. The fruit is much flattened. Tourn. 774. Cheese. Pepo silvestris. Bauh. Lob. 130. Pepo maximus compressus.Page 247 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 2:266. Ger. Dod. Cam. 1673. Ger. Canada Pumpkin. 365. says Burr. Lobelia. 1591. (?) Pepo indicum minor rotundus. Icon. rotunda. Icon. COMMON YELLOW FIELD. 1586. CHEESE PUMPKIN. This variety. 293. Lob. 774. 1597. Bridgeman 1832. 1:643. l. 1651. Vermont Pumpkin. I. Dalechamp 1:616. III. Chabr.. Icon. Cucurbita folio aspero. Pepo maximus rotundus. flattened at the ends. 668. Pin.com . Large Cheese.Cucurbitae indianae and perefrinae. 2:218. It varies somewhat widely in the proportional breadth and diameter. Obs. 1597. J. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Lob. 1591. sive Melopepo compressus alter. Cucurbita indica. 1651. and rather regularly and more or less prominently ribbed.

Long Yellow Field Pumpkin. Dalechamp 1:617. striped with green. It is not the Cucurbita verrucosa of Dalechamp. Bauhin. 1587. Pepo maximus oblongus. Chabr. Cucumis Tzircicus. all have that something in their common appearance that at once expresses a close relationship and to the casual observer does not express differences. LONG YELLOW. but to which the term squash is sometimes applied. there appeared in our seedmen's catalogs. Roeszl. and the stem swollen and fleshy. 1644.swsbm. specimens of which have been examined. also known as pumpkins. the length nearly.. 831. 1550. but with markings less distinct than those of the Common Yellow. 773. becoming mellowed toward orange in spots by keeping. swollen in the middle and indistinctly ribbed. Dod. under the name of Tennessee Sweet Potato pumpkin. as in these figures the leaves are represented as entire and the fruit as melonformed and ribbed. 116. but the form referred to. Cucurbita indica longa. We now pass to some other forms. nor of J. 698. The Jurumu Lusitanus Bobora of Marcgravius and Piso would seem to belong here except for the leaves. In 1884. of large size. Melopepo. 635. Of its history nothing has been ascertained. of medium size. 1673.Page 248 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. but it bears a strong likeness in shape to a tracing of a piece of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Ger. 1552. The Nantucket pumpkin occurs in various forms under this name. pear-shape.com . 1597. The fruit is oval.IV. Bodaeus 782. 1587. Fuch. creamy-white. belongs to Cucurbita pepo Cogn. a variety very distinct. It is covered more or less completely with warty protuberances and is of a greenish-black color when ripe. It seems closely allied to the courge sucriere du Bresil of Vilmorin. Pepo. little ribbed. zucha. These forms just mentioned. 130. Cucurbita folio aspero. 1616. 1542. but the figure is a poor one. somewhat ribbed. or often twice. 1651. Pepo major oblongus. Trag. and is of an oblong form. the diameter. much elongated.

Notwithstanding the ready crossings which are so apt to occur within the ascribed species. 365.Page 249 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. "gourde" by Lobel. The word. is believed to be derived from the Latin cucurbita.com . as the present types have all been recorded in the Old World since the fifteenth century and were not recorded before the fourteenth. there must be a connection between the time of the discovery of America and the time of the appearance of pumpkins and squashes in Europe. and "gourd" by Lyte. In France. Numerous series of pumpkins are listed in the catalogs of our seedsmen and some of a form quite distinct from those here noticed but not as yet sufficiently studied to be classified. Obs. The following is the synonymy: Pepo oblongus vulgatissimus. 1576. so far as determined. appear figures of a plant which in both leaf and fruit represents fairly well our variety. These figures are of interest as being the only ones yet found in the ancient botanies which represent a fruit with a swollen. However. Lobel Icon. hence. in Pinaeus. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . From this standpoint. courge. but it takes on various forms in the various European languages. ^S. and which would seem to lend countenance to the belief that there is need of revision of the species and a closer study of the various groups or types which appear to have remained constant during centuries of cultivation. Pepo oblongus. it seems reasonable to suppose that the record of the appearance of types will throw light upon the country of their origin. 1576. Lob. 1591. gourd. much may yet be learned through the examination of complete sets of varieties within each of the three described species of cucurbita which furnish fruits for consumption. there yet seems to exist a permanency of types which is simply marvellous. 1536. Tennessee Sweet Potato Pumpkin."pumpkin pottery" exhumed from the western mounds. In Lobel's history. 1586. the originals of cultivated types have their prototype in nature and are not the products of culture. and the additional fact that. THE GOURD. we may. i: 641.swsbm. 1576. herbaceous stem. 1591. If we consider the stability of types and the record of variations that appear in cultivated plants. but appears in its present form. it is given as courgen and cohurden by Ruellius. conclude that. It is spelled " gowrde " by Turner. and in his plates.

Pinaeus 190. among the gourd names are "iacvi-gourd. Lob. in the thirteenth century. as has the zucca of the Italians and the kurbs of the Germans. under the name of Sugar Trough gourd. one in which the neck has mostly disappeared leaving an oval fruit. 1550. calabassa. Cucurbita sive zuccha. In the Tupi Dictionary of Father Ruiz de Montaga. 1558." which may mean this form. a name which now appears as cougourde in Vilmorin. Roeszl. 366. 1542. seems to describe the plebeia of Pliny as a cucurbita and the cameraria as a pepo. 1552.swsbm. 115. "Sive globosi cor ports. a lagenaria is grown for the use of the shell of the fruit as a pail. the one climbing. with a slight change of spelling. apparently. 1556. 1587. however. Cucurbita. this gourd may perhaps be recognized in Columella's account. Matth. 370. The following types are illustrated by the various herbalists: TYPES OF GOURDS. Cucurbita. 1639. describes the cucurbita as bearing its seed "in vase magno. 1576. has remained constant from 1561 to 1864. Dalechamp used coucourde." which implies the necked form." and used for storing pitch or honey. the other trailing. When we examine descriptions. Curcubita longa. I. Cucurbita oblonga. What is worthy of note is the fact that this type of fruit does not appear in the drawings of the botanists of the early period.1561. 261. 824. Fuch. 1586. nor in the seed catalogs of Europe at the present time. Cucurbita plebeia. The gourd belonging to Lagenaria vulgaris is but rarely cultivated in the United States except as an ornamental plant and as such shares a place with the small. Cardan. Cam. In some localities. was a necked form and the latter. Pliny describes two kinds. like a great dish or bowl. hard-shelled cucurbita which are known as fancy gourds. and this form seems to have been known only to Palladius. yet a reference to his prose description rather contradicts the conjecture and leads us to believe that he describes only the necked form. Walafridus Strabo. 222. and the Spanish name.Page 250 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Epit. 1561. Albertus Magnus. 1591. 292. in the ninth century. 1:644. omnium maxima anguina. The Belgian name appears as cauwoord in Lyte. atque utero minumum quae vasta tumescit. Icon.com . STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Obs. The former. Trag. 1586.

Fuch. folio molli. 779. Cardan. Ger. 1651. J. 488. Tourn. 115. 1556. Dalechamp 1:616. Dalechamp 1:615. C. 668. IV. Bauh. 824. 1883. Fuch. Chabr.. Zucca. 1550. Matth. Cucurbita cameraria. 1597. Courge siphon. 1883. Cucurbita anguina longa. Club Gourd. 1651. Courge massue tres longue. 392. Cucurbita longior. Matth. 1597. 368. 190. 1552. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Cucurbita anguina. Dalechamp 1:615. III.. Cucurbita. 1558. 1587. Cucurbita major. folio molli. 129. 1:215. 1644. 1587. Dod. 7. Cucurbita minor. 1598. Vilm. — Ruellius frontispiece 1536. Cucurbita earner aria. 777. 191. Courge pelerine. Zucca.com . Bauh. Trag. 190. Bodaeus 784. 1542. Sugar Trough Gourd. Cucurbita marina. Cucurbita longa. Dur. 393.. 222. Bodaeus 784.Page 251 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Dur. 777. J. Dipper Gourd. Cucurbita major sessilis. Matth. 1558. Cucurbita calebasse. 488. flore albo. 1598. Cam. 1673. 261. 1673. 1883. 129. Trag. Cucurbita lagenaria. 369.swsbm. 1719. Cucurbita latior.Cucurbita camerararia longa. 292. Matth. flore albo. 1616. Cucurbita cameraria major. Cucurbita oblonga. Bottle Gourd. II. Epit. Cucurbita lagenaria rotunda. Cucurbita lagenaria sylvestris. Cucurbita. Vilm. 261. 1552. Ger. 1587. C. Chabr. 1597. 1617. 824. Vilm. 1542. 1644. 1586. i6i6. Dod. 1617. Ger.36. Cucurbita prior. 2:214. Roeszl.

com .V. and says. and often of gourd bitterness." Baro. 191. but this record could as well have been made from the Cucurbita pepo gourds as from the lagenaria gourds." In 1624. reads differently in a free translation: "They grow in the province of Chile to a wonderful size. for their dinner." Bodaeus' quotation in Latin. of the so-called fancy gourds of Cucurbita pepo. Cucurbita. The Relation of the Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci 1489. baskets to put in all their meat.swsbm. for swimming. however. render difficult the identification of species through the uses. Courge plate de corse. The occurrence. and when cut open and cleaned. also speaks of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Of the smaller they most ingeniously make cups and saucers. Vilm. Dalechamp 1:615. 1883. The Anonymous Portugal of Brasil says: "Some pompions so big that they can use them for vessels to carry water. and quoted Oviedo for the period about 1526 as noting the long and round or banded and all the other shapes they usually have in Spain. of hard rind. they make as it were. mentions the Indians of Trinidad and of the coast of Paris as carrying about their necks small. of gourd shape. Bodaeus received from the West Indies some seed which bore fruit "Quae kumanum crassitudinem et longitudinem superaret. some are so deformed in their bigness that of the rind cut in the midst and cleansed. Within these classes there is a wide variation in size and proportion. as great an investigator as Grayl considers worthy of examination. Whether the lagenaria gourds existed in the New World before the discovery by Columbus. 1647. and they hold two pecks or more.Page 252 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 261. it is to be remarked. some are monstrous in their immense size. 1558. "there are a thousand kinds of Calebasses. of the lesser. and are called capallas. dried gourds filled with the plant they are accustomed to chew. Acosta speaks of the Indians of Peru making floats of gourds. furnish various vessels. as being much used in the West Indies and the mainland for carrying water. or with a certain whitish flour." which fully justifies Acosta's idea of size. 1587. The further mention that each woman carried a cucurbita containing water might seem to refer to gourds. Matth. This classification. is not intended for exact synonymy but to represent the like types of fruit-form. they make vessels to eat and drink in. They are of an indefinite number of kinds. He indicates that there are varieties of spontaneous growth as well as those under cultivation.

Urticaceae (Moraceae). said "Spanish pumpkins" at the islands of Dominica and Santa Cruz. In 1595. ut Indigenae Us utantur pro 'oasis quibus aquam aggerunt. Africa and Australia. Mendana. for water-flasks of the lagenaria have been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty. but there is not sufficient evidence to establish its appearance in America before brought by the colonists. or 2200 or 2400 years B." These largesized gourds were not. as is recorded in one case by Bodaeus. It is possible that there are varieties of Cucurbita pepo not yet introduced to notice that would answer the conditions. and the Spanish pumpkin or gourd. and were apparently of considerable size. formed of the enlarged fleshy perianths and receptacle. as we have noted.6 as five or six feet long. the bottle gourd as 18 inches in diameter. discriminated between the American pumpkin. confined to America. irregularly-shaped berry as large as a small custard apple. These records of size are all.. and they are described by the ancient writers. setting forth from the western coast of America. cannot at present be surmised. The fruit is a compound. Tropical Asia. in Brazil in 1648. on his voyage to the Solomon Islands.swsbm. "pumpkins of Castile. or according to another translation. whether the "calabaza" of the original Spanish referred to gourds or pumpkins. The fruit is edible and of a pleasant taste.com . of a date following the discovery of America."Courges et calebasses si grandes et profondes qu'elles servent comme de maga-zin. Bodaeus. perhaps preceding the discovery. Ray. from West Indian seed. grew fruits deformed in their bigness. It is also less possible that gourd-shaped clay vessels might have been used and were recorded by not over-careful narrators as gourds. Bauhin records the club gourd as sometimes three feet long." and Laet mentions "Pepones tarn vastae. we cannot doubt for Marcgravius notes a cucurbit with a white flower and of lagenarian form. however. and it might further imply that Mendana. each perianth enclosing a one-seeded nut." It would seem by this reference that.Page 253 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or pumpkin proper. and Forskal. C. however. The lagenaria gourd is of Old World origin. to use Acosta's term. That the gourd reached America at an eaily period. What the "calabazas" were which served for water-vessels. Cudrania javanensis Tree. and the seed of these large varieties might have come from American sources. it did not take many years for this noticeable class of fruits to receive a wide distribution. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and Cardanus says he has seen gourds (he gives a figure which is a gourd) weighing 80 and 122 pounds.

Cupania americana Linn. ARROWROOT. Sapindaceae. The root had long been an article of food amongst the natives of India before it was particularly noticed by Europeans. India and China. Scitamineae GINGER.swsbm.com . The sweet. as well as to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. The fresh root possesses the smell of a green mango and is used in India as a vegetable and condiment. Curcuma amada Roxb." The seeds have the flavor of chestnut or sweet acoms and are used on the banks of the Orinoco to make a fermented liquor. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . C. The seed is occasionally advertised in American seed catalogs but is probably very rarely grown. the roots are eaten. Pliny calls it the best appetizer of all the condiments and says the Ethiopian and the African are of superior quality but that some prefer the Egyptian. Mexico. Mediterranean region. chestnut-like seeds are used in the West Indies as a food. Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. In Holland. It is referred to by the prophet Isaiah and is mentioned in Matthew. During the Middle Ages. In India. Amaryllideae (Hypoxidaceae). the seeds form an ingredient of curry powders and pickles 8 and in France find use in cookery. cumin was one of the species in most common use and is mentioned in Normandy in 716. in England between 1264 and 1400 and is enumerated in 1419 among the merchandise taxed in the city of London. It furnishes an arrowroot of a yellow tinge which does not thicken in boiling water. annual plant indigenous to the upper regions of the Nile but was carried at an early period by cultivation to Arabia. AMADA. cheeses are sometimes flavored with cumin.Page 254 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Himalayan region. Tropical Asia. angustifolia Roxb. MANGO. CUMIN.Cuminum cyminum Linn. In the Mariana Islands. This is a small. It is mentioned in many of the herbals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and is recorded as under cultivation in England in 1594. East Indies. This East Indian arrowroot is exported from Travancore. Umbelliferae. (Zingiberaceae).

and is grown also by the natives of Burma who esteem it a good vegetable. Tropical Asia. rubescens Roxb. Haemodoraceae (Techophilaeaceae). This plant is extensively cultivated in India for its tubers which are an essential ingredient of native curry powders. The young. ZEDOARY. This plant furnishes an excellent arrowroot from its tubers. This species is cultivated about Bombay for the sake of the pods which are eaten like French beans. C. South Africa. as they are a pleasant and delicate vegetable. longa Linn. The pith of this tree-fern is said to be eaten in New Zealand. Cyathea dealbata Swartz. The substance called turmeric is made from the old tubers of this and perhaps other species. TURMERIC.com . SILVERY TREE-FERN. The tubers yield a starch which forms an excellent arrowroot that is sold in the bazaars. East Indies." Cyanella capensis Linn. C.Page 255 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Himalayas. C. Wight "says" the young beans are with reason much prized by the natives as a culinary pulse and merit more attention from Europeans. Cyatheaceae. zedoaria Rose. C. leucorhiza Roxb. colorless tubers furnish a sort of arrowroot. A kind of onion is obtained from this plant and roasted for the table by the farmers of Kaffraria. East Indies. which is eaten by the natives and sold in the bazaars.swsbm. East Indies.It forms a good substitute for the West Indian arrowroot and is sold in the bazaars. according to Dutt. Leguminosae. Cyamopsis psoraloides DC. This plant yields a product used as turmeric.

revoluta Thunb. J. The tubers of this plant are used by the blacks of Wide Bay. medullaris Swartz. mixed with rice. BLACK-STEMMED TREE-FERN. which poisoned his hogs and made some of the crew sick. Cycadaceae. subternata Vog. Smith says it occurs also in China and New Guinea. Cycas circinalis Linn. Subtropical Japan. In Malabar.Page 256 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Australia.com . is edible and is sufficient to maintain a considerable number of persons. South Africa. Leguminosae. The pith. The drupes are also eaten. In the Voyage of the Novara it is said that the whole stalk. Cyclopia genistoides Vent. Rumphius says it is eaten on the Moluccas. is an excellent substitute for sago. An infusion of its leaves is used as a tea. Blanco says on the Philippines its fruit is sometimes eaten. C. that they are sliced and dried and after steeping in fresh water for three minutes and dried a second time they are eaten in times of scarcity as a food. is eaten in times of scarcity in New Zealand. Drury says a kind of sago prepared from the nuts is much used by the poorer classes. Thunberg says a small morsel of the pith of the stem is sufficient to sustain life a long time and on that account the plant is jealously preserved for the use of the Japanese army. It is also to be found in Queensland and the Pacific isles. Tropical eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago. according to Church. He adds. a coarse sago. Br. This is also a tea substitute. Smith 5 says a kind of sago is obtained from the stem. often 20 feet high. C. Orchideae. SAGO PALM.swsbm. South Africa. Cymbidium canaliculatum R. Captain Cook speaks of the inhabitants of Prince Island eating the nuts. however. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . when cooked and dried in the sun. The pith of this plant.C. Pickering says on the Comoro Islands it is a common esculent. BUSH TEA. J.

1536. these are tender. Cynara cardunculus Linn. to the ancient Romans and was cultivated for the leafstalks which were eaten. Texas and New Mexico. Umbelliferae. Mediterranean region and common in its wild form in southern Europe and a portion of central Asia. under the name of Cardus esculentus but its introduction into England is stated to have been in 1656 or 1658. serving as a salad. & Gray. it is regarded as a wholesome esculent and in France is much used. This root is collected largely by the Mexicans and also by the Ute and Piute Indians. Dioscorides mentions it. glomeratus DC.Cymopterus fendleri A. Some commentators say that both the Greeks and Romans procured this vegetable from the coast of Africa. On the continent of Europe. parsnip-like but much softer. Compositae. Gray. speaks of the use of the herb as a food. about Carthage. and also from Sicily. 1629. C. according to Targioni-Tozzetti. when in decoction. It is sometimes used as a stuffing for mutton. says there are many varieties in the gardens which are commonly called cardoni by the Etruscans. Townsend. ARTICHOKE. in his tour through Spain mentions that in some parts of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Five varieties are esteemed there. CARDOON. This plant emits. and that. crisp. In more recent times. GAMOTE. and white and are eaten with salt and pepper. a peculiarly strong and pleasant odor. Cardoon was known. Matthiolus. sweeter and more tender than the parsnip.com . diligently cultivated. montanus Torr. The plant is mentioned by Parkinson. Western states of North America. 1558. The root is edible. after the manner of asparagus. Cardoon is now cultivated in but few English gardens. the stalks of the inner leaves. C. The root is spindle-shaped. CARDOON. This plant is called by the Mexicans gamote or camote. Western North America. Ruellius. Pliny says it was much esteemed in Rome and obtained a higher price than any other garden herb.Page 257 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. rendered crisp and tender by blanching.

is so named from having the ribs tinged with red. as previously enumerated. 1826 and 1829. 1598. such as for salads. Italy and Spain. Smooth-Solid cardoon and has also names in Germany. J. Its English name is Prickly-Solid cardoon. The Cordon Puvis. France.com .that country they never use rennet for cheese but substitute the down of this plant from which they make an infusion. Vilmorin describes five varieties: the Cordon de Tours. A "Spanish cardoon" is described by Townsend in England. under the name of Carduus aculeatus. and the same name is used by McMahon in America. square miles are covered by one mass of these prickly plants and are impenetrable by man or beast. It finds mention in the French books on gardening of 1824 and 1829. the flowers of cardoon are carefully dried and used for the same purpose. The Cordon plein inerme is scarcely spiny. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . or Red-stemmed. 1806. It is named in French works on gardening in 1824. Over the undulating plains where these great beds occur. The Cordon a cotes rouges.swsbm. In the present day. nothing else can now live. and the Cordon a cotes rouges. This is the Cynara integrifolia of Vahl. the Cordon plein inerme. In the Banda Oriental. It holds first place in the estimation of the market gardeners of Tours and Paris. says Darwin. in England. the Cordon d'Espagne. the Cardan Puvis. probably several hundred. the Cordon de Tours. 1612. It is called. 1726. or Artichoke-leaved. The first of these.Page 258 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is spineless and is grown largely in the vicinity of Lyons. in Spain it is called Cardo espinoso. We may resonably speculate that this is the sort named by Pliny as coming from Cordoba. It is called a recent sort by Burr in 1863. The Cordon d'Espagne is very large and not spiny and is principally grown in the southern portions of Europe. Cordons d'Espagne have their cultivation described in Le Jardinier Solitaire. Bauhin had never seen spineless cardoons. very many. McMahon includes it in his list of American esculents in 1806 and says "it has been a long time used for culinary purposes." Thorburn includes it in his seed catalogs of 1828 and 1882. is a little larger than the preceding but otherwise closely resembles it. is very spiny and we may reasonably believe it tc be the sort figured by Matthiolus. soups and stewing. It is spoken of in 1824 in French books on gardening.

Palladius and Pliny. Although J. To the writers of the sixteenth century. in 1806. although it soon after became a staple article of food over a great part of the peninsula. Ermolao Barbaro who died as late as 1493. Le Jardinier Solitaire. or Globe. The parts used are the lower parts of the leaves or scales of the calyx and the fleshy receptacles of the flowers freed from the bristles and seed down. It seems to have been unknown in England. A better acquaintance with the wild forms would. the artichoke is mentioned by Gardiner and Hepburn and also by John Randolph of Virginia. the artichoke and its uses were well known. the armed and the unarmed. it was known only in the shape of cardoon. scolymus. McMahon mentions two species. where it is much esteemed. C.From a botanical point of view we have two types in these plants. the tender. knew of only a single plant grown as a novelty in a private garden. among the Romans.Page 259 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. among the Greeks. who names two kinds. says Booth. but these characters are by no means to be considered as very constant. yet in France it is highly esteemed. In Italy. recommends three varieties for the garden. nor in Columella. hortensis. central leaf-stalk is blanched and eaten like cardoons. show to us the prototypes of the variety differences as existing in nature. three varieties are commonly grown. It seems quite certain that there is no description in Dioscorides and Theophrastus. he mentions two varieties. The artichoke is a cultivated form of cardoon. the first record of the artichoke cultivated for the receptacle of the flowers was at Naples. and C. an anonymous work published in 1612. by Fessenden. or French. From an olericultural point of view. In the United States. but that can with better grace be referred to the cardoon than to the artichoke. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It was thence carried to Florence in 1466 and at Venice. The most prominent distinction between varieties as grown in the garden. In France. To the ancient Romans. as in the Smooth-Solid we have an intermediate form. is the presence or absence of spines. in the beginning or middle of the fifteenth century.swsbm.com . doubtless. In 1828. Bauhin. Thorburn offers in his catalog the seeds of the Green Globe and in 1882 of the French Green Globe and the Large Paris. 1651. In 1818. Of the second. and in 1832 by Bridge-man. In France. we have but one type throughout but a greater or less perfection. until introduced from Italy in 1548 and is even now but little grown there. ARTICHOKE. in 1828.

1542. Trag. 1832. De Saint Laud. 1807. Sucre de Genes. c. as do the majority of succeeding writers. Cam. Vert de Provence. Conical-headed Green French. Violet. 322. Vilm. II. cum ic. Carduus aculeatus.Page 260 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. c. This form seems to constitute the French artichoke of English writers. The synonymy which seems to apply is: Scolymus. I. oblong. Pragus describes both forms in 1552. Matth. Mill. 1651. Carduus sive Scolymus sativus. 1552. ed. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 3:48. 866. 1597. and the absence or presence of spines is a true distinction. 438. 1558. Cardui alterum genus. The following synonymy seems justifiable: Scolymus. cum ic. 178. cum ic. 792. 1828. I. Matth. 1693. the conicalheaded and the globe. 1704. of 1598. 1. fig. De Roscoff. 1. Artichokes. four belong to this class and they are all spiny. 1819. 1586. Lyte's Dod. 1. 291. etc. 1552. Diet. or Prickly Artichoke. GLOBULAR-HEADED . vulgo Carciofi. Quintyne 187.com . Matth. Epit. Trag. A second division is made from the form of the heads. Mawe 1778. 1883. Gard. Thistle. J. II. spinosos. French Artichoke. 16. Amer.says that seed from the same plant may produce both sorts. cum ic. Bauh. vulgo Carciofi. Cinara sylvestris. probably this comes from cross-fertilization between the kinds. 1558. Of the varieties sufficiently described by Vilmorin. 866. Vilm. 1586. To this form belong two of Vilmorin's varieties and various other varieties as described by other writers. Vilm. CONICAL-HEADED. Fuch. Books 1806. Ger. cum ic. Carduus. Carduus.swsbm. 322. Vilm. c. 496. 603.

Vilm. 1807. Diet. 1683. 1629. Mawe 1778. adds Sucre de genes to the list. and by Quintyne. fig. 1829. Mill. The color of the heads also found mention in the early writers. describes early varieties. Matth. the green is mentioned by Tragus. cum ic. 437. 603. Quintyne 1. Books 1806. 1693. The long period during which the larger part of the present varieties have been known seems to justify the belief that modern origination has not been frequent. McMahon names the French and two varieties of the Globe in America in 1806. Red. etc. says there are several kinds. Lyte's Dod. Ger. by Quintyne. le blanc. 1883. 1778. 1552. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Lob. 497. 2:3. and he names the tender and the hardy sort. adds the camus de Brittany. rouge. 1807. In the first division.. violet and the gros vert de Laon. 1. Globe Artichoke. In 1824. but the difficulty of identification renders it inexpedient to state a fixed conclusion. The plant and the name came to France from Italy. Ger. cum ic. 1597. Right artichoke. The name given by Ruellius to the artichoke in France. 1. 1598. Green or White.Page 261 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Noisette. and by Miller's Dictionary. 1597. 1693. is articols. and the red by Gerarde. Cinara maxima ex Anglia delata. 1593. Gros vert de Laon. the purple by Quintyne. and by Mawe. c. The Romans call it carchiophos. Cinara maxima anglica. named the red and the white. 1597. 1536. Le Jardinier Solitaire. Vilm. The so-called wild plants of the herbalists seem to offer like variations to those we have noted in the cultivated forms. 991. The heads are certainly no larger now than they were 250 years ago. He says it comes from arcocum of the Ligurians. 1612. c. the white is named by Gerarde. 178. le rouge and le violet. 1828.com . Quintyne 187. for the Hortus Eystettensis figures one 15 inches in diameter. Cinara maxima alba. Violet de Provence. Globular-headed Red Dutch. Gard. 1704. 1778. Petit 1826. Icon. cocali signifying the cone of the pine. 1586. from the Italian articoclos.Carduus non aculeatus. in France. Cam. Epit. Worlidge. 1591. 1819. c. by Mawe. 1693. Amer.swsbm. 1586. In the Globe class. and Parkinson. there were the blanc.

for tubers have been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty. Spain.Page 262 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. East Indies and Malays. introduced in America and now runs wild on the banks of the Delaware and other rivers from Pennsylvania to Carolina.? Boragineae. becoming of importance at Valence. tasting like potatoes. to be used as a coffee substitute. speaks of their extensive use in Italy. ZULU NUTS. says Bryant. and of their being hawked about the streets and. Cynometra cauliflora Linn. These bulbs. but in general for its tubers which are sweet. The roots are very sweet and are eaten by children. it is grown for the seeds. Egypt. fried with batter. The chufa must also have been esteemed in ancient times. at Verona. Africa and East Indies. esculentus Linn. They now appear in the English markets under the name of Zulu nuts. The chufa was distributed from the United States Patent Office in 1854 and has received a spasmodic culture in gardens. Asia and Africa. eaten as dainties. nutty and palatable. Wight says the fruit is much esteemed in the Eastern Islands. It is seldom eaten raw but. C. HOUND'S TONGUE.C. Cyperaceae. Gerarde. and in the environs of Rosetta and Damietta. NAM-NAM. Himalayas. or from 2200 to 2400 years before Christ. Drury says the roots are used as flour in times of scarcity in India and are eaten roasted or boiled. in Galicia. integrifolia Vahl.swsbm. Cynoglossum sp. South Europe and north Africa. the midribs being very succulent and solid. The plants are of large size. Cyperus bulbosus Vahl. Notwithstanding the long STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Hooker says one species is used as a potherb. are greatly esteemed in Italy and some parts of Germany and are frequently brought to table by way of dessert. 1633. it makes a good fritter. In Hungary. Leguminosae. It is much cultivated in southern Europe. At Constantinople.com . SPANISH CARDOON. Royle says they are palatable. the tubers appear in the markets and are eaten raw or made into a conserve. CHUFA. EARTH ALMOND. It is about three inches long and the outside is very rough. The fruit in shape resembles a kidney.

C. rotundus Linn. Middle Europe. BROOM. SCOTCH BROOM. the flavor of which it resembles. South Africa. Solanaceae.continued culture of this plant.com . when roasted. Tweddie says it is used in Buenos Aires. This plant is the ancient papyrus. RIMU. The roots are bulbous. RED PINE. Cosmopolitan.2 Cyphomandra hartwegi Sendt. who chewed it either raw. PAPYRUS. The berry is reddish.? Campanulaceae. Hogg says it was used as food by the ancients. The Hottentots are said to eat the tuberous roots of at least one species of these herbaceous. The young flower-buds are occasionally pickled and used as a substitute for capers. where it is commonly used for cooking in lieu of the ordinary tomato. boiled or roasted. Coniferae (Podocarpaceae). C. Syria and tropical Africa. Dacrydium cupressinum Soland. NUT GRASS. for the sake of its sweet juice. broom tops were often used to communicate a slightly bitter flavor to beer. papyrus Linn. are used as a coffee substitute in France. South Africa. about the size of a pigeon's egg and is two-celled. New Granda. The seeds. esculent. The fleshy cup of the nut is eatable. says Johnson. and fleshy. and a beverage like spruce-beer is made from its young shoots. It appears to be the fruit sold in the markets of Lima. Cytisus scoparius Link. The tubers are eaten by the North American Indians. A lofty tree of New Zealand. twining plants. there are no varieties described. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 263 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. C.swsbm. digitata Wild. Sicily. Before the introduction of hops. Leguminosae. Cyphia sp. IMOU PINE.

The berries are eaten but are said to cause nausea and vomiting.com . and three specimens reached Paris in 1802. The Mohaves will often drink this nauseating liquid. Solanaceae. Mexico. the latter being considered the strongest preparation. Datura metel Linn. sanguinea Ruiz & Pav. DOWNY THORNAPPLE. China and Cochin China. This species grows abundantly along the Colorado River in Arizona. is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Liliaceae (Agavaceae). The Peruvians prepare an intoxicating beverage from the seeds. bruise and mix them with water and then let the mixture stand several hours after which the liquid is drawn off. The bases of the leaves and the young stems are full of nutritious pulp which supplies. as they are fond of any kind of intoxication. Daphne oleoides Schreb. when cooked. Its petals may be used in salads. which induces stupefaction and furious delirium if partaken of in large quantities.Page 264 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Compositae.Dahlia variabilis Desf. Daucus carota Linn. On the Sutlej a spirit is distilled from them. DAPHNE. the flowers and the rind of the rootlets. South America. American tropics. Europe and Asia Minor.swsbm. Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia and introduced in North and South America. DAHLIA. It is esteemed by them a sovereign remedy for asthma and influenza. The root. Texas. Dasylirion texanum Scheele. and smoke them in a common bowl or in a waterpipe. The Mohaves gather the leaves and roots. The product is a highly narcotic drink producing a stupefying effect which it is not easy to remove. CARROT. a useful and palatable food. says Don. Umbelliferae. Thymelaeaceae. The dahlia was first introduced into Spain in 1787. D. The Arabs of central Africa are said by Burton to dry the leaves. It was first cultivated for its tubers but these were found to be uneatable.

orchard culture and vineyard culture. called by us Gallicam. The ancient writers usually gave prominence to the medical efficacy of herbs. and is of great service as a stomachic. resembling a pastinaca somewhat. and are collected by the young women for distribution as dainties among their acquaintances on Sundays and at their dances. Dioscorides uses the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . garden culture. In Germany. as applying to Pastinaca sativa and agrestis. Barbarus. to whom the wild carrot was certainly known.slender. in the sixteenth century. In Sweden. the carrots of the Mahratta and Mysore countries are considered to be of especially fine quality. gives directions for preparing the Carota sen pastinaca. the wild carrot. which some call gingidium. however. that the pastinaca of Albertus Magnus is the carrot for. yet more slender and more bitter. a writer on cookery in the third century. if known to them. and yet. however. being eaten raw. Vilmorin-Andrieux obtained in the space of three years roots as fleshy and as large as those of the garden carrot from the thin. Carrots are now cultivated throughout Europe and in Paris are a most popular vegetable. In the thirteenth century. while naming the parsnip.com . wiry roots of the wild species. which can apply only to the carrot. for. carrots grow as high as latitude 66° to 67° north. also a fourth kind.swsbm." This comparison with a parsnip and also the name is suggestive of the cultivated carrot. This wild plant is the original of the cultivated carrot. and we find little evidence that the cultivated carrot was known to the Greek writers. by cultivation and selection. seem to have been confounded in the description by the ancients. and Virgil both describe the carrot under the name pastinaca. Galen. and if our supposition is correct that their carrots were of the wild form. The roots are employed in the Hebrides as an article of food. Ammonius gives the name for the carrot pastenei. Pliny says: "They cultivate a plant in Syria like staphylinos. who died in 1493. a substitute for coffee has been made of carrots chopped up into small pieces and browned. a Greek physician of the second century. In Asia. but by the Greeks daucon. and Apicius. sugar has been made from them but its manufacture was not found profitable. the prototypes of these colors now found in our cultivated varieties. makes no mention of the carrot — if the word pastinaca really means the parsnip. which is eaten cooked or raw. we have evidence of the existence of the yellow and red roots in nature. and of the same properties. implies cultivation of the carrot when he says the root of the wild carrot is less fit to be eaten than that of the domestic. Albertus Magnus treats of the plants under field culture. In some regions. The carrot and the parsnip. aromatic and sweetish. One may believe.Page 265 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

It is recorded in Arabia by Forskal and was seen growing — both the yellow and the red — by Rauwolf at Aleppo in the sixteenth century. nearly two feet and a half long. into which authors translate siser. in those times was applied to both the cultivated and the wild form. or carota. where now it is in such exaggerated esteem. The siasron of Dioscorides and the siser of Columella and Pliny may have been a form of the carrot but we can attain no certainty from the descriptions.com . The carrot is now cultivated in the Mauritius. In England.swsbm. The carrot is now found under cultivation and as an escape throughout a large portion of the world. are arguments in favor of siser being a carrot. 1536. were both as similar in the plant as are the two forms of carrot at present. Hence. In India.word carota as applying to Pastinaca silvestris in the first century. Columella and Palladius both mention the pastinaca as a garden plant but say nothing that cannot better apply to the carrot than to the parsnip. The fact that the grouping of the roots which occurs in the skirret. the red or purple kind finding mention by Ruellius. 1597. are noticed by Gerarde. On the other hand. as brought from western Asia. Macer Floridus also treats of what may be the carrot under pastinaca and says no roots afford better food. where also it has become spontaneous. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by various Chinese authors. its culture was mentioned by nearly all of the herbalists and by writers on gardening subjects. the yellow and dark red. or cariotam. The kind now described by a Japanese authority is an inch and a half in diameter at the crown. the carrot is said to have come first from Persia and is now cultivated in abundance in the Mahratta and Mysore countries. we should scarcely expect a distinction being made between pastinaca and siser. that the word pastinaca. and of a high color. and is classed as a kitchen vegetable in the sixteenth. and the species is supposed to STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The carrot is enumerated among the edible plants of Japan by Thunberg and earlier by Kaempfer. In Europe. is not mentioned by the ancients — a distinction almost too important to be overlooked — and that the short carrot was called siser by botanists of the sixteenth century. and we suspect that the word Gallicam. both long forms. we believe that the carrot was cultivated by the ancients but was not a very general food-plant and did not attain the modern appreciation. indicates that the cultivated root reached Italy from France. used by Pliny in the first century.Page 266 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1280-1368. In China. it is noticed in the Yuan dynasty.

In the New World. Blanche des Vosges. are mentioned in Brazil. C. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Danvers Half-long of American gardens. 1552. is as below: I. 1617. 147. Dur. Epit. THE HALF-LONG. in part. Fuch. 1:720. carrots are mentioned at Margarita Island by Hawkins. 227. TAPER-POINTED FORMS. Carota. Moren. Matth. In 1779. Comment. Pin. New York. 1597. 1629. 1616. 872. The synonymy. Icon. 442. Siser. carrots were among the Indian foods destroyed by General Sullivan near Geneva. Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia. Dod. Long yellows. 70. 242. Ger.Page 267 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Pastinaca saliva altera. Cam. although honest as regards other articles. Pastinaca sativa rubens. Trag. Vilm. 1561. and in Massachusetts. it is stated that carrot roots are then grown in England and sometimes by farmers. TYPES OF CARROTS. 1609 and 1648. Matth. 1558. II. 1565 (and this implies that they were well known in England at this date). red. Epit. 678. 1542. 1586 (very highly improved). Staphylinus. 1598. and whites of modern culture. So fond of carrots are the Flathead Indians. 682. In the Surveyors' Dialogue. that the children cannot forbear stealing them from the fields. 1883. 1604. 509.swsbm. of Oregon. Roeszl. 1586. THE LONG. 1647. 549.com . 1550. which are very distinct in appearance. Daucus Theophrasti. in Virginia. Cam. Lob. Carota. The types of modem carrot are the tap-rooted and the premorse-rooted with a number of subtypes. 1542. Fuch. 106. Pastinaca saliva prima. Pastinaca sativa Diosc. 95. 1591. TAPER-POINTED FORMS. 683.have been introduced by the Dutch in 1558. Siser alterum.

1536. carot. in a more improved form.. The cylindrical. pastinaca.—The earliest mention of this type is in France in 1824. weissen Ruben.swsbm. PREMORSE-ROOTED FORMS. The tapering. geel peen. Lyte. surface. 1616: In Spain. Pin.. pastenade rouge. 1539. 1561. caroten. The premorse forms offer a number of subtypes which are very distinct. The half-long.. In view of the confusion in early times in the naming of the carrot. The first. Cam. Ger. gelbe Ruben. 1586. Dod. and by succeeding authors. taper-pointed carrot was called siser by Matthiolus in 1558: In France. Ger. Moren. Cam. canahoria. carocola.Page 268 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. by Vilmorin in 1883. 1826 and 1829. pastenade jaune. Pin. and pastenagues.. racine jaune.—A number of varieties belong to this class. and yet others tapering. weissen Ruben. 1586: In Italy. 1806. Trag. was called in England. 1586. Pastiney Pastinachen. Camerarius.. carota bianca. the tap-root starting from a flat. 1597. geel Ruben. C. This was mentioned for American gardens by McMahon.. of which the Early Horn is the type. Rauwolf. The first was in American seed-catalogs in 1878. Rosz. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . with the dates. This appearance seems to be modem. as the Cowte de Pollande. says they were planted in gardens and even in fields throughout Germany and Bohemia. Lyte. Pin. carota. 1586: In Germany. Cam.III. 1552. pooten. but all ending abruptly at the base.. and..— The carrots of this type are remarkably distinct and have foi types the Carentan and the Coreless of Vilmorin.. weisse Mohren... or nearly flat. 1586. 1550.. giroles or carottes blanches.. cenoura. chirivias. it is desirable to offer a list of the names used by various authors. or long carrot. Mohren. Ger. 1616. rohte Ruben. Epit. Cam. carottes. 1542. Pin. It is figured by Decaisne and Naudin. carotte. 1597. carotta. Lyte. 1597: In Germany. Gierlin or Girgellin. 1561. carottes blanche. 1586: In Dutch. carota. but his other names applicable to the skirret are the chervy. others cylindrical. geel mostilen. 1586: In Italy. 1561. Ruel. 1582. The spherical.com . Dur. 1561. carota and carotola.. Fuch. pastenades. 1586. rot Mohren. Dod. some being nearly spherical. Cam. Ammon. Pastenei. 1617: In Spain. 1586: In France.

Himalayas. Dendrobium speciosum Sm. We have. yet the proof is not as decisive as could be wished. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. which are said to be eaten by the natives.swsbm. has large pseudobulbs. Japan. (saith he) is eaten raw. The young shoots are boiled and eaten. and it is eaten. Desmoncus prunifer Poepp. This orchid. Orchideae. Berberideae Himalayas. already mentioned. Europe and north Africa. sodden. Gramineae. We may suspect the general resemblance of the Altringham to the Japanese variety. juicy pulp that is very sweet and pleasant. Its berries are edible. the size of cucumbers. Decaisnea insignis (Lardizabalaceae). "There is. according to Sprengel. saith Galen. Hook.Page 269 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This is the gingidium of the ancients. the fruit is eagerly sought after by the Lepchas. Australia. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The fruit is of a pale yellow color and is full of a white. and preserved with great good to the stomacke.com . The plant is called janatsi-itsigo or toon itsigo. Diascorides doth also write the same: this pole herbe. The presumptive evidence is in favor of the view that all cultivated types are removes from nature. Urticaceae. ROCK-LILY. & Thorns." Debregeasia edulis Wedd. not new originations by man. found growing upon rocks. D. This stately bamboo is called pao by the Lepchas and wah by the Mechis in Sikkim. noted the appearance of forms of types similar to those under cultivation.The various forms of the carrot have probably their prototypes in nature but as yet the evidence is a little deficient. f. great increase of gingidium in Syria. Palmae. in the attempts at amelioration. gingidium Linn. to be somewhat more than accidental and to signify the original introduction of this variety from Japan.

has an agreeably acid taste and is commonly eaten. It is called by French colonists bois de rose. velvety down. is covered with a black. farinaceous.Page 270 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Dicypellium caryophyllatum Nees. Digera arvensis Forsk. ovoideum Thw. Tropical Africa. which surrounds the seeds. Leguminosae. Lauraceae. the other sweet. in Carib. D. The bark furnishes clove cassia. The fruits are about the size of an apricot.Peru. The latter is sold in the markets and is prized by the negroes. resembling that of the tamarind but not quite so acid. Java. The pod. They have an agreeable. Aroideae (Araceae). Tropical America. A wholesome starch is prepared from the stem. The plant has a delicious pulp. acid flavor. Dialium guineese Willd. TAMARIND PLUM. Leguminosae. about the size and form of a filbert.com . Dieffenbachia seguine Schott. There are two varieties. Tropical America. Gmel. one bitter. Underneath the thin outer covering there is a quantity of green. DATTOCK. Ceylon. indum Linn. Tropical Africa. licari kanah. Detarium senegalense J. F. while the farinaceous pulp.swsbm. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . D. although the juice of the plant is so excessively acrid as to cause the mouth of any one biting it to swell and thus to prevent articulation for several days. VELVET TAMARIND. Amaranthaceae. The acid-sweet fruit is edible. The fruits are sold in the bazaars. edible pulp intermixed with stringy fibres that proceed from the inner and bony covering which encloses the single seed. DUMB CANE.

com . Dioon edule Lindl. procumbent shrub of India. East Indies. In the Philippines. The fleshy leaves of the calyx which surrounds the ripe fruit have an agreeable. The ripe fruits are also eaten. D.Page 271 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. scabrella Roxb. The fruit is the size of an orange and has a sweetish. A gigantic timber-tree of British Guiana. D. The fleshy leaves of the calyx have a pleasantly acid taste and are used in curries.Asia and tropical Africa. is eaten in the Eastern Archipelago. acid taste. D. & Hook. acid flavor and are eaten raw or cooked in Oudh and central India. Dilleniaceae. serrata Thunb. This is the chulta of India. Malay. or serve for jellies in India. The seeds. A very common. the juice of the fruit serves as vinegar. In Burma. The leaves and tender tops are used by the natives in their curries. Mexico. Leguminosae. frequent in cultivated ground. Cycadaceae (Zamiaceae). mucilaginous fruit. the size of an orange. Dillenia indica Linn.swsbm. Himalayan region. are used by the natives as food. The seeds of another species are likewise used. SANDPAPER TREE. being boiled. The subacid. says Brown. It is eaten in the Eastern Archipelago. and then mixed with cassava meal. The flower-buds and young fruits have a pleasant. giving it a brown color but a pleasant and sweetish taste. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Dimorphandra mora Benth. grated. They are commonly used in curries. or made into sherbets. the green fruit is brought to the bazaars and is considered a favorite vegetable. The large amount of fiber they contain is objectionable. acid taste and are eaten raw or cooked. pentagyna Roxb. Tropical Asia. f. The seeds yield a starch used as arrowroot.

tuberous roots of several species of Dioscorea are cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. This plant is cultivated in the tropics of the whole earth. at Jamaica. WHITE YAM. according to Drummond. the Pacific islands and the West Indies. the word yam means "to eat. In Australia. It is cultivated in India and the tubers are dug." This is the species most generally cultivated in the Indian Archipelago. D. BIRCH-RIND YAM. Dioscoreaceae. though Lunan. where it is called white yam. YAMS. and is cultivated in the Indian Archipelago. at Viti. Many varieties known only in cultivation are described as species by some authors. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 272 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. atropurpurea Roxb.com . It is called in Burma myouknee and is cultivated. The Malacca yam is cultivated in India and is known in Calcutta as the rangoon yam. It is universally cultivated in the Carnatic region. This yam is said to be a native of tropical. alata Linn. This yam is said by Seemann. A variety cultivated at Caracas has a very delicious taste. occasionally weighing from 50 to 80 pounds but the general average is from two to eight pounds. in the forests and sold in the bazaars. whence the names yam and igname are derived from the negroes. thence it was carried first to the eastern coast of Africa. Siamese countries. RANGOON YAM.swsbm. D. next to the west coast and thence to America. some growing to an enormous size. aculeata Linn. MALACCA YAM. in the cold season. there is a native yam which affords the principal vegetable food of the natives. D. Seemann regarded it as one of the finest esculent roots of the globe. The root is of a sweetish taste and Dr.Dioscorea. Unger says the Indian Archipelago and the southern portions of the Indian continent is the starting point of this yam. fleshy. Tropical Asia. Under the general name of yams the large. eastern Asia. There are several varieties in Jamaica. Tropical Asia. never to flower or fruit. the small islands of the Pacific and the Indian continent. says this yam is slightly bitter. there are upwards of 50 varieties. In the Fiji Islands alone. In the negro daliect of Guinea. says Milne. GOA POTATO.

the very bitter root being soaked in lye to extract the bitterness. The plant is called kywae and its very acrid root is eaten by the Karens in times of scarcity. Tropical South America. D. Grant found it in central Africa. YAM. East Indies.Page 273 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. daemona Roxb. CHINESE YAM. The root is edible and was introduced into France as a garden plant but is now forgotten. in shape like a great Brazil-nut. In the Samoan and Tonga group of islands. by the Patent Office Department. and was introduced into the United States. D. by Wm. decaisneana Carr. Schweinfurth says it is called nyitti and the bulbs which protrude from the axils of the leaves. Tropical Asia. This yam was received in France in 1851 from Shanghai. it is cultivated by the negroes for the bulbs of the stem. this yam is found wild in the Indian Archipelago.D.com . although it is perhaps valuable. D. the flowers and roots are eaten by the poorer classes. In India. deltoidea Wall.swsbm. D. about 1733. its roots are eaten. This species occurs both wild and cultivated in the Indian Archipelago . upon the Indian continent as far as Silhet and Nepal to Madagascar. East Indies. China and everywhere cultivated in several varieties. In Jamaica. The root is edible. CINNAMON VINE. It was seen in a garden at Mobile. Alabama. divaricata Blanco. the root is not considered edible. Bartram. Philippine Islands. D. resemble a potato in taste and bulk. cayenensis Lam. CHINESE POTATO. AIR POTATO. but a variety occurs which is naturally sweet. Less cultivated than many others. China. The bulbs are like the Brazil-nut in size and shape cut like a potato when unripe and are very good boiled. in 1855. It has not fulfilled expectation in the United States and is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . bulbifera Linn. under cultivation for its edible roots.

East Indies. form and color of large kidney potatoes. In India. YAM. D. YAM. Roxburgh says it is the most esteemed yam in Bengal. D. East Indies. This yam has cylindrical roots as thick as an arm and of excellent quality.swsbm. This species is cultivated largely about Calcutta. YAM. YAM. fasciculata Roxb. cut into slices and boiled. It was observed in Japan by Thunberg. it has a greater resemblance in mealiness and flavor to the potato than any other yam he knows of. The tubers are largely consumed by the aborigines for food. Mason says it is the best of the white-rooted kinds. have a very pleasant taste. D. the tubers about the size. Tropical Asia. D. In Burma. japonica Thunb. but Firminger thinks it not equal in quality to other varieties. This species is much cultivated in India as yielding the best kind of yam and is much esteemed both by Europeans and natives. It is much cultivated in the Philippines by the natives and is much esteemed. Australia. when well cooked. Moluccas. D. nummularia Lam.now grown principally as an ornamental climber. This is one of the edible yams. D. pentaphylla Linn. Tropical eastern Asia. TIVOLO YAM. The roots.com . oppositifolia Linn. this yam is common in jungles and is found in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . hastifolia Nees. and this is the only plant on which they bestow any kind of cultivation. and a starch is made from its tubers. globosa Roxb. Firminger says this is a very distinct kind of yam.Page 274 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. YAM. Japan. D.

& Bonpl. roasted and eaten like the potato. This species is an edible yam of Japan. Browne says it is cultivated in the southern United States for its large. the "nauseous tubers are sometimes cooked and eaten. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . D. piperifolia Humb.the South Sea Islands. purpurea Roxb. The Pondicherry sweet potato is known only in a cultivated state. In India. in 1500. East Indies. PONDICHERRY SWEET POTATO. and was brought to India from the Mauritius. This species has edible roots.com . Wight has never seen it cultivated in India. are acrid and require to be soaked before boiling. South America. D.Page 275 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The tuber is of a dull. YAM. The word igname was heard by Vespucius on the coast of Para and was found by Cabral. sativa Linn. YAM." D. The tuber is of great size. This yam was carried by European colonists to the Malayan Archipelago. as they have intoxicating properties. This is a common but very excellent yam of India. Pickering states that this species is found in tropical America and is cultivated by the Waraus of the delta of the Orinoco. flattened and sometimes palmated roots. The tubers are eaten in Viti and Hawaii. YAM. Graham says the tubers are dreadfully nauseous and intensely bitter even after being boiled. Japan. applied in Brazil to a root from which bread was made. although the natives dig the tubers to eat. Tropics. East Indies. It is cultivated in Amboina and sometimes in Viti. Its roots. D.swsbm. which are boiled. and a few slices are sufficient. It is a good yam. quinqueloba Thunb. says Seemann. where it is much grown. the male flowers are sold in the bazaars and eaten as greens. In China. D. They are put into toddy to render it more potent. rubella Roxb. as good perhaps as any in cultivation. crimson-red on the outside and of a glistening white within. crimson-red outside and of a glistening white within.

swsbm. however. Guiana and Central America. D. trifida Linn. YAM. Its flavor is agreeable. East Indies. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . nearly globular. triloba Lam. The fruit is sweetish. discolor Willd. This is the Doyala yam of India. its taste is sweet and austere. East Indies. spicata Roth. This Indian tree has a cherry-like fruit which is very palatable. sold in the markets and eaten. sweetish taste. The fruit of this tree is brown. decandra Lour. D.com . East Indies. very agreeable to most palates. the pulp firm and white and the flavor agreeable. The berry is large. It is. clammy and subastringent but edible. It is cultivated in the Isle of France for its fruit. D. This species is commonly cultivated in many islands of the East and has also been introduced into the West Indies. Diospyros chloroxylon Roxb. Ebenaceae. The roots have a pleasant. D. tomentosa Koen. D. This species is cultivated as an edible yam. It seldom exceeds eight or nine inches in length and two or three in diameter and is generally smaller. It has edible roots.D. MANGOSTEEN. Philippine Islands. with a pink-colored. combined with a disagreeable smell. INDIAN YAM. The fruit is like a large quince and in some places is called mangosteen.Page 276 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Guiana. yellowish when ripe. DOYALA YAM. This is the smallest and most delicate of the yams grown in Jamaica. Cochin China. pulpy. fleshy rind.

The berry is pale. East India. KEGFIG. who eat it fresh or dried and use it in sherbets. Temperate Asia. others were imported. D. It is occasionally eaten but is not palatable. and contains a semi-transparent pulp. pulpy. East Indies. D. FALSE LOTE-TREE. dodecandra Lour. is as large as an ordinary apple. EAST INDIAN EBONY. D. yellow when ripe. 1776. DATE PLUM.Page 277 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This persimmon is now grown in California. D. lanceaefolia Roxb. Japan. This plant has been cultivated in Japan for a long period and has produced many varieties. The fruit is described as delicious by all who have eaten the best varieties. The sweetish fruit is much prized by the Afghan tribes. This plant bears an edible fruit. The fruit. edible and pleasant pulp. It is eaten by the natives. It was introduced into the United States from Japan by the Perry expedition and one of these trees is still growing at Washington. in 1877. said by Kotschy to have a taste similar to chocolate. About 1864. The fruit is the size of a cherry. astringent. of unattractive yellow color and covered with a rust-colored farina. kaki Linn. D. lotus Linn. sweet with astringency. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Cochin China. some of which are seedless.D. JAPANESE PERSIMMON. This is an eastern fruit. 5000 plants in ten varieties were brought to America.swsbm. Georgia and elsewhere. of a bright color. ebenum Koen. The tree is cultivated in India and in China and was seen in Japan by Thunberg. The fruit of this tree of India is not unlike a russet apple.com . in general. with a sweetish. embryopteris Pers. KAKI.

