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Disusun Dalam Rangka Memenuhi Salah Satu Tugas Mata Kuliah Dasar-Dasar Teknologi Pendidikan
Oleh : Nama Program Studi NIM : Attia Nurani : Teknologi Pendidikan : 20102513074
PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA
PENDAHULUAN A. Latar Belakang Masalah Teknologi dapat ditemukan dimana saja dan tujuan ditemukannya teknologi juga untuk membantu memecahkan masalah manusia. Dasar filisofi tersebut juga yang diaplikasikan pada dunia pendidikan hingga muncul terminology Teknologi Pendidikan. Penggunaan teknologi pun harus mempertimbangkan norma dan nilai yang berlaku agar dapat berproses dengan mudah. Teknologi itu pada hakikatnya adalah bebas nilai, namun telah penggunaanya akan sarat dengan aturan nilai dan estetika (Miarso, 2009: 194) Peran professional Teknologi Pendidikan yang sangat fundamental dalam proses pendidikan dan pelatihan sangat banyak tidak terbatas hanya pada pembuatan media atau melakukan kajian yang berhubungan dengan teknologi canggih seperti komputer dan lainnya. Teknologi Pendidikan juga dengan suatu perancangan kurikulum, pengembangan program pembelajaran, bagaimana menggunakan teknologi untuk pembelajaran yang tepat sasaran dan kebutuhan manajemen sumber belajar, hingga evaluasi dari kegiatan yang sudah dilakukan. Teknologi Pendidikan menjadi suatu kajian disiplin keilmuan bertujuan untuk memecahkan masalah pembelajaran Pada hakikatnya teknologi pembelajaran adalah suatu disiplin yang berkepentingan dengan pemecahan masalah belajar… (Miarso, 2009: 193). Berbagai prinsip dan pendekatan tersebut digunakan agar menjadi kuat dalam aplikasi pemecahan masalah. Banyak perspektif yang dapat dilihat tentang teknologi pendidikan dari definisi sebenarnya pun dapat terlihat kajian professional bidang garapan Teknologi Pendidikan, meskipun pengertian Teknologi Pendidikan dari beberapa dekade tahun mengalami perubahan.
application.Perceptional changes on educational technology Simsek. N. evaluation. N. Namun ada batasan yang menjadi kajian professional untuk dilakukan agar tidak berbenturan dengan tugas pendidik lain seperti pengajar. 2009: 196). and that the opinions within the literature are mostly shared. Simsek. Sebagai suatu disiplin . The findings obtained show that a definition like “… a research and practice discipline related to development and use of learning-teaching processes and environments” is a definition to be shared at international platforms. improvement and problem solving. Teknologi Pembelajaran pembelajaran berpegang pada merupakan disiplin keilmuan yang sangat falsafah berkembangnya potensi optimal Teknolgi Pendidikan dan hubungan Pendidikan teknologi berperan penting dalam proses belajar. (2005). Paradigma tentang Teknologi Pendidikan hanya berhubungan dengan kegiatan teknologi canggih seperti ICT dapat diluruskan dengan pemahaman definisi Teknologi Pendidikan. It is clear that “development and use” cover such sub-processes as design. Definisi ini juga dapat diaplikasikan diseluruh negara yang mengembangkan Teknologi Pendidikan Suatu penelitian dilakukan tentang persepsi ditemukan bahwa : This finding shows that opinions related to the definition of educational technology did not change according to the development level of countries. selection. teknologi pembelajar (learners) secara efektif dan efisien…(Miarso. .(2005).
Perkembangan kawasan dapat menjadi bertambah sesuai pengertian Teknologi Pembelajaran pada tahun 2004 yang dikeluarkan oleh AECT. penilaian dan penelitian proses. Menurut Miarso (2009:193) menyebutkan pada point ke-2 tentang pendekatan yang digunakan Teknologi Pendidikan bahwa pendekatan sistematik yaitu dengan cara yang berurutan dan terarah dalam usaha memecahkan persoalan. Secara garis besar kawasan dan bidang garapan teknologi pendidikan terlihat dari pengertian Teknologi Pembelajaran yang dikemukakan oleh Seels & Richey (1994) yaitu teori dan praktik dlam desain. B. Rumusan Masalah . sumber. Banyak yang dapat menjadi kajian untuk diaplikasikan dalam memecahkan masalah belajar siswa. Kawasan dan bidang garapan tersebut dapat dipahami dari konsep dan pengeritan teknologi pembelajaran itu sendiri.Sebagai calon praktisi pendidikan dibidang Teknologi Pendidikan harus mengetahui kawasan dan bidang garapan Teknologi Pendidikan agar dapat berkarya didalamnya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut makalah ini akan membahas tentang kawasan dan bidang garapan teknologi pendidikan berdasarkan pengertian terdahulu hingga pengertian terbaru dan modifikasi yang dilakukan ahli teknologi sesuai kebutuhan dan perkembangan zaman di negara Indonesia. Dalam kawasan dan bidang garapan tersebut juga membentuk suatu system yang bekerja berorganisasi untuk saling mendukung satu sama lain agar dapat menghasilkan suatu program yang efektif dan efisien untuk pemecahan belajar siswa. Namun pengertian baru tersebut akan lebih diperdalam pada bagian pembahasan untuk memperkaya pengetahuan tentang kawasan dan bidang garapan Teknologi Pendidikan. pengelolaan. Pemecahan masalah dilakukan secara bertahap dan beratura sehingga adanya tujuan tercapai. Sebagai seorang akademis Teknologi Pendidikan menjadi kewajiban untuk memahami kawasan dan bidang garapan tersebut agar menjadi expert di bidang perekayasan pembelajaran dan menciptakan inovasi pembelajaran dalam pemecahan masalah belajar. pemanfaatan. dan system untuk belajar. pengembangan.
