This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
skill at TK.Pule II Selogiri Wonogiri. The problem faced by the students¶ there are: 1) The students¶¶ not understand with the material, 2) Not confident to pronounce the words, 3) The writing. This research is a classroom action research (CAR).The writer takes the students¶ of TK. Pule II as the subject of the study. To collect the data, the writer conducts observation, document and test. The writer conducts classroom action research (CAR) in four cycles in which each cycle consists of four elements: planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The problem found in the first cycle is that the students¶ are still not active and not understand to study English. However in the second, third and fourth cycle, the students¶ who have high confidence are more successful than those who are unconfident and they focus on the material. The results of the research show that: (1) there were 10 students¶ who increase their vocabulary skill achievement and (2) there are 3 students¶ who have static achievement. The students¶ feel happy and more active in studying English. The results also shows that the pre test (65,35) and post test is (78,57) and the improvement result of the implementation is (13,22). So, it is significant. It means that the students¶ vocabulary skill improves after they are taught using outdoor activities. The conclusion is teaching vocabulary using outdoor activities can improve students¶ vocabulary skill at TK Pule II Selogiri Wonogiri. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study One aspect of English language which is studied from Elementary school is vocabulary. Vocabulary cannot be separated from other aspects of English in teaching learning process in Elementary school because it influences the
ability of student in studying English. Studying English for Indonesian students is very difficult because English is not their own language. One of the difficulties in studying English is the problem in memorizing English vocabulary. To master English vocabulary the English teacher should pay attention to many aspects. One of the important aspects in mastering English vocabulary is media. The students especially in elementary will be interested in studying vocabulary if the media used is interesting. Media are needed to make studying English vocabulary more interesting. Especially for elementary students, it is not enough just studying from a note and explanation. The students need something real and clear to help them easier to memorize vocabulary that they study. But, just few teachers care about this aspect. The teachers insufficiently notice that media are important to stimulate the students¶ enthusiasm in studying English especially vocabulary. Most of the teachers only use books and explanation without media to make a lesson more interesting.
In SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung the students have problems in learning English. Their abilities in mastering vocabulary are low. The class is very crowded and the students are not interested in studying English. Only few students give attention to their teacher¶s explanation. Most of the students are still confused when the teacher asks the last material. The teacher repeats the material many times, but the students always have difficulties to understand
and memorize their teacher¶s explanation. The main factor that causes the problem is the restrictiveness of media to teach English in SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung. The teacher only uses the standard media, like blackboard and textbook. It contrasts with the growth of students thinking in this era. Now, the students just want to study if they like and it is interesting. To make students interested in studying English, particularly vocabulary, the media used to teach should be interesting. Some students who dislike studying vocabulary also tell that they are not interested in vocabulary because it is not interesting to study. It makes them bored in the class and they do not pay attention to the explanation of the teacher. They need something better to improve the students¶ enthusiasm in studying vocabulary. Based the phenomenon above, it is clear that students need something more interesting to study English vocabulary. It would be difficult for the students at elementary school to learn and comprehend English vocabulary by only listening to the teacher¶s explanation. So, it is preferable for teachers to confirm the meanings of English words each section of the class. Therefore, using audio-visual aids such as DVDs, videos, and PowerPoint presentations were useful teaching aids for students. Based on the reason above the writer is interested in conducting a research about IMPROVING STUDENTS¶ VOCABULARY MASTERY USING AUDIO VISUAL AIDS (AN ACTION RESEARCH AT THE FIFTH YEAR OF SD NEGERI 3 SUMBERAGUNG NGARINGAN IN
especially in teaching vocabulary. the writer limits her research on improving student¶s vocabulary using audio visual aids at the fifth year of SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung in 2008/2009 academic year. describe the teaching vocabulary by using audio visual aids in improving student¶s vocabulary mastery at the fifth year of SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung 2. 1. the writer hopes that this research will be .2008/2009 ACADEMIC YEAR) B. know whether audio visual aids can improve students¶ vocabulary mastery at the fifth grade of SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung. There are two kinds of benefit in this research. Specifically it is to: 1. the aim of this study is to improve the students¶ vocabulary mastery. which the writer is going to investigate is. Benefit of the Study The writer hopes that this research will have some benefits in the English teaching learning. D. Related to this research. theoretical and practical. E. Theoretical benefit a. Problem Statement The problem. Objective of the Study Generally. Limitation of the Study In this research. Do audio visual aids improve the students¶ vocabulary mastery at the fifth year of SD Negeri 3 Sumberagung? C.
c. For the students. b. Practical benefit a. and technique of . they can utilize the information clarified as a result of the study to extend their understanding about increasing vocabulary using audio visual aids F. benefit of the study. problem statement. limitation of the study. For the teacher. by using audio visual aids they are able to improve their English vocabulary mastery. 2. and research paper organization. Chapter I is introduction which covers background of the study.useful in giving additional reference about realization to improve vocabulary mastery by using audio visual aids. b. For the readers. general concept of vocabulary (notion of vocabulary. The result of this research can be used as the reference for those who want to conduct a research about improving English vocabulary mastery. Research Paper Organization The researcher arranges five chapters in the research. the teacher can determine better teaching materials and English teachers can use the result of the research when they teach the pupils of the elementary school in effective audio visual aids to learn vocabulary. object of the study. by using audio visual aids in teaching English especially vocabulary. Chapter II is review of related literature which presents previous study.
and the function of audio visual aids). action procedures. In this research the writer faces some problem. and it arises from some specific problems or issues. subject of the research. type of audio visual aids. characteristics of young children.vocabulary comprehension). Abstract This research is conducted to describe how puppet toys is implemented in teaching vocabulary to the fourth year of SDN 1 Kedungharjo Ngawi. object of the research. Chapter III is research method that consists of type of the research. observing. such as the students have low motivation in joining teachinglearning process. Here the writer chooses puppet toys as the medium of the teaching vocabulary. implementing. each cycle consists of four steps namely planning. they are difficult to memorize the meaning and pronounce the words. This research is a classroom action research. this research consists of three cycles. documents and informants. The data are taken from the event. In addition they are not interested in studying English because they fell bored with the teacher¶s technique. theoretical framework. method of collecting data. and reflecting the action. the result of teaching vocabulary through puppet toys and the student¶s comments of teaching vocabulary through puppet toys. and working hypothesis. data and data source. Chapter V is conclusion and suggestion. To overcome this problem. Chapter IV is research results and discussion. The result of the study shows that teaching vocabulary by using puppet toys can . the design technique to test vocabulary. and technique for analyzing data. which is taken as a result of reflection on phenomena done by the writer. general concept of audio visual aids (notion of audio visual aids.
4% and 2 . implementing. observing. interview. and the result of teaching mg vocabulary using Contextual Teaching and Learning through problem solving. 52 and the mean after the action was 80. The result of the test shows that the number of students who increase their vocabulary achievement is 34 students or 94.increase the student¶s ability in mastering vocabulary. The result of the test showed that the number of students who increase their vocabulary achievement is 20 students or 86. It can be evaluated that puppet toys in language teaching are able to build the student¶s motivation. The data are taken from the observation. and it arises from some specific problems or issues. The writer find that the mean of the students vocabulary mastery before the action was 50. It means that the implementation of teaching vocabulary through puppet toys is appropriate and useful for the student¶s vocabulary mastery. By using puppet toys the students are able to express their idea. test and documents. The action research is conducted in three cycles. and reflecting the action. this research implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning through problem solving is implementation in teaching vocabulary to the fourth year students of SDN I Tegalsuruh. Specifically. Abstract This research is aimed at improving the students English vocabulary mastery using Contextual Teaching and Learning through problem solving. This research is a classroom action research. which is taken as a result of reflection on phenomena done by the writer. 95% and 3 students or 13. The result of the study shows that teaching vocabulary using CTL through problem solving can increase the students' ability in mastering vocabulary. 04% who has static achievement. Each cycle consists of four steps namely planning. 86.
The teacher uses target language in delivering the material. It means that the implementation of teaching vocabulary using CTL through problem solving is appropriate and useful to increase the student¶s vocabulary mastery. The procedure of teaching vocabulary consists of four meetings. The writer took the forth year students of SD Negeri 2 Bratan Laweyan Surakarta in 2006/2007 academic year as the subject of the study. The research was done in SD Negeri 2 Bratan Laweyan Surakarta.students or 5. To collect the data. the result. Engage is element where teacher try to arouse the student¶s interest. Activate exercises offer students a chance to try out real language used for the real world. it is known that teaching vocabulary using direct method influences the students vocabulary mastering. After collecting the data and analyzing them.72 and the mean after the action is 78. each meeting consists of three elements. thus involving their emotions. The teacher always greets the students and gives them motivation in order they attracted in learning English. It makes the students familiar with English language. namely: engage study and activate. the writer used observation. interview and document. The third is activate. and the strength as well as the weakness of direct method. Abstract This research aims at describing the procedures of teaching vocabulary by using direct method to the fourth year students at SD Negeri 2 Bratan Laweyan Surakarta. Study is element where the students are asked to focus in language (or information) and how it is constructed. The writer finds that the mean score of the students before the action is 54.26. It describes the students activities in teaching learning process. The . Repeating also makes the students know how to pronounce the word correctly.6% have static achievement. Tools used in delivering material such as pictures and real makes the students easy to memorize the vocabulary.
students feel happy and can be more active and enjoy the English and they can pronounce. The conclusion is teaching vocabulary by direct method at SD Negeri 2 Bratan Laweyan Surakarta is good and effective. DEVELOPING STUDENT¶S VOCABULARY BY USING MULTIMEDIA AND PUZZLE (AN ACTION RESEARCH IN SD MUHAMMADIYAH PROGRAM KHUSUS. spell. PRACIMANTORO. and memorize the English words. WONOGIRI) RESEARCH PAPER Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department MARIYA REGAR A 320 050 264 .
. Student will get difficulty in doing the examination and get poor score. the teacher should create various teaching media. The researcher wishes to use multimedia technology and puzzle as learning tool. It is logical if the students often find difficulties in learning the language. It can not be separated from other elements of English in teaching learning process in elementary school because vocabulary can give influence to the ability of the students in studying English. (1997: 104) state that ³multimedia give the power to the learners to explore and manipulate the information. especially in vocabulary. Multimedia can be used to teach vocabulary to the children. et al. Here we explore the multimedia technology and puzzle in teaching learning process. Teaching and learning process of English in the elementary school is one phenomenon.SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2009 Vocabulary is the first component that must be learnt by young learners in learning English. Collins. they are not interested in learning English. beside to construct their own knowledge base´. we can not communicate and express the idea easily both oral and written form. either for student or teacher. In fact student in elementary school have limited vocabulary. Without sufficient vocabulary. One of media to teach the children is using Multimedia and puzzle. Teacher is a component that has an important role.
when in fact. Many students come to our classrooms with vocabulary that is limited by their environment and experiences. not asking questions. Identify your students¶ current level of performance. If students perceive that reading is only something that is done from a textbook. 3. because you cannot build on something that is not there. how can we increase the number of words that they have at their disposal? 1. reteach the vocabulary. they do not understand the material. then reading may not be very appealing to them. Encourage students to read a wide variety of materials. using ways that do not single students out. but you see the potential problem. Check for understanding of the content frequently. You will have a very difficult time teaching students to understand what the word economy means if they do not have an understanding of the word money. If you discover that many students do not understand the words in the content. Repetition can be quite effective. As teachers. since the words that we understand influence our very thoughts and our perception of the world around us.Increasing student vocabulary is of paramount importance. You must check to see if students have a good base vocabulary to start with. This is a very simplistic example. 2. appearing to be lazy or disinterested. such as the Reading Level Indicator (RLI) that can help you determine where your students stand. Many students will simply coast along in class. There are a variety of assessments available. This is . Check for understanding.
there are a variety of games that you can play with the dictionary to increase your students¶ comfort level with this resource. regardless of if it is math. 5. In the classroom. teach them how to use the many online dictionaries and thesauruses that are out there. regardless of the content area that you teach. Teach students how words originated. students must use their new vocabulary in order for it to stick. Make vocabulary a natural part of each lesson. 7. If students have reliable access to computers. Integrate vocabulary into each lesson. Break down words. Many even have pronunciation guides that can be clicked on. Just as when someone must practice new words repeatedly when learning a new language. as many students come from homes where there are no bookcases. 6. which can often be quite interesting. without having it explicitly taught. their vocabulary will stagnate. If students do not have the opportunity and encouragement to read materials of their own choosing. only entertainment centers. 4. and discuss the vocabulary surrounding the concepts that you teach .not uncommon. art or music. . Teach students to use reference materials so that they can continue to develop their vocabulary independently. Teach the meanings of common prefixes and suffixes and do activities where students try to guess word meanings based on those word parts. Provide multiple exposures to new words.
ABSTRAK . you may want to ask them to go home and bring back pictures that relate to the vocabulary words. For example. Try looking at the National Council of English Teachers Ideas Plus series of books for some great activities that you can do with children of all ages. Help your students to develop connections between their lives and the vocabulary words. saunter. as each student has an opportunity to add his or her idea about a word to the discussion. For vocabulary to fully develop. 9. and crouch that can be physically acted out and play a guessing game. it must also be used outside of the school walls. If students are relaxed and having fun. take words such as stomp. Give assignments that give students a reason to use the vocabulary outside of class. Also look at the resources available online and at your local teacher supply store. 10. One way to do this is through whole class semantic mapping. For example. Incorporate other vocabulary games as well. the vocabulary is more likely to be remembered later. The more diverse tools you have at your disposal. Games also help you cater to different learning styles in a very easy manner. the more successful you will be at reaching every student and broadening their world through the development of a wider vocabulary. Try playing physical games to teach vocabulary.8.
M. pelaksanaan tindakan. Untuk menganalisa data kualitatif.Nining Pujiningsih. pembimbing II Dr. Ngadiso.Pd. Metodolgi penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Abdul Asib. peneliti menganalisa peningkatan penguasaan kosa kata dengan menerapkan lima tahap teknik interpretasi data . Prosedur penelitian terdiri dari: pengidentifikasian masalah. dan 5) Kembali pada teori. yaitu 1) Mengembangkan analisa dengan memperbanyak pertanyaan. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas VI. dan test. catatan harian.Pd. S 890908124: Improving Students¶ Vocabulary By Using Total Physical Response (Peneitian Tindakan Kelas pada Kelas Vi MI NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus Tahun Pelajaran 2009-2010) Surakarta: Program Pasca Sarjana Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa Total Physical Response dapat meningkatkan kosa kata Bahasa Inggris siswa yang meliputi aspek pemahaman. observasi tindakan. Pembimbing I Dr. rekaman video. Dalam pengumpulan data peneliti menggunakan catatan observasi. serta untuk mengidentifikasi kelebihan-kelebihan dari TPR dalam meningkatkan kosa kata Bahasa Inggris siswa MI NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus. M. dan refleksi hasil penelitian. 4) Menyesuaikan temuan dengan literatur. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada M NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus dalam waktu kurang lebih tujuh bulan terhitung mulai bulan Oktober 2009 sampai bulan April 2010.. Tujuan dari Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah Total Physical Response dapat meningkatkan kosa kata Bahasa Inggris siswa dan peningkatan apa yang paling signifikan. perencanaan tindakan. Universitas Sebelas Maret. aspek ejaan. 3) Meminta saran dari teman yang kritis. aspek pengucapan dan aspek . 2) Menghubungkan temuan dengan pengalaman pribadi. 2010.
Ketiga. Bagaimanapun juga ada beberapa kelemahan dalam penerapan TPR. yaitu. TPR dapat meningkatkan motivasi dan percaya diri siswa dalam mempelajari kosa kata. kepada guru untuk mengajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan TPR.penggunaan kata. Itulah mengapa aspek pengucapan dan aspek penggunaan kata tidak meningkat secara signifikan. aktifitas secara nyata dapat dimodififkasikan berdasarkan pada daya tarik siswa sepanjang hal tersebut mencakup penguasaan keempat aspek kosa kata . TPR dapat mengubah siswa menjadi pelajar yang aktif dan mereka secara otomatis belajar sambil melakukan aktifitas. peneliti menyarankan: pertama. para siswa harus terlibat secara total dalam proses belajar mengajar. Kedua. para peneliti yang lain harus menyiapkan rencana penelitian dengan baik dan mengembangkan beberapa dimensi yang telah diobservasi secara mendalam . Berdasarkan hasil penelitian. Melakukan kesalahan adalah bagian dari proses pembelajaran dan mereka tidak perlu takut karenanya. siswa masih mengalami kesulitan dalam penggunaan kata dan kadang-kadang mereka bingung untuk mencakup keempat aspek dalam waktu yang sama. Peningkatan yang paling signifikan adalah aspek pemahaman dan aspek ejaan.
The objective of the research is to know whether Total Physical Response can improve students¶ English vocabulary and the most significant improvement of it. S 890908124: Improving Students¶ Vocabulary By Using Total Physical Response (A Classroom Action Research in the Sixth Year of MI NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus in the Academic Year of 2009-2010) Surakarta: English Education Department Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University.Pd. and also to identify the advantages of TPR in improving students¶ English vocabulary in MI NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus.. M. planning the action. The subject of research was the students of the sixth grade. and the 2nd advisor is Dr. M. In collecting the data the researcher used observation notes. The method of the research is classroom action research.ABSTRACT Nining Pujiningsih. The 1st advisor is Dr. . Abdul Asib. implementing the action. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem. The research was conducted in MI NU Manafiul Ulum Kudus for about seven months from October 2009 to April 2010. and reflecting the result of the research. observing the action.Pd. 2010. Nadiso.
they are 1) extending the analysis by raising questions. and tests. Based on the research findings. there were some weaknesses of applying TPR. and using of words. the students should be totally in getting involved in the teaching learning process. 4) Contextualizing findings in the literature. 2) Connecting the findings with the personal experience. Second. the students still got difficulty in aspect of using word in sentence sand they were sometimes confused to cover the four aspects of vocabulary at the same time. the researcher analyzed the improvement of vocabulary mastery by applying the five steps of the data interpretation technique. That¶s why the improvement of the pronunciation aspect and using of words were not significant. The most significant improvement was the aspect of meaning and spelling. spelling. TPR could increase the students¶ motivation and confidence in learning vocabulary. To analyze the quantitative data. Making mistakes is part of learning process and they need not to be afraid of. Third. and 5) Turning to the theory. 3) Seeking the advice of critical friends. . to the teacher to teach English by using TPR. Somehow.diaries. video recording. The research findings show that Total Physical Response can improve the students¶ English vocabulary including the meaning. TPR could change the students to be active learners as they involved in the activity and they automatically learned by doing. pronunciation. the activities actually can be modified based on the students¶ interest as long as it covers the four aspects of vocabulary mastery. the other researchers should prepare the planning of the research well and develop some dimensions that have been observed deeply. interview. To analyze the qualitative data. the researcher suggests: first. the researcher applied descriptive analysis and t-test.