The black.D.swsbm. with soft. BLACK PERSIMMON. obtusifolia Willd. East Indies. are eaten by the aborigines. cherry-like fruit is melting and very sweet. COROMANDEL EBONY. found wild from the 42nd parallel to Texas. The fruit is eaten by negroes. pentamera Woods & F. which are produced in great abundance. GRAY PLUM. EBONY. texana Scheele. Muell. D. This is the sapota negro. South America. East Indies. clammy. The fruits.Page 278 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. PERSIMMON. edible fruit.com . The fruit of this species is sweetish. East Indies and Ceylon. Jamaica. Mexico. D. with small. black.-Ham. Eastern tropical Australia. The sweetish. virginiana Linn. tetrasperma Sw. This is the black persimmon of the Americans and the sapotepieto of the Mexicans of western Texas. The fruit of this tree is eaten. often STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . pilosanthera Blanco. melanoxylon Roxb. Philippines. slightly astringent flesh. D. D. North America. tomentosa Roxb. The yellow fruit is about one to one and onehalf inches through. toposia Buch. WATTLE TREE. and subastringent but edible. D. clammy and subastringent fruit of this plant is eaten. D. which is eaten and is refreshing. D. D. sweet.

It is sometimes cultivated in America and is also to be found in some gardens in Europe. yellow when ripe. acid-sweet flesh. in the raw state it tastes not unlike a turnip. Dipladenia tenuifolia A. Brazil. which is eaten by the Indians. when matured. DC. Flint. Occasional varieties are found with fruit double the size of the ordinary kind. a pleasant bread may be prepared. The fruit is plum-like. it is even sweeter than the fig and is a delicious fruit. is yellow and has a fibrous. COAST PALM. Polypodioceae (Athyriaceae). which is the size and color of a large. Umbelliferae. cauhy. Diplazium esculentum. an ovate or obovate drupe. Diplothemium (Allagoptera) maritimum Mart. Diposis bulbocastanum DC. and medlars on the Hudson by the remonstrants against the policy of Stuyvesant. is eaten by them when cooked and is said to be very palatable. "mespila unfit to eat until soft and tender" by Hariot on the Roanoke. is employed as food in the Himalayas.attaining the size of a large tree. and the tuberous root. called by the Louisiana natives ougoufle. This plant is the persimmon. Porcher says the fruit. This fern. after fermentation. exceedingly astringent when green. Chile. or pessimmon of America. having a clear. This plant is called by the inhabitants of Sertao. piakmine. and sweet and edible after exposure to frost.swsbm. The tubers are edible. a quantity of spirits.com . Loaves made of the substance of prunes "like unto brickes. says when the small. pes-simmens by Strachey on the James River. transparent skin without any roughness. blue persimmon is thoroughly ripened. A beer is made of it. The fruit. A palm of Brazil. Brazil. in his Western States. thin. according to Royle. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . black turnip-radish. The best persimmons ripen soft and sweet. Mixed with flour. Palmae. is very sweet and pleasant to the taste and yields on distillation.Page 279 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. also plummes of the making and bigness of nuts and have three or four stones in them" were seen by DeSoto on the Mississippi. It is called mespilorum by LeMoyne in Florida. Apocynaceae. about an inch in diameter.

Dolichos biflorus Linn. seeds reddish. Tropics of India and China. size of the little finger. brown and black.Dobera roxburghii Planch. This plant is cultivated on the east coast of Africa and the seeds are eaten by the natives. gladiatum flore albo.Page 280 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The flowers. D. called dood-pituli-seem: Var. the fruit is eaten. LABLAB. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . called gychi-seem.swsbm. This is a large tree called in Yemen dober. pods falcate. There are varieties with gray and black seeds. D. pods falcate. called sada-jamai-puliseem: Var. In India. falcatum minus. BONAVISTA BEAN. The seeds are boiled in India for the horses. Leguminosae. pods gladiateclavate. seeds black with a white eye. macrocarpum. East Indies and South Africa. where it is much cultivated. according to Mason.com . the largest of all. the natives use the seeds in their curries. Old World tropics. HORSE GRAIN. hastatus Lour. called pituli-jamai-puli-seem: Var. size and shape of pod and color of seeds. A number of varieties of this bean are cultivated in Asiatic countries for the pulse and the tender pods. flowers white. The bean occurs in white. There is a great diversity in the color of the flowers. four eatable varieties which are offered for sale in the bazaars during the cold season. Roxburgh describes var. called baghonuko-seem: Var. largish. are thus described by Roxburgh: Var. large. East Africa. pods six to eight inches long. Salvadoraceae. rectum. This is the horse grain of the East Indies. & Hook. Dolichandrone stipulata Benth. called pauch-seem: Var. gladiatum flore purpureo. flowers purple. length of the little finger. lablab Linn. Burma. f. flowers white. pods straight. are brought to market for food. and the liquor that remains is used by the lower class of servants in their own food. flowers red. Bignoniaceae. HYACINTH BEAN. flowers white. A great number of synonyms which have been assigned to this species is indicative of the variable character of the plant. falcatum majus.

antedates the description of Linnaeus. 1763. 1. ASPARAGUS BEAN. often used. a large variety with large. the Dolique de Cuba.albiflorum. The name at Naples. 134. Linnaeus gives its habitat as America and Jacquin received it from the West Indies. but Vilmorin offers one. flowers white. as representing his plant. There are no varieties known to our seedsmen. purpureum. comes from the use of the green pods as a vegetable. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Martens considers it as a synonym of Dolichos sinensis Linn. and Loureiro thinks the D. sphaerospermus DC. South America.Page 281 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and this work. the pods deep purple. purple flowers: Var.9. It is mentioned for French gardens under the name of haricot asperge in 1829. The bean is a wholesome. hence the name. The name. purpurascens. stem and large flowers purple. He refers to Rumphius's Amboina. it is called the bonavista-bean and is cultivated in most parts of the country. In Jamaica. BLACK-EYED PEA. The asparagus. On the east coast of Africa. D. rubiflorum. Loureiro's description of D. This bean was first described by Linnaeus. asparagus-like dish it is. the plant has a disagreeable smell: Var. and a tender. published in 1750. palatable food and is in general use. Jamaica. the ruk-to-seem. YARD-LONG BEAN. flowers red. smallish. conveys the same idea. sinensis certainly applies well to the asparagus bean. It reached England in 1781. fagiolo e maccarone. tab. the goordal-seem. c.com . Wight calls the species a very valuable pulse generally esteemed by all classes of natives and very extensively cultivated in Mysore. sesquipedalis Linn. the shevei-seem. and the seeds are sweet and as good for food as any of the kidney beans. This is the black-eyed pea of the Barbados. or yard-long. sesquipedalis of Linnaeus the same. introduced into the West Indies. asparagus bean. cultivated and much esteemed by the natives: Var. It is a native of Jamaica. The pods grow very long. the jeea-seem. D. the leaves are dried and made into a spinach. bean is mentioned for American gardens in 1828 and probably was introduced earlier. oftentimes two feet in length. the seeds never.swsbm. cultivated in gardens as a pole bean. yard-long bean. the tender pods are eaten. 22. Probably this is an East Indian plant.

Dregea volubilis Benth. This species is planted at Rewa. Canary Islands.D. Pickering. GIANT LILY. Fiji Islands. one of the Madeira Islands. The roots serve as food to the natives of the Pacific isles. East Indies. Asclepiadaceae. in Races of Man.com . The seeds and pods are used in the preparation of a starch and meal.5 Dracontomelon sylvestre Blume. A liliaceous plant 24 feet high of which the stem is roasted and eaten by the Australians. Cada Mosto in 1454 found the tree yielding "a kind of fruit. considering the general character of the genus. South America. some of them are pole beans. zizyphoides E. which grows ripe in March and is of a most exquisite taste. "I have been informed. Mey. mentions the fruit under the name canarium and says it is sour and edible. The dragon tree furnished dragons-blood once considerably exported from the Canaries. Borneo. DRAGON-TREE. Australia. Anacardiaceae. Aroideae (Araceae) . like to our cherries but yellow. Dovyalis (Doryalis) (Flacourtiaceae). others dwarf. umbellatus Thunb. Japan. At Porto Santo. Dracaena draco Linn. Bixineae South Africa.swsbm. Doryanthes excelsa Correa. The red berries are edible. "that the leaves are amongst those which are occasionally eaten as greens by the natives of lower India but I am doubtful of this." Dracontium polyphyllum Linn. Amaryllideae.Page 282 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Liliaceae (Agavaceae)." says Ainslie. There are several varieties of this plant under culture." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .

It curdles milk. Accounts of this far-famed fruit had reached Europe as early as 1640. Durio oxieyanus Griff. The pulp is a pure white. Muell. as big as a Reinette apple. NEW GRANADA WINTER-BARK. The fruit is of the size of a man's head and the seed. the leaves of this plant are used as a substitute for tea.Drimys aromatica F. Guiana. however. Malvaceae (Bombacaceae). The bark of the variety montana is used in Brazil as a seasoning. Hooker says. The ripe fruit is black. D. with its enveloping pulp. zibethinus Murr. winteri Forst. The odor is. DURIAN. viscous flesh excellent and very agreeable. Duguetia longifolia Baill. resembling blanc mange and as delicious in taste as the finest cream. In Iceland. Northern regions. It is very much prized by the Caribs. D. SUNDEW. PEPPER TREE. and the red. Dryas octopetala Linn. The fruit is nearly round. and the whole plant is highly aromatic and pungent. the skin thin. delicate. South America. and in Italy a liquor called rossoli is distilled from its juices. Magnoliaceae (Winteraceae). Malayan Archipelago. Australia. Drosera rotundifolia Linn. Anonaceae. hence its seeds and berries are sometimes used as pepper. The round-leaved sundew is said by Figuer to be acrid and caustic.com . Malay Islands. Rosaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the surface divided by reticulated divisions. LUSTWORT. about the size of a hen's egg. This is probably the form of the durian from which the cultivated species has originated. Peru and Trinidad. Droseraceae. as Parkinson mentions it.Page 283 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. Northern temperate and arctic regions. MOUNTAIN AVENS.

This cactus is called by the Mexicans visnada. Chloride of lime and disinfectants seem to be its necessary remedy. Meliaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . to be of all fruits.swsbm. but endure it for a while. California. The unripe fruit is used as a vegetable.intolerable. The fruit is of the shape and taste of a gooseberry. with closed nostrils. if there are durians in the next room to you. you clamor till it is removed. This seaweed is employed in soups in Chile. at last. E. To eat it." E. Mexico. called by the inhabitants kohe. Western North America. When it is brought to you at first. taste it once or twice. The ripe fruit is red and "as delicious as that of the strawberry cactus." Durville utilia Bory. This species furnishes fruits which are sliced. seems to be the sacrifice of self respect. even — I blush to write it—even before the glorious mongosteen.Page 284 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and you will cry for durians thenceforth. Its leaves have a bitter taste and are employed as a substitute for hops. Echinocactus hamatocanthus Muehlenpf. longihamatus Gal.com . E. Fruit red. E. Cactaceae. wislizeni Engelm. or wahahe. Bayard Taylor says: "Of all fruits. A tree of New Zealand. the most indispensable. Dysoxylum spectabile Hook. Mexico. Mexico. at first the most intolerable but said by those who have smothered their prejudices. Algae. candied and sold as confections. Wallace says that to eat durians is a sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. viridescens Nutt. horizonthalonius Lem. f. edible and of good quality. you cannot sleep.

When ripe it is insipidly sweet and is eaten. Boragineae/Ehretiaceae. laevis Roxb. Compositae. which is rather pleasant when chewed. its interior containing a soft. The roots of prickly samphire are eatable. make good gruel and even bread. watery substance of slightly acid taste.swsbm. The fruit is tasteless but is eaten. furnishes a favorite food to the Yabapais and Apache Indians of Arizona. Ehretia acuminata R. Europe. The pulp of the fruit is rather sour and is not much eaten. edible pulp. in times of famine. tinifolia Linn. in some of its preparations. PRICKLY SAMPHIRE. often resort to this plant to quench their thirst. soaked in a sirup or sugar and dried. The unripe fruit is pickled in India. This plant. in passing through the cactus wastes. Br. and black and when parched and pulverized. West Indies. elliptica DC. Texas and Mexico. yellow. Asia and Australian tropics. Asia and Australian tropics. which they resemble in taste and substance. The inner bark. are as good as candied citron. is mixed with flour and eaten.com . E. Echinophora spinosa Linn. this plant. Pieces of this. Cosmopolitan tropics. as large as a small pea. Eclipta erecta Linn. Umbelliferae. BASTARD CHERRY. E. The seeds are small. Travellers. a common weed. About Bombay. with the flavor of parsnips. or nearly black when ripe.or biznacha. white. with a thin. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and the young leaves make excellent pickles. The drupe is red-orange. The berries are the size of a currant and are frequently eaten. is sometimes eaten by the natives as a potherb. SEA PARSNIP. E.Page 285 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant is a small tree with fruit the size of a large pea.

and in Persia appears as dessert under the name of zinzeyd. umbellata Thunb. WILD OLIVE. when cooked and sweetened with sugar. Europe and northern Asia. says Wight. somewhat astringent fruit is eaten. It is very acrid and though not generally considered an edible fruit in India. mealy. edible drupe about the size of a small cherry. The fruit of the Philippine oleaster has the taste of the best cherries. latifolia Linn.Page 286 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The bright yellow drupe with shiny. in general. It is eaten in Nepal and the mountains of Hindustan and Siam. Tropical Africa and introduced to tropical America. Palmae. yet. which. The fruit is commonly sold in the markets of Constantinople. purple-black point. is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . farinaceous. It abounds in a dry. though nauseous to the taste. perrottetii Schlecht. Philippine Islands. E. OLEASTER. Tropical Asia. A spirit is distilled from the fruit in Yarkand.Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn.com . E. succulent fruit is eaten in India. The fruit is eaten in Nepal. makes a very agreeable compote. Elaeagnaceae. OIL PALM. The wild olive is a tree mainly cultivated for its fruit. E. MACAW-FAT. North America. has a stone in the center and when ripe is of a pale red or cherry color. and the fruit is edible and also makes a good tart. WILD OLIVE.swsbm. OLEASTER. E. SILVERBERRY. The fruit is olive-shaped and larger than an olive. Elaeis guineensis Jacq. About Hudson's Bay this shrub produces a dry. Japan. has a fruit the size and form of a damson. Brandis says the acid. saccharine substance which is sweet and pleasant. It is abundant on the Neil-gherries. The oleaster. it is cultivated in Thibet. or wild olive. The small. is acid and eatable. it is sweetishacid and mealy when ripe. argentea Pursh. In Greece. PHILIPPINE OLEASTER.

East Indies. New Zealand. Its leaves are used by the natives for tea. Tiliaceae (Elaeocarpaceae). The fruit is an article of food. Cyperaceae. munroii Mast. South Africa.Page 287 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant has been introduced from Ceylon under the name of Ceylon tea. floribundus Blume. E. Hartt says this palm is the dendes of Brazil. called in Bengal julpai. Mauritius Islands. Mawezi. and that the oil is much used for culinary purposes. where it is called let-petben. and in India the fruits are either used in curries or pickled like olives. for STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. The pulp surrounding the stone of the fruit is eatable. who also describes the fresh wine as delicious. is pronounced most excellent by Montiero. This plant is grown in southern China for its roots.com . E. Tropical Asia. a dish prepared at Angola from the fresh nut. E. In India. CEYLON TEA. Tropical Asia. orientale Jacq. of the size and shape of an olive. OLIVE-WOOD. Elaeocarpus dentatus Vahl. Palm chop. of the consistency of honey. E. or palm oil. Eleocharis tuberosa Schult. Celastraceae. Madagascar and Burma. Elaeodendron glaucum Pers. sphaerophyllum Presl.eaten in Africa. Lunan says the roasted nuts taste very much like the outside fat of roasted mutton. is universally used in cooking. WATER-CHESTNUT. is pickled. the fruit. and that the negroes are fond of the oil which sometimes makes an ingredient in their foods. East Indies. The olive-sized fruit is eaten by the natives. The drupaceous fruits are edible. is rudely extracted from this palm and despite its flavor. This palm is also tapped for toddy. the caiauke of the Amazons.

The fruit is used as an aromatic in medicine throughout the East Indies and is largely consumed as a condiment. Scitamineae CEYLON CARDAMOM. for the sake of its edible.which there is a great demand in all Chinese towns. which is eaten and prized by the natives. On the Coromandel coast. writes Ainslie. or is eaten as a porridge. grind and make a stir-about of it. Cosmopolitan tropics and subtropics. ELEUSINE. ELEUSINE. This grass grows most abundantly on waste ground. and is the staple grain of the Mysore country. says Elliott. dry them in the sun. It is largely cultivated all over China. East Indies. The grain is of the size of a mustard seed and is dark in color. Gramineae. wholesome tubers. It is the most productive of all the Indian cereals. It furnishes the Ceylon cardamom and the large cardamom of Guibourt mentioned in his history of drugs. says Hooker. A kind of arrowroot is made from it. This grass is cultivated on a large scale in many tropical countries. the seeds are fermented to make a drink called murwa. covered in part with a bearded husk through which the shining seed is seen. It is enumerated by Thunberg among the edible plants of Japan. This rush can be subjected to regular cultivation in ponds. Its grain is used in southern India. great numbers of the natives have derived a livelihood from the cultivation of this plant. Elettaria cardamomum Maton. It has a small seed. Grant found this grass cultivated everywhere along his route through central Africa. The tuber is sweet and juicy with a chestnut flavor and is universally used as food. it is either made into cakes. says Mueller. It is cultivated in Crete. Ainslie says the root is in high estimation either for the pot or as a medicine.com . Eleusine aegyptiaca Desf. Loudon calls it the water-chestnut and says it is grown in tanks by the Chinese for the tubers. it is pleasant to the taste and in its nature aperient.Page 288 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. turnip-shaped tubers are eaten. also on the flat roofs of the Arab houses in Unganyembe. East Indies and Egypt. The natives gather the ears. South America. NATCHNEE. it is a useful and most valuable grain. if soaked for a night in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . (Zingiberaceae). E. RAGEE." Royle says it is the pi-tsi of the Chinese and that the round. beat out the grain on the rocks. From time immemorial. In Sikkim. coracana Gaertn. Its flour.swsbm.

The fruits are eaten in Sikkim as well as the leaves. The seed of this grass is threshed out and eaten by the Digger Indians. Embelia nagushia D. E. MONOX. Schweinfurth says it is called telaboon by the Arabians. tasting pleasantly bitter. Its leaves are eaten raw in salads. Gramineae. tocussa Fresen. Emilia sonchifolia DC. the berries are collected and used to adulterate black pepper. Don. This plant furnishes a bread corn and is called dagussa. which are sour to the taste. says its taste is unpleasant as it leaves a gritty. Arctic and subarctic climates. RANCHERIA GRASS. The leaves are eaten raw in salads in China. It is indigenous to France and is used as an ornamental plant in gardens. Parkyns. ribes Burm. makes a very fair unleavened bread. In Silhet. Tropical Asia. LYME GRASS. sandy taste in the mouth and passes through the stomach with but little change. A coarse beer. Myrsineae. Abyssinia. Asia and tropical Africa. Its native country is given by Unger as the East Indies. It has been grown in small quantities at the Michigan Agricultural College. it is grown in flower gardens. Elymus arenarius Linn.swsbm. Empestraceae.Page 289 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In France.com . by the Abyssinians tocusso and is grown only in the poorest soils. It has a disagreeable taste and makes only a wretched sort of pop.water. who ate of the bread in Abyssinia. The berries are eaten by the Scotch and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . is also made from this grain mixed with that of durra. E. CROWBERRY. Himalayan region. f. Europe and western North America. Compositae. CRAKEBERRY. according to Murray. Empetrum nigrum Linn.

hairy and generally much covered with mud. when stripped of its leaves. The Kaffirs bury it for some months in the ground. Algae. of a firm. then pound it. about the size of juniper berries. Sumatra. HOTTENTOT BREAD-FRUIT. resembles a large pineapple. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . seeds as large as unshelled Jordan almonds are contained between the scales. which is good to eat. and are surrounded with a reddish pulp. Enteromorpha compressa (Linn. South Africa. The interior of the trunk and the center of the ripe female cones contain a spongy. Entada scandens Benth. SWORD BEAN. Lunan says the beans. are eaten by the Tuski of Alaska and are gathered in autumn by the western Eskimo and frozen. Cycadaceae (Zamiaceae). Enhalus koenigii Rich. They are consumed in a ripe or dry state by the Indians of the Northwest. and extract a quantity of farinaceous matter of the nature of sago. E. SEA FRUIT. The fruits are black. This fruit is round. are boiled and eaten by some negroes.) Grev.swsbm. farinaceous pith. The fruits are called berak laut. Encephalartos caffer Miq. This is one of the edible seaweeds of Japan. Barrow says it is used by the Kaffirs as food. In central Africa. Hydrocharitaceae. after being long soaked in water.Page 290 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. wahlbergia Harv. The stem. made use of by the Kaffirs as food. South Africa. In Jamaica.com . fleshy substance and are insipid in taste. for winter food.Russian peasantry. The seeds are flat and brown and are eaten cooked like chestnuts in Sumatra and Java. the bitter roots are eaten. On the female cone. and the pods furnish food in the West Indies. Leguminosae. Tropical shores from India to the Polynesian Islands. or sea fruit. The seeds are slightly farinaceous and taste like chestnuts soaked in salt water. This sago is a favorite food with the natives and is not unacceptable to the Dutch settlers when better food cannot be had. KAFFIR BREAD.

JOINT GRASS. Compositae. and the young shoots make a good substitute for asparagus. says. Equisetum fluviatile Linn. Epilobium angustifolium WILLOW-HERB." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . China and south Russia. SEA GRAPE. succulent. The fruit is eaten by the Chinese and is mucilaginous. The fruit is ovoid. This species furnishes a vegetable of poor quality for northern Asia and Iceland. latifolium Linn. This is the plant which was eaten by the Romans under the name equisetum. tetragonum Linn. sweet. under the name of l'herbe fret. Malay and Australia. The leaves of this water plant are eaten by the natives as a vegetable. Equisetaceae. It is eaten in some places. The starch contained in the tubers of the rhizome is nutritious. in his Adam in Eden. Europe. FIREWEED. Coles. SQUARE-STEMMED WILLOW-HERB. or being boyled are often bestrewed with flower and fried to be eaten. HORSETAIL. Onagraceae. speaking of horsetails. with a slightly acid or pungent flavor.swsbm.Enydra paludosa DC. eat the young shoots which creep under the ground and they brew a sort of ale from the dried pith.Page 291 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The fruit is eaten by the Russian peasants and by the wandering hordes of Great Tartary. SCRUB GRASS. East Indies. The leaves form a wholesome vegetable when boiled. as on the Sutlej. In England. are used by the Canadian voyagers as a potherb. Ephedra distachya Linn. Gnetaceae (Ephedraceae). pale or bright red when ripe. according to Lindley. the leaves are much used for the adulteration of tea. says Lightfoot. E. It is the kingeka of Bengal.com . Northern climates. E. Linn. Northern and arctic regions. Richardson says the young leaves. The people of Kamchatka. This plant is used as a vegetable in Iceland and northern Asia. says Johnson. "the young heads are dressed by some like asparagus. Europe and adjoining Asia.

it succeeds admirably. and its fruit is common in the markets of Toulon. A shrub or small tree of Java and the islands of the Indian Archipelago. At Malta. juicy. Eriodendron (Bombax) anfractuosum (Bombacaceae). A cider is made in Java from the pericarp of the fruit. A fruit tree indigenous in Japan and China and much cultivated in India. The fruit is edible. Sapindaceae. In the Gulf States. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Malvaceae Asia and tropical Africa. HORSETAIL. DC. subacid. CEIBA. DUTCH RUSH.Page 292 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ripening its fruit in February and March. The fruit is eaten in India sometimes cooked and sometimes raw. it serves as food in time of famine. The flavor is intermediate between spinach and purslane and is by no means a disagreeable vegetable. the fruit is the size of a large plum. it is said to do well. SCOURING RUSH. It is a more acid fruit than the apple and serves for cooking rather than as a table fruit.com . At Celebes. In China the tree grows as far north as Fuhchau but does not produce as good fruit as in Canton. Eremurus spectabilis Bieb. Liliaceae. LOQUAT. Lindley says. In May and June the young shoots are sold as a vegetable in the villages of the Caucasus. it is spoken of as if well known under the name of Japanese plum in 1867. It was brought to Europe by the French in 1784 and in 1787 was imported from Canton to Kew.E. Asia Minor and Persia. It has not fruited at Paris in the open air but is successfully cultivated in the south of France. Kurdistan and Crimea. The loquat was first made known by Kempfer in 1690. Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. In Florida. Erioglossum edule Blume. Northern climates. Rosaceae. refreshing.swsbm. SHAVE GRASS. and altogether delightful and unique in flavor and quality. CABBAGE-WOOD. JAPANESE PLUM. It resembles the medlar but is superior to it in flavor and size. the seeds are eaten. hyemale Linn.

Shoshone and Digger Indians. Umbelliferae. It was cultivated by the ancient Romans. ROCKET. Europe and introduced into America. and then pounding in a mortar. By a process of boiling and leaving in running water for several weeks. Eryngium maritimum Linn. speaks of it in gardens. in the thirteenth century. when young. or eaten raw by the Blackfeet. The roots are candied and sold as candied STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . find it exceedingly savory. PIN GRASS.Erisma japura Spruce.Page 293 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. which is eaten with fish and game. In 1586. JAPURA. when blanched.swsbm. may be eaten like asparagus. Mediterranean region and western Asia. Vochysiaceae. Asia Minor and the seashores along the Mediterranean and Atlantic as far as Denmark. WILD MUSK. Eruca sativa Mill. Brown says it is the pin grass of the Californians of which the stem is edible. SEA-HOLM. In 1726.com . and Don says the leaves and tender stalks form an agreeable salad. Erodium cicutarium L'Herit. Camerarius says it is planted most abundantly in gardens. offensive plant but is highly esteemed by the Greeks and Turks. Geraniaceae. Townsend says it is not now very common in English gardens. which is never lost. STORKSBILL. People who can get over its vile smell. It is cultivated for its leaves and stalks which are used as a salad. the tubercles are eaten. it is a fetid. it is made into a sort of butter. 1536. is gathered and cooked. The kernel of the red fruit is pleasant eating both raw and boiled. SEA HOLLY. jacquinianum Fisch. E. so also does Ruellius. The young. and in 1807 Miller's Dictionary says it has been long rejected. roqueta. Fremont saw it thus used. In Egypt. tender shoots. and R. being mixed in the gravy. who uses nearly the present French name. Brazil. Rocket is called "a good salatherbe " by Gerarde. Syme says it is used in southern Europe as a salad. Cruciferae. who prefer it to any other salad. Rocket was in American gardens in 1854 or earlier and is yet included by Vilmorin among European vegetables. SEA ERYNGO. This plant. Albertus Magnus. Walsh says.

and also on the banks of the Rio Negro. Quito. Erythrina indica Lam. When boiled or roasted. Escobedia scabrifolia Ruiz & Pav. Scrophularineae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . DOG'S-TOOTH VIOLET. where it is known as spadic. Tropical Asia and Australia. Eschscholzia sp. A shrub of the Peruvian Andes cultivated from early times for its leaves which are used as a masticatory. Interior Oregon. Tropical America. tender leaves are eaten in curries. when chewed. E. Australia. coca Lam. China. Cunn. This plant is grown in gardens and is used as a potherb or condiment. Erythroxylum SPADIC. Eucalyptus dumosa A. Liliaceae. Europe and northern Asia. MALLEE.? Papaveraceae. a stimulant action. In Ceylon the young. These leaves contain an alkaloid analogous to thein and exert. New Granada.Page 294 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. This use of the leaves under the name. grandiflorum Pursh. The Tartars collect and dry the bulbs and boil them with milk or broth. This is a small tree commonly cultivated for supporting the weak stems of the pepper plant. It is said to be a secretion from an insect. The roots of this plant are eaten by some Indians.com . DOG'S-TOOTH VIOLET. Erythronium dens-canis Linn. A manna called lerp is produced upon the leaves. coca. It forms an article of commerce among the Indians and is largely cultivated in Bolivia. is common throughout the greater part of Peru. Lineae (Erythroxylaceae). the roots resemble chestnuts and are palatable and nutritious. which the natives use for food. Leguminosae. The roots are said to be used for coloring gravies.eryngo. CORAL TREE. COCA. Myrtaceae.

East Indies and West Indies. The sweet berries are eaten by the Hottentots or. it is called lung.com . brownish fruits.swsbm. The fruit is eaten. Muell. astringent leaves are often used in sauce and the berries for culinary purposes. The fleshy. Australia. This is the jelly plant of Australia and is one of the best species for making jelly. size and cement. E. This plant yields a cool. Myrtaceae. South Africa. Eucheuna speciosum Berk. The small. undulata Thunb. oleosa F. Manna is procured from the leaves and small branches. JELLY PLANT. Australia. refreshing liquid from wounds made in the bark during spring. E. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . bruised and fermented. Chile. Eugenia acris Wight & Am.Page 295 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The water drained from the roots is clear and good and is used by the natives of Queensland when no other water is obtainable. MALLEE. glaucous. WILD CLOVE. E. CIDER TREE. terminalis F. Algae. E. Australia. Euclea pseudebenus E.E. f. Ebenaceae. This is the guarri bush of South Africa. the aromatic. apiculata DC.8 In Hindustan. In Jamaica. Muell. Mey. they yield a vinegar. are sweet and slightly astringent and are eaten by the natives of South Africa under the name embolo. the size of a pea. black berry is edible. gunnii Hook. South Africa.

thence to Cayenne in 1773. It is grown under the name of Brazil cherry in the Public Gardens of Jamaica. it is by no means palatable. E. and were known in the Mediterranean countries to Paulus Aegineta. Brazil. The berries are eaten. is of a waxy appearance and of somewhat aromatic taste but is hardly eatable. East Indies. E. Brazil. Clove leaves were imported into Palestine in the twelfth century and were sold at Frankfort in Germany about 1450. For many years. They were brought from the far East to Ceylon in the days of Cosmas Indicopleustes.swsbm. This species furnishes an edible fruit. but they are now grown in the West Indies and elsewhere. where they are called by the natives vikunia. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India.E. owing to its. called lal jumrool. f. they are tolerably aromatic. E. (Caryophyllus) caryophyllata (aromaticus_ Thunb. The stalks are still an object of trade from Zanzibar.com . astringency. though. E. arnottiana Wight. There are two varieties. a white and a pale rose-colored fruit. E.Page 296 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the Dutch exercised a strict monopoly in the growth of this spice. A tree of India. It was introduced to the Mauritius in 1770. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . in the first half of the sixth century. A. BRAZIL CHERRY. The cloves of commerce are the unexpanded flower-buds. brasiliensis Lam. The clove tree is a handsome evergreen. and are used for adulterating ground cloves. D. aquea Burm. 634. Clove stalks were an article of import into Europe during the Middle Ages. by restricting its cultivation to the island of Amboina and even extirpating all but a limited number of the trees. CLOVE. to Zanzibar about the end of the century and to Jamaica in 1789. The fruit is the size of a small apple. native of the Moluccas. arrabidae Berg. catinga Baill. Cloves were known to the ancient Greek and Roman writers.

North America and West Indies. dulcis Berg. WILD COFFEE.Guiana. It yields an edible fruit. darwinii Hook.com . The small. It has been planted in the Antilles and even introduced into the East Indies. edible fruit is of an agreeable. black epidermis there is a white. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . djouat Perr. disticha DC. Brazil. E. soft and even juicy flesh in which are two or three seeds. about the size of a Green Gage plum. f. E. cordifolia Wight. E. The fruits are eaten. E. it is much esteemed. The jacbuticaba grows wild in the woods of the south of Brazil and is also cultivated in most of the gardens in the diamond and gold districts. The berries are eaten. Jamaica. The fruit is black. dichotoma DC. E. Chile. Brazil. Ceylon. aromatic flavor. dysenterica DC. of a pulpy consistency and very refreshing. Brazil. Unger says the fruit is of the size of an Oxheart cherry and under the tender. E. The fruit is an inch in diameter. This is an excellent dessert fruit. It is inferior in taste to our cherry. The fruit is eaten. E. cauliflora Berg. E.Page 297 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Philippine Islands.swsbm. The fruit is eaten in the Antilles. In Brazil.

Brandis says the fruit has a harsh but sweetish flavor. MALABAR PLUM. Brazil.swsbm. inocarpa DC. itacolumensis Berg. The berries are eaten in Brazil. Region of Argentina. E. somewhat astringent and acid. West Indies. guabiju Berg. fragrans Willd. In some places. edible fruits. ZEBRA-WOOD. floribunda West. JAMBU.Page 298 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The berries are eaten. BLACK PLUM. the fruit attains the size of a pigeon egg and is of superior quality. Asia and Australian tropics. The fruit is eaten in the Antilles. E.E. JAMBOLAN PLUM. with a fibrous. The fruit is about the size of a plum. E. This tree yields in India. edulis Benth. an abundant crop of subacid. The berries are eaten. acid-sweet flesh. f. JAVA PLUM. Firminger compares it to a damson in appearance and to a radish in taste. E. ROSE APPLE. says Dutt. Brazil. jambos Linn. & Hook. The berries are eaten. and is much eaten by the natives of India.com . The tree is cultivated in many parts of India for STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . JAMBOLAN.. Brazil. E. E. E. Brazil. JAMBOOL. formosa Cambess. The fruit is edible. Tropical eastern Asia. Santa Cruz. E. jambolana Lam.

E. E. It can hardly be considered eatable. where it is called chalta-jamb. JAMBOSA. being of a poor flavor and of a dry.swsbm. West Indies. shining. E. luschnathiana Klotzsch. watery taste. longipes Berg. Jacksonville. The fruit is the size of a small apple. Florida. The berries are eaten. E. E. which is of the size of a small apple. The fruit is small and excellent for dessert. The fruit is the size of a small cherry. before 1877. A moderate-sized tree of the islands of the Indian Archipelago. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . East Indies. Codrington. JAMBOSINE. with a flavor like roses but it is not in much esteem as a fruit. The small. pithy consistency but is made into preserves. A small tree of Tortola. with a delicate. javanica Lam. GUAVA BERRY. insipid taste. et Lens (?). E. JUMROOL.its fruit. Brazil. pure white. It is hardly fit to be eaten. Brazil. E. rose-water perfume but dry and hardly worth eating.com . macrocarpa Roxb. makapa Mer. It was introduced into Florida by C. mabaeoides Wight. The tree was introduced into Jamaica in 1762.Page 299 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. E. Ceylon. The fruit is eaten by the natives. has a sweetish. says Lunan. It is also used for a preserve and forms a favorite cordial. red fruit with the flavor of cranberries is edible. The rind. ligustrina Miq. wax-like and has a raw. watery. lineata DC. The berries are eaten in Brazil.

translucent white. a specimen of the fruit grown under glass at Cambridge. MALAY APPLE. ROSE APPLE. partaking of the fragrance of the rose with the sweetness of the peach. Firminger says the fruit is of the size and form of a very small apple. Brazil. with an apple-like smell and delicate flavor. vinous taste and smell. of the size and appearance of small. the largest. with a beautiful blush of crimson and that some persons eat it but it is not worth eating. of a pure. myrobalana DC. Tropical Asia. A tree of the Moluccas. The fruit is round. JAMBOS. China and India. cultivated in the Indian Archipelago. E. "The fruit. It is called goolam and is cultivated for its fruit. perfectly smooth. malaccensis Linn.swsbm. operculata Roxb. which are always the best.Page 300 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. though they have not much flavor. The berries are eaten in Brazil. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Massachusetts. East Indies. E. E. are not bigger than a small apple. of a very agreeable." says Capt. The jambosine was introduced into Florida at Jacksonville before 1877. was exhibited at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's exhibition and the fruit was pronounced most delicious. at Batavia. "is of a deep red color and an oval shape. Seemann says that it is quince-shaped. In 1839. they are pleasant and cooling. The fruit is eaten. Brazil.This tree is cultivated in the Mauritius under several varieties.com ." Rheede says the fruit is of the size and shape of a moderate pear. Cook. white with a blush of red. Pacific islands. The fruit is pear-shaped and edible. The flowers are preserved by the Dutch at Amboina and are frequently eaten as a salad. The berries are used as a table fruit. nhanica Cambess. E. oblata Roxb. black cherries and is very generally eaten in Chittagong. LARGE-FRUITED ROSE APPLE. E.

pulchella Roxb. PITANGA. The fruit resembles a cherry in size and shape and is edible. E. E. the agreeably-smelling fruit is eaten. Moluccas. procera Poir. revoluta Wight. E. Pacific islands. the size of a pepper. E. IRONWOOD. E. Martinique. Brazil. The fruit is the size of a pear. richii A. E.Page 301 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. red fruit is eaten. The fruit is edible and is held in considerable esteem in the West Indies. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . East Indies. where it is called ironwood. pumila Gardn. Fiji Islands. Brazil. In Viti. Santo Domingo and south Florida. pitanga Kiaersk. E. It bears a fruit like the black currant. pisiformis Cambess. The berries are eaten in Guiana.E. Hartt says its refreshingly acid. Brazil. The berries are eaten.swsbm. The round berry. is edible. rariflora Benth. Brazil. E. pseudopsidium Jacq. Gray. pyriformis Cambess. The berries are an inch in diameter. E.com .

SALEP. Tropical America. The fruit is large and edible. zeyheri Harv. E. CAYENNE CHERRY. JAPANESE SPINDLE TREE. BRAZIL CHERRY. China and Japan. herbacea Lindl. SALEP. red. PITANGA. Orchideae. The fruit of this large shrub is about the size of a button and is considered agreeable by the natives. f. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . this species appears to be cultivated under the names of Brazil cherry and cherry of Cayenne. Euonymus japonicus Linn. The berries are the size of a cherry and are edible. E. This species furnishes the salep of the Indian bazaars known as saleb misri. suborbicularis Benth. The fruit is eaten. the leaves of this tree are eaten when young. Celastraceae. E. Eulophia campestris Wall. SURINAM CHERRY. In China. E. East Indies. TALA.E.com .Page 302 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. & Arn. The fruit is large. where it is called pitanga.swsbm. In India. East Indies. This plant furnishes the salep collected in Cashmere. E. South Africa. Chile. Australia. temu Hook. Southern Brazil. uniflora Linn. with small stone and is eaten when ripe. supraaxillaris Spring.

An infusion of the leaves has an agreeable and somewhat spicy taste and is a good diet drink. Cochin China. edulis Lour. it is much cultivated for the stems. in China. The fruit is round.Page 303 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com . for the purpose of being dried and sent to France. they are extremely acrid and require long steeping in salt and water and afterwards in vinegar. This aquatic plant is frequently cultivated in India and China for its floury seeds. Euphoria (Litchi) informis Poir. black seeds as large as peas. GORGON. (Euryalaceae). E. Southern Europe. Its juice is thickened to a jelly and eaten by the natives. Cochin China. Sapindaceae. Its fruit is eaten in China. Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. Euryale ferox Salisb. Nymphaeceae PRICKLY WATER-LILY. it is said to have been in cultivation for upwards of 3000 years. The seeds are used as a substitute for capers but. soft. Euphorbiaceae. canariensis Linn. lathyris Linn. It is mentioned as a potherb. The natives of Teneriffe are in the habit of removing the bark and then sucking the inner portion of the stem to quench their thirst. says Johnson. Tropical America. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Compositae. rhizomes and seeds. E. E. BALSAM SPURGE. Canary Islands. Dyer says the plant is now chiefly cultivated at the island of Bourbon. pulpy and the size of a small orange. Smith says. which are eaten roasted. where it is used as a tea substitute. all of which contain much starch and are eaten. The pulp is also eaten. East India and China. Canary Islands.Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl.swsbm. it contains from 8 to 15 round. In China. CAPER SPURGE.

E. which is made. violetcolored beverage. eaten with sugar and farina of the mandioc. E. montana R. The terminal leaf-bud is used as a cabbage. Cruciferae. Santalaceae. Polygonaceae. JAPANESE HORSERADISH. Japan. According to Forskal. This is Japanese horseradish. Grah. ASSAI PALM. It is the size of a cherry.Page 304 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The long. The best roots are cultivated only in clear spring water running down the mountain valleys. Eutrema wasabi Maxim.Euterpe edulis Mart. terminal bud of this Brazilian palm is pronounced by Gardner equal to asparagus in flavor when cooked. Northern Europe. ASSAI PALM. According to Lindley. AUSTRALIAN Australia. Tropical America. The terminal leaf-bud is used as a cabbage. Lichenes. Exocarpus cupressiformis CURRANTS. rasped and eaten with fish. This is a common Himalayan plant which forms STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Meissn. Mrs. Agassiz pronounces this diet drink as very good.com . Bates says the fruit forms a universal article of diet in all parts of Brazil. oleracea Mart. it has a peculiar power of imbibing and retaining odors. Labill. America and Asia. Fagopyrum cymosum BUCKWHEAT. Palmae. Evernia prunastri Linn. into a thick. Brazil.swsbm. it is imported in shiploads from Greece into Egypt and mixed in bread. ACH. Islands of New Spain. PERENNIAL Himalayas and China. This lichen was observed by Sibthorp and Bory on the branches of plum and other trees throughout Greece and around Constantinople. The fruit is eaten ar-d is made into preserves. which grows wild on the coast and is cultivated in small quantities. round and contains but a small portion of pulp. with the addition of water.

In Maine. it is of recent introduction and its cultivation is confined to narrow limits.405 feet elevation near the temple of Milun in the Himalayas. F. Caesalpinus. China and Siberia and is supposed to have been brought to Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century from northern Asia.com . It has been cultivated from time immemorial in Nepal and on the confines of China. It is at present cultivated in the United States as a field crop. F. the oil of the nut is used as a salad oil and as a STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . F. In northern India and Ceylon. It is mentioned by Tragus.swsbm. as also in northern Europe. It must have secured early admittance to America. 1616. AMERICAN BEECH. It grows wild in Nepal. tataricum Gaertn. says it was much cultivated in Germany and Brabant. the buds are eaten by the Indians. Europe and northern Asia. The nuts are esteemed delicious and are found in season in the Boston markets. it is mentioned in a German Bible printed in 1522. Buckwheat seems to have been unknown to the Greeks and Romans. esculentum Moench. Europe. EUROPEAN BEECH. Eraser found large fields of it at 11. Cupuliferae (Fagaceae). as cultivated in the Odenwald under the name of heydenkorn. BUCKWHEAT. The plant seeds badly and hence is not valued as a cereal. Porcher says the young leaves are used by the common people of the South as a potherb. probably in Italy under the name of formentone aliis saresinum. 1552. In Hanover. where it is cultivated for its seeds. Notchseeded buckwheat is a native of the mountainous districts of China and Nepal. for samples of American growth were sent to Holland by the colony of Manhattan Island as early as 1626. describes it as cultivated. TARTARIAN BUCKWHEAT. Dodoenaeus.Page 305 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in China. NOTCH-SEEDED BUCKWHEAT. though it is much less widely distributed and was introduced at a much later period into Europe. Tartarian buckwheat is of the same origin as buckwheat. North America. Fagus ferruginea Ait. Japan and elsewhere. According to Buckman. It occurs also in China. BRANK.an excellent spinach and is called pullop-bi. 1583. Europe and northern Asia. sylvatica Linn.

says Firminger. The pulp is universally eaten on the coast of Coromandel. scabrous. Dutt says it is cultivated in India for its fruit. The fruit is of the size of a large apple and is covered with a hard. Cruciferae. ELEPHANT APPLE. The young shoots and heads are considered by the Khirgis as a great delicacy. gray.com . Feronia (Limonia) elephantum Correa. Asafetida is called food-of-the-gods by the Persians. This plant has the same properties as the cresses. mealy substance. eat the leaves as greens and the root when roasted. F. this species is grown in France as a salad plant. Brandis says a jelly is made of it in India. Gerarde says it is reported to be eaten in Apulia. THE-GODS. long roots are esteemed as a vegetable. It is also grown in flower gardens. The interior of the fruit. Mediterranean region. Sawdust of beech wood is boiled in water. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . woody rind.swsbm. Farsetia clypeata R.substitute for butter. baked and then mixed with flour to form the material for bread in Norway and Sweden. soft. Fedia (Astrephia) comucopiae Gaertn. and Wight says that this very pleasant jelly resembles black-currant jelly. rather acid and smelling of rancid butter. VALERIAN. HORN-OFPLENTY. the pulp of which is eaten and made into a ckatni. the nuts are roasted and serve as a substitute for coffee. WOOD APPLE.Page 306 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Umbelliferae. Rutaceae. The aromatic. is filled with a brown. Valerianeae. South Russia. In France. According to Robinson. Southern Europe and the Orient. The fetid odor disappears on boiling. Br. East Indies. FOOD-OF- Persia and Afghanistan. ASAFETIDA. longifolia Fisch. Ferula assa-foetida Linn. who hold the juice in high esteem as a condiment.

the gum is generally used as a condiment and. a third tradition states that the fig tree grew up from the thunderbolt of Jupiter. Urticaceae (Moraceae). and figs are mentioned as cultivated in Virginia in 1669 and were observed growing out of the ruins of Frederica. F. The fig had its place as a fruit tree in the garden of Alcinous. in regions where the plant grows. Among the Mohammedan and Hindu population of India. ASAFETIDA. Pliny enumerates 29 sorts in his time.F. f. according to another. in Syria. which affords the asafetida of commerce. A shrub of Sierra Leone. carica Linn. The fig tree is enumerated among the fruit trees of Charlemagne. The fig is indigenous. This is a tropical species of fig whose fruit may be eaten. narthex Boiss. Ficus aspera Forst. Br. the fresh leaves are cooked as an article of diet.com . The fig is mentioned by Athenaeus. Asia Minor. Orient and Africa. Presl. Dionysius Sycetes was the discoverer of the fig tree. TONGUE FIG. and six varieties were known in Italy in the time of Cato.swsbm. says linger. East Indies and African tropics. Greece and north Africa and has been cultivated in these countries from time immemorial and even as far as southern Germany. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . FIG. F. Baltistan. According to one Grecian tradition. no less than 40 varieties are enumerated for Sicily by Dr. Persia. Europe. which is grazed by cattle and used as a potherb and the other called Kama-i-anguza. It bears an edible fruit about as large as that of the white Ischia fig. Fig. BANYAN. F. Georgia.Page 307 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Kaempfer says that in Afghanistan and Khorassan there are two varieties. brassii R. It was carried to England in 1525 or 1548 by Cardinal Pole. one called Kama-i-gawi. Columella and Macrobius. Islands of New Hebrides. At the present time. benghalensis Linn. The sweetish fruit of the banyan is eaten in India in times of scarcity. Demeter brought the first fig tree to Greece. Cortez carried the fig tree to Mexico in 1560.

Bartram. February 16. in times of drought. F. Tropical America.Page 308 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the small figs are sometimes eaten. the unripe fruit is pounded. F.com . F. A tropical species with fruit that is eaten. The fruit is edible but insipid and is usually found full of insects. glomerata Roxb. The purple fruit. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The fruit is eaten. In Cebu. Downing describes 15 varieties as the most desirable sorts for this country and says the fig reached here in 1790. the natives sometimes eat the fruit which outwardly resembles the common fig. granatum Forst. erecta Thunb. Himalayas. about 1773. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India. Tropical Asia. In the Konckans. forskalaei Vahl. F. f. f. In Japan. hirta Vahl. at the Department of Agriculture Conservatory. Tropical Arabia. was edible but was not very attractive. F.swsbm. F. cooperi Hort. heterophylla Linn. cunia Buch. mixed with flour and made into cakes. 1880. New Hebrides. The fruit is not agreeable but is eaten. China and Japan. In times of scarcity.by Wm. Tropical Asia.-Ham. A large tree of tropical eastern Asia. and at Pearl Island near New Orleans. The ripe fruit is eaten. F. the inhabitants have no other resources for water than cutting the root. F.

sycomorus Linn. the young leaf-buds are eaten as a vegetable by the Hill Tribes in times of scarcity. A shrub found wild about Shiraz. of a reddish color when ripe.com . The fruit is edible but not very palatable. F. and about the size of a small plum. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India. The fruit is eaten. Tropical Asia. infectoria Roxb. The fruit is eaten by the natives in their curries. They were selected by the ancient Egyptians as the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Burma and Himalayan regions. is nearly round. SACRED FIG. F.Tropical Asia and Malay. Persia. F. East Indies. PEEPUL. rumphii Blume. The fruit is edible. Arabia and East Indies. The figs are sweet and delicate. persica Boiss. Mountains of Yemen. In central India. in racemes. Himalayan regions and Malay. In the hills of India. The fruit. religiosa Linn. It is eaten by the common people. F.swsbm.Page 309 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. F. F. ASSES FIG. F. Tropical Asia and Malay. F. this fig is eaten largely and is succulent. SYCOMORE. sweet and pleasant. palmata Forsk. This is a large tree cultivated in the Darrang district of Assam for rearing the lakh insect. North Africa. roxburghii Wall. sur Forsk. The fruit is somewhat aromatic and is brought to the markets at Cairo and is eaten throughout the entire East.

Bixineae (Flacourtiaceae). F. is esteemed for tarts and pies. LOOY-LOOY. Roxb. At Bombay. F. The fruit. The fruit.fruit given by the goddess Netpe to those who were worthy of admission to the regions of eternal happiness. better in flavor than a sloe but inferior to a poor plum. At Bombay. when fully ripe. ramontchi L'Herit. Flagellarieae. by the English looy-looy. It is a little tree bearing a berry of reddish-purple color. The fruit makes an excellent jelly. Moluccas. In Ceylon. edible fruit. is eaten by the natives. It makes an excellent stew. East Indies. The fruit. East Indies. the fruit is eaten but is by no means good. It is common in the jungles of India. East Indies and Malay. F. It is called attuck ka jhar. Malay and Madagascar. the size of a small cherry and has five angles. the ears of this plant are eaten. though rather too acid to be eaten raw. The fruit is of the size of a plum. inermis Roxb. This species is cultivated in the Moluccas for its pleasant. Grah. Tropical shores from Africa to the Samoan Islands. of a sharp but sweetish taste.Page 310 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In Coromandel. is of a pleasant acid taste and very refreshing. and is also used for tarts. the size of a crab apple. The fruit is eaten. the berries are sold in the market. called by the Malays koorkup. F. its berries are eaten. Flacourtia cataphracta PUNEALA PLUM. it is called by the natives lowi lowi. In Fiji. sepiaria Roxb. acid taste and is very refreshing. Flagellaria indica Linn. resembling and as good as currant jelly. The fruit has a pleasant. East Indies. MADAGASCAR PLUM. acid taste. The puneala plum is a fruit of India. The reddish-purple berries are of a pleasant.com . they are called tomi-tomi in India. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. montana J. BATOKO PLUM.

