ENGILISH

,

TH'·R· 0'" U- G'" 'H

-I , ' .. ' "._ . , •.... '[ _ I -

Sivarajaslngam B., A •. Hans, (English) f'oul!!:!fb Asst., Commissiooer_

Offici,!_[ Lan.,guili/CS Depadment

PF~DU1 Viii U mg Loct urer ,( En i] lib) I' UcQiV~fSity iOf Jaffaa.

: ~ ,Ii] UJI ill lV ~r&li~rn

ENGLISH THROUGH TAMIL

v. Sivarajasingam B. A. Hons, (Bnglish) Formerly Asst. Commissioner,

Official Languages Department

Presently Visiting Lesturer (English), University of Jaffna.

Poongothal Publ ications 1999

lsI Edltlon .- September - 1999
Pages :~ 168
Copy riZhl :- All Rigbts Reserved
Publicatio" 1- Pooogothal PubllcatioD
Printer 1- Earl.Iai Mallatllma PriDtiDg Works,
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G/ilI"UfllUalU CUiYrtt&(t!jw.

CONTENTS

I. Parts of Speecb

2. The Sentence - Word order

3. Negative Sentences

4. The Interrogative

5. The Verb 2 Tense

6. How To Us. The Tenlos

7. HeJplila Verbs

8. Noons

9. Pronouns

10. Articles II. Adjective. U. Adverb.

13. Prepositions

14. Conjunctions

IS. The Inifinitive And Itl Uses

16. The Passi ve V olce

17. Direct Speech And Indirect Speech

18. The Complex Sentence

19. Spelling Rules

20. How To Write Without Mistakes

Page
1
3
14
17
22
29
42
53
'8
64
69
77
8)
88
'1
97
102
111
123
127 APPENDIX

i, A 1.lst Of Words Frequently Mis - Spelt.

Il. Some Commonly Used Regular Verbs. iii. Irregular Verb •.

iv. Some Common Adjectives. v. q'onses In Tables.

LESSON 1

PARTS OF SPEECH (Qg". jb56fr)

I. NOUN (GUUJtt )

9® Gu/T~m"'. ~""" &lifilJIiJOifI8; 81GU&UgjI OOL~m~8i

@$UU~.'

L - Ii: book, teacher, horse, England.

2. PRONOUN (uf},iJGUII.JIT)

QUUJrt~ GI,fT6o_:W8;(f!ju upjfilJfT. QJ~QJmI; {DuSl1fl6o II-L...(hlu GUII.JIT (JUfT**/D/j).

L • rb: he, she, it, they.

3. VERB ( 6ljmWB: Q'fTitJ J Q8'IUfl)Ql8; @u5!uu4i/.

L - Ih I read, walk, drink.

4. ADJECflVE (GUlUU65>L.)

GUa.Jrt~ Q'fT6ilmw dJ(J8''''~/j} rC {b@w Q,rtQ>..

L - tlJ: beautiful, kind, sweet

5. ADVERB ( fiI1AlWUJfiI)L )

fi'lRmwmv fiI1rJ8',..;54i/ {D,tb(f!jw G8'fT ••

L- Ih: beautifully, kindly, sweetly.

6. PRBPOSITION (L®U)mL.c<F Gl8'fT6o)

{j}mfill tJiuSllJi» 11..,,"'" (J6lJ,tbOAlIA 12..®,-/8iQt (JUfTQJQJQf'.

L - jJ,: on, in, under, over.

7. CONJUNCTION (®65>"U4i a,rr,4Je;w) L - I.b: and, theref ore, hence.

LESSON 2

THE SENTENCE - WORD ORDER ( 6lJlr5diwtb - Q.If.t> 9(!RrAI@j )

8. INTfRJECTION (ifilJudmt-6 Ga:"."')

..fI,ia:if1lJw. (}a: tt aiw. LDillP~fR (!:P II is UJ $diu ._ mrtt # illIHi¥lQ1.j ~~.iilAr 108.

L - all: alas! ah! hurrah! bravo I

p;rrw {!j1J)6 ai@~tfjJi;&_ffI 61Jrr.i€?llUsa;Qr ~611W GQJGrf)u

U@ ~ tfjJ fi(} JDf1 11). 611 tr 8; illlJ 11) fiTiiJI U #/I fJ(fJ (!JJ@mUllUrrAT 1II(!!j ~'" ifj 8; GlIlrr6W(p ifi;;rrfi}(§w P(fJ Ga:rr ;Dl1io.L..LUlrr@w. 96iJ:;;)IlIITCjJ QlIT 8; il aJ(!JJlb (!JJ1Ji-~ifj .@~4ilmLID§jI. 9.:!J .,rrdi€?lUJtD U611 lB@jtfjJ ~ G!DIT~"'lB",6fT (Meaniful phrases) UJii8LlI.J~lTa; ~®.i&Q)lTw • ..f[,4ilII' ITW 81Q1 Jb I/JIw 9 oit(l 10 (!JJl1I-QlITW GUIT@;,jr LmLUJ ifjlT riJ fdififTfi}(<Jjw. ~~t5m<1l1U (!:Jl11l-~ ~ GUIT@mw 8lQ)611fljl ai~~<ffiifj8; &1TL..(j)jDj)~ ~(!J QIFIT ;Dgjfil ~AI ~UJmLOlIJlTtbmQJ. fjl6'6r!fll

.~i)l/TriJ. LD;b/D1/iI uUJoMJmQ). fiTt!f6U QWT@...rru;D!!5I 1IJ@/J4i1~

GjDif1,.ae;&u&:J(j)8i)p'J ifjlT. "'8 fiT~"'lTriJ (Subject). ~~ifju Gurr(!§w uiJj/; 6HiriV Gla:IiJ.$l Q"IT~6lJUu~i).D(}flirr. 816 uUJlilIfIm6lJ (Prtdicate).

9@ QJITi.fiiJUJjfjPiv QU@WUIT ~L1I QUUJttiQa:rrw (Noun)

~~QlfTUJITa; (Subject) ..,fi6lLDUJW. 6B",w#~a:IT~ (verb) UUJoMJillfiII aJlTlB (Predicate) dJAlLOUJW.

@UUITL~$l'" 9(!J(!:JlI1l-J5fli .@~mfli QQl6lfluu(J)~4I1l QlITe;8il1U ~QDLDU4U ujJpju UlTtfU(}UlTta.

Ul Ar QJ(!§t.D II... I/J IT U fiIlII1 r5J aim 6fT U U IT (!J I1iJ a; w .

A cuckoo sings,

A black cuckoo sings.

A black cuckoo sings sweetly.

A black cuckoo sings sweetly in my garden A black cuckoo with shiny feathers sings

sweetly in my garden.

A black cuckoo with shiny fe athers sings sweetly in my garden day and night.

j)6iJQJIT.9;g)UJI!iUJi," rufr6lJW fj}(]fT 5(!jmfP_!J1U ~upjumLUJIT

8;.9; Q51TmuL65Iru. 9'l611 8i-@';;.$WrTUJorILDtBtli651iill. Ul~ 6BIfIQlfTUJ 651l.IlmfJjmQJ. fiJ~tli ~t.q.UUfiI)I-~ 5(J!jJ,mto GQJ6If]uuCBt5/D {iJ6ist_g}) UJfllfHlJUJfT{J)I GaumLUUcpfalW!JQJ ~(gJQJlTtiJ (Subject) UlUiGfIAt&» (Predicate) ~6B1u"". ~L1J.uumL.9; &C!!J/Jm/Du Y611uu(]jlJ,jl ~Jb @jW 415JilQ) QJIT~tillU .!9I65ILDUyu ulbtD {iJUUITI-~p). ulTrru

GI:JITt.iJ.

.. ".i i 1IJ AU.UIi I I

I. Subject + be verb + Complem.ent (Adjective) ~~QlfTtiJ + 'c:f£~~mw' + (yl~.9;@j~ GBltri\> (QulUtrQJ)I-,

L - tb: (yOU) be happy

John is happy

rI/ruQ/ITe..UJ,jjiJlill 'you' !JtofTdr,D1T «(gJ 1JI1TlUfTII 416BH.UJ. • be' QWjD ~@jillimaTUJIb happy ~6istJD Quu,"LUJIb OBltT [/j§il •. UUJfi1If1651"'aJITBi .$I65ILDfi6ist JD"".

be, am, is, are 6UiirU6Br6lJ1b rI/QI.tbtDfiit '-i]p[/jP;8iIT'" a..@' QJniJ.$fi'IIlTilUJ was, were, been ~f'f*u_6lJw ~rfltil"'t55}i\> "bo verbs' QWuu@"'. j)P;65I~ '4@jili6IDAl' ~1iIT",alb .•

@rir ~w 6l6ll BlIT ~lTuamti)8i"'6YTu utrrru(Jutrw. Peacock is beautiful.

Boys are industrious.

The girls were playful.

@6iJ QJIT.ig)UJniJtI561f1., beautiful, industrious, playful arairuor "(yJL1J..9;@j® G>i{FIT6t>' (Complement) ~6istu9i/ lJ6IDor til rftl @(!t.9;. !JiolImr@w. ~~9i/Lfii7 .f!/§~mwUJw, (!IlL1J.c!i@JLD QrJllT6IJsYt.D a, iT Jl; J ffi U UJ iIIIf 6ID6ll UJ 6ID UJ til JD 4jI. (] UJ(J6ll UJm6JT LtolT (T mr"

a,6If]6i> (yl1!J-c!i(§ti§ GlBlITQJfoI)"& 6lJJl;Ii651ill QUUJU651L&m

(Adjective) ",,@w •

41i1g)QJ 6IJgW~fj" QglT p8i6ft 8J65ILDUJW 9C!I.@ tb.(yl.iiJUJ WITOT9i/. 4®8il1III~j1Q) a..6irm QJ .. mu UIT®@lj56ir UfAJ!9/Duu(]jl 1JIJ6Br. ~u!i @/W GlglT Jb5W a,65ILDUJUJ 9(gJ®~(!Il~ jD6IDlLJc!i Gl.IT..m(j. ~au tDbElJD ~1Tm-@ QJ~.8i@jiir ""L8;Bi~ITW.

2. Noun + be verb + Complement (Noun) (fiT(gJ6IJrTtiJ.,p '-6SIiB65Iw' + (ylL1J.8;@j® ~8'fT60 (GlUlUtt)

Guw,ml- l.IlL(9Wrir pj7u GUGJd'i: QITIT60jJJJW (ylLf8;@§®.

QgtrgfilJlT&QI@w.

e.. - t.D: Cey Ion is an island.

Rama is a so ldier . Napoleon was an Emperor.