The second. The results of the study showed that the mastery of vocabulary improved after having the activities by using colored pictures. There were 32 students in the class. All of the test items were tested with the help of pictures. third and fourth cycle were the teaching and learning process and also the assessment tests.86 % in the third cycle and 80. 80. The subjects of the study were the third students of SD N Sukorejo 02 Semarang. but in my research I taught third grade of Elementary School students. In the pre test. In my research. The average achievement of the students¶ pre test was 46 %. while it was 80.1 % in the first cycle. All of the tests were in the form of oral test. It is because English is very new subject to them.84 % in the fourth cycle. I used colored pictures as the media for the teaching and learning process. and it was the post test. I carried out five activities of teaching and learning process and some tests. The English learning was regarded as the introductory to the students. I asked the students to point the objects that I said by using colored pictures. In collecting the primary data. the children learn English starting from grade four. The procedures of assessment tests were in form of oral test too. 89 % in the second cycle. Thee main factors that affected this . In the State Elementary School. the goal of this research is to know how colored pictures help the students to enrich many noun vocabularies. Hence.ABSTRACT This final project is entitled The Use of Colored Pictures to Teach Noun Vocabulary to Elementary Students: An Action Research (The Case of Third Year Students of SD Sukorejo 02 Semarang Year 2006/ 2007).
Iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I realize that many individuals have contributed their guidance and assistance to me to complete this paper. M. In this occasion. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to some people without whom this paper would never have been completed. I would like to say thanks for all lectures in English Department of UNNES who have taught me for about four years. It is because English subject is taught starting from grade four in the State Elementary School. it was found out that teaching English noun vocabulary to children by using colored pictures was helpful for the children in learning foreign language.S. the paedogical implication is that the English learning to the third grade of Elementary School students is regarded as the introductory for them. Moreover.Hum my second advisor.improvement were the students¶ interest of the pictures given and the relevancy between vocabulary with the nouns that they might be familiar with. I would like to extend my deep gratitude to Dra. M. Based on the research results. particularly English. Sri Suprapti. Pd who has spent his time to be my first advisor and whose advice and guidance has been great value to my paper. Finally. S. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Frimadhona Syafri. It was proved from the significant improvement in their pre test and post test According to the research results. First of all. Their guidance has led me to be a good person and a good . whose particular assistance deserves high appreciation.
. 7 2. 1 1.. INTRODUCTION ««««««««««««««««««««««.. ix CHAPTER I.. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ««««...3 Statement of the Problems «««««««««««««««««««.. 6 1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic «««««««««««««««««... 7 2. and here I would like to express my thanks. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ««««««««««««««««««««««««««.teacher..4 The Objective of the Study ««««««««««««««««««« 6 1.. vi LIST OF APPENDICES ««««««««««««««««««««. I am also much obliged to all of my family members and friends for their moral support and help.2 General Concept of Noun Vocabulary ««««««««««««««.. 5 1....1 Background of the Study««««««««««««««««««««.5 Significance of the Study «««««««««««««««««««..iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ««««««««««««««««««««.... v TABLE OF CONTENTS ««««««««««««««««««««..6 Scope of the Study «««««««««««««««««««««« 6 II. 1 1........ 5 1.... 9 .1 Pictures and Colored Pictures «««««««««««««««««.
1 Data Collection «««««««««««««««««««««««.. METHODS OF INVESTIGATION ««««««««««««« 19 3.3 Characteristics of Third Grade Children «««««««««««««. 17 2.6 English at Elementary Students ««««««««««««««««... 11 2. 19 ...7 The Repetition Drill Technique ««««««««««««««««.2.. 18 III. 15 2. 13 2.5 Action Research ««««««««««««««««««««««.4 Teaching Noun Vocabulary by Using Colored Pictures «««««««.
DATA ANALYSIS «««««««««««««««.4.1...4 Third Cycle...1.1. 29 4.3 Second Cycle ««««««««««««««««««««««« 23 3... 24 3.. «««««««««««««««««««««««.1 Pre Test«.2 Field Notes «««««««««««««««««««««««« 21 3..1 Description of the Results ««««««««««««««««««.. «««««««««««««««««««««««..6 The Analysis of the Whole Meetings ««««««««««««« 34 4..4...1 Pictures «««««««««««««««««««««««««..3.3 Tests ««««««««««««««««««««««««««..7 The Tables of Each Cycles ««««««««««««««««« 36 .1..4 The Steps in Action Research «««««««««««««««««..3 The Analysis of the Second Cycle ««««««««««««««. 21 3.4.....3.......3.4. 20 3..1....5 The Analysis of the Post Test «««««««««««««««.4 Audio Tape Recorder «««««««««««««««««««« 22 3.5 The Criterion of the Assessment««««««««««««««««. 27 4.1... 32 4. 21 3...3..4 The Analysis of the Third Cycle ««««««««««««««« 31 4..1.3. 23 3. 26 4..3 Instrument of the Study «««««««««««««««««««« 21 3.. 26 4.. 22 3...2 Subject of the Study «««««««««««««««««««««.. 27 4.5 Post Test ««««««««««««««««««««..2 The Analysis of the First Cycle «««««««««««««««. 24 3.1 Analysis of the Pre test ««««««««««««««««««....2 First Cycle «««««««««««««««««««««««« 23 3.. 22 3.4..6 The Steps of Repetition Drill Technique by Using Colored Pictures «« 24 IV.
... The Scores of the First Cycle..................... The Scores of the Post Test........................................................................ 47 7.... 39 REFERENCES ............................... 42 2...... The Research Letter . The Scores of the Second Cycle....... CONCLUSION ««««««««««««««««.................................... 45 5. 44 4. 57 10........................................... 58 11 The Script of the Interview....... The Sample of Media Colored Pictures. 43 3..2 Pedagogical Implication ««««««««««««««««««................. 40 APPENDICES .................................................................................................. 62 ........... The Scores of Pre Test ................... The Scores of the Third Cycle.................................V.......... 38 5.......... 38 5...................................................... 52 9...... The Name of the Subjects............. 42 viii LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1..................... 48 8..................................................................................................... The Pictures of the Research............................................ RPP ........................................................................................... 46 6..1 Conclusion «««««««««««««««««««««««..............................................
The Score of the test in the Third Cycle No Na ma Sis wa 1 Sup riya di 2 Ade Irna S 3 Ded y Bay u 4 Nug 1 roh oP 5 Suri anto 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 6 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Score per item Tot al .
W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 8 Ada m T.6 Tria na P L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9 7 Abd 1 ea D. C 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 8 9 Alw 1 an S 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 10 Ann 1 isa ND 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 11 Bun ga K 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 8 12 Dev ia Y A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 13 Erdi 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 .
na AP 14 Ind ah Sari 15 If' vad aM 16 Kaz is 17 Lar asw ati RK 18 Mit zi AL 19 Nan da AS 20 Nis hful ail 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 5 .
AH 21 Rat na K 22 Ref a Noo rIP 23 Ref ani AK 24 Refi 1 Noo rIP 25 Ris ma PL 26 Rez a P W 27 Sav ika Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 .
28 Wul 1 and ari 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 5 29 Yas sint ha A W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 30 Yul iasi hK 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 31 Nur ring tyas 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 8 32 Yus tik M Fata h 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 7 TOTAL 31 25 21 31 30 23 28 22 23 24 258 .
. They should use many methods which can interest their students in using the target language in classroom communication.INTRODUCTION Learning a language means learning its vocabularies. either in the first or the second language (Kweldju. no language acquisition is possible without understanding the vocabulary. The differences can be in the rules of the sounds system (phonology). 2004:18). the words¶ meaning (semantic). The process and the way that we go through in learning and using the target language usually take hard effort especially in learning a foreign language. and the social context (sociolinguistic). This is because a foreign language is different from a mother language. share information and ideas by using the language. the word structures (syntax). In general. We use the vocabularies in communication either in spoken form or written form. the word formation (morphology). These can cause problems in learning a foreign language. We try to send messages. However. teachers of a foreign language should always motivate their students to keep practicing using the language.
grammar. The same problem is found in writing classes that students can not write essays easily because they lack of vocabularies. µWithout grammar very little can be conveyed.¶ Thus. Sometimes in speaking classes. In order to be able to use the language productively. It just intends to bring vocabularies as one of students¶ most difficult aspect to the discussion. not only for communicating . vocabularies are the flesh of a language while grammar is the skeleton.Students often find difficulties in using a foreign language because they lack of vocabularies and they often forget easily new vocabularies after they get the meaning from dictionaries. still they find difficulties in constructing sentences. As a linguist David Wilkins (in Thornbury 2002:13) says that vocabulary learning is very important. Nor is it aim at placing vocabulary as the most influential factor in foreign language mastery. This article is not aim at neglecting the students¶ problems in sounds system. Even though they have already learned the strategies or techniques in writing essays. This writing concern with the ways teachers can use to help their students to improve the vocabularies since vocabularies are very crucial in learning a foreign language. students can not speak fluently because they lack of vocabularies. Students will improve much if they learn more words and expressions. They say only a few sentences because they can not find the appropriate vocabularies to be used in expressing their ideas. This writing is hopefully can give suggestions to improve or enlarge students¶ vocabularies toward English as a foreign language. students must know certain amount of vocabularies. and so on. They find difficulties in choosing and using the appropriate vocabularies. THE IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY LEARNING Vocabulary learning is the important aspect in learning a foreign language. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.
It is in line with the concept of communicative approach in which learners have a big chance to use the language directly in classroom activities. when producing the language. These are words that he uses most often in communication either in classroom activities or outside classroom.orally. This approach is useful in improving students¶ vocabularies. How many words a student must know is varied. he also should know the academic or sub technical words which are not in general service vocabulary but occur frequently over a range of academic texts. The vocabularies that should a student know first are the high frequency words. . Learning the vocabulary of a foreign language presents the learner with firstly making the correct connections when understanding the language between the form and the meaning of words including discriminating the meanings of closely related words. but also written. while S2 students¶ vocabulary size 2671 words and S3 students¶ was 3211 words. Next. Through the approach students are forced to use the language directly in either spoken or written communication. The questions relate with vocabularies acquisition are what kinds of words one needs to know and how many words he must know. The high frequency words are called the general service vocabulary. Secondly. Kweldju (1997) found that the average vocabulary sizes of students from fifteen English Departments ranged from 2041 to 3352 word families. A study conducted to 1776 students in 21 state graduate schools in Indonesia showed that the graduate students¶ vocabulary size averaged 2861 words. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended.
conjunctions.al (1995:7) stated that the term word is a unit of linguistic analysis which has these characteristics: (1) isolability. means that words can be pronounced in isolation from other words. pronouns. verbs. etc. Content words are those that carry high information load such as nouns. The membership is unrestricted and still allow for the addition of new members. Longman dictionary of American English stated that word is written representation of one or more sounds which can be spoken to represent an idea. conjunctions. prepositions. Thornbury (2002:3) mentioned that there are two crude division of word that is content words (lexical words) and function words (grammatical words). Class of Word The classes of word can be divided into eight different classes such as nouns. determiners. and (3) phonological independence which means that words are correspond to the minimal units of phonological analysis. adjectives.A student of a foreign language must know about the words and word formation in order to be able to understand the form and meaning of words as well as to be able to use the correct form of word. word classes. The next discussion is about the definition of word. Crowley et. Formation of Word . and word formation. The membership is restricted and definite. Definition of Word There are some definitions of the term word. verbs. adverbs. object. (2) mobility. Meanwhile function words are words that mainly contribute to the grammatical sentence such as prepositions. and pronouns. adjectives. and adverbs. means that words are item which can be moved around within a sentence to form new sentences. and determiners.
(9) false etymology. 1. Blending: It is the process that combines parts of two words. or mailman. For instance. Below is the definition of each process. dis-. usually the initial part of a word and the last part of another word. unbelievable. and (10) proper names. . Acronyms: It is the process that forms new words by uniting the initial sounds or letters of words then pronounceable as a new separate word. 2. 1988). -ed. and re-. Some common suffixes are ±ation. in-. (7) coinage. -ity. (Fromkin. from the word believe (verb) can be derived into some adjectives by adding prefix and suffix like follow: believable. (6) clipping. For example the word laser from light amplification through the stimulated emission of radiation or UN from United Nation. landlord. -ly. -able. (4) back formation. In English. 5.There are many ways of words formation. -ing. -al. These develop and enrich vocabularies of a language. -er. (5) blending. un-. post-. -ful. -ness. (2) compounding. pre-. and ±y. Compounding: It is the process that forms new words by putting together two or more existing words. (8) functional shift. For instance by combining noun and noun like girlfriend. 4. For example the word brunch is the blending from breakfast and lunch. Some common prefixes are anti-. (3) acronyms. For instance the word revise is derived from the word revision. Back Formation: It is the process that uses analogy in a rather backwards manner to derive new words. the common word formation processes are (1) derivation. Derivation: It is the process that derives new words by using prefixes and suffixes. 3.
6. Clipping: It is the process that derives new words by shortening the words so it is easy to be pronounced without paying attention to the derivational morphology of the word. For instance the word dorm from the word dormitory and the word lab from laboratory. 7. Coinage: It is the process that derives new words by using no morphological methods but just take the brand of some products to name the things refer. For example the word aqua to name all bottled mineral water and the word Kodak to name any kind of camera. 8. Functional Shift: It is the process that derives new words by moving the part of speech of a word and no changing of its form. For instance the word run can be used as noun and also as verb. 9. Morphological Misanalysis: It is the process that derives new words by introducing new words taken from similar words. This can be because of actual misunderstanding, or intentional (creative) extension of morphemes. For instance the word workaholic derives from alcoholic. 10. Proper Names: It is the process that derives new words from names of persons connected with them. For example the word watt from James Watt the name of the person who invented electricity. These processes of words formation can be introduced to students in order to give them the rule of deriving new words which they can apply and to improve their vocabularies. The knowledge of words and words formation processes is beneficial to help the students in learning vocabularies. First, they can learn the principles in forming words. Then, the knowledge leads them to be productive and creative that is by applying the principles in order to µcreate¶ words. As the result, they may improve their vocabularies.
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE STUDENTS¶ VOCABULARY This part proposes some activities that teachers can use to vary their techniques of teaching vocabulary. These activities should be chosen by determining the students¶ level, the teaching objectives, and the time allocation. 1. Introduce words in lexical sets to make good sense. The meanings of the words can be made clearer by contrasting them with closely related words in the same set. For example if the topic of your lesson is about The Airport, the following lexical set may be useful: airplane passport boarding Pass luggage take-off check-in transit landings
Teacher can ask the students to make or to complete the set related with the topic Allow them to use their dictionaries. 2. Take the form of derivation or affixation in your reading or speaking classes as the activity of vocabularies development, for instance the adjective formation below. Adjectives formed with ±ed describe our reaction to someone or something. For example terrify + -ed becomes terrified. Example: I was terrified when I saw the movie.
Adjectives formed with ±ing describe the person or the thing that causes the reaction. Example: The movie was terrifying. The other adjectives formations are: Amuse ± amused ± amusing Annoy ± annoyed ± annoying Bore ± Bored ± Boring Tire ± Tired ± Tiring Interest ± Interested ± Interesting Teachers can ask the students to use these adjectives in vocabulary exercises for instance by filling the gaps in sentences. 3. Encourage students to bring to class jokes, magazines, and newspapers in English that they like reading. They will find many examples of word formation that they may do not know the meanings. Below is the example from Reader¶s Digest (1993:53):
Happy New Year!
³We jingle the bells in December and juggle the bills in January.´
Yet. Ask the students to make a list with associated meanings with twilight. twain. Then. They will learn a lot of new words and memorize them easily since they are all associated. twine.From the example. twin. In English as a Foreign Language classroom. jive. ask your students to find words with j. jiggle. the suffix ±gle expresses the idea of movement.(or phoneme [dz] that express the idea of movement. . jump 4. not only in a native language but also in a foreign language. The author makes use of the similar form and meaning in jingle and juggle for a comic purpose. jostle. journey. jitney. jitterbug. The complexity of vocabularies may cause the problem in the mastery. By using their dictionaries they will find these words in the same list of movement: jerk. twenty. jet. µtween (from between). Teachers work hard to improve the vocabulary of their students by using many methods and activities. joggle. tweezers. twice. jolt. jitters. the most difficult aspects are the retention of vocabulary. jog. twelve. CONCLUSION Vocabularies are very important when we learn a language. Ask students to write another list of words with meanings associated with the word for example twilight as can be seen in the example below taken from a newspaper advertisement (Kompas. twist. Students will come across words like two. 2007): Twilight Orchestra Arrangement by Adie M.S. this effort sometimes does not give good result because of the complexity of vocabulary learning in a foreign language.
the students¶ level of acquisition. REFERENCES: Crowley. New York: Holt. 2001. Invest Your Time in Learning English Today For Building Better Indonesia. This article only proposes a small part of the ways. . Pearson Education Limited.5. LONGMAN. Hlm. an Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. 1995. and Robert Rodman. 2004. Learner¶s Dictionary of American English.There are many ways to improve vocabularies recognition. Fromkin. they will be able to learn many things including vocabularies improvement. Siegel. Julie. Inc. Terry. and Piau. The most important thing is that the teacher should always motivate their students to develop good reading habits as one basic way to enrich their vocabularies. Teachers of EFL can develop many other ways to enrich the students¶ vocabulary. Siusana. University of Malang. Jeff. Victoria. Rinehart and Winston. and the time allocation. New Zealand. Teachers should use the appropriate method in the classroom by considering the objectives of teaching. 10 Januari 2007. Longman Paul Limited. KOMPAS. John. England. An introduction to Language. Kweldju. Lynch. The Design of Language. Once they develop this habit. 1988.