East Indies. all believed to belong to the common species. tuberous roots. at least. Saxony.swsbm. This prostrate plant is cultivated in many parts of northwest India for the sake of its edible. The plant is a native of temperate Europe and Asia. It was used as a condiment by our English forefathers. Fennel is constantly mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon medical recipes which date as early. The berries are eaten by the natives of eastern tropical Africa. Umbelliferae. The small. the stalks eaten in salads. Euphorbiaceae. and the seeds are employed in confectionery and for flavoring liquors.Page 311 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The tubers are said to be edible. in the south of France. Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Flemingia tuberosa Dalzell. Monti video and other towns. globose. is eaten. round. Fennel was cultivated by the Romans as a garden herb and was so much used in the kitchen that there were few meats seasoned. fennel water and fennel seed are all mentioned in an ancient record of Spanish agriculture of 961 A. FLEMINGIA. F. dehiscent berry. Europe. or vinegar sauces served without it. Leguminosae. Darwin found it growing wild in the neighborhood of Buenos Aires. The diffusion of the plant in central Europe was stimulated by Charlemagne.com . Flueggea leucopyms Willd. Franconia and Wurtemburg. as the eleventh century. F. FINOCHIO. The leaves are used in sauces. Old World tropics. D. Himalayari region. who enjoined its cultivation on the imperial farms. East Indies. It is now largely cultivated in central Europe. FENNEL. The fruit. one-sixth inch in diameter. vestita Benth. Fennel was included among American garden herbs by McMahon. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1806. whitish-colored fruit is a little bitter to the taste but is eaten in India by the poor. microcarpa Blume. a white. which are nearly elliptical and about an inch long. There are three different forms recognized. in Italy. in India and in China. Fennel shoots.

the fruits of each succeeding season gradually change in shape and diminish in size.com . This is the common wild sort. at the end of four or five years. SWEET FENNEL. garden herb. until. This seems to be the finochi. 1538. are broken and served raw. the leaves are used for seasoning but the plant is grown chiefly for its seeds which are largely used in flavoring liquors. the stems.BITTER FENNEL. in 1586. perhaps. 1554. The first distinct mention is by Mawe. 1783. remained distinct from an early date. It is described by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century and by Charlemagne in the ninth. and the foennel and fyncle of Turner. they are hardly to be distinguished from those of the bitter fennel. This use is. is referred by authors to F. According to Miller's Dictionary. This form is cultivated more frequently as a garden plant than the preceding. This curious fact was noted by Tabernaemontanus. still enclosed in the expanded leaf-stalks. The plant is used while in the state of running to bloom.swsbm. Bitter fennel is the Anethum foeniculum Linn. to have but recently been introduced to English culture and yet rare in 1765. under the name of Sweet Azorian fennel. Lyte's Dodoens' Herball describes in like manner two varieties. he says the swollen stalk is collected and said to be eaten.Page 312 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. FINOCCHIO. 1686. Sometimes. piperitum DC. or Italian fennel. and in America as an aromatic. fresh and tender. however. 1807. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The famous carosella. 1586. form a bulbous enlargement. This kind has. in speaking of finocchio. but rarely. 1869. As the plant grows old. in Asia. scarcely known in any other place. Bitter fennel appears to be the common fennel or finckle of Ray. and was systematically proved by Guibort. referred to by Amatus Lusitanus. It is mentioned throughout Europe. 1729. and the Foeniculum of Camerarius. It is again described in a very perfect form by Bryant. white and sweet inside. 1763. This form is very distinct in its broad leaf-stalks. it is the F. so extensively used in Naples. 1588. which. under the name of Azorian Dwarf or finocchio. 1778. overlapping each other at the base of the stem. hardy and often spontaneous as an escape from gardens. firm. Burr describes a common and a dark-leaved form. when. In 1863.. and its seeds are also an object of commerce. stated by Switzer.

in Fuchsius." whence the Spanish and Portuguese murangaos. sweet-smelling. for we have Virgil's verse. "terrestribus fragis. German erdbeere. while even the English strawberry. (the modern Portuguese moranguoiro). and Estienne. spelled in modern fashion by Turner in 1538. Fraga. and Pliny's epithet.com . uses the name Foeniculum dulce azoricum. condition of the stems. 1737. this was spelled frayses by Amatus Lusitanicus. and taste. appear to have come directly from the Latin. It does not seem to have entered general culture except in Italy. which includes our edible species. Netherland aerdbesie. or strawberry tree. and the modern Italians. Ruellius. 1571. "fructus terrae et mora terrestria). and reading as if written strawedberry plant. It was called straeberry by Lidgate in the fifteenth century. but his description is hardly sufficient. as used by Matthiolus. Some of the ancient commentators and botanists seem to have derived the Latin name from fragrans. while the Spanish fresa and fresera must have had the same immediate origin as the French. has given name to the botanical genus Fragaria. as calling the fruit terrestria mora. under the name Foeniculum rotundum flore albo. 1538. such as the Belgian eertbesien. Finocchio is described for American gardens in 1806.swsbm. Virgil STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . writes fragra. the Anglo-Saxon streowberie. in 1554. as distinguishing from the Arbutus unedo Linn. Ray. The Italian fraghe and fragole. Danish jordbeer." ground strawberry. says the French word fresas was applied to the fruit on account of the excellent sweetness of its odor.—(or. 1696. odore suavissimum. "humi nascentia fraga. following Dorstenius who wrote in 1540. however. as also the modern vernacular appellations. The manner of the fruit-bearing. and by Chabraeus. 1536. but the modern word fraise appeared in the form fraises. The latter quotes Servius. Bauhin. anciently strawed. 1542. than that of the fruit. near the ground. is said to have been derived from the spreading nature of the runners of the plant. a grammarian of the fifteenth century. The type of this fennel seems to be figured by J. Fragaria. Rosaceae. and fragola as used by Zvingerus. and to have come originally from the observed strewed. says "fragum non fragrum (ut quidam scioli scribunt). seems to have been the character of the plant more generally observed. STRAWBERRY. 1545." and Amatus Lusitanicus.azoricum Miller.— earth mulberry. for Turner in his Libellus. 1554. 1677.Page 313 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." child of the soil. The classical history of the strawberry can be written very shortly. 1651. 1686. The Latin word for the strawberry.

who died about 1483. Fraas gives the latter word for the modern Greek. Neither the strawberry nor its cultivation is mentioned by Ibnal-awam. a roll of ancient English cookery compiled about A. 1280. says strawberries are used as delicacies on the table. c. c. but there is no mention of culture. Fuchsius. book I. D. a recipe book of 1381. whose fruit has a superficial resemblance to the strawberry. an author of the tenth century. Archbishop of York. and field products. (perhaps also in his first edition of the De Re Hortensi. c. with sugar and cream. Nicolaus Myripsicus.Page 314 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. nor in Ancient Cookery. known in London in the time of Henry VI. however. The fruit was. and Sibthorp the word kovkoumaria. we find "Then unto London I dyde me hye. for in a poem by John Lidgate. 1545. and Estinne. 104. found the word phraouli in use for the strawberry by the Greeks about Belgrade. as furnishing a food of the golden age and again in the 13th book. Of all the land it bearyeth the pryse. D. and separates the ground strawberry from the arbutus tree in his lib." and Pliny mentions the plant by name in his lib. or wine. however. and mentions even a white variety. and that they are of the size of a hazelnut.' one began to cry — 'Strabery rype. nor by Albertus Magnus. 230. unusually full and complete in his treatment of garden. v. at least there is no word in their writings which commentators have agreed in interpreting as applying to the strawberry.' " The strawberry is figured fairly well in the Ortus Sanitatis. "mollia fraga. applied to the arbutus tree. which resembles the ancient Greek komaros or komaron. 50. also speaks of the larger garden variety. says gardens furnish a larger fruit. 1536. nor at the Inthronization Feast of George Neville.com . xv. xxi. 188. 1542. Ruellius. The Greeks seem to have had no knowledge of the plant or fruit. 1511. 1390 by two master cooks of King Richard II.swsbm. uses the word phragouli. he says the plants bear most palatable STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . who died A. 28. in the eighteenth century. and Forskal. D. in 1504. 'Gode pescode. 1535). an author of the tenth century. and cherry s in the ryse. It is not mentioned in The Forme of Cury. Ovid to the "arbuteos fructus mon-tanaque fraga" in his Metamorphoses. The fruit is not mentioned in the cook-book ascribed to Apicius Coelius. an author supposed to have lived about A. orchard.refers to the "humi nascentia fraga" in his third Eclogue. speaks of it as growing wild in shady situations.

a recent writer.com . in Chile has red. Bauhin. to describe fruit as of the size of a walnut.swsbm. calls the fruit pale red. Gmelin in his STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . scarlet. It remained for Frezier. and are wild. especially when they are fully ripe." Porta. In the Maine fields there are plants of Fragaria vesca with roundish. there are strawberries growing wild. with large growth and small growth. A white-fruited variety of F. and in 1586 Lyte's Dodoens records. 1727. in 1629. As to size. red. 1560. Dorstenius. Massachusetts." and that "they will grow in gardens unto the bigness of a mulberry. 1629. figures berries one and three-eighths inches in diameter. and palish color. virginiana is noted by Dewey as abundant in the eastern portion of Berkshire County. As to color of fruit.Page 315 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with berries having a distinct neck and those not necked. and Burbridge." Le Jardinier Solitaire. as an inch and sometimes more in diameter. are mentioned by Ruellius. others red. but that some cultivated ones are so odorous that nothing can be more so. 1593. of Fragaria virginiana with roundish berries and elongated berries. Cultivated strawberries are also noted by many authors of the sixteenth century. as by Mizaldus. 1653. as two inches about in bigness. 1596. and some are white. with large fruit and small fruit. as being double the size of the wild. the Hortus Eystettensis. who discovered Fragaria chiloensis. speaks of them as of the size of a hazel-nut. according to the fertility of the soil. 1540. equal in size and flavor to some of our best varieties. if diligently sought for. 1536. that some grow on the mountains and woods. as well as elongated fruit. and brought it to Europe in 1712. as "neere five inches about. and yellow-fruited varieties. who introduced the species to Europe in 1712. in the province of Ambato. white strawberries.fruit. notes a number of varieties. Fragaria chiloensis. yet others are both red and white. Vaillant. 1612. white. Hyll. of a deep red. "they be also much planted in gardens. says that in the Equatorial Andes. The strawberry plant is variable in nature. and Parkinson. and Frezier. and that these are larger. gives directions for planting. to be referred to Fragaria vesca. says "they be much eaten at all men's tables. and it seems probable that the type of all the varieties noted under cultivation may be found in the wild plant. New York. sometimes as large as an egg. Parkinson. Peck has found white berries of this species about Skaneateles. regards them as among the delicacies of the garden and the delights of the palate. Molina records that the Chile strawberry. Pena and Lobel in 1571." Plat. 1613. and by a host of following writers. 1592.

in 1576. and black fruit. in growing seedlings from our STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . elatior as possessing a curled-leaved form.. as double flowered. as with stamens transformed into flowers. Variegated-leaved forms are named by Tournefort. Among the variations to be also noted is that of losing all its leaves in winter ascribed to the F. and the twice-bearing habit of the Alpines. grandiflora as furnishing a variegated-leaved form. although they are supposed hybridizations with Fragaria chiloensis. are the same or a similar variety. viridis Weston.. occurs also in the Hortus Regius Parisiis. 1719. Such forms were also noted among the seedling Alpines at the New York Station in 1887. which have extra leaflets upon the stem of the petiole. F. 1832. 1665. as having varieties with usually fivelobed leaves. Le Capiton.Page 316 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. a.com . 1591.. and seem to belong mostly to the species represented in nature by Fragaria virginiana. chiloensis as having red-fleshed and white-fleshed fruit. vesca Linn. in the higher-flavored class. majaufea Duch. 1719. seems to correspond to the modern Hautbois class. white. This last variety seems to answer to those forms of strawberry plants occasionally found among the seedlings at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 1768. as without petals and with foliaceous sepals. F.swsbm.Flora Sibirica. in his History of Dichlamydeous Plants. --------The modern varieties under American culture have usually large berries with more or less sunken seeds. of the Gallobelgians. as varying into green. describes Fragaria vesca as varying into red. red. var. and F. F. and a number of varieties by Mawe in 1778. a variety with a large. The earliest cultivated variety with a distinct nomenclature seems to be the Le Chapiron. with Fragaria elatior. as both kinds are to be referred to Fragaria elatior Ehrh. as without runners. It is quite probable that the Caprons mentioned by Quintinye in 1672. one with a larger flower and fruit. Don. F. breslingea Duch. Certain it is that. one with white fruit. a third with winged petioles and berries an inch long. with the trusses lower than the leaves. an account of such plants may also be found in the Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1877. F. and purple fruit. so named by Lobel. palecolored berry. and called by him Chapiton in the index to his Icones. (The Capiton of Tournefort. and. Five-leaved strawberry plants are noted by many of the early writers. mentions three varieties of Fragaria vesca.) The name.

All analogical reasoning justifies the belief that this gain may arise through heredity influenced by long series of selections. Fragaria alpina Pers. In other cases we have noticed reversions to forms of Fragaria vesca. Flavor.Page 317 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. arising from greater or less fertility or favoring character of the soil and exposure. seem comparatively few. and render the classification of cultivated varieties somewhat difficult. This seems to have been acquired through STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . reversions often occur to varieties referable to the Hautbois and Chilean sorts. Chile. 2..swsbm. Fragaria elatior Ehrh. Fragaria grandiflora Ehrh. 1. The changes which have been produced.. distinguishable from named varieties of the Hautbois with which there has been opportunity for close comparison.. Increased size of berry. from which hybridization can be inferred. In nature we find variability in this respect. One notes as of common occurrence that seedlings from high-flavored varieties are very likely to furnish some plants of the Hautbois class. Fragaria virginiana Ehrh. the reversion occasionally produces plants unmistakably of the Chilean type. and which occasionally throw hollowed berries.com . in its lesser aspects it does not seem to exceed that which occurs between natural varieties. but one may well believe that an extended acquaintance with varieties will enable a description to be formulated which will make of this group a species by convenience. with a number of subspecies (for convenience) which shall simplify the question of arrangement and which will enable us to secure a quicker identification of varieties. 5. Yet in nature we find variability in this respect. or have appeared under cultivation. Increased size of plant. Hautbois. This seems to be the direct sequence of hybridization. Present knowledge does not admit of assigning a cause for this feature. or. Scarlet. to which he does not venture the Latin nomenclature.. Short-runnered Fragaria collina Ehrh. Under the latter distribution. Firmness of berry. and Hybrid (Fragaria hybrida). This increase of size seems also in a measure to have become hereditary. unless it has been gained through hybridization. Alpine strawberries.. From large-berried varieties of diminished flavor. a historical species. in its more marked aspects. and even scarcely.. otherwise expressed. if at all. Pineapple. These circumstances all lead towards establishing the mingled parentage of our varieties under cultivation. he does not recognize sufficient identity of character for general description.improved varieties. Vilmorin seems to have separated varieties into natural groupings under the headings: Wood strawberries. Fragaria vesca Linn. Aspect. 4.. Fragaria chiloensis Duch. 3.

and the Montevideo. Prince enumerates four varieties as cultivated. Prince describes eight varieties in cultivation. F. I saw good strawberries in your garden there. elatior Ehrh. Lyte. of a musky. tinged with red. F. bearing very large fruit and called in Chile quelghen. WOOD STRAWBERRY. HAUTBOIS STRAWBERRY. GARDEN STRAWBERRY. Duchesne. Europe and northern Asia. chiloensis STRAWBERRY. Prince describes the Large Scarlet Chile as imported to this country from Lima. The fruit has a musky flavor which many persons esteem. about 1840. came from the Chilean provinces of Puchacay and Huilquilemu.com . PERPETUAL Temperate regions. ALPINE STRAWBERRY." This species is mentioned by Virgil. The best quality of fruit. in his translation of Dodoens' Herball. and 14 other.swsbm. the date of the introduction of the Virginian strawberry. --------F. refers to it as growing wild in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The fruits are greenish.Page 318 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. vesca Linn. This is a dioecious strawberry. The whole subject of the influences noted and to be ascribed to -hybridization must be left for further study. when I was last in Holbom. according to Molina. pineapple flavor. Ovid and Pliny as a wild plant. Previous to 1629. this was the species generally gathered in Europe and the fruit referred to by Shakespeare: " My lord of Ely. about 1820. STRAWBERRY. collina Ehrh. GREEN STRAWBERRY. Europe. PINE Western shores of the New World.the action of hybridization. when the influence of one parent appears to have become predominant. F. rich. The plant was carried by Frezier in 1712 from Conception to Europe and from Europe was carried to the West Indies. varieties originating from this species. The French call this class of strawberries caprons.

a better berry. June 12. Fraxinus excelsior Linn. "The King of England was understood to have received the first seed from Turin. states that it was cultivated in the mediaeval period. One of the few plants indigenous in the Island of St." Roger Williams says "this berry is the wonder of all the fruits growing naturally in these parts. Helena Islands. Helena but now. Temperate regions of the Old World. The settlers on the ship Arabella. particularly northward. VIRGINIA Eastern North America. some being two inches about. Frankeniaceae. at Salem. in 1861. The Indians bruised this strawberry with meal in a mortar and made bread. so that one of the chiefest doctors of England was wont to say. This fruit was mentioned by Edward Winslow in Massachusetts in 1621. In some parts where the Indians have planted. Prince enumerates 10 varieties of the Wood. Balfour says the leaves were used in St. however. but it was a hundred years or more afterwards before attention began to be paid to improved seedlings. In Scandinavia. Wood. STRAWBERRY. SCARLET STRAWBERRY. Helena as a substitute for tea. within few miles compass. 1630. Prince. Gray says it is indigenous in the United States. Frankenia portulacaefolia Spreng.Page 319 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. De Candolle. says strawberries were in abundance. J. St.com . a use to which they are still put in Siberia. The keys of the ash were formerly pickled by steeping in salt and vinegar and were eaten as a condiment. It is of itself excellent. "verie large ones. A. under cultivation. it ripens beyond 70°." This fruit was first mentioned in England. and 15 varieties of the Alpine. F. The leaves are sometimes used to adulterate tea. 1629." It was such a rarity that a pinch of seed sold for a guinea. In 1766. went ashore and regaled themselves with strawberries. in his New England Prospects. SEA HEATH. believed to be extinct. but God never did make. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Called by the New England Indians wuttahimneask. Smith says.swsbm. ASH. Duchesne says. that God could have made. by Parkinson. I have many times seen as many as would fill a good ship.1578 and first appearing in an improved variety in cultivation about 1660. Oleaceae. Hovey's Seedling was originated in America in 1834. gives a descriptive list of 87 varieties which he refers to this species. virginiana Duchesne.

Page 320 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. likewise yield in Persia saccharine exudations. and T. Once a week the manna is collected. from which a whitish. In Styria. as Madden states.F.. of southern Oregon. A kind of manna was anciently collected from Cedrus libani Linn. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Mediterranean region and the Orient. MANNA ASH.. the leaves and branches of Pinus excelsa Wall... This tree is the melia of Dioscorides. yields a sort of exudation used by the natives. The same traveller states that Salix fragilis Linn. when the tree is exhausted and is cut down and only a shoot left. Parmelia esculenta. Australian manna is found on the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis LabilL. Larix europaea DC. The yield is about 5 pounds of select and 70 pounds of assorted manna per acre. not turpentiny. that from the second species is used as food by the natives. In Kumaun. Some believe manna to be the exudation found on the stems of Alhagi maurorum Medic.swsbm. Cunn. a native of Asia Minor. Sahara and Persia. one cut is made every day from the commencement of July to the end of September. which after four or five years becomes in turn productive. Fraxinus excelsior Linn. In Asiatic Turkey. which resembles manna. gallica Ehr. become covered with a liquid exudation which hardens into a kind of manna. mannifera Mudie and E. a shrubby plant which covers immense plains in Arabia and Palestine and which now furnishes a manna used in India. The seeds are imported into Egypt for culinary and medicinal use and are called bird tongues. which is eaten. exudes a honeyed juice which hardens and is called manna. Tamarisk manna is collected in India from the twigs of Tamarix articulata Ehr. E.. The manna of Scripture is supposed to be a Lichen.. glutinous liquor exudes spontaneously and hardens into manna. dumosa A. and is used to adulterate sugar as well as for a food by the Bedouin Arabs. When the trees are eight or ten years old... This latter manna is said to be an insect secretion and is called lerp. ornus Linn. and Scrophularia frigida Boiss. the. according to Hauss-knecht. furnishes a little manna in some districts of Sicily.com . the meleos of modern Greece. sweet. Pyrus glabra Boiss. Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Manna is collected during nine years. The manna ash is indigenous and is cultivated in Sicily and Calabria. affords in Luristan a substance which.. diarbekir manna is found on the leaves of dwarf oaks. is collected and is extremely like oak manna.

acid fruits. NARROW-LEAVED FRITILLARY. Fusanus (Eucarya) acuminatus R. Peru. The flowers. Fuchsia corymbiflora Ruiz. racemosa Lam. Fiji Islands. F. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . when roasted in embers. It produces edible. Captain Cook said he boiled and ate these roots as potatoes and found them wholesome and pleasant.swsbm. they supply the place of bread. Santo Domingo. Br. denticulata Ruiz. FUCHSIA.Page 321 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. F. Royle says the bulbs are eaten in the Himalayan region. Liliaceae. F. KAMCHATKA Eastern Asia. The bitter tubers. milnei Seem. the women collect the roots. which are used in cookery in various ways. & Pav. Santalaceae. are eagerly eaten. According to Milne. The fruit is said by J. FUCHSIA. The acid fruits are edible. Pandaneae. Western North America. lanceolata Pursh.com . Fritillaria LILY. In Kamchatka. NATIVE PEACHES. Cunn. New Zealand. This plant is said by Curl to bear the best edible fruit of the country. Peru. camschatcensis Ker-Gawl. QUANDONG NUT. says Hooker. This plant is enumerated by Dall among the useful indigenous Alaskan plants. of a sweetish taste. & Pav. F. are copiously eaten by the Indians of Sitka and are known by the name of koch. The roots are eaten by some Indians. the fruit is eaten by the Fijians. FUCHSIA. by the natives of New Zealand. Smith to be wholesome and not unpalatable.Freycinetia banksii A. Onagrarieae.

Yellow bedstraw has been used in some parts of England to curdle milk. YELLOW BEDSTRAW.Page 322 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. HUNDRED-FOLD. According to Ray. the flowering tops. G. F. The seeds are eaten as almonds. CATCH-WEED. CHEESE RENNET. Guttiferae. Galega officinalis Linn. yield an acid liquor which forms a pleasant summer drink.com . The seeds form one of the best of the substitutes for coffee. distilled with water. A plant of the Mediterranean countries. In Gerarde's time. It has no taste but is very nutritious. Compositae. Rubiaceae. Galactites tomentosa Moench.swsbm. GOAT'S RUE. described by Diodorus as an edible thistle and by Dioscorides as eaten. GOOSE GRASS. Muell. Both the succulent outer part and kernel are edible. BEDSTRAW. It has recently received attention as a possible substitute for clover. Leguminosae. cooked with oil and salt. Garcinia cambogia Desr. In France. The tender flower-stem is eaten in the region of the Dardanelles. CLEAVERS. persicarius F. Galium aparine Linn. Lindley says the fruit is as sweet and useful to the New Hollanders as almonds are to us. this plant was used to color the best Cheshire cheese. naturalized in eastern North America. BUR-WEED. Australia. Northern climates. The bark of the root of this small variety of the sandal tree is roasted by the Murray tribe of Australian natives in hot ashes and eaten. and are so used in Sweden. according to Johnson. The dried plant is sometimes used as a tea. Europe and western Asia. This European herb is recommended by Gerarde as a spinach. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . it is an inmate of the flower garden.Australia. Europe. The native name is quantong. verum Linn. while young.

The leaves are used in Amboina as a condiment for fish. of a roundish-oval figure and bright yellow hue when ripe. the fruit is eaten. The fruit is eatable but not palatable. It makes. It is about two inches in diameter. COWA. though sour. of a reddish color when ripe and has a juicy. says that it has a pleasant. purple pulp. yellowish rind and a yellow. The cowa or cowamangosteen.Page 323 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. cowa Roxb. is by far the most palatable part. The oil from the seeds has been used to adulterate butter. or pulp. China. The fruit is the size of a small apple and contains an acid. would be accounted most delicious. cochinchinensis Choisy. G. G. The fruit is about the size of a plum. The fruit resembles that of the mangosteen but is sometimes larger. East Indies. and the fruit is eaten. COWA-MANGOSTEEN East Indies. succulent. COCUM. About Bombay. In Burma. The fruit is of an exceedingly sharp but pleasant acid and the aril. smooth. The berry is the size of an apple. indica Choisy. Moluccas. however. a remarkably fine preserve. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . cornea Linn. were it not a trifling degree too acid. the fruit is eaten at meals as an appetizer. dulcis Kurz. bears a ribbed and russet apricot-colored fruit of the size of an orange and. This is a large tree of the coast region of western India known by the natives as the conca. it is called kokum. G. acid pulp. Garcia d'Orta.East Indies. G.swsbm. KOKUM.com . where cocum oil is used for adulterating ghee or butter. It is called brindas by the Portuguese at Goa. taste and that the fruit serves to make a vinegar. 1563. East Indies. and oil is obtained from the seeds. In the East Indies. with a thin. sweet pulp. The seeds are enveloped in edible pulp of a darker color than the skin and have a pleasant taste. G.

mangostana Linn. morella Desr. about two inches in diameter. sweetest essence of the tropics seems to dwell in it as it melts to your delighted taste. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . on the top of it are the figures of five or six small triangles found in a circle and at the bottom several hollow. Cook. green leaves. it hangs among its glossy leaves. Cut through the shaded green and purple of the rind. the prince of fruits. The fruit is a pulpy drupe. and lift the upper half as if it were the cover of a dish." Bayard Taylor says "beautiful to sight. G." The tree was fruited in English greenhouses in 1855. it is called men-gu. When they are to be eaten. the orange-red gum-resin of commerce. G. and the pulp of half-transparent. which are remains of the blossom. Himalayas. The plant yields an edible fruit in India. It is grown as a fruit tree in the Public Gardens cf Jamaica. Tropical Africa. East Indies and Malay. It looks too beautiful to eat. livingstonei T. of a yellow color and is esteemed as a dessert fruit. but Morris says it is cultivated for its fruit in the Public Gardens of Jamaica.Page 324 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. than which nothing can be more delicious: it is a happy mixture of the tart and the sweet. Capt. The plant furnishes the gamboge. It is cultivated in the southern and eastern parts of India but does not there attain the same perfection as it does in the Malay Archipelago. G. or rather flesh. lanceaefolia Roxb. Neither does it do well in the West Indies. smell and taste. Anders. creamy whiteness stands in segments like an orange. a small tree common in Siam and Cambodia. but rimmed with darkest crimson where the rind was cut. A fruit of the equatorial portion of the Malayan Archipelago and considered by many the most delicious of all fruits.swsbm. GAMBOGE. AFRICAN MONGOSTEEN. found it at Batavia and says "it is about the size of a crab apple and of a deep red wine-color. in 1770. which is no less wholesome than pleasant.G. It is called cochin goraka and is cultivated in the Public Gardens of Jamaica. must be taken off. In Burma. under which are found six or seven white kernels placed in a circular order and the pulp with which these are enveloped is the fruit. the skin. MONGOSTEEN. but how the rarest.

Brazil. G. The fleshy part of the fruit which covers the seeds and their juicy envelope. that it is pleasant-tasted. is in large quantity. The fruit is eaten. large. f. when ripe. East Indies and Malay. It is used by the natives in their curries and for acidulating water. acid taste. Smith. East Indies. The flowers are used for scenting tea. smooth apple of medium size. It yields edible fruit. The plant bears a round. G. Gardenia brasiliensis Spreng. Unger. oblong and immersed in pulp. is of a beautiful. The fruit is edible. G. of a firm texture and of a very sharp. an edible fruit about the size of an orange. that of native specimens received from Silhet about twice as large. This plant affords. The seeds are from one to four. African tropics. yellow color. . Drury says that its orangelike fruit is eaten.swsbm. The fruit of this species raised in Calcutta is represented as about the size of a cherry. which.Page 325 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. China. pleasant.com . ovalifolia Oliver. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Firminger says the fruit is intolerably acid. f. The fruit is very handsome and in taste is little inferior to many of our apples.G. gummifera Linn. xanthochymus Hook. pedunculata Roxb. Himalayan region. Himalayan region.or aril. paniculata Roxb. G. Rubiaceae. G. according to J. jasminoides Ellis. The fruit is eaten in the Circar Mountains of India.

Northwest Pacific Coast. TEA BERRY. resinosa Torr. Vacciniaceae. The fruit is much esteemed by the Indians of the northwest coast and is dried and eaten in winter. rather acid and is used for puddings. The fruit is large. bluish. The leaves are made into a tea by the Indians of Maine.swsbm. aromatic. CHECKER BERRY. In the southern states. Ericaceae. BLACK HUCKLEBERRY.Garuga pinnata Roxb. G. the berries are eaten. Gaultheria myrsrinites Hook. procumbens WINTERGREEN. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . BLUE TANGLE. The berries are globular. North America. and is said to be delicious. Gaylussacia frondosa Torr. Gastrodia cunninghamii Hook. they are pleasantly aromatic and are relished by children. The oil is used for flavoring. & Gray. The aromatic. This plant has several varieties and occurs in woodlands and swamps in northeast America. G. Burseraceae.Page 326 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. who call it peri. acid berries are rather agreeable to the taste. & Gray. The berries are often offered for sale in the markets of Boston. North America. Linn. G. PERI-ROOT. Orchideae. The root of this orchid is eaten by the natives of New Zealand. Malay and East Indies. The fruit is scarlet.com . and Emerson says are more valued in market than those of other species. DWARF HUCKLEBERRY. it is about 18 inches long. shallon Pursh. f. Northern California and Oregon. of a shining black color. The fruit is sweet and edible according to Gray. DANGLEBERRY. Northeastern America. as thick as the finger and full of starch. New Zealand. The fruit is eaten raw and pickled. SALAL.

frozen and then allowed to thaw in the sun. It is an inmate of the flower garden in France. the solution is strained and allowed to set to a jelly in wooden boxes. One part will make a firm jelly with 150 parts of water. In Japan. KANTEEN. Genista tinctoria WOODWAXEN. G. kanteen. and in Switzerland an esteemed liquor is prepared from it. The root contains sugar and mucilage. SHEPHERD'S JOY. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The jelly is cut into long prisms. Gentiana campestris Linn. Linnaeus says the poorer people of Sweden use this species as a hop to brew with their ale. Guiana and other tropical countries for its large. Europe.swsbm. Europe in the region of the Caucasus.Geitonoplesium (Luzuriaga) cymosum (Philesiaceae).Page 327 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. greenish-white. The cleansed plant is boiled in water. The buds are pickled and used in sauces as a caper substitute. Gentianeae. GENIPAP. The fruit is as large as an orange and has an agreeable flavor. Linn. YELLOW GENTIAN. or vegetable isinglass. edible fruit. according to Mueller. The young shoots offer a fine substitute for asparagus. Rubiaceae. Leguminosae. This seaweed occurs almost everywhere.com . In Surinam. South America. A. DYER'S-BROOM. Europe and Asia Minor. it is called marmalade box. lutea Linn. MARMALADE BOX. Cunn. The water runs away as the thawing proceeds. This plant is cultivated in Brazil. GENTIAN. Liliaceae Islands of the Pacific and east Australia. Genipa americana Linn. Gelidium comeum Lam. is prepared from it. Algae. leaving a white skeleton of kanteen. which is eaten.

Page 328 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Australia and New Zealand. The young shoots are used as a vegetable. Rosaceae. Northern temperate regions. Java. This bamboo in Java attains a height of 70 feet and is extensively cultivated. NATIVE CARROT. Leguminosae. The young shoots afford a culinary vegetable. northern Asia and Australia. G. Geum rivale Linn. It is the almandora of the Amazon. WATER AVENS.swsbm. the roots. & Bonpl. AVENS. G. Geraniaceae. according to Lindley. ALMENDOR. PURPLE AVENS. The root. the perennial root shaped like a carrot. is used as an ingredient in some ales. G. The taste of the kernel is not unlike that of boiled beans.Geoffraea superba Humb. called native carrots. Northern temperate regions. BAMBOO. are used as food. Malay.com . BAMBOO. GERANIUM. urbanum Linn. whether Indian or Brazilian. AUSTRALIAN Europe. HERB BENNETT. Geranium dissectum Linn. robusta Kurz. In almost every house. Gardner says this plant produces a fleshy drupe about the size of a walnut which is called umari by the Indians. The young shoots are used as a vegetable. which was eaten by the natives. Drummond saw a species in Swan River Colony. he observed a large pot of this fruit being prepared. BAMBOO. Java. Gramineae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . INDIAN CHOCOLATE. Johnson says this plant was often used in olden times to flavor ale and other liquors. In Tasmania. ater Kurz. CLOVE-ROOT. South America. This bamboo attains the height of a hundred feet. Gigantochloa apus Kurz.

the seeds furnish an oil used for eating and burning. The fruit of the maiden-hair tree is called in China pa-kwo. In Japan. Gigartina lichnoides Harvey. The fruit of the ginko is sold in the markets in all Chinese towns and is not unlike dried almonds. This tree.G. The bulb-like roots are edible and taste like chestnuts when roasted. is cultivated as an ornamental tree both in this country and in Europe. although it is rarely eaten by Europeans.com .swsbm. pulpy substance. The plant grows to a height of 120 feet. fuller and more round. edible and fit for burning. Asia and North America. Ginkgo biloba Linn. The natives seem very fond of it. China and Japan. sweet. native of the region about the Mississippi and its tributaries. only whiter. The pods contain numerous seeds enveloped in a sweet. Leguminosae. verticillata Munro. Porcher says a beer is sometimes made by fermenting the sweet pods STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Gleditsia triacanthos Linn. Java. Ceylon moss is a seaweed much used in the East as a nutritive article of food and for giving consistence to other dishes. This plant furnishes an inodorous and insipid oil of a clear yellow color.Page 329 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. MAIDENHAIR TREE. the shells being dyed red. It is of a very gelatinous nature and when boiled down is almost wholly convertible into jelly. Irideae. Papaveraceae. GINKO. North America. This is one of the most extensively cultivated of ail Asiatic bamboos. Glaucium flavum Crantz. The young shoots are used as a culinary vegetable. The Chinese consume the nuts of this tree at weddings. with stems nearly a foot thick. CEYLON MOSS. Algae. EDIBLE GLADIOLUS. HONEY LOCUST. they have a fishy taste. BAMBOO. South Africa. This tree is largely cultivated as an ornamental in Europe. from which a sugar is said to have been extracted. Coniferae (Ginkgoaceae). Gladiolus edulis Burch.

com . Rutaceae.swsbm. China and Japan. were obtained from Japan and distributed through the agency of the Patent Office. COFFEE BEAN. it has been cultivated as an oil plant.. wheat. 1704.9 who was in Japan in 1690. Japan. it is called miso. records that Shen nung. It also seems to be mentioned by Ray. its seeds have appeared among the novelties in our seed catalogs. Northern temperate regions. P. he gives considerable space to this plant.3 According to Von Heer. Mongolia.. Glycine soja Sieb. SOJA BEAN. This bean is much cultivated in tropical Asia for its seeds. two varieties. In 1854. Seeds were brought from Japan to America by the Perry Expedition on its return and were distributed from the United States Patent Office in 1854. 127-200 explains that these five cereals were rice. fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. FLOAT GRASS. Br. In France.Page 330 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The use of this bean as a vegetable is also recorded in authors of the fifth. In his account of his travels. The first European mention of the soja bean is by Kaempfer. JAMAICA MANDARIN ORANGE. Glyceria fluitans R.and the other red-seeded. miliaceum Linn. Of late. This bean is much cultivated in China and Cochin China. MANNA GRASS. Glycosmis pentaphylla Correa. seeds were distributed in 1855. SOY BEAN. Panicum italicum Linn. Martens described 13 varieties. POLAND MANNA. samples of the seed were shown among the agricultural productions of China. In Japan. The seeds of this grass are collected on the continent and sold as manna seeds for making puddings and gruel. There are a large number of varieties. Java and the East Indies. sowed the five cereals. 2800 B. one white. At the late Vienna Exposition. which are used as food in India. and another writing of A. a Chinese writing of 163-85 B. Professor Haberland says this plant has been cultivated from early ages and that it grows wild in the Malay Archipelago. Of late. Transcaucasia and India.4 it is cultivated in Poland. Gramineae. and the soja bean. In 1869.while fresh. C. It is an ingredient of the sauce known as soy. & Zucc. Tropical Asia and Australia. D. Leguminosae. Tropical Asia. C. According to Bretschneider. This Asiatic tree is noted for the delicious STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .

Russia and central Asia. From the root of this herb. G. The leaves. G. Verbenaceae. the eatable part is yellow. WILD LICORICE. roasted. The fruit is the size of a small peach. northern Africa and Persia. not very juicy.Page 331 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. LICORICE. a portion of the Italian licorice is prepared. cooked and eaten as spinach. Gmelina arborea Roxb. North America. Tropical India and Burma. boiled or fried. This is a large tree of Chile called queule or keule. The root is eaten by the Indians of Alaska and the northwestern states.swsbm.flavor of its fruit. Glycyrrhiza asperrima Linn. Germany and the north of France. This plant is cultivated in England. G. f. Gnetum gnemon Linn. Gomortega nitida (Gomortegaceae) Ruiz & Pav. Malay. The ripe fruit is eaten. Pallas says the leaves are used by the Kalmucks as a substitute for tea. Licorice root is used in medicine and in brewing porter. Gnetaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . but is of a most excellent and grateful taste. echinata Linn. WILD LICORICE. South Europe. The yellow drupe is eaten by the Gonds of the Satpura who protect the tree near villages. The seeds are eaten in Amboina. The Russian licorice root is of this species. Southern Europe and the Orient. called nakhalsa are employed by the Mongols as substitutes for tea. glabra Linn. WILD LICORICE. lepidota Pursh. and the green leaves are a favorite vegetable. It is the mandarin orange of Jamaica and is grown as a fruit tree in the Public Gardens of Jamaica. Leguminosae.

Anonaceae. Asclepiadeae. & Am. Tropical Asia. According to Tweedie. and is eaten by the natives. Ochnaceae. f. During the War of the Rebellion. Piso says the carpels are astringent and are not only eaten raw. It abounds in Burma and is of superior quality on the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Tropical America. The oil expressed from the fruit is used for salads. South America. the seed having been parched and ground. Gonolobus hispidus Hook. Gouania domingensis Linn. Harv.Gomphia jabotapita Sw. This seaweed is highly valued for food in Ceylon and other islands of the East. CHAW-STICK. Gourliea chilensis Clos. Brazil. & Thorns. resembling a toad. Ceylon. The stems are used for flavoring cooling beverages.Page 332 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. AGAR-AGAR. The pod is described by Tweedie as being very large. Goniothalamus walkeri Hook. Leguminosae. parviflora DC. G.swsbm. ANGLE-POD. West Indies. This plant is called chanar or chanal in Chile and Buenos Aires. COTTON. Algae. Malvaceae. They are chewed by the Singhalese. BUTTON TREE.com . but that an oil is expressed from them. Tropical South America. BUTTON TREE. Rhamneae. which is used in salads. Gracilaria lichenoides L. The roots are very fragrant and are said to contain camphor. Gossypium herbaceum Linn. CHANAL. the pulp of the fruit is used in flavoring sweet wines. CHANAR. Coast of Ceylon and the opposing portion of the Malayan Archipelago. cotton seed came into some use as a substitute for coffee. The oil expressed from the seed makes a fine salad oil and is also used for cooking and as a butter substitute.

Chile. The berries have a pleasant. The bark of this tree is also employed for making rope. Firminger says the pea-sized fruits. are sour and uneatable. G. East Indies. Bromeliaceac. on account of their pleasant. are greedily eaten by children. says Brandis. pulpy fruits. Tropical Africa. The natives. says Drummond. Tropical Asia. Tiliaceae. Grevillea sp. Hindustan. yellow. G. is called karanto on the Bassi hills of India and is eaten. Masters says the small. acid taste. hirsuta Vahl. pleasantly acid fruit.Tenasserim Coast. The black fruit is edible. acid taste and are used for sherbets. SILK-BARK OAK. with a stone in the center. pilosa Lam. red fruits. collect the flowers and suck the honey from them. megalocarpa Beauv. has a large. probably this.swsbm. G. G. spicate inflorescence nearly a foot long. The sweet. for the small. are commonly used in India for flavoring sherbets. They call the plant woadjar.Page 333 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Greigia sphacelata Regel. The fruit of a shrub.-Ham. Australia. East Indies and tropical Africa. Grewia asiatica Linn. They are also eaten.? Proteaceae. This plant is cultivated in India. A species at Swan River Colony. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . called chupon.com . oppositifolia Buch. acid taste and are used for making sherbets. The berries have a pleasant. not very succulent. A shrub or small tree whose pleasant. acid fruit is much used for making sherbets.

scabrophylla Roxb. This plant is cultivated to a limited extent in extreme southern Florida. & K. G. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . villosa Wild. subacid fruit is eaten in India. East Indies and tropical Africa. G. is eaten in Sind. The fruit. Guazuma tomentosa H. B. Tropics of Asia and Africa. The fruits are pear-shaped. G. salvifolia Heyne. BASTARD CEDAR. much used for sherbets. East Indies. G. Grias cauliflora Linn.com . Myrtaceae PEAR. which they resemble in taste.G. sapida Roxb. edible pulp and is eaten in India. the size of a gooseberry. it is called gangee. is eaten in India and is used for sherbets. ANCHOVY West Indies. Sterculiaceae. where it is called gwigo. The fruit. dry. where it forms a high tree. The fruit is of the size of a cherry. is of an agreeable. Himalayan region. East Indies.swsbm. acid flavor. the size of a pea. Its drupe. with a scanty but pleasant pulp. populifolia Vahl. The anchovy pear is a native of Jamaica. This plant bears a small but palatable fruit. with a sweet.Page 334 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. tiliaefolia Vahl. G. russet-brown drupes and when young are pickled like the mango. Himalayan region and Burma. In the Punjab. The small. It has for a long time been cultivated in plant houses for the sake of its magnificent foliage. (Lecythidaceae).

which can be sucked with pleasure. RAMTIL. eat the stalks. nothing can erase the color. the fruit is eaten by the negroes. says Lunan. Chile.com . Br. Gustavia speciosa DC. with the young and still undeveloped flower-buds.Page 335 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Asia Minor and Persia. Gymnema lactiferum R. ulmifolia Lam. In France. Halorageae (Gunneraceae). BASTARD CEDAR. is brought to the market of Jerusalem under the name cardi and is sought after as a vegetable. after it remains 24 or 48 hours. New Granada. Myrtaceae (Lecythidaceae). It is much used for dressing food in Mysore. which is said by Drury to be very agreeable to the taste. The leaves are sometimes nearly eight feet in diameter. introduced into India. The fruit is filled with mucilage. The young plant. and. This oil is sweet and is used as a condiment and as a burning oil. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The acidulous leaf-stalks serve as a vegetable. says Darwin. Gunnera chilensis Lam. Gundelia tournefortii Linn. Syria. according to Humboldt and Bonpland. it is grown as an ornament. bland like that of sesame and called ramtil. which are subacid. This plant is a native of Abyssinia. The small fruits of this tree. Compositae. where it is cultivated. says St. is hard and woody but is filled with a mucilage of a sweet and agreeable taste. In Jamaica. and the stalk is rather more than a yard high. It is called panke. Tropical Africa. Compositae. The plant somewhat resembles rhubarb on a gigantic scale. cause the body of the eater to turn yellow. Hilaire. either raw or boiled as a green. especially the thick stem. The fruit.West Indies. G. This thistle is grown abundantly in Palestine and is similar to the artichoke. Tropical America. Guizotia abyssinica Case.swsbm. The inhabitants. Asclepiadeae. as well as in India. COW PLANT. which yield an oil to pressure. for the sake of its seeds.

com . the leaves are eaten by the natives. Gynandropsis pentaphylla DC. and the seeds are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. North America. f.Page 336 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. vellea Linn. This is the cow plant of Ceylon. ROCK TRIPE. Anacardiaceae. CHICOT. This lichen forms a pleasanter food than the other species of this genus. requires repeated boilings to make it palatable. G. ROCK TRIPE. The fruit has a pleasant. Tropical Africa. is often cultivated for ornamental purposes. Franklin says. Leguminosae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .East Indies and Malay. Compositae. In India. Ach. from its being a little bitterish. NICKER-TREE. STUMP TREE. This plant is a well-known esculent in the Upper Nile and throughout equatorial Africa as far as the Congo. BLOOD PLUM. In size and shape it is similar to a grape. are said to be wholesome and slightly aperient. The seeds were employed by the early settlers of Kentucky as a substitute for coffee. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. The pods. the leaves are employed as food. which occurs in the northern United States and in Canada. Gynura sarmentosa DC. when boiled with fish-roe or other animal matter. where it is said to yield a mild and copious milk.swsbm. Capparideae (Cleomaceae). Gyrophora muhlenbergii Ach. Haematostaphis barteri Hook. subacid flavor when ripe. this lichen is agreeable and nutritious and is eaten by the natives. Malay. In China. KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE. Lichenes. it is considered a wholesome plant but. Cold regions. This tree. In Jamaica. preserved like those of the tamarind. Arctic climates. Cosmopolitan tropics.

Hamamelideae. This plant has the same properties as the cresses. Halesia tetraptera Linn. SUNFLOWER. LICORICE-ROOT.com . The source of such statements. Drummond says seven or eight species furnish roots which are eaten by the natives. Mackenzie River. WILD OLIVE. but Gray has never heard of the seeds being eaten. They are about the size of a grain of barley and have a thick.Page 337 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. flexible roots'which taste sweet like licorice and are much eaten in the spring by the natives but become woody and lose their juiciness and crispness as the season advances. Apocynaceae. streaked a little with red on. Hancornia speciosa Gomez. Heldreichia kotschyi Boiss. SILVER-BELL TREE. This is the licorice-root of the trappers of the Northwest and is also used as a food by the Indians of Alaska. appears to be the Medical Flora of the eccentric Rafinesque. The flavor is most delicious. Styraceae. Australia. WITCH-HAZEL. Helianthus animus Linn. The kernels are oily and eatable. The roots of all the species are acrid when raw but mild and nutritious when roasted. bony coat. this plant furnishes long. The seeds are used as food. Cilicia.swsbm. Brazil. Hartt says the fruit is very delicious. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . one side. who says the nuts are called pistachio nuts in the Southern States. says Lindley. North America.? Haemodoraceae. Richardson says at Fort Good Hope. Leguminosae. writes Gray. Compositae. Cruciferae.Haemodorum sp. Gardner says the fruit is about the size of a large plum. Hamamelis virginiana Linn. MANGABA. Hedysarum mackenzii Richards. The ripe fruit is eaten by some people and when green is sometimes made into a pickle. says Balfour. North Carolina to Texas. At Swan River. Northeastern United States.

when treated like flax. says Gray. the carefully dried leaf is much used locally for a tobacco. produces a silky fiber of excellent quality. is most probably. Other botanists ascribe its origin to Mexico and Peru. In Landeshut. boiled and eaten with butter. 1749. The seeds are also said to be valuable as a food for sheep. In Russia. The green leaves make excellent fodder. is said to grow the plant at Sevenoaks. the original of the Jerusalem artichoke. in. for the purpose of feeding his stock. and Sir Alien Crockden. an exceeding pleasant meat. after the manner of artichokes. and in some parts the whole seed is roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. and pepper have the like property. The stalk. writes: "We have found by triall. Kalm. saw the common sunflower cultivated by the Indians at Loretto. The seeds are said to be boiled and eaten in Tartary. the sunflower was seen by Champlain among the Hurons." In Russia. from which about 50 gallons of oil are expressed and the oil-cake is said to be superior to that from linseed for the feeding of cattle.swsbm. The same buds with the stalks neere unto the top (the hairness being taken away) broiled upon a gridiron and afterwards eaten with oile. the finer kinds being made into tea-cakes.Page 338 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. England. doronicoides Lam North America. H. they are ground into a meal.com . that the buds before they be flowered. Gerarde. The seed-receptacles are made into blotting paper and the inner part of the stalk into a fine writing paper in the manufactories of the province. in their maize fields. dried and burned to powder. the seeds were mixed with thin sagamite or maize soup. This plant is said by Pickering to be a native of western America and is called in Mexico chimalati. Germany. surpassing the artichoke far in procuring bodily lust. Canada. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The dried seeds are pounded into a cake and eaten by the Indians of the Northwest. this plant yields about 50 bushels of seed per acre. This oil is used for culinary purposes in many places in Russia. for milch cows. in England. are valuable. The leaves.North America. In 1615. vinegar and pepper. This coarse species with showy heads. vinegar. of river bottoms from Ohio to Illinois and southward. mixed with bran. Gray says it probably belongs to the warmer parts of North America. Brewer and Watson say in all probability the wild sunflower of the California plains is the original of the cultivated sunflower and that the seeds are now used by the Indians as food.

H. 1629. parvo flore. Canada & Artichoki sub terra." In 1863. 1883. H. tuberosa radice. Par. Park. 1877. palatable food. Ger. "not much cultivated. Ray. It is figured by Columna. Col. 1623.2 We offer a synonymy as below: Flos Solis Farnesianus sive Aster Peruanus tubercosus. says. in 1775. 13. among other names. Potatoes of Canada. and April. Jerusalem artichoke. giganteus Linn. purple. 277. 1632. makes the first use found of the name Jerusalem artichoke. Peruanus solis flos ex Indiis tuberosus." Mawe. Gookin found the natives mixing Jerusalem artichokes in their pottage. Gray thinks that this esculent originated in the valley of the Mississippi from the species of sunflower. GIANT SUNFLOWER. Battatas de Canada.Page 339 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Bryant. says it is by many esteemed. 1778. 1633. Col." In 1806. Townsend says "it is a Root fit to be eat about Christmas when it is boiled. 1625.com . The sunflower reached Europe in the early part of the seventeenth century. Pin. in 1648 and at Mobile. though Parkinson used the word in 1640. 1632. in Hern. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 1596.swsbm. 1657. Lauremb. as it is not mentioned in Bauhin's Phytopinax. They were growing in Virginia. 132. tuberosus Linn. doronicoides. Heliotropium indicum. Alabama. is considered to be a corruption of the Italian Girasoli articocco. sunflower artichoke. 881. and also by Laurembergius. 878. 1623. In 1727.H. 1616. he calls it Crysanthemum e Canada quibusdam. The history of the Jerusalem artichoke has been well treated by Gray and Trumbull in the American Journal of Science. Burr describes varieties with white. Flos Solis pyramidalis. Lam. 1686. The Choctaws use the seeds ground to a flour and mixed with maize flour for making a very palatable bread. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . May. Aldinus. The name. Adenes Canadenses sen flos solis glandulosus. McMahon speaks of it in American gardens and calls it "a wholesome. In New England. 1783. Helianthemum indicum tuberosum. 91. and is mentioned in his Pinax. Bauh. It was cultivated by the Huron Indians. red and yellow-skinned tubers. Coles. i6i6. according to Gray. 1651. sen flore Farnesiano Fabii Columnae. aliis. Eastern North America. It was found in culture at the Lew Chew Islands about 1853. where. De Solis flore tuberoso. North America.

Helianthus tuberosus. HOTTENTOT TEA. Northern Asia. B. Chrysanthemum perenne majus fol. Araliaceae (Helwingiaceae). Helichrysum serpyllifolium Less. Ray 335. The young leaves. H. H. Scitamineae (Heliconiaceae). Cat. In the West Indies. Amman. FALSE South America. Linn. the fields for miles along the road on either side are almost uniformly golden-yellow. PARROT'S PLANTAIN. Linn. Clayton. In certain sections of the Island of Yezo. Corona solis parvo flore. Chrysanthemum latifolium Brasilianum. psittacorum Linn. South Africa. f. P. Helenium Canadense. Helianthus radice tuberosa esculenta. to give testimony bearing upon the flavor and desirable qualities of flowers and buds from various species of Hemerocallis. Bauh. Heliconia bihai PLANTAIN. 489. R. 1630. americanum tuberum. South America. Jerusalem Artichoke. Prod. Hemerocallis sp.swsbm. integris. the shoots are eaten. says Balfour. MOT. Helianthus foliis ovato cordatis triplinervus. these plants are very abundant and. This plant is used as a tea substitute under the name of Hottentot tea. H. Helwingia rusciflora Willd. i686. the young shoots are eaten by the natives. tuberosa radice. particularly on the pumice formation of the east coast. 1672. says Penhallow. 1762. 1763.Canada & Artischokki sub terra. 1676. Chrysanthemum Canadense arumosum. 1719. are used in Japan as an esculent. Japan. 1671. In the West Indies. 1739. It is somewhat difficult. at the time of blossoming.com .? Liliaceae. 70. Sp. Compositae. 129. L. DAY LILY. Gronov. 1665. Tourn. At such times the Aino women may be seen busily STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1277.Page 340 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Virg. Hierusalem Artichoke.

The young shoots are filled with a sweet. Melastomaceae. This species furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value. YELLOW COW PARSNIP. H. H. The flowers are eaten as a relish with meat. In China. minor Mill. COW PARSNIP. Subarctic America. the young leaves are eaten and appear to intoxicate or stimulate to some extent. This plant is used as a food and. They are afterwards used in soups. Guiana. in Kamchatka. Northern Asia. sibiricum Linn. AMERICAN COW PARSNIP. aromatic juice and are eaten raw by the natives of the Caucasus. a spirit called raka is prepared from it. The roots and young stems are eaten by some of the tribes along the Pacific and it is also used by the Crees of the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains as a potherb. In France. flavescens Baumg. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The root is black. sweet scented and is used as angelica by the Sicilians. Umbelliferae. The plant furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value. Sicily. Melastomaceae. pubescens Bieb. H. H.Page 341 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.engaged gathering the flowers which they take home to dry or pickle in salt. DOWNY COW PARSNIP. Henriettea succosa DC. H. it is grown in the flower garden. This species is said by Vilmorin to be a native of Siberia and to be grown in French flower gardens. Heracleum cordatum Presl.swsbm. Henriettella flavescens Triana. lanatum Michx. Guinea. where it is native.com .

Liliaceae. Gray. says Johnson.swsbm. The young shoots and leaves may be boiled and eaten as a green vegetable and." The young succulent stems. The plant grows naturally in sandy places near hedges and produces abundantly. The bulb is eaten by the California Indians. It is more especially grown for ewes than for any other kind of stock. when a sweet substance resembling sugar forms upon them.Page 342 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Herpestis (Bacopa) monnieria H. Cosmopolitan tropics. Chile. a spirit is distilled from the stalks. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the color is yellow. are occasionally eaten as a salad in the outer Hebrides. resemble asparagus in flavor. B. These stalks are much used. In Russia and Siberia. the leaf-stalks are dried in the sun and tied up in close bundles. "use to make drinks with the decoction of this herb and leven or some other thing made of meale. they forma kind of beer. Europe. In 1854. The people of Ploonia and Lithuania says Gerarde. H. The Indians eat this herb in their soups. & K. COW PARSNIP. Hesperocallis undulata A. The bulbs are frequently six inches long and three broad.com . either alone or mixed with bilberries. sphondylium Linn. WATER HYSSOP. in some parts of Asiatic Russia. this plant is sown in April and the next year yields an immense amount of foliage to be used as fodder. seed from Germany was distributed from the United States Patent Office. after being stripped of their envelope. In Lithuania and Siberia. H. Captain Cook says this plant was formerly a principal ingredient in the cookery of most of the Kamchatka dishes but since the Russians got possession of the country it has been almost entirely appropriated to the purpose of distillation. Scrophulareaceae. tuberosum Molina. northern Asia and western North America. which is eaten as a great delicacy. which is used instead of beere and other ordinaire drinks. when just sprouting from the ground. fermented. until they acquire a yellow color. Mexico.In Prussia. the taste is pleasant.

and is included among garden vegetables by McMahon. In the south of France. The green pods may be preserved for winter use by cutting them in halves. The leaves serve as a sorrel spinach. DECKANER HEMP. okra is largely cultivated and the leaves are used as a demulcent. About Constantinople. are also said to furnish a palatable substitute for coffee. familiarly known as the bendi-kai. H. In the southern United States. or stewed and served like asparagus. GOBO. GOMBO. Brazil and Guiana.com . is much esteemed for imparting a mucilaginous thickening to soups. on account of their slimy nature. Okra is mentioned by Kalm.swsbm. OKRA. as growing in gardens in Philadelphia. Its seeds form one of the best coffee substitutes known. 1748.Page 343 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. are not generally in favor with Europeans. okra has long been a favorite vegetable. the pods. but Firminger states that. In India. though of an agreeable flavor.Hibiscus cannabinus Linn. digitatus Cav. reached Surinam before 1686 and is mentioned by Hughes for Barbados in 1750. sliced in soups and similar dishes. to which they impart a thick. viscous or gummy consistency. and all succeeding writers on American gardening. for the sake of its leaves as its fibers. Malvaceae. Schweinfurth found its seed pods a favorite vegetable in Nubia and the plant perfectly wild on the White Nile. stringing and drying them. The stem yields a hemp-like fiber sometimes called Indian hemp. says Drury. or when cold made into a salad. the capsule. The ripe seeds. OCRA. The young leaves and pods are also occasionally STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Okra has become distributed as a plant of cultivation from Khartum and Sennar throughout Egypt to Palestine and elsewhere. BASTARD JUTE. GUMBO. INDIAN HEMP. H. okra is cultivated for its pods. or bastard jute. is mentioned by Jefferson as cultivated in Virginia before 1781. the green pods being used when quite young. The green seed pods are used in soups. Old World tropics. Tropical Africa. 1806. The plant is used as a vegetable. and the young pods are often gathered green and pickled like capers. washed and ground. Deckaner hemp. (Abelmoschus) esculentus Linn. It is as much cultivated. It was carried from Africa to Brazil before 1658.