@p5]UL/: QUIU'MGlglT6iJa~ITCB {F1Tri'umL- (Article) fJlTrtiilJl80 G&rt6TT'llIifjI ~.,€ilUJw. (ulTrr';;&1 UITLW: 8'lTrrU65ILtI56ir)

(Jwlb@p)Jii/D OO(!J QJIT~lillLJffiJSl"" Subject (fiT(!PilllTtiJ), Predicate (uuJfi1If1m611 J cf£i'lu j)@ @rir,ttilUJ65Il.IllLJlTc!i o!Iia.Q)ln"fitr 1Lf6IDLUJAJQ/ 6rwu"'/D {t1651w~u(9j,j)j ~e;!T6ir!J6lJlTw.

~6iJ1ilI65Ia; .arn.."i:GliFIT6b (be verb J fi1~ilIlTu!iW Gl'UJAtil>5 rtfJ!Buufj6iJm611. ~~QJrrd6ir tDw6IDUJmlLJ, 8Jlifufil) JjI ~~QJ6IDIU8;. @j;l)~. Q/(!!JQ/!Pl. (fj>@Qlrn8iui6b turtt t5tolTlifu, ~LO!p~fifJ6JT f!1Jp'}uL/ fili651w!JulTwJDi5I' ~,lJuyoaiIBw 5ITiUtlJ5f1L'-IT!fjI. '~@61BA>fIfI" BiIT6llr5J51TL..@!JUlft)/W, QJIT~g)UJ~j1fii1 QUIT(!!Jm_ (ylL!J-&@jW ttiw65Iwuiib ®~uy filimfllflrnllJ 9/J§J8 6rW~lTw.) LtolT UA1J1 ~65I /D @" fJlIGhDIT(!§(ylm ID UlTrt uC::UIT".

Job. is happy, rI/j)QJ John Q6tiJ{B Q,IlJ8 rgargLb &t.:I-U u'- 6fii1J65I6ll..!II ruftT B ww tC .. ",fJlU e;t.:I-uu(9til JD Ui •

{j)tiJ® (!PLlJ-5@r9QglTiIJ "(gJQJITAtIlJU u.lJtDUJ .oUU/J65Itti8; o!Iia./IJ1ilI 651 /D .at QJ {B"'"" .;; 8i 6ll1T w. @ /J ~65I g; UJ IilIIT &" UJniJ.$"," Q) Q (gJ fallT ILf W • (!JJL!J- 8; ~ Lb Gil, IT 60 $1l W fj>C!§ Gl UIT@fi6l6YTCJILJ e;L..l1JtlJbUiIB{B Lam""&.

{P.Q) • (ylfi4) JD 1LJ1Tfi61 .0 fi4)W i:Glg IT j)&6ft. ..fI.@AiA)or&," aatr'" 1!11 G!uUJfT.I-QS)/U (ylL1J.8>@<9 Gl6ITib611lT8iu QUJDD6IJ(!!JQJ!5J6i6r(9. become, feel, look, appear. seem, .maIl, sound, taste 6TWUW @flIJbilJ" UlfilJ.

L - &b I He became ill.

I feel tired.

She looks young •

••

become Q',;itu/PJ iR", 8'WIJt5}0i6lf11iiJ GUUJA1[TIL/W (!p~8;@r9 Gl8'ITQ)fit)tre;,j (Q)8iIT~@!jw.

a1l1liitiw .. rna III

The husband and wife bacame

Prime Ministers.

You will become a teacher.

1. Subject + Verb ... Object.

(Q'C!:e&»mtiJ + fIIlow. + Q .. UJUu(j)(Q)wr®m)

3. Subject + be verb + Complement (Adverb) (Q'C!:efilJrrtiJ + · ",,~6liilDW' + (!Jllf.&@jLb QeFIT6iI (dB."AI'lUomL..l

6l9A1A1IJO,-QHU (~IiiJ", iii rBmw &lO'-,s5 (Q) ~rr '-OfT J (!JH1J. 8; @)U, Gl8'rr6IJfit)rrllJ (.JIQlfit)/PJ GlS'IT jb8ifirTrrOi) Gl8irrmr~fiJJ®lb 6lJITe.&ilUJLD &i)_GAltr@fiIJ_"'.

..",,~rB61IlQ)T·· 1IJ6uQ)IT~ (yJ1iilfI/DlIJrrw rB61flW$i6rr (Verbs

Proper) GU@UJurr,!IHw (Q)8'UJuu@QuIT(!§m (Q)uJDJ!)/fiJJQjtll6lil'.

How are you? I am well.

Where are you? 1 am in my room.

Where is your sister? She is outside.

The sky is above. My brother is in England.

6Ullliililw 611_5 II

Subject + Verb ("C!:eQJrrliJ + 6lim~)

GilS'lUuu@Qurr@iiI @JjRrp5lUJ rB."wmwu uUJm1"'Q)WIT8i8;

~6irr.@ filJC!JfiJJljI.

IL Ib: Rani smiles.

The boys shouted. Gopal died.

Rani cried.

IL - r..b: Boys play football.

She prepares lunch. He likes cakes.

Gopal killed his enemy,

Gopal killed. ((J8iITurrliiJ Gil5rrw jDrrw ) fiTW filJrr~eUJ ,s51i4J1J Jfftgjfjwrrffu. GUIT®m Id,IlGWwrrOirrwiv jJC!J~/DQ) arrIiW8i. fiJJrr8;filUJ~_~ JDDj~UJQ/,-6fJt UJrrm[T8; GJe;rr6'ir JDrrfil midr jD G8 AT IT Q' C!:e fil /D.' aJ IT m tr .!PI. fit) fDI Q' JD ilDAI' Q' rir JD '" Q)T IT Q/8;(!!j e9m,-wtrlB .JI1iW11ll6lJUi/ Gl8'UJuLJ(9(Q)urr@w. fiJQJfiJJrr '" G8'UJuu(j}Gurr@~ (1 ,d)@jLb 6fimw lBafirT Q' ffilD ~wrr tflu!] JJ]JrJJ .,.JjIBIllIT IIJ Lmr(j}. .,fJ,tilil6U ~ iJl j))JLD .JIQ, fiIJ rr(J ,fDJD ITW •

1 Subject + Verb + Object. Object

(Q'8fiJJrrliJ .. aiAl.+Q8'UJuu(9(4)urr®m+QS'wuu(j)(4)urr®fiir)

i)6l1 iU1 f1S)W .$ 6fr &i) v6lilJJ@ Q8' ILlU u(9 (D) U rr (!Jm (jj) 8i rr fiir fiIJ §jI* ~ • fjlw!J)J aj9CTL1I-lIJrrw (Q),UJuu(j)Qurr®ii1 (Direct object) UlJbJD~. wi'f)JD(!p8iwrrw GlS'ILlUU(j)QUIT®6rr (Indirect object) WAlJD(!p8id ~8'UJuu(j}GLJrrC!J'" ~t.fjItflfliJ j9trQ)trW (JQJPJDml.O

fITrirUfIlfI' lJ,U6mtArrw fiJJrr8; IiILlr&JOim • {jJ61Jjbp516&r "®j,Al~

(!JJ;DD6lid;Oi G8'UJuu@Qurr~.rr aOlJ_IJI.UJ~tum.,. i!Q,61Jrr/IJ. G8'llJuu(j}Gurr@6fr ?jbllJrr/D rBAlQfl8im.,,8i GlBrrmr(j) fiJJ®flJJfDI !ill ~d1f1L rr 61J 4iI 6lJm .,; 61J rr 8; $) ILl Li:J • .!PI (j) j, /D 0lJ tt e. 8i) IlJ 61J1iW1!1 ui·.u (jj)8'lLIuu(j)C'durr®6iT GJs;rrmra,_ ~ml.OIL/LD QJrrliilUJr&J8iQf)filTU urrtT8;filajDrrw.

,fTh GlUILl@e.@.;r 8'UlWrrw/PJ.
bring, get, give, leave, offer, send, pass,
take, tell, read, write, teach, buy, sell,
make, fix He gave me a book.

':p/QJ6iI fITet.$@u. 4~ ff,ilj/i:l ~!i/DfT6iI.

off,!Tll UJ.j;@w • iJ~Q8' tr it> flU'" (yJ /D v;61 QJ • et <!:I QJ tt til iD QD fiI) uiit> $p@riJ. Lmt_LD fiI'(!JJ6lJfTtiI UUJ6afl.mfil)651UJ~ GfjfT'-tiJi~ QJ®W.

L - Ill: It is blue.

It was a boy.

There are many books in the library. There was a fire this morning.

I wrote my sister a letter.

[jfTrir fITWfjI ,(J5fTl6rS~@ 5UJ-~W fIT~$I(J65( ••

{iJ~.651&UJ Q1fT.$~UJr5i&6'If1GiJ Indirect Object (!JJ~.a$Hw Direct Object dll665>65(CJUJ G/D fTL iT t6fj1t1:l aleffi6U &rr6'irsl&. UJ65I/Dc!::p&8: Q8'UJUU(ElGUfT®@JLAr to ~6iJfiI)fjI {or (88'rT ~ #j/ @/D.,6IIU L!NsT 611 tr &Gl/ W t (J /60' UJ-# GJ 8' UJ .tbu (pG U tr (fJj 6IDiTT (!jJ fiit WfTfIIflJW 651111 ~fjI fiI'~l6fi1)fTIi:l.

EXERCISE

L - tb ; He gave a book to me.

I wrote a letter to my sister. @p51u4 I (j) buy. fi~. make ... ilUJ fl86"416'1S1&~'-Qsr 'for' (8, ti #, 5 G.,anr (Pw • (T 651 iIIIlLJ 6iiQJ) 611 iii @!jLAr 'to' (JoFifJuJ;fiI)fTw.

1. Complete the following sentences using suitable adjectives in the blanks.

fljJ/D Quw/TmL- ~"'W~1i dWilI(!Jw QJfT#'~1LJ"'5AliTTU ls:J,iT ~~ G8'tiI ••

L - W I I bought a present for Kamala.

He gave a book to me.

I am _

Rose is _

Rama was _

They were _ .•. _ Leela is __ ......

The motor - cycle is __

The weather was _

The mother became .•. _

The sky is _

Leaves are __ -_ My shirt is _ ••• _ ... The doctor was __

She looks _

Her hair is __ ••• Children are _ • __

@!6u4' (ii) describe, explain, return. say

GUfT6iI JD ~fiI) diJAlW&6ir C!::PihG6)it> Cl/J{1'UJ-# QoFlUuu(ElGlUfT®et1:l QfDfTL-"~1iI to ~""filJfjJ for LL-WfTfi)1LJ WAl/DQJJ&# G8'ltJ,tDuepQurr(!j @!jw GU,tD/DIQ/®Ii:l.