Carmem. 1996. So. For example. Blends: Developing Creative Vocabulary Building Activities.Reader¶s Digest. Pp 53 Teresa. October 1993. Pp58-59 Thornburry. but we don¶t do a decision. How to Teach Vocabulary. Posted in Jumariati's article. or that heavy and rain are collocates of each other. Scott. heavy rain and make a decision are often referred to as collocations and we say that heavy collocates with rain. With collocation software we can search for all the collocates of a . English Teaching Forum. or we say that we make or come to a decision. 4 Comments » 4 Responses to ³Improving the Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students´ Collocation The term collocation generally refers to the way in which two or more words are typically used together. we talk about heavy rain but not heavy sun. England Pearson Education Limited.
homework. difference. which is difficult and. effort DO: anything. make a huge mistake). This is particularly useful for finding the collocates of verbs like have. reservations. almost impossible. that is. things. decision. copies. Figure 1 shows some of the most frequent collocates of the words make and do. whatever. decisions. stuff. mistake. aerobics. but take their meaning from the words that they collocate or are used with. sense. laundry Figure 1: Collocates of the words make and do. work.particular word. nothing. These are verbs which don¶t have a (lexical) meaning of their own. something. which are often referred to as delexical verbs. in many cases. as collocations. judgments. make. and make fun of. Teaching Vocabulary . so it is sensible to teach verbs like these in expressions. and do. They include words that come immediately after the word (make sure) and words that come two or more words after it (make a difference. MAKE: sure. money. well. For example. mistakes. get. all the words that are used most frequently with that word and especially those with a higher than anticipated frequency. instead of trying to identify and distinguish basic meanings. gardening. the verb make has a different meaning in each of the expressions make a cake. job. make a decision.
things). lower-frequency vocabulary. I hereby declare that this thesis is my own original work. On the other hand. But even at the elementary level we can introduce the idea of words and expressions that are ³used together´ even if we do not use terms like collocation or collocates. laundry) and more advanced abstract or vague vocabulary (anything. At higher levels collocations can be taught and practiced overtly and students can be encouraged to write down collocations as well as single words. elementary items (homework. it collocates most strongly with a higherlevel. All the literature I used is properly quoted and is listed in Bibliography. which I have created myself. the collocates of do are a mixture of very concrete. In .Notice that although make is a frequent word. something. GO PLAY READ Figure 2: Example of an elementary level collocation exercise. Lists like these help us make choices about what to teach at different levels. and we can encourage students to keep notes of these in their vocabulary notebooks (see Figure 2). Think of words and expressions that go with these verbs.
whose significant help was very valuable to me.MASARYK UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE Using pictures in teaching vocabulary Bachelor¶s thesis Written by: Kate ina Joklová Supervisor: Mgr. teaching. visuals. language 3 I hereby declare that this thesis is my own original work. learner. aid. Ivana Hrozková. pictures. Mgr. which I have created myself. learning. In Brno««««««« ««««««««««« (signature) 4 At this point I would like to express my thanks to the leader of this thesis. All the literature I used is properly quoted and is listed in Bibliography. Ivana Hrozková Brno 2009 2 Key words: vocabulary. word. teacher. 5 CONTENTS Introduction .
.....................................39 2.........................................................................I.................................. Vocabulary ..............................2........................................................................ 26 1.........................11 2......................27 2.........................................................45 Practical part summary ± insights ........................ Theoretical Part...............................................1.9 2.................................................................................... How to make vocabulary teaching and learning effective ..............................1.....................................................................2 Techniques in vocabulary teaching...................................................... Big picture flashcards........................................................ Compiled pictures ..................................................11 2............................................................................. Activities .........................7 1.......Emotions.....3....4..................................47 Conclusion Resume Bibliography Appendices 6 ............................................................ Pictures in vocabulary teaching ................................33 2.........43 2....17 II..........1...............................7 1.......15 3.1... What knowing a word includes............................................................................... Pictures in foreign language teaching ...... Lesson plan .............. Vocabulary teaching... Practical Part.................. Charts with vocabulary webs ...............................5..............................41 2..........2 Small picture flash cards .................................................................................33 2.................................. 7 1................... What vocabulary to teach....................................................13 3....... Drawing............................................................................................
meaning. Five categories of pictures. such as flash cards or wall posters are looked into here. And active communication in English is what counts in today¶s globalized world. The theoretical one comprises three chapters. As is the custom. vocabulary teaching is today a hot topic for many teachers. It also strives to advise the teacher on what criteria he or she should consider in choosing the areas of vocabulary to be taught. As I will strive to demonstrate in this thesis. pictures represent an indispensable tool for vocabulary teaching. My goal is to show how pictures can be employed in lessons as well as to reach conclusions on why they work and in what way exactly they help retaining the memorized words. especially (but not by far only) when teaching children. The second chapter deals with various techniques of vocabulary teaching in general and includes hints on how to optimise the learning process. grammar or formation of the word and so on. The third chapter is specifically aimed at using pictures (and marginally other visual aids) in ELT classes. The first one introduces and specifies the phenomenon of vocabulary and goes on to examine some crucial terms connected with it: the form. the thesis is divided into a theoretical and practical part.INTRODUCTION My bachelor¶s thesis deals with a contemporary issue of importance ± that of teaching vocabulary using pictures. Perhaps a little neglected in the past. they have realized that without the cornerstone of a well functioning mental lexicon. no student can possibly engage in meaningful active communication. In the form of several activities and one lesson plan. it offers practical examples of pictures utilization . The practical part is in numerous ways linked to the theoretical part.
Each type of pictures listed in Chapter 3 of the theoretical part is put to use here. Speaking would be meaningless and perhaps impossible having only structure without vocabulary. followed by an evaluation and analysis of the lesson or activity. we should bear in mind.in the class. It is in these analyses. that one item of vocabulary can consist of more than one word. µpost-office¶ consists of two words and still expresses one idea. as Ur (2000: 60) remarked. which carries meaning. E. The main reason is the fact that it is a medium.´ (Harmer 1993: 153) Vocabulary functions as a cornerstone without which any language could not exist. The word ³vocabulary´ generally represents a summary of words or their combinations in a particular language. supported by theories specified in the theoretical part. I believe. There has been increased focus on teaching vocabulary recently. Vocabulary ³If language structures make up the skeleton of language. THEORETICAL PART 1. 7 I. the lesson plan and activities can be put to immediate use in the classroom with their help. where the answers to the questions raised in the beginning of this introduction can be found. then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. I would also like to turn the reader¶s attention to the appendices in the back of the thesis. which are much . However.g. partly as a result of ³the development of new approaches to language teaching. Vocabulary teaching is one of the most important components of any language class. learning to understand and express the meaning is what counts in learning languages. Although it was not exactly my goal.
g.´ (Thornbury 2004: vi) 1. 8 Learners should know how to change a word form and when to use it (gerund. Learners need to know e. which arise when the word is heard) should be taught. teaching vocabulary is more of a complex matter: Ur (2000: 60-62) and Harmer (1993: 156-157) agree in listing the fundamental features. Many vocabulary items have several meanings depending on context. which need to be included within vocabulary teaching: Besides knowing the form of the word. That means he or she needs to know which words can be used in connection with each . learners also need to be familiar with its grammar. It is called denotation. antonyms. What knowing a word includes What does teaching vocabulary actually involve? Is it enough for the learner to know the form of the word and one or more of its meanings? In fact. Teaching the meaning includes mainly connecting a word with its equivalent in the real world. hyponyms etc. ³word meaning is frequently stretched through the use of metaphor and idiom´. Another aspect in teaching vocabulary is the word formation. Another challenge the learner will face when learning a new item is collocation.1. To make it even worse.more µword-centred¶. (Harmer 1993: 157) Furthermore. Apart from denotation. the past form«). the position of adjectives etc. There are various relationships such as synonyms. learners need to be provided with the word sense relations to other words. irregular forms of verbs or plural nouns. connotation of the word (associations and feelings.
Harmer 1993: 156-157) To sum this up. when learning the word ³picture´. what words are actually useful? To be able to answer this question. it might be helpful to look into several aspects. Furthermore.speaking or writing. the learner must be familiar with the word connotation. 9 1. In order to be able to understand properly and to use a new item of vocabulary in a given language correctly. The teacher¶s choice of vocabulary is influenced into some extent by the course book and supplementary materials they use.2. it is not enough to learn just the form of a new vocabulary item and its denotation.g. grammar and formation as well as its collocation and the right way and appropriateness of use. On top of that.2. However even here. E. not make a picture. . the student needs to acquire the ability to recognize when it is appropriate to use a particular word .other and how. the teacher should take into consideration mainly usefulness of the words. the learner should be informed that one can take a picture. (Ur 2000: 60-62. What vocabulary to teach Every language teacher must make a difficult choice on what and how much vocabulary to teach. they must consider what vocabulary items to teach first (during early stages of the course) and what vocabulary to leave for later on.1.´ (Gairns and Redman 1992: 54) 1. Yet. informal conversation with a friend or formal polite conversation. ³teacher decides on emphasis given to individual items. Usefulness When making a decision about what vocabulary to teach preferentially.
In general. McCarthy (1992: 84) also speculates on the range of an item. As Harmer (1993: 154) stated. There are a lot of reasons why words might be easy or difficult to learn. It is generally advisable to avoid the vocabulary with a restricted range. E. (McCarthy 1992: 82) Another aspect to consider is coverage.´ (Harmer 1993: 154) However. ³learnability´ is another factor influencing the order in which chosen vocabulary will be taught. Of them all. most frequent words do not usually convey much information.g. the word µbook¶ will be taught before words µnotebook or exercise book¶. ³When such words are learnt. let us mention that complicated spelling. the more useful it is likely to be. people and things surrounding them. (Allen 1983: 108) One of the criteria affecting the teacher¶s choice is the frequency in which the particular item is used in common language. the new language can immediately be put to use´. Allen (1983) pointed out that it is useful to provide the learner with words for µclassroom language¶ just at the early stages of the course. Learnability Besides usefulness.2. since the wider range an item has. She continues that it is important for the teacher to predict what words the student needs to know for talking about everyday life. ³The words which are most commonly used are the ones we should teach first. the teacher should consider the learner¶s needs. the words covering more things are likely to be taught before words with only one specific meaning. learners need considerable amount of words bearing some meaning.In the first place. 10 1. being so-called µempty¶ words (i. .e. grammar words) and to be able to communicate.2.
according to their features such as meaning. Generally. Gairns and Redman 1992) One of the important roles of the language teacher is to help their students find the easiest way of conveying new information into the already existing system of the mental lexicon. a word being retrieved is looked up through several pathways at once. unlike e. which is extremely economical in terms of time needed. (Thornbury 2004: 93) Moreover.pronunciation or meaning might be a reason for a word to be difficult to remember. 2004) To be able to teach as effectively as possible. which is a system based mainly on rules. In this . collocation. How to make vocabulary teaching and learning effective Vocabulary is generally a matter of remembering. cultural background etc. (McCarthy 1992: 86) 11 2. which suggests principles supporting the process of permanent or long ± term remembering. words are stored. it is important to know. Thornbury (2004: 24-26) summarized a research into memory. concrete things are more learnable then abstract ones. the so-called µmental lexicon¶. form. Several authors agree that vocabulary is stored in the mind in a highly organized and complex web-like system. students need to acquire the ability to store the information for as long as possible. Vocabulary teaching 2.g.1. how words are remembered and stored in students¶ minds and how long term memory is organized. McCarthy 1992. learning grammar. In the mental lexicon. syntactic properties. Consequently. (Thornbury 2004. therefore they are always taught first. categorized and interconnected in many ways. (Thornbury.
Moreover.g. Thornbury (2004: 25) advises to visualize a picture for a new word or to link an abstract word with some mental image. emotional value of words should be considered as well.1. personalizing in vocabulary practice has proved to be beneficial for remembering along with spacing. ³A very high degree of attention (called arousal) seems to correlate with improved recall. learners should make decisions about words. the end of the lesson.g. as his conclusions correspond with my own experiences ± see for example the evaluation and analysis in chapter 2. such as making clues from associations with similarly sounding word and its meaning in the mother tongue. Images drawn by students themselves have the best outcomes.summary he listed several techniques to follow to make vocabulary teaching as effective as possible: Firstly repetition. Furthermore. Finally. which is closely linked with attention. which means that presentation of new vocabulary is divided into more widely separated sequences followed by repeated revision later on 12 with gradually extending periods between them. match rhyming words or use new items to complete sentences. While practicing. I must definitely agree with Thornbury on this matter. next week and so on.1 of the practical part. 2004: 25) Connected to this. next lesson. Besides imaging.´(Thornbury. (Thornbury 2004: 24) Another helpful element is motivation. he stresses the importance of retrieval and use of the new words. in reading. yet what he means is ³repetition of encounters with a word´ (Thornbury 2004: 24) e. e.g. E. . there are other mnemonics.
(Gairns and Redman 1992: 96) For more information about the word diagrams see chapter 3. Students are exposed to a lot of new vocabulary during lessons: by the teacher. ± Pictures in ELT.Again. He or she can call on various methods to aid him or her in accomplishing this task.Semantic maps. engaging in meaningful activities and providing many channels for learning and practicing.4 . Thornsbury¶s claim that students¶ own images have the best influence on remembering is in accordance with my own conclusion (see the evaluation and analysis in chapter 2. see Chapter 3. For more information on how this can be done. by texts or other materials they work . they as well as Thornbury reason the positive impact of personalization. They also suggest a good organization of written storage of vocabulary to support retention.1.3 of the practical part) When examining this matter. To sum it up. they mention using µword diagrams¶. 13 2. keeping and retrieving words when needed. imaging and retrieval mentioned above. mainly arousing motivation and attention. the teacher should help students build up and use a mental lexicon in such a way that they will be capable of storing. Pictures represent a convenient tool to be employed in nearly all of these methods. Among other possibilities. Furthermore.2 Techniques in vocabulary teaching Learners acquire vocabulary in various ways. Gairns and Redman (1992) stressed the importance of meaningful activities in the classroom. They pointed out that meaningful tasks need to be analyzed in greater detail and therefore information is more likely to be retained in long-term memory. which they claim might be very useful for ³storage of lexis´.
which is usually put into sets of somehow related words. In the latter. often by topic or meaning. it is necessary to mention techniques typical for µDirect Method¶ as Thornbury 2004) specifies them ³using real objects (called realia) or pictures or mime. (Harmer 1993: 159) Beside this incidental acquisition there are ³pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught pre-selected vocabulary items´ (Thornbury 2004: 75). As McCarty (1992) suggests. These types of . followed up with illustration of the meaning. before presenting new language. pre-teaching activities might be beneficial ³to activate existing knowledge to make the encounter with new words more meaningful. A lot of this vocabulary is automatically absorbed.´(McCarthy 1992: 108) Pre-teaching activities often arouse students¶ attention and desire to explore a particular topic or subject in greater detail. (Harmer 1993: 160) There are many possibilities how to explain or illustrate the meaning of the words. Various techniques and activities are aimed directly at learning vocabulary. forms are often presented in text or another form of context and students are encouraged to discover meanings and other properties of words themselves. This type of activity is called the discovery technique. The teacher provides the learners with the meaning of the words and then progresses to introduction of their forms or vice versa ± the form is introduced first. where many concrete objects are taught. Both McCarthy (1992: 110) and Thornbury (2004: 76) suggest two general possibilities of arranging vocabulary presentation.´ (Thornbury 2004: 78) The same author continues that these means are especially appropriate for teaching elementary levels. In the first place.with.
which is a technique where the teacher gives commands and students perform the actions. In TPR. . since the sound of words is one of the aspects influencing the organisation of the mental lexicon. Thornbury (2004) listed these options as well and furthermore included an idea of clarifying the meaning by examples. 1992: 110) This is arranged by various drilling activities. songs and chants are very suitable for drills. As Thornbury (2004: 86-7) suggests. level and vocabulary. an example of Direct Method can be found in chapter 1 of the Practical Part. Besides explaining the meaning in vocabulary presentation. introducing the written form of the word should follow not long after the presentation of the pronunciation. As Harmer (1993: 161-162) suggests. definition and direct translation of words might function as yet another helpful tool for clarifying the meaning. McCarthy. such as ³providing an example situation´ or ³giving several example sentences´ (Thornbury 2004: 81) All these techniques are more or less useful for a particular situation. ³the intention is to replicate the experience of learning one¶s mother tongue´ (Thornbury 2004: 79) Techniques for using pictures are furthermore explored 14 in chapter 3. the best way would be in many cases to combine them and use several together. sense relations. it is also important to focus on forms. (Thornbury 2004: 84. catchy rhymes and an element of fun.presentation are usually supplemented with the use of TPR (Total physical response). providing rhythm. From experience.
After presentation, learners should be provided with plenty opportunities to practice the newly gained language in accordance with the principles listed in chapter 2.1 of the theoretical part, since it is crucial for successful remembering. This is done by various forms of practice activities. In the first stage, usually mechanical practice is applied ³in the form of some of kind of oral repetition´. (Thornbury 2004: 93) Furthermore as Thornbury (2003: 93) claims, it is necessary to integrate new vocabulary into existing knowledge in the mental lexicon, which is done by types of activities, where students make judgements about words, e.g. matching, comparing etc. This mechanical practice is then followed by more open and communicative activities ³where learners are required to incorporate the newly studied words into some kind of speaking or writing activity.´ (Thornbury 2004: 100). This is often provided by various pair-work or group-work activities. 15 3. Pictures in foreign language teaching As Hill (1990) pointed out, ³the standard classroom´ is usually not a very suitable environment for learning languages. That is why teachers search for various aids and stimuli to improve this situation. Pictures are one of these valuable aids. They bring ³images of reality into the unnatural world of the language classroom.´ (Hill 1990: 1) Pictures bring not only images of reality, but can also function as a fun element in the class. Sometimes it is surprising, how pictures may change a lesson, even if only employed in additional exercises or just to create the atmosphere. Pictures meet with a wide range of use not only in acquiring vocabulary, but also in many other aspects of foreign language teaching. Wright (1990: 4-6) demonstrated
this fact on an example, where he used one compiled picture and illustrated the possibility of use in five very different language areas. His example shows employing pictures in teaching structure, vocabulary, functions, situations and all four skills. Furthermore he pointed out that ³potential of pictures is so great that only a taste of their full potential can be given´ in his book. (Wright 1990: 6) To be more specific, beside lessons where pictures are in the main focus, they might be used just as a ³stimulus for writing and discussion, as an illustration of something being read or talked about, as background to a topic and so on´ (Hill 1990: 2) However, ³pictures have their limitations too´. (McCarthy 1992: 115) For example in teaching vocabulary, pictures are not suitable or sufficient for demonstrating the meaning of all words. (McCarthy 1992: 115; Thornbury 2004: 81) It is hard to illustrate the meaning of some words, especially the abstract ones such as µopinion¶ or µimpact¶. Therefore, in some cases, other tools are used to demonstrate the meaning (see chapter 2.2 of the Theoretical Part), or alternatively pictures might be supplemented by other tools. There are many reasons for using pictures in language teaching. As Wright (1990: 2) pointed out, they are motivating and draw learners¶ attention. This fact will be repeatedly demonstrated in the Practical Part of this thesis. Furthermore, Wright (1990: 2) refers to the fact that they provide a sense of the context of the language and give a specific reference point or stimulus. Pictures, being suitable for any group of learners independently on age or level, can be used in lots of various ways. As Hill (1992: 2) stated, ³What is done is limited 16
only by the preparation time available, the visuals to hand and the imagination of the individual teacher.´ Hill (1990: 1) listed several advantages of pictures, such as availability (one can get them in any magazines, on the internet, etc.); they are cheap, often free; they are personal (teacher selects them); flexibility - easily kept, useful for various types of activities (drilling, comparing, etc.), they are ³always fresh and different´, which means they come in a variety of formats and styles and moreover the learner often wonders what comes next. (Hill 1990: 1) From my experience, learners always pay attention and are curious about what are they going to do with the pictures shown. However, there is always a downside: it can be quite time consuming to find the right pictures for a specific type of activity for a beginning teacher who lacks his or her own collection. Still on the whole, this drawback is greatly outweighed by the above-mentioned pros. Furthermore, when the collection of pictures is once made, it can serve for a long time. Another matter is the question of how to use pictures effectively. It counts as general methodological knowledge that in learning languages, students should perceive the input through as many channels as possible. Therefore it is important to include variety of stimuli in teaching. It is important to find a balance and not to use pictures or visuals only but to combine them with other techniques and different types of stimuli (movement, verbal stimuli, sound, etc). Moreover, pictures used for demonstration of the meaning should be repeatedly connected with the spoken and subsequently also written form of the word or chunk of language. 17
At the same time flashcards (as well as other forms of pictures and visual aids in general) enable students to link the meaning of the words .³Small (5x5 cm): useful for games and other group-work activities´ (Hill 1990: 5) This classification applies to picture flashcards as well.1. since they draw learners¶ attention and make these often boring activities more enjoyable.1.³Large (20x30 cm): useful for whole-class work´ . typically used by the teacher for whole-class activities such as presenting new language. controlled practice or as prompts for speaking activities. And that is exactly what teachers need when presenting new language ± to catch their learners¶ full attention. Picture flashcards David A Hill (1990) classified pictures according to their size into three µkey¶ categories: . 18 Big picture flashcards Big picture flashcards are very helpful tools in presenting and drilling forms of new words. usually used by students for working individually or for games and activities in pairs or groups. The second group then covers ³small picture flash cards´ (smaller then about 15x20cm). The first group covers ³Big flash cards´ (about 15x20cm or larger). to raise their interest in the presented subject and hence also their motivation. Pictures in vocabulary teaching 3.1.³Medium (10x15 cm): useful for group-work´ . I have simplified Hill¶s classification and divided them into two groups only.3.