. The stalks of the plant are used for the manufacture of paper. cum ic. c. In Clus. who visited Egypt in 1216. in others. Malva rosea sive hortensis. not thicker than a man's finger. names but two sorts. a native of Seville. 1648. 31. the last only. Honorius bellus. concerning variety. one pendant-podded and one tall and white-podded. Bras. Ketmia americana annua flore albo. and not more than two or three inches long. represents the type of pod of the varieties usually to be found in our gardens. Cum ic. he remarks. Bauh. 2:951. 1617. 211.Page 344 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in Jamaica. in some. Bras. 2:311. This plant offers a highly esteemed vegetable in southern States and is quite frequently.. 1814. however. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The Spanish Moors appear to have been well acquainted with this plant. but plants are occasionally to be found bearing pods which resemble those figured in the above list. Ap. In 1863.. Of these. 1658. Rauwolf. 1. 1651. however. are justified: Trionum theophrasti. in others. Piso. Miller's Dictionary. fructu non sulcato longissimo. in Ap. Abul-Abbas el-Nebati. the H. at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Bamia alessandrina. Vilmorin. as in the regions where its culture is particularly affected there is a paucity of writers. which last. pulverized and stored in bottles for future use. cultivated in northern gardens for use of the pods in soups and stews. Alcea aegyptia Clusius Hist. Dur. in some. Hort. 1601. Don describes a species. learned in plants. 2:27. Cum ic. The references to this plant in the early botanies are not numerous and the synonymies offered are often incorrect. bammia Link. Cum ic. 1885.. C. 1857. speaks of the pods being of different size and form in the varieties. describes in unmistakable terms the form of the plant.com . is eaten when young and tender with meal by the Egyptians. Quingombo. Med. very thick. Cum ic. but neither generally nor extensively. 31. varieties were grown under 11 different names and from these there were three distinct sorts only. rather inclined. Marcg. J. 1807. Commelyn.swsbm. The following. and five or six inches long. mentions that there are different forms of pods in different varieties. which was known to them by the name of bamiyah. Lunan. erect. its seeds and fruit. that of Commelyn. to Dalechamp. In 1885. There is little recorded. with very long pods. Burr describes four varieties in American gardens. 1701. 150. In 1831. the long-fruited and the round-fruited. Cum ic.dried. two dwarfs.

hirtus Linn. the leaves make a spinach and the seeds are eaten roasted. H. African tropics and East Indies. rosa-sinensis Linn. H. or fermented into a cooling beverage. East Indies and Malay. with the help of sugar. the red and white. micranthus Linn. f. Roselle is now rather STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 345 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. jellies and tarts are made of the calyces and capsules freed from the seeds as also in Burma. are cultivated in most gardens of Jamaica for the flowers which are made. CHINESE HIBISCUS. the red and the white. maculatus Lam. it is cultivated for its bark. H. The people of India and China.H. Santo Domingo. furcatus Willd. Tropics of Asia and Australia. seeds and leaves. There are two kinds. Old World tropics. INDIAN SORREL. Old World tropics. This species furnishes a vegetable of Bengal and the East Indies. Roselle is now cultivated in most gardens of India. Two varieties. H.swsbm. H. This species of hibiscus is used as a vegetable. In Unyoro and Ugani. interior Africa. prepare a kind of pickle from the petals of the flowers. This is a well-known ornament of our hot-houses. In Malabar. ficulneus Linn.com . It is used as a vegetable. The most delicious puddings and tarts. as well as a remarkably fine jelly. H. into very agreeable tarts and jellies. Old World tropics. This plant is used for food purposes. This species is cultivated in Egypt as a vegetable. ROSELLE. sabdariffa Linn. are made of the thick. The bark makes beautiful but short cordage. succulent sepals which envelope the fruit.

yellowish-white. In China. Nepal. Its fruit is of rich brown.Page 346 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. grahamii Wight. salicifolia D. Elaeagnaceae. The Tahitians suck the bark when the breadfruit harvest is unproductive. and the New Caledonians eat it. H. a sauce is made of the berries. Old World tropics. In India. This plant is a gigantic climber bearing immense. ROSE OF SHARON. SALLOW THORN.commonly grown in Florida. & Thomas. Santo Domingo and West Indies. In some districts of France. though not very agreeable in flavor. to be eaten with fish and meat. while the inhabitants of the Gulf of Bothnia prepare from them an agreeable jelly which they use as a condiment with their fish.swsbm. Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. is eaten by children in England. the fruit is made into a condiment. f. the leaves are sometimes made into tea or eaten when young. whose kernels. Cucurbitaceae. H. syriacus Linn. Europe and temperate Asia. The fruit is eaten in the Himalayas.com . H. Himalayan regions. Hodgsonia heteroclita Hook. Hippocratea comosa Sw. The seeds are oily and sweet. tiliaceus Linn. SEA BUCKTHORN. The fruit is acid and. In Kunawar. Burma and Malay. SEA BUCKTHORN. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . pendulous blossoms. The Siberians and Tartars make a jelly from the berries and eat them with milk and cheese. the seed is edible. called katior-pot by the Lepchas. are eaten. East Indies. Don. H. Celastrineae.

Koch. This is the common barley of cultivation and occurs in numerous varieties. Aristotle. Holboellia latifolia Wall.com . Barley was cultivated. Berberideae (Lardizabalaceae). and the Romans were acquainted with the two. it was considered an ignominious food by the Romans. as a sacred grain and was exclusively used in sacrifices and in the great festival held every year at Eleusis in honor of agriculture. The flour of barley was the food of the Jewish soldiers. Mexico. the Cimbri. This is one of the two-rowed barleys cultivated in Arabia and Abyssinia. Common barley. C. Kotschy. Pliny terms it antiquissimum frumentum. says Heer. Forster reports it as wild in the region near the confluence of the Samara and the Volga. and the Greeks with these varieties and the bere barley. It appears on the coins of the early Britons and was not only the grain from which their progenitors. says Pickering. made their bread but from which they made their favorite beverage. Isis. Meyer found it growing wild between Lenkoran and Baku. C..and the six-lined barley. This is the kole-pot of the Lepchas.Page 347 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. tuberous rootstock. Herodotus describes beer made from barley as among the drinks of the Egyptians in his day. Barley was long the grain most extensively cultivated in England. at the time of the invention of writing and standing crops are figured under the fifth. came to Europe by the way of Egypt. in South Persia. Parent of cultivated forms. and Pliny. on the Steppes of Schirwan in the southeast of the Caucasus. Gramineae. BARLEY. H. and 1680 B. 450 B.Hoffmanseggia stricta Benth. Leguminosae. The Egyptians claimed that barley was the first of the cereals made use of by man and trace its introduction to their goddess. Himalayan regions. C.. This herb has an esculent. seventh and seventeenth dynasties of Egypt. It is mentioned as among the things that were destroyed by the plagues of Egypt. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . or about 2440 B. This plant is called gophia and the fruit is eaten. according to Suetonius. C.swsbm. Hordeum deficiens Steud. RED SEA BARLEY. but. beer. the fruit is eaten in Sikkim but is mealy and insipid. Barley was in all times considered by the Greeks. the most ancient cereal. distichon Linn. says Unger. 1800 B. Abyssinia.

however. There are now in cultivation numerous varieties referred to this form. The seeds are especially in request among the Shoshones of southern Oregon.swsbm. are smaller and shorter than those now grown. vulgare Linn. Jews and East Indians in the earliest times and grains of it are found in the mummies of the Egyptian catacombs. each row has generally ten or eleven grains. Its awned spikes are dangerous to cattle. In the ears from Wangen. It appears to have been cultivated in the New Netherlands in 1626. jubatum Linn.Strabo and Diodorus mention beer. Xenophon. This barley is supposed by Lindley to be a domesticated form of H. it has been grown in small patches. WINTER BARLEY. MANED BARLEY. SQUIRREL-TAIL BARLEY. SIX-LINED BARLEY. according to Dall. 400 B. or big barley. BIG BARLEY. in 1606. about A. says beer was the common drink of the Germans. barley was growing at Lynn. Dioscorides and others. distichon. Tacitus. In 1629-33. was cultivated by the Egyptians. Alaska. 100. Ears are somewhat numerous. which. Barley can be grown in sheltered valleys as far north as 70° in Lapland and 68° in Siberia. and barley is mentioned in Greece by Sophocles. The maned. and appears to be one of the varieties formerly cultivated in Greece. says Lubbock. and it was growing in Champlain's garden at Quebec in 1610. Unger says the six-lined.com . or squirrel-tail. Its native land seems unknown. Barley was grown by the colonists of the London Company in Virginia in 1611. Seashore and interior salines of the New World. H. This species furnished the varieties known as bere.. D. although Olivier states it grew wild in the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Lescarbot sowed barley at Port Royal. H. Europe and Asia. At Fort Yukon. Nova Scotia. C.Page 348 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or winter barley. H. NEPAL BARLEY. in the ancient lake habitations of Switzerland. hexastichon Linn. Diodorus Siculus says the natives of Galatia prepared a beer from barley. Barley was sown by Gosnold on Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands in 1602. writes that the people of Armenia used a drink made of fermented barley. barley has been known in British gardens since 1782 as an ornamental grass. Massachusetts. BERE.

which is cylindrical.com . which is far preferable to the tripe de roche. and Lindley says it is interesting only from a botanical point of view. China and Japan. The seed has frequently been sent to Europe as a very hardy kind. zeocriton Linn. Rhamneae. The round fruits. it is an inmate of flower gardens as an aquatic. Himalayan regions.swsbm. of quick maturity. Urticaceae (Cannabidaceae). Algae. are seated at the end of the recurved. BINE. He says it is an undoubted result of domestication. China and Japan. The leaves of this plant are said to be used as a potherb in Nepal.Page 349 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is a naked-seeded species with much the appearance of wheat. and is the part eaten. Humulus lupulus Linn. RAISIN TREE. Piperaceae (Saururaceae). fleshy peduncle. This species is occasionally cultivated in Scotland. Koch collected in the Schirwan part of the Caucasus a kind of grain which he calls H. BATTLEDORE BARLEY. Willdenow is inclined to place its native country in the region of the Volga. about an inch long. Hormosippon arcticus Berk. as it has none of its bitterness or purgative quality. spontaneum and regards as the original wild form of sprat barley. Parent of cultivated forms. especially westward STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . H. It is enumerated by Thunherg among the edible plants of Japan. about the size of a pea. The tree is cultivated in India for its fruit. which has a pleasant flavor like that of a Bergamot pear.region between the Euphrates and the Tigris. HOP. Hovenia dulcis Thunb. It was introduced into Britain in 1817. Nepal barley is cultivated at great elevations on the Himalaya Mountains and in Thibet. In France. but it is chiefly cultivated in botanical gardens. SPRAT BARLEY. It is cultivated in Scotland as a spring crop and in Ireland as a winter crop. Northern Europe and not rare in the United States. Himalayan region. This alga abounds in the Arctic regions and affords wholesome food. Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

and. yet are they. "their Hopps are faire and large.Page 350 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. thrive well. for they yield but very small nourishment. in summing up the uses of this plant. The scaly cones. South Africa. It STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Dodonaeus. they are eaten in salads. 1616. 1629. more toothsome than nourishing. "before its tender shoots produce leaves." Gerarde says. and in Virginia in 1648 it is said. as Pliny saith. Cytinaceae (Hydnoraceae). Hydnora africana Thunb. as does also Camerarius. 16. and others. The fibers can also be used in the manufacture of textile fabrics. "The buds or first sprouts which come forth in the Spring are used to be eaten in sallads. as collected apparently from the hop yard.swsbm. The first allusion to the hop as a kitchen herb in America is by Cobbett. or catkins. and are a good and wholesome meat. He says. The use of the young shoots is mentioned by Pliny in the first century as collected from the wild plant. This plant is found growing on the roots of Euphorbia. of seeds to be sent to the Massachusetts Company. 1821. refers to the use of the young shoots. A pulp for paper-making can be satisfactorily bleached." Hop shoots are now to be found in Covent Garden market and are not infrequently to be seen in other European markets. JACKAL'S KOST. The plant was also cultivated in New Netherlands as early as 1646. The hop was well known to the Romans and is mentioned by Pliny under the name lupus saltetanus. in Sweden. says that the tendrils furnish a good vegetable wax and a juice from which a reddish-brown coloring matter can be extracted. and Bohemian and Bavarian hops have been known as esteemed kinds since the eleventh century. Hop roots were mentioned in the Memorandum of Mar. yarn and linen making from hop fibers has long been an established industry and is constantly increasing in importance and extent. The hop was mentioned by Joan di Cuba in his Ortus Samtatis as growing in Holland prior to 1485. Hop gardens are named as existing in France and Germany in the eighth and ninth centuries. have been used from the remotest period in the brewing of beer. and very serviceable unbleached papers and cardboards are made from this raw material. Emit Pott. 1586. The leaves and the spent hops are excellent food for live stock and especially for sheep. rather as a luxury than as a food.com .on banks of streams." Dodoenaeus alludes to this plant as a kitchen herb. Hop ashes are greatly valued in the manufacture of certain Bohemian glasswares. The stalks can also be used for basket and wickerwork.

Leguminosae. Hydrophyllaceae. in British Guiana. It is. in Kentucky.Page 351 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Japan. INDIAN SALAD. when tender.swsbm. SHAWNEE SALAD. North America. (Hydrangaceae). Brown. The leaves are used as a potherb. Saxifrageae TEA-OF-HEAVEN. according to Serra. being sweet and melting in the mouth. tea-of-heaven. This plant is called in the western states. said to be eaten by the Hottentots. Barton says the roots of this species were eaten by the Indians in times of scarcity.consists of a tubular flower from four to six inches long and may be compared to the socket of a candlestick but three-lobed. Acanthaceae. though. H. WOOLEN BREECHES. Some of the first settlers ate the plant. The pods contain three or four seeds. however. H. the young shoots are eaten in the spring as a salad and are highly prized by all who eat them. Barton says. Hymenaea courbaril Linn. This tea is called ama-tsja. which the Indians eat with great avidity. Hydrangea thurnbergii Siebold. Indian salad or Shawnee salad. The natives use the dried leaves as a substitute for tea. Hygrophila spinosa T. North America. East India and Malay. It is called algarroba in Panama. says Lunan. Eastern North America. because eaten as such by the Indians. virginicum Linn. says this pulp tastes not unlike a dry cake. The outside is of dull brown and inside of a rosy-red color It possesses an offensive smell like putrid meat. Anders. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . A colossal tree of tropical and southern subtropical South America.com . inclosed in a whitish substance. HAIRY WATERLEAF. it is apt to purge when first gathered. as sweet as honey. jatal in Brazil and simiri in Guiana. Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx. canadense Linn.

SPOTTED CAT'S EAR. & Am. the part eaten being the fibrous. The plant has edible roots. West Indies. This smooth. Palmae. husky nature renders it unpalatable.com . H. GINGERBREAD TREE. of a rich. Hypochoeris apargioides Hook. they form part of the food of the poorer classes of inhabitants. Chile. maculatea Linn.Hyoseris lucida Linn. Wilkinson says this plant is the hypocheris of Pliny and is esculent.swsbm. Hypelate paniculata Cambess. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . scorzonerae F. H. This weed of Britain. H. The wild plant may be boiled as a potherb. African tropics. but its dry. yellowish-brown color and are of irregular form. are beautifully polished. The fruit is the size of a plum and is edible after roasting. radicata Linn. Chile. The fruits which are produced in long clusters.Page 352 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Europe and north Africa. Hyphaene thebaica Mart. says Johnson. Muell. mealy husk. Sapindaceae. In Upper Egypt. The leaves may be used as a salad. SWINE'S SUCCORY. Southern Brazil. Compositae. Compositae. has been cultivated in gardens but has fallen into disuse. brasiliensis Griseb. perennial herb has the aspect of a sowthistle. H. Europe and northern Asia. Egypt. which tastes almost exactly like gingerbread. each containing between one and two hundred. It is sometimes used like endive as a salad. The root of this perennial herb is used for culinary purposes like that of scorzonera.

Labiatae. especially. Mawe describes six varieties. Schweinfurth says the tiny seeds are brazed to a jelly and are used by the natives of central Africa as an adjunct to their stews and gravies. of this strongly smelling plant. in 1683. Hyssopus officinalis Linn. Ray enumerating it also as an ornamental plant. Worlidge names it among culinary herbs in England. Tropical Africa. In 1597. hyssop is grown in the flower gardens.swsbm. In French and Italian cookery. The Bongo and Niam-Niam. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com .? Amaryllideae (Hypoxidaceae). the roots of which are eaten by the natives. Icacina senegalensis Juss. in nine varieties. but says it is more valued for medicine. Europe and temperate Asia. Labillardiere found a species in the forests of New Caledonia. HYSSOP. as a medicinal plant. It is mentioned by Paulus Aegnita. Olacineae (Icacinaceae). the tops of the young shoots are sometimes used in soups. hyssop is deserving of notice but its present use in American gardens must be very limited. Hyssop was once considerably employed in domestic medicine. From the frequent mention made of it in Scripture. to be occasionally used as a potherb. Hyssop is mentioned among European garden plants by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century and in nearly all the later botanies. it has become naturalized as an escape from gardens in Michigan. Labiatae. Gerarde figures three varieties. McMahon includes hyssop in his list of kitchen aromatics for American gardens. Hyptis spicigara Lam. and says the plant is generally cultivated in the kitchen garden. In France. store large quantities. both black and white. They also extract an oil from the seeds. with a flavor much resembling that of noyau. It is eaten roasted by them. As an ornamental plant.Page 353 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. At present. in 1806. African tropics. This plant of tropical Africa is called neeno and is cultivated by the natives of Gani as a grain.Hypoxis sp. we may infer that it grew wild in Syria and Egypt. It is said by Fessenden. The fruit is about the size of an Orleans plum. of a yellow color. in the seventh century. 1828. in 1778.

CHINESE Eastern Asia. I. MATE. about an inch in diameter. Ilicineae (Aquifoliaceae). DAHOON HOLLY. I. This large-growing tree is cultivated for its fruits. BLACK ALDER. paraguensis A. HOLLY. verticillata A. YAUPON. Eastern North America. INKBERRY.Idesia polycarpa Maxim. Eastern North America. the leaves afford a tea substitute in the south. Gray. The Indians attributed many virtues to the tea and permitted only men to drink it. Along the coast region of Virginia and Carolina. I. This species yields the mild mate. Romans says the leaves of the cassina were roasted and made into a decoction by the Creek Indians. It is consumed by the thousands of tons. forms an article of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . glabra A. which replaces tea in Brazil and Buenos Aires. Japan. Eastern North America.Page 354 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. I. Paraguay.swsbm. APPALACHIAN TEA. quercifolia Meerb. Porcher says the leaves form a tea substitute. I. WINTERBERRY. Ilex cassine Walt. St. Porcher says the leaves are substituted for tea. AMERICAN HOLLY. From this plant comes the well-known mate of South America. According to Porcher. The fruit. Hil. (Illiciaceae). fertilis Reiss. which are many-seeded berries. the seeds lying in pulp. considered equal to the best Paraguay tea. Magnoliaceae ANISE. Illicium anisatum Linn. Gray. CASSINA.com . the leaves of yaupon are used as a tea and are an object of sale. YERBA DE MATE. Brazil. Bixineae (Flacourtiaceae).

and the capsules are largely imported into Germany. where it is called pacay. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . insignis Kunth. The pulp of this-legume is edible. The pulp of the legume is edible. (Mimusops) maxima Poir.066 pounds. It was called guavas by Cieza de Leon in his travels. I. The Mohammedans of India season some of their dishes with the capsules. Sapotaceae. feuillei DC. Tropical America. The Chinese mix the fruit with coffee and tea to improve the flavor. fagifolia Willd. marginata Willd. This species.com . The white pulp of its long pods is eaten. Island of Bourbon. I. Shanghai received 703. has a fleshy. I. East Indies. The fleshy fruit is edible. Tropical America.swsbm. Tropical America. Leguminosae. I. The seeds are covered with a fleshy. Peru.commerce amongst Asiatic nations. edible fruit. 153250. It is the guavo real of Panama and is commonly cultivated for the white pulp about the seeds. Inga buorgoni DC. I. I. also. The legume contains a sweet and sapid edible pulp. This plant is a native of Peru and is cultivated there in gardens. Ecuador. In 1872. spectabilis Willd. Tropical America. Imbricaria (Mimusops) malabarica Poir. juicy cotton. France and Italy for the flavoring of spirits. edible pulp. This plant bears a pod with black seeds in sweet.Page 355 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

Tropical America. but says they often have been carried to Spain. WATER CONVOLVULUS. SWEET POTATO. In the Philippines. They are much prized by the natives of the Indian Archipelago and in Machian the inhabitants almost live on them. in Castile.swsbm. Inocarpus edulis Forst. 1514. Leguminosae. The leaves are pickled and eaten as a condiment. Inula crithmoides Linn. rata. SWEET POTATO. some red. Voigt says the nuts are edible but are by no means pleasant. and that he had carried them himself to Avila. Mediterranean regions. Islands of the Pacific. TAHITIAN CHESTNUT. it is eaten in the spring and somewhat resembles spinach in flavor. Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and this author was STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Tropics of America. In 1526. or Tahitian chestnut.I. had developed many varieties at the period of its discovery by Columbus. Linn. are eaten in the Fiji Islands. The pulp about the seeds is sweet and is eaten by negroes. This species is often planted by the Chinese around the edges of tanks and pools for the sake of its succulent leaves. In Peru. Convolvulaceae. Old World tropics. It is largely cultivated in central China as a vegetable. batatas Poir. and others brown. cultivated plant. mentions batatas as cultivated in Honduras and gives the names of nine varieties. Oviedo not only mentions sweet potatoes in the West Indies. the root is cooked and eaten by the natives. I.com . Wilkes says it is the principal food of the mountaineers of Fiji. Garcilasso de la Vega says the apichu are of four or five different colors. This widely-distributed. The nuts of the ivi. others white. Labillardiere says the fruit is eaten boiled by the natives of the Friendly Islands and the flavor is very much like that of chestnuts. Compositae. says Seemann. roasted or in a green state. The tree is called in Tahiti. originally of South and Central America.Page 356 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. vera Willd. Peter Martyr. others yellow. and are soft and pleasant to the taste.

Mr. 1597. The camote of Yucatan. off the African coast. In New Zealand. In the Mauritius. The culture of sweet potatoes is noted for Virginia before 1650.Page 357 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. there is a tradition among the natives that it was first brought to the island in canoes composed of pieces of wood sewed together. Tahiti and Fiji. Thomas and is one of the most essential articles of their food. In China. 19 of which are of a red color and 14 white." Rumphius says that the Spaniards carried this root to Manilla and the Moluccas. Of the varieties now known. Firminger speaks of it as one of the native vegetables in common cultivation in all parts of India. and. the plant producing pink flowers with a purple eye. 1570-76. Hughes says that at least 13 sorts are known at the Barbados. whence the Portuguese distributed it through the Indian Archipelago. the plant never yields seeds. or purple. without success. and in 1863 Burr describes nine varieties in American gardens. as growing in his garden and he says they grow "in India.contemporary with the conquest. sorts as under culture in Spain. not one type can be considered as modern in its appearance. Their mention thereafter in the early botanies is frequent. In Europe. Fortune informed Darwin. and Clusius. 1556. In the Hawaiian Islands. speaks of ages as among the productions of Hispaniola. In 1750. Vilmorin describes two varieties in France. or white.com . who states in 1601 that he had eaten them in Spain. before 1563-74. Its cultivation has been attempted in different parts of Italy but as yet. notes that their culture had been attempted in Belgium." a statement confirmed in part by Clusius. It is figured by Rheede and Rumphius as cultivated in Hindustan and Amboina. Bojer describes the round and long forms.swsbm. and Chanca. it is called by the same name. Sweet potatoes are mentioned as one of the cultivated products of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The sweet potato is mentioned in England by Gerarde. In New Zealand. In Ramusio. "The root which is called by the Indians of Hispaniola batata is named igname at St. The sweet potato reached St. so Targioni-Tozzetti writes. is mentioned in the fourth voyage of Columbus. Barbarie and Spaine and other hot regions. it was cultivated in 1665. physician to the fleet of Columbus. white and purple. called in the islands axi and batatas. 1566. At the present time. and the pale. sweet potatoes are mentioned by Cardanus. we find in the Portuguese pilot's relation. in 1576. In Batavia. Wilkes says there are 33 varieties. Thomas. This plant is noticed by Monardes and by Lobel. describes the red. in a letter dated 1494.

fastigiata Sweet. This species is often cultivated in tropical STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Virginia in 1648. At the present day. John Lowell says that sweet potatoes of excellent quality can be raised about Boston. in Tahiti. I.Page 358 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1773. Ainslie says. the Pacific islands. New Zealand. Canary Islands and Madeira. I. Bartram saw plantations of sweet potatoes about Indian villages in the South. China. Don. Borders of the tropics. hederacea Jacq. I. but they are of no agricultural importance in this region. and Romans refer to their use by the Indians of Florida in 1775. sweet potatoes are quite generally cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. Ellis says. WILD POTATO. 1781. the stalks of the pohue are eaten in times of famine. tropical America. Borders of the tropics. I. digitata Linn. This species is commonly cultivated for food in western tropical Africa. I.com . grandiflora Lam. Tropical America. and southern United States as far north even as New York. Borders of the tropics. I. the Malayan Archipelago. biloba Forsk. Humboldt mentions this species as cultivated in America under the name. batatilla G. This species furnishes tubers which are used as sweet potatoes. in India. They are grown to a small extent in the south of Europe. batata. as in Africa from Zanzibar to Egypt. Tropical America. Venezuela. They are said to have been introduced into New England in 1764 and to have come into general use. in India. the seeds are eaten when young. perhaps in 1610 and are mentioned again by Jefferson. POHUE.swsbm. Japan.

Dr. MAN-OF-THE-EARTH. The edible tubers are much like the sweet potato in size.Page 359 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. According to Forster. Arapahoes and Kioways roast it for food when pressed by hunger but it is by no means palatable or nutritious. Tropics. "It is an unaccountable fact that this plant should have been long confounded with Rhodymenia palmata — the true Irish eatable Dulse. farinaceous roots. mammosa Choisy. Iridea edulis Bory. Georgia and Florida. Western North America. being similar in size and shape to a man's body.com . Br. SPANISH WOODBINE. Henfrey says this species has edible. edulis eaten. this species is cultivated under the name of umara. Society and Friendly Islands and the New Hebrides. or gumalla in Tahiti and in southern New Zealand. I. Its enormous size and depth in the ground make its extraction by the ordinary Indian implements a work of much difficulty. Torr.swsbm. Asia. but Stackhouse tells us that in Cornwall it is sometimes eaten by fishermen. MAN-ROOT. Tropics. I. The wild potato vine is a showy plant of the deserts of North America and is commonly called man-root or man-ofthe-earth. gumarra. Baldwin has been informed that the negroes in the South sometimes eat the roots. tuberosa Linn. I. The Cheyennes. I. macrorrhiza Michx. Algae. I. The soft. tropical Australia. I have never seen I.regions. leptophylla MOONFLOWER." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . taste and form. sweet stem is sucked by the boys of Tahiti. who crisp it over the fire. turpethum R.

This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as I. setosa Pall. in a few minutes. I. This species has been in cultivation in England since the time of Gerarde. YELLOW IRIS.swsbm. ensata Thunb. SWORD-LEAVED IRIS. tectorum Maxim. japonica Thunb.Page 360 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." It is a native of the Mediterranean region. who calls it Spanish nut and says that it is “eaten at the tables of rich and delicious persons in sallads or otherwise. I. I. The hunters of Virginia use it very frequently to alleviate thirst. sibirica Linn. SPANISH NUT.Iris cristata Ait. when chewed. are said to form a good substitute for coffee but must be well roasted before eating. Siberia. when ripe. The angular seeds. Irideae. I. which. pseudacorus Linn. I. turns to a burning sensation by far more pungent than capsicum. the Orient and Afghanistan. SIBERIAN IRIS. I. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as I. Pursh says the root. ensata.com . ensata. Japan. which furnish starch. Himalayas and northern Asia. sisyrinchium Linn. Europe and northern Asia. ensata. Eastern Asia and Europe. Mountains of Virginia and southward. at first occasions a pleasant. sweet taste. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Mediterranean. CRESTED IRIS. WALL IRIS. This iris is cultivated in Japan for the rootstocks. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as I. I.

The leaves are used for food. It forms a pleasant relish for the tasteless plantain. says Masters. Jessenia polycarpa Karst. China. called mo-le-hwa in China. scenting tea. SPURGE NETTLE. Venezuela. Tropical Asia. Irvingia barteri Hook. Palmae. Burton says the fruit forms the one sauce of the Fans and is called ndika. J. (Ixonanthaceae). Simarubeae TREE. TREADSOFTLY. Oleaceae. called dika. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Euphorbiaceae.Japan. sambac Ait. ARABIAN JASMINE. The fruit is much used. Cruciferae. This cheese is scraped and added to boiling meat and vegetables. WOAD. The tuberous roots are said to be eatable like those of the cassava. The seeds are imbedded in a sweet. Isatis indigotica Fortune. according to Don. This is the sieu-hing-hwa of China.swsbm.com . Southern United States. Myrsineae (Theophrastaceae). The flowers are used for scenting tea. pounded and poured into a mould. This plant is called by the negroes tread-softly on account of its stinging hairs. China. The berry is edible. The kernels are extracted from the stones and roasted like coffee. ensata. B. at Sierra Leone.Page 361 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. JASMINE. & K. BREAD A tree of tropical Africa. f. Jasminum paniculatum Roxb. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as I. fleshy pulp. The flowers are used for Jatropha urens Linn. Jacquinia caracasena H. The French export it to adulterate chocolate.

Page 362 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. BUTTERNUT. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . when the sap begins to flow and continues for several months. It is eaten and was a prized food of the Indians. common in the western states of northeast America. provided a thin slice is shaved off the top each morning. Jubaea spectabilis H. BLACK WALNUT.Brazil.com . The sap of this tree is boiled to the consistency of treacle and forms the miel de Raima. The nuts are edible and furnish an oil. COQUITO PALM. Juglans baccata Linn. palm honey. a sample of butternut sugar was sent to the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. J. In 1813. until the tree is exhausted. The kernel of the ripe nut is esteemed by those who do not object to its strong and oily taste. J. of Chile. The nuts were used by the Indians to thicken their pottage. The kernel of the nut is sweet and less oily than the butternut but greatly inferior to the Madeira nut. The nuts are used by the Chilean confectioners in the preparation of sweetmeats and have a pleasant. A palm of Chile cultivated in South America. eatable flesh surrounding a fibrous husk which encloses a single. The fruit is about the size of a pigeon's egg. Eastern North America. The trees are felled and the crown of leaves is immediately cut off. The butternut was called by the Narragansett Indians wussoquat. B.swsbm. nutty taste. horny seed. They are very rich in starch. A palm of New Granada. & K. The immature fruit is sometimes used as a pickle and is most excellent. The nuts of the Coquito palm are often called little cokernuts. violet colored. WALNUT. The tree is occasionally grown as a shade tree and for its nuts. and the oil from the nut was used for seasoning their aliments. a considerable article of trade. cinerea Linn. West Indies. Juglandeae. LITTLE COKERNUT. A tree valued for its timber. Palmae. having a thin. being much esteemed for domestic use as sugar. nigra Linn. Each tree yields about 90 gallons. oily.

verie pleasant to eat. and in some parts of France considerable quantities of oil are expressed from the kernels to be used in cooking and as a drying oil in the arts.swsbm. those of the province of Khosistan in Persia are much esteemed and are sent in great quantities to India. it is called English walnut and two varieties succeed well in Virginia. Linn. can break it and eat the kernel. In 1609. It is referred to by Theophrastus under the name of karuon. it is said. it is occasionally seen in lawns. Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Sommers were wrecked on the Bermudas and in their account say "we have a kinde of Berne upon the Cedar tree. In Georgia. France. the nut forms an important article of food to the people. J. This tree extends from Greece and Asia Minor over Lebanon and Persia to the Himalayas. " here are an infinite number of Cedar trees (fairest I think in the world) and those bring forth a verie sweete berrie and wholesome to eat. but it is mentioned as existing in Italy by Varro. Nepal and neighboring countries and is cultivated in Europe and elsewhere. borne in large clusters. an almost huskless variety occurs. Japan. they are of a fine quality.com . C. In the United States. there is a variety called Titmouse walnut because the shell is so thin that birds. In many parts of Spain. The small nuts are sweet and edible. especially the titmouse. In France. sieboldiana Maxim. MADEIRA NUT. It is abundant in Kashmir. According to Pliny. Juniperus bermudiana BERMUDA CEDAR. PERSIAN WALNUT. JAPANESE WALNUT.J.Page 363 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. sugar is said to be made from the sap. Western North America. In western New York. Italy and Germany. 116. In North China. Coniferae (Cupressaceae). regia Linn." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The small nuts are of good flavor. who was born B. it was introduced into Italy from Persia. ENGLISH WALNUT." In Newes from Barmudas. There are many varieties. In Circassia. rupestris Engelm. Bermuda Islands. a dozen or more in one bunch. J. 1612.

In Germany. edible fruit is highly esteemed throughout the Orient. drupacea Labill. Asia Minor and Syria. J. Mexico.J. globose. J. the berries are used as a culinary spice. recurva Buch. In Kamaon. juniper is used for flavoring sauerkraut. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . J. half an inch in diameter and have a sweetish and palatable pulp. PLUM JUNIPER. Greece. The berries are used by distillers to flavor gin. In Sweden. SWEET-FRUITED JUNIPER. Western North America.com . pachyphlaea Torr. India. also prepared in a beverage and in some places are roasted and used as a coffee substitute. tetragona Schlecht. This species is used in India in the preparation of an intoxicating liquor and for making yeast. CALIFORNIA JUNIPER.-Ham. a kind of beer called genevrette is made by fermenting a decoction of equal parts of juniperberries and barley. according to Mueller. MEXICAN JUNIPER. In many parts of Germany. The berries are half an inch in diameter. HABBEL. J. JUNIPER. sweet and nutritious. The plant bears a large and tuberculated berry. and the Indians are said to use them as food.Page 364 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The shrub is sacred and the resinous twigs are used for incense. occidentalis Hook. J. In France.swsbm. they are made into a conserve. the berries are added to spirits distilled from barley. a resinous taste. the sprigs are used in the distillation of spirits. The ripe berries were formerly used in England as a substitute for pepper. DROOPING JUNIPER. The berries are largely consumed by the Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. Himalayan region. the berries are an Indian food. which has. The berries are purplish. communis Linn. North temperate and arctic regions. however. Mexico. In India. In western North America. The sweet.

Tropical eastern Asia. the taste is extremely bitter. Lettuce. in spite of their apparent acidity. f. Grant says the roasted seeds are eaten in famines. C. A tree of tropical Africa. Sapindaceae. The stem.swsbm. Kedrostis rostrata Cogn. the best of all salad plants. PRICKLY LETTUCE. East Indies and Malay.com . Europe and the Orient. are eaten by the Chinese. the Malayan Archipelago and the Samoan Islands.Kandelia rheedii Wight & Arn. Henfrey says some species are used for food on the Rio Negro and other parts of South America.? Podostemaceae. by an ancedote related by Herodotus. is peeled and eaten raw by the Laplanders. LETTUCE. scariola Linn. when roasted.Page 365 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. roundish seeds. which is milky. Rhizophoreae. Kleinhovia hospita Linn. that lettuce appeared at the royal tables of the Persian kings about 550 B. Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Lacis (Tulasneantha) sp. East Indies. The berries. Its fruit is edible. Bignoniaceae. The leaves are cooked and eaten in the Philippines.. & Hook. as a cultivated plant has great antiquity. The leaves are eaten as greens" and are called in Tamil appakovay. The fruit is often two or more feet long and is filled with pulp containing numerous. Royle says the fruit is eaten. Lactuca alpina Benth. Europe. Compositae. L. Sterculiaceae. Kigelia pinnata DC. The leaves are used for food. Cucurbitaceae. MOUNTAIN SOWTHISTLE. China. Its medicinal properties as a food-plant were STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It is evident.

uses the word in his prologue.. 356 B. enumerates the Alba. twenty-one. 1671. Phytopinat 200.560 A. For Holland. Laconicon. 125.. For England. D. 1623. Among the Romans. are frequently. C. in 1612. and Dioscorides. "well loved he garlic. 1538. six. Caecilian. 1596. For America. Bauh. In China. In 1565. in 1806. implies varieties and mentions the process of blanching. Chaucer. THE LANCEOLATE-LEAVED TYPE. one hundred and thirteen. 42. 2:999. A. its presence can be identified in the fifth century.. gives to the lettuces of Cappadocia the term viles. and the sharpleaved and oak-leaved are occasionally grown as novelities. J.. McMahon enumerates for American gardens sorts. A.. in 1828. D. Dur. In 1806." and lettuce is likewise mentioned by Turner. D. Purpurea and Rubens. 1883. In England. Palladius. implying abundance. as cultivated on Isabela Island. In these lettuces there can be offered only the synonymy of a few of the varieties now known — those which indicate the antiquity of our cultivated types.noted by Hippocrates. eighteen. Columella. in 1883. nine. Pin. C. about 1340. in 1629. 244. Cappadocian. eighty-seven. It is mentioned by Peter Martyr. one hundred and thirteen kinds as distinct. and was mentioned by Galen. In 1828. who spells the word lettuse. lettuce was very popular. in 1807.swsbm. it was praised by Aristotle. Bauh. 1494. 1617. cum ic. describes the Caecilian. Cappadocian. such as the curled. Prod. C. 79. in 1885. and in 1881. Pliny. Thorburn's seed catalog offered 13 kinds. in 1720. Benzoni speaks of lettuce as abounding in Hayti. Bauh. D. 60. Lactuca longifolia. 430 B. fourteen. Lattuga franzese. 23 kinds. sixteen. six. D. Vilmorin describes. in 1597. In the report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1885. Crispa. 322 B. Graeca. I. in 1765.. in 1726. 164 A. Chabr. the species was described by Theophrastus. 210 A. forty-seven.com .8 A. or cheap. who gives the idea of very general use. C. D. The cabbage and cos lettuces are the sorts now principally grown but various other kinds. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . onions and lettuce. in 1763. 101. The numbers of varieties named by various writers at various times are as follows: For France. Martial. 1651.Page 366 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Lactuca folio oblongo acuto. Lactuca longo at valde angusto folio. Nieuhoff saw it cultivated in Brazil. in 1690. 87 varieties are described with 585 names of synonyms. fifteen. Nigra. Cyprian and Tartesan. In 1647. forty. nine.

Lattuga. Pena and Lobel. 307. Vilm. Cast. 1612. The Lombard lettuce was grown as a sport in the garden of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1886. 1591. La Romaine Jard.com . HEADED LETTUCE. Greg. Quintyne 1690. 243. It is not to be understood. Berlin B. as well as the Spotted Cos. Dur. Op. Solit. Very Early Dwarf Green. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Bauh. Laitue royale. We can reasonably believe the lettuce of Camerarius to be very close to the Florence Cos. Lombard Lettuce Ger. III.Page 367 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1884. 295. A. 2:998. Lactuca capitata. 1686. 1617. 1554. 1616. Deer Tongue. Lactuca foliis endivae.313. although common in the gardens of Italy. 1561. 1677. are indicated by Bauhin in 1623. We have the following synonyms to offer. Ray. 1598. Lob. as shown not only by resemblance of leafform but through the study of variables in the garden. Chabr. that these figures represent the improved forms of our present culture but the prototypes from which our plants have appeared. Icon. 1883. THE COS TYPE. 1:242. 1597. Lactuca Romana longa dulcis. Dod. La royale? Le Jard. 1677. II. 1651. say that this form is but rarely grown in France and Germany. Laitue Blonde de Berlin syn. 1612 Romaines. 313. describes the Cos as having light green and dark green varieties.— This is the sort commonly grown. 264. Matth. 1883. 195. and these. premising that types are referred to: Luctuca crispa. 1570. Pin. Solit.—Lactuca saliva sessilis sive capitata. however. Matth. and the figures given in the sixteenth century indicate that the heading habit was even then firmly established. 645. 240. J.swsbm. 399. Lactuca intybacea. and the figures by Bauhin and Chabraeus may well be the Paris Cos. and Heuze says it was brought from Rome to France by Rabelais in 1537.

com . B. 314. A. 167.—Lactuca. Curled Cutting. CUTTING AND MISCELLANEOUS. IV. red and spotted lettuces are named in the old botanies. Bauh.C.Page 368 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1686. Green. Ray 219. J. 313. Matth. Vilm. Quintyne. 1677. 240. Cam. Lactuca crispa et tenuiter dissecta. Lagenaria vulgaris TRUMPET GOURD. 2:1000. calls perpignans both a green and a pale form. in the moist forests around Deyra Doon. forming a true rosette.—Lactuca foliis querci. the same variety name covering what now would be several varieties. 1693. Chabr. 1597. J. 2:998. Egyptian Sprouting. 399. 298. dark green. 1597. The last identification is from tlie appearance of the young plant. Cucurbitaceae. This plant has been found growing wild with bitter fruit in India. where it is cultivated in gardens for the gourd which is eaten. 1651. or. Epit. Ser. Ger. thus. Batavians. It is also found wild in Malabar. The old plant is remarkably different. of an inflated STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .—Lattich.—Lactuca crispa altera Ger. The minor variations which are now separated into varieties did not receive the same recognition in former times. 1651. Roezl. 1677. Oak-leaved. Lactuca capitata. Chabr.—Capitatum cum pluribus capitibus.swsbm. This gourd is one of the commonest of the native vegetables of India. hence we cannot assert any new types have appeared in modern culture. Bauh. the fruit being of moderate size and having the appearance of two oval gourds united endwise. 1598. 1586. 1883. Green Fringed. says Firminger. light green. Lactuca crispa. BOTTLE GOURD. 240. Tropics. D. 1550. C.

Lagerstromia parviflora Roxb.Page 369 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Cut up in slices. & Mey. L. Labiatae. BADDERLOCK.bladder compressed by a cord around it. its soft. Algae. The tender stalks of the young fronds of this seaweed are eaten. Orkney.com . DEAD-NETTLE. Lythrarieae. In Europe. saccharina Lam. it affords a palatable but rather insipid dish. The young leaves are boiled in the spring and eaten as greens by the common people of Sweden. This plant is used as food by the natives of Australia. being cut and boiled with other foods. as well as for lighting purposes. East Indies. In China. Lallemantia iberica Fisch. Labiatae. This seaweed is said to be eaten in Iceland and other northern countries. About Constantinople. RED-WARE. Laminaria digitata Lam. it is called dolma and is cultivated. TANGLE. downy herbage is sometimes eaten. Europe and the Orient. The midrib of the stem of this seaweed is eaten. Lamium album Linn. L. SEA-GIRDLES. L. in the northwest districts of Persia. and the fruit is also eaten but is apt to purge. a sweet gum exudes from wounds in the bark and is eaten. ARCHANGEL. SEA-WAND. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Asia Minor and Syria. the variety called trompette is eaten. CRAPE MYRTLE. potatorum Labill.swsbm. the gourd when young. esculenta Lindbl. SEA-WARE. DUMB-NETTLE. The seeds are very rich in fat and are used for food. In India.

the fruit of which is the size of an orange and has a reddish-brown. or archangel. langsat. Verbenaceae . RED DEAD-NETTLE. Apocynaceae. is eaten in Sweden as greens in spring. lanseh.com . as occurring in Angola. The fruit. Lansium domesticum Jack. probably this. northern Asia and naturalized as a weed in some places in the United States. The fruit is the size of a pigeon's egg. This a climbing plant. ayer-ayer or bejetlan. Tropical Africa. Borneo. Europe. sweetish-acid pulp. is eaten by the natives under the name of dboli. which is very sour. purpureum. Liliaceae (Philesiaceae). of a yellowish color without and whitish within. and called rubber tree. Tropical America. Linn. woody shell and an agreeable. owariensis Beauv. A tree of eastern Asia. It is highly esteemed and is eaten fresh or variously prepared. Landolphia florida Benth. Montiero describes a species of this genus. It is known in the East Indies as lansa. This pulp is of an agreeable acid flavor and is much liked by the natives. cultivated in China. Schweinfurth says the fruit exceeds in sourness that of the citron and the natives of Djur-land manufacture a beverage from it as refreshing as lemonade. is yellow when ripe. Sloane says the fruit is more juicy than that of other species and is not unpleasant to eat. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Wallace calls it one of the most delicious of the subacid. Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Pav. On the Niger. tropical fruits. L. reddish pulp in which the seeds are contained. The red dead-nettle. Lantana trifolia Linn. the shell is hard and bitter and the inside full of a soft. It is eaten by the natives and is called abo. RUBBER TREE. Meliaceae. ARCHANGEL. In.L.Page 370 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Its fruit is sold in the Canton markets. according to Barter.swsbm. Tropical Africa.9 its fruit. eaten by the natives. This species furnishes the abo of tropical Africa. the size of a large orange.

NIPPLEWORT. with cumin. Coniferae (Pinaceae). meal. The plant is a bright evergreen with foliage resembling that of Buxus. Umbelliferae. Berberideae (Lardizabalaceae). a juice exudes from the scorched trunks which is collected under the name of orenburgh gum. Chile and Peru.Page 371 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. L. in seasoning preserved artichoke. the common people boil them as greens. Larrea mexicana Moric. EUROPEAN LARCH. The Romans. Mexico. which are of the size of an egg. Compositae.Chile. When the larch forests of Russia take fire. Chile. Travellers chew the twigs to alleviate extreme thirst. Latania commersonii J. Europe. Europe. Lapsana communis Linn. Larix europaea DC. The berries. Palmae. or briancono. The fruit is eatable and is sold in the market. Gmel. but they have a bitter and not agreeable taste. and milk. The pulp is sweet and grateful to the taste. It is called in Peru aquilboguil or guilbogin and in Chile coguillvochi.swsbm. Europe and northern Asia. Bourbon Island. northern Asia and naturalized in America. CREOSOTE PLANT. tritemata Ruiz & Pav. This plant has edible fruit. used the root of lasewort.com . but STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . LASEWORT. are sweet and edible. The young leaves in the spring have the taste of radishes and are eaten at Constantinople as a salad. says Glasspole. In some parts of England. says Seemann. A kind of sugary matter exudes from the the larch in the summer and is collected under the name of manna. P. Orient. The Jakuts of northern Siberia grate the inner bark and use it in a broth of fish. The fruit is eaten by the negroes. Laserpitium latifolium Linn. Zygophyllaceae. Lardizabala bitemata Ruiz et Pav.

Magellan region. In England. The seeds. North America and Europe. According to Sprengel. according to Lindley. SEASIDE PEA. L. the peas are roasted and served as chestnuts. Europe and northern Asia. In some parts of Scotland a spirit is extracted from them. they dry and chew them to give a better relish to their whiskey. CAPE HORN PEA. says Pickering. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . LESSER CHICK-PEA. producing severe headache. Europe and the Orient. Lathyrus aphaca Linn.Page 372 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The Cape Horn pea was eaten by the sailors of Lord Anson in default of better vegetables but is inferior to the worst sort of cultivated pea. the peas are eaten in Sweden and form an article of commerce. L. BITTER VETCH. but their cultivation at the present day seems unknown in America. The tubers are sweet in taste and very nutritious and are sometimes boiled and eaten. VETCH. HEATH PEA. maritimus Bigel. L. In 1555. are served sometimes at table while young and tender but if eaten abundantly in the ripe state are narcotic.com . the plant is called heath pea. Leguminosae. HEATH PEA. YELLOW-PLOWERED PEA. as it has a rather disagreeable flavor. Bitter vetch is a native of Europe and the adjoining portion of Asia and has been cultivated on a small scale in kitchen gardens in Britain. The Highlanders of Scotland have great esteem for the tubercles of the roots. supported themselves to a great extent by the seeds of this plant. magellanicus Lam. cicera Linn. This species is an annual with red flowers. Vetches were carried to the West Indies by Columbus. montanus Bernh. L. In Holland and Flanders. England. suffering from famine.that argues little for their taste. the people of a portion of Suffolk County. The seeds are very bitter.swsbm. but these are of inferior quality and are said sometimes to be very unwholesome. MOUNTAIN PEA. Europe and the Orient. occasionally grown in the south of Europe for its peas.

north Africa and the Orient.Page 373 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1556. 1863. its use in the seventeenth century was forbidden in Wurtemburg by law. it is grown for the use of the seed in soups. This latter form was mentioned by Bauhin. in many regions. the plant is cultivated for its roots. In many parts of France the seed is used in soups. This is a species of pea mentioned as cultivated by Phanias of Eresusl and Clemens Alexandrinus. although he says it is scarcely ever cultivated. 1623. CHICKLING VETCH. Pallas says they are eaten by the Kalmucks. In Holland. The flour from the peas makes a pleasant bread but is unwholesome. This vetch is an annual forage herb. but in the south and Southwest parts of Europe. which are eaten there. but that the tubers are often collected from the wild plant in France. Mediterranean countries.L. Burr likewise includes this STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . These tubers are small but amylaceous and are sometimes called Dutch mice. This vetch has been cultivated in southern Europe from a remote period and is mentioned by Columella and Palladius. Schliemann in a carbonized state from the ruins of ancient Greece. L. Perhaps this is the pea exhumed by Dr. EARTHNUT PEA. tuberosus Linn. DUTCH MICE. the one with dun. Johnson says in Holland and Germany the roots are roasted as food. however. This. It is enumerated among the esculent plants of Egypt by Alpinus. Europe. and others. but this must refer to some variety. as Dodonaeus. ochrus DC. as well as in the manner of green peas. According to Heuze. It is superior. to vetches in quality of fodder and seed but is less productive. who mentions two varieties. the other with white. The plant is now included among vegetables for the garden by Vilmorin. L. according to Langethal. as in Italy and Spain and also in Turkey and India. sativus Linn.swsbm. The peasants.com . eat it boiled or mixed with wheat flour in the quantity of one-fourth without any harm. Northern Old World and Uralian plains. for it appears to have been well known to the herbalists of the sixteenth century. seeds. it came from Spain into France in 1640. the pods of which are available for culinary purposes. Don says. It was included among American vegetables by Burr. is a forage-plant rather than a vegetable.

Lauraceae. LAVENDER. In Siberia. says Burr. Mediterranean region. L. Mediterranean regions. 1806.com . There are three varieties. In 1783.swsbm. pinnatifida Lam. PERUVIAN NUTMEG. It is also grown in Lincolnshire and in Hertfordshire. in 1871. Lavender yields oil-ofspike.species among American garden plants but we know not upon what authority. The leaves are used by confectioners for flavoring. (Atherospermataceae). the narrow-leaved with white flowers. Monimiaceae CHILE LAUREL. LAVENDER. SWEET BAY. They are used in Germany. CORSICAN MOSS. Laurus nobilis Linn. A Chilean species whose aromatic seeds are used as a spice in Peru. Laurencia obtusa Berk. Laurelia aromatic Juss. L. vera DC. to the extent of 300 acres. Algae. the broad-leaved and the dwarf. LAUREL. It is cultivated in Surrey. which were carried to market. This seaweed is called pepper dulse in Scotland. and is used as a condiment when other seaweeds are eaten. named four types: the narrow-leaved with blue flowers. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Bryant says this French weed was cultivated in Holland for its roots. It can scarcely be considered a plant of culture. It was mentioned for our gardens by McMahon. 1778. about 50 acres were cropped. the tubers are said to be much relished by the Tartars. in cultivation. Lavandula spica Cav. it is used as a potherb. This forms the greater part of what is now sold in the shops of Britain as Corsican moss. where. England. Mawe. Labiatae. on account of its hot and biting taste. PEPPER DULSE.Page 374 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. used by painters on porcelain and by artists in the preparation of varnishes. This plant appears to be the nardus stricta of ancient writers and was by them held in high esteem. BAY.

where it is eaten by the natives. blown about and heaped up by the winds. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . L. Its use as a perfume was indicated as early as the fourteenth century and as a medicine even in the twelfth century. so as to be collected in considerable quantity and easily gathered for food. Guiana.swsbm. minor Jacq. as the seed appears in our seedsmen's catalogs. This lichen is found in Armenia and Algeria. CUP MOSS. POT TREE. ollaria Linn. It is ground with corn in times of scarcity to eke out the scanty supply. Lecythis grandiflora Aubl. CRAB'S EYE. The fruit is two inches in diameter. Tropical America. The fruit is the size of a child's head and is prized for its chestnut-like fruit. Lecanora affinis Linn. This species was used by the Romans to mix with salads and is occasionally cultivated in our gardens. it covered the ground to a depth of five or six inches in so short a period of time that the people thought it had been rained down from heaven. The same species was found by Paviot. There is no satisfactory identification of lavender in the writings of the ancients.com . In some districts of Persia. who procured it in his journey to Ararat. The seeds are of an agreeable taste. in 1828. Lichenes. whence it is often washed down after sudden and violent falls of rain.Page 375 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. esculenta Linn. This lichen was found by Ledebour in the Kirghiz Steppe and in middle Asia. The seeds are palatable. Its seed was in English seedsmen's lists of 1726 for garden culture. This lichen is supposed by some to have been the manna of the children of Israel. L. frequently on a barren soil or in clefts of rocks. L. Myrtaceae (Lecithidaceae). although it seems to have been well known to the botanists of the sixteenth century.Mediterranean region. New Granada.

corky shell and grow in large. the lentils of Pelusium being esteemed both in Egypt and in foreign countries. Northern climates. shaped like urns. woody fruits. It has been found in the lacustrine debris of Switzerland dating from the age of bronze. In 1834. C. Lindley says the leaves are used to render beer heady. palustre Linn. likewise in most of the countries of central and southern Europe. Jews and Egyptians. L. Leguminosae. Syria and India. Ledum latifolium Jacq. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Guiana. In England. LENTIL. Lentils were known to the ancient Greeks. This was probably one of the first plants brought under cultivation by mankind for food. In France and Spain. including Egypt. measuring about six inches in diameter and having close-fitting lids at the top.Page 376 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The cultivation of the lentil is very ancient. In Egypt and Syria. or 2200 to 2400 B. the seeds are parched and sold in the shops. Lentils are now cultivated extensively throughout most parts of the East. LABRADOR TEA. with a dark skin and of an orange-red color inside. there are three varieties cultivated. MARSH ROSEMARY. Ericaceae.swsbm. zabucajo Aubl. Northern and arctic regions. and certain varieties became remarkable for their excellence. covered with a longitudinally-furrowed. seeds of the lentil were distributed from the United States Patent Office. Lens esculenta Moench. the Egyptian. lentils are but little cultivated. of an ash-gray color. Orient. the small brown or red sort is preferred for haricots and soups. hard. yet two varieties are named: the French. The nuts of this species are rather more than two inches long and one wide.com . and the yellow lentil is readily convertible into flour and serves as the base of certain adulterated preparations. as it has been found in the Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty. This plant furnished a tea to Richardson in his arctic journey. The leaves are said to have been used as a substitute for tea during the Revolutionary War. Wilkinson states that in ancient Egypt much attention was bestowed on the culture of this useful pulse. Nubia.L.

