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Acknowledgements Editorial Assistance BillStermer MichaelChurch Help and Encouragement Cort Sutton Kawasaki Motors Corp., U.S.A. MotorcycIist Magazine Cycle World Magazine California Superbike School Design and Ill ustrat io n CameronAshby Associates,Inc. Jeff Skrimstad lmportant Lessonsand Friends Bob West Mel Dinesen Pierre Des Roches R i c h a r dD a v i s GriffithPark L. Ron Hubbard Judy Code

Photography KevinAshby,page80 pages 74,75,79,94,95 Behar, Patrick 3, page82 RichChenet, page17 MushEmmons, Freud,page42 MaryGrothe,backcoveractionphotograph page 14 Motorcyclist Magazine, pages26, 51, 56, 88 TomRiles, page109 JohnUlrich,

California SupertrikeSchool, Inc. 800 530-3350

Copyright1983-2002Code Break, Inc.

ISBN: -918226-08-2 O Library of Congress C a t a l o gC a r d N u m b e r 82-73771 All rights reserved.No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any i m e a n sw i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n n w r i t i n g f r o m t h e a u t h o r .

Printed in the United States of America

containedin this book are intendedfor racingpurposes Warning: The ridingtechniques in resulting bodily for publisher acceptno responsibility anyaccidents only.Theauthorand and riderabilitythat speeds property that mightoccurfrom the increased damage harmor r h a l. b m a yb e g a i n e d y t h e u s eo f t h i sm a t e r i aT h ea u t h o r n dp u b l i s h ed o n o t g u a r a n t ete a t t h t o s h t r e a d e rw i l l a t t a i n h e s a m e i g hd e g r e e f r i d i n g k i l l s h a t o t h e r s a v eb y a p p l y i n gh e s e s that haveusedthese by notesand endorsements notedriders Supplemental techniques. that as shouldnot be takenas anyguarantee to safetyor competency might be techniques of the is lf gained, mprely personal experience. expertassistance required, services a as but agency shouldbe sought. statelicensed vi localspeedlaws. and observe clothing wearproperprotective Always

l f t h e r e ' sa p r o b l e m .Keithmade me think before t we got to the track. Kawasakihad been helping me with my short track program.T h i n g s a r e g o i n g r i g h t they must be. but believe me.I h a n d l ei t r i g h t a w a y . Here is the part that really surprised me: We spent days going over stuff that Keith h a d w r i t t e n d o w n a b o u t r a c i n g .I wasn't the fastest guy out there but it gave me the idea of what to do and.Foreword Eventhough I've only been road racing for two out of the twelve years of my g c a r e e r . This is where I started.I t h o u g h t w e w e r e g o i n g s t r a i g h tt o t h e t r a c k .i t s e e m sa s t h o u g h I ' v e b e e n d o i n g i t a l l a l o n g . There are some great people down there who believed I had some promise.that I did want to do it. I hope it works for you. while I was on the track. and after I got off the bike. w r i t ing down everything hat I was doing on the track. I find myself in the winner's circle at almost every race. My first time on the asphalt-for more than a couple of laps-was at the California Superbike School.G e t t h a t p a r t d o n e f i r s t . more importantly. lt was really a good experience. it wasn't always this easy. A f t e r w e d i d g e t t o t h e t r a c k t h e w h o l e t h i n g t u r n e d a r o u n da n d t h e r e I w a s . but I know n o w t h a t b e i n g a b l e t o t h i n k a b o u t y o u r r i d i n g i s i m p o r t a n t .E v e r y t h i n g o e s s o s m o o t h l yn o w . I don't know if everyonecan get into the winner's circle as fast as I did. Wayne Rainey vil . b u t h e r e I w a s a c t u a l l yl o o k i n gu p w o r d s i n t h e d i c t i o n a r ya n d t a l k i n g a b o u t r i d i n g . so they gave me a box stock racer and hired Keith Code to work with me for one year. Of course my dirt track racing helped.

Gontents Foreword Author's Note lntroduction ONI CHAPTER The Road You Ride The Mysteriesof Asphalt Revealed CHAPTER TWO 10 What You Do A You Become Scientist CHAPTER THREE 14 The Product With Understanding Precision Developing CHAPTER FOUR 24 What You See Through the Eyes YourComputer Programming CHAPTER FIVE 34 Timing Putting Thingsin Order CHAPTER SIX 42 Decisions f : D e c i s i o M a k i n g R e c i p eo r S k i l l n CHAPTER SEVEN 54 Barriers to Keys lmprovement EIGHT CHAPTER Braking The Art of RegulatingSpeed CHAPTER NINE 60 76 Steering It HappensBackwards CHAPTER TEN 80 vill Slipping and Sliding Traction: Howto Loselt and Uselt .-&-.r: .

.Homework Necessary CHAPTER FOURTEEN 102 Advice Ask YourBestFriend-You! CHAPTER FIFTEEN 104 How to Fall Your Relax-You're Just Road-Testing Leathers CHAPTER SIXTEEN 108 Sponsorship Lunch Therels No Free A Parting Word Appendix 1 15 117 trMarginNotesand Comments by EddieLawson Note: Special are for Extra wide margins provided your notes.CHAPTER ELEVEN Hanging Off It Looks Goodand lt Works CHAPTER TWELVE 90 Passing Who WasThatlJust Passed? CHAPTER THIRTEEN 96 Supervise Yourself ls Yes.

Gooverthe understood.Author's Note to The information in contained this bookis intended be used in riderto investigate master basicridingskillscovered each and the by a during is Noneof this information magic. the bestway to do and it. usinginformation in Thereis a certain it is one stepat a hasbeendeveloped chapter.however. You can learn the same thtngs. Mastering a each The things that Keith goes over in hls semrnars and book are things I do all the time. that eitherimproved timesor increased lap information worksif it is applied. .5OO and gettingresults morethan six yearsof training This riderconfidence. bit by bit. that is magic. understand then go out andapplyit. information really and pointwill establish certainty that you can do it. riders morethan 2.

and so on.k e o t l m "automatic. as p l e a s ew i t h o u t h e .lntroduction I'm goingto beginthis bookwith a littleconfession. tt strengthened the years throughmy observation the mostsucthat over ul as They cessf racers can go nearly fast in practice theydo in the race. i ridingor racing."so that you'llapproach barriers with the y i c o n f d e n c e n du n d e r s t a n d i na n ds o y o u c a nf u r t h e r o u rp u r p o s en a g. and by investigating the decisions you must make to ride well. I was making . tape it up. What'll lt Cost? lf your face shield leaks air. of Let'ssayyou havea ten-dollar bill'sworth of attention. xrl Attention. and is a keyelement how wellyou willfunction: in Attention has its limits. M y r e a s o n i nfg r t h i s i s s i m p l e . of on Nowthat you'veridden yearsandthousands miles. The alr won't come through and get your attention. lf you spendf ivedollars it on one aspect riding. for you probably of spendonlya n i c k l e r d i m eo n i t .n o a t t e r o w m a n yo t h e r m o h you muststill relyon yourown ability. you haveonlyf ive of of dollars for all the otheraspects. riders on the track.p r e s e c h a l l e n g e . always to hadjust as m u c hf u n r i d i n g l o n gb y m y s e l f n a r a c ea s I h a v e o m p e t i n g i t h o t h e r i w a c riders. challenging Thisgamehasrulesand barriers.The p u r p o s e f t h i s b o o ki s t o d e s c r i b eh e t e c h n o l o ga n dt h e r u l e s f r i d i n g o y t o fast so that everyrideis a "win. something lose. left Spendnineandyou haveonlyone dollarleft. whatever may be." Play the Game Well Riding fast on a motorcycle a tremendously is exhilarating and game.Throughout really beenall that interested racing-l in just a my racing career regarded otherriderson the trackas mostly I the Manytimestheygot in the way of the observations nuisance. m a b o u tm y r i d i n g a b o u th o w I c o u l di m p r o v e y r i d i n ga n d h o wt h a t l've information couldbe presented my students.and a purpose eachindividual for to who plays the game. There's to something win. R i d e r se l l m e t h a t s o m ec o m m o n o v e m e n t si. havea fixedamountof attention You amount money. p E a c h e r s o n a sa c e d a i na m o u n t f i t . never l've just wantedto ride. Whenyou first began rideyou probably to spentninedollars yourattention how to let out the demands yourattention. whereyou spendit whileridinga motorcycle.w h i c hv a r i e sr o m i n d i v i d u a o h o f tl just as you havea fixed individual. are Thetrackis t h e e v e r . it My overall approach riderimprovement to is:To simplify the actions of riding by defining the basics. u s et h e i ru n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t r a c kw h e nt h e y on pressure competition of forcingthemto "go fast.Theyaresimplyspending havebecome shifting.n oh e o t h e rr i d e r sT h i si d e ah a sb e e n nt ." not true. lt's . consequences a majormistake The of can be severe-severe enough makethe gameworth playing to well.

alsothat you be ableto but observe them. the racetrack.that left-over of On attention allows youto experiment to improve your ridingability.d o l l a rw o r t ho f a t t e n t i o n l t s i s l e f tf o r t h e i m p o r t a no p e r a t i o no f r i d i n g r r a c i n g . t o u . and High-performance ridingand racing demandnot onlythat you be ableto perform necessary the actions. you and Do agree? ln the nextchapters we'll lookat the gameand wherethe attention beingfocused spent. throttleand steering.l e s s t t e n t i o n n i t . a things that you do not understand are the things that will take up most of your attention.s m o o t h r r o u g h .T h em o r eo p e r a t i o ny o u r e d u c eo a o i s t t h e c o s to f a n i c k eo r d i m e . h e m o r eo f y o u rt e n . p o r d o w n . you a certain freedom movement. lf you know what you have doneyou know what can be changed. The better you get the lessmost thrngs cost.sodingout the actions ridingbeforeof handbuysyouthe time andf reedom become to creative with the activity just as havinglotsof changein yourpocketallows of riding. Youoftenfeara situnderstand. t s o j Y o um u s tm a k eh u n d r e d o f d e c i s i o nw h i l er i d i n g u s t o n el a p s s of a racetrack one stretchof road-especially or when ridingfast. What ls a Rider? Before launching into anything heavy.let's not losesight of the basicreason started we riding-it'sf un and makesus feelgood. R i d i n g s l i k et h a t .Hundreds!lf you understand enoughaboutridingto havecorrectly decided h a n d l e 5 o f t h o s es i t u a t i o n s . to On the positive side. And finally. a passenger.the changes become haphazard inaccurate. but you spend something on everythtng You do on a race track. is or We'll investigate barriers riding the to well and put intoactionthe stepsyou'lltaketo bringhomea "win" every time. / might only use one-tenth of a cent on some thtngs that cost another nder $5 00. riderworks the not The the brakes and clutch. determines the He whether t h e b i k eg o e sa r o u n d h e t u r nf a s to r s l o w . and all it takesis A Twist of the Wrist.Here's readily available freedom.99-you mayevenbecome overdrawn. ua r ep r o b a b l y f a i rr i d e rT h e yo h o wt o 2 . Whenever situation a arises that you do not yourattention become ixeduponit.Makingaccurate observations your performance the of is keyto beingableto improvethem. let'sagree that the rider is the person controlling motorcycle. course actionyou havealready The of p o t e n t i ap a n i c i t u a t i o n o s t sm u c hl e s st h a n l d e c i d e d p o nt o h a n d l e u a s c you this and leaves plentyof attention sortout youroptions. will f uation whenyou cannotpredictits outcome. and paniccosts$9. lf you did not observe what you were doing.

c l h ? t o o p e r a t e i s m a c h i n eT h eb a s i c o n t r o o p e r a t i o n h e t r a c ka n dw h o h e feelshe is being to to thesearea mystery him. fast or slow. I t a l m o s t o u n d s o o s i m p l e b u t i t ' st r u e : W h a ty o u d o i s s what happens.they or by don'tdo anything themselves. what you don't do-doesn't happen. t h e nd e c i d e s o ww e l li t a l lw o r k e d . h t . felt this way at times.E v e r y t h i ntg a t h a p p e n s u r i n g o a r i d ed e p e n d s o l e l y n t h e r i d e r . o a T h e r e ' s n a c t u atl e c h n o l o gty r i d i n g P e o p l e r en o t b o r na s a A goodor bad riders-riding skillis learned. a r r i e st o u t . He honestly is in relation fine. d r h s d o n ' tm a k em i s t a k e o r d o a n y t h i n g i g h t . Motorcycles Theydon'twin races losethem. . rider is a person who can lap a race track or ride down the road.lf you'vehadthosefeelings. you everseena new rideron the trackor roadstruggling Have t. . and know what he did and how to change it.evenexpertridershave takenfor a ride.i t w c w a n d i s t h e o n l yi n d i v i d u a l h o d e c i d e s h a ta c t i o n o t a k e .


Seldom are is therea hairpin the end of a straight at stretchof road. Highways constructed that are so somebackground. C h a n g e is C a m b e r : A i e c e f r o a dc a nh a v e p o s i t i v e n o a camber. Thismeans the camber-banking. The motorists travelfrom PointA to PointB veryeasily.Off-camber possible."or negative or .or chicanes. fasterthe turnsarenegotiated. c s the And always. Decreasing-radius corners rare. moredifficultthey the that can be designed become. the streetor track. The neers knowwhich to you wantto knowwhy they'reso comfortable. are theywantto see turnsareoftengentlybanked. allyafterthe fastest straight. s u e and "S" turns.o f o o l s t u a n dc h a l l e n g h i m .H a i r p i n a r ep u t i n t ot h e m o s td i f f i c u l s e c t i o n s . How onestheyare-but Which aspects imporare muchshouldyou knowaboutthe roadyou ride? of to tant andwhicharenot?Why aresomesections roadharder ride thanothers? First. is purposely have donefor yourconvenience. whenever Corners constructed a are in turnsareavoided predictable straight-forward manner. parts just into a dancewhereeverything happens the way that flow together On it's supposed with no surprises. it can have"off. highway engican you makeit in one piece. y l r a d i u s h a n g e t o b r e a k o u rf l o w a n df o r c ey o u i n t ou n u s u as i t u a t i o n s . and Designed to Fool You A racetrack another is Not muchof anything sort of beast. designers The a constructed o t t c s c o u r s eh a tw i l l c o n t i n u eo c r e a t e h a n g i n g i t u a t i o nfs r t h e r i d e rt.CHAPTER ONE The Road You Ride The Mysteries of Asphalt Revealed havetheirfavorite of the Riders invariably sections road. Haveyounoticed this? Types of Road p 1 .however. onlyf ivemajorchanges into an asphalt road. oftenhavea may baffle you with several slower Corners camber and exitthan entry. Thereare.

understand roadortrack. orderto you must understand characteristics. of whichwerenot planned the designers. You may not notice a slight bank at all. lncreases or decreasesin elevation may be added. a a c l a 4 . slowsyour bikedown evenmorewhenyou enterthe turn because the of increased resistance by is created this wall. n in as in a perfect halfcircle. Banked turns are comfortable for most ridersUnderstanding them allows you to take the full advantages they offer. With the addit.b o u n d d th cornering forces. must underIn standhow thesechanges affectyou and how you can besthandle them. Positive Gamber or Banking Most everyone comfortable is ridinga section roadthat has of p o s i t i v e a m b e rT h eb a n k i n g a st h e e f f e c t f h o l d i n g s o m eb a n k i n g r o h c . unlessyou looked at the turn before .lt maydecrease radius. Some examples? I t i s v e r y d i f fi c u l tt o s e et h e b a n k i n gw h i l e y o u ' r er i d i n go n i t . the roadcan be f lat. T 5 . of 3.A series turnscan of h a v e n yo r a l l o f t h e c a m b e r n d r a d i u s h a n g e si s t e d b o v e .o r i t m a yh a v e n i n c r e a s i nrg d i u so p e n i n g p a t t h e e n d .pulli n gy o ua n dt h e m a c h i n e o w nt h e w a l l . Series Turns:ln a series interdependent of of turns. of : t 2 .O r i t a u maybe a combination all three. C h a n g e is R a d i u sA s i n g l e u r n m a yb e a c o n s t a nrta d i u s . haveall the possible you by In situations. These the f ivemajorchanges are that can be engineered into a pieceof asphalt. up tightening toward a . l T C E n be addedat anypointto anytypeof turn or changein a roador track. orderto ridequicklyandsafely. U p h i l l D o w n h i la n dC r e s t e d r a c k h a n g e s : l e v a t i oc a n . a its Each of thesechanges a directinfluence you andyour bike'sprogress has on you throughthe corner. o y o u u p b y c r e a t i n g " w a l l "t o p u s ha g a i n sw i t h y o u rt i r e s T h eb a n ka l s o t a .the line y o ut a k et h r o u g h h e i n i t i a p a r to f t h et u r nw i l l b e p a r t l y e t e r m i n eb y t l d d whereyou wantto exit it to set up for the nextturn.ion bumpysections. S t r a i g hS e c t i o n s : h e s e r es e c t i o n w h e r el i t t l eo r n ot u r n a t s ing is required.Gravity workingfor you.A turn of Or. t h e e n d . maybe designed with anycombination thesecambers.c o u n t e r a c t i n g e o u t w a r d .inside the roadis higherthanthe outside.

y o u rb i k ea n dy o ua r ej u s t l i k et h e w e i g h t o u s w i n g you Go y t b o t h e p o i n tw h e r e h e b a n k i n g e g i n s o f l a t t e n u t .closeto the insideof the track. noticeable you increase as to so Alwaysdesignyourapproach you can usethe banking yourbestadvantage. of tracksurface keepthat degree turningradius to you ten lf the bankis 1Odegrees.n o r d e r t oc o n t i n u e a Theeffectis muchthe overfarther. banked angle.On bankedlrackyou don't enter low and come out htgh lapson the you rodeit. of you can turnsfasterthan it seems Youcan go into banked The whenyou sizeup the turn and lookat it f rom pastexperience.who f inallydiscovered one section trackwas banked-that waswhy theycouldgo so fast in that part.p u l l i n g o ua n d t you turnsso that you are in the Therefore.Also. afterridingseveral appeared the actually sections outside tri-ovalin a recordattempt. you lf trackangles. set up off-camber clearance. the bikemustbe leaned is to sameas goingf rom a banked a f lat surface. strategy the as off-camber situation shorta time as possible-just opposite . a of section roadto a flatter Also.Example: you arein a banked is to you must leanthe bikeoverevenmorein relation the overto the pegs. must leanthe bikeoverat least more on degrees keepthat turningradius the f latterroadsurface. by y I n a t u r n .Onthe high banksat Daytona. Thefaster around f ugalforce. you don't discover you be gettingawaywith ridingmaneuvers feelyou shouldn't withouteven y y y s k n o w i n g h y . muststraighten bikesinceit will dragmoreeasily and areleaned lf section the banking gone. banking g w i l l f o o l y o ui n i t i a l l y n dy o uw i l l p r o b a b l y o i n t oi t m u c ht o o s l o w l y . Wittthisimprove Turns Off-Camberor Negative-Gamber as who regard off-camberturns their I don't knowany riders do iessroomfor errorand definitely not inspire favorites. low in the bank.o uc a n w yourriding? begin to use the track to your advantage.andthe moreit triesto swingto weightbecomesrom centrif "holds"you in untilyou moveontothe f latter the outside.whenyou areexitinga banked when you the surface. These turnsleave confidence.I haveknownriders of that samecourse timesandwho had raced that wereverycloseto record that of 3Oor 40 times.T h i sg i v e s o u a n dy o u r t y h h a b i k et h e m a x i m u m o l d i n g d v a n t a gte e b a n k i n g a st o o f f e rb e f o r e o u r h from the forces bikebegins swingoutwardon the f lattersection to generated acceleration. demands with a bankand endsoff-camber A turnthat begins n t h e m o s tc h a n g e s n da d j u s t m e n tis l e a na n g l e sl.the banking and don'thavea straight yourspeed. might be theywent evenquicker. Thebanking section roadthat follows. to givesyou moregroundclearance than doesa flat The banking who couldrun laptimeson racetracks section track.O n c e o ud i s c o v etrh e r e a s o n b e h i n d o u ra b i l i t i e s .Afterknowing.the heavier the your headon a rubberband. whenthe bankis gone.Gravity now working y o u rb i k et o t h e o u t s i d eY o ul o s eg r o u n d y .lt is easyto tiltedat a 2O-degree f latto me andthe pit arealooked you'releaned over because be deceived evena smallamountof banking by less becomes viewof the road. aroundit. a g a i n sy o u .

rideris sucked The intothe turn because is he b a s i n g i s r i d i n g a c t i c s n w h a tt h e t u r n l o o k sl i k ei n s t e a d f t a k i n g n t o h t o i o a c c o u ntth e c h a n g e sn c a m b e t h a t c a ns o s e r i o u s la f f e c th i m . Flat Turns Turnswith no negative positive or camber-flat turns-willnot increase decrease leananglenecessary negotiate or the to them at a . hasbeencalled "squaring a turn or "goingslow in the slow parts. mit yourself the maximum to leanangleat the veryendof the section. m u c ha s p o s s i b l eB a s i c a l l y o ue n t e r s v e r t i c a l la s p o s s i b l e h e nm a k e . An effective alternative to set up so that yourgreatest is leaning occursin the middleof the off-camber lt section.H em u s t i r y r e a l i z t h a tg r a v i t ys n o w p u l l i n g h e b i k ei n t h e o p p o s i t e i r e c t i o n f h i s e i t d o i n t e n d e t u r n .a n dt h et e n d e n c o f t h e b i k et o g o t o w a r d h e o u t s i d en d y t i an off-camber turn is dramaticWitt hetp? .''rffil asfor a banked turn. t h e m a j o r t e e r i n g h a n g e n de x i ta s s t r a i g ha s p o s s i b l e . wouldonlycomsection. this As speed increases. The line must change as the speed goes up. y a t. s c a t Riders tendto seethe basicturn moreclearly it because is moreobvious thanthe camber This is one of the deceptive change. centrif ugal forces genefated by the bike/rider combination widen the cornering arc. tricks of the racetrack designer.Usestraight lineson the partsof the trackthat are you don'twantto be committed your maximum off-camber because to leananglegoinginto an off-camber you ldeally."lt refers the type off" to y o f t u r n h a n d l i n gh a t a l l o w s o ut o s t r a i g h t eo u t t h e n e g a t i v c a m b e r s t n e a .

t b T h e r e s n o r u l ea st o h o w i t s h o u l d e d o n e . As men(widens) decreases as increases nor (s w t i o n e d b o v ei. turnsof this kind.I n a r e a l l yi g h t h a i r p i n o u m u s tm a k ea n a b r u p t u r n i n g t b c h a n g e . greatly in a turn. (CR) Gonstant-RadiusTurn: A constant-radius turn neither (tightens) you go throughit.r a d i out the turn is banked the entryandf lattens on the exit it will have on lf radius. a r a r i d i n g r o u n d h e i n s i d e t m a xs p e e d n d m a xl e a ns o o n e o r l a t e ry o u t a intoa flat Taking wide entry a mayaswell get downto it at the beginning.In a f latturn the distance line-it'salsothe shortest straightest r a d i u s h a n g es p u t i n f o r i a c t h e r ei s n o a t t e m p t o f o o l t h er i d e ru n l e s s l a t v a r i a t i o n . D o if d e c r e a s i n g . c a na c ta s a (uR ) t u r nF o re x a m p l e .it actsas an increasing-radius.r a d i uu r n h a sc a m b e c h a n g e si . y e n t r ya n de x i t .knowing location the camber the changes. mostfast ridersprefer of a basically turn with no radius flat way throughis the In to rideit on the inside.o uw i l l e v e n t u a l l yi n d u p o n t h e i n s i d e f t h et u r nf o r m o s to f i t . the track.--F1 Gamber changes dramatically aff ect how a turn can be ridden. i t r ts l f a c o n s t a n t .r a d i uC R ) t u r n i t h n o c a m b e r a y w o c h a n g e s .S i n c e o u ' r e o i n gt o b e o maximum peedorthelongest f s .i s h o u l d e d o n ea t t h e p o i n ta t w h i c hy o uf e e lm o s tc o n f i d e n t . ---=-'-t- ' H Ghangesin Radius I Positive Camber twist the of Designers change radius a turn to put an additional t i n t h e a c t i o n H e r e r et h e b a s i c i n d so f r a d i ia n dh o wt o h a n d l eh e mo n k a . Wheredoesthisapply? . you may haveotheroptionsas to how to set up the lf it is a TurnTwo at Daytona a greatexample radius constant speed. constant or and changes.r a d i(u sR ) r a s a n i n c r e a s i n g .h e s eu r n sc o m m i t h e r i d e r o h i s m a x i m u me a na n g l e n d T t y g p e r i o d f t i m e . ls . y t a t u r no n l yg i v e s o m e o n e c h a n c eo p a s s o u .f i t i s a f a i r l yl o n gc o n s t a n t .the fastest around is veryeasyto have yourattention of stuckto the radius a turn so you don't seethe camber will of changes helpyou Thus. very on professionals well-to ridethe turnsthe way as common amateurs-and for they appearat speedand not the way they reallyare. it is flat on the exactly sameeffecton your bikeas the decreasing lt is the entryand banked the exit. s Constant Radius Off Camber .