L- W: He described the plan to us.

The teacher explained the grammar lesson to the class

He returned the book to me.

2.

Complete· the followlng sentences ustng suitable 'be verbs' in the blanks.

t!idr QJ (fJjIllQfl QJ jJ p51.v 6J Jb ID cf£~a9 mw ~ m Ul /J !Jj/

QJgmtm&AliJIU I,d,rt~j)G8'tfJ5.

The room dark.

The girls ready.

The ground flat.

The boys __ ••. active. Bees _ .•• _ busy. Farmers __ ... rich.

Allrsfiw rum. IV

, it' ~iiJQ)1/I ' there' ... verb + adject or noun 4r5iilGlJ 6JJfTd;ilw 9~tiJ@ .aJAlW6IJ8;@U 4/D~mL-lUfT5* 8'lfilJ QJfT4iiJUJw.6ir • it· ~6iJfilJt!iI • there' fIT",,UJ Q*fT4!(JfilJfTo;

09 0

The team __ ... victorious.

The trees kall.

The workers tired.

The bride __ ... beautiful.

5. Complete the follwing sentences using

suitable verbs In the blanks.

fjJ !b jJJ fiJAlAI UJ9JUl~ 4iI LiwQJ(!§"w Q/ Jbo JDu .. iT ~ $I ~ "iUB.

Fire _

Lions _

Women _

Birds _

Stars _

The lorry _

The young man _ .... __ The river •.... _,

The bell _

The sun _ ~ .•• in the west.

She out.

The passengers _. __ by bus. The bus _ _ _ to a halt. The boys _ •••. _ away.

A crowd of people _ _ _ at the scene of accident,

3. Complete the following sentences using

suitable nouns in tbe blanks. (Do not forget to use the appropriate article with the noun)

fjJ JJ /D GUUJtT eG9''''iI>.9JUl~!5I Liw6lJ(!§QJW ill.tiJm JDu "iT ~ j) GiFUUJS. (GuUJITeG8'fTfiiJaQ)fT@ G!UfT®j/JUlfT" 8'rriT umL-limlLJ "~(Jj~ ~ilJl);;£J'-fT$iT).

1 am __ ._ He (eli __ •.•

My father is _ _ _ Teak is

Alexander was Lodon, is ... __

India is This is _

She became _ _ _ The Himalayas __

Leela is my Jak is __ ._

They appeared _ _ _ Tadpoles become __

Shakespeare was _

4. Complete the following sentences using suitable adverbs or (abverb phrases) in the blanks.

6 Complete the following sentences using suitable objects in the blanks.

'fjJlJ/D G'IUUU@GUfT(!Jw ", .. wj;4i/ QJ,.If)81m."u lJ,iT~iJ G"ius.

Nothing is . _

The Farmers werc .•• _ The officers are _ ... _ The stars are __ ._

Money is .... __

Boys play _

Girls play _. _ .••• '.

She speaks __ . _ well.

We drink L, ••• _ in the evening. He missed _. __ .•

I wrote _ ••• _.

He smokes all the time.

The hunter shot _ ..• _.

He has lost __ .•••

dW$I(lfQ/w Q/.iJm JD fiJ jJ /D ""H;~ UJAL- .6jitJfil) iii 6Ii.~ &1JI ILIm,-~Qth"'-iT G:t:.CP !llTUL/&.

The girl is _

My shirt is _

All the boys are _

His bedroom is_ ......

The car is _

o 10

11 0

13 The servant brought a cup of tea to us in bed.

14. If we offer this job to the secretary. will she accept it?

l5. Psent a birth day card to my pen friend last week.

8. Complete each of the following sentence patterns by filling the bla nks with a suitable noun, verb adverb or adjective.

t!iril aJ ®QJW QJ .tb.a51 WI6ft' {j)m L GI1J.nl",~Ql 41 J/J /D QUiurt <;/imw. ~mWlUmL- ..,flvQ)~ GlUIU{161)'_ .!IImLDJjI/il QJIFIillTr5JiJmfifrU ",rtJj® Gl,rils.

The motor - bycycle .0 ••

The pe on insulted ~._ .•••

My mother is preparing I

We welcomed •

I bought some ...... _.

Shah Jahan built . •

7. Rewrite the following sentences, omitting the prepositions 'to' and 'for', as shown in the example.

t!l65rQJ®,_b 6lJrTci;$lu.Jf'US"""'. 'to' 'for' ~9;)/1JlFrTrtum'_ a;mfifr tf8;~. ILllJrTfTta ~~'" ~rrL..""lUeJfT!!)I ~®I..jl.!l

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6,
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
0 12 L - &b: The headmaster will give a prize to the best boy.

The headmaster will give the best

boy a prize.

She gave a gold watch to her husband on their tenth wedding anniversary.

Can you get a copy of todays 'Times' f or me, please?

The host offered a drink to everybody.

She always tells the latest news to her friends.

Our father promised the money to me •.

Please send the books to me quickly. Have you shown these old photographs to your parents?

Please bring the newspaper to me.

I've lent my bicycle to our neighbour. The Officer refused all leave for his pnen. If you can't tell the truth to everybody, at least tell the truth to me.

A distinguished Old Boy has given a 10. of books to the school library.

. .. _ was .

The . round.

He owes ._-- .. '_-'

Many angry people ... •

The a secret.

That _ .•. - ... _.

The ... _ ... _ .......

The weather the journey ~ __ •

The __ ... has again.

The clerk _ ... _ .•• _ _ a cheque.

Gopal __ .••• - -_.

__ .•• underneath.

___ became •

______ the water. It __ ... __ .•• today.

The house -_._.

... __ 18 .... _ ....

___ consider a failure.

There .

_. _ _ alway calls a nuisance.

______ nobody in the hall.

13 0

· LESSON 3

NEGATIVE SENTI!NCES (trrJjIfUHDJD &lJB'6!JT"'.4r)

(!JJ /JJIiJUJ um.: ~ Ii iiJ /J" UJ QUI ww dlmUJILIUJ (!JJA'I jDfiDUJU

urTli' ~al6f7UJ. 16f71b writ .lDmQJ a..L-A7UIT~@ QI/FAT/'"U;;

(Affirmative sentences) ~tB .. Li UITL-.~. er Ii) ti UJ m JD

QI/FwaiI&W (Negative Sentences) cIIImUJUJIl I6mmUJmllJu

UITtTLjeJUf7til. ILL6ilUtrL.(P QI/F6V~fiiiiJUw6rT "-~UJ'_w 'not" "At jD Gil/F tr .m 61J 8: CI 8'tT Pi t!iI &l1II"'W fir ift It UJal ~ QJ/F QJ1l.Drr <i; 9; "'/f' til. ... LftrUITL.@6i a.tbp51mw ~~tTUJmjD8> en..tbJDIT8>@QJi}fi1I r!JlwlfJ (!JJmJD8ifir 8iQJW~pj!b G!8;rr"''''!bUf761J_.

I. '<=!£@J' ~mwJllfl'IfIw t578i[j), ~jDtBPJ 8jf761Jnit"eL.W ; &I~rrQfIil. am, IS, arc, was, were .,WUiJ'JJJBiiT t!J6iI(Jw not Cllfft 8; &UUL-tlJ.

L-tb: J am a teacher.
I am not a teacher.
He IS f'ooltsh,
He Is not foolish.
They were rich.
They were not rich. 4. I. ..~iJ9m • .t6rT"'QlIT4i !.!iJD i'fimw&fl'IfIrir' JffI&Ii>. @JD/JJ4i

"""''*&@j'-w. 4jlAlmriJ9mw + not + fiBAJQJ18:GiI/Frr.

do does did

Not+ verb

L - Ill: He likes milk.

He does not like milk.

o 14

I like milk.

I do not like milk.

She loved John.

She did not love John.

(YlmJDlUtrw dimwUJmL-UJ QI"'W~&'" ~$JtTUJmjDlUrr8>"u U (p W () U ".~, fiBmATIJUJ-UJLD, &rr6llr6J$rrL.(pw 4iJmmr fiiimATlL/w ~RfI~~6lSfIIUmLDlL/w. not (i)A>fiIJ @rruW,+Jb(§W @AlL...u.iiV ..,mLDUJU> •

@JjU,-/' do, does, did ~~6IJrru.i. ~.. fi'-w

tf£ 8.;) UJ QJ tb A> Jl) UJ .. , fIlmw J6I is [j) 8: iI 8>

.rr"'~filDIDILIUJ QUIT 1J}J/J4i/ ,6ffilDUlIQtb.

(5 """W uITL~mlhu urrtT8>8i)

&. !fjI_fai'IJmwUJtb (heJping verb) t!irrJlIIG dimArUJIlJ (main verb) Ill~W clllAlUJU,-/.9;15fl'1f1iV. Helping verb + not + main verb. ~"' JD (!JJ9> /DdQ> ~mUJlL/tb.

L - th I He is studying here.

He is not studying here.

He will become a poet.

He will not become a poet.

• Never' ~~u.tb ~$IrTIQAlJD @,a5l~@L.b Q"'ITQ>(J",. "DeVer' iJ9A1fW8;@ QP6VQf1rreJ, fDmQ/#Q/FIT6u ~/JJ4i 61Ig& IJrrAT UJ"PJD!JjJW L/IIIT§i l/bu ll..uClIIJITi)d;8&uu(i)w.

L - th: He never smokes.

I have never seen an Eskimo.

My friend has never been to the cinema.

He had never taken liquor before be came to Colombo.

15 0

EXERCISE

LESSON 4,

Turn the following into negative sentences.

d6isT 6lJ (!§QJW ill JiJ m JD er ~ If LD 6'6) JD 6lJ!F ill tSJlIHiI1 rr iii LDrr /J D5.

THE JNTERROGATIVE (~lIlIJr)

I like bananas. Leela is upstairs.

I can drink that water.

You are wearing a pullover. The ship is sailing immediately. The prisoner told the truth.

He insulted the chief.

He wrote a book.

He caught three fish.

That is a viper.

Ram has two sisters.

They won all the prizes. The food smells appetising,

The crowd is expecting the Prime Minister. The town remains quiet.

All will be well

«JilT". ~1lJ "AI.~Q) 6lI@j1b.

1. I/iAl_i'IkfIw QaslTmr(bl GJ6rrLriI@w fllAlrr.

2. fi'liiITrr# Gi>61T6U Q!liIT.~ "UUdli@jt.D fi'liwrr. 3 • .,., /J!!)I L fig 8ia.uI-'u ®!!)J ;;.8 AT rr •

1. t51mfllSTofJmw GaslTmrcP QJ6'LriI(§W tiltwrr

4..L~UIT(bl. iT~';Wfia)p 45l1LJ @@j _5wmLDtajJllu? dlmLD 1lJ1ll. {j)6iJOl!Im. fiBwlT&/Bm 'cfI,d.~ ..-,rlu"'t!iJ '006\)611111' flToitUfII!b6l)jD 6l'j m L UJIT 8i 8; Q iii rr;;iT ~tlJ •

AFFIR MA TIVB QuaST! ()NS (ILL6iitwtc...fjl fifiAlIT) ~9i1 ~rf6r 0 6lJ6I)e;u!i6f) JIm UlIlJU,.