A cress of Europe. draba Linn. middle and north Asia. The natives call it eketera. for which it may be used as a substitute.Leonia glycycarpa Ruiz & Pav. f. north Africa. DITTANDER. latifolium Linn. poor man's pepper. and under that name was cultivated in cottage gardens but is now almost entirely discarded as a culinary vegetable.swsbm. The Indians of the Rio Negro collect the fruit in large quantities and. A tree of Peru. oleraceum Forst. L. The plant is cooked and eaten in Cappadocia. Brazil. DITTANDER. It is a good antiscorbutic and was eagerly sought after by early voyagers as a remedy for scurvy. East Mediterranean countries. New Zealand. which is eaten by the Peruvians and is much relished. Louisiana. and the seeds are substituted for pepper in seasoning. JARA PALM. Lepidium diffusum DC.Page 377 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Loudon says it has roots resembling horseradish. the fruit of which is called achocon. Lightfoot mentions the use of the pungent leaves for salads. with a rough. HOARY CRESS. In Britain. by burning and washing. It is now cultivated in Britain as a potherb. and the leaves are excellent as greens and for salads. NEW ZEALAND CRESS. This plant is found growing abundantly on the seashores. netted skin and sweet pulp. Palmae. L. extract a floury substance which they use as a substitute for salt. The fruits are the size of a peach. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .com . this cress was much used as a pungent condiment before the various substances now employed for such purposes became cheap and hence the common name. It was sometimes called dittander. and Mueller says it is much used for some select sauces. L. The plant is eatable as a water cress. Cruciferae. Violaceae. Leopoldinia major Wallace. POOR MAN'S PEPPER.

pungent taste and are now eaten as a salad. 1623. who commonly use to feed of Cresses with bread and butter. Dod. Phytopin. 1596. Nasturtium.com . Ger. FISH POISON. J. sativum Linn. Pacific Islands. Baugh. Chabr. 355. Nasturtium vulgare. 711. 1550. Gartenkress. Townsend 1726.Page 378 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Egypt and even as far as Abyssinia. Op. 107. 1542. Nasturtium hortense commune. in the first century. Obs.swsbm. Cress finds frequent mention in the Greek and Latin authors. 207. 362. f. This is an extremely pungent cress eaten by seamen as a relish and antiscorbutic. Nasturtium hortense. 1686. The leaves while young have a warm. 1561. 1598. Greece. it being premised that the modern varieties vary somewhat in degree only: I. 1616. and the low-countrie men many times doe. 194. 161. 425. Bauh. to have been eaten by the Persians before they became acquainted with bread. 289. Fuch. either separately or mixed with lettuce or other salad plants. 1677. 1651. The curled varieties are used for garnishing. Linn. the common. about 400 B. 1581. Matth.. Orient. Vilm. of a remarkable size. COMMON CRESS. Pliny. 2:912. Ray 825. Lepidium saticum. Matth. De Candolle believes this plant to be a native of Persia. Epit. speaks of the nasturtium as growing in Arabia. 1558. piscidium Forst. Burr describes five varieties. 280. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 899. Trag. It is eaten with other sallade herbes. Pin. Macer 75. 1763. Sp. Common Garden Cress. Pin. Garden Cress. C. whence it may have spread into the gardens of India. Baugh. the broad-leaved and the golden. the curled. 1586. It is said by Xenophon. L. 102. CRESS. 1597. and for this cause it is chiefly sown. 188. Syria. 1552. Cam. 221. 82." In 1806. The synonomy of these various types is as below. McMahon mentions three varieties for American gardens. Lob. "Galen saith that the Cresses may be eaten with bread Velutiobsonium and so the Ancient Spartans usually did. This plant has been cultivated in England since 1548 and is mentioned by Gerarde who says. 1885. 1576. Nasturtium hortense vulgatum. as Tarragon and Rocket. NASTURTIUM. and four types are now under culture. Pictorius Ed. Roezl. Nasturtio.L.

1807. Nasturtium crispum. 103. Vilm. 1763. L'Hort. 335. Burr 343. 1596. 1677. 1598. Townsend 1726. III. 1807. 1671. 1807. Cam. 1885. Townsend 1726. 194. 6:583. Phytopin. Cresson alenois commun. Nasturtium hortense crispum latifolium. 1596. Noisette 1829. Vilm. Broad-Leaved Garden Cress. 899. Sp. Vilm. Nasturtium crispum augustifolium. Nasturtium. Petit Diet. 1883.com . Ray 825. 1597. 161. Cresson dore. Mawe 1778. Bauh. 194. J. Cresson alenois a large feuitte. Joh. Bauh. Bauhin. 1671. 43. 289.swsbm. 1883. BROAD-LEAVED CRESS. J. Matth. Linn. Nasturtium hortense. Cresson alenois frise. 1893. Linn. Broad-Leaved. Lepidium latifolium. Bryant 103. 1826. Nasturtium hortense crispum. 1883. 1783. 104. Chabr. 1824. 1651. GOLDEN CRESS. L'Hort. Phytopin 160. Sp. 207. 1824. Curled. Bauh. Vilm. 1763. Franc. 2:913. Common Small-Leaved. Diet. Cresson frise. 1885. 1783.Common Cress.. Petit 1826. Mill. and Extra-Curled Dwarf. 1885. Curled Cress. 1765. 1863. 426. Stevenson 34. Franc. Vilm. 899. Nasturtium latifolium. McMahon 1806. Cresson a larges feuilles. IV. 1623. CURLED CRESS. Op. Diet. Hort. Nasturtium latifolium dioscorideum. Trans. Nasturtium hortense latifolium. Nasturtium hortense crispum angustifolium. 207. Vilm. Bauh. 1686. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1623. Chabr. Stevenson 34. Golden. Pin. 195. or Normandy. 195. Pin. 1586. Petit 1826. Bauh. Ger. 2:913. 1677. Epit. Ray 825.44. McMahon 1806.Page 379 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1765. Bryant 103. 1826. Lepidium sativum crispum. 208. 1651.. Mill. II.Prod. Vilm. Bauh. 289. Mawe 1778. Miller's Diet. 195. 1686. Stevenson 1785. Linn. Cresson alenois dore. Nasturtium crispum.

richei R. AUSTRALIAN CURRANTS. TEA TREE. Lovage grows wild in the south of Europe and is cultivated in gardens. Leptadenia lancifolia Decne. Leptospermum pubescens Lam. Tasmania and southeastern Australia. LOVAGE.Page 380 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Br. A plant whose sweetish. Leucopogon fraseri A. The berries are said to have supported the French naturalist Riche. Australia. Asclepiadeae. At STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . L.com . and in 1832 Bridgeman includes it among garden medicinal herbs. this is the guaxe of Mexico. the legumes of which are eaten by the Mexicans. bitter flavor. who furnished his brother. Leucaena esculenta Benth. Cunn. Curled cress seems to have been first observed by J. pot and sweet herbs. C. L. when the leaves were fresh. Myrtaceae. Bauhin. Europe. aromatic. Tropical Africa. Umbelliferae. The leaves were used by the early settlers as a tea substitute. According to Don. McMahon. Bauhin. 1806. with seed preceding 1596. orange-like drupe is edible. It is now used in eclectic medicine. Leguminosae. and the fourth is but an ordinary variation of a pale yellowish-green color. TEA TREE. The natives of the Upper Nile make spinach of its flowers and tender shoots. Mexico. Australia. who was lost for three days on the south coast of New Holland. Epacridaceae.swsbm. Levisticum officinale Koch. The leaves were used by Captain Cook in his second voyage as a tea and are reported as furnishing a beverage of a very agreeable. as three are quite ancient.It appears as if the types of the modern varieties have not changed through culture. OTAGO HEATH. includes it in his list of kitchen garden. Australia. scoparium Forst.

When cooked. or boiled as greens. rather as a medicinal than as a culinary herb. Rosaceae (Chrysobalanaceae). or the root is chewed as a substitute for tobacco when tobacco is scarce. the green stem is peeled and eaten by the Indians. Lovage appears to have been known to Ruellius. The Indians of California call it spatlum. the shell. Lilium auratum Lindl. and of a sweetish taste. & Schlecht. Guiana. Subarctic seashores. Umbelliferae. It is considered highly nutritious.Page 381 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and was seen in gardens by Chabraeus. Lichtensteinia pyrethrifolia Cham. they are sweet. as in 1806. aromatic odor and a warm. South Africa. Licania incana Aubl. Lewisia rediviva Pursh. An intoxicating liquor called gli is prepared from this plant by the Hottentots. BUTTER-ROOT. from Rhode Island. says Gray. In northwest America. melting. The whole plant has a strong. Liliaceae. pungent taste and is probably grown now in America. sweetish. It is sometimes used as a potherb in Britain. or nut. the bulbs are a common article of diet with the natives and are sold everywhere as a vegetable in the market. the inner white and farinaceous. the pulp is white. blanched like celery. the outer portion of a dingy color. mucilaginous and without any decided taste to make STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1536. The root is large and fusiform. who calls it Levisticum officinarum. GOLDEN-BANDED LILY. Umbelliferae. In Japan. SPATLUM. The root is boiled and eaten by Indian tribes. Unwooded portions of the interior of Oregon and northern California. The fruit is the size of a large olive and is dotted with red.swsbm. Japan. Portulaceae.com . Formerly the leafstalks and bottoms of the stems were eaten. This plant is frequent in the outer Hebrides where it is called shunts and is sometimes eaten raw as a salad. is bony. northward. The root is acrid but aromatic.the present day. Ligusticum scoticum Linn. says Vilmorin. SCOTCH LOVAGE. 1677. lovage is almost exclusively used in the manufacture of confectionery.

North America. L. being sweet and mealy and resembling a potato. L. japonicum Thunb. TURBAN LILY. canadense Linn. This lily is called by the Tartars askchep. Japan. These bulbs constitute an important article of food in Kamchatka and are eaten in China. YELLOW LILY. TURK'S CAP. Penhallow. The bulbs are said by Pallas to be eaten by the Cossacks along the Volga.com . Eastern Asia. Japan." perhaps this species. This lily is enumerated by Thunberg among the edible plants of Japan. This lily is cultivated in Japan as a food plant. cultivated and eaten as a vegetable. L. Japan. P.swsbm. speciosum Thunb. STAR LILY. Miss Bird found the bulbs of the "white lily. JAPANESE LILY. pomponium Linn. L. TURBAN LILY. L. China. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . L. This species is cultivated in Japan as a food plant. BULB-BEARING LILY. In China. D. who lived several years in Yeso. L. SHOWY LILY. martagon Linn. Southern Europe. concolor Salisb. The roots are eaten by the Indians of the Northwest. and the flowers are served as a relish with meat. This species is cultivated as a food plant in Japan. the bulbs are eaten. which are sold as a vegetable food in the markets and are very fair eating. this lily is called shan-tan.Page 382 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says that lilies are frequently cultivated there for bulbs. and the roots are collected for food. L. lancifolium Thunb.them objectionable to a newcomer. bulbiferum Linn.

Barton says the berries partake of the same spicy flavor as the bark and that. P. Its taste is not unlike that of cress. BENJAMIN BUSH. Lindera benzoin Meissn. SPICE BUSH. nymphoides Hoffmgg. PENNYWORT. Royle says the bulbs are eaten in China. North America. Menispermaceae. L. S. smooth. says Johnson. acid and esculent.Page 383 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.L. superbum Linn. TIGER LILY. was formerly eaten in China in spite of its bitterness. Limacia scandens Lour. Europe. round tubers are roasted for food. Miss Birdl also speaks of its cultivation as a vegetable in northern Japan. This water plant. The small. which are sold in the markets and are very good eating. Europe and northern Asia. Porcher says the leaves were much used by the Confederate soldiers for making a pleasant. with its yellow flowers and round leaves. Scrophularineae. North America. Lauraceae. Gentianeae (Menyanthaceae. Forests of Cochin China. Linaria cymbalaria Mill. Thoreau says the bulb is eaten by the Indians of Maine in soups and is dug in the autumn for this purpose. KENILWORTH IVY. tigrinum Ker.swsbm. This plant is eaten in southern Europe. China and Japan. Muell. Australia. L. aromatic tea. The drupes are small. Mote says the young STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . L.com . D.-Gawl. as a salad and is a good antiscorbutic. & Link. during the War of the Revolution. the people of the United States used them dried and powdered as a substitute for allspice. Limnanthemum (Nymphoides) crenatum F. Penhallow says that this species is cultivated in Yeso for the bulbs. TURK'S CAP.

D. Magnoliaceae.. Pliny. The Canadians use the root to correct the bitterness of spruce beer and to give it a lemon flavor. as it is mentioned frequently in the Bible as a material for weaving cloth. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . are largely used for expressing an oil. The seeds. POPLAR. We find mention of the culture of flax in Russia about 969 A. Linaceae. and the press-residue is used for feeding cattle. This plant is largely grown for seed in the United States.Page 384 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the statement is made that it was introduced in 1175 A. Flax has been in cultivation since the earliest times. Alcman. by the Phoenicians. Liriodendron tulipifera Linn. Lippia pseudo-thea Schau. Among the Greeks. an infusion of the leaves is highly esteemed as a tea substitute. or even more remotely. the unripe capsules are used as a food by the natives. Eastern North America. under the name of capitao do matto. In New England. and Anderson. traces some fine linen made in England in 1253.twigs and leaves were often used by the early pioneers of Ohio as a substitute for tea and spice. flax is extensively grown for its fiber which constitutes the linen of commerce. the historian Thucydides. It was known to the early Egyptians. In the environs of Bombay. Flax is said to have been introduced into Ireland by the Romans. FLAX. The root is used to prepare an agreeable liquor. and the roasted seed is still eaten by the Abyssinians.com . in the seventh century before Christ. WHITEWOOD. mention the seed as employed for human food. The cloth used in wrapping mummies has been proved to be made of the fibers of this plant.1 Lindley2 says the leaves form an agreeable tea. Linum usitatissimum Linn. TULIP TREE. Prussia and the north of Ireland. but the earliest definite mention of linen in Ireland seems to be about 500 A. Brazil. and as early as 1640 it received legislative attention. known as linseed. Flax was also cultivated by the early Romans. In England. Europe and the Orient. In Brazil. the growing of flax commenced with its first settlement. Belgium. Verbenaceae.swsbm. Holland. in his History of Commerce. D. and among the Romans. D. In Russia.

swsbm. strigosa R. The large. Br. The heart of the leaves is eaten and is often preserved in vinegar. The young and tender leaves of this palm are eaten like cabbages. COCO DE MER. The immature fruit affords a sweet and melting aliment. Filices (Pteridaceae). Livistona australis Mart. Australia. Smith says the flesh is thin and more like that of the Siberian crab than of the cranberry. L.Page 385 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Australia. Epacrideae. Palmae. transparent. Litobrochia (Pteris) sinuata Brack. sometimes weighing 40 or 50 pounds. The roots of one species are said by Thunberg to be eaten by the Hottentots. sapida R. Lonicera angustifolia Wall. AUSTRALIAN CRANBERRY. Seemann says the leaves of this fern are used as a potherb by the natives of Viti. Lobelia sp. L. Australia. Caprifoliaceae.com . fleshy fruits are eaten. white. Br. Palmae. The berries are red and acid and are made into tarts in New South Wales. CABBAGE PALM. NARROW-LEAVED HONEYSUCKLE.Lissanthe montana R. Australia. A. LOBELIA. Brandis says the fruit takes several years to come to maturity. GIPPSLAND PALM. The fruit is the largest any tree produces. The fruit is eaten. with a length of 18 inches and a circumference of 3 feet. Lodoicea callipyge Comm.? Campanulaceae. DOUBLE COCOANUT. ROYAL FERN. It is called karup. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Seychelles Islands. Br.

It is sweet and is eaten raw. Western North America. L. The pods are eaten as a string bean about Aleppo. Orient. The sweet berry. Lotus edulis Linn.Himalayan region. the fruit is much used by the Indians and is considered good by white hunters. is eaten in India. The green pods. involucrata Banks. says Mueller. In Oregon and California. Mediterranean region. Loranthaceae. this pea is cultivated as a vegetable. L. PLY HONEYSUCKLE. Guiana.? Balanophoraceae. The fruit is eaten by the Indians of Oregon and Alaska. of the size of a pea. as an esculent by the poor of Sicily and Spain. This plant is yet in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Leguminosae. L.com . L. according to Unger.Page 386 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. serve as a substitute for asparagus. Masters says one species is eaten in Bolivia. In France. In Crete. the pods aie eaten when young as a string bean by the poorer inhabitants. The pods were formerly employed. Western North America. ciliata Muhl. gebelia Vent. BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL. This species furnishes gooseberry-like fruits of little value. Loreya arborescens DC. Melastomaceae. Lophophytum sp. The fruit is an oblong drupe about one-half inch in length. Australia. Mediterranean countries. tetragonolobus Linn. says Johns. WINGED PEA.swsbm. Loranthus exocarpi Behr. according to Robinson.

It makes an excellent marmalade but. because some people eat em when they are very young.swsbm. soft. this tree is cultivated for its fruit. By keeping the fruits some time in straw. Clusius first saw the plant in a druggist's garden.Page 387 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Ray describes it in 1686 but gives no indication of cultivation or use. but the autumnal fruit alone produces kernels. Bauhin in 1594. Sapotaceae. the pulp is dark yellowish. B. 1629. It is a tolerable fruit. by the Spaniards. The winged pea was first seen by J. has an aperient quality. The tree is cultivated in Peru. It is recorded in American Gardens by Burr. It bears twice a year. Lucuma bifera Molina. It is sold in the markets at Lima." In 1785. not delicate nor pleasant. they become ameliorated and acquire that pleasant taste which renders them so much esteemed. russet-colored bark. tasting not unlike a very ripe pear. calls it pisum quadratum and it is mentioned in the second edition of Gerarde. In 1588. The fruit is round and a little sloped. Western Peru. "I put them here. In 1726. "another fruit is called by the Indians of Peru. MARMALADE TREE. Camerarius speaks of this pea in his Horticulture under the name pisum rubrum. & K. This fruit is about three inches long with a soft and agreeable pulp. but in my mind they are not good. Garcilasso de la Vega says. LUCUMA. The fruit is four or five inches in diameter and is covered with a rough. these are two and have the appearance of chestnuts. Bryant reports this pea as in disuse except in some of the northern counties of England. lucuma. L. Chile. SAPOTA. and not known to STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . early in summer and in autumn. called pisum rubrum. obovata H. The fruit is solid in consistence and so richly flavored that a small quantity suffices. Parkinson. SAPOTA. 1863. rucma. Peru. f. eaten raw.French gardens for use as a string bean but apparently is not in much request. though sweet rather than sour. sweet. MAMMEE. in 1579. In the West Indies. mammosa Gaertn. caimito Roem. L. West Indies and South America. Townsend an English seedsman. This tree is cultivated in Chile.com . says. 1638. L.

where it is called ghia. Roxburgh says that. This is a doubtful species found in Cuba. By keeping in straw. This plant is cultivated in India for food purposes and is said by Drury to be one of the best of the native vegetables and to be much used in curries. Old World tropics. netted fibers. but the taste is insipid. HONESTY. wrinkled gourd. PENNY FLOWER. says Don. when the fruit is boiled and dressed with butter. LOOP. The fruit has the form of a whipping-top. This species is cultivated for its fruit throughout tropical Africa. DISH-CLOTH GOURD. B.com .be unwholesome. The plant is grown as a curiosity in American gardens. This club-shaped gourd. about 10 or 12 inches long. "The seed of the bolbonac is a temperature hot and dry and sharpe of taste and is like in taste and force to the seed of treacle mustard.Page 388 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Old World tropics. the fruit is edible." L. & K." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . STRAINER VINE.swsbm. It is cultivated for food purposes in India. the roots likewise are somewhat of a biting quality but not much: they are eaten with sallads as certain other roots are. Lunaria annua Linn. L. Europe. it ripens into a much-esteemed fruit. serpentaria H. This is the papengaye of the negroes of Africa. This species is cultivated in Chile. a club-shaped. as well as edible varieties. are used in Turkish baths for fleshrubbers. Cucurbitaceae. said to be eaten. but it is coarse food. It is considered by the natives of Burma a delicious vegetable. It is about the size and shape of an orange and has a kernel in the center very like a chestnut in color and size but not good to eat. is eaten boiled or pickled. and presents bitter and poisonous. under the name loof. Cruciferae. The interior. turbinata Molina. Cuba. BONNET GOURD. pepper and salt. Luffa acutangula Roxb. aegyptiaca Mill. Chile. L. says Oliver. it is little inferior to green peas. BOLBONAC. It is the sooly-qua of the Chinese. being bitter.

It is now extensively cultivated in Sicily. The seeds of this plant constitute a nutritious article of food for man.Lupinus albus Linn.Page 389 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant has been cultivated since the days of the ancient Egyptians. are still an article of food in some regions. being dried.com . Columella and Pliny. branching roots are used by the Columbia River Indians as winter food. bake bread from the seeds. luteus Linn. When eaten they are roasted and become farinaceous. In 1854. WILD LUPINE. seeds were distributed from the United States Patent Office. YELLOW LUPINE. which. Tytler says these are the licorice spoken of by Lewis and Clarke. Italy and some other countries as a plant for green manuring and for the seeds. perennis Linn. The native name is comnuchtan. L. It is cultivated in Italy. when boiled to remove their bitterness. Mediterranean region. BLUE LUPINE. hirsutus Linn. The Mainots. East Mediterranean countries. This plant is cultivated in Italy and in STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . littoralis Dougl. It was cultivated by the Romans as a legume but does not seem to have entered the Rhine regions until the sixteenth century. Mediterranean region. This plant was cultivated by the Greeks under the name thermos and serves now as food for the poorer classes of people. tennis Forsk. Eastern North America. Northwest America. WOLF-BEAN. It now grows wild throughout the whole of the Mediterranean region from Portugal and Algiers to the Greek islands and Constantinople. L.swsbm. L. L. at the present day. Theophrastus speaks of lupine in his History of Plants and it is also mentioned by Cato. Mediterranean regions. L. linger says its bitter seeds are eaten from Canada to Florida. The tough. as it did the Cynics. FIELD LUPINE. Leguminosae.

Spain. sweet and flavorless berry is eaten in India. he has a chapter on the tomati. as among the products of Mexico. L." Camerarius. Bancroft states the tomato was eaten by the wild tribes of Mexico and by the Nahua nations who called it tomati. LOVE APPLE. says the tomato appears to have been brought to Europe from Mexico. French and English languages. and the young shoots are employed as a vegetable. Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. indicate its transference to Europe from Peru. In Hernandez's History of Nova Hispania. and the foreign name of tumatle ex tumatle americanorum. yellow or red and one-sixth of an inch in diameter. TOMATO. who calls them pomi d'oro and says they have but recently appeared in Italy. Belgian. which are cooked in salt water and shelled. 1588. mala Peruviana and pomi del Peru. but Phillips. Orient.com . in 1695. The earliest mention of tomatoes is by Matthiolus. Acosta. we know not from what authority. in his Hortus Medicus.Egypt for its seeds. however. calls them poma Peruviana. The globose berry. Pena and Lobel give the name gold apple in the German. which includes our tomatoes and alkekengis. In 1578.Page 390 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. which indicates their presence in those countries at this date. it is said to have been introduced to Europe in the early part of the sixteenth century. which corresponds to Lyte's amorous apples. Lycium europaeum Linn. the Portuguese of Java used the word tomatas. he gives the names of pomum Indium. The small. are eaten without cooking. used the word tomates. The names. The peduncles. In 1570. Solanaceae. Anguillara. in 1658. Mediterranean regions and the Orient. In the Treasury of Botany. 1590. and. ruthenicum Murr. preceding 1604. BOX THORN. Humboldt says it was called tomati and was sown among maize by the ancient Mexicans. The tomato is mentioned by Acosta. Solanaceae. Lyte says they are only grown in England in the gardens of "Herboristes. GOLD APPLE. is sweet and without flavor but is eaten in India. tomato. and Sloane. 1561. RUSSIAN BOX THORN.swsbm. This thorny shrub is used as a hedge plant in Tuscany and Spain. 1586. after being pickled. Gerarde says he received seeds of the tomato for his garden from. in his Epitome. 1651. 1554. Tropical America. Italy STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . gives the French name of pommes d'amours.

for which reason they are often used in soups and sauces and impart a very grateful flavor. calls the plant tumatle Americanorum. the tomato was brought to Philadelphia by a French refugee from Santo Domingo but was not sold in the markets until 1829. In 1812. In 1656. The tomato was even found wild in interior Africa by Grant. filled with a pulpy juice. Gardiner and Hepburn say that tomatoes make excellent pickles. while Miller. but the natives had not learned the use of the fruit and were surprised at his eating it. In 1818. by an Italian painter. In 1828. Bridgeman says tomatoes are STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . of a yellow color and about the size of a small egg. In 1806. whence they were sent to Naples and Rome. In 1832. Parkinson mentions the tomato as being cultivated in England for ornament and curiosity only. Louisiana. according to a writer in the Prairie Farmer. The date of its appearance in England is hence put for 1596." C. and in the History of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society it is said that in 1844 this vegetable was then acquiring that popularity which makes it so indispensable at present. In 1798. describes the tomato of Jamaica as very large. and the same naught and corrupt. Yet they are mentioned as grown in Virginia by Jefferson in 1781. tomatoes were sold by the dozen at Quincy Market. McMahon speaks of tomatoes as being in much estimation for culinary purposes but mentions no varieties. 1752. In 1840. until about 1834. Fessenden quotes the name from London only. gives the name as tomatte as used by the Malays. we may assume that it had not reached the Japanese at that date. Bauhin in his Pinax.com . Gerarde says (in his second edition) that these love apples are eaten abroad prepared and boiled with pepper. they were an article of field culture in Italy. they are likewise fried and served with eggs. being extensively used in Italian cookery. but he found it difficult to persuade people even to taste the fruit. Rumphius. In 1835.swsbm. 1596. deeply furrowed all over the sides. but " hey yield very little nourishment to the bodie. especially in Sicily. Massachusetts. D. 1755. which has somewhat the taste of gravy. Brown says that.Page 391 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. about 1860. the tomato was almost wholly unknown in this country as an esculent vegetable.and other hot countries. salt and oil and also as a sauce. it was introduced at Salem. which shows it had reached the Eastern Archipelago before this time. says they were much used in soups in his time. As Thunberg does not mention the tomato in Japan in 1776. Boston. they were use in as a food at New Orleans. Wilkes found a distinct variety cultivated in Fiji. Long. In 1812. 1774. compressed at both ends. In 1802. J.

It has the following synonymy. in a course of local lectures in the West. Dod. 1613. 372. and the earlier figures indicate that it has changed but little under culture and was early known as now in red. 1617. of 1570. C. Poma amoris.Page 392 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. molli. and the type of the bronze-leaved is named by Blackwell. Dalechamp 628. 1586. 1770. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . as it was the kind whose introduction into general culture is noted from 1806 to about 1830." and a Professor Bennett in 1835. 1576. yellow.much cultivated for soups and sauces. 1578. Poma aurea. Sweert. with flattened and more or less ribbed fruit. Dur. The ribbed tomato.com . They were called love apples. 761. A parti-colored fruit is mentioned by J. Ger. Pomi d'oro. 1583. gained from figures: I. 455. Solanum pomiferum. as found in abundance in the markets of the West and recommends their dietetic use. refers to the tomato. Aurea mala. 1651. S. T. and white varieties. is the kind first introduced into European culture and is described in the Adversaries. pomum aureum. Lob. 2:20. 1616. Gold. 440. Diosc. 1591. Thorburn gives directions for their cultivation in his Gardener's' Kalendar for 1817. Icon. Poma amoris. fructu rotundo. made no use of them though we had heard that the French ate them. 1598. golden. This ribbed type was probably the kind mentioned by Jefferson as cultivated in Virginia in 1781. Eyst. Op. or Jerusalem apple. Epit. 458. Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Agriculture. and are "a useful article of diet and should be found on every man's table. Poma amoris fructu luteo et rubro. says tomatoes are cultivated in gardens in Maine. SYNONYMY OF THE RIBBED TOMATO. 1835. Obs. 1:270. 1597. 1713." The New York Farmer of this year has the statement of a correspondent that he had "planted a large quantity of tomatoes. but offers 31 varieties in 1881.swsbm. Poma amoris. writes: "we raised our first tomatoes about 1832 as a curiosity. 275." The editor of the Maine Farmer. when their growing was becoming general. Hort. as well as by many succeeding authors. Matth. Cam. Lyte's Dod. 1654. Lob. 821. 140. 1587. Bauhin. an Glaucium. offers but one variety in his seed catalog of 1828.

THE ROUND TOMATO. 1883. II. Burr. Here. 1629. Vilm. 3:620. This. 1863.Page 393 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 13. Descourt 6:95. 1827. Solanum pomiferum. not fluted or ribbed. some seed of the Fiji Island variety was distributed in Philadelphia. also may be classed such varieties as Hathaway's Excelsior. yellow. Bauh. there are no indications of its being known to the early botanists. and Wilkes describes the fruit of one variety as round. Lycopersicon.. 646. 133. Blackw. 1650. and Mawe. 1750. Mala aurea. Tourn. 1719. In 1719.com . 7. King Humbert and the Plum. Tomate rouge grosse. 1. Lycopersicon galeni. 525. these synonyms are substantially of one variety. smooth or round. Chabr. t.swsbm. This is the first certain reference to this group. the large red and the large yellow. Hist. and this same variety was catalogued by Tilly at Pisa in 1723. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In. Large Red. 555. 1744. the non striato. and the fruit of two other varieties as the size of a small egg. 1677. red. who places among his varieties the Lycopersicum rubro non striato. the size of a large peach. the first apparent reference being by Tournefort in 1700. Mawe 1778. Park. Morandi 8:53. a yellow and a white variety in France. 1854. Of the round tomato. Par. and some of the tomate pomme varieties of the French. The botanical relations seem nearer to the cherry tomato than to the ordinary forms. s. In form. Amoris pomum. Morelle pomme d'amour. for when the cross was made between the currant and the tree tomato. J. for American gardens. Brown describes but two varieties. 1699. red and the small yellow. names but the common large red in England. 62.Poma amoris. In 1842. 381. The round form occasionally appears in the plants from seed of hybrid origin. Tourne ort names a pale red. The descriptions accompanying and others of the same date mention all the colors now found. Common Large Red. f. The large. 1778. smooth. 1854. however. Mor. implying the round form. oval tomato of Browne. may have been atavism. some plants thus obtained yielded fruit of the plum type. may belong here. but gives no other particulars.

150. It is now but little grown and only for use in preserves and pickles. Noisette 1829. 1651. 1719. which is to be classed as one of the fancy varieties under cultivation. but Mawe. This type is probably the normal form of the tomato of the gardens to which the other types given can be referred as varieties. Bauh. 310. Tourn. Solanum amoris minus S. Burr 649. 378. Descourt. bearing its fruit usually in clusters. Antilles. molli parvo rubro piano. Lycopersicum fructu cerasi rubro. southern Texas and New Jersey. 1669. Vilm.com . colore. Cherry. 2 79. 90. 296. Lycopersicum fructu cerasi luteo. Hort.352. occasionally in racemes. 1778. Bles. Rechius Notes. mostly founded on description: Solanum racemosum cerasorum. 1629. The pear tomato. Solanum pomiferum fructu rotundo. Toum. Solanum lycopersicum. 167. magnitudine. Ray 3. red. 1704. Cherry-shaped. Mawe 1778. 1783. 1807. figura. The following is its synonymy. occurs with both yellow. Pin.Page 394 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Reg. SYNONYMY OF THE CHERRY TOMATO. 1719. as also the red and yellow cherry. Morelle cerasiforme. Park. Hernand. 652. Bryant 212. Mill. Cherry-fruited. Fructus est cersasi instar (quoad magnitudine). The cherry tomato is recorded as growing spontaneously in Peru. as under garden culture. Tomate cerise. IV. 1883. There were red and yellow varieties in Europe as early as 1623 and these are mentioned in 1783 by Bryant as if they were the only sorts in general culture in England at this time. Cujus fructus plane similis erat. 379. Strycknodendro. mala aethiopica parva. 1827. 1671. THE PEAR TOMATO. Buist 1851. 5. Prod. Lycopersicum cerasifolium. etc.swsbm. 1623. enumerates the large red. Par. It is quite variable in some respects. Diet. 559. and pale yellow or STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 150. in the West Indies.III. 1863.

and. 1883 and 1885. It is described by Linnaeus. why did not other forms appear during the interval from 1558 to 1623. L. Neuva Valencia. and that figured as little variable. in an improved condition. It is an exceedingly vigorous and hardy variety with delicate foliage and fruits most abundantly. has a fine flavor. but not as a cultivated plant. belongs here.Page 395 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. are recorded in a truly wild condition. when cultivated. The currant tomato bears its red fruit. a novelty of 1881. of our seedsmen. 1823. The fruit. or Turk's Turban. but the racemes of the flowers are smaller. Brazil. tomato is recorded in American gardens by Burr.com . CURRANT TOMATO. The Turban. This tomato was noticed by Humboldt as under cultivation at La Victoria. humboldtii Dun. It was described by Dunal in 1813. 1725. in South America. and everywhere in the valleys of Arayus. The berries make excellent pickles. esculentum. of the above groups are true species. few. and in Persoon's Synopsis in 1805. Turk's Cap. South America. We may well ask. somewhat larger than a common currant. or cluster. 1863. the cherry and the currant tomato. According to the test of cross-fertilization. pimpinellifolium Mill. The tomato has. red. when but one sort. received the notice of the early botanists? STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . or as large as a very large currant. This tomato is very like the preceding species. It is mentioned in England in 1819. It grows wild in Peru and Brazil and is figured by Feuillee. L. from plants in the Berlin garden from seeds received from Humboldt. although this cultivated variety is probably a monstrous form. It is described by Kunth. The grape. if any. The common names are.whitish fruit. and by Willdenow. If there is any evidence that any of our so-called types arose spontaneously from the influences of culture. not less angular than those of L. in tworanked racemes. and both colors were mentioned in the United States by Salisbury. as all the evidence implies. pear-shaped and fig. which are frequently quite large and abundantly filled. been under cultivation from a remote period by the Nahua and other Central American nations and reached Europe and American culture. although small. 1848. and as the red currant tomato by Vilmorin. the calyx segments never being the length of the corolla. however. and the berries are one-half smaller. The pear tomato is used for garnishing and pickling. it is not noted. 1763. Two only. about 1806.

Macadamia temifolia F. (Diospyros) major Forst. Compositae.com . the fruit is eaten. Western North and South America. Muell. the seeds require to be threshed and sown as soon as the crop is cut. The round. but. The fruit is edible. is eaten. with an ungrateful smell and an insipid taste. the size of a peppercorn. smooth. MADIA-OIL PLANT. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Maerua crassifolia Forsk. is edible.Maba (Diospyros) buxifolia Pers. then red. West Indies. requiring management similar to seed clover. Maesa argentea Wall. Proteaceae.swsbm. This plant is cultivated in Chile. according to Boussingault.Page 396 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Fiji Islands and India. the taste sweetish and not unpalatable but it is scarcely worth the trouble of eating. France. The nuts have the taste of hazels. Myrsineae. f. at first yellow. NUT TREE. Germany and Italy for the sake of the limpid and sweet oil which is expressed from its seeds. Himalayan region. (Diospyros) inconstans Griseb. Arabia. Asia and African tropics. Ebenaceae. In India. This oil is used as a substitute for olive oil. the seed being so large in proportion to the pulp. M. Capparideae. SATINWOOD. M. Its fruit is eaten by boys. otherwise fermentation injures them. Subtropics of east Australia. The fruit. The seeds yield about 41 per cent to analysis and from 26 to 28 per cent to the oil-press. whose experiment in 1840 gave 635 pounds of oil and 1706 pounds of oil cake per acre. Madia sativa Molina. owing to the glutinous nature of the stems and stalks. The plant is easily cultivated. white berry. It is an inch in diameter. This is an arborescent shrub called in Yemen maeru.

East Indies and Malay. The very small. YULAN. M. indica Wall. M. Malpighia angustifolia Linn. and use them for flavoring rice. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . West Indies. The fruit is succulent. poeppigii Mart. berteriana Spreng. MAGNOLIA. yulan Desf. white berry is eaten in Nepal. The fruit is eaten. heterophylla DC. The fruit is dark purple when ripe and is edible.Page 397 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. edible and of a beautiful red color. The fruit is edible. Peru. aquifolia Linn. Guadeloupe. after having removed the calyx. globose. Melastomaceae. The flowers are pickled in some parts of Devonshire. Peru. and are considered exquisite in flavor. Maieta guianensis Aubl. The fruit is eaten. The fruit is edible.M. Malpighiaceae West Indies. England. M.swsbm. This plant furnishes gooseberry-like fruits of little value. At Bombay it is called atki. M. China. The Chinese pickle the flower-buds. M.com . Magnoliaceae. Guiana. Eastern North America. Magnolia grandiflora Linn.

West Indies. is much used in Barbados in preserves and tarts and the taste reminds one of the raspberry rather than the cherry.Page 398 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. BARBADOS CHERRY. The fruit is edible. emarginata Moc. M. M. purple in color when ripe and is edible. This tree is planted in most gardens in Jamaica and is cultivated for its fruit in tropical America. M. M. sweetish. nitida Crantz. within a reddish. Venezuela. M. The fruit is round. incana Mill. Honduras. The fruit is edible. Brazil. smooth skinned. The fruit. of the bigness of a cherry. The fruit is edible. says Schomburgk.swsbm. glabra Linn. The fruit is small. The berries are edible. M. macrophylla Willd. The fruit is edible. M. coccigera Linn. and contains. cnide Spreng. fucata Ker.-Gawl. Santo Domingo. The fruit is edible. grandiflora Jacq. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . M.M. several triangular stones whose sides are so accommodated to one another as to seem to make one round one with several furrows on the outside. red. & Sesse Mexico. copiously juicy pulp. Jamaica.com . Tropical America. Martinique. The fruit is edible.

Page 399 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Tropical Africa. SUGAR PLUM. Lunan says it makes very agreeable tarts and excellent jellies. COW-ITCH CHERRY. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . acid flavor. Unger says Pythagoras thought much of this plant as a spinach and among the Greeks. The fruit. 1588. Europe and neighboring Asia. The mallow was formerly among the culinary herbs but is used now only in infusion or decoction in medicine on account of its mucilaginous properties.M. West Indies. 1616. West Indies. Don. Mallow and Asphodell were raised at Delos for the temple of Apollo. the mallow is extensively cultivated and is used as a potherb by the natives. saccharina G. The fruit is edible. says Don. & K. the young shoots are used as a salad in southern France and Italy. as a cultivated plant. especially upon the banks of the Nile. says Don. MALLOW. M. The fruit is sold in great quantities in the market of Freetown. M. The fruit is one of the size and shape of a cherry. The fruit is edible. M.com .swsbm. punicifolia Linn. This plant reached northeast America before 1669 and it is mentioned by Josselyn. and was known only to Dodonaeus. as a symbol of the first nourishment of man. urens Linn. Tropical America. it was at one time much esteemed. setosa Spreng. It is now naturalized in waste places and in cultivated grounds. is insipid and is eaten only by children and negroes. very succulent. obovata H. and of a pleasant. In Egypt. B. New Granada. as well as among the Romans. M. It was known to Camerarius. Malvaceae. At the present day. Malva rotundifolia Linn.

CHEESES. Europe. and the flat seeds are eaten by country people. cut into slices and steeped in wine or made into preserves of various kinds. Tropical America. green and edible. verticillata Linn. The oblong. Asia and northern Africa. M. MARSH MALLOW. It is a native of Europe and has become naturalized in this country. Mexico. sylvestris Linn. vivipara Haw.M. The fruit often attains the size of a child's head and is of a yellow color. scarlet berries are very good to eat. forms a very wholesome vegetable. simplex Haw. Guttiferae. This species yields a milky juice that is sweet and wholesome. Cactaceae. as well as in some parts of tropical Africa and Asia. Johnson says the foliage. CURLED MALLOW. MAMMEE APPLE. HIGH MALLOW. The outer rind and the pulp which immediately surrounds the seeds are very bitter. M. Texas. The flowers are large and red. DRY WHISKEY. SOUTH AMERICAN APRICOT. Mammillaria fissurata Engelm.com . This fine tree of the Antilles is cultivated for its fruit there. on account of its mucilaginous properties. This plant is used in China as a vegetable.swsbm. linger says its berries are edible. when boiled. the fruit is the size of a grape. American tropics. This mallow is sometimes cultivated in our gardens and. meiacantha Engelm. but the intermediate flesh is sweet and aromatic and is eaten. Mammea americana Linn. Europe and temperate Asia.Page 400 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Upper Louisiana. finds use as a demulcent in medicine. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . M. This plant is sometimes called dry whiskey from the fact that when chewed it produces more or less intoxication. M.

swsbm. Himalayan region. says Berlanger. SWEET CASSAVA. HORSE MANGO. strong-scented fruit. In India. This seems to be the fruit seen by Friar Jordanus. Brazil. The mango was introduced to Jamaica in 1782. A tree of the Malayan Archipelago. where it has been cultivated from early times. Euphorbiaceae. and the fruit of some is esteemed as most delicious. In the Mauritius.Page 401 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The fruit of good grafts is excellent. sylvatica Roxb. tarts and pickles. The yellow fruit is eaten by the natives. The mango grows abundantly in India. and the kernels of the seeds are boiled and eaten in times of scarcity. Anacardiaceae. juicy and with a delicious. 21 fruitful and superior varieties were growing at the Botanical Gardens in Trinidad. In 1880. M. forms an important article of food for large classes of the population. who calls it aniba. Don says it is unwholesome but is eaten by the Malays. Manihot palmata Muell. At Cayenne. This is the sweet cassava of eastern equatorial America. M. The horse mango is cultivated by the Burmese. Tropical eastern Asia. aromatic flavor. It. nevertheless.Mangifera foetida Lour. who esteem the fleshy. where many varieties are cultivated. places them in the first rank of tropical fruits. This tree has been introduced into Florida and is now grown there to a limited extent. Its introduction into Brazil was more ancient as the seeds came thence to Barbados in the middle of the eighteenth century. says Brandis. by grafting. indica Linn. starch is made of the unripe fruit. soft. although inferior to the worst kinds of the common mango. for seeds of a good kind. In Burma. The roots of this variety are sweet and may be eaten raw but it is less cultivated than the bitter variety. In Jamaica. about 1300. the unripe fruit is much used in conserves. a dozen very distinct varieties have been established. the fruit of ungrafted trees is generally stringy with a strong. turpentine flavor. It STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . MANGO. the mango is not generally grafted. as a rule produce good fruit of a similar description. In north and central India. they cultivate a number of varieties. it did not exist before the beginning of the present century. In Martinique.com . the quality of which. in respect to the abundance and flavor of the flesh.

com . of eastern equatorial South America was cultivated by the Indians of Brazil. Guiana and the warm parts of Mexico before the arrival of Europeans and is now grown in many tropical countries. boiled. The plant is extremely productive. and the erroneous opinion has been entertained that it was transplanted from Africa to America. a few dozen plants were introduced to this country and distributed from New York City. In Burma. the sweet variety is eaten raw. or rasped into meal and cooked as farina. or made into confectionery with butter and sugar. it becomes edible after being cooked. speaking of the Indians of South America. whereof the best and most delicate bread is made. roasted or in flour. BITTER CASSAVA. In 1847. a condimental sauce. at Angola. for the production of arrowroot. both in the firme land of these regions and also in Ilandes. manioc is cultivated in many varieties. says Unger. fried." STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The manioc. In India. In Africa. TAPIOCA. It is prepared in many ways. deposits a large quantity of starch which is known as Brazilian arrowroot. when grated to a pulp and the poisonous juice expelled by pressure. by others chambi. according to Simmonds. The first mention of cassava is by Peter Martyr who says "iucca is a roote. The root is bitter and a most virulent poison when raw but. some 46 different kinds are found. utilissima Pohl. or bitter cassava." In 1497. Livingstone says the Portuguese subsist chiefly on manioc. baked. although its journey around the world by way of the Isle of Bourbon and the East Indies took place at a comparatively late period. and the green leaves are boiled as a spinach. The boiled juice furnishes cassareep.Page 402 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It reached the west coast of Africa earlier. In the Philippines. In Brazil. The expressed juice. M. MANIOC. says. the root may be fermented in water and then roasted or dried after fermentation. it is eaten as a staple food. and from the cakes an intoxicating beverage called piwarrie is brewed by the Brazilians. The coarse meal forms cassava. the root is boiled and eaten. The root is roasted or boiled as it comes from the ground. Brazil. Americus Vespucius. allowed to settle. " their most common food is a certain root which they grind into a kind of flour of no unpalatable taste and this root is by some of them called jucha. Manioc was naturalized in the Antilles as early as the sixteenth century. and by others igname. where some kinds can be eaten raw. Grant says it is the staple food of the Zanzibar people.swsbm. and in 1870 some were growing in conservatories in Washington.is cultivated in Queensland. or tapioca.

have a delicate flavor not unlike that of French beans. and the mode of preparing it is described by Browne.Maranta arundinacea ARROWROOT. says Loudon. It furnishes Cape Colony and Natal arrowroot and Queensland arrowroot in part. Asia and Australia. Podostemaceae. Marys.swsbm. The Bermuda arrowroot is now most esteemed but it is cultivated in the East Indies. Linn. Cyperaceae. arrowroot was grown on an experimental scale in Mississippi. The plant is stated to have been carried from the island of Dominica to Barbados and thence to Jamaica. resembling that of the mistletoe but differing from it in having a grateful and acid taste. Wilkes found the natives of Fiji making use of arrowroot from the wild plant. It bears pearl-like fruit. & Bonpl. 1751.com . Its young leaf-stalks. In 1849. M. Sierra Leone and South Africa as well. The starch made from the root is mentioned by Hughes. Mexico and New Granada. It is also cultivated in India. attenuata Lab. when boiled. In the Fiji Islands.Page 403 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Mexico and Brazil. Georgia. This plant resembles seaweed and grows in the rivers of Veraguas. The roots are boiled and eaten by the natives STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Scitamineae (Marantaceae). they are very tender and taste not unlike spinach. Rosaceae. This is the true arrowroot plant of the West Indies. on arid hills. the fronds are used as a potherb. The fleshy caudex of this fern is used in the Sandwich Islands as food. Florida. Marathrum foeniculaceum Humb. A native of Brazil. PEARL BERRY. Marattia alata Sw. Marattiaceae. Africa. where it was introduced about 1840. and in 1858 it was grown as a staple crop at St. South America. In New Zealand. Mariscus dregeanus Kunth. the soft part of the stem is eaten. when better food is scarce. 1789. Margyricarpus setosus Ruiz et Pav.

Although a plant of the Old World.com . also refers to its valuable remedial properties in coughs. Marsilea nardu A. and finds mention by many of the botanists of that period. Europe. M. Marsileaceae. Myrtaceae. Pliny refers to Marrubium as among medicinal plants in high esteem.of India. Australia and islands of the Pacific. The fruits attain the size of apricots and are much used for food. as an herb of domestic medicine. This plant affords a popular domestic remedy and seems in this country to be an inmate of the medicinal herb-garden only. NARDU. We may hence believe that. it is now naturalized in the New World from Canada to Buenos Aires and Chile. Pedalineae (Martyniaceae). These preparations furnish a nutritious food. The spores and spore cases of this plant are used by the aborigines for food. In Europe. tomentosa Cambess. GUAPARANGA. 1601. by no means unwholesome. Labiatae. horehound has accompanied emigrants into all the cooler portions of the globe. and one free from unpleasant taste but affording sorry fare for civilized man.Page 404 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. who say they are as good as yams. CAMBUCA. NARDOO. The sweet berries of this tall shrub are of the size of cherries. pounded up and baked into bread and also made into a porridge. The Apache Indians gather the half-mature seed-pods of this STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It is figured by Clusius. HOREHOUND. Martynia fragrans Lindl. B. Marlea (Alangium) vitiensis Benth. Brazil. This tree in New South Wales and Queensland bears edible fruits. Cornaceae (Alangiaceae). Marrubium vulgare Linn. Asia and north Africa. the leaves are sometimes employed as a condiment. Australia. Mexico. in the thirteenth century. excepting within the tropics. Albertus Magnus. Subtropical Brazil.swsbm. Marlierea glomerata Berg. and it finds mention by Columella.

Malvaceae CHUPA-CHUPA. This plant is eaten in time of famine. incurved horn or beak. about five inches long and three inches broad. ripe are armed with two sharp. It reached Europe in 1824. proboscidea Glox. fleshy. This species. Marumia (Marcolenes) muscosa Blume. being softened and split open. originally from Brazil. are used on braided work to ornament willow baskets. Java. horn-like projections and. These seed-pods are green. UNICORN PLANT. Br. lutea Lindl. Refreshing drinks are prepared from the berries.com . M. has yellow flowers. very downy or hairy. oval. Melastomaceae. Southwestern North America and now naturalized in northeastern America. which when young are used for pickling. an inch and a half in their greatest diameters and taper to a long. & Bonpl. It is mentioned under American cultivation in 1841. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The oval fruit. Refreshing drinks are prepared from the berries. Martynia is in cultivation in our gardens for its seed-pods.Page 405 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The pods when. Matthiola incana R. Brazil. even yet. M. slender.1 It does not appear to be in American gardens nor is its seed advertised by our seedsmen. in taste has been compared to an apricot or to a mango. Martynia was known in England as a plant of ornament in 1738 but has. It is sold in the markets of New Granada and Peru. Matisia cordata Humb.swsbm. SAPOTA. MARTYNIA. (Bombacaceae). stellulata Blume Sumatra and Java. scarcely entered the kitchen-garden. Cruciferae. A tree of New Granada.plant and cook them. Mediterranean region. M. STOCK.2 It is described by Vilmorin as under kitchen-garden culture.

which is sweet and pleasant to the taste. vinifera Mart. at least to European tastes. From the juice. Brazil. palm of Brazil. The juice of the stem also forms a very agreeable drink. TREE-OF-LIFE. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Tropical South America. its juice. and the fibers of its petioles furnish them with food. INAJA PALM. The flour is called yuruma and is very agreeable to the taste. covered with rhomboidal scales arranged in a spiral. Bates says the fruit is a common article of food. wine and thread. says Humboldt. Egypt and Arabia. juicy pulp. its farinaceous pith. resembling cassava bread rather than the sago of India.swsbm. says A. livida DC. Mauritia flexuosa Linn. CUCURITE PALM. abounding in saccharine matter. Smith. Brown says the nuts are covered with a yellow. a slightly acid and extremely refreshing liquor is fermented. Maximiliana regia Mart. Palmae. Palmae. produces a great number of nuts about the size of an egg. f. The outer husk of the fruit. but if much used is said to tinge the skin a yellowish color. the sagolike flour is called ipuruma. says Gardner. The sago of the pith is made into a bread. Between these scales and the albuminous substance of the nut. This plant is eaten in time of famine. This is the inaja palm of the Rio Negro and the cucurite palm of Guiana.Page 406 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and the fruit is eaten by the Indians. forms a very palatable beverage.M. when sweetened with sugar. which the inhabitants of Crato boil with sugar and make into a sweetmeat. The ripe fruit contains first a rich. This is the miriti or ita. WINE PALM. yields a kind of saline flour used by the natives for seasoning their food. This palm. Brazil.com . although the pulp is sour and unpalatable. not only affords the Guaraons a safe dwelling during the risings of the Orinoco. pulpy nut and last a hard core. but its fruit. they prepare from this pulp an emulsion. The fruit has somewhat the taste of an apple and when ripe is yellow within and red without. M. which. there exists an oily pulp of a reddish color. The tree-of-life of the missionaries. It is boiled and then eaten with farina. ITA PALM. says Seemann. In Piauhy. The terminal leaf-bud furnishes a most delicious cabbage.

ALFALFA. Medicago denticulata SHANGHAI TREFOIL. is made. like the caterpillarplant. North temperate region of the Old World. INDIAN CUCUMBER. The leaves are eaten by the Chinese as a vegetable. is grown on account of the singular shape of its seed-vessels. Northeast America. FALSE SYCAMORE. platycarpa Trautv. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Siberia. Melia azadirachta Linn. Cutler says the roots are esculent and of an agreeable taste. BUR CLOVER. Liliaceae. M. BLACK MEDICK. A fine. NONESUCH. naturalized in places in America.Page 407 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and from the fruit a medicinal oil. East Indies. The plant furnishes a food. Mediterranean region. BEAN TREE. white rootstock has a taste like the cucumber. Europe and the Orient. SNAILS. Leguminosae. PRIDE OF INDIA. according to Pursh. broad-leaved variety of this plant was found by Fortune to be much used by the Chinese as a winter vegetable. North temperate region of the Old World. A kind of toddy is obtained by tapping the tree.com . sativa Linn. LUCERNE. known as bitter oil or taipoo oil.Medeola virginica Linn. CHINA TREE. M. It was in Belgian and German gardens preceding 1616 and in American gardens in 1863 or before.swsbm. The roots are eaten by the Indians. lupulina Linn. Meliaceae. M. Gray says the tuberous. This plant is not edible but. scutellata Mill. its seeds are much relished by the Indians. Willd. M. In southern California.