Tema yang akan dibahas pada makalah ini tentang Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan. Bagaimana Aplikasi Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan tersebut dalam pemecahan masalah pembelajaran? C. Untuk mengetahui Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan 3. Apakah Konsep Teknologi Pendidikan? 2. Untuk mengetahui Konsep Teknologi Pendidikan 2. Apakah Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan? 3. Tujuan Penulisan Makalah: 1. Untuk dapat mengaplikasian Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan Tersebut Dalam Pemecahan Masalah Pembelajaran . Untuk itu masalah yang akan dikemukakan adalah sebagai berikut: 1.
Heinich.secara luas. manajemen. Finn menyatakan “selain diartikan sebagai mesin. dan mekanisme pantauan.baik manusia itu sendiri atau bukan.2 Konsep Teknologi Pendidikan Definisi awal Teknologi Pendidikan adalah komunikasi audiovisual. dan Russel. 2007:43) mengemukakan “teknologi merupakan penerapan pengetahuan atau cara berpikir bukan hanya produk seperti computer. penerapan pengetahuan. Berdasarkan pendapat diatas konsep teknologi daapat disimpulkan merupakan suatu teknik atau proses. 1.1 Konsep Teknologi Paradigma yang dikemukakan tentang Teknologi pada kajian Teknologi Pendidikan tidak mengambil konsep bahwa teknologi adalah suatu mesin atau sekedar alat membantu melakukan sesuatu. dan sebagainya”. serta…. cara pandang terhadap masalgh berikut lingkupnya. orientasi kelas inquiry. Teknologi dapat mengkatalisasi berbagai perubahan lain dalam isi. tingkat kesukaran. sebagian kebanyakan mencetuskan berubahnya cara dari pengajar yang mengendalikan pembelajaran dan terhadap konstruktivis. 1993 (Salma. Molenda. serta cara mengatasi masalah secara teknis dan ekonomis”. satelit. dan semua kualitas proses mengajar dan belajar. Konsep Teknologi Pendidikan 1. Ely (1963) mengemukakan “Audiovisual communication is that branch of educational theory and practice primarily concerned with the design and use . system. teknologi dapat mencakup proses.PEMBAHASAN A. metode. studi kelayakan. tidak sekedar penggunaan mesin dalam rangka memcahkan masalah yang efektif dan efisien.
ideas. Menyebutkan “instructional technology is the thory and practice of design. oraganiasai dan penggunaan sumber belajar dan melaluo manajemen dalam prosesnya. Tahun 1994 AECT mengeluarkan definisi lagi yang ditulis oleh Seels dan Richey dalam buku Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. Selanjuutnya rumusan pada tahun 1977 Educational technology is a complex and integrated process. Teknologi Pembelajaran adalah teori dan praktek dari perancangan pengembangan. and utilization of learning resources and through the management of these processes” (AECT 1972). and organization for analyzing problems and devising.”Audiovisual adalah cabang teori pendidikan dan praktik utama terfokus dengan perancangan dan penggunaan pesan. R. Teknologi Pendidikan adalah proses yang rumit dan terpadu. dimana mengatur proses pembelajaran.of messages. evaluating. development. kemudian menerapkan. organization. devices. 2005 ). manajen dan evaluasi pada proses dan sumber untuk belajar. prosedur. and managing solutions to those problems. and evaluastion of process and resources for learning”. mengevaluasi dan mengelola pemeahan masalah pada situasi dimana proses belajar terarah dan terpantau. Mitchele (1972) menjelaskan Teknologi pendidikan “suatu studi praktek tentang (dalam hal pendidikan) dengan semua aspek organisasi dan potensinya untuk diikuti hasil pendidikan” (Luppicini. Konsep ini umumnya memandang Teknologi Pendidikan sebagai sinonim dengan pengajaran dan komunikasi audiovisual. management. melibatkan orang. R. involving people. . procedures. Teknologi pendidikan adalah bidang garapan yang dilibatkan dalam memfasilitas belajar manusia melalui indentifikasi sistematis. 2005). involved in all aspects of human learning (AECT 1977. peralatan. implementing. pengembangan. which control the learning process. development. Dari AECT Komite Definisi (1972) “Educational Technology is a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification. dan organisasi untuk megnanalisis dan mengolah masalah. utilization. Luppicini. pemanfaatan.