<fJ,@iiiAlw u!ii&r t6J 1Ii!P, @lDthtJj 8I1T.nit 9; ~ '- W ""@jG8A1 .... iT~tIIlTli.J&@ (!JJwarlTlIi QJ(!Jw.

L-:,6: He is a musician.

Is he a musician?

They are brave Arc they brave?

4®6limwaJiillQ)lTtJj t!iJDiliAlw&1iIR ,i ~fJ!i>, @jDj;tJj llirrQ) • • eLi&r I do Jliil>GlJIJiI does ~~GlJtfi/ did + "'~ilJrrllJ

-+ dAlIifT.

L-i.h: He likes music.

Does he like music?

He studied poetry. Did he study poetry?

They go to church.

Do they go to church?

o 16

.f!j/"' .... slirn65T1/1b. t!iUtfJllt 6'8(1)65TUJw"(!J1b dlmUlI148;6;4>IfJ.

fijlQJ 6JIS1 oS m 651 vr ~ ill rr til 8;1§ (!JlW65T rr 6; 611 (!J tD.

L - tb : He is going to write a novel.
Is he going to write a novel?
He will become a doctor.
Will he become a doctor? What happened yesterday? What person made this kite. Whose is that?

Whose book is that?

Which is the way to Jaffnat Which way leads to Jaffna

NEGA TlVE QUESTlONS (.fj)lfwi7IIjD IilAIfr) ~ 8 @(!§QJA)lJIdiV6lOUlU/t1>.

(il BAl6llT6/i"'6IITILIL;.... 'not· vr6itU4i/ 'n' 't· ffT6IIT; Br(!J tfJ8il JC At !!)I .,@aJrr til 8;@ c!:p W 6IIT rr e; 81(1 W.

L - ib : He is a student.

Isn't he a student?

who .,6firu4i/ LUJri'jB",mrdS/w, what OTflWuli ~o~pj"'mr u!JiJJjUJ. which. whose n6firuQ)QJ @ (!J fij. m .... u!J 5Jlj LiI Lu(Jrurr518ilfuu(hltD. what {j)C!5~m_u QUI"ri' (yJ6ist $)Jw diAl ,-..,rr e; ., ® tD.

... - tb: John arrived late

whom, what. which. whose fiTmumQl Gil,g:UJuu(hl';)urr(!§",rrllS ..,tiJfilJt!iI L(!§(JUj) IlJ J116uiV4iJ G"UJuu(hlG;}urr®",m'-UJrrBl 611 (!§ WI L j, fDJ (/6 rrw QJH;5T (Ju urr If Jj IIJ) Q.J !J) "'WI) rr 6IIT 8J or rr 9@t5J8il(JiV(J1U .ltmw UJ tD. ., bDmw sstr 6IJ1 6'86IIT tr 9C!11i1 (§ :-

L - tb: Did you see them?

J! .!II Q/ Ii & "'., U LJ rr If ~ tfJ rr UJ rr?

Whom did you see?

UJrrQ)Uu urrlf~lDrrtil?

What did you patntz

,fiT 6isT iii' $ L I1J- 6IJ1 rr tiJ?

. What picture did you paint? .,6&1 AT UL-W $L....I.f.ATrrtil?

Whose book did you borrow. IUlrC!§Q8L-W 4~ ~S;mAJ~ Q/rrt5Jfii)/DfTli.J 1

when. where. how. why miRuQJtbm /D f!:P1f;6616u t6I(lJA~

QJ!J)OI uuutr AT 9@tiJ&iJ.3W1A .!llOIW UJ W.

@~ Gilu(!§wurr.!JHtD (JU6& ilIbD.ii)(JiIJ LfiIist(hl.

(ii) .f!j/"' .... 68AlAT8;eW• fiT(!I8IrrtU.$~" tSlwartf not 6lI®t1I. L - tb: He is a student.

Is he not a student?

s, Questions Starting with Interrogative Words.

(..8",rr6 (ij)"rr'PJIIS"'6rT (yJjlJ6IJrr &6; (ij)&IT6iw(b)QI(!tLO .8. R'8;Bl"')

who. what, which ~Q)ilJliI whose vrritUDmSll n@",lTlUrrBl .!I/.6IJ~ ~@Qlrrtil 81AlL-I)ITBI ~AlLG&lU~ugw f!861J1rr4JBlfiT "1r~rrumr8i on./)l!)Ju (Jurrw(J/D .JI4IDwlLJtb. what. which. whose "",8ilUJ"''' I6A11wrrBl(J.,,,. GUUJIf; Q"rrR5JljL-6it (J~IfJj(Jl6rr ilI~Lb.

n6S'ru6/1 ,g:rr ~IT U.".UJrrar 6ia.jJlJ.

{jJ4iI who arrived late? ~QII 6'8Q11IT ill Lf,iS6i> ..,mwUJUJ.

fj)JiJlfiJ who .,Qiu~ ~(!£1DJ".til arrived uUJ6lIfImil1.

Which is ecrreet) fiTWUfJ6u Which f7@.,rrliJ.

Which is answer is correct! ~wui). Which ""JD «JQllrr# Gil~rrQ) answer fiTw$lIdI (ij)U"'{T8;~ .!I/m'-UJrrfiJD4iI.

L - Ill: Did you go?

Where did you go?

Are you going?

Where are you going?

Is he angry' Why is he angry?

DId you see the film?

When did you see the film?

(!JJQII pru rrQII fIIlAl QII UJ rn UJ ~ /6 QJ rr 8; fii) ru t5i .. 6lf1 Q) :

(.6IJ ._._Aturrt.:.(!;I.t lIiLtbIBw @!DI/juJ. &IJ_rr j Q/6rrl-(§Ii, ~Qjofi6ISTrr.aiir ~mUJu4 I

HeJping Verb + Dot + Subject

I!_ - til: He works hard, Doesn't he?

(..a) ~~tfuHi5)jDlo en.JfJpj6ft 00 /DI $1 d "" ifi_rrj,

Q~rrL(!!JLb. (j)tiJ6'II6ISTrrdliiT ~i;"UJu4 I

Helpiag verb + Subject

L - Ih: He did not lose his temper. did he'l

He does not work hard, does he? They did not win the match, did they?

EXERCISE

3. Tag Questions ( ... ;bmjDlJ~~/6 (§O"Wft )

1,"~rrr:rfifRII lAP" (!JJUl-Qifiu @l!JfiB"rrSlQJj, .Q~,,(!;Iuu~ QifiOT rrill Lb (!JJ m ,lDuJ iu 9. fDI. &i) iii (JU8= 0;. QJ IPS; 5l6i) Qt.J(!§W urr ~w Al8iUJrriYTuU(!;Iw.

@v.iJfiBiiGTrr QJ6llI5 u!iJ.u lIiLJiJ If)I ,,_'-~ urr '- rr aJar fiB_rr er fjd' W6llI ,lDuJ ~ tb • lIiL Jb I!)J er iii It UJfiI) ,fuJIT aJ 6isr ili ifI rr ,,_,-w wr L. L1J-,sllw .. rnUJQJ6I)~,j flJQ/w~iiI;b Q8irrwir8i.

"",~66<mw aJIiIr t6J 8i J), (j) ID ~!Mlj(r., Q/lIJ- Qls.seL6o r

(~) I1.L6isrurrL..(!;Is; &.;hIB.v i)lJIjld. ~jlrtlJ)fiIf)JD5I1ATrr~ QllrrL@w. (j)6iJofifiOTrrwliar VllUl-fl)IW.

Verb + not + Subject

njlrtlAfiIf)jD ~IB8;@Lb 'Bot' nWJD QlFrr~ n'C nAT&-

(!I!jJOlfa /DJiJu(J/B QJ!:p8;e·

L - tb: You are late, aren't you?

Jane is clever, isn't she?

He was famous at the time, wasnrt he?

Turn the following sentences into questions, t!lfip QJ ~QJ fi6T QJ JDAJ P iliw rr 8; 5. '" rr & wrr IJ" & •

Verb .. Subject

L - fA ; You are no' late, are you?

Jane is not clever, is she?

He was not famous at that time, was he?

He was ou •. They saw me. I like fish.

l'he river runs fast.

He must see a doctor. The car seemed new. The dog became angry.

The village collected ten thousand rupees. The baby cried all morning

Some fruits are ripe.

The car is here.

They lost the match.

The bullet missed the target. Gopal prefers cigarettes to cigars. The snake hid under a rock.

The hunter shot a deer,

The bouse has many rooms.

f.fl,) ~~tfUlAJ!D8: -..P;f)Git @1!J~:j!i. '_I-QJru"L..@ Qi .. rrp; Q,45"LQ!jW. {j}iiJQiwrrQi. IIIl1J-QJa.

LESSON 5

THE VERB: TENSE (m16l»6lJr: &lr6UW)

QJ tr 8; £ii) u W , et (!JlQJ" tiJ U IlJAfl rn'l) ~£ii) ILl i)(!J U@j/i)&fimW ILAlLtu~ fiTrilum. (!Jl~jllLl U"LtiJSlfi'lR;,i) u,,~;; (Jlhrrw. "'-f,tiJi)Q) IAJ"~ ~ PJ jJl)fMW UlUmJAl.u.iW (!JJ8;fi/ IU 8ft.D fiiR mw ;Q"rrffu . er (!Jlfl1Jrr u!Mr fiT. , @Lt.D QP/i" rrWQJ /)!!)IS; ~ Ilt 6I1rnw {i1 s;~; il 8; Sl'TfiIJ~4iI8;@W {f}'Jbu iBmw.l Q",,,,,, .&IrnlJJllIu9Lj,1i/ ..,~rn_u ulUAi1m6lJ miir fiJ(J "".t1J. fifl..,w UIJ WI ill'" IUrr@jWlTpAl/D j, Gil /0 f>1f/ QJrrl!i ~p57u;~ Q5/TIiiirQJ4i/ Glw/TbOmIU QPLl1J-wp51Si ..,5IUIT", QJ bO QJ@j8;@jW. ~rKJfi/Q);;®~ iBm ... !#Sl!iJ;9'15@jrfllU. 8JrrQJW (!JJ;;~,I)u u"a. ~651QJ. Present Tense (ti1&~arrAw); Past Tense ({j/Dt61h &/Taw); Future Tense (fiT j1~./Tf1Iu,). @rnQJ 9w(D)QJ/TAr!!)lw Simple, Continuous, Perfect. Perf ect Continuous or.. ~6iar(1)u IJ/Tio IAJrnSlI,J/T& QJ~S;Sluu(9W. C @uu,,@urr(p ~tfJ;jIJJ au;. QJ[,D8iilill .... L.rTu.i~tll, @",.5&" JD!TQ)l!iiJl1.v QJrn(TtuDdisSi A/DuuL.fIII6iJrnQ). 01 Ar6lJQJw .R..II/T U mr .&It..:. L.QJAl AIr 6I1rnw dar 8JrrQ)u U/T@WrL...filDLUJLD, ~ifjLdililtl:J ,aJ..,WU;4i/"QJw IDwmw a!ifllHiW UJ tb Gl /06JlQI" .t~ tb • )

., ~ u u ..... -

- - - -.