The flowers and seeds are the chief ingredient in flavoring the Gruyere cheese of Switzerland. containing a large quantity of honey. a bitter oil is extracted. and the seeds can be used like sweet chestnuts. it is planted in avenues. In southern France and Spain. called kohombe oil. being made into soup. though said by some to be poisonous. Melilotus officinalis Lam. Titford1 calls this pulp pleasant and cooling. Smith. It is grown in French flower gardens. The pulp of the fruit. the north of India and subtropical Japan and China. The fruit of this tree is eaten by the natives. says Mueller. the fleshy part is very agreeable to the taste. erect racemes a foot or more in length. It is cultivated for ornament in different parts of the world. which is collected by the natives. This is the mahoe of New Zealand. Lunan says the tree was introduced into Jamaica from Surinam.Page 408 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is eaten by children.com . MAHOE. about as large as a cherry and yellowish when ripe. The flowers are of a dark brown color.swsbm. Europe and adjoining Asia. In India. Melicytus ramiflorus Forst. Violaceae. Leguminosae. Sapindaceae (Melianthaceae). in long. from incisions in the trunk near the base made in spring. SYRIAN BEAD TREE. and. it adorns the streets of cities and has even become naturalized. or curry. From the fruit. HONEYFLOWER. Melicocca bijuga Linn. Cape of Good Hope. A tree of Syria. mixed with very fine fibers adhering tenaciously to the seed. Melianthus major Linn. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . with other vegetables. Sapindaceae. says A. The bitter leaves are used as a potherb in India. tastes like grapes. In our southern states.M. New Zealand. is sweetish. SWEET CLOVER. MELILOT. (Azadirachta) azedarach (indica) Linn. not the mahoe of the West Indies. gelatinous substance like the yolk of an egg. Tropical America. and is used medicinally. The fruit is a round drupe. GENIP HONEY-BERRY. a sap issues which is used as a cooling drink. MELIST. The seed — rarely more than one — is covered with a deliciously sweet-acid.

Melocanna bambusoides Trin. As an escape. Gramineae. it finds mention by Greek and Latin poets and prose writers. 1806. says STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and also by Lyte. Himalayan region.Page 409 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The fruit is very large. But one variety is known in our gardens. MELON CACTUS. who gives a most excellent figure. 1536. The culture was common with the ancients. This would indicate that cultivation had not produced great changes. In the Ionian Islands. East Indies. Mawe.swsbm. which finds use in seasonings and in the compounding of liquors and perfumes as well as the domestic remedy known as balm tea. as Pliny directs it to be planted. 1758. for the ornamental garden. It is mentioned in France by Ruellius. According to Unger. Apocynaceae. it is cultivated for bees. and. 1586. fleshy like an apple and contains a seed which is said to be very pleasant eating. says great quantities of balm are cultivated about London for supplying the markets. 1686. this cactus bears an edible fruit. 1778. Labiatae.Melissa officinalis Linn. it is said to have been introduced in 1573. A variegated variety is recorded by Mawe. Bertero found it wild on the island of Juan Fernandez. it is included among garden vegetables by McMahon. This plant bears a fruit. Melodinus monogynus Roxb. The plant in a green state has an agreeable odor of lemons and an austere and slightly aromatic taste. by Gerarde. Melocactus communis Link & Otto. and hence is employed to flavor certain dishes in the absence of lemon thyme. as a bee-plant or otherwise. This aromatic perennial has long been an inmate of gardens for the sake of its herbage. and Ray. This variation is noted by Vilmorin. although the plant is described as being quite variable in nature. Mediterranean region and the Orient. the plant is found in England and sparingly in the eastern United States. In Britain. TURK'S-CAP CACTUS. BALM. Cacteae. in England. 1597. The only difference noted in the cultivated plant has been in regard to vigor. South America and the West Indies. Malay and China.com . In the United States.

which is said to be eatable and agreeable. There are large centers of its culture in the United States. A. tropical India and Burma. The berry is red. sweet pulp is eaten by the natives. in 1806. Asia and northern Africa. The fruit is an inch long. The fruit is eaten pickled when green and is good when fully ripe.com . M. and occasionally cultivated in gardens for the leaves. It is grown to a limited extent for the leaves which are used for seasoning. Mint is spoken of as if not a garden plant by Ray. A plant found on the wet banks of brooks from New England to Kentucky and north-ward. it is included by Mawe. The Indians of Maine eat mint roasted before the fire and salted and think it nourishing. which are used in flavoring. cooling pulp. is the size and shape of a nutmeg.Page 410 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. piperita Linn. Mentha canadensis (arvensis) Linn. and full of small. scabra Naud.swsbm. according to Sloane. Coromandel. The fruit.Firminger. Peppermint is grown on a large scale for the sake of its oil. Cucurbitaceae. Melastomaceae. MINT. smooth. Europe. Europe and Asia. is eaten by the natives. Mexico. as large as a moderate-sized apple. They have much pulp of a bluish-black color and of an astringent quality. which is obtained by distillation. The juicy fruit is eaten by the natives when ripe. Smith says the firm. though rather astringent. 1724. it is noticed among American STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . among garden herbs. edible. The pulp of the fruit. Labiatae. North America and West Indies. who describes two varieties. PEPPERMINT. Memecylon edule Roxb. Royle says it yields edible fruit. and which finds extensive use for flavoring candies and cordials and in medicine. sweet and somewhat astringent. in Jamaica. blackish when ripe. resembling little watermelons. M. Melothria pendula Linn. In 1778. the broad and the narrow leaved. white seeds like other cucumbers. lodged within an insipid. It is pickled and eaten raw.

STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Menyanthes trifoliata Linn. in 1778. when it is mentioned by Plukenet and Tournefort as a wild plant only. M. Asia and America. Mawe. viridis (spicata) Linn.swsbm. Large quantities are said to be collected for the adulteration of beer. a kind of cake. Loasaceae. it was among American potherbs in 1806. Western North America. Europe and neighboring Asia. has a bitter and acrid taste. BUCKBEAN. It has long been employed in Sweden for this purpose. in England. 1554. In Lapland and Finland. Europe. Northern Europe.Page 411 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In the outer Hebrides. Gentianeae. says it is always in gardens and later botanists confirm this statement for Europe. MARSH TREFOIL. washed to get rid of the bitter principle and then made into a kind of bread. It has now fallen into disuse. pulegium Linn. Asia and north Africa. PRAIRIE LILY. calls it a fine aromatic. This garden herb was well known to the ancients and is mentioned in all early mediaeval lists of plants.garden plants and is now an escape from cultivation. There is no notice of peppermint preceding 1700. The leaves of pennyroyal are sometimes used as a condiment. the islanders console themselves by chewing the root of the marsh trefoil which. It was in high repute among the ancients and had numerous virtues ascribed to it by both Dioscorides and Pliny. The oily seeds are pounded and used by the Indians in California as an ingredient of their pinole mantica. naturalized in America. M. we may infer that it was much esteemed in northern Europe. The intense bitter of the leaves of the buckbean has led to its use as a substitute for hops in brewing. Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl. for it was collected by Clay ton in Virginia about 1739 as a naturalized plant. PENNYROYAL. SPEARMINT.com . From the frequent references to it in AngloSaxon and Welsh works on medicine. Amatus Lusitanus. It was in American gardens in 1806 and probably far earlier. the rhizomes are sometimes powdered. when there is a deficiency of tobacco.

Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme Linn. Euphorbiaceae. crystallinum Linn. South Africa. Smith.com . South Africa. India. says Firminger. This is perhaps the species referred to by Parry as littoral in southern California and as having an edible. The ice plant was introduced into Europe in 1727. CANNA ROOT. If it be chewed immediately after the fermentation. In California. is in general use in lower Bengal as a substitute for sage but it is rather an indifferent substitute. the watery and insipid fruit is eaten by the natives. which they beat together and afterwards twist up like pig-tail tobacco. come far and near to obtain this shrub with the root. The Hottentots. especially when they are thirsty. juicy fruit. BENGAL SAGE. M. Bengal sage. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . M. says J. says Mueller. it intoxicates. Meriandra benghalensis Benth. Wilhelmi says two varieties of this genus in Australia have fruit of an agreeable flavor and are eaten by the aborigines of the Port Lincoln district. ICE PLANT. Cape of Good Hope. the fruit is edible and pleasant. Labiatae. says Thunberg. PIG'S FACE. anatomicum Haw. Europe and north Africa and occasionally found spontaneously growing in the United States. say Brewer and Watson. Australia and South America. This is one of the Hottentot figs of South Africa.swsbm. Annual mercury. The inner part of the fruit affords a palatable and copious food.Page 412 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says Johnson. the poisonous principle which it contains in small quantity being dissipated in boiling. according to Mueller. HOTTENTOT FIG. M. after which they let the mass ferment and keep it by them for chewing. KON. leaves and all. The inner part of the fruit affords. In Australia. Ficoideae (Aizoaceae). aequilaterale Haw. This is an Australian species whose fruit is eaten by the natives. a really palatable and copious food. is eaten in Germany.Mercurialis annua Linn. ANNUAL MERCURY.

8 Metroxylon laeve Mart. M. South Africa. SPINELESS SAGO PALM. forskahlei Hochst. shape. however. It resembles a chestnut in size. he adds. Cape of Good Hope. and Henfrey says the foliage is eaten at the Cape. Its leaves form a good substitute for spinach. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. edule Linn. M. Palmae. and the seeds separated for making bread. pugioniforme Linn. which. Mesua ferrea Linn. Parry found this species growing in large masses in southern California. The capsules are soaked and dried by the Bedouins. dry countries. tortuosum Linn. This species possesses narcotic properties and is chewed by the Hottentots for the purpose of producing intoxication. or for garnishing.Page 413 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says Captain Carmichael. It is. M. Vilmorin says the thickness and slightly acid flavor of the fleshy parts of the leaves have caused it to be used as a fresh table vegetable for summer use in warm. not without merit as an ornamental plant.com . IRONWOOD. Figuier says the leaves are pickled as a substitute for the pickled cucumber. are the chief material of an agreeable preserve. South Africa. North Africa. with a rind like that of the chestnut. M. The fruit is reddish and wrinkled when ripe.It is advertised in American seed lists of 1881 as a desirable vegetable for boiling like spinach. This species furnishes a large part of the sago which is exported to Europe. substance and taste. HOTTENTOT FIG. Java and East Indies. East Indies. Guttiferae. is not eaten by other Arabs. however. The mucilaginous capsules.

called in Greece. This is a true sago palm in Viti but its quality. sagu Rottb. The roots are roasted by the natives and eaten. The root is used as a food by the aborigines. SAGO PALM. Microseris forsteri Hook. f. says Seemann. pesalem.Page 414 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. f. where it forms the principal food of the inhabitants.swsbm. Seemann says. CHAMPACA. as sown in gardens. PRICKLY SAGO PALM. It is now recorded as in cultivation in Europe. M. They have STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .M.com . was not known to the natives until he pointed it out to them. SAVORY. vitiense Benth. The species has two varieties. West Indies and introduced in Britain in 1783. ussopo. It is a native of the Mediterranean countries. It is said to be much used for seasoning in its native country. Micromeria (Satureia) Juliana Benth. FRAGRANT CHAMPACA. & Hook. M. This palm furnishes. This is the native scorzonera of tropical Australia and New Zealand. as in American gardens but as little used. in Egypt. 1863. SAGO PALM. Considerable quantities are made at the Poggy Islands. Labiatae. M. Compositae. obovata Benth. It has disappeared from our seed catalogs. East Indies. lying off the west coast of Sumatra. Magnoliaceac. the best sago of the East Indies. Michelia champaca Linn. and in India the tree is cultivated for the exquisite perfume of the flowers. This savory is mentioned by Gerarde. rumphii Mart. 1597. It was recorded by Burr. The plant is employed in the preparation of sago for food. The fruit is said to be edible. Australia and New Zealand. Malay. Sumatra and Malacca. East Mediterranean region.

full of a bitterish. Dutt says the fruits are sweetish and edible when ripe. one-seeded berry. or cow tree. and oil is expressed from the seeds. A drink called ullpu is obtained from the farina of the seeds. The milk has about the consistency of thick cream and. East Indies and Malay.swsbm. star-shaped flowers. milky juice. succulent. Millettia atropurpurea Benth. COW TREE. Leguminosae. which they drink fresh. yellow when ripe. He was told that it was not safe to drink much of it. Gramineae. The small. Bates says the fruit is eaten in Para. which are used in garlands. The milk is pleasant with coffee but has a slight rankness when drunk pure.com . and almost transparent root. and. where it is sold in the streets. peculiar taste. M. M. could scarcely be distinguished from the genuine product of the cow. The root is eaten raw by the Nez Perce Indians. It. Sapotaceae. It is the size of a small apple and full of a rich milk which exudes in abundance when the bark is cut. coagulates very soon and becomes as hard and tenacious as glue. Mimusops elata Allem. but for a very slight. This plant is cultivated on account of its fragrant. ovoid. To this species is referred the massaranduba. A tree of Burma and Malay.Page 415 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Peru. Brazil. Herndon probably refers to this tree when he says he obtained from the Indians the milk of the cow tree. Wallace says of it that the fruit is eatable and very good. had a foamy appearance as if just drawn from the cow and looked very rich and tempting. sp. Milium nigricans Ruiz & Pav. The tender leaves are said to be eaten. elengi Linn. when brought to him in a calabash. about an inch long. is eaten.an agreeable taste. it soon thickens to a glue which is excessively tenacious. however.? This plant furnishes a small. of the Amazon. MEDLAR.

In Java. The insipid. BALSAM APPLE. North America and Japan. SQUAWVINE. Borders of the tropics. M. This species is cultivated for its fruit. dry. It is the khirnee of India. Mitchella repens Linn. red fruits are eaten by children.com . Cucurbitaceae. East Indies and south India. DC. Ficoideae (Aizoaceae). sieberi A. it is cultivated for its fruits which are eaten. Hooker states that this tree is cultivated in China. North America and West Indies. Malay and Australia. Momordica balsamina Linn. the pulp is of a sweetish-acid flavor and contains but one or two seeds. Abyssinia. a lofty tree whose one-stoned. This tree is found in gardens in Java. Don. PARTRIDGE-BERRY. The balsam apple has purgative qualities but is eaten by the Chinese after careful washing in warm water and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 416 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rubiaceae. Dr. orange-yellow or reddish fruit is sweet in taste. manilkara G. Tropical and subtropical regions. kummel Bruce. M. Manila and Malabar for its esculent. hexandra Roxb. kauki Linn. Burma. M. This is the M'nyemvee of interior Africa. This plant is a common potherb in upper India.M.swsbm. The fruit is delicious and highly flavored. The fruit is edible. which is of the form and size of an olive and is succulent. NASEBERRY. Malabar and the Philippines. M. This plant is commonly cultivated near villages. Mollugo hirta Thunb. agreeably acid fruit.

a plant growing in the heat of spring and dying with the first rains. but is much consumed by the natives and is agreeable also to Europeans as an ingredient to flavor their curries by way of variety.Page 417 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Java and on the Coromandel Coast. the fruit is 12 or 15 inches long. in his list of aromatic pot and sweet herbs. it is grown in the flower garden. of intensely bitter taste. and covered with little blunt tubercles. This species is under cultivation in India for food purposes. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . There are several varieties. which is the size of a pigeon's egg and knobbed. 1806. and bara masiya. North and Arctic regions. Its young shoots are edible. Firminger says the fruit is about the size and form of a hen's egg. there are two varieties: jetkwya. M. charantia Linn. dioica Roxb. M. The young. the small. From New England to Wisconsin northward. says Graham. This vine is very commonly cultivated about Bombay. Monochoria vaginalis Presl. (Pyrolaceae). ONE-FLOWERED PYROLA. pointed at the ends. according to Mason. Pontederiaceae. however. says Drury. notched and ridged like a crocodile's back and requires to be steeped in salt water before being cooked. in Burma. OSWEGO TEA. the root is edible. It is called Oswego tea from the use sometimes made of its leaves. The fruit is used as food by the Indians of Alaska. In the wet season. which lasts throughout the year. At Bombay.swsbm. green fruits and tuberous roots of the female plant are eaten by the natives. and southward in the Alleghanies. In France. muricated fruit is occasionally eaten. In France. it is grown in the flower gardens. this plant is cultivated for the fruit.com . F. In Patna. East Indies. Ericaceae MOSSBERRY. Labiatae. Gray.subsequent cooking. This species is esteemed as a medical plant in Japan. Borders of the tropics. and. BEE BALM. Monarda didyma Linn. Asia and African tropics. It is mentioned by McMahon. Moneses grandiflora S. The yield of berries is scant.

It is cultivated in Jamaica for its fruits. Dobrizhoffer. This ponderous fruit grows on a flexible shrub resembling a rope. It is about a span long. unless the fruit be thoroughly ripe. Monstera deliciosa Liebm. South Africa. Thunberg says. The stalk which occupies the middle. . sometimes weighing as much as two pounds. JAMAICA NUTMEG. . on which account it must be slowly chewed but quickly swallowed. American tropics. The fruit consists of the spadix. Moraea edulis Ker-Gawl. and resembles a pigeon stripped of its feathers. CERIMAN. It is entirely covered with a soft. which furnish Jamaica nutmeg. perceivable by the palate only. This tree of Jamaica is supposed to have been introduced from South America. shining green. Anonaceae. for the northern woods of that country only are its native soil. The seeds contain a quantity of aromatic oil which imparts to them the odor and flavor of nutmegs. . perforated and dark. it is certainly remarkable that this ancient missionary did not refer to the open spaces in the leaves. The bulbous root is eaten by the Hottentots." If this description applies to our species. Irideae.Page 418 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with a flavor somewhat like that of the pineapple and banana combined. 1784. In 1874.swsbm. even by many who have grown old in Paraguay.. almost cylindrical in shape. The leaves are broad. Its liquid pulp has a very sweet taste but is full of tender thorns. refers to a fruit called guembe which is "the more remarkable for its being so little known. You cannot imagine how agreeable and wholesome this fruit is. the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . juicy and fragrant.. When cooked. This fine plant has been somewhat cultivated in England for its fruit and may now be seen in greenhouses in this country. has something of wood in it and must be thrown away.Monodora myristica Dun. it has the taste of potatoes. the eatable portion of which is of fine texture and very rich. not by the eye. Araceae. interferes with the pleasure of its eating. being thicker than a man's fist in the middle but smaller at both extremities.com . marked with little knobs and a dark spot in the middle. in his Account of the Abipones of Paraguay. yellowish skin. specimens of the fruit were exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and again in 1881. The fruit is filled with a sort of spicule. which entwines itself around high trees. but is with more reason believed to have been taken by the negroes from the west coast of Africa. which. . in Kaffraria.

Moringa aptera Gaertn. In the West Indies. East Indies and India. Labillardiere says the fruit is in great request among the Friendly Islanders. INDIAN Tropical shores in Hindustan. Don says the green fruits are pickled and eaten with curries. served in their curries. HORSERADISH TREE. M. the root serves as a horseradish and the long. the oil expressed from the seeds is used in salads. tasting much like potatoes. Nubia and Arabia. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . unripe seed-pods are used boiled in curries. which is eaten as a vegetable and preserved as a pickle. Rubiaceae. The unripe fruit is eaten. Northwest India. It is also cultivated by the Burmese for its pods. The root.roots were eaten roasted. Morinda citrifolia MULBERRY. says Royle. or stewed with milk and appeared to him to be both palatable and nourishing. pterygosperma Gaertn.com . concanensis Nimmo. this species is cultivated throughout India. AWL TREE. According to Brandis. The horseradish tree is cultivated for its fruit. is universally known to European residents in India as a substitute for horseradish. Dutt says it is cultivated for its leaves. In the Philippines. ACH-ROOT. DYERS' MULBERRY. Captain Cook states that the fruit is eaten in Tahiti in times of scarcity. Its fruit is a great favorite with the Burmese. Linn. the leaves and fruit are cooked and eaten. and for its leaves and flowers which are likewise eaten. but by Europeans it is chiefly valued for its roots. but its taste is insipid.swsbm. Ainslie says the root is generally used and the pods are an excellent vegetable.Page 419 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Moringaceae. M. M. throughout the Malayan Archipelago and neighboring Polynesian islands. boiled. The seeds are exported to Syria and Palestine for medicinal and alimentary use. East Indies and Malay. According to Firminger. and that the taste is very indifferent. flowers and seed-vessels. tinctoria Roxb. which are used by the natives in their curries.

It is called bacuri. alba grafted on M. AINO MULBERRY. Arruda says the fruit is nearly of the size of an orange but is oval and contains 23 stones covered with a white pulp of a pleasant taste..Page 420 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. rubra near Charleston. & K. says Thompson. some acid. that cuttings of the white mulberry were first brought into Tuscany from the Levant in 1434 and in the course of the century this species had almost entirely superceded M. In Kashmir and Afghanistan. WHITE MULBERRY. The tree bears an edible fruit. indica Linn. Bartram noticed large plantations of M. nigra for the feeding of silk worms in Italy. alba.com . very sweet. Tropical Asia. and some years afterwards to Europe. or royal mulberry. The mulberry trees planted in Virginia in 1623 by order of the Colonial Assembly were probably of this species.swsbm. In 1773 or 1774. for the purpose of feeding silk worms. 1835. Asia and America. Morus alba Linn. In Kabul. Urticaceae (Moraceae). There are many varieties of M. S. preceding which date it had reached America. C. there is a white. A tree of China and Japan but naturalized in Europe. being sweet and somewhat acid. and about Bombay its dark red fruit is sold in the bazaars for making tarts. seedless variety called shah-toot. A tall tree of Brazil. The aino mulberry is cultivated in Bengal for feeding silk worms. Guttiferae. the fruit furnishes a considerable portion of the food of the inhabitants in autumn and much of it is dried and preserved. Peru to Mexico.Moronobea grandiflora Choizy. but it is probable that its first introduction was coeval with the interest in silk culture before 1660. The fruits are from two to two and one-half inches long and of the thickness of the small finger. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . celtidifolia H. and was described by Kenrick. and of all shades of color from white to a deep blackish-purple. M. It is commonly supposed. Wm. B. and the tree is inexhaustibly prolific. In its season it forms the chief food of the poor. M. and in India it is cultivated for its fruit. of which some kinds are sweet. The variety multicaulis was brought from Manila to Senegal.

according to Mueller. The fruit is long. At the time of Palladius and even in that of Athaneus. BLACK MULBERRY. It is only at a late period that this tree. from that time to the present. purple fruit is much eaten. alba for the feeding of silk worms. after all earlier experiments. says Emerson. In Indian Territory. This fruit was observed by De Soto on the route to Apalachee. sweet but insipid. laevigata Wall. Himalayan region. RED MULBERRY. the large.com . It was brought at a very early period to Greece. The purple fruit is mucilaginous and sweet but not very fleshy.M. the mulberry tree had multiplied but little in that country. was planted in France in 1500. The tree grows abundantly in northern Missouri and along the rivers of Kansas. This species is cultivated in Kunawar. and the tree was seen by Strachey on James River planted around native dwellings. Theophrastus was acquainted with it and called it sukamnos. The introduction of silk culture under Justinian gave a new importance to this tree. In the United States. Jefferys states it was not found in Louisiana. but there and southward it is occasionally cultivated for its fruit. nigra Linn. The long.swsbm. had been conducted in vain. cylindrical. It was not till the sixteenth century that this plant was superceded by M. The fruit is preferred. cylindrical. according to Pliny. This species is found wild and cultivated in the Himalayas and elsewhere in India. The black mulberry is a native of north Persia and the Caucasus. M. It is common in the Himalayas. This species. was successfully reared in Italy. From New England to Illinois and southward. M. rubra Linn. M. Temperate Asia. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . brought by Lucius Vitellus from Syria to Rome. to that of any other species by most people.Page 421 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. sweet. In 1760. and. black fruit is greatly esteemed by the Indians. it is scarcely hardy north of New York. East Indies. yellowish-white. serrata Roxb. Denmark and Sweden has taken place very rapidly. its propagation in western and northern Europe.

Bengal and Burma. owing to the very small quantity of sweet pulp which tenaciously adheres to the seeds. COWITCH. Brazil. East Indies. East Indies. It is called pusa. Malay Archipelago and the Himalayas. is cultivated in native gardens in India and even among some of the Hill Tribes. M. This species. The outer portion of the fruit is not pleasant to the taste. they are a most excellent vegetable for the table. The beans are eaten by the natives and are esteemed as both palatable and wholesome. Melastomaceae (Memecylaceae). but the seed has the flavor of filberts. M.Page 422 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Leguminosae. cochinchinensis Lour. M. Vincent. Gardn. This is a favorite vegetable with Brahmins. NEGRO BEAN. M. tender pods. according to Elliott.com . The fruit is regularly sold in the markets at St. and the full-grown beans are scarcely inferior to the large garden beans of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . black in color and resembles much in taste the fruit of Eugenia cauliflora.Mouriri pusa SILVERWOOD. This species is cultivated by the natives in India. rhizophoraefolia Gardn. gigantea DC. Gardner says the fruit of this Brazilian tree is about the size of a small plum. by removing the velvety skin of the large. Martinique. but no high value is set upon it. This species is cultivated in Cochin China for its legumes which are served and eaten as we do string beans. this fruit is much esteemed and is carried through the streets for sale by the Indians. M. nivea DC. monosperma DC. fleshy. Mucuna capitata Sweet. Roxburgh says that.swsbm. In the province of Ceara.

com . cultivated for its leaves. if touched. M. This is the guasem of Jamaica. This very delicious plantain. CALABUR. CURRY-LEAF TREE. a medicinal oil called zimbolee oil is extracted. wash them in pure water and either boil them or pound them into meal. urens Medic. West Indies. Musa chinensis DWARF BANANA. collect the pods. CHINESE BOX. COWHAGE. Muntingia calabura Linn. a velvety covering to its pods of minute prickles. has. says Livingstone. In Jamaica. with the root and bark. each fruit STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . or cowhage. then soak the beans until they begin to sprout. COWITCH. Sweet. in times of scarcity. A tree of tropical Hindustan. The fruit is red and edible. M. M. longifolia Blume. enter the pores of the skin and cause a painful tingling.swsbm. Scitamineae (Musaceae). M. An infusion of the leaves is used in the Caracas as a tea. Murraya exotica Linn. is of a rich and peculiar flavor.Page 423 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. HORSE-EYE BEAN. The cowitch. kindle a fire of grass over them to destroy the prickles. The leaves are aromatic and fragrant and. The fruits are borne in enormous bunches. are used medicinally. Rutaceae. says Firminger. The fruit is edible. Asia and Australian tropics. which. pruriens DC.Europe. From the seeds. koenigii Spreng. CHINESE China. Its name on the Zambezi is kitedzi. Tiliaceae (Elaeocarpaceae). Tropical Africa. the legume is said by Plumier to have been eaten by the Caribs but Lunan says it is poisonous. The women. which are used to flavor curries. Drury reaffirms this opinion. Java.

com . commence almost immediately to decay. but. Tropical Asia. It was seen by Wilkes in groves in Tahiti. M. this species is called ram kela and. wholesome diet. as they are uneatable until quite ripe. The bananas are exceedingly difficult to obtain in perfection. the fahie of Wilkes.about 10 inches long. Ellis says there are nearly 20 kinds of wild bananas. saw small. F. Tropical Africa. the fruit borne on an upright spike. The fruit is dry and inedible. very large and serviceable. M. rosacea Jacq. The fruit is eaten either roasted or boiled. Gmel. at first of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .swsbm. This is the vai of Cook. was grown in abundance for the table of the King of France at Versailles and Menton. with pulp of a dark orange color. when in good condition. On the Fiji Islands. ABYSSINIAN BANANA. There are large plantations of it at Maitsha and Goutto. Mauritius Islands. and when ripe are pea-green in color. In 1867. in the mountains of Tahiti. of the shape of the banana but twice as large and of a deep golden hue. being of easy culture and management. of high flavor and greatly esteemed by the natives. maculata Jacq. It is destitute of seeds. BANANA. has the taste of the best wheat bread and. it is found cultivated. of moderate and uniform shape and thickness. This is a tender banana not profitable for cultivation above south Florida. This variety. young plants of this dwarf banana were sent to Florida from the United States Department of Agriculture. dressed with milk and butter. In India. and now they may be seen quite generally in gardens there. Unger says the fruit is not palatable and is rarely eaten.Page 424 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the base of the flower-stalk is cooked and eaten by the natives. ensete J. stony seeds. containing a few large. round. is a remarkably fine fruit. and on becoming ripe. The fruit is about seven inches long and rather thin. the fae of the natives. The fruit is very spicy and of excellent flavor. supplies a very excellent. says Masters. marrowy portion of the young stems. in 1841. says Firminger. "green when they are ripe " in Brazil. It is quite frequently fruited in greenhouses. but the white. BANANA. freed from the rind and cooked. M. 1593. Hawkins. The tree grows about 20 feet high and is a striking ornament in our best conservatories. The plant occurs even in the Egyptian antiques and seems to have been more widely distributed at an earlier period than at the present. plantains.

says Humboldt. One of the dainties of the Mosquito Indians. was cultivated in South America before the discovery by Columbus. or at any rate to have been present in the New World before the discovery by Columbus. near the Gulf of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . ADAM'S FIG. says Captain Cook.swsbm. a single bunch is said to be a load for a man. The names "plantain" and "banana" are very discriminately applied. like our apple. for one of the Mohammedan traditions is that the leaves used for girdles by Adam and Eve were plantain leaves. It seems probable that the plantain. they have 15 sorts of plantain. yet some wild species produce seeds. M. in Ceylon 10 and in Burma 30. In the mountains of the Philippines. The banana is cultivated in more varieties in India than is the plantain. the musa. or banana. Hooker saw two species wild in the Himalayas. or Peruvian tombs. and Humboldt mentions the occasional occurrence of wild bananas in the forests of South America. the name given to plantains kept in leaves till putrid.a very dark red. In Madagascar. and varieties of the cultivated form occasionally bear seeds. it abounds. says Simmonds. the plantains are as large as a man's forearm. The flesh was eaten roasted. Plantains with fruit from 10 to 12 inches long were grown in Louisiana in 1855 and probably earlier. In Tenasserim. fried or boiled. Roxburgh found bananas growing wild on the coast of Coromandel. Cook and others saw them in Tahiti. The plantain is unquestionably of ancient culture. as banana leaves are found in the huacas. It seems indigenous to the hot regions of the Old World and the New. according to Herndon and others. says Bancroft. while the term banana is given to sorts whose fruits are eaten raw. but the term plantain is usually restricted to the larger plants whose fruits are eaten cooked. says Forster. there are 20 varieties. on the coast of Para. PLANTAIN. The plantain is abundant in Africa. varies almost ad infinitum. known by every people in the Torrid Zone. The plantain. Thus. BANANA. it is eaten boiled. Bancroft says the Mexicans offered the "fat banana" at the shrine of the goddess Centeotl.Page 425 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. says Roxburgh. according to Burton and other African travelers. Although the cultivated varieties of banana and plantain are usually seedless. sapientum Linn. At Tongatabu. Rumphius and Blanco saw them in the Philippines. In Peru. is bis-bire.com . anterior to the Conquest. Finlayson found them in the small island of Pulo-ubi near Siam. The Dacca plantain is 9 inches long. In general. though hitherto never found in a wild state. has as great a variety of fruit as the apple or pear. but ripening to a yellowish-red.

In Calcutta. and they are much superior to the others. is often cut off. according to Humboldt. Cavendish had "plantains" brought out in boats to his ships and in 1625 Prince STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . In Central Africa. but after they have been kept a while in the house they ripen of themselves and are then of an excellent odor and still better taste. the plantain was seen by May. in 1770. The fruit of these is usually of poor quality. these are very restorative things to eat. and in another place said to be so full of stones as scarcely to be edible. In the Malay Archipelago. Captain Cook found innumerable sorts but only three were good eating.Triste." In Calicut. At first they are not good to eat. 1503-08. de Quiros saw plantains as appears from his memorial to the King of Spain. Both the banana and plantain are now cultivated in Australia in many varieties. and the bark is very thin. In the Fiji Islands. Firminger. in 1595. Varthema mentions 3 kinds of bananas. although others were used for cooking. about 1350. he found plantains flourishing in a state of the highest perfection. near Sumatra. In 1591. being esteemed a most delicate vegetable.com . Castelanu says there is an enormous number of varieties of bananas. and they are about the length of the longest of one's fingers. and near Cumana. and in Central Africa." The head of the flowers of the variety known as kuntela. in 1770. 1616. according to Ellis. but full of seeds. In Cercado. some 9 varieties are in cultivation according to Wilkes.swsbm. In 1606. At Batavia. the pulp welltasted. not fewer than 30 varieties of bananas are cultivated by the natives. before the sheath in which they are enclosed expands. Le Maire. In New Holland Captain Cook found the plantain tree bearing a very small fruit. according to Burton. The garden of Adam in Seyllan (Ceylon). In Tahiti. mentions "very fine plantains" at Mendana Islands and elsewhere. on the Amazon. according to Meyen. In 1588. Grant names 6 varieties. many species occur wild in the forests and some produce edible fruits. Ten varieties are given for Ceylon and 30 for Burma. says Morignolli. Mendana. The third sort are bitter. at the Nicobar Islands. Varthema describes three sorts: "The first sort is called cianckapalon. Their color is somewhat yellow. contains plantain trees which the natives call figs: "but the plantain has more the character of a garden plant than of a tree.Page 426 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The second sort is called cadelapalon. says Wallace. says this fruit is called tachouner. In New Guinea. In Polynesia. at the present time names 7 varieties. as there are at Manila. 1503-08. and Carey says the cultivated varieties in Bengal are infinite. there are sorts with seeds.

he found plantains and he mentions them at Atooi. fruit and wine-making sorts. Sir Richard Hawkins says "the plantain is a tree found inmost parts of Afrique and America. and a single bunch forms a load for a man." In 1593. Tahiti was discovered by Wallis in 1767 and visited by Bougainville in 1768. he says "they have also began to plant that herb. At the island of St. in 1840. there are said to be about a dozen varieties. which in one year grows to the height of a tree. the banana is the staff of life and is apparently an aboriginal of these latitudes. is like a Normandy pippin. who extract from it an unfermented and delicious liquor." St." and describes the fruit as having many varieties: "some great. most ordinarily of a spanne long " and "no conserve is better. It produces fruit like the figs called muse in Alexandria. when discovered in 1722. and it is called abellana in this island. this fruit grows wild in the greatest luxuriance. when they cannot procure it elsewhere. some lesser. Captain Cook discovered the Sandwich Islands and found there the banana. as being found in Africa. Long says. In 1840 Wilkes found there five or six varieties of banana with insipid fruit and three varieties of plantain cultivated to a great extent. John.com ." In 1778. The Fiji Islands were discovered by Tasman in 1643. In 1777 Captain Cook speaks of the plantain as being cultivated there and also of wild plantains in the mountains. Burton says. The banana is mentioned by Ramusio. Ellis says the plantain and banana are indigenous and also cultivated in the native gardens. Easter Island. some round. mentions the banana as growing in some of the valleys and in the osais of Siwah. drying. baking. 1563-74. nor of a more pleasing taste. save by the females. It is found on the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The banana is scarcely ever eaten in the ripe state.swsbm. the boiling. some square. in certain parts about Lake Tanganyika. in Uganda. When Captain Cook discovered Wateroo Island. a variety when green and boiled is an excellent vegetable. the Annamooka Islands.Page 427 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. as also the wild species of Tahiti and Samoa. although there had been intervening arrivals of Europeans. and Wilkes. There are half a dozen varieties. he says. The fruit dried. In the hilly countries. off the coast of Guinea. Thomas. and by Cook in 1769. in his Adventures in the Libyan Desert. and they were visited by D'Urville in 1827. from Ugigi. had "plantains. while another yields a wine resembling hock in flavor. says bananas and plantains are abundant. some triangle.Maurice of Nassau mentions bananas as brought to his ships. Grant found the plantain the staple food of the countries one degree on either side of the equator. The tree is very large and the watery matter contained in the stock serves the natives of Uganda for water.

The best fruit is that grown by the Arabs at Unyamyembe.swsbm. Guernavaca and other vallies. does not answer to the description of Nicols. says it "is like a cucumber and when it is ripe it is blacke and in eating more delicate than any conserve. in 1503. he distinguishes also the small. Las Casas says "the country produced bananas. and plantains and bananas were brought to Pizarro on his visit to Tumbez in 1527. as from Mexico. and other fruit. In Columbus' fourth voyage. writing of the "plantano" of the Canary Islands." Oviedo. stringy and full of seeds. bananas were likewise STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . in the warm and temperate regions. Upon the firme land and in some islands there are great store of planes like unto thick groves. strong and drug-like. Upon the Tanganyika lake. The flavor is harsh. 1516. plantains. white and very delicate. coarse and insipid. says it is called paco. In 1526. 1578. says the banana was transplanted hence to the Island of Hispaniola. plantains are mentioned as seen by Cavendish at S. which is supposed to be the one." He also says "there is a kinde of small planes. He describes the musa of the valley of the Andes.com . sweet and aromatic dominico and the common banana or arton. There are others which are stronger and bigger and red of color. There growes none in the Kingdom of Peru but are brought from the Indies. cocoanuts." There is a tradition current in Mexico. but the Dominique variety. says the plant was imported into Brazil and has no Brazilian name. whither the original slips had been brought from the East Indies. Oviedo contends that it is not indigenous to the New World but was introduced to Hispaniola in 1516 by Father Thomas de Berlanger and that he transplanted it from the Canary Islands. that the platans arton and the dominico varieties were cultivated long before the arrival of the Spaniards. Thomas Nicols. which in Hispaniola they call dominiques. Piso. in places inclined to a rusty brown. Acosta says "it is the fruits they use most at the Indies and in general in all places. In the Cape Verde Islands. although they say the first beginning comes from Ethiopia. but this is a poor specimen. of which the skin is brick-reddish. at Costa Rica. according to Prescott. 1648. the pulp a dull yellow and contains black seeds. but Lery.islands and on the coast of Zanzibar and rarely in the mountains of Usagara. Garcilasso de la Vega says that in the time of the Incas the banana. Jago in 1586 and also at Pogo Island. have been frequently found in the huacas of Peru. formed the base of the nourishment of the natives.Page 428 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." According to Irving. The leaves of the banana. pineapples. says Humboldt. there is a variety larger than the horseplantain of India.

simiamm Kurz. It surpasses M. California. Humboldt ate the fruit of the dominico variety on the banks of the Amazon. Mediterranean and Caucasian region. and one of them sufficient to satisfie a man. From Malacca to the Sunda Islands. GRAPE-HYACINTH. The farmers use the wax from the berries for candles. according. sapientum in delicacy of flavor. at Quito. Muscari racemosum Mill.Page 429 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. plantanos. and the same year Captain Drake found great stores of them at Nombre de Dios. Myrica cordifolia Linn." In 1595. to Sprengel. and its strange-looking. De Soto saw plantains in Cuba. Zacynthus and Corcyra. "the plantain is a fruit much longer than it is broad. as well as in Italy. In 1565.seen on Guatemala. South Africa. they were growing in the mission gardens in 1793. Hawkins writes that the best he has seen in Brazil is on an island called Placentia and these are "small and round and green when they are ripe. in his History of the New World says. baked and fried. Herrera. Those of the West Indies and Guynne are great. Captain Preston and Sommers had plantains brought them from Dominica Island. whereas the others in ripening become yellow. but the Hottentots eat this wax either with or without meat. MYRICA. About 50 varieties of this species are under cultivation and are called feesangs. This shrub is common in the Ghauts of India. which is the general name of all kinds of plantains of which last there are several species. says. At Santa Barbara. At the present time. Rubiaceae. are the most common fruit of the Montana. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and the little ones are much better than the large ones." About 1800." In 1593. white. M. The bulbs are eaten in Crete. A large shrub of tropical eastern Asia and the neighboring islands. boiled. says Herndon. calycine leaves are eaten. Mussaenda frondosa Linn. The people eat them raw. Myricaceae. In 1538. Liliaceae. Bensoni.com . who wrote a General History of the Indies from 1492 to 1554. roasted. "the plantans have the relish of dry figs but eaten green their taste cannot be ascertained.swsbm.

Bengal. gale Linn. Singapore. It has an agreeably-flavored fruit. M. It is called sophee in Silhet. is a fine Chinese fruit tree usually grafted upon M. called yangmae in China. NUTMEG. with a tuberculated or granulated surface resembling that of the fruit of the strawberry tree. Moluccas. Madagascar. Myristica acuminata Lam. says Royle. SWEET GALE.M. M.com . and is sold in the bazaars of the hills. Madeira. but it is only in a very few localities that its cultivation has been attended with success. being held in esteem for its subacid fruits. The nutmeg tree is found wild in Giolo. but this. Of northern climates. This species yields nutmegs in Brazil. sapida. In England. The wild variety san. NUTMEG. which are eaten both raw and cooked. Amboina. the western peninsula of New Guinea and in many of the adjacent islands. the yamomomoki of Japan and is commonly cultivated in these countries. CANDLEBERRY MYRTLE. in the Philippine Islands and in Madagascar.swsbm. might probably be remedied by cultivation. the leaves are sometimes used to flavor beer as an agreeable substitute for hops. fragrans Houtt. This is a small tree whose drupaceous fruits are used for preserves. The berries are employed in France as a spice. Malacca.Page 430 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. probably this. Fortune refers to a species. nagi Thunb. faya Ait. M. Azores and Canary Islands. Tropical Asia and subtropics. Brazil and the West Indies. The fruit is eaten in India. though with too large a stone in proportion to the fleshy part. They are round. This is the yang-mae of China. It has been introduced into Benkoelen on the west coast of Sumatra. where the fruit is eaten both raw and cooked. Myristicaceae. says Brandis. one-seeded drupes of deep red color. Penang. Booro. Nutmegs and mace are now brought into the market almost entirely from the Banda Islands. Ceram. This fruit tree would probably repay the trouble of culture. The French in Canada call it laurier and put the leaves into broth to give it a pleasant taste. the entire group STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .

" In 1778. They are known to have been at first imported overland into Europe and are mentioned under the name of karua aromatika in the addition to Aetius. Mawe records that it is used rarely in England. having a longitudinal groove on one side. Pliny seems to refer to its use in ancient Rome under the name anthriscus. The leaves were eaten either boiled in soups or stews. In 1597. SWEET CHERVIL. and pleasant among other sallade herbes. covered by the false aril or arillode. semiserrata Wall. hard.Page 431 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or used as a salad in a fresh state. This species is cultivated for ornament and fruit.occupying no more than 17. The fruit is of a rich. Myrtus arayan H. according to Bryant. The small. This aromatic herb can scarcely be considered as an inmate of American gardens. also by Symeon Sethus. The fruit is much like a peach. The pea-sized drupe. In Silesia. Myrrhis odorata Scop. & K. spicy. Himalayan region. with a soft.com . and bursts into two pieces when the enclosed seed. Umbelliferae. is exposed. This plant was formerly much cultivated in England as a potherb but is now fallen into disuse. which may be removed when dry and which encloses the nucleus of the seed. MYRRH. holsom. M. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . according to Brandis.6 geographical miles. says the leaves are "exceeding good. giving the taste of Ainse unto the rest. Myrsine capitellata Wall. Gerarde. subacid flavor. SWEET CICELY. Peru.swsbm. fleshy exocarp. ANISE. B. The seed itself has a thick. Tropical Asia. The leaves and roots are still eaten in Germany and the seed is used occasionally for flavoring. 1863. It finds notice in most of the early botanies. The earliest accounts of the nutmeg are in the writings of the Arabian physicians. Myrtaceae. the roots are eaten boiled and the green seeds are chopped up and mixed with salads to give them an aromatic flavor. Myrsineae. although so recorded by Burr. the nutmeg of commerce. round drupe is eaten. which constitutes the substance known as mace. is eaten. South Europe and Asia Minor. outer shell.

CRANBERRY-MYRTLE. An evergreen shrub of China and Japan. The natives express the juice and mix it with water to form a refreshing drink. says Lindley. M. Nannorrhops ritchieana H. where it is called temo. SACRED BAMBOO. Hooker describes the berries as fleshy.com . molinae Barn. In Greece. Myrtaceae (Napoleonaeaceae). Molina says. and the young inflorescence. communis Linn. ugni Molina. Southern Europe and the Orient. but its flavor does not recommend it as a table fruit. or cabbage. Baluchistan and Afghanistan. sweet and of agreeable flavor. Don says the fruit is red and musky. Its fruit is eaten by the modern. Western tropical Africa. Its seeds. as well as the flesh of the fruit. as it was by the ancient. Chile.swsbm. The leaf-bud. which are red berries of the size of a pea. Napoleonaea imperialis Beauv.M. nummularia Poir. is commonly eaten. Mufeller says it bears small but pleasantly aromatic berries. were formerly used as a spice and are said still to be so used in Tuscany. Nandina domestica Thunb. may be used for coffee. Athenians. This species is extensively cultivated for its fruits. Berberideae (Nandinaceae). Chile to Fuego and the Falkland Islands. a large fruit with an edible pulp and a rind containing much tannin. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The dried fruit and flower-buds. Henfrey says this plant bears. myrtle was sacred to Venus and was a coronary plant. The fruit is said to be agreeably flavored and aromatic It fruits abundantly in the greenhouses of England. CHILEAN GUAVA. M. MYRTLE. M. Chile. Wendl. Palmae.Page 432 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

Br. "Eat cress and learn more wit. Cruciferae." The first attempt to cultivate water cress by artificial means in Europe is said by Booth to have been at Erfurt. East Indies. cooked with mashed ground-nuts. 1806. At the present time. he says. Nasturtium amphibium R. North temperate regions.Page 433 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Merat says the "young leaves are eatable in the spring. this cress is eaten in Alaska. China and Malay. this herb is much prized and is sought after by the Mohammedans.? Amaryllideae. North temperate regions. On the upper Nile. The young shoots and leaves of water cress have been used as a salad from time immemorial. According to Dall. INDIAN CRESS. The leaves. it is cultivated in plantations many acres in extent and the demand for this popular salad herb during the season can scarcely be supplied. N. officinale R. according to Don. and the Romans recommended it to be eaten with vinegar as a remedy for those whose minds were deranged. but. This cress found its way into the gardens of France. NARCISSUS. Xenophon strongly recommended its use to the Persians." N. A wild plant of Europe and northern America. make a delicious spinach. about the middle of the sixteenth century. Br. Grant n found a narcissus about eight inches high. In India. yellow corona and with leaves tasting of onions. In America. N. it is mentioned among garden esculents by McMahon. WATER CRESS. it has been cultivated as a salad near London only since 1808. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . with white flowers having a waxy. MARSH CRESS. and by succeeding writers on gardening. It is sometimes used as a cress. palustre DC.Narcissus sp. common in wet ditches. indicum DC. hence the Greek proverb. Gerarde and Lord Bacon wrote strongly in its favor.swsbm.com . WATER CRESS.

Nymphaeaceae.swsbm. of the size of a small apple. says Hough. speciosum Willd. A tree of Guiana. (Aceraceae). is tapped for sugar in Canada and is now being planted in Illinois for sugar-making. N. YELLOW NELUMBO. BOX ELDER. Northern Africa and tropical Asia. and the deities of the various sects in that quarter of the world are almost invariably STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . says Rafinesque. Negundo (Acer) aceroides (negundo) Moench. Lauraceae. creeping roots. The timber is much valued in ship building. LOTUS.Page 434 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The fruit. Sapindaceae A tree of northern North America. AMERICAN Pickering says the American cinnamon is a tree of the eastern slope of the equatorial Andes and is cultivated in the region about Quito. Douglas says the Crow Indians make sugar from its sap. Nees. in native estimation. rodioei Hook.com . This tree. The lotus is an eastern flower which seems from time immemorial to have been. are acrimonious when fresh but are easily deprived of their dangerous juice by washings and are then an agreeable food to the Indians. disagreeable kind of bread. It is held sacred throughout the East. Though the fruit is very bitter. WATER CHINQUEPIN. and Richardson says this is the tree which yields most of the sugar in Rupert's Land. has a single seed about as large as a walnut. the type of the beautiful. Its dried calices are brought also from forests to the eastward and are used as a spice. GREENHEART. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. Nelumbo luteum Willd.Nectandra cinnamomoides CINNAMON. The seeds are very agreeable to eat and are eagerly sought for by children and Indians. North America and West Indies. its seeds yield a starch which the Indians mix with rotten wood and make into a bitter. AMERICAN WATERLOTUS. Vasey says experiments in Illinois show the box elder to give more sap and a more saccharine sap than the sugar maple and that this sap makes a whiter sugar. The long and thick. N.

Ilicineae (Aquifoliaceae). pleasant. Europe. are served at table. to which hangs a long receptacle or bag. The leaves are broad. The berries. It is fabled that the flowers obtained their red color by being dyed with the blood of Siva when Kamadeva wounded him with the love-shaft arrow.represented as either decorated with its flowers. in China. These stalks are not dissimilar in taste to our broad beet with a somewhat sharp after-taste. The roots furnish a starch. Temient found them of delicate flavor and not unlike the pine cones of the Apennines. In Japan. In the southern provinces of China. generally twisted. It is also symbolic of the mountain Meru. some parts of India and in Ceylon. from having ascended from the ocean on its flowers. The seeds are also eaten like filberts. Catnip holds a place as a condiment. called gaou fun.swsbm. The seeds and slices of its hairy root are served at banquets and the roots are pickled for winter use. The lotus floating in the water is the emblem of the world. Nepenthaceae. Rafin. sapid and wholesome and are used as food by the Egyptians. Townsend says it is used by some in England to give a high relish in sauces. In China. smooth. This plant has been introduced into India and is now common in some of the mission gardens and is grown in conservatories in Europe and America. refreshing liquor in such quantity that the contents of six or eight of them are sufficient to quench the thirst of a man. or arrowroot. Orient and the Himalayas. the stems are eaten. Nepenthes distillatoria Linn. The lotus is often referred to by the Hindu poets. which. Labiatae. limpid. Northeast North America. the black seeds of this plant. not unlike little acorns in shape. Ceylon. Nemopanthus fascicularis MOUNTAIN HOLLY. according to Pickering. with a very strong nerve running through the middle. yields a sweet. It is mentioned among the plants of Virginia STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . or holding a sceptre framed from its flowers. Nepeta cataria Linn. on being pressed. Both the roots and seeds are esculent. seated or standing on a lotus throne or pedestal. Lakeshmi is called the lotus-born.Page 435 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In 1726. oblong. CATNIP. ending in a long tendril. are eaten by the Indians. the residence of the gods and the emblem of female beauty. PITCHER PLANT. large quantities are grown.com .

Smith. and the fruit then bears some resemblance to a prune. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . longana Cambess. the pulp shrivels and turns black. ALEHOOF. almost transparent. and within the fruit a stone. but it perhaps is more agreeable than any other in the whole vegetable kingdom. with a thin. It has been cultivated for ages in that country and furnishes a large amount of food to the people. Cambodia and the Philippines. as collected by Clayton preceding 1739N. In Trinidad. The Chinese recognize some 15 or 20 varieties.com . the fruit is of the consistence and flavor of a high class Muscat grape and is invariably relished as delicious by all. they are filled with a white. but Williams says there are only two or three which are distinctly marked.swsbm. wartlike protuberances. (Glechoma) glechoma (hederacea) Benth. When fresh. sweet. is nearly round. where it is found in the greatest abundance but does not appear to be cultivated. Under this skin is the fruit. LONGAN. GROUND IVY. litchi Cambess. Europe and naturalized in northeastern North America. The most common variety.by Gronovius. Nephelium lappaceum RAMPOSTAN. N. is covered with small points which are soft and of a deep red color. brown seed. brittle shell of red color covered all over with rough. a single tree often producing four bushels of fruit. surrounding a rather large. RAMBUTAN. Malay Archipelago. It is now cultivated in Bengal and the West Indies. shining. The leaves are in great repute among the poor in England as a tea and in ancient times were used for flavoring ale. This tree yields the well-known and favorite rambutan fruit which in appearance very much resembles a chestnut with the husk on and. says A. Sapindaceae.Page 436 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. NEPETA. others are larger and heart-shaped. jelly-like pulp. after they have been gathered some time. This tree furnishes one of the most common fruits of China. LICHI. the eatable part thereof is small in quantity. like the chestnut. Linn. about an inch and a half in diameter. says Pnstoe. N. China.

