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Ansoft Solutions for Motor Design

Eun-Sil Han (sr. AE, Ph.D.)


Ansoft Korea

2005. 11
Contents

Š Introduction to the Ansoft EM Tools


Š The Process of Electric Motor Design
Š Tutorial Guide for Motor Design
Š BLDC using RMxprt
Š PMDC using RMxprt + Maxwell EM 2D
Š Induction Motor using RMxprt + Simplorer
Š Maxwell EM Roadmap
Introduction to
the Ansoft EM Tools
Ansoft Products
System
Simplorer
Simplorer Options
Options
Level Ansoft
Ansoft Designer
Designer
Optimetrics
Optimetrics
Nexxim
Nexxim
Full
Full Wave
Wave Spice
Spice

Circuit ePhysics
ePhysics
Level SIwave Multi-processor
SIwave Multi-processor

RMxprt
RMxprt AnsoftLink
AnsoftLink
TPA
TPA HFSS
PExprt
PExprt
Component Q3D
Level Maxwell
2D/3D
2D/3D

Electro -Mechanical Signal


Electro-Mechanical -Integrity High
Signal-Integrity -Frequency
High-Frequency
모터 해석을 위한 Ansoft EM Tools ?
Maxwell 2D
Control
Simplorer Maxwell 3D

Electrical
RMxprt
ePhysics

Mechanical
Optimetrics

Simplorer
Maxwell

EPhysics
시뮬레이션 수순
ePhysics
설계 대상 Good 전동기의 분포적 입력파라미터를 이용하여
quality 열적 성능 및 응력 특성을 보다 정밀 해석
전동기 기계적 신뢰성 확인

Maxwell 2D/3D
RMxprt
설계 검증용 / 특성 해석용
초기 치수 설계 파라미터 산출 해석 기법에 의한 설계 보완
파라미터 영향 분석 해석 결과 검토에 의한 국부적 형상 변경
최적 설계를 통한 모델제안

Simplorer
모터 및 제어 알고리즘과 연계된 정밀 시뮬레이션
정확한 모터 모델링 제시로 제어 파라미터 분석 가능
시스템 엔지니어링 단계
What’s Maxwell EM 2D/3D ?
- Powerful Simulation Software for Electromagnetic and Electromechanical Analysis

Hybrid-car Stepping Motor Hollow rotor servo Motor Variable Reluctance Sensor

Pole piece

Permanent magnet Coil

Claw-pole Alternator
Solenoid Valve
What’s RMxprt ?
- Software for the Design of Rotating Electric Machines

Winding Editor

Machine Design
What’s PExprt ?
- Magnetic Component Design Software

Transformer Model

Design Window
What’s Simplorer ?
- The complete system simulated by EM Tools

ANL
PExprtLink1

14 N0314.V [V]
12

10

RMxprt PExprt -2
6

Maxwell
0 25m 75m 0.1 0.15 0.23 t [s]

Slave Load voltage

2D/3D SIMPLORER BJT_Converter


L_Converter

480u*1
I0 := 0
R3_Converter

500k
C_Converter
R_loadsmall V
+
VM3

D_Converter 750u
A R2_Converter V0 := 0 0.288*5
50k
B

Mechanical Source 5m
Louttop
FML_INIT1
ICA: D1 D2 D3
RLoad:=5 N2_P1_A
NX_P1_A
+ PWM Controller

A V VM1
A for DC-DC application
B
RMxprtLink1 N2_P1_B
NX_P1_B

engine_ss N2_P2_A
NX_P2_A
M1
Engine ROT1 Lina 50u Rina10m Ra R := RLoad B D4 D5 D6 K := 0
A NX_P1_A
N1_P1_A

n := 3000*1.0 N2_P2_B
NX_P2_B

Linb 50u Rb R := RLoad A N2_P3_A


NX_P3_A

ROT2
Rinb10m
B NX_P1_B
N1_P1_B

NX_P2_A
N1_P2_A
C
Rc R := RLoad
N2_P3_B
NX_P3_B

F1 Linc 50u Rinc10m B Loutbot


E1
C

NX_P2_B
N1_P2_B
5m
+ VMphaseA
NX_P3_A
N1_P3_A Cout
N
3000u R_Load +
F2 V
C N2_P1_A
NX_P1_A
1.2*100m V VMout
+ VMphaseB
NX_P3_B
N1_P3_B
A
V TFR3P11 N2_P1_B
NX_P1_B
D7 D8 D9
N2_P2_A
NX_P2_A
+ VMphaseC
V
B +
N2_P2_B
NX_P2_B

N2_P3_A
NX_P3_A
V VM2 30 N0252.V [V]