- .... -

t':S

o t':S .... U ....

- --

fI) =' o

::s ...

. 9 0 ... ~ g ~

u&!

-

-

.-

~

-

Z i o Q,. rn

all

If

Q Z o U ~ CIl

~ u

-

- = w

- w

..

Q,.

eo c:l c:l

u·_

.8~

.-

..

"0"0 as

.CI

::s

o

~

II) ::s o ::s

...... 5 0'"

~c:l ~ 0 vU P-4

as

S

Obi)

~.9

,o~

CI

., ....

tIS .... ,.CI"'O

II) ::s o ::s CI

.... -

o CI

~O

J!U

- ...

• Q.,

CI ~

0._

VoW ,oc::l

0'': >"'0

=

,.CI

~

CI bI) II) CI 0'-

,0 oW CI

. ...

"'0 .... as "'0 .CI

IIC o CIV

II) bI) ,oC

.-

o.w

> Q as'-

.a,a

o

~

II) ::s o ::s Q

....

- -

o Q

o 0

~U

~

CI

CD bI) o CI ,0 ._

~ o Q

>.tIS .... ,.CI"'O

CI

o bI)

o CI ,0 .-

,.!od

0.9

> .... tIS "'0 ..CI

8)

0. 8

.-

lOll

as o

-

as o

-

II)

II) ::s

::s 0

o ::s

g ...... 9

.... 0 0 ....

.... 0 ~ CI CI c;:: .... 0

8 ~ ~u

@)!!llUlj' (i) t§l8J,p 8J"filJ~iJQJ 8J"filJtiJ iR"t.:@1b ~6'b6ffl.arnar uLiT.imm 9C!9rnLDuJJ.v L.Ot.:(blw GQlllJIu(blw. {Trnm UJrnQl • 6TGVQ) IT I.D do 6Tri7!D IPAl~ofi rnw rnlJ8i GlQiITlM(bl t51;b«!?w. {ji5/ tLLWum.':"@ alIT 8i€il1Ll ft; jlGV Qarilf1uuL..@ JC jJu j)liHi8fi1}.

(Ii) r61§,pQifrfilJU ULlt8i6m8J 9 ® rn LD u5J "'~

a.L6irUITt.:<P QHF6'I1I~L.O"6iT ~GV ofirnw';:G!,"", fjJQ)i1ujviJ s. es ~~Ihl a,rt8;8JU~Ug)/W·.

(iii) Q'~rTLDfi4)fD. QJDfI" ~~UJ 6I.I"8i€ltILlSI1i6'1l1.v

does ulUri7U(blft;~uu(£w.

._-cb: Affirmative:

She writes stories

Negative:

She does not write stories Does she write stories?

t.SMt6l.l(!5w QJ"IiJUU"~AlL c!JIQI~ITAflll./riJl1itiir. He

She

Rajah The car

He

She Rajah The car

Does

I You We They

makes

a big noise

does not

make

a big noise ..

he she

the car

make

a big noise?

make, a big noise.

I
You do not make a big noise
We
They
I
you
Do we make a big noise?
they [;ID!D§~ 8J"fII)~-m~cF c!rL(blLll did IT" JD ~m_08mw 6TQ;.,,,. ..,_ .. @&-1iI8JCS8;I!iW Gi!U"4iJQJ"A14j1.

1 You He We They

did n01l

make

noise.

~'II)(im.am61S1 U.tb,a5l1L1 686fT 8; l1J ~ 'ill fbU L51 riJ QI(Jw tIIr(!5".

QJ"liJuunL.-IIJ.Q) ",,_8;8JIilJITW.

I

I
You
We
They
He}
She
Ie
I I
You
We
Tiley have

am

did

You We They'

He She It

are

did

is

oS have

I You We They

do

He I
She does You
It We
They had
He
~ She
It
~Q/~~dr 68i1fQJITAr Q/IT tUUurr(9SiAJfirTU t!i Jt CJ*" .j fill sid"
IIrrfliiilrlB. LESSON 6

HOW TO USB THE TENSES ( .sIT 6l) nil oS dlJUIT U U w filir u CE t!.§J In IT ./PI )

1. The present Simple Tense. (rC.Jj)(I;IT.vw)

( "") Q/ LP fIfIIUJ UJ IT IB • 9~tiJ SilT s • .., l1J.5 sl1J. rC IB ~c1J iF WU QJ til aOl6JT5 fi!!J~uulD;b@.

!'_ - tb » I always get up at :-; a. m.

Most of the Hindus go to the temple on Fridays.

Very often he loses his temper.

(",,) QUITa LmrrnUJ8jAlCJr8; @~UU/Dj)~.

L - Ill: The aeroplane travels faster than the train.

The sun sets in the west. Children like sweets.

(@) /6,,'_QUJD!J)I5GSITfiirlUJ.(!!J5@W ~(!!J GiFllJ~W ufli)(JQ/D

8jL_I....t51l'rnfifl ~ G/Drrl....tf~§J QJ6JT8;@/D;D@ 8/&v6IJtJi!

68utfl~I6JD(o!!j.

L - tb: I place the test tube over the flame and the liquid at once rests.

John passes the ball to Jennings.

Jennings shoots and the

goalkeeper leaps for it.

Yes, it's a goal:

a, - il:J: He is studying English at the

Foreign Languages Bureau.

He doesn't normally hurry, but he is hurrying now.

The child doesn't usually cry, but it IS crying flOW.

She does not often siag. but she is singing now.

I don't usually get angry, but I am getting angry /lOW.

They do not normally quarrel, but they are quarrelling now.

He does not falter in speaking, but now he is faltering.

2. The Present Continuous Tense. (~8;!i<i:fRj GJlITL-tTBirt.,tb)

(8/) GutTrulJufTtpJ {BmL-(jj)u!J)J1lJ lI'UUi1IffiOfJIb,$ (f!jnJ.uu~,rD@.

• - tb : Look; I am standing on my head.

Don't go out now. It's raining.

She is doing the home work, don't disturb her.

(,tJ,) GuarLii GfDU(!P1lJ Il..L.UL.. rpjJl)luL5!L_L 8;1T61JUU(f!jg;u!Uo (jj)~ITLriWtJjl fDmLGUif)Jw 8'WU6lJj,m~,$ (f!j,nJ.UUjij,rDg§,

We are staying at the flats now Are you writing a novel?

3. The simple Past Tense. (i"!i>~ !51T"'cb)

(dII) 8;LW~f3UfTW 8;1T6I'i>f8rJ61J. fjI® ~.DJuL5JL_L 8;1161)

BiL.Lj,iJiiV fJmL-Qu,rD/D cPtbUOlJ~6lJ).lb8; @!Buu/btD't!).

OJarOlJ@W 1L1b1T{16m'UJ pj)6U:d6lJfTW ~$lJw Present Simple, Present Continuous oollmr@LiJ um8;ruIT."UUL.@.;(rww. .!9Ifi5HiIJ lL6m'tT~jl JffItD~1lJ 8I1TQ) GOlJ!J)JUfTL..l.!J-~wj, (jj)~fi'If18;.

L - &6: He left yesterday.

1 received two letters from home last Tuesday,

A t the meeting I recognized him from his speech.

C..a) BiL-j'4ilJUfTfi1l1 8;1T1OIJ~fiil(JiIJ. 9® (8jn9uL5!~L 8iITIOIJU

u(§ju!iffu GlJlj"LtT!h/Jil @L-wGU,tDjD !D8i!p~~mru,$

@p5}j,Jlj!D@.

(00) orji)tT8HTilJj,Di1 Il..jIJJlj8'<i: (Q)8'rumroua; ®pJlUU/D,!b@.

IlL - tb : He is going to Singapore next month.

Is Jones coming tonight?

He is staying here till next week.

We don't always work hard, but we are working hard now,

He doesn't usually make noise, but he is making noise now.

She doesn't often laugh, but she is laughing now.

L - I.b: I was in Zambia during the last summer.

I heard hammering in' the smithy all day long.

The British ruled Ceylon for nearly 200 years.

4. The Past Continuous Tense. (@jDU4~ GlpjrrLrt &rraJLb)

(c:fI) @/DJjpj "rrfilJ~@.. 9@ 6'WUQJW Jt!SJf)J.,,!JJD ~(J1i

(JQJmwui6i) @,-wGu/J/D "j;f)CJp;rrrt Jff/Si!p8:~mlU8;

@ipS!;$fD JD@.

L - ID: I was doing my English home work when you telephoned.

The idea came to me while I was driving home.

When I saw him last. be was working in a firm.

(~) @JDtBm "TTQJ~~ffu ®L..u'(;lu!JjDmrru9~w. ~"!p"TTQJ6:

~[j)rf)m6IJu..f,-riT (J fb U ~ ~ G/DTTL...tT4 CMliirr~L-'

6'UUaJl-fI1J/DU 4filJUU~~~QJ/D,!b~.

L - d>: (il John bas come.

( IE /tuurr iF ,!b /!)J (jJJ iii1 «J iF tr rfI,Jj Ii am TT 65r OOL,,(~ U TT " ~L..~Q) o...,."rr';- _ fii(fjwL9wTTQJ iF~~&aQJ1rw. 6165r /D QUTT®WU'- !C,!bu8.}

(ii) She has worked in India.