tujuan utamanya masih tetap untuk memfasilitasi pembelajaran (agar efektif. efisien dan menarik) dan meningkatkan kinerja. 2004). Jelas. 2005). utilization. Konsep definisi versi AECT 2004 Teknologi pendidikan adalah studi dan praktek etis dalam upaya memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan meningkatkan kinerja dengan cara menciptakan. using. & M. design. In A. & M. Definisi pada tahun 2008 juga masih sama yang dikeluarkan oleh AECT pada tahun 2004 yang dikemukakan oleh Januszewski. Dalam konsepsi hari ini. untuk (1) merancang. Educational Technology: A Definition with Commentary. sebagaimana keilmuan social lainnya dan aplikasi keilmuan social (Luppicini. dan mereka terus berkembang.). menembangkan. menggunakan/memanfaatkan. Definisi yang diikuti Luppicini (2005) tentang konsep kawasan Teknologi Pendidikan adalah suatu tujuan yang berorientasi pada pendekatan sistem pemecahan masalah memanfaatkan peralatan. snapshot dalam waktu. Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan 2. Januszewski.1 Peran Kawasan Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) mendefiniskan 5 domaian Teknologi Pembelajaran yaitu sub domain. teknik. Teknologi Pendidikan dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu konsep abstrak atau sebagai bidang praktik atau garapan. Oleh karena itu konsepsi hari ini adalah satu sementara. Molenda pada buku Definition. efektifitas dan efisiensi sumber manusia dan mesin dalam hal untuk memfasilitasi dan mempengaruhi semua aspek .Definisi terbaru pada tahun 2004 dikeluarkan lagi oleh AECT Instructional Technology yaitu “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating. and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” (AECT. Pada tiap domain juga terdiri dari beberapa Kawasan dari Teknologi Pendidikan membagi banyak kesamaan perjungan dalam mendefinisikan nya dan memperkuat landasanya. teori. dan metode dari berbagai banyak bidang pengetahuan. management. Konsepsi teknologi pendidikan telah berkembang sepanjang bidang dimiliki. development. and evaluation. Molenda (Eds. dan menilai. B. dan mengelola proses dan sumber-sumber teknologi yang tepat.
penilaian dan penelitian proses. Defini tersebut mengandung pengertian adanya empat komponen dalm teknologi pembelajaran. pemanfaatan.pembelajaran.2 Hubungan Antar Kawasan Kawasan Teknologi Pembelajaran merupakan rangkungan tengan wilayah utama yang merupakan dasar pengetahuan bagi setiap kawasan. dan Proses. Hubungan antar kawsan bersifat senergistik (Seel dan Richey. penilaian. pemanfaatan. Dalam perkembangan terkahir. Secara serempak dan dalam meliputi cara. atau menjadi praktisi disemua kawasan. 1994). teknologi pendidikan yang didefinisikan sebagai teori dan praktik dalam desain. Setiap fungsi mempunyai tujuan dan komponen (Seels dan Richey. suatu kawasan professional baru menjadi suatu bidang pengetahuan baru (atau displin profesional ) yang digabungkan. Para peneliti dapat berkonsentrasi pada satu kawasan. mereka menarik manfaat teori dan praktik dari kawasan yang lain. pengembangangan. yaitu: • Teori dan praktik Desain. 1994). sumber. sumber dan sistem Untuk Belajar • • penelitian • 2. dan sistem untuk belajar. pengembangan. Meskipun para peneliti tersebut dapat menfokuskan diri pada satu kawasan atau cakupan dalam kawasan tersebut. Fungsi suatu kawasan mencakup teori dan praktek dan untuk mengidentifikasi tugastugas para penyelenggara teknolog pembelajaran. dan (2) pedoman agen perubahan dan perubahan sistem perubahan sistem dan praktek dalam hal untuk membagi dalam mempengaruhi perubahan dalam social. Berikut gambar antar kawasan dan hubungan antar kawasan : . pengelolaan. pengelolaan.
1994) Teori Gambar antar kawasan dan hubungan antar kawasan diatas merupakan gagasan yang dikemukan oleh Barbara Seel dan Richey tahun 1994. Berikut gambar enam kawasan teknologo pembelajaran yang diadaptasi oleh Yusuf Hadi Miarso (2004). Pada perkembangnannya di modifikasi oleh Yusuf Hadi Miarso dengan memasukkan satu lagi kawasan yaitu Penelitian. .Kawasan Teknologi Pembelajaran (Seel dan Richey. 1994) Hubungan Antar Kawasan Teknologi Pembelajaran (Seel dan Richey.
Fleming and Levie (1993) batasan pesan pada pola-pola atau tanda-tanda atau symbol yang memodifikasi kognitid. dikembangkan adalah proses memenulis dan produksi materi pembelajaran. desain adalah proses bagaimana mengkhusukan bagaimana dipelajari. analisanya adalah proses pada define apa yang harus dipelajari. mengimplementasi penggunaan materi dan strategi dalam konten yang actual dan mengevaluasi proses penentuan kecukupan materi.. Rancangan Desai cocok dengan kebanyakan tingkat micro melalui unit kecil seperti visual. atau perilaku psikomotor. 20004:169) Desain didefinisikan sebagai “penetapan kondisi untuk belajar” (Seel dan Richey. bentuk fisik pesan. afektif. Perencanaan mempengaruhi seluruh proses desain instrucsional. urutan-urutan. • Desain Sistem Pembelajaran (ISD) : Kata Desain mempunyai dua makna yaitu tingkat makro dan tingkat mikro yang keduanya menunjukkan pendekatan system dan langkah pada pendekatan system. . (1994) (Miarso. Desain adalah fungsi perencanaan ketika strategi ditentukan. • Rancangan Pesan : Grabowski (1991) Menurut “termasuk perencanaa/manipulasi dari bentuk fisik pada pesan dimana termasuk komunikasi antara pengirim dan penerima. 1994). ISD secara umum merupakan prosedur linier dan berulang-ulang dimana permintaan seksama dan konsisten. Dalam terminology sederhana. PAda ISD proses sangat penting sama seperti produk karena kepercayaan produk berlandasakan pada proses. ” (Seels& Richey. dan karakteristik pembelajar.2.3. strategi pembelajaran.3 Kawasan dan Garapan Teknologi Pembelajaran 2. Karakter proses pada semua langkah harus di lengkapa dalam hal untuk melayani sebagai pemeriksaaan dan keseimbangan satu sama lain.1 Desain Modifikasi kawasan Teknologi Pembelajaran Seel dan Richey. 1994).