Increasing-Radius(lR) Turns: Thisturn widens-itsangle you go through it. .An lR turn can be changed of dramatically the camby just as the DRturn can be. single-apex turn.depending at uponthe severity of the banking. DRturn that is f lat on the entrance and banked the exitwill act as an lR or will act as a CRor DRturn.The notorious decreasing radius turn. andf lat or off-camber the exit. Some places you have to use a real wrde line so you don't scrub speed off. but not always.but in a larger turn you mustdouble-apex turn.the designer (DR) triesto trickyou intotreatingit as a constant-radius.By figuringa turn correctly. lf youfall for that.or 3) Backoff the gasso that oneandtwo abovedon't happen. Designed to invite you in faster than it lets you out- = Usually oasy to rlde. a turn is constructed that it forcesyouto go slowat lf so somepoint.The radius of the turn is usually second in importance to its camber. ridethe track-the designer decide for you trackdoesnot rideyou. the Youcan makethe turn longer yourself takinga wide for by your speedup andcuts down on the abruptness entryline. An lR givesyou the safestfeelbecomes lesssevere-as you ing because haveroomat the endto makechanges and haveprobin ablyjust beensuckedinto ridingthe trackthe way it looksrather than the way it is.lf it is banked berof the road. the increasing radius turn can be made difficult with camber changes.This keeps of the actualsteering A change. to cheat turn Try the turn out of one apexand it will get you backwith the other. Increasing Radius Decreasing-RadiusTurns: Thisis a turn that tightensup as you go mustdecidewhereto go slow instead letting of the mustdo one of threethings:1) Runwide at the exit. Youcan easilyrecover from going into an lR turn too fast because you haveplenty room. a DRturn In you mustridewhat is there:don'ttry to makethe turn into something it is not.lf you makea big mistake line. Areyou aware this? of Series of Turns: Two or moreturnslinked together sucha in way as to influence eachotherarecalleda series turns. A decreasing-radius hasat leasttwo apexes. ln a decreasing-radius turn.2) Lean the bikeovermoreat the endof the turn.They're of usually designed slow you down at a placewhereyou otherwise to could go faster.Somemisleading information beencirculating years has for which saysyou "lateapex"DRturns.Thismaybe true in a verytight DRturn. goingin.depending at upon how much negative camberit has.

portions trackwith of are Straight Sections: These straight to hasthe same Anv as bestto go overa crestedroadas vertically possible. Youcan usethebrakes percent harderwithout t i l t h e mu p . riding. entryinto a two-turn"S" is fasterthanthe exit' lf the it entryis takenasfast as possible.n o t o n l yw h e r es p e e d s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i ob u tf o r s a f e t y ' s your riding is of The purpose a racetrack to test and retest sakeas well. which slows oftenholdtheirbreathduringintense w c o i L a c k f o x y g e n s o n ec a u s e f m u s c l e r a m p s h i l er i d i n g . the with a crestin the middleis alsotrickybecause bike A turn Again. b e r i d d e nU p h i l l n dd o w n h i ls e c t i o n o f a t r a c kd o n ' tp o s ea n yp a r t i c u c p r o b l e m n l e s sh e ya r ei n c o n j u n c t i ow i t h a t r i c k yc a m b e r h a n g e .a n dt h a t ' sa l o t !O n a d o w n h i ls e c t i o nh e s i t u a t i o ns r e v e r s e d ."of course. Downhill and Crested Turns: Whena track in changes how it must it someexciting in changes elevation.the Forexample. wouldput placein orderto go fast in others-his"slow.t h e r i d e r i l l s a c r iifc es o m es p e e d o i n g d driveout of the turn. cancreate l s a . lessened. T h eo t h e rp o s s i b l e r o b l e m i t h u p h i l l d o w n l t h e b r a k e so c km o r ee a s i l y . some attemptto lull us the Hereagain. elevation. t t o r i d i n g h e m . force on lf sections.Straightaways a greatplace relax are to no turnsor changes affect regularly. in to It is verydistracting makethis kindof change the second you mustgo slow in has Roberts oftensaidthat Kenny turn in a series. p w . n t lar u u a n r a d i u s h a n g e r b o t h .T h i si s n ' t you haveto makea turn whilethe f rontwheelis problem unless really a s t i l li n t h e a i r . affectas a short patchof off-camberroad.whetherit be series turnsand of radius. no .No amountof bravery substitute is traction. with the throttleon the way in and settingup a smooth beingtemperate suchas thoseat Pocono.Yourtask is to unravel to by usingyour knowledge youradvanof the mysteries the construction and for will tage. camber. pressure the bikeis of the downward hill a crested is trickybecause in This results lesstraction. examples? you havethe advanyou mustbrake.Oftenthis is a betterstrategy in for a moreconstant to than having backoff and set up againfor the exit.D i f f i c u l t i eis u p a n dd o w ns e c t i o n s s u a l l y r i s e c o At risefollowedby a downhill. mostof us intocardiac d I e r a i n t ot a k i n g c t i o n i t h e t o o s o o no r t o o l a t e . n s o m eh i g h . worth overa secondin laptime.Chicanes exit is this? Can applv Daytona and SearsPointare good is intended the designers be difficult.lf the entryis g w a p p r o a c h ew i t ht h e e x i ti n m i n d . made is The roadyou ride. this pointthe wherethereis a crestor sharp Braking over be bikewillfeel lightandwill actually lighton the pavement. to by skill. designers arrest.s p e ec h i c a n e s . Check seethat you are breathing theirefficiency. o publicor racetrack. o t r i h i l la n dc r e s t e d o a d s s t h a t b i k e s e n dt o w h e e l i e v e rt h e m . will spoilthe exit. i n. Riders to or for a second two.vou Uphill. up of the f ivecomponents: yourapproach determines combined are Howthesecomponents straights. the hillthat you'rebraking hasa 15-degree you backanddown givesyou a 27 percent betterstoppulling of gravity locking 27 pingfactor. where On uphillsections tagethat you can stopor slowthe bikefasterthan on f lat or downhill the slope. thereis a lossof tendsto standup andgo towardthe outside.

playa hugerolein determining especially whattirewill be the bestthat day.for g i n s t a n c e .An overcast that doesnot allowthe day tracksurface heatup may require different than a sunnyday.amountof suspension changes entirely will overcome forces the generated thesef ivecomponents. There are a lot of klnds of pavement. heat.andoftenis. Sometrmes the ones that look lrke they are really gorng to be strcky are lust the oppostte. Thisis the caseat Sears Point Raceway Sonoma.which is one of the reasons choicehasbecome verycritical tire a e l e m e nitn r a c i n g . Otherfactors. t technology already will havechanged andtherewill be newtire compounds-better thanwhatwe now have.t h e t .I haveheardit saidthat tractionis betterafteran auto racewhere a lot of rubberhasbecome imbedded the asphalt. And tiresthat work well in the morning. wherethe trackis a composite threeor of four different asphalt compounds. you it? by Do get Note: Track Surfaces Most racetracksand canyonroadsare constructed from asphalt compounds. in California. alsoheardriders in l've say it was not as good. especially of on from an automobilerace-providing therearen'tloosepieces rubber the track of on surface.f t e nh a v e r o u n d .even to a tire if airtemperature the same. to Racetracks. Tiresthat workverywell in one area tendto slidearoundin others.u p e as h e l l s r g r a n i t e h i p sm i x e di n t ot h e o s o c asphalt givetiresa bettersurface biteon. andtherefore to to better traction. . I can tell whether I want to push ritor not. Asphaltcan be. My own observation that laptimes arefaster is afterthe trackhasa goodlayer rubber it. Tiresandasphalt an entire are technology untothemselves and l w i l l n o tt r y t o d e a l w i t h h e m i n t h i sw r i t i n g B y t h et i m ey o u r e a d h i s . vice Theamountof rubber the trackalsomakes difference on a in traction. will in the afternoon-and versa. before trackhasheated sometimes not provide the goodtraction up. is Asphaltsurfaces that aredarkerin color heatup morethan lighter-colored sections. You've got to be able to "read" pavement.Thecompounding oftenverydifferent is from trackto trackand road to road. mixedwith various substances createdifferenttypesof roadsurfaces.

"s o u n d s t for doesit contain you to improve? but enough. "l that well. h ej o b i s t o a d dt o t h o s e d a l lh e i s a l r e a d y o i n g Do do correctactionsand drop the incorrect. To was done.l d o n ' tb r a k e a t ee n o u g h n T u r nT w o .""l needto get a driveoff the didn'tgo to church. w h a ty o ud i d . Most ridersusethesenegative much.Thisleaves at tryingto correct i l y o u n o t h i n g o c h a n g e". Shouldn't betterlinethroughthis turn. T m o r er i g h tt h a nw r o n g .p r o d u c t i vG h a n g i n gs o m e - 10 . you this? You Gan't Correct What You Didn't Do w i T h eo n l yw a yt o m a k ec h a n g e sn y o u rr i d i n gi s t o c h a n g e h a t done. wordsmuchtoo often." shouldhavegottena better theirriding.Don't.Not enough.N e g a t i vte i n k i n g s i n c r e db l yn o n ."Didn't.or thingsthat were Howcan information lf his everimprove riding? a personis ridingat almost-ornot quite-done.t h i n o f y o u rr i d i n gi n n e g a t i v ea n dy o u d o n ' th a v e k to it the way it was andyou havesomething Lookat to anything change. e. This is a keyto improvement. what information innocent patchjust before "l the at lf you sayinstead.D o n ' tf a l l i n t ot h e t r a po f Y t h e r ei s t o d o i n l i f e . know s I t ' ss i m p l e . done.Can't. startedbraking the asphalt laterthanthat"'you even threemarketand now I knowI can brake number to what was doneand now havesomething change. o uo n l yd i d your ridingby looking whatyou didn'tdo.not what whatrye5. aboutwhat he didn'tdo right. do that you haveto knowexactly lot of thingson that lastlap-youdidn'twashyour Was!:! Youdidn'tdo a else andyou didn'tdo just abouteverything car.CHAPTER TWO What You Do You Become A Scientist the weaponis his abilityto perform actions Therider'sultimate andto be able to observe and remember what he has of riding. i i g h c h a n e . Don't Badmouth Yourself about Manyridershavea bad habitof talkingin negatives "l "l didn'tgo in hardenough." don't usethe brakes Too have.

Youhaveno reckoning The maze triesto makeyou losea f irm pointof direction opening by up can go quitefast. lf you already havea record your laptimeson the track. r a observing what you'redoing.Wilt work you? on it for Riding is One Thing-Riding Plus Being Aware of What You Are Doing is Ouite Another You haveonlyso muchattention spendon whatyou are to d o i n g y o u rt e n . whereyou'vebeenandwhereyou cango. Thinking negatively aboutyour riding putsyou intoa maze. costsa lt lot of attention do boththingsat once.But if you spendfive yourself dollars ridingandf iveon observing on andwhat you'redoing.You're spending lot on looking a and a littleless ondoing. Howdo you develop this wonderf abilityto rideand observe ul whatyou'redoingat the sametime?Yousimplydecide do it. firstthing you'llnoticewill be and makean effortto observe The that you went slower whiledoingboththe ridingand observing.thing you didn't do is impossible. / know what I look lrke gotng through the turns lt might look havea stablebasef romwhichto makecorrections the next's the sameon a race track. look at the track and get the ieel of the btke. An accurate mental recording of what you do on the track is invaluable.l f y o u s p e n di t a l lo n j u s t r i d i n g n d n o n eo n .Don'tgiveup.Youwon't be willingto rideas to hard.You make to an effort to look at what you are doing while you are doing it. .d o l l ab i l l .thendisorients by covering to up havesomething lookat andchange to whenyou returnto the pits.You don't haveto hopeyou can work yourselfinto a feverpitch to go fasteryou can go fasterby figuringout how to do it better. mirrormaze A workslikethat-it givesyou you nowhere startyourthinkingfrom.go out of yourself. but it works I go slow tn the first practrce.lf you knowjust what you did. Whenyou havea f irm ideaof whereyou camefrom you go can always backto that pointand startover. Try it.

observe everything Then. Because they don't know what helped. s a Observing whereandwhat happened the trackwill make on part something a littlerearwheelslidea predictable of riding.but there'sa twist. 12 lf you go out on the trackand run a betterlaptime.He mightpick up oneto five seconds doingit. Youcan easily cheatyourself of the knowledge be out to gained rom mistakes. Does make sense? it Observing ls the Basis for Change Wheneverythingis rightyou can tell exactlywhich laps were good. lt maytakea ridera yearor on partsof the moreto decideit's okayto slidethe reartire a bit on certain track. you don't knowwhat'scomingup in a turn.takean entirepractice session the trackandtry to on you'redoing.lf you "rideout your . Riding with lesseffortmeans that you'respending moreof yourattention what'simportant on and lesson just beingready surfor prises. You can keepthingsthe same.You'llnoticeoneof two things: 1) Youwentfaster. you will not be ableto strengthen the actions that worked. is oneof the This a waysridersbecomesuperstitious.andalsonotices a wherehe was sliding andwhat broughtit about.Take lt as a Whole Now. Riders who just rideand don'tobserve believe that everything happened that lap mustbe reproduced that on exactly and in the sameorderfor themto repeat goodperformance.Comebackto the pits andthink it over.hassomething basea decision to upon-hecan decideif the sliding was helpfulor if it didn'twork andshouldbe stopped altogether.but onlyby observing what you did and by deciding whichfactorsworked best. riders go about trying to keep all factors the same as they were at the time they rode well.Observing what you do is the key to learning by your mistakes. After you becomemorecomfortablewith it youwill spendlessattention it. whenyou first beginto observe whatyou're doing it will cost you a lot of attention.he might on havebeenspending almostall of his attention tryingto keepthe rear in w h e e l f r o m p i n n i n g n ds l i p p i n g . f Let'ssayyou got into a turn a littletoo hardand you wentwide of your will be tense. rider like A who observes drop in laptimes.Normally.lf lf you havetakensometime to observe you whatwas happening. havespent lessattentionon possiblesurprises. That'sf ine. But before by coming to that decision. wouldtry to get backto that good line-towhat worked. takethe nextpractice andjust ride. which maytakeonlya splitsecond the track. 2) the ridingbecame or lessworkthan before.but have not observed whatyou did to causeit. also lt's possible that both things happened-you went fasterwith lesseffort. It Costs More Attention to Keep Something From Happening Than lt Does to Make Something Happen As in anything.

He has to earlier realize that he was operating from an earlier decision to go to this straight.Oncea mistake this before-it's Youmay haveheard occurson any lapor in anyturn."l didn'tturn soon Most riders change. not the later one to turn. Does apply you? lf You Decide Upon the Wrong Explanation for a Mistake. except a h o wt o h a n d l et s h o u l di t e v e rh a p p e n g a i n .lt Thatisn'ttrue. Ride a mistake out and see what happens. had madea steering too he straight long. have Riders that'sthe starting knowwhat happens-and newmethodof ridingaftermakingmisbeenknownto adapta completely takes. 13 . keptit pointing enough. It ls the Last Thing You Did That Got You lnto Trouble you or is The rootof the mistake the controlchange decisions the occurred. lt will costyou thanto go from happening moreattention try to keepsomething to through with what you have line mistake." will learnhow that different works.Tryingdesperately you'vemadea mistake won't tell you anything to get backto the idealonce will Riding that mistake giveyou out that you'vemadea mistake.but at leastyou'll pointfor change. Being able to ride is can'troll backthe clockor the asphalt to correctit. but riding and observing leads to understanding." what happened he begins if for will takea lot longer the riderto realize it for from when he noticed than if he goesbackto the looking the problem pointof wherehe was steering the beforehe began turn. Therider A goodexample this is of the got therebecause waswherehe had pointed bikethe lasttime he it wouldsay. the Solutions for It Will Also Be Wrong of for obseruer basicreason beinga careful Thisis another what you do. Figureout what went wrongand correctit on the nextlap. Do youthinkit witt work? By the Time You Notice a Mistake lt ls Too Late To Gorrect lt true. i v a l u a b l e f o r m a t i oa b o u t in n you Everything do may be a littlewrong.Actually. madeandacteduponjust before problem goingintoa turn too witJe. You'lljust haveto makethe bestof it.

CHAPTER THREE The Product Developing Precision with Understanding What is the bestline What is the linethroughTurnThree? from another's? throughanycorner? Why is one rider'slineso different 5O Years of lmprovement theoryhas Linesusedto be easier figureout. was reckoned."Butthingshavechanged today. true Physics natural and lawshavenot changed-tires suspenand 'SOs In riders werelimitedby the lackof sionshave. 14 . ridingpossibilities whileleaned overand othercurrent-day simplyout of State of the ail? Good enough to win laconia in 1965. the and earlier..but it's not necessarily today. Theyhadto takethe smoothest.A lot of racing to beendeveloped the last 50 yearsof racing. technology. . . straightest throughthe turn was the it line the fastest way. braking roughor rippled on was truethen. line the shortest throughthe turnsbecause hard-rubber compounds tire in and non-compliant of suspensions the earlydaysmadeabruptchanges over-enthusiastic braking direction. a On motorcycle. sophisticated straightest.and that's a lot of historyto in backup the ideas that still hauntus from the 1950sand earlier.or "line.

b u tt h e o u t d a t e di d e ri n f o r mationf romthosedaysstill confusessomeof us in the '80s. here's what happened.what can I do to improve it?" Thesimplest wayto recognize spot is to remember that where youwerebraveenough think. it is the end result when all the work is done.R i d i n g t y l e s a v e a s v t r li c h a n g e d e r yd r a m a t i c a l sy n c e h e 19 5 0 s .And a comparison this passthroughthe turn of passes.the sumtotal of everything did in the turn you is neatly wrappedup.your b o d yp o s i t i o n n t h e b i k e . A sub-product is a definite set of known circumstances that lead to the product for that turn. action. e T i r ea n ds u s p e n s i otn c h n o l o gh a v e a d ei t p o s s i b l t o r i d e e y m h m o r et h a no n e l i n et h r o u g h t u r na n dm a k ei t w o r k . Yourimpressions whatyou did and of how well it workedout."l'm donewith that turn now-here's what I did this time.U s u a l l y o m ea m o u n o f l e a n n g l eT h ea m o u n t o s t a .A freshlook and can at riderinformation technology helpyou ridebetternow."l couldgo throughthat one quicker. you haveoverthe bike.yourspeedat that point.The quality of your product is determined by all of what happened and how it knowthat whatyou did eitherworkedor it didn't.Somepartsof the productwereassembled correctly-maybe some t w e r e n ' tT h i sp r o d u c h a sa l o c a t i o n n t h e t r a c k w h i c hf o r e x a m p l e i g h t . corrected or left alone. with yourearlier All and more. Bothyourproducts andsub-products havean exactloca- 15 .arepartof yeqr product for that turn. Now. o .i t h e q u e s t i o nl . o u p r o b a b l y wouldhavewon the race. y o u h a do w n e da s e to f D u n l o p p o r tE l i t e sn 1 9 5 Oa n d f S y K G h a dg o n et o t h e l s l eo f M a no n a 1 9 8 O s a w a s a k i P Z5 5 O ." is that pointwhere of lt you can say.Thesteering of control actionyou are-orarenottaking. !hg! is when you're done with it. Definition: A product is something that is produced." to Wlren you have enough attention left to reviewyour progress.areimportant Otherfactors. That'sa streetbikewith street tirestoday. besides on partsof the product: what gearyou'rein. Haveyou experienced this? At that point. w Other Factors your location the track. You can turn it over to see if it can be produced better or differently. Product of the Turn A turn or series turnshasa "product. of these. y y w f i n i s h e d i t h t h e t u r nf o r t h a t l a p . Throttle Tiretraction.Any thoughts this? on Note: You use that product to develop a set of known circumstances that can be thought over and changed when necessary. A product is what you can hold in your hand-or in your mind. m be a pointthreefeetfrom the outside edgeor just nextto "that patch"of a s p h a l tT h i sp o i n to n t h e t r a c kn o w r e m i n d s o uo f e x a c t l y h e r e o u ' r e . and the turn is no longer affecting you.

product or sub-product-they will tion on the track. Thereis no universal be slightlydifferent eachbikeand rider. for Your product is a known destination along a known route. Youaresupposed knowwhere to y o u ' r e o i n go n a t r a c k , n dt h e p r o d u c t i s t h e p l a c e o u a r eg o i n g T h e g y . a guy with the bestproduct wins.Theproduct andsub-products arethe planof action,basedupon resultof a pre-determined pre-decided and your knowledge the partsof that turn,andyourknowledge howto get of of y o u rm a c h i n e r o u n d t . a i
End back to beginning.


The Product is where you are done with the t u r n . l t i s a p l a c ey o u k n o w .

A Sub-Productalerts you that you are on the right track to your Product.You see it.


You locate another Sub-Productor Refere n c e P o i n tt o g u i d ey o u t h r o u g h t h e t u r n .

Each new RP leads to another that you k n o w i s g o i n gt o b e t h e r e .


Y o u b u i l d c o n f i d e n c eb y k n o w i n g w h e r e you areon the trackwith the RPs.

You become able to "see" the turn before y o u e v e n b e g i nt o g o t h r o u g h i t .

David Emde performing miracles on 25occ GP bike. At 185 pounds and 6'3" tall, his "plan" is different than yours.

Your Line ls Your Plan
Fromtalkingto most riders, is easyto believe it that onceyou f i n dt h e " r i g h t l i n e " f o r a t u r n .e v e r y t h i nw i l l m a g i c a l lty r no u t O Ka n d g u your laptimeswill improve because this knowledge. isn'ttrue. of lt I onceexperimented showingothersthe "right line" with throughthe turnsof a racetrack.I had students followme lap afterlapat moderate as speeds I did precisely samething at precisely same the the placeon the trackeachlap.Thestudent was thenasked repeat to the procedure that had beenshownto him. I never founda student who could do it exactly. Lawson Eddie observed samething while instructing this Galifornia Superbike School students Loudon. at Onlyone riderout of 25 was ableto reproduce lineafterbeingshown.(Actually riders his two wereableto do it. Theotherwas my 12yearold son,who Eddie offered to sponsorafterwards. ) l've placedmyselfin the samesituationand askeda better riderto showme his "lines" around course. the Thecourse was Ontario M o t o rS p e e d w a y ,. 19 m i l e s n d 2 0 t u r n s ; h e r i d e r a st h e n - 2 5 O cU . S . 3 a t w c c h a m p i o nD a v i d m d ew h o w a sa l l b u t u n b e a t a b lte a tv e a ro n t h e , E , h 1/q-liter machines. went around trackat a good practice We the paceas I caref observed ully what he was doingin hopesof f indingout somedeep, darkridingsecrets. I did find out. I foundout that a rider's line is his plan for going through a turn. Hisplanis baseduponwhat he doeswell and what he doesn'tdo well.I observed, thenand now,that a rider's planwill be baseduponhis strengths weaknesses. lineis the resultof how and His his strengths weaknesses together. and f it Forexample, riders who usethe maximum amountof lean a n g l e h e b i k eh a st o o f f e rw i l l u s u a l l y e s i g n h e i r" l i n e " t o u s el e a n t d t angleto theiradvantage. Their"line" is oftentight to the insideof the turn.By contrast, riderwho doesnot useall of the groundclearance a a v a i l a b lte h i mw i l l d e s i g n i s " l i n e " ( p l a n )s o t h a t h e d o e sn o t h a v e o o h t s p e n d o m u c ht i m e l e a n e d v e rt o t h e m a x i m u mH ew i l l f i n i s hh i s s t e e r s o . i n ga s s o o na s p o s s i b l e ,t r a i g h t etn e m a c h i n e n d m o v ea w a yf r o mt h e s h a t u r na sv e r t i c a l la s p o s s i b l e . l l r i d e r s i l l d e s i g n h e i rt u r n sa r o u n d h e y A w t t pointsthey believe strong they have.
:q + * *L- t*' .i' -.r' . .

When the Superbike School was at Loudon I let 24 riders follow me around the track so they could see my line. Then /followed them to frnd out how they were dotng. Twentythree of them got it wrong from what I could see.

The thing about riding on the back of a motorcyc/e wr:th someone else drivrng rs that thev never do it exactly like I would and it scares me.


lf someone pulls me I change my line tn that turn and see if it works / have films of me racing wrth rrders and I'll pull them five bike lengths off a turn and still they lust keep on doing the same thrng lf the other guy's plan rs better you can fit it rnto yours and beat him

Learning a Line
if ridercan be veryinstructional you can Following another to his determine plan by watchinghim. lf his plan is betterdesigned you mayhave yours,andyou can seewhy it is better. handle turn than a sometracksituato learned how to useyourown abilities betterhandle r i d e r - i ft h e r ei s a n y - i si n u n d e r s t a n d i a T t i o n s . h ev a l u e n f o l l o w i n g n o t h e y e i n g h i s p l a na n db e i n ga b l e t oe x p a n d o u ro w n r i d i n gb e c a u s o f i t . l t ' s n o t t h e p l a n t h a tc o u n t s . i n l e a r n i n t h el i n e ; i t i s l e a r n i n g g

Basic Goal
Yourbasicgoalin anyturn is getting through the turn with increased rnph, decreased time spent in it and adequate control for of the bike. Youare looking drive out of the turn that will carryyou to amountof time with the in the nextturn or downthe straight the shortest you muststill be in controlof the greatest Of amountof speed. course. the factorsof speedandtime to get the bestproduct. bike.Youbalance to Yet it is possible comeout of a turn fasterthan beforeandstill not y m s y o u rl a pt i m e .T u r n sc a nS u c k o u i n t om a k i n g i s t a k e l i k et h a t ' decrease

Turn Balancing
turn balthe Getting bestproduct f rom a turn requires y y o w h e r e o u b a l a n c e o u rs p e e d u t o f t h e t u r na g a i n stth e a n c i n g : t h i si s amountof time it takesyou to get throughit. The mostcommonmistake then comeout of them ridersmakeis to go intothe turnsfasterandfaster, lt's easier to go into a turn faster than it at the samespeedor slower. is to come out faster. Going in too fast can Gost you your drive speed got coming out. You've to be ableto carrya fasterentrance your laptimes.Goingin too fast, to improve throughthe exitof the turn y o t h e nf o u l i n gu p i n t h e m i d d l e f t h e t u r n ,w i l l l o w e r o u re x i ts p e e d . worth of attention. Turn balancing is likeyourten dollars to Figure that you haveonlyso manymilesper hour(MPH) spendin a turn you spendyour MPH particular line.lf lap on anyparticular for any t g u n w i s e l a t t h e b e g i n n i n o f t h et u r n ,y o ud o n ' th a v e h e ma t t h e e n d . y you time.Don'tjump at the f irst Excess speedat the wrongtime cancost you haveaSyou exitone speed you get to go faster. Theincreased chance that you carryall the wayto the next.Don't to turn will be added the speed g b u r nu p M P Ha t t h e b e g i n n i n o f t h et u r n ;u s et u r n b a l a n c i n g t o p r o d u c e product: Increased MPH, decreasedtime spent in the yourcorrect turn and the bike still under control at the turn exit.

Find the Product

you haveridden Howdo youfind the product? Let'sassume has f out the trackfor a few lapsand have igured what the designer engi-

makedecisions about. Having no product is like deciding having no destination."6 End to Beginning of Youmustworkfrom the end backto the beginning the turn you go intothe turn.intothis pieceof tarmac. '@. You'dhavea very hardtime gettingto your destination you didn'tknowwhereit was. yourproduct. riding.Nowyou havea starting to correct and change. You're changes suspicious the turnson a racetrackand knowthey'remeantto challenge of you turn andfool you.|&r. 19 .Youcan'tget if you knowwhereKansas from NewYorkto Kansas Cityunless Cityis! product for a turn is the f irststepin Obtaining precise a howto improve that product.a placeon the trackto workwith. Decide advance.With this information havea good ideaof how every you andyour bike. even in wide open sweepers. '. in before to establish whereyou aregoingto exit. to at to f igureout eachstepnecessary arrive the lost to hopelessly by continuing "look"at a Youcan become to of turn from beginning end instead from the end backto the beginning."TheRoadYou Ride").You mustbe ableto "see"the product of the you and turn in your mindas you enterit. '** % . Doyou agree? Having your end point (product) well known. Thisoverview allows productor destination. product in mind for a turn is like having a Having a road map and a destination for a trip.Youbecome affects awareof what the product is for you andyour machine applying by that information experience and from point. creates confidence. neered Youhavestudied radius the and changes (seeChapter the camber One.-ltt . Thisenables to keepthe pieces you partsof the turn workingtowardthat product.

h e . overall speed. thesechanges mustbe madeat precise reach desired the on the track. Leanangle.s p e e u r n so f t e nh a v e h e s ek i n d so f S t d s c . turnswill produce more Medium-speed slower-speed and sub-products thanfasterturns. Sub-products of t r a l s oh a v e l o c a t i o n n t h e t r a c ka n do t h e rf a c t o r s h a ta r es i m i l a t o a n a o can you makein your progress. on Just as the end product hasa precise p o i n to f e n t r y h e r e h e m a j o rs t e e r i n g p w t t s o d o e st h e b e g i n n i n g o i n t . Changes gears. amountof control. turnsdo not b h a v em u l t i p l e a m b e o r e l e v a t i oc h a n g e s .you can spendyourattention and tire slippage that comeup in the turn.I go out and set my plan and a lot of trmes the ftrst one ts the best.As a slightly-orperhaps greatdealif you'rea turn. to steering and morearethe sub-products you can useas indicators tell you how you'reprogressing towardyourproduct. bodyposition. you blowthe turn. whetherit is perfect not. Onlyrarely you go into a turn the way it looksfrom the approach and haveit work out well in the end. lf lt doesn't feel rrght I change rt. changes Any to useit as a yardstick measure You the the turnwill change productsomewhat. These by are stages its development marked sub-products. left passing. n dt h e yo f t e nr e q u i r e r a m a t i c t e e r i n g h a n g e sF o r y o u o a places product.A product givesyou something shoot of go lf for-something canalways backto to p i a l e s sa g g r e s s i vo r s l o w e r r o d u c t a n dg e tt h r o u g h t w e l le n o u g h .and may be a gearhigherandfive MPHfasterduring to the course a dayon the track. one step at a time. t or Onceyou havea product. experienced product A product and one MPHfaster.the product will change that is threefeet back ridermaymakea change An beginner.itfh e yd i dt h e yw o u l d n ' t e c r n td t f a s tt u r n s . change to handle You'llhaveplentyof spare you too be product and destination.and you mustmakethem as simpleas possible yourself fast leave to enoughattention do it right.Youdon't havethe time to makea lot of to in changes fasterturns. beginner's from his previous maychange1Ofeet. Thisopensthe haveno product in mind. A product is made in stages. will be ableto tell whether yourspeed you increase througha are thosechanges workingor not. will always spending much withouta your at attention what is goingto happen the endof the turn.t h r o t t l eb r a k i n gb o d y . p o s i t i o n n dt h e p o i n t s h e r e o u l o o kf o r y a w i n g . Anyexamples? Point of Entry 20 location the track.Usually.New they riderscommonly beginthe turn too earlybecause and inexperienced proscan be seendoingit. c h a n g e s .Keeping on y p r o d u c t i n m i n dh e l p s o u h a n d l eh e u n c e r t a i n t y . e Locate the Product Where and how you enter a turn is totally decided by will what and where the product is. are coursemarkers all sub-products. l o wa n dm e d i u m . maybe every lap more Onceyou knowwhereyou'regoing.suchas wiselyon the problems them.These sub-products-places that require a change are in steerin order to reach your product for that turn.Even doorto a lot of mistakes and uncertainty.Otherwise. .