such as µhill¶ and µmountain¶. When using flashcards in presentation.1. see chapter 1 and chapter 2. the teacher could show three pictures of people horrified by different things. Contrasting meanings could be another possibility: The teacher works with two antonymous pictures. (For an example of how flashcards can be used in presentation. As for the first case. or similarly. Displaying several different pictures with one identical feature should suffice for this purpose. it is advisable to reveal pictures in an interesting way. compares two pictures with things very alike in their meaning. yet. To draw students¶ attention. Wright and Haleem .with real-world images immediately. employing several pictures might be in some cases preferable if not necessary to make sure that students get the correct idea about what aspect of the picture the teacher had in mind. of the practical part) Wright (1990) and Wright and Haleem (1996) listed several possibilities how to illustrate the meaning of a new word or a piece of language through pictures.g. to teach the phrase µto be horrified¶.1. in the second case. The presentation of vocabulary with flashcards can be done in lots of various ways. it is easy to involve learners actively and to combine the presentation with controlled practice. A single picture might often serve this purpose well enough. Yet another possibility is to employ the sense of a collective idea or to present the word as a part of a larger thing. the word µleaf¶ can be put into context as a part of µa tree¶ (Wright 1990: 139-144. Wright and Haleem 1996: 51-52) Big flashcards are suitable for vocabulary practice and testing. E. for example in telling a story or just simply based on a set of vocabulary for a particular topic. the verb µto work¶ can be accompanied by pictures of different people working in various jobs.
the picture is used in a more meaningful and µreal-lifecommunicative¶ way than being just displayed for students to say what they can actually see. where the teacher just flashes the cards quickly and students guess or 19 describe what they saw. Small picture flashcards . expecting the answer µIt¶s a pen¶ is uncommunicative.(1996) presented several activities that might be modified for this purpose. which definitely should not be neglected as it often is. e. they will find their use in teaching vocabulary too. However. being used in a similar way as picture flashcards. 1990. such as µFlashing picture¶. Hill (1990) illustrated this idea on the example: ³In the same way that the idea of holding up a pen and asking µWhat¶s this?¶. even though they are not actually pictures. offering valuable help mainly in teaching the spelling of newly learnt words. Nevertheless. On top of that. As another example might serve µThe slow picture reveal¶. those two can be indeed combined and applied together. in a matching or labelling activity. they can often enrich the lesson.17) Word flashcards Word flashcards are perhaps worth mentioning at this point. it is uncommunicative to hold up a picture of a pen and ask µWhat¶s this?¶ expecting the same answer. p. word flashcards are most typically used in teaching reading and writing. This will probably have a greater impact on the retention of a piece of vocabulary again and also subsequently on the ability to use it in communication. As Wright (1990: 59) pointed out.g.´ (Hill. (Wright and Haleem 1996: 56-57) In this sense.
e. These cards can also be used for games based on asking each other questions and exchanging them while searching 20 for a set. Wright (1990) stated that drawings ³provide an immediately available source of pictorial .A plenty of variations of these cards are typically applied in communicative activities in pairs or small groups of students. In a closer look. looking at a picture and guessing the meaning written on the other side.g. they might be helpful in individual practice of vocabulary. Drawing Drawing finds huge potential in teaching languages. Although some teachers may not be exactly proficient in drawing.2. e. of the practical part) On top of that. we will find one-side-only cards.2. (See chapter 2. Being flexible in their way of use. by their meaning.g. Moreover.1.2. thus finding a meaningful role in reviewing and practicing vocabulary. both-sided ones and sets of pairs (antonyms or synonyms. Both Hill (1990) and Wright (1990) considered activities with this type of visual material very useful and presented plenty of them in their books. I must agree with Wright (1990: 203) that in the first place. they are fit for a range of sorting or ordering activities. simple drawings can possibly substitute other forms of pictures.g. a picture and the corresponding word or phrase) or sets of cards connected e. these cards offer teachers and their students a large amount of possibilities in applying them in a number of activities and games such as µdomino¶ or various forms of word matching activities. creating a story. they are eventually bound to find a way of drawing simple pictures for classroom use. 3.
E.´ (Wright 1990: 203) The element of individuality might have a significant impact on remembering. exercises. (Wright and Haleem 1996: 6) 21 In this sense. Drawing on the board It is highly flexible during presentation and therefore bears several advantages. the teacher draws only a piece of a picture on the board and invites students to guess what he or she is drawing. This is true for teaching structures as well as vocabulary.material for the activities.´ (Wright and Haleem 1996: 5) This feature widens the teacher¶s options how to present or review language in a meaningful way. which lies in their immediacy and their individuality. The activity of drawing within the classroom could be perhaps divided into two categories: Drawing on the board carried out by the teacher for example to illustrate the meaning of new language in presentation and drawing as an activity of students in various. they desire to know what the answer actually is and it makes them speculate and reason their opinions and so on. . added to or substituted quickly. the expression of students when creating the pictures themselves.g. whether it is a unique expression of the teacher or even better. Students and teachers drawings also have a special quality.1. ³can be erased. as Wright and Haleem (1996) listed among their board characteristics: ³Texts and pictures can grow in front of the class´«. This makes students curious. in reviewing. usually listening or reading. the picture is again used in a more meaningful way as the same principle was already described in chapter 3.1.
2. e. Drawing as an activity might serve a lot of goals (these often combined together) in learning languages. as the pictures might be easily moved around the board and there is a lot to talk about while doing so. together with the phrase µthere is/are¶ or perhaps the present continuous etc. especially among young learners. animals or things. For example a house could be drawn and pictures of furniture could be placed inside. prepositions of place. since this might put the vocabulary into context. In my opinion it is a wonderful tip for presenting and practicing vocabulary too. mostly (but not only) listening and speaking.3 of the practical part. It is often used to support developing particular language skills. the teacher draws a scene and supplements it with individual pictures of people. therefore exercises with drawing are rather popular. either by the teacher or by students. Furthermore it meets with a great benefit and usefulness in practicing or learning vocabulary. home activities. Pupils can relax while doing this calming activity and the combination of fun and well-being forms a solid ground for successful learning. This composition is again very flexible. For more details see chapter 2. Drawing as a students¶ activity Children in general love drawing. This particular example can be used for the presentation or practice of names of rooms or furniture. The authors presented this technique for teaching structure.g. especially when talking about .Wright and Haleem (1996: 8) presented another very inspiring idea of using drawing on the board: They suggest using it in combination with flashcards or pictures from magazines.
This can be organized either as teacher-to-class. the teacher can control this into some extent by setting an exact time limit or by telling pupils not to concentrate too much on the artistic quality. he knows the meanings of the English . (Scott and Ytreberg 1993: 23) However. prepositions. if used in the right way. An example can be found in chapter 2. he or she can choose things easy to draw. which is more meaningful. since drawing people doing things is quite difficult for most of us. vocabulary is often practiced within exercises focused at the same time on other aspects of language. colours and numbers. Another useful exercise is the draw-and-describe type of activity. such as skills and structures.elementary English.´ (Scott and Ytreberg 1993: 24) They furthermore pointed out that drawing exercises might 22 often be time-consuming and so they advise ³to keep the picture simple´. as it is often considered to be by some teachers. It is not so useful for actions. Very favourable is the listen-and-draw or alternatively the listen-and-colour type of activity. since a lot of essential vocabulary here are concrete and easy-todraw. student-to-class or as pair work. Among other not so significant advantages of using pictures students draw Allen listed: ³When someone has drawn a picture of a scene. As was already mentioned. Besides. Scott and Ytreberg (1993) specify that this type of activity ³is particularly useful for checking object vocabulary. vocabulary is hard to be separated from these other aspects of language anyway. drawing is not wasted time at all. There are several ways of using drawing as an activity in language teaching. which is usually done in pairs. Moreover.3 of the practical part. To sum it up. This enables vocabulary to be used in context.
The meanings are in his mind before he is given the English word. (As we have noted.´ (Wright 1990: 203) That is yet another reason why to use drawing in language teaching . 23 projecting a piece of personality of its author as well as instant mood or state of mind. in listen-and-draw type of activity.words that the teacher will use while talking about parts of his scene. they will find their use both . Every piece of drawing is unique. when a word comes before the illustration of its meaning. Furthermore.3. the student again knows the meaning in advance and most likely forms the language to be used in the following speaking activity during the whole time of the process of drawing. they can be displayed in the classroom to set English (or foreign in general) environment and then they function as another source of language to be absorbed by students in the process of natural acquisition. 3. This fact personalizes the learning subject and makes these pictures highly memorable along with the language connected with them. Moreover. However. Wall-pictures and posters.1. Drawings ³are suitable as illustrations for personal expression. In the first place. in the reverse procedure. compiled pictures Wall-pictures are another valuable visual material for language classes. the retention of the word or chunk of language is reinforced by the length of the process of drawing again. a similar idea will go for other drawing activities students do.g. e. meanings often come before words in successful learning of vocabulary.)´ (Allen 1983: 28) She had in mind students drawing pictures on the board for the teacher to subsequently work with.the fact that it gives students the opportunity to express themselves. When drawing a picture for the purpose of describing it afterwards him or herself.
they are obviously suitable for presentation of new language. different details can be missing in each picture. As Wright and Haleem (1996) pointed out.in presentation of new language and controlled practice. They put vocabulary into context and therefore make the presentation meaningful. illustrating a scene and containing lots of objects and details. which can lead to information-gap type of activity for pair work. Due to their character. which is highly recommended for successful retention of new words. Compiled pictures may also be found in plenty variations of worksheets. For an example of this type of . It makes students think and gives them a reason to speak. such as ³Hide and seek´ or ³True/false game´ and so on. They are big enough to be seen by the whole class and they can be used instantly and repeatedly. which are used in individual work or pair work. Alternatively. such as variations of the memory game. many words and various structures might be demonstrated by these complex pictures and subsequently many opportunities for controlled practice are given. These often occur in the form of handouts with two slightly differing pictures (or a picture and text). Wright and Haleem (1996: 45) specified in their characteristics of wall-pictures that these are often complex pictures. They are useful for individual written exercises on structure as well as vocabulary practice and for speaking activities in pair work. They listed several types of activities and games to spice up controlled practice. (Wright and Haleem 1996: 45-48) The competition element or the challenge to remember in controlled practice is very beneficial. which has a great impact on remembering the target language as well as making the activities more enjoyable.
from the memory again for higher challenge).activity.pictures of sense relations of words.4 in the practical part. they are visuals and they are very closely related to pictures. Sense relations ³are extremely valuable.4. Semantic maps Semantic maps.´ (Gairns and Redman 1992: 31) Semantic relations are useful not only to establish the meaning of vocabulary items but might be also very helpful to reinforce their retention and the retrieval of a word from the mental lexicon when it is needed. When looking into this matter. they are very valuable and highly beneficial not only in learning vocabulary but also. giving them an opportunity to apply their knowledge of vocabulary and structure in combination with their ability to speak in order to reach the goal.1. Activities with compiled pictures are usually popular among students. make these relationships between words ³explicit´. They can be used in . it is even possible to claim that they actually are pictures . in my opinion. Nonetheless. and can provide a useful framework for the learner to understand semantic boundaries. see chapter 2. as Gairns and Redman (1992) pointed out. In any case. Semantic maps. are not exactly what people usually imagine under the heading µPictures¶. convenient to mention them in this chapter.g. Potentially. 3. (Gairns and Redman 1992: 32) Semantic maps will find various functions in classes. Therefore it is. also known as word diagrams. as a tool for storing lexis already learned. a single picture might be 24 described or used for an objects-naming activity (e. or ³diagrams and trees´ as these authors refer to them.
making this vocabulary organized. They differ regarding their size. The following activities are . practicing and organizing. McCarthy (1992: 97) listed other uses such as gap-filling activities. PRACTICAL PART The practical part is focused on techniques of using pictures in vocabulary teaching for primary school pupils (8 ± 11 years old). they help students remember the words better and they help the teacher to make the lesson more interesting and beneficial. when students break up the vocabulary into several subcategories within the diagram in their vocabulary notebooks. they are very beneficial.presentations of vocabulary for a particular topic.1. They can be used in brainstorming activities as a tool for vocabulary organisation again. or ³as reference device´ as well as ³recording device in the vocabulary notebook´ already mentioned in chapter 2. form and origin. For several reasons. A lesson plan is included to show how a vocabulary lesson with pictures can be organized.5 of the practical part. Summary There are various types of pictures to be used for language learning. a semantic map in vocabulary practice then in chapter 2. From my experiences. e. which makes them fit for a number of activities depending on their type. withdrawing their relations. Furthermore. 25 An example of a semantic map used in presentation can be found in chapter 1 of the practical part. 26 II.g. they are capable of remembering vaster amount rather easily. speaking activities for group-work.
who has a speaking problem and needs extra care in learning pronunciation. Although they are rather a spirited group.presented to demonstrate the use of individual forms of pictures examined in the theoretical part of this thesis. These activities have been chosen.picture bingo ± feelings (appendix 2) . 3 English lessons a week I¶ve been teaching this class for almost one year. they are good natured and easy to manage. however about half of the students had attended an English club before. being used regularly in my lessons. 8-9 years old. These students are very nice to work with. My observations on how the activities work and why they are beneficial for learners are summed up in the Evaluation and Analysis sections following each activity with the aim to display the significance of pictures when learning languages. It is their 2nd year of compulsory English at school. Three children in this group are noticeably weaker then the others and need more time to process and learn new information.Emotions Class: 4th grade. 14 students. because they proved themselves to be highly useful in the process of learning. Most of them are very bright and fast learners. 27 1. Lesson plan .to learn vocabulary for feelings . they are highly motivated to learn and grateful for any kind of work the teacher prepares. There is one boy though. Time: 45 minutes Aim: .to practice the verb µto be¶ in various forms Aids: .flashcards with µfeelings¶ (appendix 1) .
- text of the ³If you are happy´ song (appendix 3) - cards with prompts for the mingling activity - prompt cards with answers ³Yes, I am. No, I am not.´ - a worksheet for homework Assumptions: - the pupils have come across the verb µto be¶ - the pupils have dictionaries at home and are able to work with them 28 Procedure: 1. Warm up ± review of vocabulary from the previous lesson Pupils walk in a circle and the teacher stands in the middle and gives commands rhythmically and pupils do what the teacher says while chanting: ³walk around, walk around´, ³jump, walk around walk around, sleep, wake up, walk around, walk around, run«´ Then the teacher picks one volunteer and he or she stands in the middle and commands the others. This is done in fast speed and rhythm. At the end of this activity, the teacher can say and mime: ³I am hot. Are you hot too?´ In this way he or she uses one of the key words for the lesson and can introduce the topic. 2. Presenting new words The teacher shows pupils half of the pictures (those with emotions that are not included in the basic text of the song ± see appendix 1 and appendix 3) representing emotions one by one and involves them in naming the people in the pictures. (The teacher can also ask some additional questions e.g. about the age of the people and so
on). Every time showing a picture, the teacher says how the person feels and why. E.g. ³Joe is happy, because the sun is shining.´ He or she places each picture on the board, writes its name and draws a picture for the reason of the emotion next to the picture. He or she involves pupils in inventing the reasons for the emotions. 3. Choral drill Teacher pronounces words for each picture pointing at it one by one, while pupils express the particular feelings. (TPR) Then pupils repeat the words after the teacher in chorus (and later say them together with the teacher) several times, working on pronunciation and miming all the time. While doing this, teacher can label the pictures with words written on cards. This activity should be done rather quickly, so that pupils do not get bored. It can be possibly left out as well, since there will be enough drilling in the next activity. 4. Song Pupils are invited to form a circle. The teacher introduces one of the emotions (those not introduced in point 1) for each verse. He or she puts a picture for µhappy¶ in 29 the middle and says that for happy they all will clap their hands. Everybody tries it. The teacher sings the first line of the song, pupils repeat several times. The teacher writes the second line on the board and works with pupils on it. Then it is time to sing the whole first verse. Then the teacher puts a picture for µsad¶ in the middle of the circle and says that for sad they will shake their heads and shows them how to do it. The teacher and pupils sing the song again but this time with µsad¶ and µshake your head¶. Then they can work on another verses e.g. µangry¶ ± µstamp your feet¶, hungry ± µmake hum
miam¶, thirsty ± have a drink gloglo, and so on. Pupils with help of the teacher can perform a different action for every picture. (This activity adapted from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KVNxAYge8Y, 19.11.08, 22:45) 5. TPR It is time for a simple game. The teacher says a word and pupils express the corresponding feeling, having the pictures in front of them all the time. Then it can be done vice versa, the teacher acts out the feelings or points at the pictures and pupils say the corresponding word. 6. Controlled practice - structure The teacher asks a volunteer to stand in front of the class and to choose µsecretly¶ one of the emotions (from the pictures on the board) and act it out. The teacher asks him or her: ³Are you happy?´ and helps him or her with the possible answers prepared on the prompt cards. The teacher writes the question and the answers on the board. Another volunteer comes forth and acts out and pupils ask him or her in the same way. This is repeated several times. 7. Mingling activity ± mechanical practice Everybody gets a card with a sentence e.g. ³You are happy´. Pupils mingle around the class and express the feeling from their card. They practice the conversation from the previous activity with everybody they meet. Then they swap the cards and go to someone else, expressing another feeling. This activity can be done only with µwell behaved¶ groups. For more problematic groups I would recommend just to practice the previous activity in pairs or groups of three or four instead.