and components of the teaching/learning process.e. 19). The more typical use of the terms today is for micro-design to be synonymous with instructional strategy design and macro-design to refer to the steps in the ISD process.halaman dan layar individu. example. karakteristik. Research on instructional strategies has contributed to knowledge about the components of instruction. instructional strategies interact with learning situations. . Situasi pem. . such as sequencing. keahlian atau pengembangan strategi pembelajaran atau penghafalan(Fleming. a single concept. characteristically. These learning situations are often described by models of instruction. etc. and summarizing (previewing and reviewing) the ideas that are taught (p. strategi pembelajaran beriteraksi degnan situasi pembelajaran. Fleming and Levie. atau kombinasi dari keduanya (foto. 1972. and Poscy. 1987b). Perancang menggunakan teori strategi pembelajaran atau komponen sebagai prinsip pembelajaran. They include such strategy components as definition. Reigeluth. film atau gambar computer) dan apakah tugas termasu konsep atau formasi sikap. such as motivation and elaboration (Reigeluth. • Strategi Pembelajaran: adalah pengkhususan untuk pemilihan dan urutaurutan kejadian dan aktivitas dalam satu pelajaran. 1987a). principle. dymanis. Instructional strategy theories cover learning situations. 1992.). 1993a). 1993). Tennyson.and micro strategies: Micro-strategy variables are elemental methods for organizing the instruction on a single idea (i. Karakter lain rancangan pesan adalah rangangan yang dirancang harus dikhususkan pada media dan tugas pembelajaran. and altermate representation . practice. • Instructional Strategies Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson. synthesizing. Since 1983.1987. the terms have been used more generally to compare the design of a curriculum with the design of a lesson (Smith and Ragan. A designer uses instructional strategy theories or components as principles of instruction. . Merrill. Macro-strategy variables are elemental methods for organizing those aspects of instruction that relate to more than one idea. The model of instruction and the instructional strategy needed to implement the model differ depending on the teaming situation. the nature of the content and the type of learning desired (Joyce and Weil. The phrases "micro-strategy" and "macro-strategy" are not often used today. Ini artinya prinsip rancangan pesan akan berbeda tergantung apakah media statis. Reigcluth (1983a) differentiated between macro. such as situated or inductive learning.
The challenge. but it is done for a different purpose: to describe facets of the learner that need to be accounted for in design. The instructional strategy area uses motivation research lo specify the design of components of instruction. 1976). impact the components of instruction studied under instructional strategies. to refer to message design. Micro-design at the message design level will be discussed in Chapter Three. Research on motivation is an example of an overlapping area.Micro design has also broadened in meaning to provide for specifications for even smaller units of instruction. such a text pages. 1976. there arc those now who use the term "micro-design". Design theory is more fully developed than those facets of the field that have greatly relied upon traditions of practice to shape their knowledge bases. 1992). Not only was this the home of Simon. During the 1960s and 1970s Robert Glaser. Many instructional psychology roots of the design domain were nurtured in these Pittsburgh associations. such as the Learning Resource and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. therefore. director of that center. Richey. is to continue to define the knowledge base as well as respond to the pressure of the workplace. • Learner Characteristics Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner's experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process. The learner characteristics area uses motivation research to identify variables that should be taken into account and to specify how to take them into account. Design is the process of specifying conditions for learning. as well as to instructional strategy design. and 3) the establishment in the early 1960s of centers for the design of instructional materials and programs. with respect to the uses of technology. and visuals. for both academics and practitioners alike. Research on learner characteristics often overlaps research on instructional strategies. There were several catalysts: 1) the 1954 article by B F. This is certainly the case now. 2) the 1969 book by Herbert Simon on The Sciences of the Artificial which discussed the general characteristics of a prescriptive science of design. Glaser and the Learning Research and Development Center. Thus. In part. wrote and spoke about instructional design being the core of educational technology (Glaser. design research and theory have almost always followed practitioner exploration of the intricacies and capabilities of a new piece of hardware or software. However. screens. 1988). but Skinner's influential paper "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching" was first presented in Pittsburgh prior to its publication later that year (Spencer. The purpose . or micro-level". the design domain had its genesis in the psychology of instruction movement. Learner characteristics. They interact not only with strategies but also with the situation or context and content (Bloom. Skinner on "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching" and his theory of programmed instruction.
• Print Technologies Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials. Basically. 1983. As a result. questions and tools that are used to design environments. but also journals about these materials. such us bonks and static visual materials. and • the physical manifestation of the technology—the hardware. When that text is printed in hard copy to be used for instruction. In the development process. In the 1930s theatrical film began to be used instructionally. 1970). were established. from computer‐based resources. The two components of this technology are verbal text materials and visual . such as programs and curricula. These events stimulated not only the production of materials for education. This subcategory includes text.of design is to create strategies and products at the macro level. • the instructional strategy which is theory driven. the scope of instructional design is broadened from learning resources or individual components of systems to systemic considerations and environments. Thus. This definition is in accord with current definitions of design which refer to creating specifications (Ellington and Harris. such as Educational Screen and See and Hear. such as the Society for Visual Education. Although the development of textbooks and other instructional aids preceded film. software and instructional materials. and photographic representation and reproduction. They provide the foundation for both the development and utilization of most other instructional materials. the instructional technologist produces those items specified in the design documentation. 1986. and through the years changes in media capabilities have led to changes in the domain. The roots of the development domain are in the area of media production. graphic. el. at. the development domain can be described by: • the message which is content driven. These products may be in print. the emergence of film was the first major landmark in the progression from the audio-visual movement to the modern Instructional Technology era. primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes. Tessmer (1990) has analyzed the factors. Reigeluth. such as lessons and modules. 1986). Development Development is defined as “translating the design specifications into physical form” (p. in audio and/or visual materials. Print and visual materials involve the most basic and pervasive technologies. film libraries and companies were established. It differs from previous definitions in that the emphasis is on conditions for learning rather than on the components of an instructional system (Wallington. These technologies generate materials in hard copy form. the first film catalogs appeared. or produced by integrating several different computer‐based media. 35).. it is an example of delivery in a print technology. Richey. film studies were undertaken and commercial organizations. and at the micro level. Text displayed by a computer is an example of the use of computer-based technology for production.