N o wp a s s i n gg r o u n d i n g u t o n b u m p s s t e e r i n g . a change. is a Precisely locate the p o i n to f y o u rm a j o r t e e r i n g h a n g e o i n gi n t ot h e t u r ns o y o uc a nh a v e g c s i s o m e t h i n t o a d j u s ta p o i n tt o t h i n kf r o m .T h eb i k ec a nb e s t r a i g h t e r f to up and down.Not knowing where you're going in a turn invites you t t o g o i n t o o s o o n . remedy the beforemaking steering change. o .which leaves you speed and leananglefor a greater feweroptions corrections. t a .W h a t h a p p e n t o y o u a n dt h e b i k ew h e nt h e s o banking flattens always sub-product. The faster you wish to go in deeper to go through a turn.Actually. indicator that you do not haveyourproduct well defined.whether this theorythat saysyou beginthe turn wideand comesf romthe old cornering exit it as wide as possible. l a pb e c a u s e f t h e i n c r e a s ie c e n t r i f u g a l f o r cle t h e b i k er u n sa b i t t o o o you the is wideat the exit. as is trickto goingin deeper to go a bit slowerrightat the pointwhereyou yourself."lf you do it right. Kenny Youmust learn restrain makeyoursteering to As change. it not onlyisn'talways it you prevent from goingfasterthroughthe turns. throttleand gearchanges become all matters greatconcern and of Goingintoturnstoo soonis your become moredifficultto do smoothly. steering will needto change The be moreabrupt.a . t l f y o u " g o i n t o "t u r n st o o s o o n y o ua r ec o m m i t t e do m a x i m u m t . portionof the turn.T h ee m p h a s i ss t o u s et h e g .that you're slightlylost. "Learn go slowto go fast. andthe bikewill not wantto turn as easily before. T h et r a c kd e s i g n efro o l sy o u i n t or i d i n g h e t u r nt h e r r w a y i t l o o k s t t h e b e g i n n i n ga t h e t h a nt h ew a y i t w i l l w o r ko u t i n t h e e n d .but it can actually .you maybelieve wenttoo fast.lesscommitted maximum leanangles and speed.your entrypointshouldalways designed usethe banking bestadvanbe to to t a g ec o m i n g u t o f t h et u r n . Old Racer's Tale pointis the falseideathat you must useup Anotherimpoftant you haveto or not. Faster ls Deeper way of looking it: if you makeyour major Here's at another e s t e e r i n g h a n g e t t h e s a m ep o i n tg o i n gi n t oa t u r n .for Thisis a sub-product.p r o d u c t . i c h a n g e sn y o u rl i n e .you'llbe able Roberts says.Perhaps allthe trackat the exitof a turn. the deeper you have to enter it to increase your speed at the exit. Wherever comesfrom.a n di n c r e a sy o u r c a on speedpastthat point-youwill runwideof the pointyou passed the last n f. to t t o g o f a s t e r r o mt h a t p o i n to n t h r o u g h h e t u r n . you so yourspeedand set up a product moreeasily. turns.d orti"d i n g .o uc a nt h i n ko f i t a s " c o n n e c t .what will changeif youdo this? the lf you go in deeper andfaster. In banked change the turn occurs. impoftant The can adjust partis knowing where you went intothe turn so that you havesomething t o c h a n g e n da d j u s tT h i si s a s u b . youfeelyou can'tor shouldn't for and makeany . true. Y b a n k i n go y o u ra d v a n t a g e . a Workingout the product andsub-product provides mapthrough a t h et u r n . a n da n i m p o r t a no n e .

lf the u s i n g h e s a m el i n eb u t i n c r e a s i ny o u rs p e e da n dy o u s t i l lh a v e i v ef e e t t g .wiilit work vou? for Hold That Line The remedy this commonerroris to hold the bike to the for tightest line possible on the exit so you can get an accurate idea of where that speed takes you on the track.what to do at thosepointsandto remember them so you can makeuseof them. y o u u s et h e . it can give you a false impression you're going as fast as you can. Where you it? wiil try Your Results Theproducts andsub-products giveyou a destination and places accurately you canmakechanges the road.not suckingyourselfinto makingan can go evenfasteryet.u p t t h e p o i n ti t b e g i n s o t i g h t e n . That'syouthinkingnow. f of trackleft. 22 . then makingadjustments improve to can begin the to establish veryaccurate product and good sub-products. Youcanfoolyourself into believing can'tbe done it f a s t e rA s y o u ' r e i g u r i n gh e t u r n sa n dd i a l i n g n t h e p r o d u c t . to A goodexample beingsuckedin on the entrance a turn is of of the old trapof the decreasing-radius Yougo in fast because can. you're a e n g i n e e r i n g et u r nt o f i t y o u rr i d i n ga n de q u i p m e n d. By handling exitsof mostturnsin this way.don'tfool yourself by usingup the trackwhen it isn'tnecessary.Thepointis. f t i you'vestoredup from the lastlapto decideif anychanges information can be made.makinguseless changes there'san opportunity do so. you t h e nh a v e o p l a ys o m es e r i o u s a t c h .Yourproduct will change. Your basicrequirement a rideris to observe as whereyourproducts andsubproducts are. andyou'llrun out of track. t c a t your speed Holding down on the entrance giveyouthe exactinformacan tion you needto go faster-ifit's possible.e c i d i n g n a th t o product. it makes it diffieult to decide to go faster this time. markthe where on They areyour way of breaking down the processinto smallerpartsyou can understand couldsafely you assume can go faster.lf your information says you went all the way to the edge of the track the last time through. and Yourconfidence and smoothness increase when you knowwhereyou'regoingandwhatto do whenyou get there. Youarenot being just because takenin by the track.How?lf you let the bike go wide at the exit. You knowthe bikewill go widerif you go faster. Wherethe product of that speedputsyou. lf you holdyour linedown at the end of a turn and thereis still eightfeetof trackleft. Youwon't feelas confidentthat it can be done. turn. iust because there is track left over. the nexttime you keepeverything samegoingintothe turn.

and still having track left over.O Most riders use the whole track upon exiting turns. lets you know it can be done even faster. I Holding a tight line. 23 .

"Yougo what to do with the information. andwhat whatto lookat.This point is a spot or obiect of which you already know the Youcanreferto this marksa place. at you see. to the racetrack.CHAPTER FOUR WhatYou See Programming Your ComPuter Through the Eyes Bell What you seethroughyour smoke-tinted shieldhasmuch you of to do with how wellyou ride."Let'srestate so the rideris more Look where you want to go. in control: Reference Points You usereference points to find out whereyou areon the track.Butwhileyou'reracingor ridingdown you can'tstopto gaze. whichclearly location. one go to Main Street-that's You for looking a storeon MainStreet.Youcan'tcountthe number objects can seeat anyone spoton the track."What theyfailedto sayis. Where Are You? The reason you look at points on the track is to learn where you are and where you are going' On any pieceof roadyou aboutwhereyou areso you can lookin f rontof youto obtaininformation Manyridershavesaid.but you rolloff the throttlefirst.anymorethanyou cancountwhat The moreyou look. Threeor moregiveyou yourexactlocation. Youf ind the right block-that's 24 . the road.the more you seejust staring the backof your hand. Youcheckthe reference point.Youcanstop at anyturn and Thisalsoapplies lookfor hoursat what'sto be seen.what is impoftant Howdo you decide Howcanwhat you seehelpor is not?And how do you usewhatyou see? your to correctly improve your riding? Thischapter aboutseeing is hinder riding. you're Example: your lOcation. lt is something points presenta betterpictureof Two reference objectfor information. two."Youcango whereyou don't it look. decide whereyou look.

numbers seewhichdirection to they run-that'sthree. basic building blocks for your plan. the That'sfive or morereference points that you would u s ei n f i n d i n g n a d d r e s s .Youfollowthe numbers the till you reach store. n a r a c et r a c ko r r o a dy o u d o t h e s a m e h i n g . a O t lf you don't have enough reference points to know where you are-you're lost! Any examptes? Reference Points {RPs)a certain reminder of where you are. which Youdecide sideof the street storeis on-that'sfour. "{ 25 .

curborverycloseto it: a patchof's up to you to decide blocks-and what reference points to useand what to do when you reachthem. it foot in f romthe edgeis betterbecause keeps on l f y o ug o t o t h e l i m i tw i t ha n R Pt h a t ' so n ef o o tf r o mt h e e d g e y o u s t i l lh a v e . to your location the RPs on on that aredirectly your lineof travelestablish your location relation in to RPs tracklengthways.Objects far f romthe tracksurface too awayf romthe track.a crack. to change what you do. at andthe situation fast on a motorcycle might not be the right RPfor you it's you're workfor the speed it's because too far off your lineor it doesn't y t t r a v e l i n g . and how much. yourcourse action.Reference p o t nts-yea h. well ahead of yourself . lt signals where.'' l " l&ir . painted a will ing. you don't know where you ale. Youmustdecide. just because thereand easyto see.anything that doesn'tmove. you might not thtnk about them but You'vegot to use them. Just little things on the track I remember-rt helps to put it all together. alongthe sideestablish the width of the track.W :# 26 l. What to Use as Reference Points is YourbestReference Point(RP) something eitheron the track line. you choose lookat shouldbe in your lineof vision The RPs to point Don'tchoose something a reference as and alongyour pathof travel. o n ' tn a r r o w o u rv i s i o n o o m u c ho r y o u ' l l O d not havea wide enough viewof the tracksurface f ind whereyou are. n t h e o t h e rh a n d . lf it determines of you also don't know what you're supposed to be doing. timesyou must usethe edgeof the track.YourRPsmustbe easyto find to takeyourattention At be usable.but a pointthat'sa your attention the track.The idea that you must useallthe trackis likethe ideayou must"hangoff" the bike -only do it when it becomes and necessary comfortable.Going the edgeof the trackmeans yourself marginfor error. . goingto the limit and to a foot left over. Familiar RPs allow you to look "around" the turn. Yourlocaandfeet-not in city tion on a racetrackor roadcan be plottedin inches thereareno streetsignson the track.The bottomlinefor an RPis.does it work? lt can longas it worksfor isn'tnecessary go to the edgeof no to leaving possible the trackwhenever untilyou feelcomfortable doingso.a spot. be anywhere-so An RP givee you information. Thingshappen because Whereyou areon the roadis veryimportant changes constantly.

" "lf l'm to the rightof this too much l'll hit a bump.How to Use A Reference Point A reference point is not merely you something canseeeasily on or nearthe track. Canyou applythis? You'llneedtwo or more reference points to accurately find yourself the track. making it appear larger. Every time you passor approach this point it.the reference point must mean something to you when you see it.You've to knowwherethe RPsareso you can got on y r e l a t e o u ro w n p o s i t i o no t h e m . mustcommunicate message you. f' .but wheredo you go from there? \ Having too few RPs causes target fixation.T h i so c c u r s n a p a n i c i t u a t i o n n dc a n h a p p e n a e i s a anywhere a racetrack.Youmust haveenoughRPsso that target on fixation doesn'toccur. Yougo to the RPbecause don't a you h a v e n y t h i n g l s et o d o ."Thisis whereI beginlooking a to for my turn Enough RPs "open up" the track."ReferOr. ence points are reminders of where you are or of what action you must take. and costs less of your attention.the scene movingin f rontof you appears movesmoothly." "Thisis whereI beginmy becomes to youronly RPandyou become victimof target fixation. bouncing andjerkingalong.m i n d e b u t i f t d.T h i sm a ys o u n ds i m p l e . Toofew andthe scenelookslikean old-timemovie. you narrow yourattention oneobject. Whenyou havesufficient RPsin a turn or on the track. or but to the left of it I'm alright.Having onlyone RPis likewatchinga slideshow frame-nicepicture. a wide-screen to like 70mm movie.

ignoring but the curbingand holes." or onlyone RPis likehavingonlyonecar.Looking closeto the on that secondRPto locate you find it.ahead time.lf it breaks Having you can easily lf work. but not so far that you lose your feel for where you are on the track.the fasteryou believe yourself you'regoing. of a i s A T h e s e r eg u i d e l i n e s . 28 . a 1 5 0 f e e td o w nt h e r o a dw h i l er o u n d i n g t i g h t Still. becoming areor whatto do. bikewon't help Look Ahead for Reference Points At 60 mph you'retravelingat 88 feet per second.not whereyou are.Thatone becomes to at and Youdependuponit for too muchinformation mightbeginstaring it. to very valuable you andyou over-use ready use. At speed. of for veryquickly.m p hc u r v eT h e yw e r e .d j u s t h e R P s o t h e s c e n e s m o v i n g t a to you. and if you'renot ready the nextmove.the closer to going.'s because don't haveanother on one it.the slower the 1. not at otherridersin the sameturn werelooking are untiltheywerejust 2Ofeet in front of them. this beginshappening. Having track.youfind that yourattention fixed too becomes valuable you pointon the trackor road.wittyou trvit? enoughRPshasthe effectof opening up the 2. what was to be seenin front of them. ahead Looking for givesyou time to prepare the nextmoveso thereareno sub-products goessmoothly.With onlyonereference is lf and necessary. lf youfind yourattention needto f ind anotherin the areaso the "movie"will smoothout.and so you can seeenough keepthe track the rightspeedfor "opened 120 mph ticksby Thatsecond at you'rehurtling throughspace 176 feet persecond. yourreference points and for you'llmakea mistake. is y o u rs i g n atlo e i t h e r h a n g e P s r t o f i n d m o r eo f t h e mi n t h a tt u r n o r R o c section track. Where to Look whereto lookwhileyou're will helpyou determine Two factors riding r racing.Look far enough ahead to avoid accelerating the scene. making it appear larger. you haveanother doesn't point' or car. o you believe you look.the trackseems narrow. and surprises so everything l've This ideacan be takentoo far.This is good information-you where too yourself the track. seenriderslooking 4 o .you don'tgo anywhere.that you must lookdownthe road No doubtyou'veheard need you' usethe onethat works. f urtherahead you're you look.Bothof theseextremes the turn and slow ridingthrough uncertain they produce unworkable. Youcan become slightlylostwhen it no longerletsyou knowwhereyou you fixedon one RP. Wath RPs you have a choice of where tolook.however.likecurbingand holes. When you look too far aheador too it lf to closeto the bike.

bill.Whenyou havetoo few RPsin an yourattention be spentin tryingto fix this bad situation. will occupy most of your attention. Whenyou don't haveenoughRPs goes yourconcentration. you havea section the or lf of yourchainof concentration break. or chain is of events that movesfrom one to anotherwithout a break.. trackwith no. example dimeson the RPs and noneof them captures An of this is that one majordifference between ridersis theirabilityto learn tracks. ridertold me that every One time his concentration h b r e a k s e b e g i n s h i n k i n g f a l e a k i n ga u c e t e h a sa t h o m e Y o u rm i n d t o f h . it doesn't you you'relooking anything particular. will Reference points are the building blocks of linkdepending uponthe nextfor strength and a continuous flow." is this really But whatthey mean? Whenyourconcentration good.a-. Having enoughRPslets j y o us p e n du s tt h e r i g h ta m o u n t f t i m ea n da t t e n t i o n n e a c ho n et o g e t o o you the information need. is just enough it on eachRPso that you knowwhereyou areandwhatto of do."l don't really lookat anything. 29 .. when you've got it. entirechainstays the brokenuntilit can be repaired replaced. Youhaveenoughleftoverto buy otherthings. will The points or places on the track that you do not know. seemto at in The reference points just blendintothe scenein front of you. . your concentration maynotwander a leaking to faucet. in These of little you will maketo get the bikearound stepsleadto the majorchanges turns f a s t e r r w i t h m o r ec o n fi d e n c eR P s i g n atl h e p o i n t s n t h e t r a c kw h e r e .Oo dothis? you Concentration -The Twist There'sa twist to this subjectof concentration.*. "Whatdo you lookat in turns?" two or threeof the top ridersin the world havesaid. t It's important to prck up good RPs. lf one linkbreaks.or too few RPs.concentration a smoothflow. rightto that areaandwill-or can-break Someof the strangest thingshappen whenyou havea break in yourconcentration.Learning track meansknowing where you are on the track. Let'sget backto the ideaof yourattention and how muchof it yourten-dollar Whenyourconcentration good. t o m a k es m a l lc h a n g e sn y o u rr i d i n g h a tw i l l h e l py o ug o j u s t a b i t f a s t e r i t just a bit more.Stepping Stones Reference points areyourstepping stones the products to andsub-products youwill produce a turn or series turns. mostof area. ..but when breaks you will notice that otherthings comeintoyour mind.Everything you do on the track takes up or leanover yourattention some attention. a -&** . s o o y o uw i l l m a k e h e s ec h a n g e s .When spend you have.t. or understand.Reference points arepartsof that spendjust nickels is and yourattention.Thiskeeps that steady flow going.especially on the exrt Concentration On the trackor road.

f t possible: yourconcentration sool3bs as howyou restore That's Go back to the reference points you know and pick up the thread of concentration. 1.Bothguys cando it in five laps. lap muchtoo longor muchtoo short. Enough Reference Points you can seethe "wholescene" Onceyou haveenoughRPs. This withouthaving stareat the RPsindividually.otherscan'tdo it in 5OO Someriders just do it by reference points. on the trackas you hesitate Do Not Read Past This Next Paragraph Until You Have Completed the ExPeriment Find a stopwatch or wall clock with a second hand and try this eye-opening experiment. Geta stopwatch.lf youjust brokethe absolute record 30 . is your to comfortably a g o a l . n dt h e i n d i v i d u a l u i l d i n g l o c k s f t h a t s c e n e r eR P s l. Now. I was right there frrst or second laps. Do it again after you have ridden the track looking for RPs.f y o u rc o n b a b o you will haveto go backand relyon or relocate lost becomes centration y o u r s e lw i t h t h e R P s h a t a r ef a m i l i atro y o u .it'll cost you time and roll backthe throttle. the top riders wheretheyare haveto learn roadthe second timeyou take so fasttheycan beatyou on yourfavorite f the Onefactorthat separates top riders rom the restof the themthere!! q o a f i e l di s t h a tt h e yp i c ku p R P s u i c k l y n da c c u r a t e lty t h e p o i n tt h e yc a n R t s " s e et h e " w h o l e c e n e w i t h o u th a v i n go p i c ko u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l P s . Startthe watchand runthrougha complete on the track.closeyoureyesandthinkof a racetrackyou're Do it lap with. lf you don't haveany RPsin the area. 2. chair. Sit down in a comfortable familiar 3. The firstyear I raced we went to the tracks that everybody raced and ljust drd OK At the new tracks though. Memory Lap your memory"laptime"will be either lf you'relikemost riders.I like to go ta new tracks-rt's fun. Youaretimingyour memory the trackand how you it. Now.Try go throughit exactly fast as you did the lasttime from of you rodethere. rode 4.closeyoureyesandtry it again. as to memory.

. the .as it is your memory the turnsyou relyon whenyou ride.or you don't knowverywell. the go wherethe scene getsfoggy. 8.or you hurrythroughit too fast. Yourattention goeseitherto the places you knowverywell. Find the Lost RPs Here's easymethodyou can useto find out whereyou becomes to the place split between the you a lot of attention two.. 3. 6 above.l i k e : .movie. Youcan usethis methodto f ind yourweakspots-andstrong pointsas well. marking reference pointsyou'resureof in eachturn. FindmoreRPs thoseareas nexttime you ridethe for the track. 1. blank. of This is howyou knowwhereyou'regoing. 6. youreyes. lf yourconcentration lost. lap 4." etc." Change.Exit "Steering "Location the Track. 5 . Openyour eyesand draw eachturn on a separate sheetof paper. Caref runthroughyourown "movie"of the trackas if you ully wereriding.Having sufficient RPs gives you a better sense of time because you now have points to mark your motion around the track. Close 2. Close noticing places you hesitate. on Marker... if you added20 or 30 seconds youractuallap or to it means samething-not enoughreference points. B r a k i n g t . the " l a pr i d e r ' s m o v i e " s i n c o m p l e ta n d h ef i n d sh i m s e l s t a r 2Qor 30 seconds.Knowing whereyou aregoingis part of the thread of concentration. "Ride"throughone complete in your memory." Point. Now makea noteon yourturn drawings eachplace you at havea blankspotor anyotherproblem situation from No. "Product...g a z i na t t h e i e f g places hasno RPs. to on You're building that scene with individual reference points. 7. ln the veryfast lap situation riderstill hasn'tgot enough the RPs.Or.Each thesesituations where of you indicates havetoo few reference points at theselocations. Wiuit work? That's the Twist Youmustget to the pointwhereyou can seethe wholescene in front of you withouthaving spenda lot of attention anyone point. Thiscosts you can'tspendon otherthings.t an haveenoughRPs. 31 . youreyesagainand go backoveryour. Theslowtimes.go backto the RPs is that you knowand buildthe scene again. he flitsfrom oneto the nextveryquicklybecause so thosearewhat he doesknow." "Bump. attention on the areas the trackhe does he His is of not know. M a k ea n o t eo f w h a te a c hR Pm e a n s o y o u .. Youcan useit anytime.

.likeon a movie Youmaybe looking onlyoneareaof the screen. I L F- t "ffi See Fast to Howdo the top ridersmanage rideso fastwithoutexperithe in Here's drillthat will helpyou practice a encingproblems seeing? proper techniques. between objects . 1* .then moveyourattention. theneverything that planeis in focus.Youcan seeall four to 1. a problemis that he wantsto seethe trackin f rontof A rider's a f to him flowingas a wholescene.andon the wall as well. Thetrickto usingRPsand gaining is concentration you have to look at something. Theyflit from one objectto another a butterfly. Finda wallthat is entirely but by corners movingyoureyes. You spend (use) RPs to save attention. They are paytng too much attention to that one line.he hasto lookat somespecific Good RPs help keep a steady flow of concentration for a rider.ilt w rr-rl'-". youreyeson a spot in the middleof the wall.-:4:.h e ' l le x p e r i e n ca f o r m o f t u n n e v i s i o n B u tb e c a u s e f t h e w a y h i s e thing!There's twist.*E 32 .. of to 5..--"-. 2. on a the scene becomes blur. the eyeswork.. at but his eyesdon'tworkthat way. Youreyeswork by focusing someobjector on in someplane.they do so in short like movements. stopping youreyesacross scene lf you try to sweep withoutstopping anything. Stillfocusing that spot. the entire but screen. to Stillfocusingon that spot.. o l l o n g .. maintain steady low of concentration.-.Youare looking one spotbut areawareof the other at on areas the wall. moveyour attentionto different places the wall. not your head.1*'. at is screen in focus.--. Focus not focused that spot. @ :. \\\ q *:t*-" i '..moveyourattention the on you andthe wall.Try it. Anotherpoint is that when your eyesmove.The Big Twist to Goncentrationand ReferencePoints A lot of guys I see out there seem to forget about the whole rest of the track. seeing visible you. the upperright-hand cornerof the wall.lf he stares one reference point too . Remain youreyes. on 3.

You need the reference points in the scene makethe scene. a n dl o o k i n g t t h ew h o l es c e n e a t h e t h a na t o n et h i n gi s s p e n d i n gt v e r y a r r i wisely.and getting interestbackon your investment.The Whole Picture You can see the whole scene while still looking at one place or spot! You probably noticed that duringthis experiment you wantedto moveyour eyesfrom the spot you werefocusedon to the spot to whichyour attention had gone.". Finally..Thisexperiment becomes easier with practice. is whereyourattention directed. Then pieces of the turn become clearer. B e i n g b l et o s e et h e t r a c ki n f r o n to f y o ua s a w h o l es c e n e a m a k e s i d i n gm u c he a s i e a n d b r i n g s o u rc o n c e n t r a t i o n c ki f i t f a l t e r s .. Will you try it? You begin to understand a turn with RPs. You spend the least and get the most. This is the way I see lt most of the time-the overall scene That's when things are gorng nght everything is worktng nght . you'redriving the races just sittingin a chair. % '! . it you seethe wholescenein this wayyou haveto Now. the whole scene is viewed as a steady flow of action. you don't know to lf youreyeswill huntfor something the RPs that is familiar and losethe wholescene effect.d o l l ab i l l .when realize that the pointsin the scenemustbe well knownto's as to or a skillthat cantaketime to develop you haven't if mastered already.t h a t ' sm u c hm o r ei m p o r t a n t y where s r thanwhatyou'relooking Yourattention at. mustbe spenteconomically. it is y o u ' r e p e n d i n g o u rt e n . while looking at onespotor area. can practice You movingyourattention around. just haveto You practice. y r r ba As you canseein the drillabove.

discovered the I that lf boardwould notturn unless was goingat a certain it slowspeed. I mistakes the samereasons. for whereyou let off exactly ln turns whereyou usethe brakes.which is the 18O-degree turn to you maketo get yourself backdown afterridingup a rampor the sideof a pool.CHAPTER FIVE Timing Putting Things ln Order Timing really hasnothing do with yoursense time. products andsub-products so they'reusefultoyou on the track. can really foul up a rider. oneworkedbetter 34 . still keepup the momentum I couldstayon and so b a c kd o w n . Thewholeideaof timing is to pulltogether points. There was a veryf ine marginof speed yet boardto be turned. but not exactly whereto do it. Thoughlcould makethat changein manydifferent smoothness.lfell at leasta hundred timestryingit. continue How You Let Off in riding. too fast. The first couple of practice laps feel fast. wastryingdesperately makea "kick"turn. and then it slows down from has to of to do with taking the correct action at exactly the correct place on yourreference the track. greatdifference your in them andwhenyou beginsteering can makea ways.keeping Itook a verycloselookat my motorcycle and mindwhat I'd learned the skateboard. Knowing what to do. possibilities: Let'slookat the thanthe others.Tooslow-toolate-andthe too u t t b o a r d o u l db e g i ns l i d i n g a c k w a r djs s t e n o u g h o m a k e h e t u r nv i r t u w b that wouldallowthe allyimpossible. Finally. My Timing Lesson my I I learned lesson abouttiming from ridingskateboards. I triedit fast-too early-lcouldnot makethe turn. discovered someverybasic on the Manyotherriders weremaking same mistakeswas makingas a rider.Doingthe correct thing at the wrongplaceon the trackproduces poorresults.

provide possibilities.changing Thatchanges steering tractionand fork angle. the pointyou let off the brakes. steering and throttle is so that fork and shock extension are kept as even as possible. timing the braking. Here's samesituation the again-loss tractionand stability.lf yourtiming'soff. 5. t y t shocksaregone.leaving the throttleoff.lf you put it intothe turn hard. thenturn and applythe throttle.h e nu p a g a i n s y o ua p p l y h et h r o t t l eT h eo t h e r lo a t . of ln Number Three.Applythe throttleso that fork extension doesn't change.timing is important. Youcanf inishthe braking afteryou beginto turn and apply the throttle. the and reduces stabilityof the bike. Y o uc a nf i n i s ht h e b r a k i n ga n dt h e nc r a c k h e t h r o t t l e .Y o ut h e np u tt h e b i k ei n t ot h e t u r n .Some examples? Your Timing Target Yourtarget.Rolling the gas beforemaking steering off the . the then down againfrom the c o r n e r i n g a d st. time the steering change that the throttleis rolledoff rightbefore transition so the from side just an instant to side. fork is compressed the from the braking. Youcanf inishthe braking afteryou turn andjust crackthe throttleon. thencomesup whenyou release brakes. 3. afteryou beginthe turn. sub-product for anyturn in whichyou brake or andturn in succession. Youcanfinishthe braking andthenturn. musttime the braking and turningso that the bikestayseven.then comebackup a little.1. What Happens ln NumberOneabove. y o u m a yc o m p l a i nh a tt h e b i k eh a n d l e s o o r l yp o s s i b l t h i n k i n g h e p . a quickright/left left/right On or combination. When two or more turnsarestrungtogether and cannotbe takenwide open. or the Thiswill allowyou to go intothe turn withoutanyup and down motion. Youmust let off the brakesat the exactmomentyour just fork is compressed enoughfor the speeds and cornering loadsit will be undergoing throughthe turn.a n dt h e c o r n e r i n g forcescompress forksagain. forksarealmostbottomed from the out the braking. fork is down.with no 2. changes leastamountpossible. Youcanfinishthe braking th rottle. Fast "esses" and compound turns.not goingup or down.then backdownagainf romthe turning forces. examples similar you To get intothe turn correctly.andwhenyouturn the the throttlebackon it comesup. 4 . thenwhenyou let up on the brakes forksextend the andthe " b i k e" s t a n d s u p .the forks the veryfar. Youcanfinishthe braking. compress The bikeis goingup and down. the In Number Two above. t slightly.

bikein the worldwill handle handling Roll-Off Time especibecomes. change Makingthat steering fork because the decreased angle of pointfor that turn keeps to the andcompressing suspension its maximum Whendoneright. you get off the brakes of The witl ing. the first thing you lose is your to it's reason so important haveyourreference timing. the Rolling throttleoff. a s w e l l .evena the bikef rom bobbingup and down excessively.the bikewill riseup whenyou hit the banking. suspentoo soonandthen hit the banklf sionwill unload.W h e nd o n ew r o n g .of course. the majorsteps points and products well established.Youprobably as muchwhen to this Does apply you? faster.F o ri n s t a n c e f y o uw e r ec o m i n g p t o c c h a n g e a n dr a d i u s h a n g e s s you should f to turn whereyou would have usethe brakes irst. This is another sub-products. in or changes a turn. Someonlytellyouwhere or change POT/sub-product. lf you brake the speedis down. allyin high-speed get ting backon the gas againin the middleof two turns.i f a t a l l . h er o l l i n g f f a n db a c ko n a g a i n h o u l d o tt a k em o r et h a n of for onlya smallf raction that off and one second.Thiswill give the loadf romthe centrifugal You back out of the brakes iust as the turn takes over the iob of too hardandthe cornering compressing the suspension.signaling upcoming an you won't haveto slowdown knowwherethey areandwhatto do there. the Thefasteryou ride. that canwait untilyou'resharpagain. won't be willingto go you become tired.can actually you "push"throughand haveto rolloff at the exitof throughfasterthan if you n s T o t h et w o t u r n s . t f w b i k ew i t h p o o rs h o c k s i l l h a n d l e i n e ." then steering. evilsas it offersa bettertraction bestof all. you haveto fit that intothe camber have workthe controls to u i. second theseis the betterof the is Doingit right. would let similar just as the suspension taking is as off the brakes you go intothe banking entry.(oversteer) easier the making steering change dipsthe f rontend slightly. Not all RPsarepoints of timirlg.the harder steering then get"esses. Tiredness : Loss of Timing When you become tired.A v o i ds n a p p i n gh e t h r o t t l e n a n do f f u n t i ly o u rt i m i n g is perfect. arealsopoints of timing (POTI. go in perfectly. h e b e s t poorly. a banked m w i l l c o m p r e s s o r ei n t h a tt u r nt h a ni t w i l l o n a k n o wt h a tt h e s u s p e n s i o n you To turn that is flat with no banking. you the smoothest force. 36 . but Timing and the Road You Ride You in changes the roadaffecttiming dramatically. the gas is completely o t t i m e . Situation.the suspension compress. not only but correctly. (rake). lf you you are.

compared sections. tacticmaystopsomeof the bobbingup and downthat occursin dippedpartsof the track. up your set P O T o t h e b i k ei s a c c e l e r a t i n g s l o w i n g h e l e a s t m o u n t o s s i b l e .h a t s p t or a T prevent will transferring muchweightto eitherwheel. Spend as little time in them as possible. too Ghanging the Track with Timing In a section trackwherea dip compresses suspension. Timing canchange trackcondithe you get the POTright it canwork-if you don't. . t l o a d s n ew h e e lm o r et h a nt h e o t h e r . 2.lf it won't. tionsfor betteror worse.a n d l o t e c a nc a u s e h e f r o n te n dt o s l i d eo u t .Cl**L*'*a+ .Traction deteriorates rapidly off-camber in with f lat or banked sections.Youmusttime yourcontroloperations you'reon the gasthe least so amountin that partof the turn. Off-Gamber Timing In an off-camber turn it is better havethe bikeas lightas to possible its wheels keepit f rom moving the outside the turn too to on to of much. of the possible time your roll-on that point.i n h i s c a s et h ef r o n t . Rolling usually off helpshim get throughturnswhen he'sbeengoingtoo fast.Keeping weightevenon the the wheelsby cracking openthe throttle. accelerating slowing.In an off-camber. Rolling the throttle off veryhardin an off-camber an effectsimilar that of rollingon too has to h a r d .T h er i d e rm i g h tb e p u z z l e d .h r o l l e d t off the throttleand stillthrew it away.Ground it is sometimes to for cleara n c ei n c r e a s e sh e nt h e b i k ei s a c c e l e r a t i n g c a u s t h e s u s p e n s i oin w be e s this extending. Design your plan around the forces pulling you to the outside of the turn.ln off-camber turns: 1. not gives or -camber the bikeits besttractionin off turns.