since children often get silly when having fun and it can be hard to calm them down afterwards. All pupils remembered at least 60% of the new words. it is not appropriate for some groups for the beginning of the lesson. The teacher calls out words or simple sentences and pupils cross the corresponding picture if they have it on their grid. I used physical actions (miming) as well to stimulate more senses when perceiving new information. since I knew my group was extremely well behaved. Pupils love this activity. I could afford this activity. because they liked the pictures . Whoever crosses all his or her pictures first. The first activity is supposed to establish English environment in the class. shouts µbingo¶ and becomes the winner. 9. However. pupils paid attention. During the second activity. This lesson was successful. They are advised to use dictionaries to check if they have done it right. Homework Pupils get a list of the freshly acquired vocabulary and pictures and their task is to match each picture with the corresponding word and to translate it into Czech. Picture bingo Every pupil gets a slightly different grid with small pictures of emotions. since they can move. (Appendix 4) Evaluation: I included this lesson to demonstrate how flashcards can be used to establish the meaning of new words and how they can help to draw children¶s attention and interest.30 8.
partly due to the prompts displayed on the board. since they love all opportunities for changing their places.very much. there was the element of acting the feelings. Children usually like this activity. I saved it for the next lesson. We moved to the back of the class for the fourth activity and worked in a circle. Some of the pupils had difficulties with learning the second line of the song. However. The third activity took longer then I had intended and some of the pupils got bored and lost their attention. They liked inventing and acting the actions for the particular emotions on the pictures. since they started to be bored after a while and we had to change the activity. Nonetheless. This fact alone demonstrates the advantage of employing pictures in lessons. which helped me to keep them 31 busy while doing the drill. They were keen to help with giving names to the people on the pictures and with inventing the reasons for the emotions on the pictures. this activity shows that pictures can be well combined with other activities and that doing so has a positive impact on memorizing the target vocabulary. I left the fifth activity out. Still. The children were happy about it. so it was not as bad as I would expect. where I used it as a warmer. We did not do a verse for every picture. because I saw there was not enough time to do all I had planed. But in the end most of them managed. In the sixth activity. since it was only an . Everyone wanted to take a part in front of the class. since they like acting and miming and they can show off how much they remember. but only 3 people got a chance to do so. I would recommend performing it as quickly as possible. my pupils were pretty good in forming questions and answers.
as they do not draw so much attention by far and therefore children are likely to lose interest in the matter at hand (vocabulary learning). It is always a little noisy when children are mingling around the class. Everybody always pays attention and listens. Pictures were used in nearly all parts of the plan. so again. Activities 2.1. I do not believe that using simple word flashcards would have the same positive effect. . Big picture flashcards 2. I saved it for a vocabulary review in one of the future lessons.1. everybody wants to win. They were sometimes combined with other activities (the song. All children love bingo. helping to establish environment and atmosphere and functioning as an indispensable tool for activities aimed at vocabulary learning. This lessons stands and falls on pictures and on the whole proved as a success. the game). They are happy if the grid is printed in colours and they can stick it into their notebooks. Everybody participated and enjoyed themselves. The Simpsons Family Activity: Presentation of new language.introduction to the next activity. The seventh activity was a great success. We did not have a time for the bingo at the end of the lesson.1. so firm rules and a µstop¶ sign should be established beforehand. 32 which further reinforced the chance to memorize words ± a greater number of stimuli seemed to positively affect the learning process. whole class. 33 2.
the she-teacher can say that she will show them her own picture and introduce her family. and then she acts like she was Lisa / the heteacher can be Bart or another member of the family. He or she writes the name and relationship to Lisa for each picture. potentially pictures of students¶ family members for follow-up practice. placing the pictures on the board into the structure of a family tree (see Appendix 4). He or she does it with all pictures of the Simpsons. a board. Some drilling activities might be done with the words in question or with whole sentences. (Alternatively.Aim: To introduce names of family members. Furthermore the teacher can ask questions about people on the . To practice asking about and giving µpersonal details¶. to introduce/review possessives.) He or she shows them a picture of Lisa Simpson and tells them her name and age and puts the picture on the board. Then he or she shows them a picture of Bart and introduces him as Lisa¶s brother and again places the picture on the board. Level: Beginners Aids: Flash cards with the Simpsons family members (appendix 5). It is possible to play the µWho¶s missing¶ game (a variation of the µWhat¶s missing¶ game mentioned above) for memorizing the words. He or she writes his name and the word µbrother¶ under the picture. Options for follow-up activities: There are plenty of activities to do afterwards. Procedure: The teacher tells the pupils that he or she wants to tell them about her or his best friend and her family. to introduce an idea of the family tree diagram.
the teacher will . they can make up. This results in pupils paying full attention and feeling the need to learn the key words fast. On top of that.g. Furthermore. to ³an investigation´ among pupils about the most popular character from the Simpsons. they can draw their family tree and describe the members and their relations. E. Another purpose is to demonstrate the theory how a simple occurrence of pictures in the lesson has a great impact on students¶ interest and motivation. Alternatively. the pictures might be used for practicing parts of the face and for describing people.. which if known well or even adored by the children. Evaluation and analysis: This activity is included to display the possibility of using flash cards in combination with a diagram for presenting new vocabulary. This might have a remarkable influence on remembering the key vocabulary. to practice the new language.´ This can lead e.34 pictures or about relationships between particular members. or about the most popular TV family. it highlights the benefit of a well-chosen topic (the Simpsons in this case). They can also bring photos into the class and make a family tree with photos and use it in conversations. Eventually.g. ³Who is Marge¶s sister? What¶s her name? Does she have a child? How old is she? What¶s her hobby? . longing to show their knowledge of the topic and to be the first ones in answering the questions. Additionally. draw and describe an imaginary family in groups or pairs.. raises an aspiration in sharing and exchanging information. pupils usually talk about their own family.
35 2. Procedure: The teacher asks pupils to lie down on their desks or turn around and not to look. What is missing (Adapted from Mary Slattery 2004: 12) Activity: guessing game. whole class. Pupils are then asked to fix them under each picture. Aim: To memorize freshly acquired vocabulary Level: All levels Aids: Flash cards with a topic-based set of vocabulary. Before procedure: The teacher introduces a new vocabulary set with pictures and fixes them on the board.appreciate to see his or her pupils being very keen in correcting him or her.1.2. board. Lisa¶s age). chill out activity. when making a mistake about factual information (e. Highly recommended is to prepare word cards corresponding with the individual pictures before the lesson. . such as asking pupils to move the pictures around the board (e. having pupils repeat the words after him or her and practice the pronunciation. Then perhaps he or she will do some choral drilling exercises.g. The one who first finds out which picture had been removed.g. He or she might also arrange a TPR exercise. In that case they can see not only pictures but also the written forms of the words during the game. might go to the board and substitute the teacher and again take one picture away for the others to guess. He or she will take one of the pictures away and invite students to look and guess what is missing. order them according the size of items on the picture).
students¶ minds are occupied by their quick verification whilst trying to recall the one that is not present. 37 2. Therefore both the pictures and their labels are fully focused on by pupils during the whole game. It is enjoyable and usually very popular amongst the learners. It bears a calming effect for the more spirited groups. since students in general like challenges involved in solving puzzles as well as the element of the competition. Furthermore. the teacher might mix them up again in order to make the activity more challenging. Touch the picture (adapted from Heather Westrup and Joanna Baker 2005: 1 Touch the box) . In order to accomplish the goal and pronounce the desired word. Whilst looking at the remaining pictures. which thus function mainly as a tool. This activity is easy to set up and suitable for learners of any age or level. their concentration is aimed on the task. (or alternatively in reviewing older vocabulary of course). Only this fact itself enhances the 36 possibility of successful retention of the aimed vocabulary.1. experience an inner need to obtain the key language fast.3. Consequently. pupils are motivated by the sense of competition.When the game progresses and pupils start to remember the position of individual pictures too well. not the language itself. they learn it much more easily. Evaluation and analysis: This activity has proved itself to be an extremely effective method in memorizing a set of freshly learnt vocabulary items. resulting in an incredibly fast outcome.
teams competition. Evaluation and analysis: This activity is included to illustrate how flashcards can be used in combination with TPR in vocabulary revision. which on the other hand tends to be rather demanding for the teacher. They both fall in the back of their queues. the competition is an important element in this activity. They can also be asked to sort out the pictures or label them. The teacher says a word expressing the meaning of one of the pictures. TPR. Aim: To review recently learned vocabulary Level: All levels Aids: Flash cards of recently learned vocabulary. about 2 meters from the board.Activity: warm-up or filler. This combination of active motion and a visual component makes it easier for some students to memorize the words. Pictures could be substituted for real world objects. The first one to touch the correct picture gains a point for his or her team. Furthermore. whole class. The team which first reaches the beforehand defined amount of points wins. since it . He or she divides the class into two teams and invites them to stand one behind another in two rows. board. Procedure: The teacher fixes about ten to twenty pictures all over the board. Options for follow-up activities: Students can be asked to utilize several selected words in a sentence or give their definition. The first student from each team runs to the board and touches the appropriate picture.
the link between the word and its picture is being formed for a longer time. like running etc. even if it is not their turn ± they are usually interested if a member of their team touches the correct picture etc. With too spirited groups it would be better to perform the activity by the end of the lesson. want to be successful. Those are recommended to be hard-paper or laminated flash cards. Aim: To review and practice vocabulary regarding food. therefore as a warm-up it is suitable mainly for somewhat calm or passive groups. hence it is advisable to set firm rules beforehand. Its importance lies in the fact that all students tend to watch them for the whole time. It might be worthwhile to point out that students should be careful about the pictures. Therefore when the corresponding word is called out by the teacher.functions as a strong motivation to achieve good results (children in general do not like disappointing their team. group game. However. it always tents to be a bit noisy. since it can be tough to calm the students down afterwards.2 Small picture flash cards (Inspired by Jane Bell 2006: 100 Happy Families) Food ± a card game Activity: Vocabulary practice. This is being reinforced by concentration and excitement from the game. 38 This activity can be used with learners of any level or age. It is rather a lively one. 39 2. listening and speaking.). to practice the verb µto have got¶ in questions and short answers. . The presence of visuals plays a significant role in this activity. or the phrase µcan you pass me.
Procedure: Every group of three to six pupils gets a set of cards (appendix 6). there is no exchange and it is the other 40 . which have the same colour (e. all fruit cards).g. The first player asks any player in the group for a card he or she needs. whereas a group of three might get only three quartets of the same-colour-cards. and perhaps provide them with the structures they will use in the game. The goal of the game is to get all four cards belonging to the same group of hyponyms. elementary Aids: A set of cards per group (appendix 6) Before the procedure: Before playing the game. If the asked player does not have the required card. He or she might display these as prompts on the board. in order for students to be able to use English also as a communication tool outside the game. especially pronunciation. together with useful phrases for playing the game. The cards are shuffled and distributed equally among all members of the group. ³shuffle the cards´ etc. he or she must give it to the first player and gets one card back in exchange.please¶ Level: Beginners. A group of six will play with all cards. At this point the teacher should explain the rules and then distribute the cards among few students and demonstrate how the questions are asked and how the game is played. The first player then asks another player for another card. the teacher should present or review the key vocabulary with children. The first one to manage this wins the game. If the asked player has the card. such as ³It¶s your turn´.
players¶ (the asked ones) turn to ask somebody else for a card. If not. Furthermore. students practice questions such as ³Have you got carrots. Even the weaker ones can participate. pupils can also see its hypernym (i. please?´ or ³Can I have some cheese. it is at least being searched for among other pictures. Evaluation and Analysis: This game illustrates the way of using µsmall picture flash cards¶ in group work. words belonging into the same group). being displayed on four different cards.e. they are able to form a . every word. Aside from the two forms. please?´ or possibly ³Can you pass me/give me some tomatoes?´ Follow-up A possible additional activity might be for pupils to write as many words for each group of hyponyms as they can. specifically questions and short answers. When exchanging the cards. In order to accomplish the task. as the meaning of all included vocabulary is clarified by the pictures and with structures prompted on the board or help of the stronger classmates. when heard in a question is immediately linked with its visible counterpart.e. which is likely to have a positive impact on remembering the words. which again helps students to memorize it. The game can continue until everybody gets their sets of cards. every player must often use a particular word several times before he gets the desired card. Pupils usually like this game. This helps pupils to categorize the vocabulary. in which a piece of target vocabulary is displayed within a card (a picture and the corresponding written word). a name of the group the word belongs to) and three co-hyponyms (i. On top of that. often by all participants. not only words are acquired but also structure is being practiced.
Moreover. to review numbers. They must not show their pictures to anybody. While doing so. colours and shape. Procedure: After reviewing the key vocabulary. paper. imagination and creativity. The teacher should circulate among the groups and observe the language used as well as remind pupils to speak English only. which is usually necessary. since this is not conditioned by knowledge nor language abilities. to practice the verbs µto be¶ and µto have¶ Level: Beginners. . the teacher might draw it him or herself on the hidden part of the board for following feedback or might as well invite a student to do that. pupils draw a monster the teacher describes. Elementary Aids: Coloured pencils. and by Jill Hadfield and Charles Hadfield 2002) Activity: Vocabulary practice.question and accomplish the task. everybody can win. Now pupils know how to describe a monster and have some tips how it can look like. 41 2. potentially two posters of monsters for the second variation of the activity. They make up and draw their own monster and label all parts of its body or write a simple description. yet depends more or less on good luck. pair work Aim: To practice vocabulary for parts of the body and their features. listening. Drawing Drawing a monster (Inspired by Fiona Miller 2002: photocopiable page 3. speaking and drawing.3. since these naturally tend to switch to their mother tongue. They work in pairs.
such as its favourite colour. Furthermore.g. then they swap the roles. it is possible to prepare two posters with different monsters and hang one of them on the front wall and the second one on the back wall of the classroom. they take turns in describing the pictures they see while their partner follows the description and draws it. Afterwards they can talk or ask each other about the extra information on their monsters and write the answers down. The procedure is similar. the food it eats etc. Then they work in pairs. the teacher has better control of language. since the children do not ³waste´ time on drawing. the element of creativity and excitement is absent. e. while the partner draws it according to the description. as mentioned above. 42 This variety is not as time consuming as the original one. (This variation adopted from Hadfield. If the teacher wants to have better control of the target language. rooms in the house and furniture or/and accessories together with prepositions of place and the phrase µthere is/are¶ or rooms in the house and family members together with the present continuous etc. . one of them describes his or her monster. Variations: There are plenty of possibilities how to alter this activity. Simple Speaking activities) The same activity can be used to practice different vocabulary and target language. In that case one pupil from each pair faces a different picture then the other pupil. On the other hand.They can also name the monster and list its µpersonal details¶ or add some extra information. since he can influence it by drawing exactly what needs to be practiced on the posters.
such as listening. while giving them an opportunity to use the language in a purposeful way. Pupils are allowed to unleash their fantasy and creativity and are motivated to make up the most original picture and subsequently are happy to share what they have drawn. The activity of drawing also offers pupils a chance to speak: they can make comments on each other¶s picture. can your monster speak etc. why has it got four hands. ask questions about details (e. This is further reinforced by the longer time the children spend with drawing. A possible imperfection might lie in the lack of the teachers¶ ability to supervise and help with the language used by all speaking pupils at once. as a longer period brings more opportunities to use and remember the desired words. This.).g. also functions as an element which has a great influence on remembering the target language. The teacher¶s 43 role would be to circulate and not only offer help and advice when needed but also to mark down his or her observations on pupils¶ language and mistakes made for latter . the activity provides an opportunity for many students to speak simultaneously. Being organized as pair-work. since especially younger students love drawing as well as enjoy practicing the language in the safe environment of pair-work. The teacher should encourage them to do so.Evaluation and analysis: This activity demonstrates the usefulness of drawing as a tool in practicing not only vocabulary but also other aspects of the language. This activity usually works very well in the class. speaking or structure. which results in a more effective usage of time in the lesson and thus helps to improve the often difficult situation of limited possibilities for an individual to speak in the class.
Function: Working with a town map.4. It is generally recommended to first explain the activity and then distribute the worksheets.Aim: To practice prepositions of place. listening and speaking. specifying location. 2. the teacher should guide pupils not to spend too much time on drawing their monsters and help them rather direct their effort on subsequent speaking. to review vocabulary of places in town and potentially to practice directions. Compiled pictures In town (Inspired by Susan Kay 1997: Activity 14) Activity: Vocabulary practice. The teacher might demonstrate this activity to the whole class by drawing a simple map on the board and asking for the positions of (or directions to) particular buildings. Furthermore. information gap. Questions and answers needed for the exercise should be reviewed and perhaps displayed on the board. pair work . potentially giving directions Level: Elementary Aids: Picture of a town map ± two versions with different information gaps one copy of both versions per a pair (appendix 7) Before procedure: Prepositions of place need to be presented or reviewed as well as names of buildings and places in town and potentially vocabulary for giving directions.feedback. Procedure: .
1). They can write either just very simply about the location of individual buildings or more advanced or skilled students might include more information about the town. They take turns and ask each other questions. it is possible to mark a place in their maps where they µstand¶. Vocabulary being used in this way is more likely to be retained. For more advanced students. to be able to give out the . in this case it is a compiled picture of a map where the meaning of spatial prepositions is apparently manifested as well as the names of buildings are illustrated by individual pictures. Their partner describes the locations in relations to the surrounding buildings. This is again reinforced by the visual element. In the first variation of the activity (appendix 7. Evaluation and analysis: This activity demonstrates acquiring or revision of vocabulary within a speaking practice combined with the use of pictures. Their task then is to give directions to given places. Their task is to find and mark the places from their lists in their 44 maps. Possible follow-up: The students might draw simple maps of a segment of their hometown (or a town they know) and write a description. They must not show their copies to each other.Each student in a pair gets a different copy of the map. The target vocabulary is used in a meaningful way not only by being put into context but moreover by being applied for a specific purpose. in this case to carry out the task of filling the gap of missing information.