Television. where primary instruction is presented. drill and practice. Computer-based technologies. • ideas usually are presented in an abstract fashion with words and symbols and graphics. when produced and stored as videotape. audiovisual technologies project material. both hardware and software. • Computer‐Based Technologies Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources. it becomes randomly accessible and demonstrates most of the characteristics of computer-based or integrated technologies. Video. The various types of computer applications are generally called computer-based instruction (CBI). as well as in ways the designer/developer planned. specifically. the playback of sounds. • they can be used (he way the learner desires. however. When the video information is on a videodisc. Audiovisual instruction is most obviously characterized by the use of hardware in the teaching process. These applications were developed almost directly from behavioral theory and programmed instruction. but today reflect a more cognitive theoretical base (Jonassen. Computer-based technologies are distinguished from other technologies because information is stored electronically in the form of digital data rather than as print or visuals. games and simulations. • Audio/Visual Technologies Audiovisual technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages. such as films. Basically. which helps the learner to develop fluency in previously learned material. represents a unique technology in that it bridges from audiovisual to computer-based and integrated technologies. non-linear. as well as linear ways. slides and transparencies. the four CBI applications are tutorials. The development of both types of instructional material relies heavily upon the theory related to visual perception. i. and human information processing. Audiovisual instruction is defined as the production and utilization of materials that involve learning through sight and hearing and that do not depend exclusively on the comprehension of words or other similar symbols. computer-based technologies use screen displays to present information to students. computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or computer-managed instruction (CMI). random access and learner driven. . and databases. which enable learners to access large data structures on their own or using externally-prescribed search protocols. Audiovisual machines make possible the projection of motion pictures. Typically. as well as theories of learning. 1988). and the display of large visuals.materials. generally have these characteristics: • they can be used in random or nonsequential. reading. which afford opportunities to apply new knowledge.e. is clearly audiovisual in nature since it is linear and generally intended for expository presentation rather than interaction.
These all may be controlled by a hypermedia lesson running under an authoring system such as HyperCardTM or ToolbookTM. The first systematic experiments in the preparation of exhibits for instructional purposes were conducted. and • learning can be student-centered and incorporate high learner interactivity. Utilization The utilization domain focuses on the “user’s perspective” (p. By 1923 visual education budgets in . A primary feature of this technology is the high degree of learner interactivity among the various information sources. • Integrated Technologies Integrated technologies are ways lo produce and deliver materials which encompass several/arms of media under the control of a computer. such as a department or a school. And finally. These resources may include the use of instructional materials you've designed and developed or something that was purchased off‐the‐shelf. Implementation and institutionalization involves the integration of a technology into a larger environment. compact discs. Also during the early years of the twentieth century. and digitized information. Policies and Regulations are those standards that restrict and guide the use of technology. Peripheral devices controlled by the computer would include videodisc players. and a high resolution color monitor. a large internal hard drive. Many believe that the most sophisticated technique for instruction involves the integration of several forms of media under the control of a computer. networking software. Software may include videodiscs. and audio systems. The domain of utilization began with the visual education movement which flourished during the first decade of this century when school museums were established. 44) of the processes and resources of Instructional Technology. thus creating a market for films designed specifically for educational purposes. Examples of the hardware components of an integrated system could include a powerful computer with large amounts of random access memory. or the application of IT processes in a specific environment. Diffusion of Innovations refers to disseminating technologies and may be evidenced in how you do/did/should communicate information of a new technology to a larger audience to encourage them to adopt the technology. and may be evidenced in what you would do/did/should do to support and encourage this integration. networking hardware. teachers were finding ways to use theatrical films and short subjects in the classroom. Media utilization is about how you do/did/should interact with learners to help them with the systematic use of technologies. additional display devices.• the principles of cognitive science arc applied during development.