Upshifting the thanwhere thoughit's lessimportant is instance.Youstillwantthe maximum the speed.lf you get thesefactsdown on have work hardandwhere to you thingslike. drivecoming've Atlof the RPsand POT/sub-products mustmakethe productbetteror you havedonea lot of fancyridingthat'sslowriding. and it's the mostcomplex riders still baffled are Each change in the track requires the rider to adjust his bike at exactly the right place." fouling up your product. is or Points of timing are sub-products. won't be saying You'llseewhich POTareworkingand whichare troublein the esses. TurnSix 47h '%t 38 7h 'q//2 iztiziit) Viiti4 iriii. work.Becoming with and familiar whereyou youto loafon the restof the trackbecause now you understand you don't. by it.or you wantto be set up for the nextturn.Products and Timing K e e p n m i n dt h r o u g h l lt h i st h a ty o u rg o a li s s t i l lt h e o v e r a l l i a product of the turn. in turn I knowof. and this is where place whereyoutakeanykindof actionis a changes are made. lookat TurnSixat Riverside hundreds of because lt's California.lor products allows your POT you steerin a turn. especially on whenyou'rein a turn. a POT. orwell memorized. a goodexample Raceway Riverside.but losethe drivecomingout. Every point of timing. . Yourmeasure of thanto figurea smoother-but slower-way progress in whether not yourproduct is improving."l'm having paper.Sometimes better it's to go directly througha roughsection trackwobblingand out of shape of aroundit. lf you makepartsof the turn won the battlebut lostthe war. straight-away. the bike will seem to handle poorly. lf not. if Whatwill change youdo this? Timing in Perspective let's To put timing in perspective.

Now he hasthe advantage at of the banking. but the bikebecomes lightas it goesover this crest. s a r e s u l tt. o t wherethey have usethe brakes to again. just when he begins rollon. points of timing no a r ee s t a b l i s h e d s i g n a l t h e h a n g e s . Turn Fiveis fasterthan seems gas is on too muchagain. cannotseethese changes verywellwhenyou'reriding.Thisis because. Here's another roil-off. . radius two changes. you Remember.aimingfor the to too dirt andthe Armcobarrier.Now it takestime for him to notice that the tractionis betterhereandtime to get backon the gasagain. traction goesawayandthe bikewants to go towardthe wall-veryfast! The bikesettles down at the banked partof the exitandthe riderfeelshe is goingtoo slowagain. E .thenjump on the gasagain.secondly. Most riders overuse brakes the here.At the beginning. T h eg a sc o m e s n f o r a n i n s t a n a s t h e yr i d eu p t h e h i l l i n t oT u r ns i x . two e l e v a t i oc h a n g e s n da h u m pi n t h e m i d d l e f t h e f i r s tc a m b e r h a n g e ! n a o c To makeit worse.Not onlydoesthe banking taperoff.h e b r a k i n g n dt h r o t t l e to c A a responses the trackoccurin the wrongplace. : * . of Thefinalroll-off begins wherethe banking goesawayagainat the exitof the turn. . looksverynarrow the approach. thereis a creston the track. the The new roll-onbegins wherethe trackpicksup the banking againabouttwo-thirds the waythrough. Thetrackdesigner must have r e a l l y a df u n w i t h t h i st u r n .they havenot looked f at the trackandfoundwhereit changes. : . find they'regoinga bit too slow. as lt on but they're comingout of it.and most ridersbrakeand go down a gearcominginto Five. Riverside TurnSix is partof a series beginning with TurnFive(see diagram). they get backon the gas.That's four camber changes oneturn! in other factorsaffectthis turn. pavement's the poor. The problem they'renot doingit at the rightplaceon the track. wherewe lose the f irstbanking andthe roll-offbegins. u l Thisturn hasfour camber changes. Theadditional twist to that lastpartof the t u r n i s t h a t i t t i g h t e n s p a n dg o e sd o w n h i la b i t . most riders find they've gonethroughit too slow. to Third.The lastroll-offoccurs.the riderfirst into notices that he hasoverbraked is goingtoo slowbecause hasfailed and he to seethat the trackis banked this point.Turn Six.the trackflattens and but to out he loses banking. Thesuspension unloads.Thisis a roughwayto go through and aturn! Here's what happened-coming TurnSix. h Find the Timing Thereis nothingreally wrongwith ridersrollingon and off the throttle. is Theirtiming is all wrong.Nowtheyseethe end too so of the turn. they roll it off.but the bike'sheading the outside fast.theyestablish no p l a nt o t a k ea d v a n t a go f t h e b a n k i n gU s et h e r u l eo f t h u m bt h a tt h e b i k e e . Now it the so seems slowagain.the banking begins go awayat the exitandthe bikeis goingtoo to fast. Just at that point. By then.Nowthe bike'son the straight-away backontothe gas.irstof all.

comeand go.theylet the bikedrift out. shouldbe at the lowestpointof the banking experience.By spending your attention only when necessary. be correct if baffling. when leaving Fourth. recognizing of racesI havehearda number endurance coolingit the rest.Keepin mindthat the timingmust for it to work right. course. the can Turnswith fewerchanges be equally can of timing is wrong.Someriders. linecouldbasically calleda doubleapex. they're and abilityto concentrate Yourattention betterat sometimes than at others. a result. This is another whereyou haveto do the trghtwork. spending wholeten in to is a waste. it's line a choose constant-radius and pretend alljust oneturn with no real radius hanges. watching Theirbikesbob up anddownf rom tell attitudes the wholestory.and partof timing. saving. frozen and After ridingTurnSix werebroken. of whichis a gooddescription the turn. you Are aware this? Out your CgngentratiOn redlinewears Shaving the Track You don't have to keep up a razor edge of concentration everywhere on the track.At six-hour . you continue attention to dollars go down the the can beginto feelverystupid.where on the exit of takeadvantage the followingpoint. won't be as fast as someone of yOU SOOner.3) Theyusethe banking be This to its bestadvantage. Rather to maximum themto it flattens out. it will be there when you need it. as the throttlechanges if theirshocks manyriders As likethis a while. go throughth is turnveryfast but and by keepingup a feverpitch of concentration cat-likereflexes. from previous product hasbeendetermined overall goingthroughTurnSix mightsound My description riders of Theirworriedexpressions them is worse. they it. You'vestill got that ten dollarsworth of all lf spending of it all you'retryingto spendwisely. but likebaddrama.which allows turn. who understands And ridingat.but the fastestones do consistently threethings:1) Theyusethe banking $oingintothe turn 2) than tryingto fight the middleof the advantage.Putit in savings draw interest attentionthe straight thenwithdrawit againfor the nextturn. c c a m b eo r r Riders takethis turn'llsoonuseit it.or past.

At the speedsattained on a road-race track. Get readywhen you see it. lf I make a change lust before the matn event and tt doesn't work out. set up a reference point to tell you whento start payingattention. lJust have to make it work wtth good timing.Do this by knowing whatto do andwhere to do it. The rideris fitting himself and his equipment intothe trackand allthe actionshe hasto takeon it. sub-products and products to guideyou got around.good or evenincredible lexesdon't win races. of Note: Some of the problems of timing that a?e part of going into a turn have been helped by the various anti-dive devices now available on stroet bikes and more widely applied to GP racing machines and superbiker. for on You've to haveRPs. andthis will helpyou relax.because yourtiming was off. Fast reflexes are not a substitute for good timing. Rhythm : Timing Riders talk aboutthe rhythmof a racetrack or pieceof road.lf you can usethis attitude sprintraces. to you for pOTare can be evensharper when you haveto be. Fastreflexes help. ref lf you planto go roadracingbecause you havefast reflexes. Spend attention when necessary but save it where you experienced uncomfortable situations.Youcan alwaysset up a RPto signalyouthat a POTis coming. The basisof timing is understanding-not super-fast reflexes.thenadd speed. This is timing.Makeit work for you. lf your timing is right you can make tt smooth.but timing is the keythat unlocks the mysteries the asphalt.Relax to whilegoing down the straight-it'sfun to go fast. of gettingthe flow of the road.riderssaytheywere pacingthemselves lastthe whole raceby tryingto to relax-and theywent quicker thanthey had in the sprintraces! Theyforced themselves get smart. Timing Involves Both an ldea and an Action You must understand both the trackand your own actionsso you'renot fightingeachother. not before. POT. secondpart is in goingout andactually The doingit. l'm sureyou can lookbackoveryour ridingand recall situations where. figureout how longyou haveto makea changeat 18o mph when you'retraveting 264 at feet per second! Thereis no substitute understanding a racetrack.Just f igurewhereyour andwhatyou'resupposed be doingat eachone. Getthe timing rightfirst. 41 .

if what is going on rsn'1.That'snottrue. withoutthinkingaboutit. decision.Youdecide howfastto makethe to than another shift.Theymayspendonlya matically" but on or nickel a dimeof theirattention this decision. Every stringof decisions into as basedupona decision you havemadein the past. they'respending something. Decisions in motion. Eddie Lawson's f lawless style is the result of hundreds of correctly made decisions.and how muchthrottleto that one placeis better but applywhenyouturn it on again. I get mad at myself. 42 . I'm always talktn'to mvself outthere on the track. lf you study it. Youmaydecide rightrpm. Making decisions puts you in control. Forexample. I can get outside of mYself and look at what l'm dorng and sometlmes." to onceyou havemadea decision. it costsyou lessattention do it.or are making you or without making a ride.You don't do anything automatically someriderssaytheyshiftgears"autoagain.Noneof thesethingsis "automatic. That's the magicof decisions.ust right. making gearchange.CHAPTER SIX Decisions Decision-Making: ReciPe for Skill to amounts puttinga whole Theact of ridinga motorcycle you makeon a bike is movement motion. you'll seethat manylittle decisions go into at Youdecide whenthe engineis spinning the one gearchange.

hasto review information from the lastride. Canyou seeit workingfor you? 43 . you mustgo throughthe wholeprocess you change them. still mustdecide you'refamiliar with thesedifferent to use.s $ T&E Force Lean Angle Traction The first method.Youstill mustmakea decision. . orT&E.Really who learned T&E have by gonethroughthe manypossible methods ridinga motorcycle often so of of that theycan useanyof them at will. The wouldonlymakethat makesucha mistake. T&E is that if goodriders againto find another way.Theyhavean entirementallibrary T&E decisions drawon. the drawback making to But decisions by correct method. and something to change. Youcan arriveat a decision in two ways.ijdi€pt*At:f. In the above to this example. orTlT.You Must Make a Decision they're upondecisions." course.Think lt Through.then makethe decision. to TIT MethodTwo. (T&E)..-''*zt*a*. if it doesn't work out. alsohasdrawbacks. is how we learn clutch Trialand Error at methodof arriving a decision is to thinkthrough The second our bikes. or stop.. A wild example would be to decide to go throughTurnOneat Daytona wouldn't A who learns TtrE probably by wideopenin sixthgear..'.Trialand keepperforming actiontill it works. of mistakg orlce. don'tthinkthroughthe problem. -. To arrive at a correct decision you must start with correct inforthe he mation. person "thinker.- ^^ . dependslessupon You and understanding moreuponpractice.' Making a decision gives you a place to start.lf you comeup with the the you'realright. The riderhasto be a goodobserver. lt the task. Through ".Spe@Yojected Speed Decisionr are the detaals of your overall "plan. can let out the clutchin severalways.and it hasto be correctand usefulinformation. example..One is to work at the or of it problem untilyou havenarrowed down by the process elimination.:. We'llcallthismethodThinking (TlT). whether At alltimesyou'reoperating lf you pastor present. For you which methods.

A Drawback The serious drawback to Thinking lt Through is in making decisions based upon other people's information.anda grim one. T E Ei s t i m e .You've to makeevery to the trackcount. ridertold me the reason leftarm it a my wascramping I was because was usingthe clutchfor upshifts.c o n s u m i n U. . . you must returnfrom everysession with information that andthat means b w i l l b e u s a b l eo r t h e T I Tm e t h o d L a p s n a r a c e r a c kw i l l d o n o t h i n g u t . NeedI saywhat happened? A proper balance of "Thinking lt Through" (TlTf and "Trial and Error" (T e E) can eliminate many mistakes. which isn't necessary. Thiswas great-itworked! Anotherexample this.. is the best approach to y a f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . o t f information if homeso wearout yourequipment you don'ttakeaccurate you'll havea clearpictureof what decisions you have made and what to do in the tuture.Forexample.t i m ea c g go you mayf ind it difficultto regularly ridingor to tory-contracted racer got trip renttime on a racetrack. a 60-mphturn.thenthe second ridergoesout andtriesto fit his ridingstyleintowhat he wastold. The Best Approach A combination of the two methods. I stoppedusingit to upshiftand my arm no longer cramped.wittthishelp? 44 . lf the information is accurate canwork. Actually.n l e s s o u ' r e f u l l . One ridertellsanother ridein a certain to way.The riderwent over it's the crestat morethan 100 mph on his f irst lap.was whenone rider of told another couldgo overthe crestof TurnSeven Riverside he at with the bikeflat out in fifth gear. Trial and Error fT&E) and Thinking lt Through (TlTl.

In an emergency. In racing. Maybe"un-learn" not correct-actually. and possibly manyothers. Real-World Riding Let'sleave world of ideasfor a time and returnto the real the we worldof ridingto seehow the decisions makecanaffectus on the road The of for or track.they learnthat the rearbrakecan stop the motorcycle. riderperforms actionthat hasappeared an work in the pastin similar situations. sometimes throws T&Eriders himself. in-decision. go with us out on the track. you are creating an almost continuous emergency situation by pushing to your limits. of consume WhenT8E ridersareupsetthey havean "off" day. mayknowthe front brake will stop him muchquicker. rear the will be hisfirst choicebecause hasalready he madethe decision rearis the haveconcluded that in most better.You and don't make a new decision over the old one.andthat has become bad habit. what he decided you? for incorrect that situation. that that original decision is so strongin an emergency down go the bikeand rider. by off ridersarelessaffected what happens the trackbecause TIT-method on theirdecisions are based what they understand.ln an emergency. you erase the first decision before making another.rightf romthe start.T&EOnly A rider who uses the T&E method only cannot work on his riding when he is off the track. Theseupsets can upsets at us that vastquantities attention-usuallymorethanwe can spare.that the rearbrakeis better. decide that time. Studies motorcycle of accidents he whena rideris tryingto avoidan accident usesonlythe rear cases. decide it will do that.Takebraking example. Thesamesort of thing in The to applies emergencies. will alsostopthe bike. In this case. Does apply this to Ghanging Decisions In orderto change decision that doesn't a work. Not knowingcausesand effectscreates oppositeof the decisions-that is. Hecan'twork out newdecisions storedin he on how to ridefasterbecause doesn'thavethe information Life faceanother disadvantage. at Now evenaftera rideris told to usethe f ront brake. He but brake. overuse the rearbrakeis the one turnsout the mustgo back to the original decision and a you'remakinga un-learn it.Whenmost riders braking decision that commonly They learnto ride. a rider will do what he has already decided was will work.including abilityto makedecisions. is newdecision afterthe old one hasbeenidentified thrownout. indecision can be .Theyknowthe front brake whenthe lot in but whilethey'relearning a parking or streetit's upsetting They front end of the bikedivesdown everytime they usethe front brake.Somethingsthat hapthe pencanaffectone'swholelife.

I walkedthe trackto find out what I couldlearn.stoodin the middle."The RoadYou Ride.andwhat to do aboutit. Of course.especially you aren'tridingit.doingit that but . of Youcan'thaveonewithoutthe other. Anotherdecision-making myth is that a ridercanfigureout his linesby studying trackdiagram.then you do it. the information One. laidon the I groundand looked eachturn from the isn'tjust blindexperimenting.My laptimeswerenow two seconds fasterthan I had ever earlier gonebefore. at Trying fit a trackdiagram to intothe realworld riding. Studyinga trackdiagram that point is useless.slidingand speed.Sub-Products Pointsof then decide how and Products.I had learned that a combination T8E andTITis the keyto success. whileyou'restilltryingto learnthe track. you lot of attention usingit.I I looked every at turn f romthe inside out.You put it togetherby deciding how it's goingto be done. AfterridingCalifornia's if Sears Pointonce. You can makelots of decisions. he can makeclear-cut decisions on how to useit. Alwayslook at the track that the manwho designed was tryingto fool you into it and remember makingpoor decisions. I went backto riding it the way I had decided to from my ride. impossible decide how to ridea a lt's to racetrack or pieceof roadbeforeyou haveactuallyseenit.but it's important f irst to decide how to do it. but makingtoo manyof them you.The "ideal"linedoesn't bumps. Doyou agree? Make lt Happen Deciding to do something is the first step to making it happen. at through then walked and lookedat it backwards. theyfit togetherwith the track. Timing. thendecide why it did or did not work.As I was doingthis. Deciding How Deciding how to ride a track by lookingit overdoesnot always work. my andfivesecondsfasterthan "ideal"line.willonlytake of your attentionawayfrom the slower takeinto account didn'twork.This but you don't knowat what pointit will lock up and cause creates indecision. a firm decision to do it'llspenda verycostly. you must havea veryaccurate understanding the trackchanges. Oncea riderlearns what pointthe front brakelocks at up. you don't understand f ront brake's lf the limits.FindReference Points.I got up on the hills. wentthreeseconds I than I hadthe lasttime at the track. Thatincludes of knowing location the of the camber All and radius from Chapter changes changes. That'sbecause knowthe f ront brake doesthe job of slowingand stopping(thatdecision hasalready best beenmade). the l e Duringpractice rodeit just as lhad decided shouldbe I it ridden. I wasfiguring " i d e a l " i n et h r o u g h a c ht u r n .StartWiththe important will confuse decisions first."must be gathered first. youto fall.

+*='. Sometimes rider go faster. Should betried? it lap Times lap times are your most reliable method of deciding what works. 3l Lap times are a reflection of the quaf ity of the rider's decisions. be careful.but what feelsright is not always quickest Point"ideal" thingfrom my Sears another trackor downthe road. talkingaboutallthe places "l knowI can go a lot fasterin TurnThreeandTurn Nine. Simplydeciding to cut maynot work if you don't knowwhereyou're betterlaptimesin practice goingto pick up that time.k*.then learningthe resultsby looking at the lap times. This meansdeciding whereyour Points of Timing. Butdeciding to go fasterwithoutgaining enoughexperience Often. of course. Products and Refersession. Getof a tions of a turn. your mindabouthow fastyou can ride. ence Points are.aftera day'srace.a twist to the decision-making game a which hasto do with how powerfula decision can be. any Laptimesmust be the basisfor yourdecisions because what you too easily.I learned and middlesecYou can be going fasterin the entrance line adventure.Work out the decisions that will back up do an overall decision to go faster. but a poor drive.:::::+t:5a1.way no matter how it feels.A good speedthroughthe centerof on the turn. are foundit easiertorideat this level? Wren you become comfortable with the decisions at one level of riding.Herearethreepointsto consider: Good decisions result in good lap times. mostcases. change too." The pit racers yourown performance is Beating arecuttingrecordlapsby the hundreds! Decide go fasteronly but to of oneof the greatrewards racing. Yousimplydecide whatto do.Hewill applythis overalldecisionto his ridsimplydecides to for lap ing and-bang!-his timescomedownjust likethat! lt can happen goingfastercan sometimes Watchingother riders manydifferentreasons. canyou it? : .Didthese then reviewing your laptimes?Didthe laptimesstaythe same.or two-mph fasterproduct will makea greatdifference the nextstraight. good driveon the exit because it. to whenyou'vehad enoughexperience backit up. TbE or TITcan get you intotrouble.*€fli 47 . you can move on to the next level.Youdecide you cando's easyto fool your1) selfthis way.'.then go out and do it. 2l Good lap times are those that improve and can be done consistently.but you improve changes Bothof theseconclusions valuable.thendeciding whatyou'lldo in this practice your laptimesto decide if it workedor not. but can sacrifice ting out of the turn with a one. Deciding to beata quickerridercansparknew life intotired lap times. Anynotes? Go Faster Thereis.will be worsefor lap times. riders In will do othermethodcanfool the the way around feelsright. from either you can hearracers theycan makeup time.:.

lastsaboutthreesteps. work. tu o 1.Here'sa way to discover your decisions.T h er i d e r ' so b i s t o s o r to u t w m a k e e t e r m i n h o ww e l l d e . mustdrawon your pastdecisions.this can be verytricky.he decides to run Oftentimes. Hisearlier it. Past Decisions you To ridea motorcycle. havemadea matterwhat. way backwhen. What decisions 48 . decisions can be harder find and downsuspension might goingintoturnstoo soon. His realdecision . t t t h e d e c i s i o nh e i s u s i n g o g e ta r o u n d h e t r a c k t o k n o wt h e ma n dt o s Thedecisions can be simpleoneslike themwhen necessary. Therun usually afterhe'stakenhisfirstfew steps. him. ul A to change. Evaluate in 3. Someexamples? Discover Your Decisions Thedecisions you makewhileridingarebaseduponthe past or theyweremaderecently a longtime whether decisions you'vemade. The andon yourabilityto makedecisions in the present. ridercouldspenda lot of way timetryingto decide how to entera turn. you cansuddenly When couldn't?" Youhaveto realize whenyou in makea greatbreakthrough your riding.D ot h i sf o r s e c t i o n t h a t a r eg o i n gw e l l .tryingto f igureout another goingin low. you madeto helpyou reach have 5.h i c hi s l i k ea m e n t aw a l l . decisions you j y o u rr i d i n g i l l g o . decisions that usually threelaps.a n df o r t h o s et h a ta r eg i v i n g youtrouble. Howclearareallthe stepsinvolved this action? tellsyou how wellyou'redoingor going? 4. place." he now decides to go higher So it's When he triesto usethe that earlier decision notto go higher. change wheelhop whilegoinginto a turn."Hey. " t 12 0 m p h .a commonerror. decision can be verypowerf if you don't understand one in a whileyou mightdiscover of thesepast Every once mademe think I decisions think. how wellyouractions 2. Having trouble correct. thanthe be based the decision "not to go in highor wide.l a t e ri s a l o n gw a y downthe when a babylearns walk. moreworkable one in its then put a better.Othersweeping maybe in a racer's case. What standard yourgoals. T h i n ko v e ry o u ra c t i o n s n a p a r t i c u l a r r no r t r a c ks i t u a s t i o n ." decision A Yousee. He discovers is always to go low."rather on "to go in low or tight.or timto usinglessrearbrake prevent a ingyourentrance a turn so the bikedoesn'tundergo lot of up and to to The he thinksthat he has he to do it. against h l e h i g h e r i n eh e r u n si n t oa r e s i s t a n c w.was "l don't want to decided go in too high because unsafe.t e l l i n g i m l for decision hasmadeit veryuncomfortable him notto do it.I cando that!Whatever and you change your earlier decision. ago." workout ratherpoorlyare:"l'm goingto out-brake A t a n d" l ' l l s h u td o w nl a t e r h a n h e d o e s .

Theyarenot of equalimportance. Some Decisions About Braking Thefollowingis a partiallistof decisions couldmake you aboutusingthe brakes. Or.Consider eachveryseriously applyby you'vebeenin. the some of them aremoreimportant thanothersand somecoverthe samegroundin a slightlydifferent manner. but it will help. What Reference Points do I use? 4. What is my Product? 5. Hereare 104 possible decisions that you havemadeor can makeconcerning useof brakes. steering like or throttlecontrol. of Takeanother. helpimprove How manyf ingersto usefor the front brake How much leverpressure takesto lock up the front brake it How much leverpressure takesto lock up the rearbrake it How hardyou can usethe front brakegoing into slow turns Howhardyou can useit braking intofastturns Howhardyou can useit braking into medium-speed turns Howhardyou can useit braking intoa series turns of Howhardyou can usethe brakes the firstturn of a series in Howhardyou can brake goingintothe second turn of a series Braking downhillsections in 49 . eachof but them involves potential a decision.Also. and breakit down intothe decisions actions you and canjust lookthem overfor ing it to a situation reference be awareof will takeyou a long time.and it isn'teasy do. Checkagainto seewhat decisions you havealready made? D. Should t's cheaper to thantires andengines.Lookthemthroughand reflectbackuponyour ridingwith thesein mind. Just looking overthis list andthinkingoverthesedecisions can your braking. Takea lookat eachone. H o wi s m y t i m i n g ? 2. a l s oa s k : 1 . and lf you havethe time overthe longwinter months.lookfor moreinformation beforemakinga new decision? you may In eachitemyou comeup with in 1 through6 above.Youmay be ableto thinkof otherdecisions that applyto the useof brakes.Or. N o t c h a n g et ? i C. How muchattention am lspending? Youcan do this for eachturn of the track. Change decision? the B .you or what decisions keeping from reaching are them? y o ud e c i d e o : 6. What are my Points of Timing? mayeven makeyourown listsof otheraspects riding.

c a m b etrr a c k o y t r T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n gn d e c r e a s i n g .h a n t u r n s i d i t B r a k i n gn t ol e f t .r a d i u sn s i y ur T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n gn i n c r e a s i n g .s p e eu r n s i Timingyour braking smoothsurfaces on Timingyour braking choppysurfaces on Still More Decisions \Mrat Points of Timing or Reference Points do you useto tell if the i b r a k i n gs g o i n gw e l l ? the of What POT or RP do you useto decide location your beginning point? braking the of What POT or RP do you useto decide location yourend braking point? beganearlyenough? What information you useto decideif the braking do you useto decideif the braking too started late? do What information on started time? do What information you useto decideif the braking 50 .r a d i uu r n s y td T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n gn c o n s t a n t .B r a k i n gn u p h i l ls e c t i o n s i into a banked Braking section Braking into a flat corner intoan off-camber turn Braking turn Braking into a decreasing-radius turn Braking into an increasing-radius turn into a constant-radius Braking Braking a smoothsurface on Braking a choppysurface on B r a k i n gn t or i g h t .r a d itu s n s i y i ts T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n gn c o n s t a n t .h a n du r n s Braking crested roads on Whereyou shouldbe on the trackas you beginto brake y b W h e r e o u s h o u l d e o n t h e t r a c kd u r i n g r a k i n g b Some examptes? Whereyou shouldbe on the trackat the end of the braking More Decisions (in Whatyou lookfor that tellsyouwhento beginbraking eachkindof turn) ( y o u l o o kf o r t h a tt e l l sy o uw h e nt o e n dt h e b r a k i n g i ne a c hk i n d What of turn) (Theabove tracks) to two questions be applied particular can y g T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n g o i n gi n t os l o w t u r n s goinginto medium-speed turns Timingyour braking goingintofast turns Timingyour braking goinginto a series turns Timingyour braking of Timingyour braking downhillsections on y T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n g n u p h i l ls e c t i o n s o y T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n g n b a n k e dr a c k t o y o u rb r a k i n g n f l a tt r a c k Timing o y T i m i n g o u rb r a k i n g n o f f.