G!U®WUTT j1J1w a.mUIUTT L...QJs;fiff1 ~/JLlJ U aJriru(El~p;uu(ElQ/ /91- @iliI '_~mLlJu!HQ) @1D~/D5n Q) Jff/Si!p8:~6III1U8; @pj)lioS(JQI UlUrirU(El~~UU@QJ/Pl. ",-Ji;!fJ ~fTfII)ffi€96iJ f!jt_~fj !lSi[j)#RmlU @JDliim "fT61)~@6IfITTQ) (Past Simple) 4filluu(EljP;filJTTW. Past Simple UUJriru(El~fDuu(Eltl'Jurr§jl {Cs;Jj)#R @,-wGluj)jD (JI5Uw ~6vfiU§jI GlUfT(!ll~ BrL.,-uu@liljDjp. Present Perfect e!:Pfil)I!Pr1:J @1D!ii!fJSiIT.olJ r51s;y>#~mlUu 461)uu{jjl~fhfil)lTw. @,!fJm6ll7u UIUOrU(El,j/9lW aurr!91 iFWUQJr1:J IIL-Pifj (Jj6rTW

&L.L...UU@olJ~6vfi8fil). tiwo;u®w ILmU/JJrrL...mQJ~ s;QJ6'ilu

(Jurrw.

(@u(JurrJJ/ .",QJ6ir @th~lUrrdlQ) uMIIUJrr .bJ!)fifiillfif)i'J).

.!2!, 6Il7 ,,,,b {i; tB ~ IUTT61I1 QJuu,tiJ;DI ~ m JD UJ 6:' G ,,," 6v if

C!:P4-Ufw., ~QrJD QtJrr(!!Jw//Jti~ tDjiJU§jI.,

The Past Perfect Tense. (@pu4 ~mJDQf8; s;rrQlw)

IS, The Present perfect Tense. (Jff/s;iPat J51mJ!)t4f$ &TTfillW)

Ci) jDj,fi "rr61) ffi jp /De; /iJ Jb ~ @@iFliJUilJI6I1JimW 8; ~ p51e. ® t6I

&rr 61)61) ~ IiJ fiB {J W;r UJ.,j))J m ~ t1J (!JJ j $I IU ii4) fj 5 @i ~ 8; ff>8; AlSiIlJ TT au u

a@Lb.

,.

( .!II) A: May I see the manager. please?

B : Sorry. he has gone out. A : When did he leave?

B : He left at 10. 30.

L - w; The train had left when J went to the station.

She told me she had bought a new car.

The patient had died before the doctor arrived.

@w ~ tb t51G5T 6l1@Lb 6' Ii //Jd UUl5Uni'rfl j)llw Iil ~ UIUAr u(El~!fJuu(SlLb.

The Future Tense (fTjd&rrliVu,)

Sbe has learnt dancing since childhood.

"rrlJjrrUfllRlfLlJrrl.l fTjrt&lTfiI)~m~u 4StJuu@ffi~ilJP;!J~ ~.mUl (J /lJ rr@ s ba II (ljlfiiT fi'4f161I1fi1J, U ,-It 8; ftI& (J UJ{T@ will 6III6./lJ TT 6r1 U U (El ill /91

QJ/:p6,&w. shall, will t51crall.JlTs;j,~.:o UfiIJ ~~4s;tSJ&6ir

ILmr,-I1u!iW/w ~mOll {jJu(JurrAl,!fJ8;@j aiIJmrUJ.lLJjfiiJ~1f6l).

//JAr fi5) u). (!JJfiiT fi'4f1 S'5)'" • U L It oS m 1.1 c!2t, IiilIU &J fii u: ~ ~ tb et Hi'" &1T1iVp,mfj8; ~pj)oS!B will t.!ifla/lJrrfiJuu~ @m IJ)I Gu@tbUIT~ mLD QJ IJ)ii I.Irr fii'i L_ L...lJIo

(-ti' @JDlip; SirrfilJj,~w ~". s;L-t_diffjlrJliV GtJ, TTL...lilfiJ

r51s;Ii>S;IT61)W QJmu GI/Jrr'-It PiUil @LtbGlu.tbDQlJi~

GLf'lLIm6l)8; @p51uu~jiJ@

We shall return before dart.

When shall I sec you You will help me in They will not (won't) A week's holiday will

again? difficulty. find it easy. do you good.

EXERCISE

J. la each of the following sentences, use the verb iD brackets, in the third person singular. present simple. ~6I)'_U~6U Il..';'w G!I'rr p.i8W JiJ-!i> a(JQ)/i~Q) ... ..,()urrsM •• r

Tom often (catcb) fish In this stream.

A saint always (pray) for others .. Whenever Mary (mid the Ingredients for a

pudding, she uses a wooden spoon.

A good man always (seize) an opportunity to belp others.

A man with a bad cold usually (cough) and (sneeze).

Every evening. when mother does the washing up, father (dry) the dishes.

A good teacher (wish) to help his students. Time (pass) alowly when you have nothing to do.

In many factories, work (begin) at eight

O' clock.

Tile earth rrevolve) on its axl •. Everyone (die) one day.

Rani: Rajah is on the phone : he ("ish)' to speek to' you.

Today's Daily News (inform) us that there is an outbreak of cholera in Colombo,

The length of one side of a square (equal. tbe length of any other siee of the square.

A man who (lie) is not to be trusted. Ask Tom, he (know) tbe answer to your question.

2. Use the verb in the brackets. ill. the present continuous form in the followiDg sentences,

..,fllltL.ut!iffu Larfiff iIJ_fiflamfiIT J/ils;Jj)eit Q~",_It"",Q):$~Q) LUCJtlJrr~8;8i!

You're (hinder) me, please move over. Rani js rfry] some eggs for:,:us'

Tom is Estop, a little because he is tired. In telling this story, I m (omit) some details. Good news: The boss is (double) our

salaries:

When are you (come) to see us?

I hope you are not (incur) any more debts. I am (place) you next to Mary at lunch. The Robin is (bop) about on the window

sill·

I am not (compel, you to do It.

Which teams are (play) there next weekr Why are you (rub) your cheek like tbat? I am (dream) of a long holiday,

What is that song you (hum) i

The management is (offer) a ten per cent increase.

fl. Use the -going to' form for the senteneesvgiven below.

Ul rn- 011 (!§ Q/W ill rlb,a51 ail L GYr_ "~illT a; ~$ (§U u fj) QJ " •

<going to~ i>1i6lJtWQJl!I--~QI LuG&JIT&iI<!i&.:

It will rain soon.

I will rebuke him sharply. I shan't be very long.

Will you see your uncle soon' Wbat will happen tomorrows . A change will be made.

This will certainly be a surprise for YOUc Nothing will go wrong.

What are you doing tomorrow?

When is Mr. Gopu leaving for London?

I'm sorry you can't see her. She (sleep) stillvShe usually (wake) much earlier.

Rani still (do) her homework. Her sister, who always (work) -quicker, (play) already in the garden.

These builders generally (build) very rapidly.

They (work) at present on two separate contracts.

What (do) you at this moment?' If you not (do» anything, please help me.

. John, who (study) medicine at. present, hopes to go abroad after graduating.

4. Put the verbs in brackets. into the correct Present Tense, Continuous or Simple,

""mL-u~iiI a.Gir." QlAlWfBmfil1. GUfT®ealJasjbu ~811P Bi"Q)~§j,.@ .!Ilr.1;fiI)4iI rilq;1P':QI~fTL-rtBi"Q)~~8;~ LDrrj>!!)J8i.

Buses usually (run) along this street, but today they (not run) because it is repair.

She usually (sit) at the back of tbe class, but today she (sit) in the front row.

I rarely (carry I an umbrella, but I (carry) one now because it is raining.

We nearly always (spend) our holidays in Kandy- but this year we [go) to N uwara EUya.

Mr. Jones usually (sell) only newspapers. but this week he (sell) magazines as well.

6. Pu t the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Simple.

~ ~L- LJL51 iW GYr on ill r;m m' 5 :D'J"'iT )J !lim." @,/DUI../ • JC a; Jj)5fTfIlJ P;

fiJ .tb @j UJ tr ;h!f)l8i •

After Rajah <take) a good lunch. be felt sleepy.

I (scarcely, go) to bed when the phone rang-

As I (not have) a meal for twelve hours, I felt hungry.

I (only just, sit) down when an inspector asked me to show him my ticket.

Until that day I (never. see) a hippoptamus. After he (hear) the sentence. the prisoner fainted

He started to laugh before I (have) time to tell him half the joke.

It was a good joke that he (bear) before.

After the Doctor (give) me an injection. the pain became much less.

Tom told me that I (choose) to represent our class.

I rbardly, begin) my wade when in came the Professor.

It was only long afeer I (hear) his story that J realized it was a joke.

After I (finish) my work, I went to bed. I thanked him and told him I (already, have) lunch.

After I (drink) a glass of water. I felt less thirsty.

e. Change the verb in brackets into the suitable tense.

JIImLLIl!JJWw~ iii A>fiDT#G",fI' iJlIiA)~ er JbID 5trQ)~j)pr!§

LDfI' Jb!J)J5. .

Yesterday evening a little mouse (creep) out of his hole; when he (reach) the middle of the room be (sit) up on tbe floor in front of me. He was shivering and miserable. I (take) pity on him and (give] him some warm milk with whisky in it. After he (drink) this. he (begin) to clean his whiskers. He (do) tbis for a couple of minutes when he Chiccougb). After he (hlccoughj for a considerable time. our cat Blackie (come in. The mouse tnot run) away. He (put} up his paws and (challenge. Blackie to fight him. Blackie (look) at him in astonishment, for he (never, bear) of a mouse daring a cat to fight him. The mouse, after he (look) at him scornfully for a few seconds, slowly (go) into his bole.

7. Supply the Simple Past Tense in place of the verbs in bracket •.

..,A>LLllj Q) ILW ifF iliAtilll A> ILl [j) ID Ii IJ iii IT flO ~ ff) JJ r!§ UJ tr Jb!J)J5 •

The water in the pond (freeze) last night. They (get back) very late last night.

I (have) a letter from my wife last week. Last month the cost of living (rise) to a new high point.

Last week the government ( introduce) new legislation.

Yesterday afternoon the police (catch) a thief in the High Street.

He (ring) me up just now.

It is exactly five years ago today that we tget) married

I (see) the bus pass a few minutes ago. While he was reading in his study, his wife (call) to him to come:

As soon as he had opened the door this dog (rush) out to greet him

He had left before we (have} time to warn him of the danger.

The thief had escaped before he' (come) into tbe room.

They (not visit) us after we had quarrelled. When you last (see) your father?

8. Supply the correct - Tense Past Continuous or Past Simple in place of the verb. in brackets.

JllAlLLU!lffu LtlI., ~8JAlQ)fUll QUfl'~e~ (gj f1 /Ju, OO"jJj

I (wash) my hands when the telephone (ring) •

She I sit) at the table when the children (come) home.

What you (do) when I, knocked at the door?

'Nalini was sewing while Gopal (mend) the radio .. '

They (study) the same exercise all last week as they were studying this morning.

She broke down when she (hear) the news, The children ran away when they (see) the policeman.