51). In the late 1960s. stereopticons. Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning. p. Utilization then requires systematic use. Utilization-Dissemination. implementation. providing guidance during engagement. The purpose of the function was "to bring learners into contact with information about educational technology" (AECT. 1990). the concept 'diffusion of innovations'. 1986. meaning "deliberately and systematically making others aware of a development by circulating information" (Ellington and Harris. 1968. Media Utilization. 65). 66). and incorporating this usage into the continuing procedures of the organization. The focus was on how these films might be used to best effect. AECT's 1977 definition linked utilization and dissemination into one function. are included in the diffusion of innovations sub-category of the utilization domain. implementation and institutionalization. The utilization function is important because it describes the interface between the learner and instructional materials and systems. In the 1994 definition. and policies and regulations. The media utilization process is a decision-making process based on instructional design specifications. referring to the communication process used to spread information and involve users in order to facilitate adoption of an idea. diffusion. Models and theories in (he domain of utilization have tended to focus on the user's perspective. Among the earliest formal research on educational applications of media was Lashley and Watson's program of studies on the use of World War I military training films (on the prevention of venereal disease) with civilian audiences. diffusion of innovations. however. 1977.city school systems covered projectors. was introduced and attention turned to the provider's perspective. p. The four subcategories in the domain of utilization are: media utilization. McCluskey and Hoban's research in the 1930s also focused primarily on the classroom effects of different film utilization practices (Saetller. For example. film rentals and lantern slides. preparing learners for interacting with the selected materials and activities. For many years the utilization domain was centered around the activities of teachers and media specialists who aided teachers. The 1977 definition also included a separate function called utilization which was similarly defined as "bringing learners into contact with learning resources and instructional systems components" (p. dissemination tasks. providing for assessment of the results. Utilization is the act of using processes and resources for learning. It is constrained by policies and regulations. dissemination. and institutionalization. how a film is . Those engaged in utilization are responsible for matching learners with specific materials and activities.
introduced or "followed-up" should be tailored to the type of teaming desired. Policies and regulations are usually constrained by ethical and economic issues. The ultimate goal is to bring about change. Characteristically. the process follows a communications process model which uses a multi-step flow including communication with gatekeepers and opinion leaders. Implementation and Institutionalization. decision. the purpose of implementation is to ensure proper use by individuals in the organization. Policies and Regulations. Some of the past failures of large scale Instructional Technology projects. Diffusion of innovations is the process of communicating through planned strategies/or the purpose of gaining adoption. Rogers (1983) describes the stages as knowledge. interest. They have more effect on practice than on theory. Diffusion of Innovations. Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. and confirmation. The process includes stages such as awareness. The first stage in the process is to create awareness through dissemination of information. However. The purpose of institutionalization is to integrate the innovation in the structure and life of the organization. 1986). Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the diffusion and use of Instructional Technology. emphasize the importance of planning for both individual and organizational change (Cuban. trial and adoption. implementation. routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization. Principles of utilization also are related to learner characteristics. Both depend on changes in individuals and changes in the organization. The held of Instructional Technology has been involved in policy generation related to instructional and . They are created both as a result of action by individuals or groups in the field and action from without the field. A learner may need visual or verbal skill assistance in order to profit from an instructional practice or resource. Institutionalizniton is the continuing. persuasion. such as computers in schools and instructional television.
standards for equipment and programs. Delivery systems may be products. supplies. and instructional resources. and controlling the storage. delivery systems. AECT's 1977 definition divided the management function into organization management and personnel management as practiced by administrators of media centers and programs. programs and services. Management involves controlling Instructional Technology through planning. • Project Management Project management involves planning. resources. one-school or -company departments. 51). and information. A melding of the library and media programs led to school library media centers and specialists. and design and development efforts is multiplied as the size of the intervention grows from small. organizing. monitoring. These school media programs merged print and nonprint materials and led to the increased use of technological resources in the curriculum. Information management deals with the “planning. The complexity of management aging multiple resources. monitoring. coordinating and supervising. The management domain evolved originally from the administration of media centers. and controlling . and the creation of administrative units to support Instructional Technology. Management is generally the product of an operational value system. such as computer hardware and/or software or technical support. or processing of information” (p. Individuals in the field are regularly called upon to provide management in a variety of settings. In 1976 Chisholm and Ely wrote Media Personnel in Education: A Competency Approach which emphasized that the administration of media programs played a central role in the field. personnel. An instructional technologist might be involved with efforts such as the management of an instructional development project or the management of a school media center. Management The management domain includes the management of projects. The concept of management is integral to the field of Instructional Technology and to roles held by many instructional technologists. facilities. to state-wide instructional interventions and global multi-national company changes. budget. or processes.community television. transfer. but the underlying management skills remain relatively constant regardless of setting. Resources include personnel. such as guidelines. copyright law. The actual goals for the management activity may vary greatly from setting to setting. time.
. project management differs from traditional management. transfer or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning. provide examples of such management. install information monitoring systems. supplies. Delivery system management focuses on product issues. Transmission or transfer of information often occurs through integrated . and (c) project managers enjoy greater control and flexibility than is usual in line and staff organizations. short-term members of a team. [It is] a combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner" (Ellington and Harris. because: (a) project members may be new. and evaluate progress. Within these parameter decisions must be made that match the technology's attributes with the instructional goals. monitoring. (b) project managers often lack long-term authority over people because they are temporary bosses. The project management role is often one of dealing with threats to success and recommending internal changes. Resources can include personnel. The management of resources is a critical area because it controls access. There is a great deal of overlap between storing. • Resource Management Resource management involves planning. Project managers are responsible for planning. • Delivery Systems Management Delivery system management involves planning. 19S6. Cost effectiveness and justification of effectiveness for learning are two important characteristics of resource management. such as hardware/ software requirements and technical support to users and operators. time. and process issues. . p. The technologies described in the development domain are methods of storage and delivery. scheduling and controlling the functions of instructional design or other types of projects. Decisions about delivery system management are often dependent on resource management systems. facilities. • Information Management Information Management involves planning. and controlling resource support systems and services. such as those at National Technological University and Nova University. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (1992). They must negotiate. monitoring and controlling the storage. and instructional resources. monitoring anil controlling "the method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized . budget. such as guidelines for designers and instructors. Instructional resources encompass all of the technologies described in the section on the development domain. Distance learning projects.47).instructional design and development projects. which is line and staff management. transferring and processing because often one function is necessary in order to perform the other. budget.