How much brake to use while leaned over? .Decisions With Practice pavement Braking overdiscolored changing or surface Usingthe rearbrakein conjunction with the front Usingthe rearbrake only Usingthe front brake only Whatto do whenthe rearend begins hop or slide to Howto correctrear-wheel or slide hop Locking the f ront brake up Locking the front and rearbrakes up together in Otherpeople's information the useof brakes general on people's information the front brake on Other information the rearbrake Otherpeople's on people's information usingboth brakes together Other on you Information got from watchingotherridersusethe brakes What is usefultodo with the brakes What is not usefulto do with the brakes Braking up whenthe bikeis straight Braking whenthe bikeis leaned over with onlythe front brake while leaned Braking over Braking with onlythe rearbrake whileleaned over Howfar you can be leaned overand still usethe brakes Braking and steering the sametime at Howgood is your braking overall? Howmuchtime can be madeup with brakes? you Howmuchdistance can makeon another riderby usingyour brakes position Yourseating whilebraking A critical moment of decision.

middleor end Which is the most important Howmuchf ront brake can be usedif the rearis lockedup whilebraking Howgoodis yoursense traction of whilebraking of Howgood is yoursense speed n g o o di s y o u rd e p t hp e r c e p t i ow h i l eb r a k i n g How your brakingwittthis hetp? Yourability improve to Phew!! 52 .Useof throttleand brakeat the sametime you can let off the front brake Howslowlyor quickly you can let off the rearbrake Howslowlyor quickly action Howto judgeyourspeedat the end of the braking the Whereto position brakelever the Whereto position brakepedal forcethe front brakehas Howmuchstopping forcethe rearbrakehas muchstopping How havetogether forcethe f ront and rearbrakes Howmuchstopping p e w m u c ht h e l e v e r n d p e d a l r e s s u r c a nb e c h a n g e d h i l eb r a k i n g a How More Decisions With Practice Whereto put yourweightwhilebraking y w P u t t i n g o u rw e i g h to n t h e h a n d l e b a r h i l eb r a k i n g yourweighton the footpegs whilebraking Putting y P u t t i n g o u rw e i g h to n t h e t a n kw h i l eb r a k i n g u S i t t i n g p w h i l eb r a k i n g H a n g i n g f f w h i l eb r a k i n g o t B r a k i n g n dd o w n s h i f t i na t t h e s a m e i m e a g Passing whileusingthe brakes geometry duringbraking What happens the steering to duringbraking to What happens weighttransfer duringbraking What happens the suspension to you spendbeginning braking Howmuchattention you spendduringbraking Howmuchattention you Howmuchattention spendat the end of braking partof braking-beginning.

there'slesstime to makedecisions. if you haveto put yourself But what it feelsliketo panic. ridingbarrier is usefulbecause tellingyou that you needto makenewdecisions faster. between Youhavelesstime between corners. you improve. a t i m et o a c t .ldeally.y o un e e d o f i g u r eo u t .where this eachone as it appears. A Riding Barrier Signals an Area That Needs lmprovement ways. is your automatic instructor.l f y o u ' r e b l et o c o p ew i t h t h i sc h a n g ey o u rl a pt i m e sw i l l intopanic reaction time. hit of you become stuckthere. theycan and Riders levels laptimesthat act as barriers.That to improve lap goodtargetfor you to consider. Time Barriers you will notice that things Whenyou begintryingto go faster. a You Points. you'rebeingpressed reacta littlebeyond to first is that 54 . l t you'veincreased yourspeed. by the extraspeed-except maylearnnothing y s la H a v i n ge s s i m et o m a k e o u rd e c i s i o n is n o t n e c e s s a r iby d .l f y o u h a n d l e you'll avoida catastrophe does apply? later. a b a r r i eo b s t r u c t s u t i s n o t i m p a s s a b l e . r b Yourgoalis to loweryour lap to stantly confrontbarriers yourgoingfaster. se o W h i l er i d i n g n d r a c i n gy o u ' l lc o n . alsohappen lot faster. Whenever that for it is one of the indicators you reachoneof thesetime barriers you'reknocking the doorof your on it's A nextareato conquer. h e s e a r l d r i e r s a r el i k ew a r n i n g i g h t so n t h e d a s h b o a ro f y o u rc a r . a realgoalto set for and wouldbe a yourself. lt a t t Y o ud o n ' tn e e d o f i n d a n e w l i n et h r o u g h t u r n . would be ableto ridea littlefasterand your average time eachtime you returned a track.CHAPTER SEVEN Barriers Keys to lmprovement a A B a r r i e r : A n y t h i n g r v i n g sa l i m i t a t i o n r o b s t r u c t i o n . y T b a w h a tf a c t o r s r eb r i n g i n g o u n e a rp a n i c t h e nc o n t r o l t h e m . t s a t i m e sb y r i d i n g r o u n d h e t r a c ka t h i g h e r p e e d s n dw i t h m o r ec o n t r o l . a however.The these problemareasin several You can recognize yourabilities. by atedthis emergency . havecreReference and your and by compressing situation addingspeed.

r:x.ffi u--!6tnt#.. r:r'. manyproblems couldbe affecting approach. *.i.s' ''t Y i.." You are either Iate and have to panic. lackof goodReference Points A that kindof panicthat occurswhenyou'reslightlylost. your In this example. Youmaybe goingdown one geartoo manyand haveyourattenTrack barriers. ii *... What you are doing is definitely unclear. Herearesomepossibilities. or problem areas.Or you cancause maysimplybe downshifting lateand crowdingit intoyourother too actions.:. or are waiting for something to happen. are places where your riding is "soft.*5'.You'renot beingpushedcompletely beyondyour ability. .but enoughthat yourattention fixeduponthe problem.. example that you'reenterAn is is i n ga t u r na n dt h e b r a k i n g n dd o w n s h i f t i na r ec r o w d e d o c l o s e o t h e a g t s picka goodPoint of actionthat you'reunable accurately to steering Timing to act withoutbeingabsolutelyrantic. you'resnapping f lf and g r a b b i n g t t h e c o n t r o l si k ea s h a r k t f e e d i n g i m e .y o u k n o ws o m e t h i n g a l t a isn'tright.

Wayne Rainey.b O a t i o ns t u c kt o a n e n g i n e p i n n i n g t 1 3 . leadjust beforeit happened.thesearejust a few. return. mistake is a result. or for that up yourattention-attention couldwell be spentelsewhere a higher This is another barrier. feelingof uncertainty A comesfrom not yo t f u l l yu n d e r s t a n d i n g u rs i t u a t i o nl . mustalways what you did to bring in aren'tall that valuable-it's remembering Mistakes them. Lookat the decision was focused attention the as it's always lastthing you do that getsyou into ing up to the mistake. entrance the potential Youmaynot havea product for the f lat surface. not a cause. controls your bikemay be set in speed. andoffersless maybe off camber downhill. Go over your decisions.Of problems approaching turn. it knowwhat you do and be ableto remember in detail. O O r p mw h e ni t s h o u l d e o n s so turning. or Forexample. uncertainty eat reasons f rom manyothers.o t h e rc l u e s i l l t e l ly o u s you'renot on top of the situation. t l n t a t s u c ha n u n c o m f o r t a b ae g l e h a ty o uc a n ' tr e a c h h e mq u i c k l y . a Remember.Youmay not knowwhereyou'regoing. This is why you trouble. thinking it through iust moments before his first National Superbike win at Loudon. a in the manypossible Other Glues w f B e s i d e b e i n gp r e s s e do r t i m et o a c t . m t e T h et r a c kc o n s t r u c t i oins e l f a yc o n t r i b u t t o y o u rd i s t r e s s . Mistakes greatindicator that all is not well is whenyou make Another find out whereyour on mistakes the track.A mistake isn't to be themaboutthat will helpyou correct . Youmaybe braking latethat you'relosingsightof yourentry The on resulting a panicsituation. than a braking turn andthat will botheryou. c o u l ds t e mf r o mo n eo f t h e a b o v e will the the Whatever reason.when you makea mistake. First year road racer.

ignored in the hope it will disappear with practice-it is something to be studied and figured out. lt is a barrier to improvement, andtherefore keyto improvement handled a if correctly.

Feeling Like You Gan't Do lt
This is veryfrustratingto a rider,and it creates troublefor him. Thishelpless feelingoftenresults from not knowing tracklayout the well enough, f rom not beingin full controlof the bikein somesituations. or lf y o uc a n ' th a n d l e o u n t e r - s t e e r i nn a t u r n ,y o u m i g h tb e g i n o b e l i e v et i g c t i can'tbe donethe way it looks. Theworstproblem with this feelingis that you maydecideit can be donebecause someone elseis doingit, thenyou you havethe skillnecessary. berserk Thisdangertry to do it before You it. results from frustration, it's another ouscondition and indicator a of b a r r i e r t o y o u rr i d i n g . just your barriers not impossible-it takessome Overcoming is work.Youcando the work at the track,in between ridingsessions or pictures eachturn,then go throughthem, races. First, drawyourself of marking downthe spotswhereyou'rehaving difficulty makingmisor your eyesand go overthe turnsin your mind as you try to find takes. Close (seeChapter the problem areas Four-"What You See"). you'restudying As the trackf rom memory, somepartswill be foggy,unclear just not there. or Markdownthesespotson yourturn diagrams. overthe entire Go trackby memory and markall the places that arebarriers you,whether to they're by rushed caused uncertainty, time,mistakes otherproblems. or

The Barriers Ghange
go Onceyou havelistedyour barriers, backoverthem and your ridingto overcome decidehow you canchange them.Remember, you go faster. Thereis a twist to barriers. the barriers will change as D o n ' to v e r l o o t h e p o s s i b i l i tty a tt h e s a m ep r o b l e m s a no c c u ra g a i n , k h c evenin the sameturn,as you increase your speed. Overall, barriers aregoodthings.Theytell you automatically "Thisis your nextareato expand whereyourproblems Theyaresaying, lie. into,your nextlevelof improvement." Welcome whenyou noticethat it not something's goingright.Onceyou recognize your barriers, won't you your laptimesdown-theywill pointto your have guess to what'skeeping problems. free instructionlWittyou ft's remember this?


l-ook for the other indicators that there is some riding barrier slowing your pfogress. 1. Mistakes. 2. Feeling helpless or like you can't do it. 3. Pressed for time to act. 4. Doing nothing, waiting for something to happen. 5. Can't get a clear picture of some turn or area. 6. Attention stuck on some part of the track.


Remember, the track is what you have to beat. You don't beat other racers, you beat the track better than they did. ',*aiWr


Break the track i tions-turns, or J a turn. Pay partir attention to the you are unsure o

Handling your riding barriers is another way to save, and wisely spend your $1O worth of attention.


u n i n g w o u l ds t o pa c a r . be an endless can ridingand in of the will chapter discuss purpose brakes high-performance of racing. causethe rearend to hop or slide 60 .p o u n d b a the tributed50 percentf rontand 50 percentrearat rest. their limits.and andthe rearbrakemust or rear.suchas suspension. instance. Therearend nowweighs60 pounds less.CHAPTER EIGHT Braking The Art of Regulating Speed manymajortechnical haveundergone Motorcycle brakes andthey havebecome of sincethe advent the disc brake.Thismeans f ront stopboulevard eachcarrya 300-poundload.U s i n g h e s f igures. breakthroughs mostothertechnolohas Brake eff technology surpassed extremely icient.andwhatyou shouldknowaboutthe business braking. weighttransfer amounts about75 percenton the f ront the Thefront end nowweighsthreetimes wheeland 25 percenton the rear. percentof the weightor 90 weight-transfer static(orstopped) on 1Oper centor lesswill remain the to moremaytransfer the f ront.At a normal and rearwheels to ping pace. h a v e 4 5 o . The Most lmportant Factor is of factorto be aware in braking Thesinglemost important Let'ssayyou are that occurswhenthe brakes applied. task. can buy a set of brakes for T a n d i n s t a ltlh e mo n y o u rb i k ei n a n a f t e r n o o n . r t f t A t r a c i n g p e e d sh e s t o p p i n go r c ei s g r e a t es t i l l . Both slidingand when usedincorrectly.This yoursuspension. whatthe reardoes. lt requires much attentionto usecorrectly. e Rear Brake Overuse the Overusing rearbrakeis so commonas to be almosta fact of life. of weight. and painstaking however. the weighttransfer r i d e ra n dt h e i rw e i g h ti s d i s .p o u n d i k ea n da 15 O .Many riders and racers have given up using the rear brake and can too for hard braking.plusthe momentum the rear poundsof the bike's stoponly60 wheeland ngine. that You gies.

The acceleration of a 15O hp racebike will get it through the 1/4 maleat 145 mph.Ei Weight Transfer 5oo/oFront 5oo/oRear j 1 . Weight Transfer Front 25o/oRear 750lo Weight Transfer l OOo/o Front Oolo Rear ."v. But the brakes will bring it from 145 mph to O in much less distance! ..Braking forces erc awesome.#.

contribute this by not allowing rearwheelto followthe road. the f ront brakeis released. almostanycontrol you lessharmto use will helpyou morethan a lockedrearbrake. you Youknowhow sensitive can be with the throttle. which aresetto operate tions. whenyou'regoingthe fastest. on andwhenoneof them is g o n ei t ' sa d e fi n i t ed i s a d v a n t a g n t r a c t i o n . the lightest use rearbrakeat the beginning the of braking actionwhenthe forksaremostcompressed the weighttransand fer is the greatest.hoppingrender bikeout of controlto somedegree. powerare-notthe rear. The You're asking muchof yourself. streetand racebikesdo the samething. cause lt'd the high-beam Thefront is wherethe weightand switchor chokelever. Haveyou experienced this? Purpose of Braking A lot of rlders don't pay enough attention to the smooth use of their brakeseven experts. overall in the is of takingseconds racingis to get around trackor downthe roadquicker.but for a reason. The purposeof the brakesis to adjust and correct the speed of the motorcycle downward.This isn'ttrue. havesuchhugedisc LightGrandPrixbikesor Superbikes tiresthat the rearwheelcan lift off the groundunder brakes and sticky heavy Lesser braking. a Youhave out onlytwo smallcontactpatches the ground. As someof the weight transfers backto the rearwheelandthe rearbrakecan-if it's goingto be usedat all-do moreof the work of stopping slowingat this time.You or have get smartwith your rightfoot if you wantto makeanyuseat all of to the rearbrakeunderheavy stopping.Goinginto a turn you can makechanges with the brakes. One Second Faster 62 playin goingonesecond Let'sinvestigate what partbrakes fasterper lap. Hardbraking or different overripplingpavement bumpscan launch rearend of the bikeoff the groundbecause its unweighted the of loadcondiThe underheavier somebackwards logical usethe brakes hardest the beginning the brakto seems the at of ing action.o n o f y o u rm a i nc o n c e r n s ie e during ornering. to the Thenet resultis air between thetire andthe road-averypoortraction situation. comingout of a turn you canadjustyourspeedin tenthsof a mileper hourby workingthe twist just as accurately grip.however. stopping The useof the rearbrakerequires logic. controlling deceleration. too to expect improve purpose purpose brakes to adjustthe speeddownward. c In a panicor race-speed braking maneuver. the Youcan'tfeelgood aboutleaning bikeintoa turn if it's basically of control.Youcan'tusebrakes that and your riding. shocks. Thisis truefor the front brakeInthe back. On most American tracks you must average about . the off laptimes.Reach brakemarker a and pullthemon-get downto another like marker and letthem off. Most ridershavethe ideathat brakes somekindof on/off are switch.

can pick up a second more the for you or . You have to adjust the speed of your bike accurately to go around the turns one mph faster. Set comfortable brake points for yourself. intoa 120-mphturn 25 feet deeper thanthe lasttime and reduce your lap times aboutone-tenthof a second. the speed you will enter the turn with. to Thinkof the brakeas a reverse throttle. Goingin 50 feet deeper would improve it twiceas much. as it setsyourcornering Youcandive speed.lf your braking wasfineto beginwith. to of on But goingin just might permanently that muchdeeper youreyeballs.Where wittyou it? try late braking often does more harm to lap times and corner speeds than good. By beginning braking the actionat a comfortable location and setting speed the turn correctly. Speedcorrectly adjusted.Instead turningthe of controlyou pull or pressit to startthe brakingactionand downwardspeed The speed that remains when you release the brakes is change. Si gn if icant I mprovements You can't make significant time improvements by using the brakes harder or going in deeper. it enlarge and wouldcertainly increase possibility errors the of andtakeup a considerable amountof attention-your ten-dollar bill-thatmight be betterspent elsewhere.Youmusttreat yourself morekindlyand makethat one mph easier find. Youcan'thopeto makeup the speedlaterin the turn-you must set it up right in the beginning. How canyoujudgethat one mph accurately with the bikepitching forwardand you try to compensate brake bouncing overthe ripples as for fade. won't go fasterdownthe straights You if you don't get out of the turns faster.and a full tankof gasor an emptyone?lt's too muchto ask. Whereand how you let off the brakesis much more important thanwhereyou pullthem on. To do this you mustgo throughthe turnsonemph faster. lf you want to go one mph fasterthanthe lastlap. then holdthat advantage downthe straights. Endbraking at 61 mph faster around the trackfor a one-second better lap must be ableto go intothe turn that much faster. Endbraking at 60 mph. Speed adjustments cost might pick up two-tenths three-tenths a second mosttracks. You can make time with the brakes by adjusting the cornering speeds accurately.

( P O T ) : n ea t t h e p o i n ty o u b e g i n h e b r a k i n g c t i o n n do n e a a t o ofTiming it. u t y o uc a np i c ku p a p l a c e n t h e b i u s u a l l ym p r o v e standings. t s d from the standpoint time. that will taketime that'sone extraoperation have increase to and effortto correct. is better to yourself more back off on your initial braking marker and allow time to set your speed right than to panic with late braking.yourBy time you usethe brakes! goingin too deepand upsetting every lt self.witt it work for you? Braking and Your Sense of Speed Your sense of speed is your ability to iudge whether you are riding faster or slower than you were during previous trips through a turn or section of road. it Whenyourspeedis set by adjusting correctly will youwon't haveto makeanycorrections your attention be freeto and r i d et h et u r n . you'rewithina secto in in ond of the fastestrideron the trackandcan makea lot of improvement gained can really three-tenths a second of or won't you tage. that Thereis no guarantee the bikewill slowdown at the exactly sameamounteachlap. lf you go in too fast and requiremore brakingwhen you shouldbe'llonlymakeit moredifficultto canthrowyourtimingoff. lf you go in too slowlyand yourspeed.Forpassing i y o u rl a pt i m e s .laptimesand of Lookat latebraking lf yourposition the racerelative the otherriders. to Resist temptation latebrakein turnswhen it won't be an advanthe purposes. Having goodend-braking and allowsyouto adjust with the brakes whereyou'llbe f inished advance yourspeedmoreeasily. with the brakes.evenif you brake the sameplaceBut thingschange.Does make it The Product of Braking The realproductof brakingis:To set the speed of the bike for that place on the track so that no further changes correctly are necessary.don't lookfor it with the brakes sense? average speedup in turns. pointin practice you'll so Tryforyour absolute latestbraking i i y k n o w w h e r e o u ' l lw i n d u p o n t h e t r a c ki f l a t eb r a k i n gs r e q u i r e dn a passingituation uring herace. must takes time to realize when something is not right. whereyou havecompleted lt is just as important to establish a marker for the end of the braking as it is to have one for the you to seein marker allows a beginning. thenthe two-tenths l t d o y o u s o m eg o o d . an End-of-Braking Marker will giveyou a constant to work f rom. to Point(RP) markthe spotyou will Establish Reference a at two Points and is Braking a Sub-Product it involves least beginbraking. ln orderto go fasteryou . times.l f y o u n e e dm o r et h a na s e c o n do g e t i n t ow i n n i n g a p you'vegot to get your alone. gradually. time to figure out what it should be and time to correct it.

65 . Beableto get it right each tame and then work on late braking to compress the amount of time it takes.The brake is used to correctly adjust the speed forthatturn.

speedup a littleat a proband upsetting ablywon't loseas muchtime as you mightby latebraking yourself. leaving dooropenfor a mistake.Control the and adjustment. youto makethesespeedadjustments for it becomes You can make accurate speed adjustments. There are two results from this: 1.usingthe brakes an without by goingintothe turnscomfortably. bringing cornering it think willwork? from this skill. roadracermust be that a world-class mustknowwhat fasteris. a good ideato find out exactly methodis to ridealongthe track Thesimplest it is lockedup and sliding. easier The adjustments. & {' & l Another Twist to Braking increase Anothertwist to brakingis that you can effectively brakingpoint lf your speedby lettingoff the brakes. You develop a better senae of speed.lf yourspeedis set right-a littlefasterthanthe lastlap. let off the brakes and maintaina speedthat will be correct25 or morefeet down the road. the which makes sensand attitude.then lock at a comfortable .Doyou and confidencecan be developed I let it coast a little tn the turn after braking to get everythtng settled and ready for the exrt The Braking Drills While it is truethat you willfind the rearbrakeof littleuse when what happens it's underhardbraking. I calculate of to ableto judgehis speed withinone-half one milean hour-andpossimph givesthe ridera onebly evenf inerthanthat. Thatmight be too much.Five of rangein yoursense speed. moreyou areableto sense accurately. in weighttransfer changes the bike's you speeddialallows as Usingthe brakes a reverse ing of speeddifficult.When mV concentratton is good I know I dtd everything Trtght. speed.Plusor minusone-half of A plusor minussensitivity f ivemph allowsyou of mph range sensitivity. 2. You can spend your attention on riding the turn when you get it right the f irst time. / know rt. up to a 1O-mph to a mph fasterin a turn is really greatdeal-enough put you down if you do i t a l l a to n c e . it's llke lwasn't but really there I get tnto that frame of concentration and rf I go 1l4 mph slower or faster. the and your sense speed of to advantage f ine-tuning There's greater a as panic. to speed and becomemore sensitive to reachthe speedmore gradually and quicker the speed. then sense you may be goingtoo slow. radicalchanges as By usingthe brakes a dialyoucaneliminate yourown sense of to and in the bike'sbehavior makeit easier develop dramatic creates Usingthe brakesas an on/off switch. you use a comfortable as you enterthe turn. up the rearbrake.however. speed.

guidethe wheelsbackinto to alignment with bodyEnglish and pressure the handlebars. Hereis a drillyou can practice learnthe lock-uppointand to the sensitivity your rearbrake.if the rearendof the machine slidesout of linewith the front andyou let up on the rearbrake. Ridealongat a comfortable speedin an areawith no traffic or d istractions.lf the it front and rearareseverely of line. but the skid mark is longer. ly It is possible. Youwill notice that the f rontwheelturnsunderor turnsin when it is locked. Step2: Lockup the front wheel. andthe bikefeelsas thoughit is goingto fall over. will-or can-snapbackinto linewith the frontwheel.Do it at various speeds and braking forces. remembering you usethe front. it Step4: Repeat steps1 through3 untilyouknow whenthe brake will lock. on then let up on the brake and continue. 1 Om p h lOO mph The Front Brake Drill The purpose this drill is to find out how muchleverpressure of is required lockup the f rontwheel.andwhat happens the bikewhen to to the wheelis locked. Somemotorcycle safetyinstructors suggestyou can avoidthe abovesituation leaving rearbrakelockeduntilthemachine by the is stopped. nearly or stopped. of Step 1.Observe important one caution whilemaking this test. Step 1: Ridealongat f iveto ten mph.the lighter rearwill be. The bestsituation to not havelockedit up is to beginwith. that the harder the In rtralght llne braklng. especial whileracing. Step 2: Applythe front brakeat a steadyand evenrate. without this information you'llalways afraidof the be front braketo somedegree. Step3: Applythe rearbrake gradually learnhow muchpedal to pressure reallytakesto lock it up. a locked-up front wheel feels the same at l OO mph as it does going 1O mph.usingonlythe front brake. Thismay not always a practical be solution. with practice.this actionmay be so abruptit could out you and the motorcycle throw will-if you .

s n t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n sa t 1 O m p h w i l l h a p p e n a t 1 O Om p h . you put downon the pavement At 100 mph the stripof rubber r w i l l b e l o n g e t h a nt h e o n ea t 1 Om p h .Fromobservation. a m t Cutting Costs The purpose theseexercises to f ind the pointwherethe is of lock. that'snot the purpose of to as correct usethe engine a brakebecause purpose of downshifting is to bring the engine The downshifting. Thatkindof surprise can costyou $9. it costs250 or less. t 1O O p h o a w f A m it will slidefor nearly15 feet. make your decisions on what can be done.a n du s i n g h e y g t m t e n g i n e e a n s o u ' r e o i n gt o h a v e o r e p l a c eh e c r a n ka n dp i s t o n s lf sooner. arecertain and speeds themachine. You figure out your brakes.lf you'refamiliar with it. Does apply you? this to turn.The bikeof coursehasmoreforceskeeping i t u p r i g h t t 1 O O p h .andto become brakes accustomed that feelingso you'llknow to whatto do if the brakes lockwhileyou'reriding.l f y o u l e a v eh ew h e e l o c k e do r t f 1 / 1 O t h f a s e c o n d t 1O m p ht h e w h e e l i l l s l i d e o r 1. and spend that attention on the turn coming up. it's Secondly. T h eo n l y you mistake can makewith a locked rontwheelis not letting off the f brake lever soon enough. 68 . Braking and Downshifting Downshifting closely is because the associated with braking it two almostalways occurat the sametime. Thesimpleandonlysolution to let off the lever is y. you wishto slowdownthe rearwheela bit. you knowthe rideris tryingto useit as a brake. u n t i l t h e l i d ee n d s T h eb i k ew i l l s t r a i g h t e u p i m m e d i a t e lT h e s a m e .b u t i t f e e l s h e s a m ea s i t d o e sa t 1 0 m p h . The Engine ls Not A Brake! It'ssupposed increase speedof the machine-not to the and downshift it.keepthe is not efficientor correct usethe engine slowyou. decrease At anyplacewhereyou haveto usethe brakes to to at the sametime. Step3: Repeat Steps1 and2 aboveat higherand higher you cancontrol untilyou arecertain what happens. 5 f e e t . appears mostridersbelieve engineis supposed helpslowor stopthe the to that g u s b i k e W h e ny o u h e a ra n e n g i n e p i n n i n g p t o w a r dr e d l i n e o i n gi n t oa .00. not It'scheaper replace to brakepadsthan crankshafts. t i l T h e r e s n ' tm u c hw e i g h to n t h e r e a rw h e e t o b e g i nw i t h . usethe rearbrake.