Sometimes it is necessary to remind pupils to speak English only and prevent them from looking into their partners¶ worksheets. if needed. the legend is there to help them. On the other hand. most of pupils like pair work as well as the information gap type of activity. pupils must evoke the names of the buildings from those pictures. this should be balanced by the fact that students must make an effort again to be able to give the information.required information. the fluency of speaking might suffer. In this case. the effort for establishing the meaning of the words is absent and hence the impact on remembering the words might be weaker. The teacher might give a support or advice when needed.2. not being given directly but only in the form of hints. observing the language and marking down possible improvements for later feedback. yet. This again should support the ability to remember the target vocabulary. some effort must be made in order to express oneself.5.). This activity usually works quite well in the class. where the names of the buildings are provided directly within the map with pictures functioning here only as a visual support. 45 On the other hand. Furthermore. communication might flow more fluently. This variation is suitable for more advanced or skilled students. 2. In the second variation of the activity (appendix 7. since this process leading to providing the information might be rather lengthy. Charts with vocabulary webs What is in the house? . only this time to find out what word is actually required. even if using the legend. Nevertheless. circulating.
pictures of rooms in the house. He or she might prompt by pictures of the rooms and by asking questions such as ³Where do you usually have breakfast? Where do you usually sleep? etc. They are given the time limit of five minutes to brainstorm as many names of furniture (and perhaps accessories in the house) as they can think of. pupils are asked to copy the diagram into their notebooks. (Alternatively . as it will function as the center for a semantic map. The teacher draws several lines from the word out into all directions (one for every room in the house). dictionaries Before procedure: The teacher prepares the board before the lesson. There might be a circle or a square drawn around the word. possibly to practice the phrase µthere is/there are¶ and the prepositions of place Level: Elementary Aids: board. The words on the board may be supplemented by the pictures. He or she writes the word µhouse¶ in the middle of the board. When all names of rooms are written on the board. they compete with other groups about who will make a longer list of items. if there is enough space on the board. to learn the names of furniture or things which might be found in particular rooms.Activity: organizing a vocabulary set into a semantic map Aim: To review the names of rooms in the house.´ He or she writes the names of rooms in the prepared schema on the board. They are allowed to use dictionaries. 46 Procedure: The teacher elicits names of individual rooms from pupils. Pupils are divided into pairs or groups of three.
since there is a greater possibility that the stronger ones will still have items to add even when coming as the last ones. this can be done as homework or perhaps in a lesson of art. Options for follow-up activities: If students have used larger sheets of papers. The picture might be displayed in the classroom and moreover . pupils are encouraged to comment on what they are writing.g. When the µweb¶ on the board is complete. Weaker pupils go first. Pairs of students or representatives of each group are asked to come to the board one after another and write five items they have chosen from their schema into the µweb¶ on the board. each item is matched to the room it belongs to. there is a possibility of followingup with supplementing the sheets with pictures. the teacher might drill pronunciation of the words with pupils. While writing the items on the board. actual picture of the house might be drawn on the basis of this semantic map with pictures of individual items of furniture placed in the rooms. e.) They are advised to draw it big enough and leave space around the individual rooms for subsequent adding more things. Then pupils are asked to copy several words of their choice from the board to their schemas. It is advisable to set a time limit for this task again. Students are asked to place the things they have brainstormed into the schema.: ³The fridge is usually in the kitchen. There is a rug in the middle of the bedroom´ depending on the level of pupils and the structure the teacher wants them to practice. Subsequently. the description of the house might be written.they might be provided with a larger sheet of paper per group. Furthermore. This would be done as group-work.
47 Evaluation and analysis This activity displays a possible use of a semantic map in the lesson. which can be exploited in following lessons. as the choice of words is up to them. Therefore the teacher might want to add this element for example by playing some kind of a vocabulary revision game at the end of the activity. which counts as a plus: spaced repeating helps retaining the target vocabulary. this activity is great for organizing. Its main advantage lies in its organized structure ± by working with the diagram with explicitly illustrated word relations for a longer period of time. perhaps by asking them questions about their favourite things in a room or about how often they use them etc. the lesson results in the target vocabulary stored in pupils¶ notebooks. It will also be important to keep students interested in the topic. Pupils will also repeat the words several times and use them in a sentence. since students¶ motivation is aroused (they feel useful. Learners are allowed certain autonomy here. Practical part summary ± insights . as no games. This type of lesson lacks the fun element. the teacher recognizes their effort etc. which goes especially for passive classes. On the whole. The sense of autonomy might have a positive impact on the memorized words too. a part of students¶ mental lexicon becomes neatly organized and clear. puzzles or motion activities are included. learning and reviewing vocabulary especially with spirited pupils. as is required in this activity.used for speaking activity when reviewing later on.). Furthermore.
In this part of my thesis. The distinctiveness of pictures also makes them more memorable. what? What causes that vocabulary is better remembered? Is it enough to use pictures only or are they better combined with other aspects? Why? These questions are one way or another repeatedly answered in each chapter of this part. From my own experience I would like to reflect the fact that preparation for some lessons with pictures may be time consuming for a beginning teacher. when the pictures are personified (drawn by students themselves or by the teacher). I strived to demonstrate particular usages of the individual types of pictures listed in chapter 3. In general. of the theoretical part as well as to answer the following questions: What are pictures actually used for? Is there a benefit in using pictures? If yes. This effect is further amplified if they are combined with other tools such as songs or sense relations. Let me observe here that the statements mentioned above are in accordance with the theories explained in the theoretical part. funny or somehow catchy. the following could be concluded: Pictures do have an impact on students¶ motivation and interest. They work better (understand have a greater effect on words retaining) if used meaningfully 48 (for example along with an information gap activity). e. especially regarding particular things. This is especially true for competitions and puzzles.g. 49 CONCLUSION The main goal of this thesis was to show how pictures can be put to use in English classes in a few ways and to answer the questions how and why this works and in what . They are excellent tools for the demonstration of the meaning.
As a positive side effect of this process. this thesis may function as a guide to some. I am convinced that I have managed to attain the set goal: many answers are given in the analyses of the activities and the lesson plan in the practical part. as they are respected specialists in the field and have the necessary experience and education. I divided this thesis into the theoretical and practical part. others are explained in theory. It deals with some (typically not so diverse) points of view on the topic of vocabulary properties and its effective teaching using pictures as well as other aids. Writing this thesis was beneficial to me in several ways. I decided to study primarily Andrew Wright. I found many of their ideas interesting as well as very true and for that reason decided to quote or paraphrase them. Being a teacher myself. teachers. I . put to use in the corresponding activity and consequently analysed. As to the literature used.way exactly they help the learner remember the words he or she studies. guiding them through vocabulary teaching and providing particular aid in the form of the lesson plan and activities included in the practical part. These two are often intertwined in such way that the answer is explained in theory. Jeremy Harmer and Penny Ur. analyses and evaluates them and strives to put them into context with theory. Michael McCarthy. The theoretical part inclines towards the general. thus proving the theory. although some examples are of course mentioned. The practical part then suggests concrete uses for these aspects. possibly not so experienced. It furthermore sorts several aspects of the rather broad word µpicture¶ and examines some of their properties. For this purpose. Scott Thornbury.
New York: Oxford University Press. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited. David A. 2003. Stuart. Inspirtion: Teacher's resource pack Builder 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-582-03765-4 KAY. Jeremy. Ruth. ISBN 019-437136-0 . Virginia French. ISBN 0582-04656-4 HILL. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited. 2006. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Susan. ISBN 978-019-442169-0 HARMER. Simple Speaking Activities. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited. learned how to further optimise the process of teaching vocabulary using pictures and was forced to reconsider and improve my own teaching practices. Bibliography ALLEN. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Techniques in Teaching vocabulary: Teaching techniques in English as a second or foreign language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Working with Words: A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary. Reward Elementary: Resource Pack. ISBN 10: 1-4050-2955-2 GAIRNS. Charles.gained a better insight into the matter. ISBN 0-435-24249-0 McCARTHY. Visual Impact: Creative language learning through pictures. Vocabulary. Jill. ISBN 0-19-434130-5 BELL. 1983. Jane. Michael. 1990. REDMAN. 2002. HADFIELD. 1992. 1993. ISBN 0-52131709-6 HADFIELD. I do hope the same will go for the reader. got familiar with many interesting points of view and facts.
Scott. Mary. 1990. 2000. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. 1996. 2004. ISBN 0-521-35800-0 WRIGHT. Joanna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. Vendy A. Activities Using Resources. 9:30. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-582 047811 Internet sources: http://www. ISBN 0582 74606 X 52 SLATTERY. Teaching English to Children. Lisbeth H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pictures for Language Learning. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited.elyrics. Heather. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory. Fiona. http://www. How to Teach Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Visuals for the Language Classroom.mes-english. Brainwaves Level 2: Teacher¶s Book. html: Accessed on 26 March 2009. .com/flashcards/feelings. Andrew. ISBN 0-19-435902-6 SCOTT. YTREBERG. ISBN-0521-44994-4 WESTRUP.php: Accessed on 19 November 2008. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Vocabulary activities. Andrew. 1993. BAKER. ISBN-10: 0-19-442187-2 WRIGHT.com/watch?v=2KVNxAYge8Y: Accessed on 19 November 2008. ISBN ± 10: 0-19-442195-3 THORNBURY. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited. ISBN 0582-429668 UR. 2002. HALEEM Safia. 22:39.net/read/b/barney-lyrics/if-you_re-happy-and-you-know-itlyrics. 2005. http://www.youtube. Penny.MILLER.
S SCHOOL BUKIT SERPONG MAS TANGERANG A Paper (Skripsi) Presented to The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The degree of Sarjana (S1) By: LENY NIM: 102014023751 .TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES TO THE KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS AT MADINAH KID.
011.Tangerang) This Paper (Skripsi) Has Fulfilled The Requirement for The Degree of Sarjana (S1) at The English Department The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training .Pd NIP.Dr.Advisor: Prof. 150.s School Kindergarten Serpong. Hadjid Harna Widagda M.332 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2006 M / 1427 H TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES TO THE KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS ( A Case Study at Madinah Kid.
Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now! TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES TO THE KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS AT MADINAH KID.By: LENY NIM: 102014023751 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2006 M / 1427 H pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.S SCHOOL BUKIT SERPONG MAS TANGERANG A Paper (Skripsi) Presented to The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The degree of Sarjana (S1) By: .
Tangerang.s School Bukit Serpong Mas. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.332 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2006 M / 1427 H pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.Dr. Hadjid Harna Widagda M.LENY NIM: 102014023751 Advisor: Prof.Teaching Vocabulary Through Pictures to The Kindergarten Students.011. Was examined at the examination session of the faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta on 22 November 2006. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. At Madinah Kid. 150. This skripsi has fulfilled the requirement for the degree of Sarjana (S1) at the . Get yours now! LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE A skripsi titled .Pd NIP.
Teaching Vocabulary Through Picture to the Kindergarten Students. the writer has finished her skripsi finally. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Dede Rosyada. Aziz Fahrurozzi. Thanks to Allah.. Dr. The primary aim of the skripsi writing is to complete a partial fulfillment of requirements for . 150 231 356 NIP. H.English Department. Atiq Susilo. 150 23927 NIP. Dr. May Peace and Bless be upon Prophet Muhammad SAW. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. MA NIP. entitled : .Pd NIP. Get yours now! ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In The Name of Allah The Beneficent and The Merciful Praise be to Allah Lord of The World. 22 November.150 231 927 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. MA Dra. MA Prof. Jakarta. 2006 Examination Committee The Head of Committee The Secretary of Committee Prof. 150 202 343 Examiner I Examiner II Dr. Hidayati M.
4. Nasrun Mahmud M. All staff of Tarbiyah Faculty especially Mr. the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher. Drs. Prof. Rasiin and friends for good cooperation. Nida Husna the Secretary of English Department and staff. Especially Mr. 2.. This skripsi could not be completed without a great deal of help from many people. and Dra.sarjana degree in The Tarbiyah Faculty. Hadjid Harna Widagda.A. support and precious knowledge to her during study at UIN SYAHID Jakarta.s Training. Get yours now! 3. . May Allah SWT give His Gracious to you Her deepest gratitude also goes to those who have helped her in finishing this skripsi. All Lectures in English Department who had given motivation.M. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. the Head of English Department. who had given her valuable advice and support to the writer.Pd.Pd. among others: 1. from the beginning until the end. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Prof.. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Dr. as advisor who always guides and suggest the writer to make a good skripsi. Dr. Dede Rosyada M.
.... 6... Madhani (Father).... her Beloved Brothers ( Deny and Noffian) and all of her family also her relatives... who had given permission to use their books.. thanks for your pray and support to the writer..Pd.. M. AMINEF and American corner...... Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms..Alwi) and officers of central Libraries of UIN Syahid Jakarta.........Pd also Staff Who had given permission to made a research..... Get yours now! TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT........ Who had given their materials...Ed..... the head of Libraries Tarbiyah Faculty and Staff....... November 2006 The Writer pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents... M.. The staff ( Mr.....Thank you Very much. Mrs...... if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.......... Jakarta..s school......... 7. British Council. Maryani ZA.... Mr. Hatta M. 8. iii ..5....... Nyi Ina (mother)... The Head of Madinah Kid..... and Miss Riana SPi............... pray and motivation to support the writer. Her beloved parents....... Miss Indah And Miss Indiastanti Prasetyo S........ Drs.... i TABLE OF CONTENT..H.......
...... if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine............... Background of the Study.......................... The Types of Vocabulary.. Get yours now! ..................... Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms..... 6 2.................. Scope of the Study ............................................................ 4 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. 3 D.......................... 16 4..... The Meaning of Vocabulary ............................... 8 3.....................CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A................................... The Use of Vocabulary .......... The Significance of the Study................................. Limitation and Formulation ....... The Advantages and Disadvantages of Pictures Used .................. 13 3....................... Vocabulary 1...... The Use of Pictures ........... The Meaning of Pictures ........ Problem identification............ 11 2.. The Types of Pictures................... Kindergarten Students pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents................. Pictures 1.. 10 B............................................. 2 C...... 1 B.............. 17 C............................................
.................................... 28 d.....1.......... Instrument ................ The Place and Time .............. Research Question ........................................... Teaching Procedures ................................. The Research Implementer .............. Research Outcome.................. 31 D.................................. 27 a............................................. 18 2......................... 24 B................................................................................................s School ........................ The Classroom Implementation .... 21 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A................................. Practice Stage ................................. The Research Investigation.............................. 28 c..................... Presentation Stage ....... 28 C....... 34 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! ....... The Objective of the Study . Madinah Kid....... The Meaning of Kindergarten.............. 25 F........................................... The Research Method ... 26 B. The Age and Characteristics of Kindergarten Students .............................................................. 27 b.......... 24 C......... The Curriculum and Syllabus........... The Research Subject..................... 26 CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH OUTCOME A...................... Production Stage .. 25 E........................ 25 G............................ 19 3.................................................... 25 D............................
....... Get yours now! CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A..... 36 B........................................ Get yours now! CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses about: Background of the study. Problem identification........ A.... and The Significance of the study............. Statement of the problems...................Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents......................... Scope of the study......... 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine............................ 38 APPENDIX pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents..... Limitation of the problems.......... Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.................... Background of the Study . Suggestion...... if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.................... Conclusion ................... Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.................
English teaching involves of four language skills. Economics. vocabulary. Therefore. pronunciation and vocabulary. which is used throughout the world and also English is used in many fields of life such as : in Politics. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. In teaching and learning a language. English is one of the foreign languages for Indonesian students. there are four aspects that support four language skill above such as : grammar. that must be learnt in school since kindergarten level until University level. because English is completely different from Indonesian language being look at from the system of structure. Reading and Writing. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Speaking.English is one of international languages. English as a language in international communication is clearly needed by many learners to deliver thought and interact in a variety of situation. as stated by Edward in his book : . spelling and pronunciation that are also taught in English teaching and learning process. English is considered as a difficult subject for the Indonesian students. Get yours now! Vocabulary is one of important aspects in teaching language. they are Listening. Social and Education.
grammar. We could discuss about methods. teachers must make the students able to memorize such words in English language and group of new words. There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as research subjects. and others. they have to give materials by using a suitable technique and master the lesson effectively.(New York: Harcout Brave Javanovich 1997). David Allen and Rebecca M. Limitation and Formulation 1. the English teacher has to be able to organize teaching and learning activities.149 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across . Foreign Language and English as a Second Language. and pronunciation. The statements above mean.. Vocabulary is one of the important factor in all language teaching. P. In this research it is identified that teaching technique for kindergarten level is 1 Edward. 1 B. student must continually be learning words as they learn structure and as they practice sound system. material selection. Problem identification Celce Maria stated : Research in first and second language acquisition suggest that initial teaching priorities for language areas should be vocabulary.2 Therefore. Vallete. Especially in learning vocabulary. Problem Identification. vocabulary is important to teach and teachers must try to find the most effective way to teach it. Classroom Technique..
2.2 3.How effective is the use of pictures in teaching vocabulary to kindergarten students?.nearly all Windows platforms. To specific this problem. Therefore.. Statement of the problems The writer conducts the study to see how well the pictures encourage students vocabulary mastery. The writer will give limitation of the problem in teaching vocabulary by using pictures especially in . This will be a report of an observation conducted at Madinah Kid. Noun and Verb . Which involved one teacher and six students. Celce Maria. Current Perspective on Pronunciation: Practice Anchored in Theory . Limitation of the problems To avoid misunderstanding and to clarify the problem. C. Scope of the Study The study overviews the teaching of English vocabulary through pictures to young learners in this case to kindergarten students. Tangerang. 2 Marianne. Get yours now! challenging. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.. The statement of the problem can be formulated into the general research question: . the specific research question are formulated as: . in this research the writer want to make a study about how to teach vocabulary for kindergarten level.s school kindergarten at Serpong . it is necessary to make limitation of the problem.How well the pictures encourage the kindergarten students vocabulary mastery?.
Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Get yours now! CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter discusses about: Vocabulary which consists of the meaning of . The Significance of the Study The result of this research will be useful for teachers of the kindergarten level in Indonesia to help them improve their performance in teaching. Get yours now! D. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.11 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.P.(Washington DC: Teachers of English to Speaker of Other Languages.(Teaching Pronunciation as Communication). 1987). pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.
vocabulary. Words alone do not make a language.Yet it is true that the vocabulary is the focus of language. It is in words that sounds and meaning interlock to allow us to communicate with one another. Humans can communicate with others through verbal language. To think of a language as just a stock of words is. the types of pictures. . we talk of this progress as a matter of learning new words. the types of vocabulary. . the use of pictures. the use of vocabulary. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.s school Profile. then The Pictures which consists of the meaning of pictures. the advantage and disadvantage of pictures and the last is Kindergarten Students which consists of the meaning of kindergarten. and discourse of pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Vocabulary One thing that differentiates human from animals is verbal language or speaking beside mind to think. however quite wrong. either to apply or to receive the information the animal can not do. we are also likely to feel that the adult speaker with the largest vocabulary has the best command of English. When we observed a child first acquiring speech. the age and characteristics of kindergarten students and Madinah kid. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. a grammar is needed to combine them in some intelligible way. and it is a word that we arrange together to make sentences. A. conversations.