20
C 15
10
N2_P3_B
NX_P3_B
D10 D11 D12 5
TFR3P22
-5
0 25m 50m 75m 0.1 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.2 0.23 t [s]

Master Load voltage


1.2m Position.V [V]

0.6m

0.2m
-0.2m
0 25m 75m 0.13 0.18 0.23 t [s]

Gap vs. time


0 force.I [A] LIMIT_TRB1
16m icoil.I [A]
12m
-6
8m
-10
4m
CTRL := t>=0 0
-14
0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.23 t [s]
S1 0 50m 0.1 0.15 0.23 t [s]

Winding current Amature force EQU

Maxwell 3D
D2D1 externalforce:=(-100000)*MASS_TRB1.S*1.5
D2D
force
R := 1500/1.8 MASS_TRB1 SPRING_TRB1
A A

icoil R1
igrav
V1
IS := 0.00545*9.807
EQU

EMF := 12*1.5 N_1 N_3 NL


externalforce:=(-100000)*MASS_TRB1.S*1
NL1

Optimetrics
N_2 N_4
EMSSLink1 Position
XY

XY1
XY
E2
XY2
What’s Q3D Extractor ?
- 패키지 등 신호 전송 구조의 기생회로성분(RLC) Extraction
What is ePhysics ?
– Thermal and Stress Analysis
Ex. #1 : Traction Motor Simulation
Inverter Bridge

TR_5 TR_3 TR_1


Current Sensors Mechanical Load
for Control
MchRMas1
E2 175
TR_51 TR_31 TR_11 PMSYNC
IA RA Torque J

A A _phase_p torque
A D2D

IB RB
A _phase_m

C_phase_p
A B _phase_p
IC RC
B _phase_m

theta
A
C_phase_m

TR_2 TR_6 TR_4 GAIN1


GAIN

E3 175 E1
ICA:

Maxwell
PP := 6

TR_21 TR_61 TR_41 Motor Model


ctrl 1:=1 ctrl_2:=1
ctrl 2:=1 c tr l_3:=1

GAIN GAIN GAIN

theta>90 AN D theta<150 theta>150 AN D theta<210 theta>210 AN D theta<270


ctrl_i1 ctrl_i2 ctrl_i3
CONST CONST CONST

ctrl_6:=1 c tr l 3:=1
ctrl_1:=1 c tr l_4:=1

GAIN NEG GAIN NEG GAIN NEG

ctrl_i11 ctrl_i21
ctrl_i31 c tr l_5:=1 c trl_4:=1
CONST CONST CONST
c tr l_6:=1 c trl 5:=1

Drive
theta>30 AN D theta<90 theta>330 OR theta<30 theta>270 AN D theta<330

Phase Currents Torque Control Signals


1 .2 m 2 .5 m 5m 7 .5 m 1 0m 4m 4 .5 m 5m
0 5m 1 0m
0 .7 5 k I A. I [A ] 0 .1 1 k T o rq u e .I [A
25 c trl _ i 1 .VAL
I B. I [A ] c trl _ i 1 1 . VAL
I C. I [A ] c trl _ i 2 .VAL
c trl _ i 2 1 . VAL
20 c trl _ i 3 .VAL
0 .5 k
0 .1 k c trl _ i 3 1 . VAL

90 10

80
0

-0 .5 k 73 -5
1 .2 m 2 .5 m 5m 7 .5 m 1 0 m t [s ] 4m 4 .5 m 5 m t [s ] 0 5m 1 0 m t [s ]

PM Synchronous
Traction Motor Design
Using Maxwell 2D
Ex. #2 : Fuel Cell in a Traction Motor
D1

C1

- +
PIPE
Level1
PIPE
Fuel
Level1 Cell C

FUELCELL_C1 MchRMas1
IA PMSYNC Torque J

RHYD1 A A
Level1

Level1
+ A_phase_p torque +
PIPE

PIPE
+ CONST
PI - IB A_phase_m

P1 P2 C_phase_p
PI_1 A
+ B_phase_p

IC B_phase_m

theta
A
+
C_phase_m

D2 GAIN1
GAIN
-
Fuel
+ E1
ICA:
Cell C PP := 6
FUELCELL_C2

C2

RHYD2
+ CONST theta>210 AND theta<270
PI theta>90 AND theta<150 theta>150 AND theta<210
-

ctrl_1:=1 ctrl_2:=1
ctrl_2:=1 ctrl_3:=1
GAIN GAIN GAIN

ctrl_i1 ctrl_i2 ctrl_i3


ctrl_6:=1 ctrl_3:=1
CONST CONST CONST
ctrl_1:=1 ctrl_4:=1

GAIN NEG GAIN NEG GAIN NEG


ctrl_5:=1 ctrl_4:=1
ctrl_6:=1 ctrl_5:=1
ctrl_i11 ctrl_i21 ctrl_i31
CONST CONST CONST
theta>30 AND theta<90 theta>330 OR theta<30 theta>270 AND theta<330