With the bike pulling strong off the turn {without up-shifting). etc" &Ew . Below redline (in powerband) Shift point with bike straighter. 5 O Op m The purpose of downshifting is to have the engine in the power when you begin to accelerate. Must shift while leaned over.1 O . RPs. you can spend your attention on speed. Begin acceleration. traction.r 7 . c r e a t i n ge a s i e r d r i v eo u t . 5 O O . At redline. Up-shifting while still leaned over costs a lot because it must be perfect. You could leave it in sixth gear right up to the point of acceleration and the bike wouldn't care.

somecases But must be doneimmediately. so long as you know how have to know what how muchattention many gears you have to go down.the bikedoesn't you beginto accelerate.anvexamptes? then sacrif ln blg sweepers I don't let the bike bog down offthe power -it seems to slrde easrer I keep it spinning up tn the power'll changes makebefore in immediately caseyou makea misyou haveto startdownshifting feel too take-thisis why manyridersbeginthe downshifting soon.Sometimes canchange or turnsand overrevs under gearing it's correct the infield for so overall in lf revsa littleon the straight.The Goingintoa turn.You don't gear you're in.lf you don't knowthis. are as the shiftswill affecttractionand steering. is The bestplaceto makethe gearchanges towardthe end of put the but before bikeis actually intothe turn at a steeplean the braking angle. u s e n g i n e p i n n i n g p t o r e d l i n ey o u a r ea l m o s t u a r a n t e ea g e a rc h a n g e overall the way. as to Most riders seemto feel it's necessary downshift soonas thereisn'ttime for a In possible afterthey beginto brake.change The Bike Doesn't Gare carewhat gearit's in. gearturn at the end of a sixth-gear t. lt's amazing it f reedup by simplyknowingthis. Shoutdbetried? can be Tallest Gear Possible to To decidehow manygears go downfor a turn. and doing it.Of courseit's impoftant makethe correctnumisn'tat the first Thisusually the properlocation. Second Problem and redwith goingdowntoo manygears Thesecondproblem o c v i s t h a t e n g i n e i b r a t i o n a nh i d et h e v i b r a t i o n f t i l i n i n g h e e n g i n en a t u r n .h e b i k ew i l l n o t m i n di f i t ' s i n s i x t hg e a rt h r o u g h rd c o n s t a n t .Youwill haveto makethat whilethe bikeis still leaned in the middleof yourdriveout of the turn-a placewhereyou need change you mightnot of on to be concentrating otherthings. o p p o r t u n i t yu s t a sy o u b e g i nb r a k i n gT h eb e s tp l a c e s u a l l ys n o tw h e n whenthe the you'rein the turn leaned over-thatupsets bikesomewhat the gearsin a turn maycause biketo Changing gearchanges made. course.Sometimes. bob up and down. you havea thirdlf onlywhen rightgearmatters and partof the turn requires straight.into the right rpm range as you begin to accelerate out of a turn. lf you go downtoo manygearsand run the turn with the g d . it results betterlaptimes-andit canicinga little top end is worth it. You'llsavea lot of attentionby knowinghow manygear to cominginto a turn. u . that is on the bike.andyou'llhaveto change havea choicewith the gearing with the you this situation gears whileleaned over. at berof downshifts i j.use the gear possible that still allows the bike to pull the turn in tallest its powerband. thereis time to wait.s p e eu n n i n g to that partof the turn. if approach-the downshifting leisurely gears whenyou can do it moreleisurely.

Redlining the engine in a turn gets your attention. h er i d e r h o u s e sh i s b r a k e sh e a d T w t leastwins.orsmothering that information.. Note: I don't recommend coast Racing because haveseena number people I of get hurt doingit. nre you aware of this? Goast Racing "Canyon racers"havea greatpastimecalled.T h i sd o e sn o t m e a n o u s h o u l d o a s t h r o u g h u r n so n a r a c e o y c t trackor anywhere else-you shouldhave bikein gearso you cancontrol the the exitof the turn. it seat The changes in that vibration give you a picture of the traction at every moment. Thereis a vibration whenthe tiresaregripping well and not slidingbecause they aretakingthe maximum load. and footpegs. Thevibration from this carries throughthe up frameandyou sense at the handlebars.Coast Racing. =) the tiresbitingintothe road. The quieter lt is the faster I go. It also smothers your sense of traction.s h u to f f i t h e i re n g i n e s n db e g i nc o a s t i n g o w n . lf the engine vibration "drowning is out. Rider's Job job The rider's is to be abre separate the engine vibrato tion from the tire traction vibration so he can constantly sense traction. doesn't it? Cut that cost.Goodridershavenoticed theyweregoingfasteron the same t u r n sw h i l ec o a s t i n gh a nw h e nt h e yw e r er i d i n g h r o u g h h e mw i t h t h e t t t e n g i n e n . I like to use earplugs. becomes it difficultto sense exactly whatthe tiresare dOing.Whenthe tiresbeginto slidethe vibration different is and'.Youneedthis vibration tell you yourtracto tion situation.' s e v e r a l r i d e rl sn eu p a t t h e t o p o f a l o n gh i l l w i t hl o t so f t u r n si n i t ..Thisexample illustrates you can .. high-rewing engine A can' in a turn. tracthat tire tion muchbetter whenthe engine vibration isn'tdrowningit out. Yoursense of traction is something should be spending you . cause the rider to believe his tires are sliding. Yoursense traction of youto knowwhat conditions allows your cornering speeds and leanangles creating the tires-howwellthey are for arebitingintothe asphalt.

purpose this technique to allowyou to usethe possible be ableto twistthe throttleenough andstill as front brake hardas The downshifts. won't be able for a turn. Downshifting timedwhenchanging clutchactionmust be correctly to to but at the rightplaceon the track is important. lt comes is of The from practice. failure revthe engine bikewill lockup the rearwheelormakeit matchthe roadspeedof the downshifts. from the save downshift that how andwhereyou downshift It mayseemfar-fetched in but yourcornering speeds. to Alwaysrevthe engine the rightspeedbetween chatter.thereis a maximum the of speedif you can'tsense traction the tires. Even you don't revthe engine if beingrough. to change when necessary brakeleverpressure working throttle. Performing hno things at once cuts costs. Will thisimprove Using the brake and throttle together is an important technique. to get that maximum and of the Youcan'tignore otherbasics downshifting:Throttle gears. the can makea Howyou let the clutchout afterrewingthe engine Goodriderslet the betweena smoothor a roughgearchange. Front Brake * Throttle Most experienced riders have mastered the technique of using the front brake and throttle at the same time. No matter what lineor RPsor Product You for speed that approach. 1. . trick is to be ableto keepthe to revthe enginebetween while it or constant.a lot of attentionon. well as to this section improve yourriding? to f ree up more of your attention. The combination of your sense of traction and your sense of speed will help you determine the cornering speed you use you are willing to use. I urgeyou to usethe methods can improve as of youroverall ridingand sense traction. so andevenly clutchout smoothly letting the clutchout slowlycan enough. difference the shift hasthe leastaffecton the bike. whenever possible. Get the gas off and then the brake on.

. d . . a{ i:'. %W 5. ( I Wr 4. pressure.% 2. Repeat step thrce for each downshift. 3. Do as much braking as possible before you start to downshift. While still maintainingbrake fever rotate the throttle on and off to bring the revs up for your downshift. Releasethe brake for the corner.

That's what is ealled smooth.Eddie demonstrates entering the corkscrew. 1. & 2. Notice the almost unchanged fork extension from beginning to end. j. the correct way to end the braking and begin a turn. W 74 .

'1': . he begins to accelerate iust enough to ke6p the bike from bobbing up and down. Just as the bike is entoring the banked pavement.4.

Thismust happenif you'reholdingontothe pullon the the barsto the left.Sinceyou areholdingontothe barsand movingoverto the right yourleftarm is pulling fact." tion of travelis knownas counter steering.andthat methodis something the lessthancontrol.turn the barsright.Gounter steering is the only way you can direct a motorcycle to steer accurately.the moreyou wantto be certain faster that the machine do will whatyouwant it to.Youcannotsteera motorcycle the time.Deliberately as turningthe barsin the opposite direc"against. i o Let'stakea lookat what happens whenyou steer.lf a rightbar.At speed n a n y t h i n gf y o u ' r e o t h o l d i n g n t ot h e h a n d l e b a r s .lf you'renot holding bars. l'm drlfttng both wheels. of The you go.i t e p e n d s n h o wy o u h o l d o d o 76 the how you'vebeensteering all you knewit or not. Youare d a p p r o a c h i na r i g h t . ls it explained? . aretalking but We aboutcontrolling bike. Let off and tt wtll quit driftlng Counter Steering pushthe barsin the opposite is Steering simpleenough-you you direction the direction wishto travel. mustfeel ln you of or that the steering and the direction the bikeare underyourcontrol.whichturns the left sideof the bartowards you leanleftto go around leftturn. bikewill not beginto turn whereyou lean. of Thatbegins turn.whether simply your by leaning Youcan get it to veeroff in eitherdirection leaning it.CHAPTER NINE Steering It Happens Backwards Manyridershavelearned steera motorcycle to withoutunderstanding process. I use countersteering and it lust gets right over wrth very little effort.andthe the bikeleans it turns. that isn'tsteering. the the Youmay b e p u s h i n g n t h e o t h e rb a ra sw e l la s p u l l i n g .h a n t u r n ." go rightyou mustturn the bars To to left-to go left.a n dt h e b i k eb e g i n s o g o g t right. purpose steering to controlthemotorthe The of is cycle's direction travel. you can'tdo muchof Youcanonlyguess wherethe bikewill go. your motorcycle This. by weightoff to onesideat low speeds. Counter means andto steermeans "guideor direct.Y o ul e a nr i g h t . After I get the brke over then I use the throttle to steer it. racing in any ridingsituation.

but it's a d e c r e a s i n g .exerting lot of pressure the barstrying a on @f#Biffie{ffi+* .The major trouble riders have with decreasingradius turns is in not knowing how to steer. the more precise your steering must be. Riders haveproblems with this especially fast.1 . bikewill stayat the leanangleyou the the on you eased the pressure..i ':::i. When you ease pressure the bars.p u s ht h e b a r s h f t i n t ot h e d i r e c t i o n f t h et u r n . i a f W h e ny o uf i n dy o u r s e lh o l d i n g n v e r yt i g h t l yi n t u r n s .Bumpsand othersurface irregularities change situation course. you do haveto holdon to can the of so makesteering corrections.ii ffi ilii iiiiixffi 1 The faster you go.N o wy o u m u s tp u l lt h e ius i t b a r st o t h e l e f ta g a i nu n t i ly o u r e a c h h e d e s i r e de a na n g l eT h es a m e t l . the bike will continue to lean over and turn more sharply. you must counter steer again. a p p l i e sn a l e f t . thentry to forcethe barsin the direction of the turn. t T o s t r a i g h t etn e b i k eu p a f t e r i n i s h i n gh e t u r n . don't have holdthe bike reached when up You to intothe turn with anygreatamountof force.l: ii:. ' .. you wereriding60 mph on most bikeswith a if c r u i s e o n t r o il n a h u g eo p e np a r k i n go t w i t h n o b u m p s y o uc o u l dt a k e c l . Sub-Products. o u ' r e y o doinga wholelot of unnecessary work.h a n t u r na n d o Y i d go straight-turn barsto the rightuntilthe bikestraightens wantto the out. Products.decreasingon radius turns. RPS.'. once you have you no longerneedto hold the machine the desired at leanangle.On most bikes.lrri:tir:i. r .Theyget intotrouble. ontothe bars.y o u m u s tp u l lr i g h ta n d l e a no v e rm o r et o i t t i g h t e nh et u r n .E x a m p l e : o u ' r en a r i g h t .'itl Push/Pull As long asyou continue pushing or pulling on the bars. your handsoff the barsonceyou had it leaned overandthe bikewould g c o n t i n u e o i n ga r o u n d n a c i r c l e t t h a t l e a na n g l eu n t i li t r a no u t o f g a s .'. :a.i.if at all. Youcanactually see riders climbingontothe tank.'r:. you this? Do do Tighten the Turn To tighten up a turn and increase your lean angte.Actually.h a n du r n . ffi ffi .it::i:.r. Points of Timing-all become usable with accurate steering.r a d a n dy o u n e e d o t i g h t e n t u p . You're a right-hand in turn.

s s t t Racing. motorcycle steering backwards is from mostother formsof transportation. is for Startpracticing and 78 yourriding? appfying it to your riding.Theytry to avoid it but the bikewon't do what they want it to. to holda constant Also. Despite of this. steering adjustments must be made. as problem havein learning ride one we to stems from a crueltrickplayed us by our parents.Theybecome rigidas the bikegoesfurtherto the outside of the turn and makes them believe they'regoingtoo fast. a self-created of is emergency. it will limit lf you to a "one line through the turn" approach. do mostothervehicles. your speedand progress be limitedby how well or poorly can you cancorrect bike's the d i r e c t i o n . I haveneverheardanytwo engineers but agree totallyon the physics it. etc. Understanding a bikesteers how can h e l pa f o r m e rr i d e rl i k et h i s t o d e c i d e o g o r i d i n g g a i n . you can't corlect the steering in a turn. other in in or changes. radius linethrougha turn which haschanges (camber. Practice countersteering and become awareof it.and everyone for saidit was because didn'thavegood balance. on Theygaveus a tricycle pedalaround.but you mustbe ableto correct the biketo compensate sliding. try to turn the bike in the direction they want to go. Mostturnscan't be madewithoutcorrecting mistakes.). Theyrealize that the controlthey always thoughtwas there-wasn't. bumps. I haveknownpeople who haveridden 30 years for without having facean emergency to situation.we fell daya car pullsout in front of them. So they get scared and quit riding. in an emergency. tricycle to A turnsin the direction you steerit. the the can seethe effortand hearthe throttlebeingrolledoff. for changes camber. for camber radius or changes surface or irregularities.Seeif you can remember it what happened whenyou sawan unexpected holeor rockon the road pot andtriedto go aroundit. goesthroughthe steering he m o t i o n s i t h o u tu n d e r s t a n d i nh e ma n dw i n d su p o n a m o t o r c y c l 15 w tg e yearslaternot knowing what he hasbeendoingto go around turns. lt doesn't work andthey f i n dt h e m s e l v ed o i n gs o m er e a l l y t r a n g eh i n g st o m a k e h e b i k et u r n .to makethe turn. radius.Most of your steering occurswith the original steering actiongoingintothe turn. Most riders. was because it bicycles alsocounter steer. we Actually. thoushts this? Any on Steering Backwards In essence. thinking By you and practice.everyone agrees that counter steering necessary goodcontrolof a motorcycle. automobile goesin the direction turn the An you wheel. of sheersurvival out instincts. can lowerthe amouqtof time and attention necessary to counter steerdownto an acceptable level. B a l a n c e a dn o t h i n g o d o w i t h i t l T h ec o n f u s i o ns c a u s e d h t i because childexpects biketo go rightwhen he turnsto the right. n y l i n eh a sa m a x i m u m p e e d h a t i t c a nb e r i d d e n y a A s t b particular rideron a particular bikeon a particular day. Then. Wilt thisimprove . because the speed. t a I h a v eh e a r d a r y i n g x p l a n a t i o n s o u tw h a t i s h a p p e n i n g v e ab duringcounter steering. when we rodea bicycle the firsttime. Beawareof how muchattention costsyouto starta turn.

sets up for the right hander in the corkscrew. Notice the wheel sharply countersteered to the left.Kenny Roberts. 79 . the master of fast and precise steering.

o r Sliding on asphalt can be distracting when overdone. h a n d l eh e e x c e s s p e e d y s l i d i n gW o r ku p t o i t b y i n c r e a s i ny o u rs p e e d t f w t t h r o u g h h e t u r n su n t i ly o u b e g i n o s l i d e T h i su s u a l l yi r s to c c u r s h e n t . g r i d e r s e to n t h e g a sc o m i n g u t o f s l o w e t u r n s . The biggest single drawback is when riders become fascinated with sliding and think it is an end in'llhave learnto do it.lf The biggest single breakthrough for most riders occurs when they find out that sliding around doesn't always mean they'll fall. y m a k ea w i l d d e c i s i o no r u n i n t oa t u r nt o o f a s ti n h o p e s o uw i l l b e a b l et o t g b . too. 80 . but is a useful riding tool when used in moderation. on to around the tires. They must a see its purpose. Slidingis a tool.D o n ' t u .andthat tool shouldbecome useful your riding.f y o u a r e n ' t s e dt o s l i d i n gw o r ku p t o i t a l i t t l ea t a t i m e .CHAPTER TEN Slipping and Sfiding Traction: How to Use lt and Lose lt Slipping and Sliding Your Way to Victory i V e r yl i t t l e i n n i n g s d o n et h e s ed a y sw i t h o u ts o m es l i d i n g w you wantto win. it is OKto partof that Thef irststepis the hardest-deciding s l i d e l.

i n e n d e n c t o s l i d e h a t e n d ." goesout morethanthe front end. the bikeis in a sideways are or m and-slide otion. caneven You steer the biketo your advantage with the rearend slightlylooseby pointing " t h e b i k et o t h e i n s i d e f t h e t u r n . Goingovera crest. Itry to keep it slidrng and bring it up with the steerrng. The harder you the have accelerate to with as the weighttransfer generated the acceleraby tion flattens the tire and enlarges contactpatch. The backend can "comearound" by itselfin a turn. f c o u r s el. Somebikesareheavier oneendthanthe other. The rearwheelbegins spinon acceleration the rear to and "comesaround. however. muchspeedor throttlearenot the pavement roughridingcan that slidingcan occur-rough onlyreasons or alsocause as can a poorsuspension it. out the Thisholdstrue o n l yt o a p o i n t . front end would become the heavier thanthe rearand couldstartthe f ronttire sliding. Bothwheels sliding. good drive coming off a turn usually involves some A you accelerate. hop3. Thesimpleremedy is to crackthe gasopenslightly helpeventhe weighton the f ront to and rear.and havea on b u i l t .s u c ha s o a o o whenweighttransfer the f rontor rearcauses to that endto breakaway. Allowi n g i t t o s p i nj u s t a b i t w i l l a l l o wt h e b i k et o c o n t i n u e c c e l e r a t i n g d a an maintain enough tractionso it won't slideout completely. is not. T h ef r o n tt i r eb e g i n s p u s h i n g " .Three Kinds of Sliding Threekindsof slidingcommonly occurunderracing conditions: 1. system. Usually. will heatup rapidly it and offerverylittletraction. Forexample. morerubber rear-wheel slippage. 81 . " o s The nextstepfor the riderwho feelshe hasreached that point l've only high sided once. lighterend-or for the bothwheelsbecause downward the forceis lessened-slides. then it quits. N o n e o f t h e s ek i n d s o f s l i d i n gi s c a u s e dby braking. especially with a superbike.T h er o a ds u r f a c e a nd e t e r m i nw h i c h t y t c e endof the bikeslides. Have noticed Exceeding the Limits you Slidingoccursbecause haveexceeded limitsof tire the for Too adhesion thosecircumstances.T h i si s c a l l e d t h r o t t l e t e e r i n g .iits s l i d i n gb u tt h e b a c k . wheelwith too muchweightwill break the traction first.f t h e w h e e lb e g i n s p i n n i n go o m u c hf o r e f f e c o t s tivetireadhesion. as Manytimesthis and other k i n d s f s l i d i n g r ed u et o t h e r i d e r ' s w n h a n d l i n g f t h e t u r n . or end " 2 .they are from going into or through the turn too fast or f rom u s i n gt h e t h r o t t l ea n d you this? breaking traction. you wereto comeintoa turn with just a littletoo much if speedand then roll off the gas suddenly. ' Another Decision A n o t h e r e c i s i o n u s tb e m a d e o u s et h e s l i d i n g o y o u r d m t t advantage.which all maybe regarded the fourth kindof sliding. rnstance.

Mediumspeed t a r o u n d a nw o r ko u t . This technique is covered in the following chapter- Brake Slide tool to usewhen you haveentered Slidingis a veryeffective the a turn a littletoo fast.A standardstreettire usuallywill not give up the used and unresilientrubber fast enough.Also.Leaning bikeovera littlemorejust at that point Youdon't have will allowthe biketo slideand "scruboff" the extraspeed.Losing traction can sometimes the banking for be more of an advantage than keeping it. Note: The slide is being corrected with Kenny's knee. moretimid of tractionin fasterturns. h er i d e r e T i . t . worthof mediumspeedbanked p r e d i c t a b la n d l e s sd r a m a t i c .you simply to usethe brakes andchance Traction turn it in a littlemore.w h e r e h e s l i d eh a sb e c o m e l i m i t i n ga c t o ri n h i s r i d i n gi s t o u s et h e t f a y s l i d e o g u i d et h e b i k ew h e r eh ew a n t si t t o g o .exposinga fresh rubber surface to the pavement. s u c ha s L o u d o ns l i d i n g s m o r e pullof the against downward canbalance his useof throttlesteering off "holding"him in the turn. wittit work you? Built-ln Safety Valves Tire sliding and slippage are built-in safety valves. attention beingspent.scruboff the extraspeedand continue.P r e m i u ms t r e e tt i r e s a n d t racingtires are designedto operate in this area of friction and heat.A s t h e r i d e r o u m u s t t d e c i d e h e r ea n dw h e nt h a t s l i p p i n g r o u n d a nb e u s e d o y o u ra d v a n w a t c r t a g er a t h e t h a nj u s t " w o r r y i n gt"h e b i k ea r o u n d h e t u r na n db e i n gl i m i t e d t y b y t h et r a c t i o nS l i d i n gy o uw i l l p r o b a b l f i n d .c o s t sa f a i ra m o u n o f y o u r . Get used to the sliding and then begin $10 directing the bike with it. T h e y ' r e e l l i n gy o u t h e t i r e i s r e a c h i n gi t s l i m i t s . amountof in fastturnsbecause the increased of matter becomes another turnsarelessof a threatto the rider.R i d e r se n dt o b e c h e r a p i d l ye a r n sh a t a l i t t l es l i d i n g l t turns. A moderate and effective slide smoothly done. so itb top layersbecome dry and slip- 82 . The slide is obvious because the front wheel is not turned in enough to track at that amount of lean.The used-up rubber "balls up" and goes away. will something upsetthe bike.

purpose.but haven't f o u n dt h e i rl i m i t s m o u n ta s e to f t i r e sy o u ' l lb e a b l et o s l i d ea r o u n d . as you will be ableto useit as a tool.lf you'renot y l e t t i n g o u rr a c i n g i r e ss l i p . you y T h i sw i l l i m p r o v e o u rr i d i n g a s s l i d i n g a nc o s tt o o m u c ho f y o u ra t t e n . .wilit work? You can get away with a lot of sliding on small GP blkes that you can't on a superbike .y o u ' r e e a l l y i d i n gu n d e r h e a b i l i t y f t h e t r r t o ti res. otherbikesas well.lf you areusedto ridingon stickytires.8 1 s( w h i c h l i d e e r yp r e d i c t a b l yi)t t e dt o t h e i rY a m a h a Z 2 S O s s v f T -the-art thantheywill by mounting set of state-of a Thatgoesfor slicks. Most new riderscanfind out moreaboutridingwith a set of Dunl o p K . suggest Foryourown instructional I usinga tire and rim combination will allowyou to slidethe bikearound your level that at of riding. once you haveslidingundercontrol just another partof racing.Findout what slidingis likeso it won't surprise when it happens. The"oils"that areusedto keepit resilient havebeen"cooked" out of that top layer rubber. c tion if you aren'tcomfortable with it. Buying racing tires that are beyond your capabilities as a rider will not allow you to experience how tires perform at their limits.pery. Theothertypes slidingshouldbe approached the same of in way. the layer of but still clingsto the tire.

the moreyou must leanto overcome By hangingoff. Saarinen has for everyone who races successfully pickedup kneedragging himself. i w i t h o u th a v i n go i n c r e a ste e l e a na n g l e E v e n f y o ug o t h r o u g h h e t u r n t y t a t t h e s a m es p e e d s a r i d e rs i t t i n gu p r i g h o n h i s m a c h i n e . and riders are ied masaren'tsatisf untilthey've teredit. andthere kneedragging both partof the styleandthe onlywayto be seriously is pioneered Kenny it.CHAPTER ELEVEN Hanging Off It Looks Good and lt Works photography Nothinghaschanged road-racing morein the lasteightyears thanthe practice technique hanging Knee and of off.The centrifugalforce. hasmorerubber the road. it.o uc a n a y o u ra c c e l e r a t i o n o n e t h a nh e c a nb e c a u s y o u rs t r a i g h t . Asidefrom the greatphotography therearereal reasons hanging a bodypartthat is cappedby a pieceof boneweak for out enough be brokenby a givesthe cornering forcesa lever workwith.The first and most useful to your bodyweightfrom reason for hanging off is: you are moving t h et o p o f t h e b i k et o a p o s i t i o nh a t i s l o w e ra n dt o t h e i n s i d eT h i s t .Whenyourweightis it of higher the bike. the you moveyourweightto the insideof the bikeand lowerto the ground. how yourweightinfluences bikewhencentrif ugalforce changes the beginspushing towardthe outside the turn.He had beenan ice racerbeforecomingto roadracing.Thiscanbe a tremendous on 84 .andcan go faster t h . It doesn't look hke you're going fast when Vou are. Roberts refined and most it competitive. dragging is the mostdramatic poseracers anykind haveeverindulged of in.Thisdoesnot weaken for less its the force. Bothcanyon are theirf irst and caferacers likely castin plastic to jeanstheytouchto the tarmacwhilehanging pairof designer off.Nowthe bikedoesnot haveto be leaned of overas far to makethe sameradius turn. bikemust be leaned greater force. was knee-out JarnoSaarinen the first riderto exhibit dramatic riding. presenting of a lever the forcesto act upon. Spectators in aweof it. Real Reasons simplylessens effect.To to on overcome the overin the turn.u b i k e p begin e so r advantage.

and of who did not hangoff.A s y o u m i g h ti m a g i n ei. coming off the banking ontothe levelstraights was a steering chorebecause the centrifugal forcewastryingto sendthe bikeout to the wall. we wereridingKawasaki Kzoso streetbikeswith largegastanksand racing tiresaround and around outerbanked the tri-ovalat Daytona.w i t h t h e w i n d r f t tuggingat you andtryingto lift your helmet off. Note:Othersuggestions havebeenmadeas to why hanging off works. Right or wrong.or even60 mph? at with this additional "sail"on one side. Have you ever tried it? Another Advantage How muchwind resistance doesa leg create when it is hung out to the sideof a motorcycle 1bo mph?At 1oo mph. everyone who is currently com petitive is hanging off. or The leverage theory. in out of boredom beganexperiI 85 .it's easier turn in that direction. A tall mass would tend to heve a wider arc than a shorterone.Remember.t w a s t o q u i t eb o r i n g i d i n ga r o u n d o r h o u r sa t a t i m ea l m o s f l a to u t . For the Records lfirst noticed this effectof hanging at Daytona off while attempting set a 24-hourspeedrecord 7Soccmachines 1g77 to for in . of is Someevenargue that it is no realadvantage siteriderexamples the pastsuchas MikeHailwood. to You can make a quicker and easier steering change with a knee out because the bike and you will pivot around the point of resistance that it offers. You musttry it for yourself andf ind out if thereis an advantage not. in a turn. I still havepermanent grooves my jaw from that chin strap. increasing your speed in a turn effectively decreases the radius of the turn.we wererunn i n ga t a c o n s t a ns p e e d f a b o u t1 2 0 m p h . at the same speed. The lawsof physics must havesomething do with it but my to understanding thosephysics limited.

and resistance the bikewill slow as technique a tool. Second Advantage a of advantage having kneeoff is that steering So. Flicking bikefrom sideto sidein when it is timedwith the knee of or esses anyseries turnsis mucheasier t . h i sw o u l db e e s p e c i a l l yu ew i t h s m a l l e o r u n d e r p o w e r e d easier. it onlywhen necessary makethe steering Third Advantage . .y o u ' rce e a t i n g o r ew i n d use Remember.iy o u t p o s i t i o n a c h i m e . easier-by greatand I had learned newtool. j u s t b e f o r e h e s t e e r i n g h a n g e s m a d e T h i sh o l d s r u ef o r i c t o coming ut m r i t s i n g l e u r n sa s w e l l . pull it out whenyou needit and put it awaywhenyou r tr T d o n ' t .the champagne aboutone-third. a t.menting andfoundthat poppinga kneeout just as I madea fairlysharp dramatically change comingoff the banksmadethe steering steering was Therecords wereset. especially in high speed sectaonsof the track. a An extended knee offers enough air drag to make steering easier. to use machines. this down somewhat. must makeit your business kneeis a delicate of the pavement.the second is easier when the bike and rider pivot around the resistance the offered by the extended leg.T o d o t h i sy o u rb o d ym u s tb e i n t h e e p u ti t i nt h es a m e 86 .T h el i a b i l i t ys o b v i o u s . o b i n t h e d e l i c a t e a l a n c e f l e a na n g l e s t e e r i n g r a c t i o n n ds p e e dY o u r to you and costlyinstrument. knowhow far it is f romthe surface The Knee Gauge f o e y T h ek n e ei s a n i n c r e d i b la c c u r a t g a u g e f l e a na n g l e s . o f A t h i r dr e a s o no r h a n g i n g f f h a st o d o w i t h l e a na n g l e L e a n y o u c a ng o a n d s i a n g l e s o n eo f t h e i n d i c a t o ry o uc a nu s et o t e l l h o wf a s t f expect rom the letsyou knowwhereyou are to how muchtraction .