Vocabulary building is really important in any language learning.Get yours now! all kinds. 3 Pyles Thomas and Algeo John. his next task into master its vocabulary that he needs. We know and use the words that suit our particular purposes and we continue to learn new words as long as we live. English an Introduction to Language (Harcout Brace Jovanich.p. 1. inc.3 Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills. generally the teacher teach new words taken from reading text. A Division of The Macmillan Company. The meaning of Vocabulary In some literature. Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English. She realizes how important the mastery of vocabulary is. Thus we have a paradox in that the most ephemeral part of language is also the center where meaning. This integration will lead to integrative lesson plan.. pronunciation and grammar come together.4 It is clear enough that everybody who learns a language as a foreign language is hoped to know and master the vocabulary to improve the language skills.Once a student has mastered the fundamental grammatical patterns of a language. teachers of kindergarten emphasizes on this matter earlier. we found the meaning of vocabulary.Macmillan International. The Key to the . There are some definitions of vocabulary.1 1997). In teaching vocabulary. particularly for people who study English as a foreign Language as stated in the Collier.Macmillan International: . It means that she integrates vocabulary with reading. Nobody ever learns all the words in any language.159 4 Collier. According to Harimurti Kridalaksana.
189 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Vocabulary is: .A list or collection of words usually alphabetically arranged and explained or lexicon.English Vocabulary (London: the Macmillan Company. vocabulary is: . b. A list or collection of terms or codes available for use. c. etc.7 Furthermore Webster Dictionary noted that..Vocabulary is a component of language that maintains all of information about meaning and using word in language. individual. 1991) p.5 According to Webster. A sum or stock of words employed by a language group individual or work or in a field of knowledge.8 While according to Roget.6 There are some experts who give definition of vocabulary Hatch and Brown define vocabulary as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of word that individual speakers of language might use. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.s Ninth Collegiate Dictionary. Get yours now! . Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. A list or collection of words and phrase usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined. stock of words use in language or by class.. Vocabulary is: a.
In the communication and every aspects of life such as in trade.1993). .s.1320 7 Evelyn Hatch and Cheryl Brown. edisi ke-3 (Jakarta. The Largest Abridgment of Webster.s inc. Specialized expression indigenous to a particular fields.p. An alphabetical list of words often defined or translated. the vocabulary includes idioms and two words verb. subject.p.127 6 Merriem. etc. Vocabulary. social. Get yours now! a.1 8 Webster. profession. c.s Collage Dictionary. education. business.s New International Dictionary of English Language. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.1073 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. trade or subculture. Webster Ninth Collegiate Dictionary ( New York: MerriemWebster.9 From the definition above. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.1935).1978). All the word of Language. b.p. USA: G&G Merriam co. etc. Webster. politic.1995)p. that vocabulary is a component of language and numbers of words by a person class.5 Harimurti Kridalaksana. Kamus Linguistik. Semantic and Language Education (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
the New Thesaurus: The American Heritage Dictionary ( Boston198 0). This includes being able to distinguish it from word with a similar form and being able to judge if the word form sounds right or look right. how to write and to spell it.p. it also involves not using the word too often if it is typically a low frequency word and using it in a suitable 9 Roget. Get yours now! situation using the word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to think of suitable substitutes for the word if there any. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.1036 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. a. Receptive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to recognize it when it is heard (What is the sound like?) or when it seen (What does it look like?) and having an expectation of what grammatical pattern the word will occurrence. how to use it in grammatical pattern along with the word in usually collocates with it. such a word. b. The Types of Vocabulary Nation has divided vocabulary in the specific reference.2. Productive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to pronounce the word.10 Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field Classified Vocabulary into two terms .s II.
It means that vocabulary is of two kinds function and content words.29 11 Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary lee Field.11Passive Vocabulary or comprehension consists of the words comprehended by the people.139 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. the students are supposed to know how to pronounce it well. because every person has different ways in showing and telling their opinions and ideas. they must know and be able to use grammar of the language target. It means that to use the productive vocabulary. Teaching and Learning Language (New York: New Burry house. it is more difficult to put into practice.1990). although. From Reader to Reading Teacher (New York: Cambridge University Pres. in fact. we know that every experts in every book is different in classifying the kinds of vocabulary. Passive Vocabulary refers to a language items that can be recognizes and understood in the context of reading or listening and also called as receptive Vocabulary.1977).p. 10 ISP Nation. Active Vocabulary refers to items the learner can use appropriately in speaking or writing and it is also called as productive vocabulary.there are: a.p. they are also hoped to familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of the words. Compatible across . This type is often used in speaking and writing skill. when they read and listen. b. From the explaining above.
If we want to communicate with others in certain language. Without vocabulary. It is supposed by Tang Li Shing in 12 Yang Zhihong.Words are the basic unit of language from supports it. That is the mastery of language skills (Listening.No. Mastery of vocabulary will be useful for the process of achieving language.13 B. On the others hand. we must master the language they belong to especially to know enough vocabulary of those language. Yang Zhihong who say that . Get yours now! 3. those who lack of vocabulary will face a lot of problems. Speaking. He also states that having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Long and Richards explain that vocabulary like grammar is an essential component of all uses of language. One who masters enough vocabulary will find fewer difficulties than those who have fewer vocabularies. .nearly all Windows platforms.. Reading. The Use of Vocabulary Vocabulary is important in case it could helps the students to enjoy their classes. and Writing).38. they will easily get the information from it since they can understand every word in the text. When they read a certain text. one cannot communicate to effectively or express idea.12 Furthermore.Vol. Pictures Pictures are kinds of visual instruction materials might be used more effectively to develop and sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes towards English and to teach or reinforce language skills.teaching objectives.Learning Words.3 July 2000 . English Teaching Forum.
XIX. Get yours now! His Article that . Picture is an image.13 Tang Li Shing.14 1. and people. The Picture had an irascible appeal for the children. all of which are indispensable in teaching and learning a foreign language. The Meaning of Pictures Jean L. or things. . graphs and maps are widely used.. murals. but sketches.A picture may not only be worth a thousand words it is may also be worth a thousand years or a thousand miles. Photograph prints are most common.16 Vernon S Gerlach stated: . person.English Teaching Forum. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. object.11 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. cartoons. drawing or photography. . or likeness of an object.4(October: 1981). places. charts. it is essential part of the overall experiences. Mckenchnie defines picture in Webster dictionary that .No.. especially by painting. or scene produce on a flat surface.Picture is not just an aspect of method but through its representation of place. They created suspense and surprises as well as interest.p.15 Meanwhile according to Andrew Wright. cut outs. Pictures are a two dimension visual representation of person..
Picture For Language.Mckenkchnie. S. Get yours now! Through pictures. Methodology in TESOL: a Book of Readings.14 Michael H Long and Jack.p.Gerlach .(New York: Newburry House Publishers.105 15 Jean L. Webster New Twentieth Century Dictionary Unabridge(William Collins Publisher. or others and should be interactive and interesting to capture the students. learning: Cambridge Handbook for Language Teacher(USA: Cambridge University Press.1980)Second Edition. As it has been explained by Vernon. Rhicards. attention the purpose of using pictures for the students is to give them an opportunity to practices the language in real context or in situations in which they can make it to communicate their ideas.p.1357 16 AndrewWright.1989).17 The kinds and numbers of pictures that the teacher should take with him to carry out the activities in class can be taken from magazines. learner can see people.29 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. they are easier to recall and to remember than words. C. articles. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. p. place and things from areas for outside their own picture can also represent image from ancient times or portray the future. The use of pictures are more efficient and practice than words.1987). further more they expose real life situation although it happened a long time ago.
and Donald p. Pictures can represent images from ancient times or portray the future. or even experiences.p. 2. places and things. 1986). Get yours now! From the meaning of pictures above. person.Pictures can be formed such: wall charts. Working With Words: A Guide to teaching and Learning Vocabulary (USA: Cambridge University Press. The Types of Pictures .19 17 Vernon.103 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents... if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Through pictures..produced flashcards..p.Gerlach and Donald P.273 18 Ibid.1980.p. Learner can be shown people. it indicates that the pictures has exchanged and represented the real object into a simple device which has displayed a series of places. Elly. from areas far outside their own experiences.18 According to Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman.273 19 Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman. object. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Teaching and Media a Systematic Approach 2nd (New Jersey: Prentice Hall). commercially.Picture may not only be worth a thousand miles. and of course illustration from course books and supplementary books.S. hand drawn pictures.Emily.
and a car. to introduce or test vocabulary items. But the realities that have been presented by pictures depend on the types of the pictures. There are two kinds of pictures that Brazyna Szyke finds especially useful as teaching aids. Portraits.4. pictures showing people in close details. between objects and people can be perfect teaching aid for introducing or reviewing grammatical or structures. Vol.20 20 Brazna Szyke. 1981) pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Pictures of individual persons or thing may be used mainly at the elementary level. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. The students can be asked question about the age and profession of the model b. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. for example: a man. they are: a. Get yours now! Types of Pictures According to Andrew Wright Are: .(English Teaching Forum.XIX. Pictures of situations in which person and object are .No. Pictures that they can see always lead to the reality of their minds. are useful for intermediate and advance learners. October.in action. people are able to reach outside their minds. Using Pictures as Teaching Aids.Through picture presentation.
Pictures of maps and symbols21 According to Betty Morgan Bowen. Pictures of the news i. the cards can be used to demonstrate exactly what the teacher wishes. No. 21 John Pread. Flash cards Word Flash cards. there are some types of pictures as their shapes: a. c.. 19. p. Pictures from history f. pictures of several people and pictures of people inaction d. card with printed words on it can help up rapidly. Measuring The Vocabulary Knowledge of Second Language Learners. It is usually to be used with the whole of class. Pictures of single object c. Wall charts b. d.2 (December:1988). Pictures with a lot of information g. Sequence Picture is a series of pictures of a single subject it is function is tell a story or a sequence of events.. Pictures of places e. Wall pictures: is simply a large illustration of scenes or events.12 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! . REIC Journal. Picture of person: picture of famous person. Pictures of fantasies h.b.
Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. which show a scene (Hospital. Composite Picture These are large single pictures.22 Meanwhile. brochures) .Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. useful for the representation of a single concept. advertisements. railway station. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. d. Noor Azlina Yunus in his book grouped the picture into four groups: a. A Picture Series A picture series is a number of related composite pictures linked to form a series of sequences. person or activities such pictures very in size from small newspaper pictures and can be mounted singly. charts. such as an object or in action. Work cards Includes visual as well as text magazine pictures drawing maps and diagrams can be important part or work cards at all levels used for vanity of purposes. c. beach. it is main function is to tell a story or sequence of events. Specialized Pictures (Posters. canteen. street) in Which number of people can be seen doing things b. e. Individual Picture These are single pictures of objects. Hence. Get yours now! Picture Flash cards.
Pictures can cue responses to questions or cue substitutions through control .23 22 Betty Morgan Bowen. d. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Pictures contribute to the context in which the language is being used. which the language teacher helps the student enter to an imaginative experience beyond the classroom. They bring the world into the classroom. e. 13. The pictures can be described an objective way or interpreted or responded to subjectively. London: essential Language. but rather for advertising or propaganda purposes. 1973).Teach Series. Look Here!.learning skills. Get yours now! The description above teaching some language.Wall posters are not designed specifically for teaching. Pictures can motivate the students and make him or her want to pay attention and want to take part. The Use of Pictures There are five roles of pictures: b. p.31 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. c. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. 3. Visual Aids In Language Teaching.
Pictures can stimulate and provide information to be referred to in conversation. Pictures can be used for revision from one lesson to another as well as for long term revision of vocabulary and structures. c. of course can be used to . to read and to write. Preparing and using aids for English Language Teaching. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Pictorial material allows for meaningful practice of vocabulary and structures presented by the teacher. Pictorial material can be used to supplement whatever textbook the teacher is using or whatever course he is following.p. 23 Noor Azlina Yunus. f.49 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. there are six reasons why pictures helpful in teaching learning process. e. Picture.practice. There are six reasons why using pictorial material: b.(Kuala Lumpur. Pictorial material can also provide a stimulus for using the language at the reproduction and manipulation stages to speak. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Oxford University Press. Get yours now! d. discussion and story telling beside Horse five roles in using picture. f. Pictures are useful for presenting new grammatical and vocabulary items. 1981).
They are easily manipulated. S. The Advantages of Pictures Used Following are some opinions concerning with the advantages of using pictures.provide more practice of the exercises that students have done using the text book. The visual detail make it possible to study subject. to make and to transport. They offer a stimulus to further study. which would turn back to be impossible. The Advantages And Disadvantages of Picture Used a. Get yours now! 7. g. 5. They are inexpensive and widely available. 4. reading and research visual evidence is power tool. 4. They help to focus attention and to develop critical judgment. 2. According to Vernon. Gerlach: 1. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. 6. They provide common experiences for an entire group. They can help you to prevent and correct disconcertion. Pictorial material is easy to collect. 3.24 .
b. Teacher should avoid using pictures or photographs attack more attention to them than to the activity. such as: 1. 2.s social.serving child ages four through six. The educational programs Kindergarten shares the common objective of helping the young child.cit. He also should control the students. Kindergarten Students 1. Op. 3. The letter includes the 24 Vernon.p. The teacher should make or choose attractive simple pictures to avoid wasting time and money. The Meaning of Kindergarten Kindergarten is an educational program. Small and unclear pictures may arouse problems in the teaching learning process since the students may misunderstand about the pictures. emotional. 2. C. It takes time and costs much to provide attractive pictures. activities including their attention during the teaching learning process. Students pay attention on the picture more than on learned material. The teacher should make or choose big and clear enough pictures in order to avoid misunderstanding about the pictures. and academic development.277 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! .S. 3. Possible ways to overcome them are: 1. Elly.Gerlach and Donald P. The Disadvantages of Pictures Used There are some disadvantages of pictures used in teaching and learning process.
but it will help the children to develop their knowledge. He understood and respected the nature of young children education before their enter the public school. Connecticut: Grollier .1852).(Danbury. the development of an initial understanding of mathematics.26 Even though the kindergarten is not the obligation to every children to follow this program.Kanak) of education and culture Department of Indonesia that kindergarten is an educational program for children between the ages 25 Jefferson to Latin. The Encyclopedia Americana.25 In another definition.Garis Besar Program Kegiatan Belajar Taman Kanak. talent.Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. It is same with what said by Friedrich Froebel (1782. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Get yours now! use of language. The Age and Characteristics of Kindergarten students We have known that the age criteria of kindergarten students are between 4 to 6 years old. and their environment. helping the children education at home but also giving many chances to them to learn about their self ability. The first educator opened the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.27 2. through their activities in the school. creativity. The program helps the children in entering their first formal education. beginning of learning in the social sciences and aesthetic appreciation. This is affirmed at the GBPKB 1994 (Garis. Kindergarten is the next level of education after playgroup before the children enter elementary school.
444 26 Hibanana S. So any child who ages four through six try to join one of educational program for children that is kindergarten to develop their knowledge and their creativity.16.emotional between the children and their peers. The development of socio.com/kompas%2Dcetak/0105/14dikbud/neor09.28The children can show considerable empathy toward people and animals when their own needs do not conflict with the needs of others. have characteristics in common with other children of their ages and characteristics that are particularly their own. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine..1996 Vol.htm pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Rahman. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. those are: a. 2002). (Jakarta: PGTKI Press. The kindergarten students. This also mentioned in the encyclopedia Americana that the kindergarten is an educational program serving for children ages four through six.35 27 http:/. no matter what their cultural and experiential background. When helpfulness is .p.Emotional Development Children develop socially and emotionally during the kindergarten year. Get yours now! of four to six. The Socio. Konsep Dasar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. p.kompas.Inorporated).
swing. Psikologi Pembangunan. 2001). Kindergarten children are developing a sense of independent but are also learning to work cooperatively with others. These elements relate each other in positive interaction that each of them support . L.html. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.29 b.31 c. etc. jump.Rosda Karya.ca/doks/kindergarten/kindchild.sk.gov.45 29 http:/www.sasked. helpful behavior is likely to become more common in the classroom.noticed. That is very useful to the development of their body. and related each other in achieving the perfect motorist condition. The Intellectual Development . climb. nerves and brain. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.(Bandung. 28 Zulkifli.cet ke-8.30 All of the physical activities are related to the motorist of the children include of three elements. such as muscles. complete. modeled and encouraged by the teacher. Get yours now! Most kindergarten students are full of energy. although children vary a great deal in development of physical skill abilities. The Physical Development Physical activity is one common characteristic of kindergarten children. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. active in following all activities such as run. p.
cit. addressed on Jalan Bukit Serpong Mas Blok D5 No.L. Get yours now! this school has twenty one students.cit. 10. Op.p. . pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.11 by the owner of the foundation Mrs. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. where three students for the Play Group A class.The children intellectual development is reflected in the rapid growth of vocabulary and the power to express ideas. On the first grand opening this school could get ten students.Loc. In one of the educational book says that the cognitive development increase rapidly. From the first Launching until now 30 Hibana S Rahman.p. Rahman. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Erida and her son Mr. 2004 . Madinah Kid. four students for the Kindergarten A and one student for the Kindergarten B class. two students for the Play group B class.s School was built on May 19. to the children curiosity in learning from their surrounding environment.31 32 Hibana S. Hj.cit.Heksa A.35 31 Zulkifli.32 3.s School Madinah Kid.Op. They are developing visual and auditory memory and the ability to listen to others. There are five students for Play Group Class.S Spd as a Head of the Foundation.
And the mission of this school is not only make our children bright in exact lessons but also make them to be a person that has good in Intellectual Quotient. and Adversity Quotient.P.Amd and one Cleaning service namely Mr.s School was lead by Mr. There are many facilities that can support the learning at school likes: Air conditioned room. Madinah Kid.learning process. Play Ground and Out bone Zone. This school was used English as a second language in daily teaching. all teachers should prepare their material to teach such as: make a lesson plan everyday. Cahyadi Irawan. Miss Leny SPd as a teacher in Kindergarten A and Miss Riana Ariestika SPi as a teacher in Kindergarten B. In this case they have to have ability in communicating.Nine students for Kindergarten A class. H.learning activity. During the teaching. Social and Environment Oriented also Religious Oriented. Emotional Quotient. make a weekly report. and Five students for Kindergarten B class. Global Oriented. socializing. good intelligence and good spiritual. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! .M. Hatta MPd. Language Laboratory. Computer Laboratory. Spiritual Quotient.MEd as a Principal and three teachers they are: Miss Indiastanti Prasetyo SPd as a teacher in Playgroup class. That is why this school using CBC (Competency Based Curriculum) with Life Skills Oriented. Beside that this school has one administration staff namely Miss Indah Purnawati.s School has a vision to prepare our kids in the future to have a bright future as bright as blue sky. Madinah Kid.