QuickGraph1 QuickGraph4 QuickGraph5

1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 0 5.00m 10.00m
750.00 IA.I 120.00 Torque.I 25.00 ctrl_i1.VAL
IB.I ctrl_i11.VAL
IC.I ctrl_i2.VAL
ctrl_i21.VAL
100.00 20.00 ctrl_i3.VAL
500.00 ctrl_i31.VAL

75.00

10.00

0 50.00

25.00
0

-500.00 -5.00
0
1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m t 0 5.00m 10.00m t
1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m t
Ex. #3 : Wiper System
- DC Motor Drive System
0 50.00m 100.00m
15.00

10.00 10.00

Wiper System

0
0
TR 0 50.00m 20.00 100.00m T
+
D1 D2 D3 AM1
R_R L_R
A
Motor Torque and Load Torque
0
ET1 10m 0.3m LOAD
R_S L_S CD t Y

M D7
1m
ET2 50.00m 100.00m
DCM N_REF
R_T L_T RA := 1.2 N
LA := 9.5m
ET3 KE := 0.544
D4 D5 D6 J := 4m

DCM.N P_GAIN LIMITER CONTR_OUT 0 0


GAIN GAIN LIMIT

-16.66m KP := 50 UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5


LL := 0
N_REF CLOCK I_GAIN THRES2 := 2.5
-10.00 -10.00
I

CONST CONST
VAL1 := -1
0 50.00m 100.00m T
KI := 20 VAL2 := 1
16.6667 .1m

Motor Speed
The Process of
Electric Motor Design

RMxprt + Simplorer and/or EM 2D + Q3D Extractor


Integrated Motor Solution
14 types of
RMxprt motors/generators
project design

Maxwell 3D
Maxwell 2D

Equivalent circuits

Co-simulation SIMPLORER
Ansoft Tools for Electric Motor Design
RMxprt
- Parametrics
- Optimization
- Export to Simplorer model
- Create to Maxwell 2D/3D Project
Maxwell EM 2D/3D
- Fields/Circuits/Motion
- Power Electronics
- Core Loss
SIMPLORER
- Post Processing
- Power Electronics
- Export to Simplorer model
- State Machines
- Block Diagrams
RMxprt Parametrics

Single Phase Induction Motor

New Setup Panel


RMxprt Parametrics
C_run: Nominal 6 uF: Sweep 1 to 12uF in 12 Steps
Slot_depth: Nominal 8.2mm: Sweep 6 to 10 mm in 9 Steps

Run
RMxprt
RMxprt Parametrics
RMxprt Optimization

Three Phase Synchronous


Generator

Select Optimization
RMxprt Optimization

Run
RMxprt
RMxprt Optimization
RMxprt Optimization

Optimum Solution

Run
RMxprt
RMxprt Optimization
Original
Objective: sinusoidal
air-gap flux density
distribution

Optimized
RMxprt SIMPLORER

DQ0 model written


directly by RMxprt
Transient Parameters
Maxwell EM with Schematic
Brushless DC Motor
• Four Pole
• Three Phase
• Chopped Current Control

Switching Sequence of Phase A vs. Mechanical Degrees


SchematicCurrent Controlled Switches

Phase A winding

Switching circuit based on angular position


Position Dependent Sources
Current Controlled Switches

Run
EMpulse
Core Loss

Steel:
2 2 2 3/2
Loss density = Kh f B max + Kc f B max + Ke (f Bmax)

Loss will be a function of Lamination Thickness

Power Ferrite:
x y
Loss density= Cm f Bmax

May be expressed in Watts/m3 or Watts/Kg


Core Loss

Select Object to for which Core


Loss is to be Calculated

Run
Maxwell EM
Core Loss
Maxwell EM Post Processing
EMI in the Motor Drive System
Radiative
Conductive
Normal Mode Current

+ -
Battery

ECU

Common Mode Current


Normal mode current flows --- Loop
Common mode current flows --- Open
Common Mode Current Analysis

All components are represented


by “Multi-Domain” Simulation model
- Battery
- Inverter/Converter
- Bus bar
- Motor
- DSP/FPGA
Simulation Model Ⅰ(ECE)
S1 EQU
FML1
A
R1
AM1