The bus crashed and some of the passengers (get) hurt.

She (look) for her pen when she discovered she (have) it in her handbag all the time. I (try) to ring you up all yesterday but

your telephone wasn't working,

The bus crashed while the driver (look) the other way;

Why did you talk to that' man while I (wait) all the time?

She already (lie) in hospital when her husband heard of the accident.

I was thinking about the problem all night. but I never (find) the answer.

The aeroplane already (fly) very low when I caught sight of it.

Did your see Mr. Jones in the theatre last night'! He (sin in the third row.

Her aunt died while she (spend) her

hol id avs in Italy.

They all I have) breakfast when I got up.

a;rr6lJj;/p;&@ ~iU",. ~JDU4j; G/DrrL-tT &rr6lJj;fjJ8;@

Ill" !D/J)J5.

9. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense

Past Simple or past perfect. .. .

"'fiIl)t_uL'j~ ;,y,1irI' 'iil'i1·,!)rn 50 .1J)~"(j GWT@e 1;(]5O J!JLI @lD!!i~

.rr"'j;~j,(§ ~Q'GU~ ~/D04 rfiliial.fJ6IJ8; .rr(illj,~Ii;,§ IllrT,f}!f)J'"

When he (Ieavc) already, be rrealize he (f orget) his purse

She (hurst) into tears the moment he (shut) the door.

His finger (begin) to bleed as soon as he r c u t) hi m set f.

He (lose) his Dew knife shortly after be (buy) it.

He (begin) to read as soon as he (find) the place in his book.

The fire (ourn i for three hours when the

firemen ani ved , ~

It already (rain) for half an hour when we r step , out into the street.

The patient (die already by the time the doctor (arrive).

When John enter) the room the thief already (escape)

When we (get) home, night already .fall) ,

Until he (e)lplain), the students

(Got understand.

Until the aeroplane (take off'), we (can) not hear oursel \ es speak.

41.

LESSON 7

~t£!fi1 ~ arrQ)T6J91fTL..1j)1lI(;fJ1' @Oll)t_ ~0lD6IJ -.;'*. ~ ,M~Q)jS~ • 1TQ)T6J§rrL..(JU5!b-;;Jg,mfDI g,~#~gtTJi>'/;'" Lmr!). ~iiIJI.aJ 4i/-atr ~iIAf,l114.rr fiTlillluu(££il. @~9ilommt.n.-mA1a," U.~!DUIJ~Ib.

am, was, were. beener,"'uOl ~@&'GGf"uS" 68&JburiUI>6Yr • .If£@1j ofJ;;m QT (yJ Or!f)J QJ m Bi L U (] UJ tt Bi (!JJ 100, L.. UJ ~ •

1. Do

~~er sI1"JiJu~"fM'rrral1J Does, did 6ToBrUm6ll er ~tt lDm !D u!J iJ1I tD 6U "' rr w;a9 iJJl tD a rr fiI)';;JiT. IT L~ !b Ji> (!!J U U UJ fiir u(i)1g,fhULJ(£W. Lt_IiW'LJnLlf.1ii.J ~om., Q;j}J""'Uu~(9 t61 !b LJ $I Ql fIf)",.

(i) G~rrt_rtBirr",'b (CQIltinoUI tense' ,.rrL..(blfll~,tB~ UIL"U'9ih!bGu~Lb.

L - tb': I eat. I do not eat. Do I eat?

QirR .. uITW ILjDITumr lQlrr liJuurrL.@i.(§ t!1/) 0,1'; alilD. 2 8Ju un If &81.

L -Ii: I am reading a " novel.

He is working in the garden. Tbey were listening to the radio.

(ii) GlFUJuurrL..(fj68mar QJIT8iraUJriJailfl.frJ LUaUJIT~&&U

u(91i •

do ~"'fimO{if;m",(J1U UJQI pJ '(M.tiJ- @ ·{j)UJJbg· fiT"' jD Qurr(!!J.JII ~ (!JJ1iID jDUIT., ~ .5,WUJIT Siilflil UUJQr u@tb. t!1erQl(!!Jib 11.§JITUAIII J.1iID /hU UfT \:)t5Iaiir.

He does the work well.

He does not do the work well. Does he do the work well)

L - e : This picture was painted by my sister.

The window was broken.

The old clothes were thrown away

cY'fljQ; 6lJrr8;~I1JJ,fj)'" 'Does' fi1'siru~ ·G,IiJi!PJfT.~ .,~ JD GUIT@Qr I1.liIDt_lU$JrrfiJ fYJlilDJDUJlTfillI' ~ .. _ UJIT 8iU UlJiiJI UL.(j} tP ;b $I [J) /Jj/. (j) U Oar '-IT 611. tiVlT. 5IUJ~fiNIJ Lib." 'does' fiTAlulJ ULIf ii ilD/B pjt(!!JlilDtD !C~Y>&ITfiI)j aJ#I& BlI1L..(~'lth ~fi4hW .{jiflQ6. ·do' .,iiJlul/il '(d,u" fiTliisr JD Cdurr(!!J.rrJ ~ 611 j.§j ulJAflil'lfil)6: G,1T6lI. il~ ou tr (J .fD L!U5T 0lJ (!!J 611 0i1S1 QJ jJ iiD)lJ fL/ tb ~ ill Jj IT AH III t5J 8Uir •

We do not do our exercise at home.

They did not do the sum

correctly.

(iii) GUUJ!HDL..GUJrrr&l ~~'6IJ. GUlUlti till1lT;\)G6IJIT(i

Gl1ft Jb4il uUJ rn'/mfiVrurrSi ..,omUlII./.b.

t... - w; Gopa 1 is lazy.

Honey is sweet.

Mv sister is a teacher. T bey are farmers.

• Have

(i) !C60U"I ~m /DQJ8; BilTfN jm §jA; 8i1T L.,t_U uUJwu(Jjl /'$rl u~tl;. (L/jrrUA1flj,fIjI8; ~ tErbg,rr1.b urrL../JIiID.u unri';;Si)

(il) .,iu5QlAlC:lIJrr~ (infinitive) a/FrT p tijI 8if-uunL..(9

""'I\~J.IIJ a ... ri~~1,j U/l..AL(S~~ul.J~ib.

L - W: He has to look after his sister.

I had to stop at Anuradhapura on my way to Jaffna.

He had to wear eye glasses, because his eyesight was w~ eke

You have to study more carefully.

t51 ~ 6lJ?9 W 6lJ tr 8; ~ lUi! g; ~ i $) Q5) L. (J IJJ G u rr(!5 &it (J OIl !!J

U IT L.. fiISH_ 8; In 0lJ 6"a/l 9; !Ii.

L - Lb: He had his hair cut.

He had cut his hair.

(iii) 9~ In(fT)UJg 6lOffi 9:", 6lJrt , ffiITW G!FtiJllJfT!p. CJJD""(T~

(i;)lnlTmrrE> Ge tin'jd",jb'olO6l)u L.jQ)uu(blp'IJU (t!ijD.a.w

(JUfTliiiJIg)l) UILJ~ u@!btbUU(blllJ.

C!P/hjllJ 6lJl1fi1f1W (!JJt.q.6lO1lJ Gl6lJL...(jjJ08 j;tJjITW 6T~ wtb QUrT(l!J6lO." 1L,,1I)L.UJ4jI. t.9£i;j1UJ QJ!Ffilflt.b l!J~yUl-"iWUJJ; 1h,,(Jollf GOllL..t.q.8; GI,g;IT~L-"IOi.T fiT"~ /D GlUrT(l!J6lO1iYF QAiISlL.UJtpJ. 3)IJ6lW'-rT6lJS!t1 6lJ!F~j,ji\) past perfect tense uUJ4isTu@~/bU/JL...(jjJ,,"611 J;J.

L • tb: I had my car cleaned.

"'" I!iJ 9il6U 6lJ rr .4 9ilu ffi ~ ~ GI !F IT ~ 9(!jl 'fJ ,~ u911> (!p 8; ~a.J ILl fT 8i 8, In 6'v wI 8;.$ U U L. G 611 'iiIi1rr (j) t.b et ~ U 051 16 r.i) 1M IL ff> IT U 6fIS1 III fii'lJ tOO' UJ !J)J d", fil r/JI JiJ 9i) JD $5'. @ ffi ff> 651 In IU ~JDih)u GUfT(l!Jmiili8; InrTl:"(JjJIh!D.''Ij 'have' fiTfiilru~!D@U uj.iIJ(J8J get fiT.-lSI/D Gl!FlTvivOlDoUUJW UlLJiiJlU(jjJj;IJ"',TW.

/6fTW (®",(;'~T(l!J6lJOlJI!T8; Gg;76lW~) (JwrrL..L-trtt QJ '*' UpiW ILJ j; g)I;>ID '- U t!i;$ G Ih ~ fiT.1fT U '!J/ Q u tr ~ ;;,. @ .. 1h651l1>UJ QJl1QJ1 ffiJa.I>If1.,v Gl!Frrifu ~(!jl ~'@ subject + have + object + past participle fiTW.!D 9~nbil~ .Ji651wUJw. G.liiJl/LiJ 8'l"\llLtbrr{l"H1ffiJ",~""u urrtTu]u/Tlll.

L - d: She had her blouse stitched.

She got her blouse stitched

She had her blouse stitched.

He had his shoes mended.

He had his speech recorded.

She had her children washed. My eyesight is becoming weak;

I want to have my eyes tested.

He decided to bave his car painted in blue

He had his watch repaired.

The farmer bad his fields ploughed. I had tbe trees pruned.

He wants to have his house remodelled.

··oMiIlm ~fifI~ 6L..QIIL.651u,j; 6lO~u,jjlhrrm" .,.Ar/D QUITC!~651il7(J1l..I fl;{jj4J $I JbYJ~iTDW. (Jt.li(J", 1h/h~6h'" lLtf>fTU~~"'615~611UJW @,GiJiiII(J(JJD have .,.~uti.tb@u U~fiII.T8i gtt mfilJ~~ WfT ,!iJ;Dlu urui 8;8J.

(Iv) have tpJ61Slml0l961f1fif1llJrrllJ W L.. (jjJ ILl W ;9. 'LAiIr(P'

• 651 AI /J fj) ("'J • • ~ 0, tt .-6lg t1j. (I!J , er oi, /D Q on (I!J fitfI ill Qjl6IIJ IJ

UJfTfiII' fifi651Dlfl'UJfTa.6IjW uUJroiru(j)/J PJuu(jjJfi)jDB'

L - tb: She has green eyes.

He has an annual income of' Rs. 1000/-

Ba ba Blacksheep : Have you any wool?