and summative are included in the evaluation domain. Scriven (1980) emphasized the difference between evaluation and other types of research. The evaluation of these programs required the application of more systematic and scientific procedures. Evaluation Evaluations such as problem analysis. The development of formalized educational programs.. formative. Evaluation in its broadest sense is a commonplace human activity. often in tandem or parallel with that field. as well as informing individuals on potential purchases. not to test hypotheses. "Processing consists of changing some aspect of information [through computer programs] . The purpose of evaluation is to support the making of sound value judgments. The results of these evaluation leads to a better understanding of the problem. mastery of information. An important component of the field will continue to be the management of information storage systems for instructional purposes. Evaluation begins with problem analysis.technologies. Important distinctions between traditional educational research and evaluation became clearer as both areas developed. means that this is an area of great importance to Instructional Technology in the future. p. to make it more suitable for some purpose" (Lindenmayer. He said that while evaluation is the process of determining the merit. many funded by the federal government. has brought with it the need for formalized evaluation programs. the purpose of educational evaluation is different from the purpose of other educational research. 317). 1988. Evaluation is the process of determining the adequacy of instruction and learning. The importance of information management is its potential for revolutionizing curriculum and instructional design applications. The growth of knowledge and knowledge industries beyond the scope that today's educational system can accommodate. In daily life we are constantly assessing the worth of activities or events according to some system of valuing. criterion‐referenced. worth or value of a process or product and that this is a research process. This is an important preliminary step in the development and evaluation of . The evaluation domain grew as the educational research and methodology field grew.. Information management is important for providing access and user friendliness.
Materials evaluation (instructional products)—evaluations that assess the merit or worth of content-related physical items. 12) Project evaluation-evaluations that assess activities that are funded for a defined period of time to perform a specific task. it is formal determination of the quality. That this assignment is done fairly. In education. 13). In the domain of evaluation important distinctions are made between program. Projects that become institutionalized in effect become programs (pp. project. as arc formative and summative evaluation. 12. including: (I) determining standards for Judging quality and deciding whether those standards should be relative or absolute. or curriculum. (2) collecting relevant information. curricular guides. Program evaluation—evaluations that assess educational activities which provide services on a continuing basis and often involve curricular offerings. or a three-year career educational demonstration project. the assignment of value is central to the concept. accurately. and products (materials). project and product evaluations. or a university's continuing education program (p.13). and (3) applying the standards to determine quality (pp. films. Evaluation uses inquiry and Judgment methods. Some examples are evaluations of a school district's reading program. and systematically is the concern of both evaluators and clients. tapes. An important distinction here is the separation of personnel evaluation . According to Worthen and Sanders (1987): Evaluation is the determination of a thing's value. whereas the latter is usually expected to be short lived. each is an important type of evaluation for the instructional designer.22-23) As seen in the root concept of the word. a state's special education program. The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1981) provided definitions for each of these types of evaluation. effectiveness or value of a program. Common distinctions are programs. Some examples are a three-day workshop. projects. A key distinction between a program and a project is that the former is expected to continue for an indefinite period of lime. objective. including books. process.instruction because goals and constraints are clarified during this step. and other tangible instructional products (p. One important way of distinguishing evaluations is by classifying them according to the object being evaluated. on behavioral objectives. product.
An important distinction should be offered here. In practice people's effectiveness is often judged by the success of their program or product. In practice. which are sometimes test. such a distinction is difficult to accomplish. 1990). In spite of the best efforts of its proponents. identifying constraints.surement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content." The people responsible for creating and maintaining these entities are justifiably concerned about the outcomes of the evaluation. Instead. Within the domain of evaluation there are four subdomains: problem analysis. the program that focuses on unacceptable ends will be judged as unsuccessful in meeting needs. determining to what extent the problem can be classifier as instructional in nature. also cap be called content-referenced. We just want to know if this model program works or not. its purpose is more adequate program planning. People become personally involved with the development or success of a program or product. 1972). resources and learner characteristics. Astute evaluators have long argued that the really thorough evaluation will begin as the program is being conceptualized and planned. Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies. Criterion-referenced mea.from other categories. criterion-referenced measurement. and needs assessment is a systematic study of these needs. with statements like: "People are not being evaluated here. and formative and summative evaluation. even though an evaluator may constantly refer to a separation. and determining goals and priorities (Seels and Glasgow. A needs assessment is not conducted in order to perform a more defensible evaluation as the project progresses. Problem Analysis. A need has been defined as "a gap between 'what is' and 'what should be" in terms of results" (Kaufman. Criterion-referenced measures. Each of these subdomains will be explained below. Thus. Criterion-Referenced Measurement. . evaluation efforts include identifying needs. regardless of what definitional distinctions one would like to make.