Rotor
PMSYNC J

- + D2D
A_phase_p torque
Fuel
Cell
C1 A_phase_m

IA
A

IB B_phase_p
ICA:
A

GAIN
IC B_phase_m

C2
Cell C_phase_p
Fuel
+ -
C_phase_m
theta

ctrl 1:=1 ctrl 2:=1


ctrl_2:=1 ctrl_3:=1

GAIN GAIN GAIN

theta>90 AND theta<150 theta>150 AND theta<210 theta>210 AND theta<270


ctrl_i1 ctrl_i2 ctrl_i3
CONST CONST CONST

ctrl 6:=1 ctrl 3:=1


ctrl_1:=1 ctrl_4:=1

GAIN NEG GAIN NEG GAIN NEG

ctrl_i11 ctrl_i21 ctrl_i31


ctrl_5:=1 ctrl_4:=1
CONST CONST CONST
ctrl_6:=1 ctrl_5:=1

theta>30 AND theta<90 theta>330 OR theta<30 theta>270 AND theta<330


Phase Current Torque Control Signals
1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 4.12m 4.25m 4.50m 4.75m 4.85m
0 5.00m 10.00m
600.00 IA.I [A] 104.40 Rotor.M1
25.00 ctrl_i1.VAL
500.00 IB.I [A]
ctrl_i11.VA...
IC.I [A]
100.00 ctrl_i2.VAL ...
20.00 ctrl_i21.VA...
ctrl_i3.VAL ...
250.00 ctrl_i31.VA...
95.00

0 90.00 10.00

85.00
-250.00

80.00 0
-500.00
-600.00 75.40 -5.00
1.20m 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m t [s] 4.12m 4.25m 4.50m 4.75m 4.85m t [s] 0 5.00m 10.00m t [s]
Common Mode Current
Terminal Currents

f = 1/0.00076 = 1.3kHz
FFT of Common Mode Current

-1.07k 0 3.33k 6.67k 10.00k 13.33k 15.99k


25.00u AM1.I = f(...

20.00u 20.00u

5.00u 15.00u

0.00u 10.00u

5.00u 5.00u

0 0
-1.07k 0 3.33k 6.67k 10.00k 13.33k 15.99k

f1=1.3kHz f3=3.9kHz
Simulation Model Ⅱ(Tr-Tr Link)
LA.I [A]
2DGraphSel6
LB.I [A] 9.30
LC.I [A] Torque Output
ICA: LL:=922u LDUM:=10m
5.00 5.00m
RA:=2.991
0 LA.I [A] -5.00
LB.I [A] PWM_T:=60
LC.I [A]
PWM_PER:=180 -10.00
-5.00

-9.30 I_TARG:=9
-14.60
0 5.00m 10.00m 13.30m I_HYST:=0.2 0 5.00m 10.00m 13.30m 1500 rpm

+
sourceA1 Magnet01 ω
Q1 Q3 Q5 RA Ohm LL H
sourceA2 Magnet02

sourceB1

sourceB2
400 V

sourceC1
A
Q4 Q6 Q2 R4
LDUM H sourceC2
AM1
FEA

THRES := PWM_T VAL[0] := mod( INPUT[0] ,INPUT[1] )


QS1 INPUT[1] := PWM_PER +
ANGRAD
GAIN
Φ
LA.I
QS2
EQUBL 57.3
probe model
CONST -30+PWM_PER

-LC.I
QS3
EQUBL (Q3D)
CONST -60+PWM_PER

LB.I EQUBL
QS4
CONST -90+PWM_PER
FEA1...
FEA1... -LA.I EQUBL
FEA Outputs FEA1... QS5
1.51k FEA1...
FEA1... CONST -120+PWM_PER
1.00k FEA1...
FEA1...
FEA1... LC.I QS6 EQUBL
FEA1...
FEA1...
0 FEA1... CONST -150+PWM_PER
FEA1... INPUT := -LB.I
-430.00 FEA1...
0 5.00m 13.30m FEA1... THRES1 := I_TARG - I_HYST EQUBL

FEA1... VAL1 := 1
FEA1... THRES2 := I_TARG + I_HYST Y0 := 1 VAL2 := 0 8.50

8.50
QS1....
5.00 QS2....
Q1.C... QS3....
Name Value 5.00 Q2.C...
FEA1.FEA STEPS QS4....
Q3.C... QS5....
SIMPARAM1.RunTime [s] 0 Q4.C...
SIMPARAM1.TotalIterations 0 QS6....
Q5.C...
SIMPARAM1.TotalSteps 2.64k Q6.C... 0
0
0 5.00m 10.00m 13.30m
0 5.00m 10.00m 13.30m
FFT of Common Mode Current
0 1.667m 3.333m 5.000m 6.667m 7.840m
343.9m AM...