There are also other activity that will prepare to the students. Write and Read area. make a final term report. After that have a rest time to have a meal and play and then get the other areas. field trip. Sand area and Drama area. . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. and swim.an. super camp and competition. Construction area. doctor visiting. prepare a media and things that are going to make by the students. The learning activity in this school usually begin with morning activity. There are only four areas that the teacher should give to the students in once learning activity everyday. there are Discussion area. the student also completely with extra curricular activity such as audio visual learning in language laboratory. The teacher used to give a short games to find out which students that will go home early than other. Computer skill in the computer laboratory. Math area. Continue with watering the plant.s system. native speaker visiting. The last is closing where all the students praying together by recite prays. These areas were not given all in the one teaching . then pray. where the students do to make a line. All the learning process was based on the area. they are clinic visiting. Religion area.Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Daily pray and Hamdallah. manasik haji. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. recite Oath and greeting. and fish feeding. Short holy qur. Get yours now! Monthly report in the connecting book. learning activity. Beside learning activity by areas system. After that carry on to the next activity there are areas learning.
who can teach English at kindergarten. To know the qualification of the English teacher. 2. the research method. A. To develop the model of teaching English vocabulary by using the pictures in kindergarten. research subject. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. The Objective of Study The main purposes of this study are looking for an appropriate concept that can be considered by teachers who want to teach English at kindergarten level which will include : 1. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. 3. To know the appropriate method and technique that can support the teaching learning process in kindergarten.pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Get yours now! CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses about: the objective of study. instrument. the place and time. It is hoped that the teacher can use the information of the three points as basis . the research implementer and the research question.
The Research Method This study is conducted in the form of a survey. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Tangerang pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. The Research Implementer This research will be assisted by her fellow teachers as informants and observer. B.s school at Jl. The Place and Time This research was taken in Madinah Kid. Get yours now! C. This study is qualitative in nature. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. G. D. F. 10/11 Serpong Tangerang. E.for preparing the teaching learning process at school all ideas are related on these points will be discussed and analyzed. Bukit Serpong Mas Block D5 No. Research Questions .30th 2006. Research Subject The pupils and the teachers of Madinah Kid. Instrument Observation guide and check list will be used in this research. on September 4th.s school Serpong .
Is the atmosphere in teaching and learning situation getting more active by using pictures media ? pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Is it easier for the pupil to grasp the lessons trough picture media ? 4. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. the syllabus. These are .1. Social and environment oriented and Religious oriented. the classroom implementation and the research investigation. A. Are the pupils going to be bored when they learn the lessons through pictures media ? 5. Global oriented. Get yours now! CHAPTER IV RESEARCH INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH OUTCOME This chapter discusses about: the curriculum. Is picture media could attract the pupils attention in learning ? 2. The Curriculum and The Syllabus This school was used CBC (Competence Based Curriculum) on the teachinglearning process and integrates with many oriented such as: Life skills oriented. Are the pupils going to be more motivated in learning by using pictures media? 3. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.
other people and environment surrounding them. The Classroom Implementation . That is why this school was completed with many facilities to support the teaching learning process to increase the students ability such as : Computer laboratory. expressed their feeling. spiritual. Materials books (English books). social. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Because by playing kids have a chance to explore. On the other hands playing will help kids could be recognized with their self. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Language laboratory . B. The more information about the syllabus can be seen in the appendix of this skripsi. easy to socialize and has good intelligence students. speaking. outonomourship.. create and learn in the fun way. The syllabus or the lesson plan was made by integrating the national curriculum (CBC) and school oriented to build a communicative. emotional. find out. native speaker program pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. bilingual communication. This school try apply English language in everyday teaching learning process. cognitive and arts in order to prepare entering the elementary education level. Get yours now! and many other. The school realizes that all of those aims could be done by playing and learning activity .purposes to increase the students potentials such as: moral.
Teaching procedures are elaborated in three stages. they are: a. (in this case teacher point to the pictures of house part ) the teacher also explain a bit about the topic.well students.The teaching procedure are developed based on the theoretical framework and the analysis in the previous chapter.alaikum. today we are going to learn about home in English. knowledge.do you what is this?. after that the teacher drills the students pronunciation and the meanings parts of house by letting the students repeat what the teacher pronounced and answering the questions given about parts of house. Presentation Stage On this occasion. The method that was used in this presentation stages is discourse method that is submitting information or description concerning root of the matter verbally. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Next teacher asks some question about the topic to trigger the students. good morning students. how are you today?. for example . like: . Presentation stage need a good skill from teacher to explain the subject pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Then the teacher tells the students what are they going to learn at that day. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. these in order to warm up the situation.Assalamu. Here the teacher uses pictures for supporting the learning. the teacher greets the students and asks about their condition such as: .. .
Salam (Assalamu. Tangerang . To know their ability in understanding the subject. c. .Assalamu. is used in greeting between the teacher and the students. Production Stage The teacher give an evaluation in listening test.Wa. d. Practice Stage In this stage.Get yours now! b.alaikum students ?.s school at Bukit Serpong Mas . the teacher gives the students two kinds of exercises. Such as following short conversation : Teacher : .alaikum) and good morning . alaikummussalam Miss. method and coloring the picture. Students : . to make students able to find various answer by themselves. The children listening to the words given by the teacher and then they have to give a check mark on the pictures.dot to dot. For pronunciation exercise. In the last part of this stage the teacher concludes and closes the lesson by singing the new songs that the students learned (that is a window). Then the teacher has to find out the students response according the lessons had given. The method was used here is dialogue method. Teaching Procedures There are steps that the writer used in teaching vocabulary: 1. the students have to draw a house by using . in Madinah Kid. The method was used in this practice stage is experiment method. In the first exercise. Greetings Generally. the teacher must give the lesson step by step continually. The second exercise the students have to mention parts of house and tell about it.
3. Then the teacher tells each picture of house parts. 2. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. thank you and you ?.1. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Students : . The teacher put on the big picture of house parts on the white board. Presentation Stage Starting lesson by showing the pictures of house parts 2. 2. the teacher asked the students some questions about house parts and .do you know what picture is this ?.pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Students : .I am fine.I am fine too. Teacher : . To make the students pronounced and memorizing the words better. Get yours now! Teacher : . 2. Teacher : . Then the teacher asked the students to pronounce the words by themselves that is pointed by the teacher. After that the teacher asked the students to repeat the names of the house parts directly after the teacher.How are you today ?. good morning everybody . thank you honey. The teacher asked the students whether they know the picture such as following : .Good morning children.2.Good morning miss.
2.6. The teacher asks the students to stand up and sing together .dot to dot . and explain to them how to draw it. The teacher singing while pointing into (window. method and coloring the picture they made. door. floor. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.3. 3. The teacher monitors the students activities and after the time is up.that is a window song. and roof. teacher put the songs lyric on the white board. door. 2. The teacher distribute the exercises sheet to all the students. Get yours now! 2. Practice Stage 3. In the first exercise. The teacher asked the students to sing together the song that the teacher has sung first. floor. that is a window . roof). pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. and point to the window. 3. After the teacher feels satisfy with students pronunciation. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. 3. the students have to draw a house by using .5. the teacher begin to give the exercise about house parts in order to observed the students ability in spelling and memorizing words.2. the .4.teach the students the song .1.
one blue roof. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. 5. The teacher asked the students about the pictures while she took the worksheet. Conclusion of three study in that day.teacher collect the students worksheet. The teacher evaluates their abilities in feed back of the exercise one and two. Closure 5. four red windows.4. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. To know the students ability in understanding vocabularies.2. . The teacher asks his/her students some questions about pictures of house parts to know their ability. the teacher must give some pictures of house parts in form of question. 3. 3. 5.1. Production Stage 4. 4. students are able to answer the question correctly know the color and to count house parts.2. The teacher direct feedback of the evaluation test. Get yours now! 4. for an example : two green doors.1. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.5.
Is it easier for the pupil to catch the lessons trough picture media ? 4. Singing .. Get yours now! . together.4.That is a window. Are the pupils going to be more motivated in learning by using pictures media? 3. Are the pupils going to be bored when they learn the lessons through picture media ? 5. In this step the writer acts as the teacher and her fellow teacher.s check lists pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. C. Is picture media could attract the pupils attention in learning ? 2. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. 5.s act as observes.3. To help the observer. Alhamdulillah and thank you Allah . Is the atmosphere in teaching and learning situation getting more active by using picture media ? To get information observation are conducted. The Research Investigation It has been stated in chapter three that this study is aimed at answering the following questions: 1. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.5. Teacher closes the lesson by praying and singing .
Ada tidak siswa yang dalam pelajaran memandang keluar kelas ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 3.are used to answer each question in the research question. Ada tidak siswa yang dalam pelajaran asyik berbicara dengan kawan? ¥ 2. Ada tidak anak yang bertanya tentang Gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 2 anak 6. Ada tidak anak yang mengantuk selama pelajaran ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 5. Ada tidak yang spontan merespon tentang gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang) ¥ 5 anak 4. Here is the check lists statement: CHECK LIST QUESTION AND STATEMENT No Pernyataan Ya Tidak Keterangan 1. Apakah semua siswa memperhatikan gambar dengan baik ? ¥ .
Adakah siswa yang acuh ketika diminta melihat gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 8. Apakah ada murid yang aktif bertanya kepada guru ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 2 anak 13.7. menjawab dengan tepat ? (Jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 3 anak 11. Apakah ada siswa yang menjawab pertanyaan secara spontan ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 3 anak 10. Apakah siswa yang menjawab pertanyaan. Apakah para siswa langsung mengangkat tangan ketika diberi pertanyaan oleh guru ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 9 anak 12. Apakah guru memberikan pertanyaan tentang gambar ? ¥ 9. Apakah ada anak yang aktif berkomentar tentang gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 3 anak .
Apakah seluruh siswa memperhatikan semua penjelasan guru ? ¥ 16. Apakah guru memberikan penjelasan tentang ¥ pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Adakah siswa yang asyik sendiri ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 17. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Adakah siswa yang tampak bosan ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 18. Apakah selama pengajaran guru menyelingi . Get yours now! gambar ? 15. Adakah siswa yang mengeluh.14. selama pelajaran berlangsung ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 19.
dengan nyanyian ? ¥ 20. Apakah guru memberikan kertas yang bergambar rumah untuk diwarnai kepada murid ? ¥ 26. Apakah selama pengajaran murid-murid menjadi lebih aktif ? ¥ 23. Adakah murid yang diam dan tidak ikut bernyanyi ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 22. Apakah siswa yang mendapat kertas bergambar rumah terlihat antusias untuk . Apakah para murid ikut serta bernyanyi ? ¥ 21. Adakah siswa yang langsung hafal semua kosa kata baru dari gambar bagian-bagian rumah dalam bahasa Inggris yang ditunjukan ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 5 anak 25. Apakah murid-murid menjadi lebih akrab dengan guru? ¥ 24.
Apakah guru memantau murid pada saat murid mewarnai ? ¥ 32. Apakah guru menerangkan kembali setelah ¥ pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! . Apakah guru memberikan pertanyaan dan komentar tentang gambar yang diwarnai murid ¥ 33. Adakah siswa yang mewarnai gambar dengan sempurna ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 8 anak 30. Adakah siswa yang membanggakan hasil karyanya ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 8 anak 31. Apakah semua siswa yang mendapat kertas bergambar rumah mau mewarnainya ? ¥ 28.mewarnainya ? ¥ 27. Adakah siswa yang tidak mau menyelesaikan mewarnai gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?) ¥ 1 anak 29.
The Research Outcome 1.Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. To get information about Question number two. Get yours now! murid selesai mewarnai gambar ? 34. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.s and her fellow teacher.Is there anyone ever seen this picture ? . 2. The teacher.Did you ever show the lessons to your parents ? . it could be seen from three times observation and only one student was not interested because has semi autism problem.s who act as observer thinks that the used of pictures could attract the students motivation in learning activity. at the beginning of the classes the teacher asked the following questions : .Who prepared the lessons last night ? . Adakah murid yang kesulitan memberikan jawaban saat evaluasi ? (jika ada berapa Orang ? ) ¥ D. Apakah guru memberi evaluasi setelah pelajaran ? ¥ 35.
4. Get yours now! 5. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. To get information about number three we could see from the table above where the students looked more active to ask and answer the questions. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.Do you like to see another picture ? 3. According to the table we could see that student were not boring at all.. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Get yours now! CHAPTER V .Do you know what picture is this ? . Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. It is true that the atmosphere in teaching and learning getting more active by using picture media. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. It could be seen from the table that most of the student were eager to ask and answer questions.
several conclusion are drawn and a number of suggestion are put forward deal with: A. 5. 4. The use of pictures could attract the students curiosity in learning new vocabulary. 3. Therefore. the writer conclude that : 1.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Based on the research investigation and its outcome in the fourth chapter. Pictures are possibly used in teaching pronunciation and structure also. the writer uses pictures as one of the strategies in teaching that benefits the students in many ways. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! . Based on the research. Pictures help the students to understand the difficult words easily by looking at the pictures. Conclusion Vocabulary is one of the important factors in all language teaching learning And the students must continually learn new words as they learn structure and as they practice sound system. The use of Pictures makes the class more active and alive. The use of pictures make the vocabulary learning more enjoyable and interesting because they can memories the meaning of the difficult words by singing the song with the pictures as key words and without asking another person or looking them up in the dictionary. 2. but most of the students are not interested and motivated at all.
Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now! B. Suggestion The followings are suggestion from the writer for model of teaching vocabulary by using pictures for kindergarten students, that there are so many approaching type and method that can be developed by teachers for having a good and enjoyable class situation to reach out the curriculum target. 1. The teacher should choose the technique and materials that are appropriate with the students. needs and experiences so the class atmosphere become enjoyable and interesting. 2. The teacher should give short, clear and simple instruction. 3. The teacher should keep in control the students. activities. 4. The teacher should present the language in an enjoyable and relaxed way. It could be done by using pictures, songs, games etc. 5. The teacher should creative and active to find various method to teach the kindergarten students. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across
nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now! BIBLIOGRAPHY Aeborsold Jo Ann and Field Lee Mary, From Reader to Reading Teacher (New york: Cambridge University Press,1977) Allen, David, and Vallette Rebecca. M. Classroom technique. Foreign Language and English as a Second Language, (New York: Harcourt Brave Javanovich, 1997) Bowen Morgan Betty, Look Here! Visual Aids in Language Teaching (London: Essential Language- Teaching Series, 1973) DEPDIKBUD, Jakarta Utara, Kurikulum TK dan RA, 2005 Gairns Ruth and Redman Stuart, Working With Words: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary (USA Cambridge University Press,1986) Gerlach S Vernon and Elly P Donal, teaching and Media a Systematic Approach 2nd (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1980) Hatch Evelyn and Brown Cheryl, Vocabulary, Semantic and Language Education (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) http://kompas. Com/kompas%Dcetak/ 0105?dikbud/neor9.html http:/www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docks/kindergarten/kindchild.html Kridalaksana Harimurti, Kamus Linguistik,edisi ke-3 (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1993) Latin to Jefferson, The Encyclopedia Americana, (Danburry, Connecticut, Grolier
Incorporated), 1996, Vol.16 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now! Long Michael L and Richards Jack C, Methodology in TESOL: a Book of Readings, (New York: New Burry House Publishers, 1987) L . Zulkifli, Psikologi Pembangunan, (Bandung: ROSDA Karya,2001) Mackenkchnie Jean L, Webster New Twentieth Century Dictionary Unabridge (William Collins Publisher,1980) Macmillan Collier International, A Division Of Macmillan Company, The Key to the English Vocabulary (London:The Macmillan Company , 1991) Marianne, Maria, Celce, Current Perspektive on Pronunciation: Practice Anchored in Theory(Teaching Pronunciation as Communication), Washington DC: Teachers of English to Speaker Of Other Language,1977) Nation ISP,Teaching and Learning Language (New York: New Burry House, 1990) Pread John, Measuring The Vocabulary Knowledge of Second Language Learners, REIC Journal, 19 No. 02 (December-1988) Pyles Thomas and Algeo John, English an Introduction to Language(Harcourt Brave Javanovich, inc.10
03 July 2000 . Picture For Language Learning: Cambridge Handbook for Language Teacher (USA . USA : Cambridge University Press. Get yours now! Vol. .s The Largest Abridgement of Webster. XIX No. Preparing and Using English language Teaching. Cambridge Handbook for Language Teacher. Oktober 1981 ) Webster Merriem Ninth Collegiate Dictionary (New York: Merriem Webster. Vol. Konsep Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini.Using Picture as Teaching Aid.Rahman S Hibana.s College Dictionary. (USA : G & G Merriam co. 1978) Webster.s II The New Thesaurus: The American Heritage Dictionary (Boston 1980) Shing Tang Li. 1935) Wright Andrew. 4. No. English Teaching Forum. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.: (English Teaching Forum.s inc. Webster. XIX. Oxford University Press. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. English Teaching Forum. Learning Words. (Jakarta: PGTKI Press 2002) Roget./ 4 (Oktober: 1981) Szyke Brazna. 1989) Yunus Noor Azlina.38.s New International Dictionary of English Language. (Kuala Lumpur. 1981) Zhihong Yang. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. No.
Sometimes I introduce the difficult vocabulary first. I always have many questions prepared before class. I use all kinds of stories. magazine articles. When students see new words or expressions in context. etc.pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. When I teach. Some are relatively simple comprehension questions. flash cards. . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. they don't remember the words or don't use them correctly and so are misunderstood. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. However. By then. the most effective way was already hinted at in the post on 'graded readers'. When they leave the class. there are two advantages: 1) students remember the words better 2) students see HOW the words are used. news stories. jokes. there is one advantage to teaching vocabulary out of context. The very best way to learn. some are discussion questions. sometimes I let students read quickly first to get the main idea. of course. (click to see the best jokes I have collected). Most of the questions encourage students to use thevocabulary when speaking. At least.mnemonics (memory 'tricks').vocabulary is IN CONTEXT. I use children's stories. word games (including quiz games). they feel that way in class. Students see the words they are supposed to study and believe they must be making progress. but I don't want to force them to use any words unnaturally. Get yours now! have tried various methods to teach vocabulary . Now. from word lists or with games of any kind. and therefore teach.
this is what I have observed in teaching and in learning French. they blame themselves! So teachingvocabulary 'out of context' is safer for the teacher. Anyway. Spanish.they can't blame the teacher. Teaching vocabulary 'in context' is more effective. Other opinions are welcome! Teacher Joe . Japanese and Chinese.