or but Sixth Advantage Youmay not believe this."The knee doesn't haveto drag the whole way around a turn. lt is strange knee dragging how this works." or gauge. s a m e p o s i t i o no n t h e b i k e e a c ht i m e .A f r i e n d f m i n eo n c ea c t u a l l y a t o o b o u n c e d b i k eb a c ku p o n t oi t sw h e e l s i t h h i se l b o wa n dc o n t i n u e d a w racing. that is used to determine your lean angle from lap to lap. course. b u t i t s h o u l d b e t h e s a m e e a c ht i m e t h r o u g h a p a r t i c u l a t u r n . . yourself whether not is is any"safer. m f o Perhaps is because havealready you it contacted enemyand know the w h e r eh e i s . Most slide-outs d o n ' tr e s u l t n i n j u r y h e nn o b o u n c i n g n df l i p p i n g c c u r y o u j u d g ef o r i w a o . T h e n r you can use the distancefrom the ground to measure:"l was over this far on the first lap and it was oK. Of I'm the A fall from the top of the seatis a muchlonger fall.and I don'ttotallyunderstand but somehow it. beingin y c l o s ep r o x i m i t t o t h e p a v e m e n t a k e s a l l i n g f f s e e ml e s sd a n g e r o u s .The knee dragging technique is an excellent "curb feeler. we get to the fifth Now reason: gives you a sense of security. not takingthe speedintoaccount-just fall." it feelsmoresecure.Doyouthink wittwork? it How You Look and Feel Therearethreegood reasons masterthe skill of hanging to off-four if you countthe greatphotopossibilities.but ridershavesaved themselves f r o mf a l l i n g e c a u s t h e yw e r ea b l et o h e l pt h e b i k eb a c ku p w i t h t h e i r b e k n e e f t e ri t h a db e g u n o s l i d e u t .l t d o e s n ' h u r tt o f a l lw h e ny o u ' r e n l ya n i n c ha b o v e h e t o t ground. so next time around this turn I can go a little faster. you can drop it now and then to "sample" your lean angle. l t s p o s i t i o nc a n c h a n g ef r o m t u r n t o t u r n .andthat extradistance couldbe the startof a painfulbouncing.

a n i c s cost a lot.A t a n yr a t e . h i st a c t i ch a sw o r k e d . certainlyiveor morelayers ducttapewill helpkeepyour smart. an advanced to he Lawson wasthe guestinstructor.t ' s n o b i g d e a l y o u m a k e partof your planfor that turn.o u u n w e i g htth e hand. The knee is extended in readinessto correct for sliding. 2.if you wait for the biketo slideeverylapandthen put the knee other P t d o w n . to run out of ducttapeand startintoyourkneeor leathers. You've iguredout whereto pick up the knee.a n d i l l n o a Superbike of At session the California doubtwork again. w t h e t r a c kr e a l l y e l lk n o w n y o u r g o W h a tw i l l w o r ki s : Y o u e tt h a t l o c a t i o n n when the before slidehappens."Theremay be a measure heroics Lawson's of f and involved.Whenasked. tu a r e c u r r i n s l i d eb e c o m e s p o i n to f t i m i n g g thereis a crestthat time because is goingto slidehereevery the bike . You've . andyou dip the old kneedown. should it occur' that can be worth of attention manydollars saved 5.Now. You'. "F i n e i. for intothe asphalt every Thatwon't work.if you keepyourkneef irmlyplanted it you aregoing turn on everylapof a 20 lap race." O K .i t w i l l p u ty o u i n t oa m i n o rp a n i ce a c h i m e i t h a p p e n s . t u n l o a d sh e b i k ew h e nI g e t o n t h e g a s . the Hereis what you'vedoneto handle situation' of the turn. part turnedthe driftingor slidinginto a predictable 4. POT. . on comment this. the end of POT' That'sanother the slidearea.You'vefoundan RPto tell you that the slideareais approaching.A m u s ta l s o ( P O Ti)n a p a r t i c u l a r r n . and leathers kneelooking device. an aid to sliding' or Usingthe kneeas an anti-slide tu i t t t a k ei n t oa c c o u nw h e r e h e s l i d eo c c u r s n a p a r t i c u l a r r n . at f 3. You'vef iguredout whereto put your kneedown' That's your POT.the how this mightwork if you consider Youcan understand onthe a m o u n o f w e i g h t h a t i s t a k e no f f t h e b i k et h e m o m e n t h e k n e ei s t w t u g r o u n d n d p u s h i n g p .iust t k n e e n dS a v eh e t a p e 'O n t h e a y t h e s l i d ea r e ai s p a s s e d . of replywas "Aboutoncea lap. was asked whereEddie School "Howoftendo you usethis technique?".

. usedfor judgingspeed. figplan.rightnow.a riderwho canstaytuckeddown behind the bubbleand low on the bikein fast or trickysections knowsthe track. you encounter krndof roughpavement handle bike lf any or the roughly. thenyou will.passing. a D o n ' tu s et h e h a n d l e b a r s s u p p o ry o u rw e i g h t h e ny o u to t w hangoff. off. Hanging maybe partof off your ridingpackage. Useyour legsto get f rom one sideof the biketo the other.your line.etc.gettinga betterdrive.h er i d e r h o d o e s n ' w i l l b e s i t t i n g w T w t up tryingto seewherehe is going.pointsof rimi n ga n do t h e rf a c t o r s e l lu n d e r s t o o d .tdo it. s t y l ei s b a s e d n w h e r e h e r i d e ri s s p e n d i n g i s $ 1 o w o d h o f o t h attention.r a n yo t h e rp r o b l e m t h a t c o u l db e h e l p e d s o by hanging then do it.and hordon with youroutside leg.etc.He hasRps. U s eh a n g i n g f f a s a t o o l . lf you'rerigid.Thenrelax. A rider's styleincludes how weil he accomplishes eachof the partsof riding.w h e n y o u b e g i n o h a v e r o u n d l e a r o t g c s a n c ep r o b l e m w h i l ec o r n e r i n g . you can off. l ' l l s e ey o u i n t h e p h o t o s . t h e nt h e b i k ew i l l m o v ea g a i n c r e a t i n g w o b b l e . . Don't hang off if you don't need to. or A ridertellsa greatdealabouthimselfby his styre. it maynot be.wit it work vou? ror Be comfortableratherthan sultsn. adjusting throttlecontrol.lf you'reloose..o u ' v e y r got to be as relaxed possible that you don't become bobbing as so a weighton the bikethat actslikea passenger who doesn'tknowhow to relax. Be relaxed and i y s e t t l e n t ot h e p o s i t i o n o u n o r m a l l t a k ew h i l ei n t h i s m a n e u v e is all of what he understands all of what he doesn't and feelgoodaboutrolledinto his own package. Note: lf you don'tfeelcomfortable hanging don. wastea lot of time and efforttryingto work out something don't need you t o d o .Can bedone? uringout a better it Hang Loose Never become rigid while hanging off. Note:Manyridershavefoundthat a littletalcumpowderon the seatis helpfulwhen changingfrom sideto side. will moveup and down. it you willflex up and downwith it. Fitting yourself into a stylefor no reason cancostyou a lot. examFor ple.Thissendsinputsto the steering and can starta wobbleas well.the bikewill go into its motion.

the slowerrideris a new where of to makeout someaspect his ridingstyle.than it is to passlapped with equalor similar someone for on otherracer your levelis therelongenough you The or slowerriders. to lf you'repositioned the insideof another to to it is not possible hit him.Bike downward t h g e t h e h i l lb e c a u s t h e c o r n e r i n f o r c ei s n o l o n g e r o l d i n g h e mu p o n t h e b u t s o m e w h alte s sd r a m a t i c a t r b a n k i n gL e s s eb a n k e du r n sh a v e s i m i l a r . is definitely comesup oftenin new-rider Passing few. and unobserved you down on you. . andfairings travelto the outside. lt discussions.CHAPTER TWELVE Passing Who Was That I Just Passed? |tissometimeseasiertopassarideryouareracingwith' to ability yourown. waryof these Manytimesyouwill become makes just f romthe fact that theyarea lap riders wonderif they knowwhat'sgoingon. e nb e g i na fall and riderliterally down to course the insideof the turn. and so do riders.The onlyexception this is in high. Motorcycles go to the outside of the track when behinda riderand he loses they fall. oncethe bikeis over. riderand he falls. Thegroundru|esinpassingandfo||owingwi||increaseyou i of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e a c t i o n sn v o l v e d : Ground Rules of Passing 1.h e r e h e b a n k i n gs s o s t e e p h a tt h e s l i d i n g th w a m a c h i n e n d r i d e r i l l t r a v efl a i r l ys t r a i g hfto r s o m ed i s t a n c e . Aluminum it will rapidly so offerlittletraction.B y t h e t i m e l sidecovers to the place he fell he witl no longer be there. t e n d e n ct o y e i s h P a s s i n o n t h e o u t s i d e a si n c r e a s elda b i l i t i eb e c a u s t h i s g the to makesit possible intersect pathof a fallenrideror maneuver on machine its outwardswing. lf you aredirectly you get o i i c o n t r oa n df a l l s . t i s a l m o s t m p o s s i b lte h i t h i m . t d o t h es a m e h i n g .evenof that onlya in oneof the craftsinvolved racingand something havemastered' the top riders.banked t i t T t u r n ss u c ha s a t D a y t o n a .

"Yougo where of you look.i-. off the trailing track.:-. Baldwinsayshe treatsslowerridersliketreesin the woods.A l l t o o o f t e n t h e t r a i l i n g i d e r i l l b . lf you become involved with watching the rider in front of you. and an exampfe. 91 .:--" . l o o ka t t h ef a l l e n i d e r C o n t i n u e o i n gw h e r e o u h a do r i g i n a l l iy t e n d e d n with him.Youbecome lost.h e s i m p l e o l u t i o ns t o n o t c s g y r . but you look at the track Look where you want to go. it the watchthe fallenone and go down with him. Eddie Lawson and MikeBaldwin. h a t e v etrh e r e a s o nt.-ri:J. Spendyourattention it on that riderandyou arenot spending on whereyou aregoing-your $ 1O bill hasnot expanded. e r h a p st i s t h e d a n g e rl.. You're aware that they're there.. andthereis littlepossibility becoming of entangled 3.onlytenthsof a second slowerthan their best racelaps.t m a y a i W i b ej u s t m o r b i d u r i o s i t y .. After Kenny Roberts'incredible opening at Sears lap Point." to fall It is veryupsetting havesomeone off in f rontof you and o r w i t c a np o s s i b l y e d a n g e r o uts y o u . Often. t'+.rn!|ffit Guys get ln trouble watching the rlder in front. he Lawson suggests correctprocedure in not looking the the is at leading rider. The attention spent on him is the amount you need to get by. two-rider accidents are the result of the rider following the lead rider. not at the rider you are about to pass.Perhaps is because fallen i p r i d e ri s n o w h a v i n g m o r ei n t e r e s t i nrg d e . Heobviously to didn't consider therewas anyone elsethere. Oneof the concrete examples the old axiom. -.He considers them stationary objects is goingby. wherehe wentf rom 32ndto sixthon a trackthat doesn'treally havea straightaway. nobody evenbothered ask him. ridingin traffic from of threeAmerican masters: Kenny Roberts. . rysww$i.2. Also.if you are looking another at rideryou areusinghim for a RPand not looking the RPs at that you knowwill get you throughthe turn. the first to fall. passing becomes very difficult. I haveseeneachof them run near-perfect very heavy traffic. Here'ssomeadvice.

a g l a n c eo t h e r e a ro r a c h a n g e f h a n dp o s i t i o n n t h e s t e e r i n g h e e l .You mustbe able of t o s i z eu p h i s l i n e . lt maybe a lookin the mirror. f i s 92 . riderwho is leaned A overthe the maxim u m l i m i t s f h i sm a c h i n es n o t l i k e l y o m a k ea n yr a d i c am o v e s o w a r d o i t l t the inside the track. Following closecan be a liability. Fromthis practice. the So longas he stayson the track.not on otherriders. Yourabilityto "read"the otherrider'slineandwhereit will put him hasa lot to do with passing.lf the tracksurface hardto seebecause elevation is of changes radius or you changes can knowwherethe trackis goingby locating otherrider. rideroftenmakes movement. lf you can seethat amountof space. n t o o w I just before racing. Following other riders can help you learn the track layout when it isn't clear to you. isn'talways lt true and it isn't 100 percenteffective as it seems be with cardrivers. on the YourRPs." a Let'ssayanother rideris ahead you by 25 to 1OO of givesyou a betterpicture what you can'tsee. what you do.As of of y o ud r a wc l o s e r o u m u s tt h e na b a n d o n i m a s a n R P . or Doesmake it sense? Passing Signals In California is legaltosplitlanes-toridebetween lines it the of carson the f reeway. twitch of the head. of changing directions. SubProducts. e e p i n g o u r y h y k attention your Product. on Sub-Product RPs. a shoulder movement.Hislineof travelis prettywell set. e t e r m i n w h e r ei t w i l l t a k eh i m . e b a s i c s f r i d i n g t i l la p p l y Y o um u s ts p e n d o u r th . o s attention gettingaround track. Products.a n dd e c i d e f y o uc a n d e i make hepass. you can get through. t Judgingthe amountof space that you needfor a passisn'tall that difficult. only takes a little more space than the width of a lt doorway to pass another rider. a a usually the head.wittthis hetp? Basics Apply y I n p a s s i n g . it doeshappen to but andyou can useit if you seeit. California ridershavelearned that the autodriveralways doessomething beforehe changes lanes.Whena rideris out in f rontof you he creates "rollingRp. too but following a comfortable at distance improve yourown mastery can of a turn.his presence you knowthereis lets asphalt ahead you.timingandthe abilityto concentrate on t h et r a c kw i l l b et h e d e c i d i n ga c t o r s n w h o c r o s s e t h e f i n i s hl i n ef i r s t .

i .The width of a common doorway is all the track that is necessary to pass. *l\ { I .

94 J. ot&*. A well-executed pass from the set-up through to completion.l # 1..Th is sequence represents two seconds of time. $ 2. . .


notewhatyou aredoingin for to or what reference points you'reusing. out way of weeding timesarea sure-fire a is records nothingmorethan keeping diary Keeping accurate you aregoingto work on and makea noteof it yourriding. o t o t h e t r a c k w i t h a p l a n . Record Your Lap Times necessary recordto keepis of lap times. Laptimestell you directly new. T h a tp l a ns h o u l d n c l u d e l l o f G laps.This you'llbe making bestuseof yourtime. leave your strong points alone for now.workingon the pointsmentioned eachchapter. what is workingfrom what is not. what products you are likely the track itself. Homework ls Necessary your racingprogram. The first absolutely lap times indicate your overall base-line improvement from lap what youreffortsare to lap and race to race. I go into a race. A good way to checkyour 96 . what decisions yourtimingis workingin eachsection. you lmprove Problem Areas Pick up your problem areas and try to better them. of Notice construction the of to have eachturn or section the each. of your bike. are wherethe barriers andwhatto do aboutthem. s l i c ku p y o u rb r a k i n g n ds h i f t i n go r h o w m o r ec o n s c i o u s t e e r i n g o u l d Do agree? makeyourway aroundthe courseeasier.Seewhatyou cando to c a . you'reoperating on. ridden trackbefore.Decide what of i a i n t h e b o o k . records keepaccurate To helpsupervise of and be workingon someaspect it eachtime you go to the track. the of You its peculiarities. with the attitude that I'm gonna get beat-these guys are gonna smoke me.CHAPTER THIRTEEN SuperuiseYourself Yes. mightalsostartat the beginning this bookand all in go throughthe track. on the starting line.lf you haven't you thereon previous the information havegathered and learning course the startfromthe beginning.expensive tracktime and the way. haveavailable use.the lap Whenyoutry something in bringing termsof improvement.

Youronly limit is the numberof watchesyou haveand the peopleyou have you to runthem.Keep restof the the trackandwhat you'redoingtherethe same. Break the Track Break the track into sections and time each one the separately. I haveseen. a Kawasaki l<Zl50througha tight section Willow tracker-run box-stock a at (fromTurnThree Raceway throughTurnSix)fasterthan nationSprings Rainey's riders theirSuperbikes! bikewas equipped with ally-ranked on and ran streetDunlops.for example. bottom-line information canwork and think with. Now you'll know exactly WayneRainey-formerly ClassC dirt needwork.Somettmes guys the l'm lappinggo through the slow ones fasterthan me. 97 .This is valuable.Thetimerwill record start/f r4q@Ie you recordthe overalllap time besideit.don'tchange anything else. out intending improve Whenyou supervise go to one turn or oneaspect allthe turns. Youmighthaveyourtimerclockfrom.likebraking. of Youcanthinkof endless'things do whileyou'reout on the to just work on what you had intended progress the trackwill require two goodstopwatches a person and on you'reworkingon Thiswill helpyou narrowdownthe areas act as timer.thenTurnSixto the to finishlineto TurnThree. considerably you mayfind wherethey lf you can alsotime your competition. start/ TurnThree TurnSix. Thestopwatches shouldbe the variety you mayusetwo or threesinglelaptimers. Shouldit be tried? Breaking the track into threo or more timed sections pinpoints your improvement.for example. are pickingup time on you and whereyou needto get your times down. g s o t s o t h a ty o uc a ns e ei f y o u ' r e a i n i n g r l o s i n g i m e i n a p a r t i c u l a re c t i o n .or at leastmost to Thetimershouldbe that can recordeverylap. I like the big sweepers. the Superbikes slickson wide rimsplusthey had moregroundcleara nce. yourtimesfor corners. in a position seethe wholetrack.but stickto your planand to from the start. Work On One Thing At A Time yourself.Whenyou do this. then inishline.or of it. Thiswill giveyou a better picture the results. pointsor points of reference of timing.

Often.Once when you've gonethroughthe boringpartsof looking and experimenting see to you arearmedwith enoughknowledge makeyourdecision whatworks. you just make mistakes at a higher speed. you'reone of the fastest to lf ridersthat day. Go Faster Freddie (Spencer) is fearless coming out of slow turns. so takea few lapswhenyou canandjust ride.Youcanalsotry to do nothing. Not Track Time Paper cheap-use to makedrawings the turnsandto is it of showyourself whatyou'redoingin them-make and O's on the drawX's ingsto indicate RPs. Practice : lnformation '= Think Come back from each practice session with informayou can use to think with. Thatis a wholedecision itselfthat shouldbe reserved racingandfor in for you havedonea good amountof thinkingaboutthe track. to to go faster reallywork. your attention is so stuck on something that you don't have enough of it left to observe yourself. Whetheryou areworkingon some tion aspect your racingor just takinga relaxed of ride. the That'syour pface.lf you'reone of the slowerriders. and makesit difficultto tell standing Waste Paper. the POT.lf you have a hard time you have went on duringthe laps remembering what you have just done. 98 .go out towardsthe end of the group and stayout of the distracting traffic. Homework isn'tfun allthe time. you havesome the Drawoneturn at a time unless esses. tenattention beingspentto sucha degree something is on dollar's worth of you shofton underThiswill leave elsethat you only have time to operate.Can apply starting this? vou Use practice your bestadvantage.Setyourplanthen addthe speed.go out in front of the practicesession you won't haveto so cut througha lot of traffic. whatworksandwhat doesn't.try to relaxmoreand concentrate your At on breathing.Yougo out and ridejust likeyou knowwhatyou'redoing. the most.Don'tconcentrate any on improvements. then add the speed.havea solidideaof what just run. Whenyou can'tremember.Without solving some of your barriers and rough spots on the track. "Right" is what works bestfor you and produces bestlaptimes.I haveseengreatforwardsurgesin lap times by riders who wereinstructed just takea few lapsfor fun. lt has beensaid manytimes by manygood riders:First do it right.Thisis the time when to you can integrate the thingsyou wereworkingon into a smoothand all flowingride. Most riders try to go faster each time on the track. Products your planof attack get and to around course faster. This happens morethanwe like.and it makesit difficultto yourprecious operate with understanding.

Drawings on whileyou'reriding..A..THE / TuRN**4 rs"A V5 Ll TTt-g B\T ut{cLErS<' OVERATL PRDDtrCT \S AND OFtr IN uNCLEAR ) Mt\KlN& t.. Parts it arestill unclear you. theydon't include find ing spectators etc. TT{g BIKE uINIDADS TOO MUCH WHEN E HOI-Dlr OrJ OvgRTHE CR. I I Drawings bring your thoughts one step closer to the just don't know the turn. Work out problem turns on paper. Have you ever tried it? Exr-r 6 *3. ENTRANeE Tn /-JJ4f*\ D . camber Track Drawings Make your track drawings as exact as possible.b.sleeping to of lem.or. BTKE ISN'T AccetsennrNG qu\TE So H. it is closer it thanthe stuffthat thoughtsare you involved a verydirectway with what is going get in madeof.AE.Frodurcts O: POr 99 ' . btr SO CHANGE PqI THAT THE.EST Airlltg . real thing.*J:*:i. Trackdiagrams f inefor helpbut theirway to the grandstands. you find it difficultto makea turn drawing doesn't throughart classwasn'tthe probthe afteryou'veridden track. .': =r1. changes. A drawing makes your thoughts one step closer to the to but Paper isn'tasphalt.exactlocations uphillsanddownhills. S.. of roughspots.=i. Anyone of can who canridea motorcycle makea simplelinedrawing a turn' lt lf takeaftisticability.\RD oVER. RDLL ir oxr .What use Makeyourown drawings-don't trackdiagramsare counts is how the turn looks to you.

will makemoresense you then. can Racer's Tools (1) Lookat your ridingfrom the standpoint that you intendto (3) Makesureyou (2) Setyourself for improve. Don'tbecome discouraged.(4) Makeeverypractice pointwhileyou're session countevenmoreby workingon a pafticular (6) (5) in overthe material this riding. whilea fastone may be 300 to 900 feet or more. as everyriderhas. Youwill find. Youcovermoredistance the fastturns.which bringsup youroverall in average Remember. to go onesecond fasterper lap. takesonlyaboutone mph higheraverage it faster.Thatis a larger partof the trackin whichyouraverage be higher. to lt bookagainafter Can you see it working for you? 100 .that a littlefasterin the fast turns makesmuch more difference than a littlefasterin the slow ones. Read you haveridden.A typicalslowturn maybe 1O0-150 feet in length. you comeoff the trackwith information can use.Fast : Fast You gain more time in the fast turns than you do in slow ones. lap-time targets the day.

{ Rep Cor'oe ' iiii N\Y-eenr ovER iiii cN tlovirla r THEN s-rART 5riHE Lr=trT AND"G\N LEF.ENtts& iiii NA iiii AND GRADu\LLY RN\S\ rft€ grg t-tP>-fR\lGHr' li+ T\it* Bo*lo 'tHF sHoRT sHurE INTD TURNT1AJO TUR\r TWb x: sTART-ro LEAN fii As s APPROAC\{ iu Rrc*Ht \Bcur trlVE F. \N it 151N\RD= t\rRorn:= BA.'n+ROt-r\-E-. RouurNeThE fHRDTTI-E -rHRu :.K oN LEtrt i* 3TART Rcuur\JQ THE cENTER cF'fir€ coR\rER/s-rn.' TF\EN -niE.rl-|.?Eoop "ffTHEN :L Do\N'N SH\ FT ffiP-. g"dx.Ex tT OF I_HE \1JRN} .. oF Trtg AxlO f*exr :tr AM LEANIINQ rf OVgR \+AR> I=oe.i.CAITJG ' SHTIT OtrF Db\)NS\+\FT OIJE GEA[< Af S'f"f SIRA\G*\TT?^^ \xrr-? -ruRN rc\^r<' = AT'\ P6UE AS:tr a .Es.\ a.\ I AM T\.=gr FRoMTHE c!"rrslDE' i:r SDGE OF THE TRACK.i.i.qg gg6g. liii::::ii:ii: INS\DE ELT{rIEI<THE . FNEreE{pSoMTHg-0\^TSlDEi coRxlE-R" EDGE otr TFtg cE''fiEtc.1RN.tQg.s"sN Jilt? :i EFFoRE rHe-NE^gEl.coNg.A pagefrom Wayne Rainey's notebook. AnD Trrpx rHe FT\oNr t<e> T1+E BNxn<rsG-SV I H'J. THE. TIARSE IS A*PPROA. ROuursG THE q5S BAo' CN.DT11-F uelsl\N& T!\E. IHEN s A{'\ GolNq' g AJI) -Tl+F. -lrhEN T1+g.B\K-E otJ THg STgqlq*t' n*E tURt\l INSIDE PoLE .-"ii ON T1*E At{D RDt. ce'uree oF THF TURN AtrotlT s/q THRDTTLE ' ROL\AS 1i1+En-reN sfARrS T0 T\GI-trE\r yPr: 1OWAKDS -11*R. r$rz \/a cFF/ LEANTIsGRrei-l-r AND Gor\lG i . LEN) LEtrT -THE LI]SES \T5 BACI< 6N AS TT+ROTTI€.H16' {i.

too. sort it out for Anotherrider'sline. Pickit up andyou will try operating to makeit work. Sort lt Out for Yourself the Theway your ridinglooksto someone beside trackhas nothing do with how you arethinkingaboutit.especiallyat the track or raceoaYwnen someone has a particularquestron. you but can givingit. triedto explain I've what happens are andwhat a ridermustthinkof whenspeedand precision important. But I wont screwa guy up and give him wrong or dangerous advrce. ysgf products and reference points. lt's your job to decide how they apply to you.CHAPTER FOURTEEN Advice Ask Your Best Friend: You l'm not one for giving out advice.I don't want to give it away. I havetriednot to giveyou advice aboutridingin this materialwhileyou'reon a motorcycle. Dealwith yeg! own decisions. lt canwasteyourtime and energy. Otherriders have watchwhereit's comingf rom andwho's are to . A nickel's worth of bad advice could cost a lot more ($1Ol on the track.No one hasbetterinformation aboutwhat is goingon in your headthan you.Information be valuable. yggg points of timing and attention-not someone else's. instead. You're one sittingin the sadthe dle and riding. yourself. givingyou advice Oneword of advice aboutpeople about your riding-you are your best advisor.How you about it? do feel You are tho one who hae to ride the track. y9!rr barriers.cften from theirown falseinformation.evenif he mightnot be the correctonefor you. In the endyou have to to goesfasterthanyou. 102 .

the glare of concentration.Behind the race face. Pumping up the adrenalin or going over his plan? w "w w :t .

lf you to involved likely become likely to fall. it hasto do with yourattitude you're is you raceone-falling an activity if especially motorcycle-and of with. . that you mightfall off andaccept "okay. you are more That'swhereyou lookat an objectyou don't to similarly a targetf ixation. Hereagainis the magicof the decision. away fixateon the ideaof not falling-themoreit will takeyourattention worth of attention from your riding. As a racer. anytime.CHAPTER FIFTEEN How to Fall Relax-You're J ust Road-Testing Your Leathers Threereallyimportantfactorsaboutfallingoff a motorcycle you keepthis bad are:Whatyou do whenthe time comesto unload-How of from gettingworse-andHowyou feelaboutthe business situation fallingoff.Youcan spendyour entireten-dollar's the you haveno attentionleft to operate falling.but onceyou'vedoneit and it .!ng fall off. on so wantto hit.then because resisting fallfrom a mistake.I canfall off oneof thesethings. f of the way by takinga lookat it andthen making who wasn'twillingto fall down. You don't haveto Wan!to. Yousimplydecide at that it can happen.I Youhaveto lookat it and say. machine.anywhere. lt goeswith the territory riding. a a m i g h tb r e a k b o n eo r h a v e h e l lo f a s l i d e o r l j u s t m i g h td i ed o i n gi t . but being aboutfalling. " So. riders. Be Willing to Fall Off you shouldbe the Let'sconsider third factorfirst. This is the key-it worksvery resist falling. to racing anyone I wouldn'tadvise FallingInsurance No onewantsto fall down.lf you ridea and different. get it out to can and do happen motorcycle All of thesethings yourdecision romthere.then become f ixated the threatthat you don't lookfor a is Falling similarin that the moreyou resistit-or way out and hit it anyway. willing to is very to Wt!.

the difference between the bike. weightandthe bike'swill generally The Don'tdo anything. likea ragdoll. Holding on will extend your trip. .. insurance against here'show to comeout of it with the lf you do fall. -:Gl .61 .i' tu. Motorcycles are out of your control once they begin to slide on the sidecovers.Your best comesout alright. not scuff a little part a lot. let go. you'rerelaxed. Scuff up a lot of the leatherc a lattle's moredifficult along things.any fallingisn'tas fearsome more."'ll do the same.*..lf you extend will yourfall. however..When dropyou off at will be providing yourself with a pivotthat legsto try to break Whenyour body'srigidit's easier break to can sendyou flyingor tumbling. Relax: lf you loseit. you'regoingalongfor the ride. lfl. lf you'reholdyour ing onto it.Motormotionso your new leathers out cycleshavehardthingssticking theirsidesthat cancatchon the groundandsendthem rollingand doingendos.Youwantto minimize don'tget holesgroundthroughthem. act of 2. you'restill attached to lf your you let go.i$sii*c$$1ffi*Sa** .. damage your body: to leastamountof Let Go thanyou and heavier 1. falling is to not resist it.1" r: '$.' t*'$js In a fall. yourarmsor get relaxing usually you awayfrom the bike..just relax. . '!. xh* t!*fwl$xx*"".lf skidding to breakbones. Let go of the bike: lt is muchlarger to andverylikely travelfurtherdownthe roadthanyou will.'** Relaxing completely will spread out any impact and help protect against broken bones.