1950). Criterion-referenced post-measures can determine whether major objectives have been met (Seels and Glasgow. Success on a criterion-referenced lest often means being able to perform certain competencies. Criterion-referenced items are used throughout instruction to measure whether prerequisites have been mastered. Summative Evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization. although Cambre has traced these same types of activities to the 1920s and 1930s in the development of film and radio instruction (Cambre. cited in flagg. Usually a cutoff score is established.objective-referenced.attitudes or skills relative to the objective. This is because the criterion for determining adequacy is the extent to which the learner has met the objective. Current contributors include Sharon Shrock and William Coscarelli (Shrock and Coscarelli. The emphasis on both formative evaluation in the early stages of product development and summative evaluation after instruction is a prime concern of instructional technologists. or domain-referenced.1973). 1990) According to Michael Scriven (1967): . Formative and Summative Evaluation. Criterion-referenced measurements let the students know how well they performed relative to a standard. 1972. There is no limit to the number of test-takers who can pass or do well on such a test because judgments are not relative to other persons who have taken the test. The distinction between these two types of evaluation was first made by Scriven (1967). and everyone reaching or exceeding the score passes the test. 1990). Curriculum designers and other educators were interested in criterion-referenced measurement before Mager described behavioral objectives (Tyler. Early contributors to the application of criterion referenced measurement in Instructional Technology came from the programmed instruction movement and included James Popham and Eva Baker ( Baker. Popliam. 1989). Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. A criterion-referenced measure provides information about a person's mastery of knowledge.
requires more formal procedures and methods of collecting data. on the other hand.efit of some external audience or decision-maker (c. the uses of formative and summative evaluation vary with the stage of progress and that the range of acceptable suggestions narrows over time. though it may be done by either internal or external cvaluatora for a mixture. debriefing. the use of formative and summative evaluations are particularly important at varying stages. At the initial stages of development (alpha stage testing). In product development. Thus. that's formative. For rcaiions of credi. g. The distinction between formative and summativc lias been well summed up in a sentence of Bob Stake's "When the cook tastes the soup. and formative evaluation efforts can have wide ranging scope. and the range of acceptable alternative changes is more limited. funding agency. 56). Summative evaluation. and short tests. which plays a "consumer reports" role. Formative evaluation relies on technical (content) review and tutorial. At this stage. It should not be confused with outcome eval. It is an evaluation which is conducted for the in-house staff of the program and normally remains in-house. 'or future possible users. helping buyers make a wise selection of a product. . the feedback becomes more specific (beta testing). we see that in the development of a product. revision is virtually impossible. These are both examples of formative evaluation. without a wholesale revamping of the product.). Methods of collecting data are often informal. but it may be done by an internal or external evaluator or (preferably) a combination. small-group or large group tryouts. When the product finally goes to market and is evaluated by an outside agency. the purpose of the evaluation is clearly summative —i. etc. it is much more likely to involve external cvalualors than is a formative evaluation.bility. such as observations. which is simply an evaluation focused on outcomes rather than on process—it could be cither formative or summative (p. e. As the product is developed further.uation.Formative evaluation is conducted during the development or improvement of a program or product (or person. Summative evaluation often uses a comparative group study in a quasi-experimental design. wlien the guests taste the soup. that's summative" (p. Summalive evaluation is conducted after completion and/or the ben. The methods used by formative and summative evaluation differ. 130). many changes are possible.
2.Both formative and summative evaluation require considerable attention to the balance between quantitative and qualitative measures. The complementary nature of the relationships between domains is shown in Figure 2.1 is not linear. such as instructional systems design theory and message design theory. It becomes easier to understand how the domains are complementary when the research and theory areas in each domain are presented. . The relationship between the domain is synergistic.1. summarizes the major areas in the knowledge base for each domain. a practitioner working in the development domain uses theory from the design domain. Qualitative measures frequently emphasize the subjective and experiential aspects of the project and most often involve verbal descriptions as the means of reporting results. The relationship among the domains shown in Figure 2. The Relationship Between the Domains of the Field. The Domains of Instructional Technology. Figure 2. A practitioner working in the design domain uses theory about media characteristics from the development and utilization domains and theory about problem analysis and measurement from the evaluation domain. Quantitative measures will typically involve numbers and will frequently work toward the idea of "objective" measurement. For example.
edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10. AECT Definition and Terminology Committee document #MM4.edu/~molpage/Meanings%20of%20ET_4. B. Educational Technology & Society. 8 (4). N.1.101. 8 (3). An example of shared theory is theory about feedback which is used in some way by each of the domains. C. and evaluation provides feedback.4965&rep=rep1&type=pdf Seels. Feedback can be included in both an instructional strategy and a message design. B. 2004 http://www. I consider this project to be the stepping stone for my interest and skill development in the field of design. It begins with the condition that first grade students at Stevens Creek Elementary School are lacking in phonemic skills.0 June 1. specifically they do not know how to effectively identify the beginning and ending sounds in a word. http://citeseerx. 178-190. Washington. Feedback loops are used in management systems.pdf A Systems Definition of Educational Technology in Society. They should be able to identify phonemes in a word and be phonemic aware.indiana.0. 103109. Aplikasi Kawasan dan Bidang Garapan Teknologi Pendidikan tersebut dalam pemecahan masalah pembelajaran? D. R. It helped me pioneer ways to engage students in becoming aware of how letters and words are used in oral language. (1994). & Richey.nstructional Design: Creating Phonemic Awareness This instructional design applies the Kemp design model to determine if instruction is needed to solve an educational problem. Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. .1.psu. Educational Technology & Society. (2008 Bhavee Kantharia ) DAFTAR PUSTAKA Simsek. DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (2005)..that each domain contributes to the other domains and to research and theory that is shared by the domains.ist. Perceptions and Opinions of Educational Technologists Related to Educational Technology. C.
AECT. 1-14). & M. Laura Czerniewicz Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 6 Issue 3 2008 (171-178) . Educational Technology: A Definition with Commentary (pp. Distinguishing the Field of Educational Technology (Luppicini. Molenda (Eds. New York & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2005). Definition. (2008). Januszewski. In A.).
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