LADDER FERN. as the seeds contain a poisonous principle. tawa Hook.swsbm. Tropics. N. says J. This fern. Don.com . Filices (various families). It is also grown in Bengal. Lauraceae. Nephrodium (various taxa) esculentum Don. sweet or subacid flavor. produces underground tubers like small potatoes. with a nearly smooth. The longan is a smaller fruit than the lichi. N.Page 437 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. f. New Zealand. which are used for food by the natives of Nepal. the rootstocks of this fern are eaten by the natives. Nesodaphne (Beilschmiedia) tarairi Hook. f. says Unger. Burma and southern China. which are sold in the Chinese markets. brittle skin of a yellowish-brown color. In Nepal. Malay Archipelago. Neptunia oleracea Lour. where it is much cultivated for its fruits. Mexico. floating stems being crisp and juicy but not easily digested. Smith. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It contains a similar semitransparent pulp of an agreeable. varying from half an inch to an inch in diameter and is quite round. TARAIRE TREE. Leguminosae. but. The plant bears an ovoid and deep purple fruit used by the aborigines. rimosum G. This plant is used in Cochin China in salads. TAWA.East Indies. Polypodiaceae (Oleandraceae). its spongy. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl. The fruit is edible but the seeds are poisonous unless well boiled before eaten. New Zealand. they require to be well boiled in order to make them harmless. This species furnishes a fruit which is eaten. Japan and New Zealand.

this species is cultivated in Europe. This species yields the tobacco of Russia. Clevelandi A. China. N. This is the species which Le Conte thinks probably existed in China before the discovery of America.swsbm. loxensis H. N. & K. TOBACCO. It is everywhere cultivated in Cochin China and China. TOBACCO. N. TOBACCO. This tobacco is cultivated by the Arikara and Mandan Indians. chinensis Fisch. N. Peru. paniculata Linn. South America. B. quadrivalvis Pursh. glutinosa Linn. Western North America. According to Humboldt. Solanaceae. N. The calyx is very fetid and is preferred to any other part. This plant grows on the back of the Andes and is similar to cultivated tobacco. This tobacco is excessively strong and was found in association with the shell-heaps which occur so abundantly on the coasts of southern and central California. Gray. and he furthermore says that from this the best Cuban tobacco is obtained. TOBACCO. The Andes. dried in the shade and buried beneath hay ricks. TOBACCO. This species is only known in a cultivated state. The tobacco prepared from it is excellent and the most delicate is formed of the dried flowers. TOBACCO. Professor Rothrock is of the opinion that the early natives of California smoked the leaves. This species is said by Humboldt to be similar to cultivated tobacco.Page 438 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. TOBACCO. B. & K. South America. when they become of a brownish-yellow color. The young leaves are removed. N.Nicotiana andicola H. California.com . STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .

It was observed in use among the New England tribes. The word tobacco. 1859. It furnishes the East Indian tobacco. and the kinds called Latakia and Turkish. a Spanish writer. It is the yetl cultivated by the ancient Mexicans. TOBACCO. Yet it has been maintained by some. It is cultivated in all parts of the globe and have even become wild in Africa. also that of the Philippines. Mexico.Page 439 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The name of the tobacco pipe in the Delaware language was haboca. "who swallow the smoke and revel in a temporary elysium. that the custom of smoking tobacco is of much greater antiquity than the date of the discovery of America. the medicine-pipe is a sacred pledge of STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 1787. This species is used. It was first seen by Europeans in 1492 when Columbus saw the natives of Cuba having in their mouths a roll of leaves of which they were inhaling the smoke. deems this probably true. belongs to the ancient language of Hayti and Santo Domingo. according to Masters.com . and among the Columbians. it and the California Indians also planted it in gardens as early as 1775. It did not properly denote the herb but the tube through which the smoke was inhaled. among the Indians of the whole eastern coast by the early colonists. as Don Ullva. a relic of cultivation by the Indians. South America. and Le Conte. tabacum Linn. Yet the absence of the mention of a custom so peculiar as smoking by all the earlier writers and travelers seems conclusive evidence against such assertions. The Snake Indians cultivated. N. among the Eskimos of the northwest.swsbm. and tobacco in some form or other was used by almost all the tribes of the American continent from the northwest coast to Patagonia. Mexico.N. N. in the manufacture of some of the most highly esteemed cigars. according to Masters. who smoke and snuff. says Humboldt. repanda Willd. TOBACCO. This species is found in old fields from New York westward and southward." among the Konigas for chewing and snuffing. rustica Linn. It is supposed to be the kind originally introduced into Europe. among the Ingaliks of the Yukon. In general. This is the principal species of cultivated tobaccos. TOBACCO. a native of America and known to the outer world only after the discovery.

Page 440 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. according to De la Vega. but the notices of it at this date are obscure. three kinds of tobacco were used. either from Portugal or from Italy by the way of Astrakhan. who that year made his first expedition against the Spainards. Pope Urban VIII issued a bill prohibiting the using of snuff in churches during divine service. was presented with a specimen of this plant recently brought from Florida — Humboldt says from Yucatan. passed a law prohibiting its use on pain of death. Sultan of Turkey. says Bancroft. About this date. the habit of smoking was found to be spread alike over both North and South America. In 1560. Phillips says it was brought to England by Drake in 1570. and. it was introduced into France by John Nicot. it was introduced by St. Among the Nahua natives. about 1559.friendship among all the northwestern tribes. Lobel asserts that tobacco was cultivated in England as early as the year 1570. and a similar law about this time was passed in Persia. The Aztecs smoked tobacco in pipes after meals. did not smoke it but used it in the form of snuff for medicinal purposes. about the beginning of the seventeenth century. It seems certain that if the plant was then introduced. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . signifying tobacco in general. who. the picycti and the quauyetl. About the middle of the sixteenth century. at the period of the conquest. According to some. In the reign of Louis XIII. that its general diffusion over Europe and the East commenced. inhaling the smoke. at Lisbon. where it was brought from America. It was about the beginning of the seventeenth century that the tobacco plant was introduced into Russia. at Tobaco. it reached Hindustan and China between 1560 and 1565. The Indians of Peru. Tobacco reached India in 1605 and about 1625 or 1626 Amurath IV. tobacco was raised only in gardens and was used only for medicinal purposes. and it is asserted by some that he sent several plants to Spain this year and from this circumstance the plant derived its name. in 1519.swsbm. So late as the reign of Henry IV. for it was certainly from Portugal. it spread from Italy over Germany and Holland. Humboldt says tobacco has been cultivated from time immemorial by all the native people of the Orinoco. a province of Yucatan. and also took the dried leaf in the pulverized form of snuff.com . Cortez seems to be the first European who saw the plant. the yetl. it did not became an object of commerce and seems not to have been communicated to any other nation. but Drake did not return until 1573. Columbus found it in use in Yucatan. Croix into Italy and. ambassador of France at the Court of Portugal. it began to come into request as a luxury and to be taken in the form of snuff.

Europe. Nigella arvensis Linn. Mediterranean region and the Orient. The melanthion of Columella. at which time. it was first cultivated by the use of a spade and in 1616 it was cultivated to such an extent that it occupied even the streets of Jamestown. of Palladius. is said to have been the first botanist who mentions tobacco. and is now found in the lists of some of our seedsmen. on account of their aromatic nature. WILD FENNEL. are employed as a spice in cooking. NIGELLA. Mediterranean region. is recorded by Vilmorin among plants of the garden. BLACK CUMIN. ROMAN CORIANDER. in the first century. N. in the third and of Charlemagne.swsbm. in the first century. In eastern countries they are commonly used for seasoning curries and other dishes. as also by Burr in 1863. and the Egyptians spread them on bread and put them on cakes like comfits. who died in 1564. seems a descriptive name for his gith. The seeds are used as those of N. tobacco was in cultivation in Virginia by Raleigh's colonists. tobacco culture in Connecticut was stimulated by legislation which required the colonists to use tobacco of Connecticut growth. and he used it for chewing and smoking. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Ranunculaceae. particularly in Italy and southern France. WILD FENNEL. East Mediterranean and Taurus-Caspian countries and cultivated in various parts of the world. Black cumin finds mention as cultivated in most of the botanies of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. NUTMEG FLOWER.Page 441 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. whole fields of it were already being cultivated in Portugal. Gesner. It was cultivated in New Netherlands as early as 1646 and was introduced into Louisiana in 1718. In 1611. The seeds are employed in some parts of Germany.com . which are used as a condiment. sativa as are also the leaves. damascena Linn. however. FENNEL FLOWER. This plant is supposed to be the gith of Columella and Pliny. France and Asia as a condiment. usually ascribed to Raleigh in 1586. sativa Linn.Its introduction is. In 1640. says Humboldt. The seeds. N. in the ninth. This species is grown in Turkey for its seeds. In 1586.

of a red color and agreeable flavor. are eaten in the Caspian district. Nymphaeaceae. Nitraria schoberi Linn. R. The Jews of Jamaica use this plant as a garlic to season smoked sausage.Page 442 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Noronhia emarginata Thou.Nipa fruticans Thunb. Newberry saw many hundred bushels collected for winter use among the Indians of the western coast and says the seeds taste like those of broom corn and are apparently very nutritious. N. Syria. SPATTER-DOCK. Brown says the seeds are a staple article of diet among the Klamaths of southern Oregon. Nothoscordum fragrans Kunth. YELLOW POND LILY. north Africa and the tropics. North America and Mexico. after long boiling. This has been supposed.11 cultivated in the Mauritius where the pulp of the fruit is esculent. YELLOW WATER LILY. & Sm. The plant produces a fruit of the size of an olive. to be the true lotus tree of the ancients. The berries.com . NITRE-BUSH. north Asia and Australia. vinegar. tridentata Desf. though saltish and insipid. N. The spathe is convertible into syrup. says Masters. Liliaceae (Alliaceae). Nuphar advena Ait. Mauritius. LOTUS TREE. NIPA. Zygophyllaceae. North America. luteum Sibth. The pulpy kernels are used for making sweetmeats. yeast and strong spirit. Palmae. Josselyn found the roots of the water lily with yellow flowers.swsbm. Oleaceae. The plant is now. In New England. sugar. according to Hooker. Africa. eaten by the natives and tasting like sheep-liver. Russia. much relished by the natives. A shrub of Madagascar. Eastern portion of the Malayan Archipelago.

Page 443 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The tubers are much sought after by the natives as an article of food or as a medicine. N. and its roots and leaf-stalks are eaten by the Finns and Russians. in its seeds. the rootstocks. FLATTER-DOCK. stellata Willd. says Pickering. N. in the cave temples at Adjunta and in Brahmanical cave temples. This water lily is distinctly figured. The roots are also eaten in Ceylon and the seeds are chewed by children. Tropical Africa and eastern Asia. The rootstocks contain a sort of starch and are eaten by the poorer classes in India. called bheta. North temperate region.Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. N. The capsules and seeds are either pickled or put into curries or ground and mixed with flour to make cakes. according to Masters. Australia. The stalks containing brown or black seed are used while those with light-colored seeds are rejected.com . EGYPTIAN WATER LILY. Nymphaea alba Linn. lotus Linn. LOTUS. N. The porous seed-stalk is peeled and eaten either raw or roasted. AUSTRALIAN WATER LILY. N. In the upper Nile region it is called macongee-congee. easily digestible food. The farinaceous rootstocks are eaten. The large. gigantea Hook. California. being yellow and dry when cooked. growing in the mud with the floating leaves attached. rough tubers. North America and West Indies. are used in the preparation of a kind of beer. In France.swsbm. are fried in heated sand and make a light. are roasted and are not unlike potatoes. ampla DC. Asia and tropical Africa. WHITE WATER LILY. polysepalum Engelm. and the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The small seeds. to the Indians. Nymphaeaceae. A refreshing drink is made from its flowers by the Turks. This variety furnishes an important article of food.

Mclntosh says it was condemned by Chrysippus more than 200 years before Christ as an enemy to the sight and a robber of the wits.com . On the banks of rivers in the Carolinas. LARGE TUPELO. A fragrant and aromatic plant of tropical Asia. has been celebrated from a very early period. Tropical Africa. considered very agreeable by some. Ocimum basilicum Linn. N. SOUR GUM. the rind is brown and thick. OGEECHEE LIME. SWEET BASIL. Western and tropical Asia. The fruit is twice the size of a man's fist. longifolius Benth. The fruit is pleasantly acidulous and is often used for preserves. WILD OLIVE. Eastern America. uniflora Wangenh.swsbm. Its fruit is delicious to the taste. from which it is known by the name of Ogeechee lime. as a culinary plant. believing the more it was cursed the better it would prosper. Eastern North America. Ochrocarpos (Mammea) africana Oliver. Nyssa capitata Walt. Between the stone and the rind is a soft. Plistonicus and others extolled its virtues and recommended it as strongly as it had been formerly condemned. PEPPERIDGE. & Hook. Its fruit. BLACK GUM. is sold in the Savannah market under the name of Ogeechee lime for the purpose of a preserve. UPLAND TUPELO. Cornaceae (Nyssaceae). orangecolored and full of an acid similar to a lime. and STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . N. Diodorus and Hollerus entertained equally superstitious notions regarding it. OGEECHEE LIME. which. Guttiferae. Pliny says the Romans sowed the seeds of this plant with maledictions and ill words. f. pulpy juice of rosewater flavor. The fruit is large. Philistis.flowers and roots are eaten by the Wahiyon. East Indies. Labiatae. O. according to Browne.Page 444 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. multiflora Wangenh. and the pulp is yellow and excellent. The fruit is similar to an acom in size and appearance.

Abyssinia. O. f. The tubers form one of the dainty dishes of the Oregon Indians. Mediterranean countries. The roots have occasionally been eaten. In French gardens. Western North America. showing a snowy-white. O. which are much employed for seasoning soups. this plant is called basilic en arbre. pimpinelloides Linn. Its fleshy tubercles. Anacardiaceae. It reached America before 1806 as it is then mentioned by McMahon as a well-known plant. according to Lindley. that the French form may be the O. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Oenanthe peucedanifolia Pollich. It seems to have been first cultivated in Britain in 1548 and is now valued for the leaves and leafy tops. but. however.Page 445 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. According to Loureiro. stews. Europe and adjoining Asia. This plant is the m'oooomboo of the upper Nile. they trod it down with their feet and prayed to the gods that it might not vegetate. MEADOW PARSLEY.when they wished for a crop. Lauraceae. This species is recorded as indigenous in India. Umbelliferae. gratissimum Linn. are eaten in Japan. Odina (Lannea) schimperi Hochst. They are black. farinaceous substance.swsbm.com . & Hook. O. hobokbok.. but of this he is not certain. according to Grant. the South Sea Islands and Brazil. Vilmorin thinks. Forskal gives as the Arabic name. Ocotea pretiosa Benth. East Indies. It was cultivated in England in 1752 by a Mr. Miller. have occasionally been eaten. A Brazilian tree which yields a bark whose properties are similar to those of cinnamon. when boiled like potatoes. cream-like taste with a slight parsley flavor. Sweet basil seeds. sarmentosa Presl. which has a sweet. suave Willd. sauces and various other dishes. it occurs in the kitchen gardens of Cochin China. The fruit is scarcely edible. they burst open lengthwise. WILD PARSLEY. according to Miss Bird.

OLIVE. stolonifera Wall. Brazil.swsbm. Olax zeylanica Linn.Page 446 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The roots are sweet to the taste. Northeastern America. This is the patawa of the Amazon and yields a colorless. Onagraceae. and. Guiana and the Amazon. O. MALLA. BACABA WINE PALM. which. Palmae. BATAVA PALM. sweet oil. distichus Mart. under the name German Rampion. East Indies.com . used at Para for adulterating olive oil and excellent for cooking and for lamps. Ceylon. but the plant is cultivated in France only as a curiosity. EVENING PRIMROSE. bataua Mart. Bates says this is one of the palms called bacaba.O. The olive has been in cultivation from the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It first reached Europe in 1614. Mediterranean region. The roots may be used as scorzonera. The plant is served as a green in Japan. used for adulterating olive oil at Para and for cooking. somewhat resembling parsnips. It is said by Loudon to be cultivated in Germany. Oleaceae. Oenocarpus bacaba Mart. O. BACABA OIL PALM. In Germany the roots are used as scorzonera and the young shoots in salads. are wholesome and nutritious. sweet oil. Java and China. when boiled. It is called bacaba. Olacaceae. This plant was formerly cultivated in English gardens for its edible roots. The fruit is much esteemed by the natives who manufacture a pleasant drink from it. Oenothera biennis Linn. It is said the leaves are used as potherbs and as salads. GERMAN RAMPION. Brazil. The fruit yields a colorless. in Carniola. Olea europaea Linn. It is given by Burr for American gardens in 1863. the roots are eaten in salad.

that the olive was brought to France by the Phocian colony which inhabited Marseilles. In 1867. of late years. Georgia. In 1755. the olive was introduced into Florida by a colony of Greeks and Minorcans who founded New Smyrna. in Spain or in Africa.swsbm. It is found wild in Syria.earliest periods of history. but the enterprise was not prosecuted and fell through. however. Humboldt says that. a number of trees bore abundantly for many years prior to 1835 and. olive trees were under cultivation in Louisiana. speaks of olive trees there yielding palatable fruit and excellent oil but he may have referred to the wild olive. was remarkable for its fine olive trees. In 1817. It is now extensively cultivated in Italy. and. C. the olive was introduced into South Carolina and. Homer mentions green olives in the garden of Alcinous and Laertes. opposite St. On Cumberland Island. In 1854. Peru. In 1560. mention is made of the fruiting of olives at this place. O. South Carolina. In this year. and. in the time of Pliny with 12 and at the present time with 20. and are said to have succeeded fairly well. had been carried over the Alps to Gaul and Spain. It is said by others.com . three plants were carried to Lima. its culture seems to be making rapid progress in southern California. an attempt by a colony to cultivate the olive in Alabama was made. fine crops were gathered in gardens in St. C. Spain. western Asia and Australia. southern France. At the time of Cato. In California. also. the South Carolina Society imported cuttings of olives. two varieties were introduced at Beaufort. the Romans were acquainted with only 9 kinds of olives. The cultivated tree was distinguished from the wild tree by Dioscorides. in 1785. Portugal. In 1869 and 1871. the olive was still very rare in Rome. americana. In 1760. some 200 trees were planted. and about 1760 Anastasia Island. in 1825 at Darien. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Augustine. Under the Consulate of Appius Claudius. the founder of Athens. 571 B. one of these was stolen and carried to Chile and from this origin nourishing plantations became established.Page 447 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The olive belongs to the fruits which were promised to the Jews in Canaan. which were brought by Cecrops. says Unger. at the time of Pliny. but. a grant of land being given conditionally on success. the olive is said to have been planted in 1700. 680 B. This tree was first brought to Italy. to Greece. and Jefferys. the olive had already passed into France and Spain. 1760. it is reported as successfully grown. under the reign of Tarquin the Elder. Greece and Africa and even in Spain but whether truly indigenous or escaped from cultivation is in doubt. this tree did not exist in Italy. Augustine. In 1833. at the time of Pliny. northern Africa.

The tree is called cobnut in Jamaica. West Indies. if not superior. Anacardiaceae. In Cephalonia. and these products are largely an object of export from southern Europe. This tree grows in the most desolate and rocky parts of Arizona and Sonora. Mexico.The use of the fruit for the expression of an oil and for pickling is very extensive. Bixineae (Flacourtiaceae). This tree is cultivated in Santo Domingo and Jamaica under the name of noisettier. or cobnut.com . IRONWOOD. When roasted they are equal. This is a large tree called in Yemen onkob. according to Mrs. MOUNTAIN MAIZE. are boiled and eaten like fungi. Tropical America.swsbm. Gray.Page 448 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The Mohave Indians of Arizona store them for winter use. triandra Linn.? Balanophoreae. Brassey. Omphalea diandra Linn. They spring up suddenly in Peru after rain and are called mountain maize. Oncocarpus vitiensis A. The fruit is eaten by boys. These plants. Leguminosae. OLNEYA. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . according to Poppig. The seeds are eaten raw or roasted by the Indians. Tropical Africa and Arabia. Gray. they yield a sweet and fine-flavored oil. By compression. Peru. from the resemblance of the flavor of the seeds to that of the European nuts. The seeds are edible after the deleterious embryo is extracted. The embryo is deleterious and requires to be extracted. COBNUT. Euphorbiaceae. Olneya tesota A. COBNUT. The kernels of the nuts in the raw state are delicately sweet and wholesome. O. the press cake is used by the peasants as a staple diet. to any chestnut. Ombrophytum sp. Oncoba spinosa Forsk. When care is taken to parch them they equal peanuts with no perceptible difference in taste.

farinaceous and edible tubers. Leguminosae. Palmae. Ononis arvensis Linn. India. is edible.swsbm. as Dioscorides teacheth. or cabbage. when boiled. and be very pleasant sauce to be eaten with meat as sallad. and the tender stalks.) Cactaceae. This singular plant is grown in vegetable gardens as a curiosity on account of the peculiar shape of the seed-pods. is much esteemed by the Fijians. Onobrychis crista-galli Lam. camanchica Engelm. "The tender sprigs or crops of this shrub before the thornes come forth. NIBUNG PALM. The fruit is much eaten by the Indians. Europe. The kernel. which is of a beautiful red when ripe. It has no utility. Royle says this plant has large." Onopordon acanthium Linn. Its seed appears in some of our seedsmen's lists. Malay. & Bigel. HEDGEHOG. Leguminosae. resembles asparagus or kale. nutty flavor. may be eaten in the same manner as artichokes and cardoons. Adams says the cabbage is certainly a most delicious vegetable and. peeled and boiled. Opuntia (phaeacantha. COTTON THISTLE. Johnson says an oil expressed from the seeds has been used for culinary purposes. The receptacles of the flowers. Oncus (Dioscorea) esculentus Lour. var. Compositae. north Africa. and the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . American Southwest. Mediterranean region. are preserved in pickle. The heart. Rest-harrow. says Lightfoot. Europe. This is the nibung of the Malays. when boiled. The fleshy disk of the fruit. it furnishes fictitious cucumbers and an excellent salad. furnishes a food. is delicately white with a very sweet. REST-HARROW. who use it extensively bruised in water and fermented into a liquor resembling cider. the Orient and naturalized in eastern North America. in its raw state.Page 449 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.Fiji Islands. Oncosperma filamentosum Blume. according to Gerarde.com . Dioscoreaceae. BASTARD FIG.

BARBERRY FIG. American Southwest. INDIAN FIG. TUNA. On the lava slopes of Mt. The fruit is one and one-half to two inches long. The figs are very juicy. Southern California. arabosuke. California. somewhat acid or sweetish. which grew wild. is collected and sold in the markets. Central America. vulgaris (monacantha) Mill. The fruit is palatable and the leaves are roasted by the Indians. yellowish or purple fruit is of a pleasant taste and is much relished by the inhabitants of California. salted.swsbm. less than half that in diameter. had to satisfy at times the cravings of appetite of the Spaniards under Cortez in their march upon Mexico in 1519. says Prescott. Arkansas and north to Wisconsin. among their provisions from Malta.leases are roasted. The Indians and Mexicans are very fond of the fruit. Missouri. Illinois. the fleet of Admiral Collingwood took a stock of the leaves of this plant. Mexico. rafinesquei Engelm. northward to Georgia. and edible. It has very sweet. which serves them for food during its season. tuna (ficus-indica) Mill.Page 450 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In Sicily. according to J. The leaves are roasted and eaten by the Indians. A variety with dark red fruit is cultivated at Catania and is much esteemed. sweet. Mississippi Valley. New Granada. for its fruit and forms hedges 15 or 20 feet high. but in this he is mistaken. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The tuna is cultivated in the Los Angeles Valley. east to Kentucky and south to Louisiana and Texas.com . INDIAN FIG. as is also the fruit. PRICKLY PEAR. O. this cactus flourishes on the bare lavas. naked by the disappearance of the bristles. now called in Athens the Arabian fig. O. wholesome and refreshing. engelmanni Salm-Dyck. O. southward to Peru and introduced into southern Europe where it has been cultivated for a considerable period. PRICKLY PEAR. forming an extensive article of food. O. the fruit. The fruit of the tuna. Ecuador and the West Indies. Smith. The large. Hogg seems to think that this is the kaktus of Theophrastus. juicy pulp. Etna. About the close of the last century.

This orchid furnishes a portion of the salep of commerce. but the finest comes from Turkey. of a white color internally and of delicate flavor. Macedonia and Greece. O. militaris Linn. obtained by macerating the pulp in water. Europe and north Africa.Orchis coriophora Linn. mucilaginous substance known as salep. O. ustulata Linn. Palmae. CABBAGE PALM. Europe and adjoining Asia. This orchid produces a starchy. The spotted orchis yields part of the inferior English salep. Europe and adjoining Asia.swsbm. Orchideae. pyramidalis Linn. mascula Linn. O. In the Peloponnesus. GANDERGOOSE. mono Linn. many species of bulbous-rooted orchids yield salep. This is one of the species used to furnish salep to commerce. Large quantities of salep are prepared in.Page 451 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. O. its dried root is cooked and eaten. BUG ORCHIS. North Asia and Europe. Europe. Mediterranean region. SPOTTED ORCHIS. In the Levant. This is one of the species which furnish salep to commerce. In the Himalayas and Kashmir regions. In the Levant. O. O. SALEP ORCHIS. Oreodoxa oleracea Mart. which is largely used as food by the natives. serves as a STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The terminal bud. the dried root is cooked and eaten.com . longicruris Link. its dried root is cooked and eaten and is also used to furnish salep. West Indies. This is one of the species which furnishes salep to commerce. Europe and Asia Minor. This is the cabbage palm of tropical America.

This biennial. is served at table. O. Sweet marjoram was introduced into British gardens in 1573. O. Southeast Europe. both in the green state and when dried. This species has been identified with the Cunila gallinacea of Pliny. for flavoring broths. It finds mention by Burr in 1863 but seems now to have disappeared from our seed-lists.11 It was in American gardens in i8o6 12 but does not appear to have been much cultivated. It is mentioned in the early botanies. This species has become sparingly naturalized in eastern America. It is an aromatic of sweet flavor and is much used for soups. North Africa. Linn. Don says it is used in cookery STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . ORGANY. Its name does not now occur in our seed-lists as it is inferior to the preceding variety. Asia Minor and Syria. Europe.swsbm. It is also the marjorana of Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century and is mentioned as cultivated in the early botanies. or prasion. in the first century. although recorded by Burr in 1863. This is the species usually present in the herb garden. onites Linn. Its modern culture is quite extended.com . is highly aromatic and is much used. who speaks of it as cultivated. broths and stuffings.Page 452 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. SWEET MARJORAM. It is frequently mentioned by early garden writers under the name winter sweet marjoram and has a variegated variety. Pliny 10 speaks of this species as called onitin. majorana Linn. POT MARJORAM. Europe and adjoining Asia. Pot marjoram is a perennial species from Sicily. soups and stuffings. Its introduction into Britain is said to have taken place in i759. Origanum heracleoticum MARJORAM. when boiled.vegetable. It is said to have reached Britain in 1573 and was a wellknown inmate in American gardens in 1806. vulgare Linn. Labiatae. WINTER SWEET Mediterranean region. always treated as an annual. It is supposed to be the amaracus of Pliny. Seemann says the heart is made into pickles or. WILD MARJORAM. O. The pith makes a sort of sago. and at Bombay it is considered sacred to Siva and Vishnu. is said to have reached England in 1640 and is recorded in American gardens in 1806.

the flower-buds. O. Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth. are very nutritious and form a palatable and wholesome food when boiled. PRUSSIAN ASPARAGUS. Asia Minor and Europe. Repeated boilings were necessary to fit them for use. East Indies and Burma. Orontium aquaticum Linn. The root is acrid but is rendered edible by roasting. Linn. the product resembling peas. In India. Northwest India. The seeds of this species were gathered and dried by the Indians.Page 453 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. South Africa.only in default of one of the other majorams. raw or cooked. STAR-OF- Europe and adjoining Asia. The tubers are said to be eaten in Madagascar. pyrenaicum BETHLEHEM. Liliaceae. Araceae. The bulbs. McIntosh says that the leaves and tender tops are in constant demand and that the leaves are used in many places as a substitute for tea. North America. Labiatae. Northern Africa. f. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . are eaten by the Greeks of the Crimea. GOLDEN CLUB. In England.com . the young shoots of this plant are used as asparagus. DOVE'S DUNG. Orthanthera viminea Wight Asclepiadeae. says Johnson. O. umbellatum Linn. according to Brandis. Lightfoot says in some parts of Sweden the peasantry put the leaves into their ale to give it an intoxicating quality and to prevent its turning sour. In the East they are often eaten and were probably the dove's dung mentioned in the Bible.swsbm. are eaten as a vegetable. according to Pallas. It is included among garden herbs by Burr. STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM. The roots. Ornithogalum pilosum Linn.

is supposed to be of Asiatic origin. Father Baegert. Rice was known. Dioscorides and Galen. At the Madras exhibition of 1857. Rice was introduced into Virginia by Sir William Berkeley in 1647. Even in the time of Strabo. in 1772. no less than 161 varieties are enumerated as growing in Ceylon. Its cultivation was introduced into Piedmont and Lombardy in the end of the fifteenth. It was found by Alexander's expedition under cultivation in Hindustan but the account of Theophrastus seems to imply that the living plant continued unknown in the Mediterranean countries. and Carey describes 40 varieties in Coromandel. rice was known in Lombardy in the tenth century but Targioni-Tozzetti says that in the year 1400 it was still known in Italy only as an article of import from the East. one exhibitor sent 190 varieties from Tanjore. Rice had been introduced into China 3000 years before Christ. the captain of which left about a peck of paddy with Governor Smith. 50 from Paghot. century. The culture of rice was introduced into Louisiana by the Company of the West in 1718.swsbm. The Arabians brought it to Sicily. In Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants. or mountain rice. who caused half a bushel of seed to be sown. to Celsus. Unger says it is indigenous to further India and the Isle of Sunda.Page 454 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Another account is that Ashby sent a bag of seed rice. all well known to native farming. This grain is stated to have been first brought into Charleston. either directly from India by the Portuguese or through Spain and Naples by the Spaniards. Khuzistan and Syria. from Canton. 100 pounds. The most general STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . however. Barth says it grows wild in central Africa. South Carolina. 1751-68. South Carolina. speaks of rice as nourishing in California. rice was cultivated in Babylon. Gramineae. which supplies food for a greater number of human beings than are fed on the produce of any other known plant. and the yield was fifteen bushels of excellent rice. According to some. The varieties of rice are almost endless. It was not cultivated in fields in Lombardy until 1522. This important grain.com . Pliny. another sent 65 from Travancore.Oryza sativa Linn. by a Dutch brig from Madagascar in 1694. and from these 107 varieties of paddy were selected as distinct. RICE. who distributed it among his friends for cultivation. or commencement of the sixteenth. was introduced into Charleston. from which in 1698 sixty tons were shipped to England. 50 were received from Chingleput. Tropical Asia. and recent travelers mention the plant as growing wild in South America. Upland.

Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. become wandering hunters after these seeds. FRAGRANT OLIVE.com . Rice in the husk is called paddy. Osteomeles anthyllidifolia Lindl.swsbm. Arizona and New Mexico. The finest rice in the world is that raised in North and South Carolina. DEVIL WOOD. In Kumaun. cerasifera F. when their crops fail. East Indies. O. The fruit is eatable according to Pursh.divisions are into upland rice. who. Owenia acidula F.Page 455 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. black. MOUNTAIN RICE. The fruit is of no value according to Vasey. China and Japan. which is ground into flour and made into bread by the Zuni Indians. Osyris arborea Wall. fragrans Lour. O. SWEET PLUM. Santalaceae. Osmanthus americana Benth. This grass produces a small. f. valley rice. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This plant bears a dark red or crimson fruit the edible part of which is red. Islands of the Pacific and China. Himalayan region. Oleaceae. Rosaceae. Carolinas and southward. North America. Gramineae. The grain is large and affords a fine and abundant farina. & Hook. It is eaten raw and is very acid. Australia. O. summer rice and spring rice. cuspidata Benth. nutritious seed. Meliaceae. deserving the attention of agriculturists. The scented flowers are used for flavoring teas in China and Japan. Nevada. the leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Muell. AMERICAN OLIVE. The fruit is said to be white and sweet. Muell.

O. South America. 1690.swsbm. The pulp of the fruit when ripe is wholesome. and it is described among garden esculents by Vilmorin but as one not often grown. North temperate regions. The acid leaves are eaten at the Cape of Good Hope. camosa Molina. compressa Linn. grew it in the Royal Gardens in France. O. SOUR PLUM. O. O. Geraniaceae (Oxalidaceae). The acid leaves are eaten in America. but the references imply generally the use of the wild plant. Quintyne. South Africa. crassicaulis Zucc. The tubercles are the oca of Peru. The ripe pulp is wholesome. Oxalis acetosella Linn. as well as elsewhere throughout Europe.Page 456 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This plant has for a long period been one of the minor vegetables in gardens although it seems to have been but rarely cultivated even in localities where the pleasant acidity of the leaves is esteemed in salads. Muell.Australia. In India.com . WOOD SORREL. OCA. cernua Thunb. The leaves are eaten. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . O. the leaves are used as a potherb. South Africa. corniculata Linn. barrelieri Linn. Borders of temperate and tropical regions. O. Australia. Chile. venosa F. f. O. The leaves have been used in Iceland from time immemorial as a spring salad and are likewise thus used by the French peasantry. OXALIS.

Peru and Mexico. O. Mexico. crenata Jacq. edible roots of moderate size. and the flowers are excellent in salad.Page 457 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. O. O. OCA. This species is cultivated in South America for its tuberous roots. tetraphylla Cav. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Herndon calls these tubers. There is a red and a yellow variety. It was introduced into cultivation in England in 1827 and is now also cultivated in Prance. O. SCURVY GRASS. Its leaves are eaten. Chile. Carruthers says the plant is cultivated about Lima for its very acid leaf-stalks. The acid leaves are eaten in America. enneaphilla Cav. OCA. It was introduced into England in 1829 but was found to be watery and insipid. The plant produces fleshy. the stalks and leaves being used. Peru. Oca is cultivated in the Andes from Chile to Mexico for its tubers. It yields edible roots of not high quality. O. South America and Antilles. Falkland Islands. which are about the size of hen's eggs. This seems one of the best of the wood sorrels which yield an edible root. The plant is eaten. put in soups or used as greens. Peru. deppei Lodd. frutescens Ruiz & Pav. O. the skin being full of eyes like a potato. It has nutritious tubers and edible leaves.com . tuberosa Molina.swsbm. plumieri Jacq. when boiled or roasted. The roots are served boiled. very agreeable to the taste. O. ARRACACHA. South America and Mexico. alone or mixed with corn salad. The young leaves are dressed like sorrel.

but such prolificacy is exceptional. One authority says that on the Nipigan coast of Lake Superior "the surface is naming red with berries." Oxyria digyna Hill. Polygonaceae.swsbm. O. The fruit is considered of superior flavor to the American cranberry but is smaller. a few vines were cared for at Dennis. Mountains of the north and arctic region. In New Jersey. a Mr.com . MOSSBERRY. Cranberries are now very extensively grown at Cape Cod and in New Jersey and Wisconsin. O. CRANBERRY. Bishop raised over 400 bushels on one acre and parts of acres have yielded at the rate of 700 to 1000 bushels per acre. The fruit is boiled and eaten at the present day by the Indians of the Columbia River under the name soola-bich. This species is edible. The leaves are chopped with scurvy grass or water cress and are fermented and eaten by the Alaska Indians. in 1879. North America. The American cranberry grows in bogs from Virginia to Wisconsin and extends to the Pacific coast. are of no very pleasant taste. the vines are exceedingly productive. northern America as far as latitude 64° to 80° north. who STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Vacciniaceae Temperate regions. CRANBERRY. Massachusetts. Northern climates. Oxycoccus (Vaccinium) (Ericaceae). but not until about 1840 can the trials at cultivation be said to have commenced. The fruit is an article of commerce among the tribes of the Northwest. It is mentioned by Roger Williams under the name sasemineash and was eaten by the Indians of New England. more delicious than anything of the kind I have ever tasted. Under favorable conditions. About 1820. macrocarpus Pers.Page 458 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and not until 1845 was the fact established that the cranberry could be utilized as a marketable commodity. violacea Linn. (Vaccinium) palustris Pers. The latter is a plant of peat bogs in the northern United States and on uplands in the British territory. There are several recognized varieties. This is the cranberry of Britain which is in occasional cultivation. says Unger. MOUNTAIN SORREL.which vary from the size of peas to that of nuts and.

Australia.Page 459 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The young leaves and flowers are used as a vegetable. a single turnip-formed tuber. and pounded into a flour. the East and West Indies. insignis Savign. Smith says the tubers are eaten but are deleterious if not thoroughly cooked. which are cylindrical and about two feet long. P. tuberous roots. tuberous root. Pachyrhizus angulatus Rich. grandiflora Tussac. The seeds. POTATO BEAN. The seeds are eaten as chestnuts are. tuberosus Spreng. where it is cultivated. In the Malay Archipelago. when boiled. by the inhabitants of India and the Mauritius. Tropical America. West Indies. insipid flavor.are very partial to this dish. when roasted. There is nothing better than this chestnut cooked with a little salt. serve as food. The Fiji Islanders. when young. is eaten. Royle says this plant is described as being edible. Br. who call the plant yaka or wayaka. Central America. Its coarse roots furnish food to the poor in China. P. Tropical Asia. Pachira (Bombax) aquatica Aubl. The mealy seeds of this tree. (Bombacaceae). the plant produces a large. Mauritius and Fiji Islands.swsbm. Mexico and Guiana. as well as the seeds. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It is called yalai by the people of New Caledonia. which. Leguminosae. or when dried. young leaves and flowers serve as food. Aclepiadeae. both raw and boiled. edible. taste like chestnuts. A kind of arrowroot is made from the root in some places. obtain a tough fiber from the stems. The root. In China and Cochin China. Oxystelma esculentum R. The plant has large. Seemann says they are of a dirty white color when cooked and have a slightly starchy. West Indies. P.com . with which they make fishing nets. are eaten boiled as yams are. the tubers. Malvaceae MALABAR CHESTNUT. The roots are eaten in Viti.

The flavor of the mass thus prepared strongly resembles that of apple marmalade and is by no means unpalatable to Europeans. Amaryllidaceae. as Dutt writes. The roots are used as food in Mongolia. This plant is said to have properties resembling those of the squill. The boiled leaves are eaten as greens. The leaves. the tender white base of the leaves is also eaten raw or boiled. SEA DAFFODIL. Northern Asia.swsbm. wedge-shaped fruits. This is the melori of the Portuguese and the larohm of the natives. East Indies.Page 460 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. f. are uneatable. Paeonia albiflora Pall. Pandanus leram Jones. Rubiaceae. who also powder the seeds to mix with their tea. Ranunculaceae. boiled in water and subjected to pressure. but. This species is to be seen in ornamental gardens. Panax fruticosum Linn.and the roots are roasted and eaten. they give out a sort of mealy mass. odoratissimus Linn. Malay and Hindustan. PANDANG. This aromatic plant is much cultivated in the Island of Ternate by the natives for food and for medicine. are considered wholesome and suitable for the sick and convalescent. Malay and Polynesia. Pancratium maritimum Linn. Pandanaceae.com . P. which gives off a most offensive odor when bruised. Kotzebur STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Europe. being boiled and eaten by the Tartars. during famines. boiled and made into soup. Araliaceae. The bulbs were shown among food specimens at the International Exhibition of 1862. when raw. which. It is also occasionally used with the fleshy interior of the ripe fruit and forms the daily bread of the islanders. SCREW PINE. This is a long. PANAX. Tropical Asia. PAEONY. BREADFRUIT. Paederia foetida Linn. In the Nicobar Islands. Nicobar Islands. The terminal bud is eaten under the name of cabbage. the immense fruit cones consist of several single. cylindrical plant.

P. Tropics. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . a staple article of food is prepared in the.says it constitutes the chief food of the people of Radack. This species was cultivated in southern Europe in the time of Hippocrates and Theophrastus and was known to the Romans in the time of Julius Caesar. among the Meia-co-shimah Islands. contain a pleasant kernel.com . AUSTRALIAN MILLET.Page 461 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This millet grows wild in parts of India in sufficient plenty to be collected in times of scarcity to be employed as food. P. P. central portion of the fruit heads of species of pandanus. he continues. Bixineae (Flacourtiaceae). though very hard. pedunculatus R. The aborigines convert the small. Panicum colonum Linn. Java. SCREW PINE. MILLET. It is the kegchros of Strabo. East Indies and Australia. are rendered partially wholesome but are used only as a condiment. islands of the Gilbert group from the soft. Tropics. miliaceum Linn. It is described by Pliny as constituting the principal food of the Sarmatians. rich-colored pineapples. P. he first had the curiosity to taste the fruit of the screw pine and found it refreshing and juicy but very insipid. Gramineae. When perfectly mature. Fraser says this plant is called breadfruit and is eagerly eaten by the natives. The stones. millet-like grains into cakes. MILLET. Under the name of kapupu. BREADFRUIT. Br. Australia and New Holland. The bark is used for poisoning fish.swsbm. decompositum R. they certainly look very tempting and resemble large. who states that it thrives excellently in Gaul and is the best protection against famine. Adams says. It is chewed raw for the aromatic juice and is also baked in pits. sp.? SCREW PINE. Br. Pangium edule Reinw. and the nuts. when macerated in water.

speaks of seed being sent him under the name of East India wheat. sanguinale Linn. the small-hulled fruit furnishes a wholesome and palatable nourishment called manna grit.. Jared Elliot. and Johann Schultberger. In Europe. In 1822 and 1823. Some 30 kinds are given for Ceylon. P. this millet is cultivated at the present time almost exclusively for forage. in northeastern Africa and to some extent in Italy and in Spain.com . In France. are a great resort in scorbutic affections and very agreeable to the taste. in England it is unknown as an agricultural crop. he says. under the name bhadlee. In the embassy of Theodosius to Attila.swsbm. 1396-1427. It is cultivated largely in southern and western Asia. The leaves. FINGER GRASS. At the Madras exhibition of 1857. and especially the seeds. P. This is the common crab grass. It appears to be but little known as an agricultural crop in America. There are many varieties grown. Cosmopolitan. P. This grain is cultivated in India as a bread corn.who say that the Ethiopians know of no other grain but millet and barley. D. speaks of millet as the only grain crop of Siberia and at Zepun on the Black Sea. 1747. 448-9 A. seven kinds were shown. This poppy was found by Kane at all the stations on his two voyages to the Arctic seas and it extends probably. the bigness of a turnip or cabbage seed and of a yellowish color. millet was brought the party as provisions. or finger grass. naturalized from Europe. of America. orientale Linn. with small grain. CRAB GRASS. It is also mentioned by Hesiod and is referred to as cultivated in Italy by Columella and Virgil. which are very oleaginous. ARCTIC POPPY. Papaveraceae. ORIENTAL POPPY.Page 462 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. pilosum Sw. there are records of large crops of seed and hay grown in this country under the name of millet. Papaver nudicaule Linn. This grain grows in abundance in Poland where it is sometimes cultivated for its seed and is in cultivation in waste ground in America. but these may have been of other species than this. beyond the Danube. Pursh gives its habitat as Labrador. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . but he says it was a millet. in Germany for the grain and also for fodder. South America. to the furthest limit of vegetation.

this poppy is cultivated as an oil plant. There are several varieties of the opium poppy. CORN POPPY.Asia Minor and Persia. Armenia. Europe. and an edible. The Chinese drink. OPIUM POPPY. and the seeds are used in India as a food and a sweetmeat. P. Mueller says the fruit is the size of a cherry. by way of experiment. Persia. FIELD POPPY. In France. A vinous beverage and a vinegar are prepared from it. the seeds are made to yield by expression a bland oil. Poland and elsewhere. in Greece. The seeds are also eaten. P. of which the two most prominent are called white and black from the color of their seeds. smoke or chew opium to produce intoxication. the Orient and north Africa. The fruit is edible. says Masters. for the purpose of procuring opium. This is a very fine species of poppy which the Turks and Armenians call aphion as they do the common opium. On the continent of Europe. In Sikkim. rhoeas Linn. Edgeworth remarks. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The Persians sprinkle the seeds of poppies over their rice.com . the oil being esteemed next to that of the olive. somniferum Linn.Page 463 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. oil is expressed from its seeds. They do not extract the opium from this kind but eat the heads as a delicacy when they are green. This species was observed in the fields about Erzerum. The plant is in French flower gardens. Sapindaceae. It is grown in northern France and the south of Germany for its seeds. in the United States. This poppy is supposed to have been cultivated by the ancient Greeks and is mentioned by Homer as a garden plant. South Africa. Asiatic Turkey and occasionally. Greece and the Orient. which is used as a substitute for olive oil.swsbm. WILD PLUM. though slightly purgative. remarkably refreshing during fatigue and abstinence. Pappea capensis Eckl. and this depraved use has extended more or less to other countries. The opium poppy is a native of the Mediterranean region but is at present cultivated in India. the seeds afford oil as well as an agreeable food. savory and edible. though very acrid and of a hot taste. Carpenter says the peasants of Languedoc employ young poppies as food. & Zeyh. Galen speaks of the seeds as good to season bread and says the white are better than the black.

roast the seeds and then bruise and allow them to ferment in water STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Tropical western Africa. Parkia africana R. P. They are sweet but mawkish. Paris polyphylla Sm. Parinarium (Parinari) (Chrysobalanaceae). Rosaceae French Guiana.Parietaria officinalis Linn. ROUGH-SKINNED OR GRAY PLUM. ovate. small in quantity and of an insipid taste. The single seed is edible. This species bears edible. acrid rind. P. P. Leguminosae. The fruit is greatly esteemed by the negroes and is plentifully supplied in the markets. P. excelsum but otherwise resembling it in flavor and appearance. Br. The fruit is oblong in form. Urticaceae. French Guiana. macrophyllum Sabine. The drupe is large. The natives of Sudan. It is produced in the greatest abundance and is about the size and shape of an Imperatrice plum. Southern Europe and the Orient. Northeast Australia. montanum Aubl. farinaceous. excelsum Sabine. and the nut. Tropical Africa. with a coarse skin of a grayish color. or kernel. plum-like fruit. yellow. This plant is mentioned by Theophrastus as cooked and eaten. The drupe is small. Himalayan region and China. Muell. nonda F. smootn and fibrous. NONDA.Page 464 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. twice the size of that of P. has a thick. The pulp is dry. AFRICAN LOCUST. The seeds are eaten by the Lepchas of the Himalayas. GINGERBREAD PLUM. oval.com . is sweet and edible. campestre Aubl.swsbm. who call the tree dours. Tropical Africa. Liliaceae/Trilliaceae. PELLITORY. mealy.

Madagascar. Bignoniaceae. P. An agreeable beverage is prepared from the sweet. pounded into powder and made into cakes. The tree is middle-sized. The fruit resembles a cucumber in shape. Sweetmeats are also made of it. & K. of which the negroes of Sierra Leone are fond. Parmentiera edulis DC. P. with a rough surface and is eaten. which furnishes a nutritive and agreeable food from its seed-pods. Malay. says Elliott and is not reckoned very wholesome. KODA MILLET. The pods contain a yellow. The former tasce like garlic. The aril of the seeds is edible. biglandulosa Wight & Am. Paspalum ciliatum H. scorbiculatum Linn. farinaceous pulp surrounding the seeds. This is the fruit mentioned by Park as a mimosa called by the negroes nitta. It is used only by the poorest classes. for it is in such districts it is chiefly cultivated. Passifloreae (Flacourtiaceae). who relish them as well as the mealy matter which surrounds them. Old World tropics.swsbm.com . farinaceous substance enveloping the seeds. Mexico. Graham says this millet is very common and cheap STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . This grain is grown to some extent in most parts of India. B. Paropsia edulis Thou. Gramineae.Page 465 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This is a perennial and a lauded cereal grass of tropical South America. The seed is an article of diet with the Hindus. particularly with those who inhabit the hill regions and the most barren parts of the country. being an unprofitable crop and not sown where others more beneficial will thrive. Brazil. P. The seeds are eaten by the Malays. its flavor being similar to that of the monkey-bread. which are excellent sauce for all kinds of food but have an unpleasant smell. when they are carefully washed. This is a food grass called fundunjii in west Africa.until they become putrid. exile Kippist Tropical Africa.

The fruit in India is the size of an egg. filamentosa Cav. P. killed the horses of the Greeks until by degrees they became accustomed to it. Guiana. enclosed in a netted calyx and has a pleasant smell. The fruit is edible. It is cultivated in the gardens of Egypt. The fruit is yellow. BLUE PASSION FLOWER. is of a beautiful plum color and of an agreeable and and cooling taste. This species is cultivated in greenhouses for its beautiful red. at first.swsbm. green at first but. coccinea Aubl. Tropical Africa. furnishing good bread and gruel but which. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . foetida Linn. LOVE-IN-A-MIST. white and blue flowers. caerulea Linn. Brazil and the West Indies. P.Page 466 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The aril of the fruit is edible. edulis Sims. P. when ripe. P. The fruit is edible. The fruit is about the size of a Golden Pippin apple. Brazil and Jamaica. Passiflora alata Ait.about Bombay but unwholesome. Passifloraceae. P. The fruit is egg-shaped. PASSION FLOWERS. P. the size of a Mogul plum and yellow when ripe. boumapartea Baxt. WILD WATER LEMON. The pulp of the fruit is orange-colored. though all the other parts of the plant have a disagreeable odor when touched. It is the agrion krithon. It has edible fruit. white within. Peru. Brazil. as related by Theophrastus. grown in greenhouses for its flowers. the taste acid and the flavor somewhat like that of an orange.com . A plant of climbing habit. South America.

CONCH CALABASH. macrocarpa Mast. P. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . ligularis A. In Jamaica. in New Holland the oval fruit is produced in great quantities and affords a grateful flavor. being very delicate. P. Reg. laurifolia Linn. Rio Negro region of South America and cultivated in greenhouses for its large flowers. P. a good sommer cooling fruit. The fruit is round. PASSION FLOWER. Tropical America. sometimes weighing as much as eight pounds. Australia.swsbm. The fruit is edible. WATER LEMON. Tropical America. incarnata Linn.membranous and contains numerous seeds involved in an agreeable. "of the bigness of a green apple. P. SWEET West Indies. This is the maracock observed by Strachey on the James River. It has been cultivated by the Indians from early times. the fruit is much esteemed. says Lunan. Juss. APPLE." P. maliformis Linn. West Indies. The plant bears edible fruit. and hath manie azurine or blew kernells. According to Fraser. The fleshy aril attached to the seeds or the juicy pulp is the part eaten. lutea Linn. Titford says the fruit is very good.Page 467 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Subtropical America from Virginia to Kentucky and southward. like as a pomegranat.com . herbertiana Bot. MAYPOPS. about two inches in diameter. CONCH NUT. gelatinous pulp in which the seeds are lodged. P. It is the size of an egg and full of a very agreeable. WATER LEMON. P. The fruits are very large. sweet-acid pulp. smooth.

Asclepiadeae. Henfrey says the seeds are eaten. South Africa. which is identical in composition with the thein of tea. which are eaten with the pulp. Royle says this plant has an edible aril. which is eaten with wine and sugar. Pavetta indica Linn. The seeds are mingled with cassava and water and allowed to ferment. Tropical America. is of a very agreeable. The granadilla is cultivated in tropical America and in India and is grown in conservatories for its flowers. GRANADILLA. having a spongy rind about a finger in thickness.swsbm. quadrangularis Linn. Pectinaria articulata Haw. If fruit be wanted. contains a succulent pulp of a water color and sweet smell. The fruit. Paullinia cupana H. pleasant. The pounded seeds form guarana bread. is eaten by the natives but is oftener made into a pickle. Asia and tropical Australia. gelatinous pulp. P. serrata Linn. sweet-acid taste and contains a multitude of black seeds. B. Sapindaceae. Thunberg n says this thick plant without leaves. which becomes soft as the fruit ripens. which is of a green color. Mauritius. About 16000 pounds are exported from Santarem.Page 468 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It has a pale yellow. subrotunda Pers.of a dingy color when ripe. it is of a greenishyellow color. The bread is grated into sugar and water and forms a diet drink. agreeable. It has edible fruit. P. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the flowers must be artifically fertilized. is eaten. Its active principle is a substance called guaranine. Brazil. & K.com . Titford says it is delicious. P. forming the favorite drink of the Orinoco Indians. This bread is made by the Indians and is highly esteemed in Brazil. The fruit is of an oval shape and of various sizes from that of a goose egg to a middling-sized muskmelon. Rubiaceae.

by the Hottentots. P. says Drury. pungent taste. Pedicularis langsdorffi Fisch. South Africa. At the Cape of Good Hope. The Indians also eat the roots cooked but never raw. Pelargonium acetosum Soland.swsbm. When the berries are raw they have a harsh. ARROW ARUM. The leafy stems. P. Eastern North America. A. Scrophulariaceae. Pedalium murex Linn. Peltandra virginica Rafin. Araceae. peltatum Ait. are used in thickening buttermilk. Geraniaceae. which they lose in great measure upon boiling. South Africa. Tropical eastern Asia. VIRGINIAN WAKE ROBIN. Pedaliaceae. Bartram told Kalm that the Indians ate the boiled spadix and berries as a luxury. as they are then reckoned poisonous. triste Ait.Page 469 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Cape of Good Hope. Ainslie says the leaves are employed as a substitute for tea by the inhabitants of the Kurile Islands. Smith says that water becomes mucilaginous by being simply stirred with the fresh branches of this plant. and also by the colonists. P.com .after being pickled. STORK'S BILL. Syme says the tubers are eaten at the Cape of Good Hope. South Africa. the buds and acid leaves are eaten. to which they give a rich appearance. The buds and acid leaves are eaten. The leaves and stalks are eaten in Yemen. Arctic regions. LOUSEWORT. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Roxburgh says venders of buttermilk are in the habit of diluting their merchandise with water and then thickening the mixture with this plant. zonale L'Herit. which makes the adulterated article seem rich and of the best sort.

where it is a native. Tropical Africa. constitute the principal article of food for the negroes in various parts of Africa. SPIKED MILLET. In Africa. Central Europe. The seeds are eaten by the natives. Livingstone found it cultivated in great quantities as food for man. Guiana. It is extensively cultivated about Bombay and forms a very important article of food to the natives. says Unger.Page 470 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Pemphis acidula Forst. The seeds. This grass is supposed by Pickering to be a native of tropical America. Tropical Asia and islands of the Pacific. typhoideum Rich. Guttiferae. says. Sabine. who also extract a limpid oil from them. in Travels in Northern Africa. Livingstone says the seeds are collected regularly by the slaves over a large portion of central Africa and are used as food. is mixed by the inhabitants of Sierra Leone STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Peltaria alliacea Jacq. which flows from the fruit when it is cut. which constitutes a great part of their food. or uzak.swsbm. known in Gabun as owala and in the Eboo country as opachalo. Cruciferae. Pennisetum dasystachyum Desv. Tropical Africa. BUTTER TREE. Gramineae. Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth. P. The fruit is eaten.com . the slaves were busy collecting and pounding the seeds of the karengia. The leaves are used as a potherb along the shores. The yellow. Tropics. Drury says it is much cultivated in Coromandel. Lythraceae. This plant is classed as an edible by botanists. Four varieties are cultivated by the native farmers of Bengal who eat the grain and feed their cattle with the straw. This species is cultivated in many varieties in India. greasy juice. Leguminosae. at Agades. and that the grain is a very essential article of diet among the natives of the northern Circars. Pentadesma butyracea TALLOW TREE. A tree. GARLIC CRESS. Earth.