Youdecideif you wantto try the He never touches groundand is unhurt.lf you're alongand something catches " w T s t i l lh a n g i n g n .that threesquare per square inchfrom the fall alone-the takea forceof about50 pounds greatly lf with the's true. Relaxing spreads the impact over a larger area. countto three around seeif the skyand to then look whenyouthinkyou havestopped.s i d i n g " h e n o "Low-siding" when is you'rethrownoverthe high sideof a bikein a turn.Strangeas this may seem.Some Practice Falls you prepare the possibility falling by of for As I mentioned. S t a n di n t h e m i d d l e f t h e r o o ma n dc o m m a n d o u rw h o l e your legs Just let go of it and let it fall. Extend just let themfall.or use a up in the middleof a carpeted 1. Command do afteryou havemadethe command. lf you do it honestly bodyto relax. examples? to groundarewherethey'resupposed be. that but understand the worst kindof fall is whenthe bikeis sliding this. To down the track. pound which bringsthe loadper square your handwill hurt a littlebit. it in any resistance your muscles just flop downto yoursides. you landon forceof that impactwill increase you'refallingonto a couplesquare your upsets inner-ear fluid that governs the and motion.lf you notice themto relaxand 3.then climbson top of the bikeandwaitsfor it to stop. the bikeis leaning overandthe tireswashout. This is to usedby stuntmenand martial artspeople lessen oneof the techniques to the possibilities painand damage theirbodies. whichf lipsit overon the otherside.Relaxing alsoputsmoresurface areaontothe groundand area. Here's exercise helpyou do that: to an relaxing.Do it untilyou cancompletely to 106 . room. hashappened me and 15-footstrides Youwind up taking to l'veseenit happen otherriders. of where has situations Probably everyone heardof exceptional the riderslidesout. feet armsand legsinstead. backwardsforwardor straight first andyou won't fall straight will buckle relax you'llcrumple a heapon the floor. overuntilyour arms y o 4 .h i si s c a l l e d h i g h .When yoursense balance of you fall. avoidthis. Stand mats.and you look likea kangaroo. lt can makefor an exciting to lt the to standup before slidinghasstopped.droppingit straight Stop Before Standing you aspect fallingis that sometimes of Oneotherimportant can'ttell when you'vestopped. you weigh 150 For if the spreads impactovera larger pounds inches yourpalmwill of andfall on your palm. Fiftypoundsdropped your on dropped on h a n dw i l l h u r tl i k eh e l l . down. example. gym that'sequipped with wrestling height' bothyourarmsto the sidesto shoulder 2.y o ug e t l a u n c h e d .You can think you are actually stopped while still time if you decide sliding along at 1OOmph. A inchdown belowone pound.

lf you'restopped. o m a t sw h i l ew a l k i n g r r u n n i n gY o uc a na l s od o i t o n a t r a m p o l i n e . ing a helmet. 107 . it can minimize to do A motorcycle and rider will widen their arc of travel after a craeh.knowinghow it. up. they don't knowwhichwayyou'llrun. there is a greater you'll be hit. movingin a Also.I haveroad-tested accitestifythat for most motorcycle over 130 mph and can personally injuryif you hit the of dentsyou'llhavea muchbetterchance avoiding groundrelaxed. suchas relaxing need thenyou really Youdon't needit untilyouhit the road. thanto be hit by onewhileyou'restanding motorcycle by another whenyou fall off.lf you'reup and panic. Being your injuries.your bodyon command. with this drillyou cando it on soft lf you wantto be creative T . willingto fall off will helpkeepyou off the ground. except in heavily banked turns. is likewearA planof's muchbetterto havea leg run over to they havesomething avoid. you Do agree? After A Fall lf you try to dodge oncoming traffic. Lookat it from the point of view of the other riderschance to they havea chance avoidyou if you stayin one spot.h e relaxed and so the thing is to relax bodyon command it willfall important this techniqueat spreadthe impactovera largearea.

R. to yourself a is of on what biketo buy.R. 3. groundfor fruitsof will noticethat your has amongthem. live in a We one P.but usually it just helpsa lot. lf you haveracedand havefrienos.Yourfriendsandtheirfriendsare credibility increased partsand even depending youto givethemthe hot tip on performance on You.Throughoutracinghistory.peoplewant to sponsorridersthey like. you haveanysuccess 108 . Work hardpromoting and covereverypossible sponsor. in lf racer.Yourpotential you on the winner's maypicture sponsor you at greatthingsabouthim.An opinionleader somewhat a celebrity. that'smoreimportant thanyourabilityto ride. you the Are the club races saying potential kindof person Yoursponsor-or that othersbelieve? sponsormustunderstand thing if he is to be at all successful.then on many have or streetbikes. lf you just expect you this doesn'texclude f romthe to be a club racerand nothing further. Localracinghasbeenthe spawning you ul this? someof the most successf productlinesevar. A P. majorityof productsthat aresportperformance-related shown up on the racetrack. 1. He mayjust picture standat Daytona saying goodthingsabouthis productto others.Have noticed His Honor. of mustfulfillthe requirements a celebrity. World In most cases. Sometimes.CHAPTER SIXTEEN Sponsorship There ls No Free Lunch you needone of l'll get to the nittyof sponsorship right away: threethings-orall three-toget sponsorship support. Knowsomeone who is in a position sponsoryou. Be so goodat racingthat otherpeople wantyou on their teamcarrying theirstickers and leathers.R. The Racer in Thatfield is motorRacers opinionleaders theirfields. (public relationsl world and good P. are the cycling. helps.

Step Two is spreading his name around. Thinr out the year Don't promiseanythingyou can't deliver. and keephim up to date. lf Proposals and you outline greatseason promotion of and show up with a dirtyor disora proposal. willingto answer that understand you arewillingto promotehis products. Youmust beginto think of yourself an employee a the as of companyin which you own sharesof stock. of out and elseyou candreamup to and hasbeen-goodpromotion. your pit areaintoa soft of minitradeshowfor his products.Plan activities suchas arranging articles.Hewon't be configanized he person needs do well-organized he to dentthat you arethe conscientious.or propose write letters that you will informhim. what is he goingto do for you? and Step One is ge(tlng the sponsor. you will havebecome overpaid because winningwill be first priority. will seethroughit from the start. showmaking pointing that racingising him that you havea sphere influence. Canyou do it? Proposals shouldbe well-organized lookprofessional.Takepictures. job. endless be racing. sponsor should you to do anyof this nobody will expect Whenyou area greatracer. . Decide. anything him.Thendo itt show him how it will benefit Keepyour sponsorinformedof what you'redoing. Step Three is win. you area good raceror not. Plan and Do! It's up to you to decideuponand sellto your potential sponsors exactplanyou havefor gettinghis nameout intothe world in the for for the bestpossible light.Your questions aboutmotorcycles. win. the Not really-but and cocky. whether The basisfor sponsorship. What canyou do for him you is the exchange can makewith the sponsor. win.

Your you what he is sponsoring for in the first place.As riders. Theyareenthusiastic expect and that the comingyearwill good.the betterP.loseor draw. he had better be willing to spend more money telling people about it.and maybean ad in QycteftletyS commemorate your good to performance. company goingto giveyou everything the is you can use. and all the product $5OO Theseason begins and you go aboutpromoting product the as yousaidyou would. Youdon't get something nothingand neither for does he.but now it all slipsawayf romyou and it seemspettyto mention eachtime you talkedto a groupof riders the Sunday on rideto pump his product. world. he hasusedhis resources put you and his productout if to there.ahead andwrite up a planyou canactually carryout.R. the At end of the year. A ad.You're pumped.Theyhavedollars be that theyfeelcompelled spend. lf the sponsor won't backyou in this way. I haveseenit overlooked countless timeswith unfortunate results. Theadverto t i s i n gp e o p l e r ep u m p i n g h e mu p f o r t h e c o m i n g e a s o nl.You'vegot to haveyour sponsoragreeto backyou throughoutthe year-win.The number comof panies that will payyou to run stickers the amateur at levelis dwindling and hasalmostdisappeared. helpshim get his nameout you betterknownat the sametime.every on timeyou got someone believe aboutit.Too manyriders on will run stickers for quartof oil or just for will be a go backto yoursponsor to seeabout nextyearand he says. we haveto eliminate this ideathat thereis somekindof magicthat goesalong 110 .it is.On the club you levelhe shouldbe supplying with banners and pinsand stickers to giveaway.t i s w i n t e ra n d a t s the grasswill be greener the spring. andyou will losehim when he loseshis initialenthusiasm. Design your package it will standon its own a so you havestickers the bikeor not. Don'tbasea sponsorship package the fact on you will run his stickers your bike. you to Here's the Deal lf the sponsor spends money on you.he won't askyou what you did for him-he will know."What did you do for me this year?" Youtalkedup the productand spenta lot of time keeping yourcommitup takesan efforton both of your partsto get the word's a P. raceprogram for instance.andthe morethey seeof you and the product.Propose makeyourself whether on to availabf for promotional e activities.Thesponsor and alsomakes buildshis riderand his productat the sametime. in Yougo in with a good proposal and looksright.Whenthe season ends. Sponsorship is a two-waystreet.find another sponguy doesn'tunderstand sor. the beginning the At of yearcompanies looking are around seehow theywill spendtheir proto motiondollars.R. thoughts this? eny on The Year Ahead The most importantpart of any sponsorship package one is that you and yoursponsor mustboth be well awareof. placed eachtime you carefully stickers the john walls.

your Remember. still. Goingto a big company with a small.ooofor pracing patchor the stickers. A lt wilf be his follow-upthat getsthe word out.Youaredoinghim a favorby linkinghim with yourcentral sponsor. this case. sponsor The maypaythe rider$b.but effective plan that will not drainthe promotional budgetcan be of morevalue you than to is goingin with an expensive program that maybe turneddown. Youcan go into one of themwith the samecivic-minded approach and it wouldbe difficult for themto turn you down. public-access andtakingpartin civic-minded TV activities duringthe offseason suchas talkingto boys'clubs. Theyrevolve aroundand baskin the lightof the better-known central sponsoring company.Localnewspapers are always hungry fill space to with stories aboutlocalpeople.Starta "Getracingoff the streets and ontothe track"program that mightsavea life or makea racerof someone.Doyou it? set Your P.-!. rider. the but which givessponsors betterreason participate. Some examples? Big Fish Landing big sponsor a can be usefulin helping you gather satellite sponsors. when a new man is signedonto a factoryteam. in manycaseshe is stillan unproven rider-highpotential obviously.Any a to examptes? Satellite Sponsorship Yourkeytargetis onewell-known sponsor.. or . sponsor now connected the factoryteamandthe The is to factoryadvertising campaigns. can evenplugyoursponsor You here. . in the end it mayseem to you'resharing spotlight. postersand promotional items.+Ae:. the factorymay usephotosin millions dollars but of worth of ads. the you yourself late-night especially-that can promote on radiotalk shows.Urgeotherriders do the same.. andthe like too.S...:.Racing stillsuchan unknown is quantity-in U. win-or lots of wins-will not do anythingfor the sponsor. something larger be conto nected with thanjust Joe Smith.R. Keepit that is still the sameideaas above.racer. - 111 -.with racing. a newteamriderfor anyfactoryhas littledifficulty findingsponsors in that will pay handsomely a patchon for the leathers. Large companies to get bargains.OOO $100. .a+oj. Thisallowsyour othersponsors something identify to with. smaller company of secondary The in importance.Program Even you can still do plentyto without a bunchof first places makeyourself known. Forexample. but he hasnot yet won anyraces. possible The advantages beinga satellite of linked a largecompany to with a multimillion-dollar advertising budgetis veryappealing the smaller to businessman. contract termsmay be keptconfidential you chooseso the othersponsors approach if you don't knowwhetheryou are getting$1O.

veryfast. to f ive.) to sor ladder one sizepondat a time.lf you for doingyour r r s c o u l ds p e n d i g h th o u r se a c hd a yo n y o u rr i d i n g k i l l s a t h e t h a nw o r k i n g e improvements.andevenspendmoneyon yourown to primethe pump. That's Show Biz is end Sponsorship the business of the racinggame.but don'tforgetthat it is partof the threemainfactorsfor success. and Theyare:Goodriding.(lt makes will and looklikeyou'regettingmorefrom yoursponsor. your bikeor at the job.lf you arenot the best-yet-start ishingin a smaller from your localaccessory beginwith.but that now makesyou appearconnected somethinglarger. in and Treatsponsors a business-like friendly from your separate the Increased salesis theirbottomline. you can.Where To Fish is A Thesizeof the pondyou fish in for sponsors important.Youmayonlyget a set of shocks You to store. 112 . few sponsors. Spending job to makemoney racingcanget veryold.Keep business wouldseesomedramatic on artwas ideas sponsorship to let skilled of Oneof the original yoursponsortheirwork.You share exposure of as 10 won't be ableto do as gooda job promoting products you will with onlythree. a newsponsor Moveup the sponexpect paymorefrom what he hasseenin the past.Thinkof yourown time also. mayhaveto askwherehis nameis. pondto f buythe best.lf you comeout on racedaywith 30 stickers your sponsor your bikeand leathers.worldwide. then don'tcrowd figure. on throw backthe smallones. as aroundyoursponsor well.goodequipment good sponsors.lf you cando a area satellite and revolve the greatjob of promoting shocks theremightbe somegas money the you theirnameovereverything Plaster nexttime you talkto the has for littleor nothingto do with the ridingitselfexcept oneveryimportant thing: having enough money to operate your program buys you allyourtime time to concentrate on yourself as a rider. to but at least it is wet.Youmayevenstartin a largepuddle.still allow everyone get his three A withoutfeelinglost. Does apply you? this Over the Limit don'tgo overthe limitOnceyou beginto catchsponsors. to Theyhave the money factoryis a largef ish in a largepond. manner.Use have timeto create the istsandcraftsmen ship to createyourselfas a betterrider. and makehim the central Pickthe bestsponsor to your space.

Taking drugs and racing is crazy.writtenagreement of a is always order. etc.Factory Rides Sponsorship alsobringsaboutthe possibility a factoryride. Keepup youragreed-upon exchange with yoursponsor and it shouldwork out fine. Money is payment for how well you expose the stickers and his name. of Thefactories. is something to this that smartteam managers on the lookoutfor. hasthe be A word of caution: eventhoughit hasbecome evermore popular takedrugsin this society. In closingon the subject sponsorship. d^6 stt$s$s\s\\ 113 .lf you obtainsponsorship. the termsin writing-at in get leastuntilyou seehow eachotheroperates. Sometimes better pay it's to for supplies thanto get themwith invisible stringsattached. Herein a lies greattruth: lt often costs more to get things free than it does to pay for them. I don't want to nde with those guys and usually I don't have to. who potentialto a top-notchrider.Drugsarelikea decreasing-radius turn -they fool you into goingin too fast. Riders are who havea reputation partying for arenot beinglookedon with favor.then makeit veryhardfor you to get out. d 9{tstof $ovgord sFffi From your sponaor you get mon6y and stickers. Magazine photos really pump-up sponsors. the people and they listen areverygoodat spotting to.

Hampshire Bridgehampton. York. Spend your $1O wisely. to Tracksafety preparation othervaluable information. machine and dataarenot in my "Howto area.A Parting Word Manythingshavenot beenincluded this bookbecause in they do not have do with the actualridingof a motorcycle. t h e s ep a g e sT h em a t e r i a l t h ai t i n c l u d e ds w o r k a b l e n dw i l l i m p r o v e s i a your ridingif it's applied. who runsthe Penguin Racing New Schoolat Loudon. is meantto be applied lt andto be used. have fun riding! . Muchof this hasalready beencovered the publication in Fly"by Joe Ziegler.allthereis to sayaboutridingis not in . and New By the sametoken. and most of all.

Old racing in tireswork bestwhenthey havejust beenscrubbed and haveplenty c. Wheels Are In Line 3. Axles Tight 9. . 16. Fork Travel Correct (Forks shouldnot bottomout or top out) 12.Rider Checklist 1. ColdPressures RearFront B.Theyare inspector Mostof theseitemsare not thingsthat a technical to affectyour abilityto put your equipment useas a racer' itemsthat directly the it around trackwithoutmajormishaps thatyou canmake Theyensure (enough fuel. Forks excessive play. Enough Fuel 17. are B.etc. Engine B.) 14. Unevenly out and become"greasy'" tiresdry B. Chain D. Hot Pressures 6. Master Link in Place chain. Shock Travel Correct but (Shocks shouldnot bottomout excessively shouldusemost of the shock travel.). Gontrols Are Comfortable and Usable 1 1. disc. Pads not binding material. Chain Adiusted 5. Enough Pad 15. Padsare makinggoodcontacton disc.Transmission C.) 13. Forks Don't Bind 4. Tire Pressures Are Gorrect RearFrontA. Brakes Work Well A. Tires Have Enough Rubber difficulties' handling tirescancause wornor stepped A. Front Axle CaP Bolts Tight 8. Wheels Are Balanced 1O. C. Oil at Proper Level A. Race of rubber.) it (Master shouldbe safetywired unless is an endless link 18. Someone to Record l-aPTimes looksat. Throttle OPeratesSmoothlY free (Doesn't stick. Steering Head Bearings Tight 7.

) for Number Turns of Weather Conditions AmbientTemperature Elevation Classes be Run to Tires Run:Brand Compound/Number Tire Pressure: Front-Cold Front-Hot FrontRear-Cold Rear-Hot Rear Tire Mileage: Front Jetting Mains Needle Rear Pilot Slide Air Correction -Air F l o a tL e v e l .Pre-Load Lap Times Practice Position EachLap Points Earned Prize Money Won Comments .O t h e r Screws Gasoline Type G a s / O i lR a t i o lgnition Timing Spark Plug Heat Range C a m T i m i n g :I n t a k e Valve Adjustment: Intake Gearing Countershaft Exhaust Exhaust RearSprocket Overall Ratio Rea r-CompressionRebou nd Rear-Pre-Load Races ShockDampening .Rebound Front-Compression SpringSettings Front.Race Day Record O Date Track R a c i n gO r g a n i z a t i o n Length of Track (Use theseandmake copies your notes.

Padsare not bindingdisc. Padsare makinggoodcontacton disc' B. Enough Fuel 17. Forks 2. Controls Are Comfortable and Usable 1 1. Front Axle GaPBolts Tight 8. Someone to Record l-aPTimes looksat' Theyare inspector Mostof theseitemsarenot thingsthat a technical to put your equipment useas a racer' itemsthat directlyaffectyour abilityto Theyensurethatyoucanmakeitaroundthetrackwithoutmajormishaps excessive play') 14. Unevenly "greasy"' B. Throttle OPeratesSmoothlY free (Doesn't stick. Old racingtiresdry out and become plenty in tireswork bestwhenthey havejust beenscrubbed and have C. Forks Don't Bind 4.).Chain D.etc. Brakes Work Well A.) 18.Rider Ghecklist 1. Wheels Are Batanced 10. Tire Pressures Are Correct RearFrontA. (enough . Tires Have Enough Rubber difficulties' tirescancausehandling worn or stepped A. Axles Tight 9. ShockTravel Correct but (Shocks shouldnot bottomout excessively shouldusemost of the shock travel. Oil at Proper Level A. Wheels Are ln Line 3. Fork Travel Correct (Forks shouldnot bottomout ortop out) 12.) 13. Engine B. ColdPressures RearFrontB. Race of rubber' 16. Chain Adiusted 5.Transmission C. Steering Head Bearings Tight 7. Hot Pressures 6. Master Link in Place (Master|inkshou|dbesafetywiredun|essitisanend|esschain. Enough Padmaterial' 15. C.

Race Day Record @ Date Track R a c i n gO r g a n i z a t i o n (Use theseandmake copies your notes.Pre-Load Lap Times Rear-Pre-Load Races Practice Position Each Lap P o i n t sE a r n e d Prize Money Won Comments .Rebound ValveAdjustment:ntake I Gearing Countershaft ShockDampening Front-Compression-Rebound Spring Settings Front.) for Lengthof Track Number Turns of Weather Conditions Ambient Temperature Elevation Classes be Run to TiresRun:Brand Compound/Number Tire Pressure: Front-Cold Front-Hot FrontRear Rear-Cold Rear-Hot Tire Mileage: Front Jetting Mains Needle Rear Pilot Slide Air Correction -Air Float Level Screws Other Gasoline Type Gas/Oil Ratio l g n i t i o nT i m i n g S p a r k P l u gH e a t R a n g e C a m T i m i n g :I n t a k e Exhaust Exhaust RearSprocket Overall Ratio Rear-Compression .

Rider Ghecklist
1. Oil at Proper Level A. Engine B.Transmission C .C h a i n D. Forks 2. Wheels Are In Line 3. Forks Don't Bind 4. Chain Adjusted 5. Tire Pressures Are Gorrect RearFrontA. ColdPressures RearPressures FrontB. Hot 6. Steering Head BearingsTight 7. Front Axle Cap Bolts Tight 8. AxlesTight 9. Wheels Are Balanced 1O. Gontrols Are Gomfortable and Usable 1 1. Fork Travel Gorrect (Forks shouldnot bottomout ortop out) 12. Shock Travel Correct (Shocks but shouldnot bottomout excessively shouldusemost of the shock travel.) 13. Throttle Operates SmoothlY (Doesn't free stick,no excessive play.) 14. Brakes Work Well A. Padsare makinggoodcontacton disc. disc. B. Pads not binding are pad material. C. Enough 15. Tires Have Enough Rubber handling difficulties. tirescancause wornor stepped A. Unevenly "greasy." tiresdry out andbecome B. Oldracing in tireswork bestwhen they havejust beenscrubbed and haveplenty C. Race of rubber. 16. Enough Fuel 17. Master Link in Place chain.) it wiredunless is an endless (Master should safety be link 18. Someone to Record l-aPTimes inspector looksat. Theyare Mostof theseitemsare not thingsthat a technical to affectyour abilityto put your equipment useas a racer. itemsthat directly the that youcanmakeit around trackwithoutmajormishaps Theyensure (enough fuel,etc.).

Race Day Record @
Date Track R a c i n gO r g a n i z a t i o n Length of Track

(Usetheseand make for copies your notes.)

Number Turns of WeatherConditions AmbientTemPerature
Elevation Classesto be Run

TiresRun:Brand Compound/Number Front-Cold Tire Pressure:
Front-Hot Tire Mileage: Front Jetting Mains Needle



Pilot Slide

-Air Air Correction
Float Level

Screws Other

Type Gasoline
G a s / O i lR a t i o l g n i t i o nT i m i n g S p a r k P l u gH e a t R a n g e

Intake CamTiming:
Valve Adjustment: Intake

Exhaust Exhaust RearSprocketRatio Overall Rea r-CompressionRebound

Gearing Countershaft
ShockDampening Front-Com pression Rebound Spring Settings

Front- Pre-Loao LapTimes
Practice P o s i t i o nE a c hL a P


Prize Money Won


Rider Ghecklist
1. Oil at Proper Level A. Engine B.Transmission C.Chain D. Forks 2. Wheels Are In Line 3. Forks Don't Bind 4. Ghain Adjusted 5. Tire Pressures Are Gorrect RearA. ColdPressures FrontB. Hot Pressures FrontRear6. Steering Head Bearings Tight 7. Front Axle Gap Bolts Tight 8. Axles Tight 9. Wheels Are Balanced 1O. Controls Are Gomfortable and Usable 1 1. Fork Travel Gorrect (Forks shouldnot bottomout or top out) 12. ShockTravel Gorrect (Shocks shouldnot bottomout excessively shouldusemostof the shock but travel.) 13. Throttle Operates Smoothly (Doesn't free stick,no excessive play.) 14. Brakes Work Well A. Padsare makinggoodcontacton disc. B. Padsare not bindingdisc. pad material. C. Enough 15. Tires Have Enough Rubber tirescancause handling A. Unevenly wornor stepped difficulties. "greasy." become B. Old racingtiresdry out and in C. Race tireswork bestwhen they havejust beenscrubbed and haveplenty of rubber. 1 6 . E n o u g hF u e l 17. Master Link in Place (Master shouldbe safetywired unless is an endless it link chain.) 18. Someone to Record lap Times inspector looksat. Theyare Mostof theseitemsare not thingsthat a technical itemsthat directlyaffectyour abilityto put yourequipment useas a racer. to that you can makeit aroundthe trackwithout majormishaps Theyensure (enough fuel,etc.).

Race Day Record 4 Date Track Organization Racing Lengthof Track of Number Turns Weather Conditions Ambient TemPerature Elevation (Usetheseand make for copies your notes.Pre-load Lap Times Practice P o s i t i o nE a c hL a p PointsEarned Prize Money Won Comments .) to Classes be Run TiresRun:Brand Compound/Number Tire Pressure:Front-Cold Front-Hot T i r e M i l e a g e :F r o n t Jetting FrontRear-Cold Rear-Hot Rear Mains Needle T Gasoline ype G a s / O i lR a t i o l g n i t i o nT i m i n g Pilot Slide -Air Air Correction FloatLevel Screws Other SparkPlugHeatRange C a mT i m i n g :l n t a k e Exhaust Exhaust RearSprocket Overall Ratio Rear-Compression-Rebound Rear-Pre-Load Races : ValveAdjustmentIntake Gearing Countershaft ShockDampening pressionRebound Front-Com SpringSettings Front.

1 5 . Oil at Proper Level A. Shock Travel Correct (Shocks shouldnot bottomout excessively shouldusemost of the shock but travel. Tire Pressures Aro Gorract A. 1 6 . Axles Tight 9 . A. Pads not binding disc.etc. Fork Travel Gorrect (Forks shouldnot bottomout or top out) 1 2 . Theyensure that you can makeit aroundthe trackwithout majormishaps (enough fuel. Race of rubber. Engine B. are pad C. . Old racingtiresdry out and become"greasy.) link 1 8 . B. Master Link in Place (Master shouldbe safetywired unless is an endless it chain.). Steering Head Bearings Tight 7 . Theyare Mostof theseitemsare not thingsthat a technical to itemsthat directlyaffectyour abilityto put your equipment useas a racer.Transmission C. Someone to Record lap Times inspector looksat. Forks 2 . Padsare makinggoodcontacton disc.Rider Ghecklist 1 . Brakes Work Well A. Wheels Are Balanced 1 0 . Hot Pressures FrontRearRear- 6 . Chain D. Throttle Operates Smoothly (Doesn't free excessive play. Chain Adjusted 5 . Enough material.) 1 3 . Tires Have Enough Rubber worn or stepped tirescancause handling difficulties. Forks Don't Bind 4 . Enough Fuel 1 7 . Wheels Are ln Line 3 . ColdPressures FrontB.) 1 4 . Front Axle Cap Bolts Tight 8 . Gontrols Are Gomfortable and Usable 1 1 . Unevenly B." in tireswork bestwhenthey havejust beenscrubbed and haveplenty C.

) to Classes be Run TiresRun:Brand Compound/Number Tire Pressure:Front-Cold Front-Hot FrontRear-Cold Rear-Hot Rear Pilot Slide Rear Front Tire Mileage: Jetting Mains Needle GasolineType Gas/Oil Ratio T lgnition iming S p a r kP l u gH e a tR a n g e Air Correction -Air FloatLevel Screws Other Intake CamTiming: V a l v e A d j u s t m e n t :I n t a k e Gearing Countershaft Exhaust Exhaust RearSprocket O v e r a l lR a t i o ShockDampening pressionRebou nd Front-Com Spring Settings Front.Race Day Record @ Date Track Racing Organization Length Track of Number Turns of Weather C o n d i t i o n s A m b i e n t Temperature Elevation (Usetheseand make for copres your notes.Rebound Rear-Compression Rear-Pre-Load Races .Pre-Load LapTimes Practice Position Each Lap P o i n t sE a r n e d Prize Money Won Comments .

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