300.0m 300.0m

0 25k 50k 250.0m 75k 100k 126k 250.0m


39.09m AM1.I ...
200.0m 200.0m
35.00m 35.00m
50.0m 150.0m

30.00m 30.00m
00.0m 100.0m

50.0m 50.0m
25.00m 25.00m

10.6m -10.6m
20.00m 0 1.667m 3.333m 5.000m 20.00m 6.667m 7.840m

Time
5.00m 15.00m
FFT
0.00m 10.00m

5.00m 5.00m

0 0
0 25k 50k 75k 100k 126k

Freq.
Maxwell EM Roadmap
What’s New in Maxwell 11

Nonlinear anisotropy Designer schematic for


and nonlinear lamination external circuit coupling

Non-cylindrical rotation New electric solver


NextGen
Non-Cartesian local Ansoft
CS for easy setup Desktop RMxprt integrated
ECE
with distributed analysis Dynamic demagnetization
Maxwell 3D Desktop
What’s New in Maxwell 11
‰ More motion types in 3D transient

Relay

Sensor

Non-cylindrical rotation for relay, DC Allows general moving bands with


contactor, circuit breaker applications different radii for rotational motion
Dynamic Demagnetization Results

Target H field
Source H field
in the PM
in the PM

B Field in rotor
and stator
Example: Reluctance Motor

Rotor lamination is defined


along r direction in the local Y

cylindrical coord system


X The rotor local coordinate system
is attached to the moving rotor
Flux density plot
Torque with different load angle
Create Maxwell 3D Transient Circuit

Use .sph extension for exported files


What’s New in RMxprt 11
Dynamic geometry Consistent material
display with data input library with Maxwell FEA

Any load type for all machines


(constant speed, constant power,
Maxwell 3D constant torque, linear torque or
geometry model creation NextGen fan load)
Ansoft
Desktop

Winding editor for arbitrary Integrated in the same


winding configration desktop with Maxwell
3D Geometry Creation
Complete
Completegeometry
geometrycreation
creation
¾¾ One-click
One-clickFEA
FEAdesign
design
¾¾Option
Optionfor
forperiodic
periodicor
orfull
fullmodels
models
¾¾Automatic
Automaticupdate
updatewith
withproject
project
variables
variables

Geometry
Geometrycomponent
componentcreation
creation
¾¾General
Generaland
anddedicated
dedicated
machine
machineparts
parts
¾¾Arbitrary
Arbitrarycombination
combination––
create
createnew
newmachine
machinetypes
types
¾¾Dimension
Dimensionvariables
variables
supported
supported
Periodic or Whole Model Option

Geometry
Geometrymodel
modelwith
with
aaminimum
minimumperiod
period
One-Click Insert of Maxwell Design
Geometry Variables Sharing
with RMxprt
Convenient
Convenientfor
forgeometry
geometry
parametric
parametricsweep
sweepand
and
optimization
optimization

Maxwell
Maxwellgeometry
geometry
automatic
automaticupdate
update
with
withvariables
variables
changed
changedininRMxprt
RMxprt
Arbitrary Winding Configurations

Concentric Lap winding with


winding coil pitch=1

Single-layer Double-layer DC winding


lap winding lap winding
Common Slot Type Support

Single/double
Single/double
squirrel-cage
squirrel-cagecores
cores

Inner/outer
Inner/outerAC/DC
AC/DC
armature
armaturecores
cores
Geometry Component Creation
in Maxwell
General and dedicated Integrated in Maxwell
machine parts 3D Modeler

Arbitrary combination,
possible for a new
machine type
Machine Parts Integrated
in 3D Modeler
General Machine Parts

Components
for most
machines
Dedicated Machine Parts

Components
for specific
machines
Easy Swap between Outer and
Inner Cores

Inner
Innercore:
core:
DiaYoke
DiaYoke<<DiaGap
DiaGap

Outercore:
Outer core:
DiaGap<<DiaYoke
DiaGap DiaYoke
Easy Swap between 3D and
2D Models

3D core: Length > 0

2D
2Dcore:
core:Length
Length==00
Arbitrary Combination of
Machine Parts, Possible for
a New Machine Type

A cylindrical rotor of
A three-phase claw-pole rotor
synchronous machines
Tips to Mesh Success
Addaxial
Add axialsheets
sheets

Use
Usestraight
straightcoils:
coils:
••add
addaahalf
halfspan
spanlength
lengthto
toEndExt;
EndExt;
••set
setSpanExt
SpanExt==00