BARBADOES GOOSEBERRY. About Athens. pleasant to the taste and is used in the West Indies for preserving. Pentatropis cynanchoides R. Cactaceae. Pergularia edulis Thunb. Persia and northwest India. An infusion of this plant is used. turpentine flavor. Abyssinia. Periploca aphylla Decne. to impart to table vegetables and other substances a deep red color. Arabia and Egypt. This plant is mentioned by Theophrastus as cultivated. f. The flower-buds. Europe and adjoining Asia. Mexico and New Granada. Perilla arguta Benth. West Indies. P. Northwest India. The young leaves are eaten as a potherb in Japan. Lythraceae. South Africa.with their food but is not used by Europeans on account of the strong. it is eaten in salads. are sweet and are eaten. Lauraceae. AHUACATE. south Persia. Asclepiadeae. Br. Asclepiadeae. The plant is an inmate of French flower gardens. WATER PURSLANE. AVOCATE. China and Japan. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Asclepiadeae. Varro and Columella. says Brandis. The fruit is yellow. edible. Its follicles are eaten. by Dioscorides as esculent. AVOCADO.com . Persea gratissima Gaertn. it is mentioned also by Pliny. says Mueller. bleo DC. The leaves are eaten as a salad in Panama and are called bleo by the natives. Labiatae. VEGETABLE MARROW. as a vegetable. ALLIGATOR PEAR. ABACATE.Page 471 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Afghanistan. raw or cooked.swsbm. Pereskia aculeata Mill. Peplis portula Linn.

Lunan says few people relish the fruit at first but it soon becomes agreeable. Arruda says the fruit is very pleasant and that there are in Brazil two varieties. Compositae. It is cultivated to a limited extent in south Florida.A tree of tropical America. The second variety is called by the Indians omtchon. spiny. Petasites japonicus F. It is not as highly esteemed as the others and has a very strong. Peteria scoparia A. peculiar odor. It has a delicate. there are two species. the latter preferred. The avocado has been naturalized on the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius since 1758. although devoid of flavor. The pulp is in universal esteem and is called by some vegetable marrow and is generally eaten with sugar and lime juice or pepper and salt. Leguminosae. Morelet says the variety in Central America called avocate is a pulpy fruit with a thin. It contains a large. leathery skin of a green color. In itself. with a green.swsbm. In an immature state. tender petioles of the leaves are said by Penhallow to be largely used by the Japanese of Yeso as a food. has a delightful taste. unctuous. when the fruit ripens and is ready to eat. but the quality of the fruit varies. wrinkled. agreeable and peculiar flavor. edible. without odor. which. resembling much a large pear. This fruit is rarely palatable at first to the stranger. becomes loose and rattles in its center. The fruit is like a large pear. one of which is called cayenne. A third kind is also known. Moritz Wagner says it may be called vegetable butter as it melts upon the tongue. tasting like artichokes. the flesh is insipid but tender and soft. New Mexico. but it finally recommends itself by its wonderfully delicate. This is a stout. light green skin and by the tenacity with which the skin adheres to the pulp. called anison.Page 472 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. resembles fresh butter and is eaten with a spoon. the fruit is very dangerous. The pulp is of a delicate coffee color.com . made into a sauce with citron juice and sugar. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . leathery rind and a tender. it is one of the most highly-prized fruits. The young. It differs from the first by the contraction of the part nearest the stem. suffruticose herb with a small. spotted with red. juicy flesh which incloses a hard nut. In Brazil. tuberous rootstock. The flesh. by its thick. Sakhalin Islands. rich flavor. conic base. The native name is fuki. Gray. It is held in high esteem among the Ainos. the green and the red. by its sharp. In Jamaica. The plants are cultivated for their succulent petioles. Schmidt. says Long. that produced in a wild state is small and often bitter. oval stone. smooth.

Page 473 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. DILL. and dill is spoken of as a garden plant in the early botanies. it was called dyll by Turner. Umbelliferae. The root is called breadroot or biscuitroot by travelers and konse by the Indians of Oregon and Idaho. Western North America. P. In India. by whom it is called yampeh3 It is cultivated for its leaves and seeds. f. The round to oblong. Archbishop of Canterbury. 1538. Wats. The roots are eaten by the Indians. as the plant dies. In England. P. When fresh. Western North America. the seeds are much used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Masters says this is supposed to be the plant which is called arrise in the New Testament narrative. The tubers are an Indian food. The former are used as flavors in soups and sauces.swsbm. Western North America. P. & Hook. It also occurs in the vocabulary of Alfric. Dill was in American gardens before 1806. KONSE. in the tenth century. Nutt. (Anethum) graveolens Benth. (Lomatium) foeniculaceum Nutt. BREADROOT. The name dill is found in writings of the Middle Ages.Peucedanum (Lomatium) ambiguum BISCUITROOT. the root becomes brittle and very white with an agreeable taste of mild celery. The seeds are to be found in every Indian bazaar and form 3 Yampeh is actually several species of Perideridia. which proves its presence at that date. Umbelliferae STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Palladius and others. This hardy. Europe and Asia. white root is gathered by the Oregon Indians. it is like the parsnip in taste and. biennial plant was introduced to Britain in 1570. The Canadians call it racine blanc. It seems to be spontaneous in the far West as its roots are used as food by the Snake and Shoshoni Indians. Dill is commonly regarded as the anethon of Dioscorides and the anethum of Pliny. P.com . (Lomatium) farinosum Geyer. It is easily reduced to flour and is much used for food. and the seeds are added to piclded cucumbers to heighten the flavor. (Lomatium) geyeri S.

but is STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . is a native of Europe even to the Caucasus. from the neighborhood of Gelduba on the Rhine. nor do the references to the pastinaca satisfactorily indicate the parsnip. originated the highly-appreciated garden variety known as Student. From the seeds of the wild variety in the garden of the Royal Agricultural Society at Cirencester. however.Page 474 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Europe and North America. MARSH HOG'S FENNEL. in South America about Buenos Aires. P. The roots are used in Russia as a substitute for ginger. The foliage was formerly boiled and eaten as a potherb. The references. however.one of the chief ingredients in curry powder. SYMRNIUM. have come into general use long before these records and perhaps its culture started in Germany. was so fond of parsnips that he had them brought annually from Germany. The Emperor Tiberius. Beckwith says the roots are used as food by the Indians of the West. 1536. and is naturalized in northeastern America. Europe. the root of which has been in use as an esculent from an early period. in North America. MILK PARSLEY.swsbm. P. (Pastinaca) sativum Benth. P. there is much confusion in names between the carrot and the parsnip. according to Pliny. white. aromatic. The root of the wild plant is spindle-shaped. Among the early botanists. (Lomatium) nudicaule Nutt. as it seems to have been unknown to Ruellius. Western North America. mucilaginous and sweet. according to Don./Imperatoria ostruthium Koch. where they were said to be grown in great perfection. MASTERWORT. Pliny describes the medicinal virtues of the elaphoboscon and says it is much esteemed as a food. PARSNIP. The wild plant.com . One is willing to accept such evidence as we find that the cultivated parsnip was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. palustre Moench. P. Europe. do not prove this plant to be cultivated. with a degree of acrimony. f. and that the elaphoboscon of Pliny was the parsnip. The Indians boil the tops in soups the same as we use celery. The parsnip is a biennial. & Hook. It has been supposed that the pastinaca of the Romans included the carrot and the parsnip. The root must. on the banks of the Saskatchewan and Red River.

Dur. used especially by the poor and better known in the kitchens than fat. Lob. Bauh. The parsnip is figured by Roeszlin.swsbm. 353. 1550. 1587. in Peru by Acosta. 1586. 1591. Its roots are funnelshaped. and was among the Indian foods destroyed by Gen. De Pastinaca. C. 1726.Page 475 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. (Lomatium) triternatum Nutt. 1576. 1651. 1:709. 1834. as cultivated in Virginia in 1609 and 1648. It was noted in the Bon Jardinier for 1824. Townsend. 507. Pictorius 94. 1558. especially Camerarius in 1586: Sisarum sativum magnum. Pastinaca sativa latifolia. 1604. It is mentioned at Margarita Island by Hawkins. Roeszl. 106. 407. 1564. Sullivan ls in western New York in 1779. Long parsnips of the moderns In 1683. Ger. 1616. upon which some of the modern varieties are founded. 25i. tapering very abruptly.recorded by Fuchsius in Germany. Dalechamp 719. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . 318. The parsnip was brought to America by the earliest colonists. 680. the long parsnips are figured in England as in great use for a delicate. 500. Germanica. 1617 Pastinaca sativa vulgi. Pin. 1550. J.com . 548. often curving inwards. as also by Pirolle in Le Hort. Pastinaca domestica vulgi. 1597. under the name pestnachen and in 1552 is recorded by Tragus as having a sweet root. Cam. sweet food. 1570. 150. 837. 1561. in Massachusetts in 1629 and as common in 1630. There is little known of its early history. gerlin oder moren. Matth. 1581. Burr and other more recent writers. 1807. 1686. Obs. Epit. Pastenay. Fuch. Francois. P. 751. by Mclntosh. 1542. Icon. Dod. 1598. all representing our long parsnip-form of root but some indicating the hollow crown. The round parsnip is called siam by Don. Matthioli. Pestnachen. and Miller. 2: pt. are spoken of by Ray. 1778. who gives a figure but calls it gross zam mosen. The following is a synonymy founded on pictures and descriptions combined. 1542. Pastinaca domestica. 2. luteo flore. Mawe. Pastinaca latifolia sativa. Pastinaca saliva. 870.

It is a variety that does not twine and is used principally for feeding domestic animals but also serves as a food for man. It seems doubtful if the pod or pulse is eaten. P. This bean is cultivated in India and is called. Monimiaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The fusiform root when roasted is one of the grateful vegetables of the Indians. East Indies. P. They afford a good proportion of the food of some tribes. Chile.Page 476 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. P. Chile. moot. The plant is a twining one. CORKSCREW-FLOWER. Under the name of caracol. P. caracalla Linn. calcaratus Roxb. Jacq. P. This bean is cultivated for its seeds. Phaseolus aconitifolius TURKISH GRAM. in Hindustan. about the size of haws. This bean is generally cultivated in India for its pulse. The roots are of the size of peanuts and are collected very largely by the Indians. East Indies. East Indies and Malay. Leguminosae. buttery pulp of the fruit is of an agreeable taste. The white. When dried. RICE BEAN. North America. they are hard and brittle and have a mild. sweet taste. SNAILFLOWER. MOTH BEAN. BOLDU. asellus Molina.swsbm. adenanthus G. Mey. Peumus boldus Molina. southern Europe and sometimes in India for its large. Tropics. W. The bean is spherical and pulpy. A variety with edible roots occurs. are eaten. and its use in India by the natives is mentioned by Graham.Western North America. CARACOL. The aromatic fruits. this species is often grown in the gardens of South America. showy and sweet-scented flowers.com . This species was in cultivation by the natives of Chile before the conquest.

. bipunctatus Jacq. In southern Florida. saccharatus Macfad. it was mentioned in Jamaica by Lunan. and the large-podded sort is said to have been brought by Dr. no evidence of this habitat. lunatus Linn. considered by Sprengel a variety of P. and hence we cannot offer precise statement of its occurrence from such authorities. the lima bean — the seeds white. P. the form bipunctatus came from the Cape of Good Hope to Vienna. 1770. and De Candolle assigns its original habitat to Brazil.. or Duffin. The lima bean is unquestionably of American origin.P. Ainslie says it was brought to India from the Mauritius and that it is the Vellore. fixed its appearance in Austria. derasus Schrank. South America. where the variety macrocarpus Benth. P. was found at Rio Janeiro.. In the mentions of beans by voyagers.Page 477 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. derasus Schrank (Martens). bean of the southern provinces. inamoenus. SIEVA BEAN. P. at Pachacamac. puberulus H. LIMA BEAN. but he advances. Tropics. B. The lima bean is now widely distributed. CIVET BEAN. Duffin from the Mauritius. This bean is not mentioned by the early Chinese writers. P. A dark red form came to Martens from Batavia and an orange-red from farther India. P. The form inamoenus was considered by Linnaeus to belong to Africa. but it first reached England in 1779. but Luoreiro mentions it in Cochin China in 1790. rufus Jacq. Jaquin. P. & K.com . inamoenus Linn. has been found growing wild. Wight says it is much cultivated and is seldom if ever found in a wild state. The beans are used as a vegetable. as De Candolle remarks. it may have been the STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . and by Reiss and Stubel at Ancon. Seeds have been found in the mummy graves of Peru by Squier. and Martens received it from Reunion under the name pois du cap.swsbm. The lima bean is the scimitar-podded kidney bean and sugar bean of Barbados. as P. It has not been found wild in Asia nor has it any modern Indian or Sanscrit name. P. and various forms are recorded by authors under specific names as found in America and other countries. and we may remark that the slave trade may well be responsible for the transmission very quickly of South American species of food plants of convenient characters for ship use to the African coast. Martens received it also from Sierra Leone. derasus Schrank. this form is not discriminated from the kidney bean. blotched or speckled with red — is found growing spontaneously in abandoned Indian plantations..

"bushel bean. Mill. Fig. a black form (P. Two types. lato. Sp. 282. This type was in American gardens in 1828 and probably before. Bauh. t. Jacq. Bauh. Maycock Barb. on Gard. 1825. 34. in our most improved varieties there are five or even six. The large. bipunctatus. TYPES OF LIMA BEANS. 2:60. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . describes six well-marked types.) Fig. 1016. 1763. ex. Kunth. 6:106. 1651. According to Martens this is the Phaseolus inamoenus Linn. white and mottled with a purple figure. latis. Eight varieties. 293. Linn. 1. P. P. Chabr. white lima is among those figured by Lobel and by J." of the Carolinas in 1700-08. Icon. peregrini I. the speckled form occurs in Brazil and in Florida. orbis. The synonymy is as follows: Phaseoli magni late albi. P. (1818?). P. 1591. saccharatus. Jacq. Vilmorin describes three varieties and names two others. and this places its appearance in Europe in 1591. the red. 137. 1837. Linn. Clus. Fig. Diet. J. sive radiato semine. Bushel or Sugar Bean. A Treat. 13. and the large white. novi. striata. Sp. Hort. but two seeds are ever found in a pod. I. B. Mitt. Diet. t. Hist. Lob. derasus) in Brazil. the white sort striped and speckled with dark red and the green are found in our gardens. however. Macfad. P. 2:223. Phaseolus lunatus. 1830. the black. Fig. 1673. the Carolina. genus alterrun. white-streaked in Cochin China. This bean requires a warm season and hence is not grown so much in northern and central Europe as in this country. the small white or sieva. 100. Vilmorin enumerates four for France. McMahon 1806. 2:267. 1763. Lima Bean. 160. I.swsbm. In central Africa. Hort. ex. 1651. inamoenus. (Seen in 1576. rufus. as this description applies very closely to the lima beans now spontaneous in Florida. some scarcely differing. are now offered for sale by our seedsmen. puberulus. J. 2:268. Phaseolus. and the lima. Sugar Bean. the blood-red in Texas. were grown in American gardens in 1806. Syn. P. the dark red with light or orange-ruddy spots in the Bourbon Island. Martens. or sieva. 1016.com . Bauhin.Page 478 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. totus candidus similaci hortensis affinis." "very flat.

saba. 4. is esteemed on account of its greater hardiness over the other types. Sierra Leone and Batavia. The sieva. with their synonyms. The large red cannot be traced. is reported in Brazil. 1591. This type seems to be fairly figured by Lobel. 3. Carolina sewee and West Indian. include all the lima beans now known. a black. On account of the names and the hardiness of the plant and from the fact that it probably was cultivated by the Indians. bipunctatus Jacq. as white. although grown at Reunion under the name of pois du cap. who put its appearance at 1770. It is also well figured by Lobel. marbled. dark red. which was esteemed very delicate. Carolina.swsbm. as also a sort said to be growing spontaneously in Florida in abandoned Indian fields. The P. by Martens. has not as yet reached our seedsmen. justly esteemed in Jamaica. 5. It differs from the next but in size. this may be the bushel or sugar bean. but there are a number of other types described which sooner or later will appear and will be claimed as originations. or sieve. Martens describes several others with a yellow band about the eye and variously colored. A black. A careful reflection will convince that our varieties are all of ancient occurrence and that there have been no originations under culture within modern times. a white.com . white lima. Lawson. 1591. The Potato lima is a white bean. black-streaked form is figured by Clusius in 1601. is the white form and was in American gardens before 1806. 1700-08. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . says: "The Bushel bean. very well represent the cultivated variety. 6.2. The small.. The small red answers well to the description given of Phaseolus rufus Jacq. white-streaked form is recorded in Cochin China by Loureiro. The figures of Lobel. white. as Phaseolus derasus Schrank. was trained on poles" in the Carolinas. 1591. and one with an orange ground and black markings occurs among the beans from the Peruvian graves at Ancon at the National Museum. These six beans. it may be the blood-red bean Martens received from Texas. very flat.Page 479 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. appeared in various colors. and green and was grown in Virginian gardens before 1818. The speckled lima has white seeds striped and spotted with a deep. under the name Phaseoli parvi pallico-aibi ex America delati. Vilmorin mentions a variety of the sieva spotted with red. a spontaneous growth. and seems to be the Phaseolus limensis Macfad. and mottled with a purple figure. under Phaseoli rubri. much thickened and rounded as compared with the first. if a synonym of the bushel bean.

In India. MUNG BEAN. P. Western North America and common on the prairies west of the Pecos. P. though in Holland they are grown for both the pod and seed. in Ray's time. twining stems and is grown in the garden. in Europe. by the modern Egyptians. P. PRAIRIE BEAN.Page 480 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1686. retusus Benth. Burr describes three varieties.swsbm. tuberosus Lour. the green variety being more esteemed than the black. it is said to have been procured by Tradescant.com . In 1828. This species has tuberous. In 1806. P. Fessenden mentions it among garden beans. when still green. This bean is cultivated in several varieties for its seeds. poisonous roots. P. Asia and tropical Africa. the green pods alone are used. mungo Linn. Elliott says this is one of the most useful and largely cultivated of the Indian pulses. pallar Molina. It is cultivated. The seeds are about the size of peas.P. Willd. was the first to bring it into repute in England as a vegetable. triolobus Ait. multiflorus RUNNER. it was grown for ornament. In Johnson's edition of Gerarde. Tropical Asia. SCARLET Mexico. 1630. they make an acceptable dish after thorough cooking. according to Delile. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Chile. It has annual. DUTCH CASEKNIPE BEAN. it is mentioned by Firminger as grown. Miller. In Britain. McMahon says this bean was cultivated exclusively for ornament. which are eaten by the poorer classes. the ripened seeds. about 1750. The young pods are tender and well flavored. and Schweinfurth says it is eaten by the Bongo tribe of central Africa. The culture of the Scarlet Runner is very modern. The beans are half an inch long. This species was cultivated by the natives before the Conquest.

and when the Pilgrims first landed. Lawrence (Cartier)." by the northern Algonquins (Elliott)." Wood also mentions "Indian's beans" as among the foods of the Massachusetts Indians. it was an American plant. When the bean was first known.com .swsbm. we find no common root. which are of different colors. COMMON BEAN. because they are not so high as the corn. a'teba'kwe by the Abenaki of the Kennebec (Rasle). which are very delicate: these. whereof they have great store. 1629-33. and. writing of the Indians of the Kennebec region. of good and pleasant taste. plant their corn in hills. the mass of the testimony is such that we cannot but believe that beans. like those of Virginia and Florida. and its culture extended over nearly the whole of the New World. alone." The most complete enumeration of varieties is. This bean has edible. The number of names given in the northern parts of America. Lescarbot says that the Indians of Maine. as at present grown. HARICOT. John Smith mentions beans among the New England Indians. November 19. Capt." Evidently this first visitor to the New England coast had not seen kidney beans previously. The evidence for the antiquity of the bean in America is both circumstantial and direct. malachxil by the Delawares (Zeisberger). "twiners. but this fact of varieties will receive illustration in quotations from early voyagers. The number of varieties that were grown by the Indians is another indication of antiquity of culture. KIDNEY BEAN.Page 481 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. indicate an antiquity of culture: as. mushaquissedes by the Pequods (Stiles). and they keep the ground very free from weeds. 1620. vulgaris Linn. Champlain." In 1614. were included. Cultivated everywhere. "and between the kernels of corn they plant beans marked with various colors. In 1605. which reaches to the height of from five to six feet. Moreover. 1608. before 1670: "French beans: or STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . for illustration. in these few cases. however. sake or sahu on the St. tuppuhguam-ash. tuberous roots. says of the Indians of Norum-Bega: "Their ordinairie food is of pulse. in a letter written in July. differing in colour and taste from ours. When they grow up they interlace with the corn. 1524. and okindgier on the Roanoke.Cochin China. grow very well among it. while the records were not kept sufficiently accurately to justify identification in all cases with varieties now known. P. given in Josselyn. John Verazanno. says: "With this corn they put in each hill three or four Brazilian beans (Febues du Bresil). It finds mention by nearly all the early voyagers and explorers. Miles Standish unearthed from a pit not only corn but "a bag of beans. ogaressa by the Hurons (Sagard).

(This is undoubtedly the lima. "called by us beans. which are abundant.Page 482 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. They are variegated much. saving that they are flatter. spotted: besides your Bonivis and Calavances. 12. "the two beans STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . very flat. some years yielding as much as fifty bushels of pods. calavances. found. Cartier. blue. says: "Before the arrival of the Netherlanders (1614) the Indians raised beans of various kinds and colors but generally too coarse to be eaten green. yellow. but Heriot. American beans. In A True Declaration of Virginia. Lawson says: "The kidney-beans were here before the English came.rather. white and mottled with purple. nanticokes and abundance of other pulse. barbadensis Mayc. as it answers to the description given by a very creditible person who secured for me samples from a spontaneous plant in Florida: the trunk as large as a man's thigh. than others. New York. London. Von der Donck. is said to be Lablab vulgaris. they are very good. because in greatness and partly in shape they are like to the beans in England." "Beans" were seen by Newport.) Indian rounceval or miraculous pulse. at the mouth of the St. 1586. exploring the river which now bears his name.swsbm. in 1828. a variety of bean sold by Thorburn. a great deal.com . in ascending the James River. and the plant known for the past twenty-five years. a red bean. some white. and so are the bonavis." Bonavis is perhaps Bona vista. white and mottled with a purple figure. which we find the Indians possessed of when first we settled in America. being very plentiful in Indian corn-fields. so called from their large pods and great increase.' and the seeds smaller than the cultivated lima. yet differing from ours." In 1633. of more divers colours. calavances is the Barbados name for Dolichos sinensis Linn. in his Description of the Netherlands. Hudson. 1610. a New York seedsman. In 1609. was trained on poles. black. or to be pickled. very flat. describes the okindgier of Virginia. The leaf also of the stem is much different. The bushel-bean. and some pied. DeVries "proceeded in the yacht up the (Delaware) river.. The herbalists call them kidney-beans from their shape and effects: for they strengthen the kidneys. But these are brought into the country. too tedious to mention. some being bigger. except the blue sort. Lawrence. The bonavista bean (Long) of Jamaica." In 1535. the others are natural to the climate." In 1653." In 1700-08. a spontaneous growth. to procure beans from the Indians. as used by Long. within the limits of what is now Rensselaer County. found beans of every color. "beans of the last year's growth. red. 1607. and galavangher pea is the Barbados name for D. p. and the kidney-bean that is proper to Roanoke.

The native Mexican name was ayacotle. 13 or 14 kinds of the bean. according to Pickering. varying but little from the common European bean." and red and white beans were afterwards seen by him in Honduras. and Bancroft says that they were the etl of the Aztecs. In Chile. One of these has a straight stalk. 1492. Commentators have quite generally considered P. were cultivated by the natives. Wittmack. De Soto. Alarcon speaks of their culture by the Indians of the Colorado River in 1758. and P. The Indians of Peru. vulgaris ellipticus praecox Alefield. In November. Peru. Beans are also mentioned in Ribault's Voyage.Page 483 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. found "a sort of bean" or "fields planted with faxones and habas very different from those of Spain." but we have no clue to the species. beans were a product of the Nahua tillage. Fuchsius used the German word STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . when boiled in the pod exotl. and de Vaca found beans in New Mexico or Sonora in 1535. identified the lima beans and also three kidney beans with P. Narvaes found beans in great plenty in Florida and westward. also found beans in abundance and mentions that "the granaries were full of maes and small beans. The mention of beans in Mexico is frequent. who studied the beans brought from Peruvian tombs by Reiss and Strobel. vulgaris as among the plants cultivated by the ancients. according to de la Vega. Gray and Trumbull quote Oviedo as saying that on the island and on the main many bushels are produced yearly of these and of Jesoles of other sorts and different colors. Molina says that before the country was conquered by the Spaniards.com . In 1542. according to Humboldt. Columbus. they are mentioned by Acosta in 1590. as cultivated by the Florida Indians." In 1528. vulgaris purpurens Martens. 1562. P. 1539. who has given the subject much thought. in Cuba.swsbm. The Olmecs raised beans before the time of the Toltecs. the other 13 are climbers. had three or four kinds of beans called purutu. and De Candolle. thinks the best argument is in the use of the modem names derived from the Greek fasiolos and the Roman faseolus and phasiolus. Squier found lima beans in the mummy covering of a woman from the huaca at Pachacamac.(planted with the corn) runne upon the stalks of the wheat. vulgaris ellipticus atrofuscus Alefield. as our garden pease upon stickes.

and by some melax kepea. many. This epithet. Roeszlin used the same word for the pea. Pliny says the pods are eaten with the seed. and Kyber. Virgil's epithet. each with a distinct name. the seed ovoid. Aetius. welsch Bonen. is given for the bean by Tragus. Of 219 bottles of true beans. as well as 12 named varieties of cowpea all have a circle of black about the white eye. used the wordfaselus as denoting a specific plant. In the list of vegetables Charlemagne ordained to be planted on his estates the word fasiolum occurs without explanation. not for garden culture.swsbm." He also says. not one has a black eye. in a fertile and well-tilled soil.Faselen for the bean. Palladius recommends the planting of faselus in September and October. welsch Bonen and welsch Phaselen for the bean. Among the Greek writers. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . welsch or foreign. This word lobos of Aetius is recognizable in the Arabic loubia. white. 1553. fava. Albertus Magnus. therefore. It seems. welsch Bonen and Roeszlin. and recommends planting in October. the same word. and the planting is in October and November. Fuchsius gives also an alternative name. is a plant which produces beans with a black eye (the black eye appears in many varieties of cowpea of the southern states) and is stated by Vilmorin to be grown in Italy in many varieties. The seeds of Dolichos unguiculatus. in the fourth century. 1552. also one variety of cowpea which is all black has a white eye. applied to Dolichos lubia Forsk. synonyms. Passing now to the Roman writers. sed quodlibet granorum habet maculam nigram in loco cotyledonis.Page 484 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. vilemque phaselum. a bean with low stalks. in 1550. as "faba et faseolus et pisa et alia genera eguminis. would seem to apply to a kind not heretofore known. reasonable to conclude that the faselus of Albertus Magnus was a Dolichos.com . he gives directions for field culture. however. "Et sunt faseoli multorum colorum." “cicer. faseolus. who lived in the thirteenth century. also indicates field culture." Now Dolichos unguiculatus Linn. an epithet which well applies to the pods of the Dolichos. as to be cheap implies abundance. one is disposed to think that the low bean of the ancients was a Dolichos. From these and other clues to be gleaned here and there from the Greek authors. and one red-speckled form does not have the black.. says the Dolichos and the Phaseolus of the ancients were now called by all lobos. and that the word phaselus referred to this bean whenever used throughout the Middle Ages in speaking of a field crop. Columella speaks of longa fasellus. with a black point at the eye. four modii per jugerum. as did also Tragus in 1552.

would hence imply garden culture in Greece in the second century. The dolichos of Galen is the faselus of the Latins for he says that some friends of his had seen the dolichos (a name not then introduced in Rome) growing in fields about Caria. and in Spain the form alubia. he says. and.swsbm. The word dolichos seems to be used in a generic sense. to a Dolichos (even. now in some of its varieties called a bean) in ancient times and to a Phaseolus now. The word lubia is used by the Berbers. although now a common. applied to this plant. 1629. The word does not occur in Le Jardinier Solitaire. The word loubion is applied by the modem Greeks to Phaseolus vulgaris. and haricauts in another. There is no other mention of a climber by the ancient authors. Theophrastus says the dolichos is a climber. We may. the sixteenth century were not then cultivated. this lobos is called by some melax kepea (Smilax hortensis). It is so easy for a name used in a specific sense to remain while the forms change.com . therefore. from the shape of the seed.The Roman references to Phaseolus all refer to a low-growing bean fitted for field culture and so used. bears seeds and is not a desirable vegetable. There is no clear indication to be found of garden culture. for he says the lobos are the only kind in which the pod is eaten with the bean. as is illustrated by the word squash in America. that we may interpret these names to refer to the common form of their time. 1551. evidently. in Italy.Page 485 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. uses the name first. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . uses the term febues du Bresil. occurs in Quintyne. De Candolle says the word araco is Italian and was originally used for Lathyrus ochrus. Parkinson. 1605. be reasonably certain that the pole beans which were so common in. says that within the memory of man they were a great rarity. but these beans were not generally grown in England until quite recent times. it is apparently thus used by Oribasius and Galen. 1683. indicating he knew no vernacular name of closer application. speaks of them as oftener on rich men's tables. 1693. 1612. is derived. The English name. the Dolichos and Phaseolus of his predecessors. delicate food. or the pod plant. as is also the word loba in Hindustani. and Worlidge. who calls them aricos in one place. kidney beans. Aetius seems the first among the Greeks to refer to a garden sort. and Champlain. The words fagiuolo in Italian. Turner. phaseole in French. for Phaseolus vulgaris. are also used for this species. The French word haricot. Galen's use of the word lobos.

Mawe names 11. A list of varieties cultivated in Jamaica is given by Macfadyen. curved spots. 1597. 1598. But there is this to be remarked. are all cowpeas. and Dalechamp. citron and spotted. 1837. albus cum orbita nigricante of Bauhin's' History answer well to the cowpea. Pinaeus. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . the streaked. although the names given are those used for the true bean. in varieties which can be identified with those grown at the present time. 1561. 1587. linear. correspond to the popular grouping into pole and dwarf beans. BUSH BEAN. as does Matthiolus. Matthiolus says the species is common in Italy in gardens and oftentimes in fields. and his drawing resembles very closely varieties that may be found today — not the true bush. which includes the one-colored black. in which the seeds are marked with broad. as does also C.swsbm. nanus apply to a Dolichos and not to a Phaseolus. Stevenson names 7 varieties. the sides and concavity marked with spots so as to resemble a common soap-ball. five in all. for the descriptions of Phaseolus vulgaris italicus humilis s. In 1765. Dalechamp figures the white bean. the seed of various colors. 1586. The figures given by Camerarius. more or less rounded spots. Phaseolus vulgaris and P. 1542. say that many sorts of fabas Pheseolosve were received from sailors coming from the New World. by Matthiolus. that Linnaeus's synonyms for P. Vilmorin describes 69 varieties and names others. 1566 nor in 1616.com . yellow and red. (P. In 1550. 1570.Page 486 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. leaden. in 1883. thus indicating the same confusion between the species and the names which kept pace with the introduction of new varieties of the bean from America. the variegated. and the saponaceous. minor.) The first figure of the bush bean is by Fuchsius. Phaseolus parvus italicus. Roeszlin figures a bush bean. as white. the seeds marked with rubiginose. and do not apply to the bush bean. for Pena and Lobel. and by Bauhin. 1558. does not mention this bean in England but it is mentioned by Miller. The dwarf bean is not mentioned by Dodonaeus. with the back of the seeds white. 1651.The two species of Linnaeus. Bauhin's Smilax silique swsum rigente s. in 1778. Gerarde. 1724. red. nanus. but slightly twining. nanus Linn.

Barnaby Googe speaks of French beans. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . variegated. who call the plant bodmon sok. or foreign and enumerates the various colors as red. and Castor Durante.swsbm. Worlidge names two sorts as grown in English gardens. north Africa and now naturalized in America. 1566 and 1616. Phlomis tuberosa Linn. In 1597. 1829. Canary grass is cultivated for its seeds.) Pole beans are figured by Tragus. (P. black and yellowish. who speaks of them as having lately come into Germany from Italy and calls them welsch. Oleaceae. they are used in the same manner and also made into groats for porridge. Gramineae. figures the pole bean. Clusius. 1617. and the same varieties are given by Mortimer. red and yellow.Page 487 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.POLE BEANS.com . but occasionally the yield is as much as 50 bushels. white. purplish-white. 1572. Gerarde figures four varieties in England: the white. Labiatae. Phillyrea latifolia Linn. In France. in the Canary Islands. 19 sorts are enumerated by Noisette. Southern Europe. as does Lobel. The chaff is superior for horse food and the straw is very nutritious. Phalaris canariensis Linn. and in 1883. Mediterranean region. east and north Asia. Canary grass is sparingly grown in some parts of the United States as a cultivated plant. 1576 and 1591. In Italy. In 1683. CANARY GRASS. 1601. East Indies and Burma. Europe. Vilmorin describes 38 varieties and names others. 1552. and. Italy and Spain for its olive-like fruit. 1708. Palmae. This species is cultivated in Sicily. Ham. The common yield is from 30 to 34 bushels of seed per acre in England. Its roots are eaten cooked by the Kalmucks. vulgaris Linn. Phoenix acaulis Buch. The astringent fruits are eaten by the Lepchas. indicating by the name the source from which they came. the seeds are ground into meal and made into cakes and puddings. black. Dodonaeus. which are fed to canary birds.

swsbm. Hartt mentions a few date palms which bore fruit at Macei. Some yellow dates. dactylifera Linn. 1875. these envelope a large quantity of farinaceous substance. says the date is cultivated to a limited extent in south Florida. In Sind. and the tree is in gardens in Florida. blue fruit. were much less elongated than others he had seen. Redmond. the Saidi. St. succulent head cut from among the mass of leaves is also eaten. Persia. Mr. John found four kinds cultivated: the Sultani with long. consists of white fibers matted together. At Multan. Its exterior. DATE PALM. The female flowers of the date are fertilized artificially. P. the date tree has ever been the benefactor of mankind. In the East. this is done before the flower-sheaths open. The fruit furnishes. and the fruits were reserved for royal use. whence they were probably received from the United States Patent Office about 1860. In 1867. The large. he says. Northern Africa and Arabia. fresh or dried. which the natives use for food in times of scarcity. Augustine. or woody part. and the Arabian poets ascribed such high importance to it that they maintain that the noble tree was not formed with other plants but from the clods which remained after the creation of Adam. The life of the wandering tribes in the desert circles around the date tree. Hindustan and westward over the whole of north Africa. whence it has been distributed in the earliest periods of commerce to Arabia.com . A dwarf palm common in the country between the Ganges and Cape Comorin. good only for camels and donkeys. The sap is sweetish and may be used as a drink or distilled into a kind of spirit. white ones of a kind said not to be grown in Egypt. The native land of the date palm seems to have been originally the region along the east side of the Persian Gulf. in Arabia and elsewhere. the staple food of large regions. large and beautiful specimens may be seen in the gardens of St. Edgeworth states that there is a date tree which bears a stoneless fruit and that in former times it was considered a royal tree. a hole is made in the sheath of the female flower and a few bits of the male panicle are inserted. Atwood says numerous.who call the tree schap.Page 488 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In the oasis of Siwah. or common date. the Farayah. Brazil. with more flesh in comparison to the size of the stone and very luscious. and the Weddee. India. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . farinifera Roxb. P.

black berry has a sweet. sylvestris Roxb. Phrynium capitatum Willd. Phragmites communis Trin.com . Burma and China. P. of a purple-black color. A large portion of the sugar made in Bengal. Scitamineae (Marantaceae). humilis Royle. The seeds are frequently drawn into use as a substitute for coffee. REED. P. the fruits are said to be much relished by the negro tribes. Father Baegert says he saw the natives of the Californian peninsula "eat the roots of the common reed. is sweet and is eaten in India. In 1751-68. East Indies and south China. The fruit.swsbm." Durand and Hilgard state that this is the grass from which the Indians of Tejon Valley extract their sugar. reclinata Jacq. pusilla Gaertn. Gramineae. Cosmopolitan. The shining. just as they were taken out of the water. P. In India. the juice is fermented or boiled down into sugar and molasses. BENNELS. WILD DATE. its leaves wrapped around articles of food previous to boiling to impart color and grateful flavor.Page 489 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. mealy pulp. East Indies. This species is said by Williams to yield in western Africa a wine. East Indies. manna-like substance. on the Coromandel coast and in Guzerat comes from this source. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . The sap is drunk in India. The fruit is of a very inferior character. and is called tari. The gum is a sweet. either fresh or fermented. Tropical and south Africa. Tropical eastern Asia. Loureiro observed this plant in Annam and tropical China. and it is elsewhere stated that the gum which exudes from the stalks is collected by the Indians and gathered into balls to be eaten at pleasure.P.

It is commonly used by the natives for pickling and is sold in the bazaars.com . The fruits are exceedingly acid in a raw state. emblica Linn. unfit to be eaten raw but making a delicious stew. P. Dried.swsbm. subacid taste. Bignoniaceae. The plant furnishes an edible fruit. Tropical Asia. East Indies. comorense DC. This species has long been grown for its red. are green. pinkish pulp of a sweetish. OTAHEITE GOOSEBERRY. smooth. in size like those of a gooseberry. three or four-furrowed and somewhat acid and cooling. shaped like a florence flask. In the Maritius Islands. The fruit is of a shining. P. EMBLIC. used as a medicine and for dyeing and tanning. WINTER CHERRY. Euphorbiaceae. and contains numerous seeds imbedded in a soft. distichus Muell. The fruits are eaten by the natives in the Konkan and Deccan. tropical Asia and Madagascar. STRAWBERRY TOMATO. Madagascar. In India. The fruits. Europe and Japan. the fruit is used for jellies. Physalis alkekengi Linn. the fruit is also pickled and eaten. Philippine Islands.Page 490 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Cochin China and China. berry-like fruits enclosed in bladder-like leaves. Firminger says it is of a sour. P. Solanaceae. round. Honduras. a preserve of the ripe fruit made with sugar is considered a wholesome article of diet. deep crimson color. Cacteae. This tree is found wild and cultivated in various parts of India and the Indian Archipelago. sorrel-like flavor. The fruit is edible. It was STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Phyllanthus acidissimus Muell. this fruit forms the emblic myrobalan. Phyllocactus (Epiphyllum) biformis Labour. Phyllarthron bojeranum DC.

Bauhin speaks of its presence in certain gardens in Europe. 70. Its synonymy seems to be as below: Halicacabum sive Solanum Indicum. . J. Bauhin before 1596 and is figured in the Hortus Eystettensis. 1750. Phytopin. P. and both his species and variety are figured by Dillenius. Western North America. Camer.swsbm. Bauh. Physalis angulata Linn. P. I. Utah and New Mexico. extending to the southern portion of the United States and to Japan. cum. lanceolata Michx. 297. 1623. ic. The leaves are used as a vegetable in central Africa. Ray Hist.described by Dioscorides. obscura Michx. 151. Toum. as a plant hitherto unknown and an excellent figure is given. Solanum vesicarium Indicum. the fruits. Pops. 1686. Its habitat is given by Gray as from Lake Winnipeg to Florida and Texas.com . Pin. 1613. cum. 1588.angulata Linn. cum. J. Hort.Page 491 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. 1588. ic. it first appeared in our vegetable gardens is not recorded. Bauh. Gray Syn. It produces an edible ground cherry. 234. which have a slightly acid taste. Eystet. 1651. Fl. 1719. It was seen in a garden by C. P. GROUND CHERRY. who obtained the variety from Holland in 1732. 3:609. 2: pt. Hughes Barb. This species was among the strawberry tomatoes grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1886 and occurred in two varieties. Tropics. Linnaeus describes a variety with entire leaves. Alkekengi Indicum majus. It was called strucknon halikakabon or phusalis by Dioscorides and is named by the modern Boeotians keravoulia. 1596. Solanum sive Halicabum Indicum. Hortus. It is first described by Camararius. STRAWBERRY TOMATO. the ordinary sort and another with broader leaves and more robust growth. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Colorado. 1613. Inst. are eaten for dessert. ic. The fruit is sweetish and subacid and is commonly eaten with safety if perfectly ripe. Halicacabum sen Solanum Indicum. In Arabia and even in Germany and Spain. 166. When. 681. Eastern United States. This species is found widely dispersed over tropical regions. 161. GROUND CHERRY. Cam.

CHERRY TOMATO. and Speede mentions it also.com . yet it seems to be the miltomatl figured by Hemandez in his Mexican history. The fruit is edible. The fruit is edible. Birdwood records it as cultivated widely in India and gives native names in the various dialects. PURPLE STRAWBERRY TOMATO. This species differs but slightly from P. it is classed among garden vegetables by Vilmorin. CHERRY. This species is sometimes grown in gardens for its fruit. BARBADOS GOOSEBERRY. Although the habitat of this species is given by Gray as in fertile soil. PURPLE GROUND CHERRY. Descourtilz gives a Carib name. a pleasant. can be assigned to this species. North America. P.P. in 1883. Drummond. This South American species seems to have become fairly well distributed through cultivation. 1878. as can also a strawberry tomato grown in 1885 at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station. says it was introduced into cultivation several years ago but has now mainly disappeared. HUSK TOMATO. as cultivated in the Mauritius and in all the tropical STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . philadelphica Lam. GROUND CHERRY. sousourouscurou. It is described by Burr under the names given above. Gray. Loureiro records it in Cochin China. P. extending from New York to Iowa. which bears a roundish fruit half an inch in diameter. This species has a wide range. membranaceous calyx. published in 1651. strawberry-like flavor. In France. who introduced the plant into Australia. and Feuille. pubescens. reports it as completely naturalized in. peruviana Linn.Page 492 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. annual plant. mentions it as cultivated and wild in Peru. Tropics. but the after taste is not so agreeable. North America. ALKEKENGI. 1725. It has been introduced into many regions. It is also found wild in the United States. The fruit has a juicy pulp and. after ten years. This is the camaru. GROUND STRAWBERRY TOMATO. semitransparent at maturity and enclosed in an inflated. Bojer. PURPLE WINTER CHERRY. yellow. WINTER CHERRY. Florida and westward from Texas to the borders of California and southward to tropical America. It is described by Marcgrav and Piso in Brazil about the middle of the seventeenth century. his region. It is a hardy.swsbm. Pennsylvania to Illinois and Texas. as received from Vilmorin. pubescens Linn. The petite tomato du Mexique. when first tasted.

but the plant is no longer used in England. STRAWBERRY TOMATO. 10. Europe. though still in favor in some parts of continental Europe. insipid fluid. Alkekengi Barbadense nanum. Physalis pubescens. SPIKED RAMPION. This hard albumen furnishes a vegetable ivory of commerce. viscosa Linn. 12. fructu luteo. t. Palmae. Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz et Pav. P. It had not reached the kitchen garden in 1807 but had before 1863. which are thick and fleshy. Phytocrene gigantea Wall. were formerly eaten.countries. Tropical America. 1719. IVORY PALM. This species has also been grown from seedsmen's strawberry tomato. Halicacabum sive Alkekengi Virginense. 9. Olacineae (Icacinaceae). FOUNTAIN TREE. 9. Alkekengi Virginianum. Phyteuma spicatum Linn. either boiled or in salad. with which travelers allay their thirst. Sp. f. Marcg. The berry is edible. spreading plant. North America. Campanulaceae. at last the fruit is almost as hard as ivory. Alkekengi Virginianum.Page 493 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Alliariae folio. 1648. 1658. virginiana Mill. Ray 681. Eith. It is a low. A watery and drinkable sap flows from sections of the porous stem. 1686. The roots. It was cultivated by Miller in England in 1739 and was described by Parkinson in 1640. Feuille 3:5.swsbm. 1762. 1725. 1774. Burma. P. Its synonymy seems as given below: Camaru.com . afterwards this liquor becomes milky and sweet. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Piso 223. vulgo Capuli. Eastern United States. and it also occurs in the descriptions of garden vegetables in France and America. The seed at first contains a clear. 151. 262. fructu luteo. Tourn. Linn. Dill.

Russia and the mountainous parts of Europe. P. In Mexico. BLACK SPRUCE. The spray is used in making beer. NORWAY SPRUCE. Guiana and Jamaica. octandra Linn. Phytolaccaceae. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Malays. it is called verbachina. In Louisiana. Himalayas and China. Coniferae (Pinaceae). says Rafinesque. the Sandwich Islands and the region of the Mediterranean. This species has been recommended in France as a culinary vegetable but it does not appear to have met with much success. Picea excelsa Link. It is occasionally used as a vegetable.com .Page 494 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. P. In 1852. India. it is an edible plant. where its leaves are eaten boiled as a vegetable. even to Switzerland. POCAN. North America. this species has been distributed throughout Mexico Brazil. Originally from North America. Great quantities of spruce beer are made from the new shoots. From this species comes a palatable. INDIAN POKE. GARGET.P. A watery and drinkable sap flows from sections of the porous stem. it was cultivated in Germany as a spinach. and Barton says the young shoots are brought in great abundance to the Philadelphia market as a table vegetable. DOUBLE SPRUCE. Linn. It is cultivated in most kitchen gardens in Jamaica. wholesome green. decandra (americana) VIRGINIAN POKE. CALALU. it is called chou-gras and the leaves are eaten boiled in soup. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.swsbm. P. In China. Norway. This plant is cultivated in Jaunsar and Kamaon. palmata Wall. nigra Link. SCOKE. Its leaves cooked as spinach and its young shoots as asparagus were both said to possess an excellent flavor.

Picris echioides Linn. 1863. is desirable in all seasonings or sauces. Pimpinella anisum Linn. or pimento. is also cultivated now in the East Indies. Anison was known to the ancient Greeks. West Indies. West Indies. Pliny. Compositae. hieracioides Linn. It is also mentioned by Theophrastus. The seeds are used as a condiment.swsbm. Palladius. where it is common. Myrtaceae. green or dry. he says. are sprinkled in the under crust of bread and are used for flavoring wine.Page 495 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the next best from Egypt. This salad plant is cultivated in Italian gardens. This tree yields the bitter wood known as Jamaica quassia. Temperate Asia. New Zealand and Europe.com . In the United States.Picraena excelsa Lindl. The plant is used as a potherb. The allspice tree is cultivated in the West Indies. The allspice. Simarubaceae. Compositae. in the first century. Brewers are said to use the chips as a substitute for hops. ANISE. ALLSPICE. It is also of recent introduction into French culture. Johnson says this plant has been used as a potherb when in the young state. This tree. berries of commerce are of the size of a small pea and in order are supposed to resemble a combination of cinnamon. P. in the ninth century. OX-TONGUE. Charlemagne. Australia. Europe and north Africa. gives directions for its sowing. the species is noted by Burr. vulgare Desf. says "anesum. He quotes Pythagoras as praising it whether raw or cooked. It is also used somewhat in France and was introduced into England in 1882. FRENCH Europe and the Mediterranean region. PIMENTO. Picridium (Reichardia) SCORZONERA. in the beginning of the third century. where it is much esteemed. QUASSIA. Pimenta officinalis Lindl. The young leaves and the roots are eaten. Dioscorides says the best came from Crete. commanded that STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Greece and Egypt. cloves and nutmeg. Umbelliferae." The seeds. BITTER ASH.

the flavor agreeable. In the seventeenth century. except that Bauhin records one sort having rounder and smaller seeds than the common variety. Coniferae (Pinaceae). P. The seeds now serve to flavor various liquors. Germany and Russia the plant is grown on a large scale for the seed. says Parry.Page 496 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Anise is mentioned also by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century. in Germany they are put into bread. in Italy. The seeds are as large as large peas. in rye bread and even in cheese. Western United States. Quintyne records the use of the leaves in salads. It seems to have been grown in England as a potherb prior to 1542.swsbm. by the Indians along the Mexican boundary. swiss STONE PINE. says Newberry." Ruellius records anise in France in 1536 and gives the common name as Roman fennel. localities in Spain. and Torrey says. "These herbes be seldom used but theyr seedes be greatly occupyde. as Boore. the seeds form about the sole winter food of the peasantry in Siberia. This is a wild species. they appear in diverse pastries. There is no indication of its having formed varieties under cultivation. the Greek islands and Egypt but is nowhere to be found undoubtedly growing wild. The edible nuts are collected. in England. France. It is classed among culinary herbs by McMahon. the name Albertus Magnus used in the thirteenth century. when fresh or slightly roasted. Nuttall says an oil is extracted from them. in his Dyetary of Helth. In Malta. southern Italy. RUSSIAN CEDAR. and the Indians eat them whenever they can be obtained. says of it and fennel. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . Pinus cembra Linn. cembroides Zucc.anise should be sown on the imperial farms in Germany. printed in that year. According to Gmelin. Palmae. they are very palatable. in special bread. Pinanga dicksonii Blume. 1806.com . Southern Europe and northern Asia. the nuts of which are utilized by the poorer classes as a substitute for the betel-nut. The plant is indigenous to Asia Minor. East Indies. which also enters commerce in northern India and Chile.

Himalayan mountains. many of the young trees of this species are stripped of their bark for a foot or so above the ground to a height of six or seven feet.com . in the spring are in the habit of stripping off the outer bark and scraping the newly formed cambium from the trunk. It is used as an article of trade by the New Mexicans of the upper Rio Grande. The seeds. Brown. P. Western United States. It is a common saying in Kunawar. The Indians of Alaska. P. is collected from this tree in a dry winter. Along both sides of the trail in the passes of the Galton and Rocky Mountains.swsbm. NUT PINE.P. P. In Kamaon. Western United States." They are oily. Himalayas. P. which is eaten. The large seeds are used as food by the Indians. The tree is called cheel. The cones are plucked before they open and are heated to make the scales expand and to get the seeds out. says Dall. gerardiana Wall. When fresh it is not unpleasant but as the season advances it tastes strongly of turpentine. "one tree a man's life in winter. coulteri D. contorta Dougl. with those below and about El Paso. BHOTAN PINE. NEPAL NUT PINE. The fruit has a slightly terebinthine taste but the New Mexicans are very fond of it. P. a kind of manna. excelsa Wall. PINON PINE. They are eaten ground and mixed with flour. about the size of a hazelnut. The nut is sweet and edible. California. and this is eaten fresh or dried. Southwestern United States. says Nuttall. flexilis James. the Indians will eat the liber. and they form a staple food of the inhabitants of Kunawar. Don. Large quantities of the seeds are stored for winter use. edulis Engelm. says Brandis. are of the size of an almond and are edible. says R. with a slight but not unpleasant turpentiny flavor STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD .Page 497 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. In times of scarcity.

and with the Greeks was a tree sacred to Neptune. sabiniana Dougl. The seeds are eaten by the Indians. The seeds. P. Himalaya Mountains. are eaten in India and are of some importance as food in times of scarcity. P. The seeds have a sweet and pleasant-tasting kernel and are eaten roasted or pounded into coarse cakes by the Indians. P. This is one of the nut pines of California and furnishes a STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . It has. lambertiana Dougl.Page 498 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. P. P. Southern Europe and the Levant.and are called neozar. however.swsbm. P. China and Japan. The seeds are commonly called pignons by the French and pinocchi by the Italians. decided cathartic properties and is oftener used by the frontiersmen as a medicine than a condiment. pinea Linn. & Zucc. P. It was known to the ancients. DIGGER PINE. California. made into sweetmeats or used in puddings and cakes. GIANT PINE. KOREAN PINE. & Frem. Korea. parryana Engelm. STONE PINE. SUGAR PINE. The tree produces edible nuts. The resin which exudes from partially burned trees for the most part loses its terebinthine taste and smell and acquires a sweetness nearly equal to that of sugar and is sometimes used for sweetening food. This pine is said by Grigor to be cultivated for its fruit about Naples. monophylla Torr.com . STONE PINE. NUT PINE. koraiensis Sieb. California. They are eaten as dessert. says Brandis. They are very commonly used in Aleppo and in Turkey. Northwest coast of America. Western North America. Kamchatka. The seeds are of an almond-like flavor and are consumed in quantity by the natives. longifolia Roxb. EMODI PINE.

P. The seeds are as large as large beans. In Sweden. are very palatable.swsbm. SCOTCH PINE. says Brewer. red-skinned but human. P. Indian Archipelago. STURTEVANT’S EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WORLD . sylvestris Linn. P. properly prepared. Thousands of beings. P. furnishes when boiled a very edible broth. The inner part of the bark. much bark is collected from the forests for food. having. When they prepare a meal of it. torreyana Parry. betle Linn. Northern Europe and Asia. The leaves are chewed with betel-nut by the Malays and other Indian races. California. mixed with a small portion of oatmeal and made into thin cakes. they bark the tree all around up to a certain height. The pepper is used by the country people in Kaffraria as a spice. In Norway. capense Linn. ground into flour.com . West Indies. This pine bears large and edible seeds. Piperaceae. BETLE PEPPER. the inner bark furnishes a barkbread.Page 499 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. South Africa. the Laplanders are quite fond of it. collected and dried before it reaches maturity. clusii C. P. says Morlot. P. Piper amalago Linn. DC.most important food to the Indians. however. look to this pine tree for their winter store of food. The tree then dies and thus the routes of migration in Lapland are marked by a track of dead pines which is continually widening. being kiln-dried. in times of scarcity. chaba Hunter. East Indies and Malay. Brownel says the seeds may replace pepper for seasoning. f. STAART PEPPER. The long pepper which is imported by the Dutch is the fruit-spike. a slightly terebinthine taste.

the Malay peninsula. In tropical western Africa.Tropical Africa. P. Pereira states that as early as 1305 the product of this tree was used as a condiment in London. f. one-sided berries or grains embedded in a pulpy matter. longum Linn. P. sarmentosum Roxb. green when immature. P. This tree furnishes the black pepper of commerce which is the be