·a.filllfT6tJ Q8irr6he~6u'. @i,,",J;~iil' cf£i1UJ GlUfTC!§. .iilf1SJtb CYJe4)jDrufTfilS/' .amiGlUJfT.u UUJArU(El/J/huu(jjJlb •

• 44

L - lb: You may get the prize.

You might get the prize,

L - r.h: 1 usually have my dinner at nine, We have three meals a day. Will you have a cup of tea?

I can't come now; I am having a bath.

It is good to ha ve a sea bath once in a way.

1 1- ad a lot of trouble during my journey.

She is having a wonderful time at her uncle's place,

Did you have a good time at the theatre?

@~_gj @lTdlr~ 6IJIFAJr5JBiorf!rnL-(JtU Gurr@61r (JQJ/IJU/T@ "'~8i~ ~iil6lI)iU.

You may get the prize. ILm8;@u utfl8i 8ilalL-51J1Q1/TLh ~6iJ7!D Q..J/T@~U~@ r§JJiJu~.

t!J6iJ7a1WtU LShrrrrarr/JjiIJ 'rr~$1U tCalQ'5@)AI/DfII

y"uu@~PJuu@€iiI/D4iI.

6. Can

, 81@)JlDj). "4tbJD6' ~1iltUOII Jbm JDU 4"'uu(b~1B

~AlRlJI..afi5'fiff(lJrr&U uRlmu~jAJ"'ITLb.

(i) filj~6lI)",08~w 81~lD$JC:Bi/T@,;6b ~Q;QJIiI .'lPtile J6fi1)QJ5 BHTL..LU UWRlU@/J/bu:.J@w.

L - lb: Can I have your pen for a moment.

Can I go a Iiule early? Yes, you can.

No, I am sorry you can't. ~6i. filJDjJ6&rriU fjIJ'-i-Q/ID could 6"IArUPJ/T@)Ul. can ~i&rulBd)(!lJu u~QJrru. could ~",uJ6A1A1ILJLb UIUAr U@~J6il1/Tw.

4. May

L - lh: May I smoke here?

May I use your telephone? You may go. if you like.

"'~lDj}a8i/T@t&L-jlil could uwritlJ@j~6b Ql@r1:Ju,j ,,_BiD'

(ii) JJL-8;&.i9it.f4.1U ,/T/Jj)1U JCAlil1A1IU5 .s/TL.(b.Jb~(

ullJriluCGjJt.uu~l.b.

Can I use the telephone Could I use the telephone'

L - r.h: You may get the prize.

It may rain this afternoon. He may be right.

may ~6iTuAJ. @ftJ~~g;rrQJ QJ tq._fjlJW might fi ~.,Ib may mirLJIhID(§U u~ il1/TliU ullJAiuCG ~Jt.(,L~Qj ~m(j).

~er.(j) QJ"5~UJ(!JJtb GUIT@Qt ,Jim06filJ 9ri1C1JD. o:f£d ell tb filer mrL-1T QJ 8 (!JJ Q) /D diu &/D 818 uiIIfI.,,_. u_yr1:J 1DJ/T1iJ~.1iI BmUl".

L -.W I J can swim In a Jake but I cannot do so in the sea.

She can read and write Spanish.

Can ~riru~.dJ@u U$6llIT& be able .,6isTu6JI§Ju UUJW U (El j, /f; il) IT IiJ •

.. _ - It.: Y ouneed not go there.

You need Dot answer ,aU the questions.

You need not bring the umbrella; we are going by car .

You need not go so early) the meeting is only at 9.0' clock.

You need not· have come to take the book; I would have brought it myself.

He need not have bought such .a big car; a small one is .enough for him.

I need not tell you how sorry I feel.

He need not come tomorrow.

L - ab: She can read and write Spanish.

She is able to read and wnte Spanish.

6. Must

~!§I fl;65rAlLD. (!jl65r.mJ~6Il. ULrT6,o;5)'li ~&iI'u &J..aL-j,~5J}J'h, !P8/:p, .7~tT8iI7If1IiJ$6Yf]6u UlUoiftu(E'j~uu@w. ~~ 8iL-U unL@ t6I6Jlil)~1U ~Giil)2iI GlJ~Il./J)J~j)j; Bn.JI)W ,-/j,j) LDP}iifJILJU ,-/ilJuu@j,f,Ij LuGtUn&ili5LJU(j)LiJ.

L. - ab; You must tell the truth. (a.LUUflQ])

We must respect our elders. f<$LULJI1<b)

People must save for their future. (L/~j")'o~)

You must use your leisure

. time properly. (ytt~L1)~)

.One must guard one's tongue. (L/:$~L1)$)

"IS, 6,. 7 4d1 1L./6ITU'AlJt{il/~GtflGb I~QJQJrrp G/FriJ~(!j,jg;

(JQJ~ 'r9-1Ui)iI!elilJ ~riruli GlUIT(!!jiir.

,-8. Ought

~ j, ~AlAlJt68iifJor (!JJ6'lJLj, ~ ~ (!P6, /IJ ITil) j, ~ §Wrb uUJISiR u@j, /hUULilJITW. [j)"QJw diLUUITL..(j) ilmiIJo;5)lU L"rT~~fIllUi'

. " Need

You ought to finish the exercise before the bell rings.

You ought to respect your parents . You ought .not to smoke too .much.

@B GU(!§UU'T~W fTi)rTUlm,lDu!M6u UUJviru~j~uu(J)rb.

·(]6lJrilfIL!J.UJjjJirm,;u' • __ QJ 9'1 UJ uSJ tOi) ~ ~.'

_, v., ... frr~ JD

GUf1@ilfifiv. (!Jl&i>UJLDTr'" (!Pm-~AlilJuj'-j,j6u UtLJAr u~~~uu(ElLb.

L9mQJ(!§W LtoIT[Tim liJ9JfiJfI'" Ought cfti}1U f61mmrQlAlAt

~m/DQJ ~.i/FfiimQlClUJrr(jl G/FtTt!~ {Cm{f;J. '"G/FtU,iJ@&8i

Clil/Af1@u, c:fJ,WIT,t\l Q/FtUUJQiii!6'IlQ)'·· ".mID Gurr®6it"

. dftJ6#J $J;D41il.

L - W I You ought to have told me the fact

~ ILmrAlUJfi5)1lJ QfI11 .i@~ &. p51 iii ~ 8; .$

a6llmr(Blh.

I ought to have returned the books which I took from the library.

iWT itJ ttlAI fiU UJ ~ f} fI61 (!!j Ii I!I ,.,@ ~ f1j L/ ~ llJiS tit .$AI&'IT j)(!§ut.51.i G.$fT@~~(!§.i& aQJ __ @Ih.

He dared not leave without permission.

~QJ6ir ~ WlI.O fii/U!im pjJ aUfT 81 ~ J8 mfllLJ 6'86iJfi5I 6IJ •

They dared not move from the place. .§916lJ iT 81m .§91 Ii p, @ L ~ fi5) ~ 619 L...(Jjl !6 81 0' Ii I!I mf/ UJ 619 6iJ 651fiU.

10. How dare

,.,;;U6IJ rr II njuUl.q.tF) GlF IiJ UJ ~ I!I mil {h/Drr IiJ or m JD (a 81rrulh GJliITAI18;@W ) i1RATITU G UIT (IIjGJ86iJ u.UJ6i1 u@lip,uu(BAlI!I'

He ought to have crossed the road a t the proper point

~j)IIi6tJ c$L~GJli;bQa;_ @,tI)~!6 IJL~pjl6iJ .!9IQJOr .Ljjl~8;81(J6IJ6W@Ih.

L - th: How dare you open my letters?

How dared he enter my room in . my absence?

11. Used to

@ ~ !fjI mf/fi5'JQJ U L/6lJUU@ ~ Jli6IJ(!§1h 1!lfi5'6m6llflD_ • LL...a urr L.. (Jjl /b~ filS) QJuJ it) (!PAl j!J UJ IT fi5T 68 fi5'J fi5T (Ju rr" D u 6tJ 6IJ m .. UJrrw "fT_ 61JUJ-QJfliJ81@!j1h Q81fTm@5t}. ~u.11eu'" fiTfj)d' UJm ,IlJu!i&b iP!Alfi5f16'8fi5'Jfi5T UJ rr gjU u aJW u(9 ~16UU@ilI (J 16 Q u~ 6lI/p8;@.

(.-,) Use fiTwWlLDslimwuj6ir !iJJDJiiID8irrQJ 61JUJ-QJLD fDc$[j> 8ifTfilI 6T8lFslimwlJlLJfT@ (infinitive I alF';-~Ii1. (!p6irL/ (@L1Ul1J-8 GlFtiJIL/lh) 61J/.p8;IlIL{J {j)@t&ffi~ fiTrir WILD GUfT(!!jfDlf]w, !fjIfi5'JmI1slifilDfiISIlLJfTllIU UIL1WU@~l8uu@LD. ~1D.iJ@ @j!J~!68irr6lJ ILuaUJrr.s1b LDL...~(JUl ILm@ mvu §jI tlmfilSl..af3> ~ QJ ~ 18'" aQJ6W@tb •

I •. Dare

LL..AlUrrL@.$@ IL/Drr{Tmrtb

He dared to disobey his father.

16limlJju!11ii orm,mr~~8;@ UlrrjDrr.s II L. 8; ill j;

4)1 MIl Ii; /Drr Iiir •

She dared to go a way with her lover. 8irr~6lJIJwrr@ GlF~6lJ~ 1!I~~~~fTm.

ILL.riIurrLl1J-6tJ, @6iHriAl<OW. to do. to go fiTrilUAT (Jurr';;'/D Iff/81Jj)8irr6lJ 6T8lFg!jmwc$@9LfiIt (infinitives) (J o!F iT m (J 16 5II@1h et Or U ffiI 8; 6JJ fi5fl8; a; J/J u tr 6lJ iii ,

n$l,;-w6m/D"@ ILlDrrO'imw:

She dared not go against her father's wishes.

.6Iw6ir !6~6IfJ1Du.11rit iIi®uut5~&@ uur jDrfl/l {JL.~81 ~ 8~UJofiQ)mfiV.

L - W z People used to travel by horse carriages before the invention of motor cars.

I used to play football when I was at school

He used to smoke, but now . he has given It up.

(81) U/p8;.sUU":'(9IiB~J6" iTArWlLD GurreJiJllJI}JIl il,.

UIJAruCbl,jliuuCPtb •

L - a6: She is used to their funny remarks; she will not be offended.

!ISO

5UI

1 am used to drinking plain tea. When you go to a new place, you must get used to the habits of those people.

LESSON 8

NOUNS (QuUJI# Q.,." P:HIHifr )

i ~. Shall, Will

~6ID6lII fJ' 16ft &ITQ) ~6lD~.i &rtL..L. UIU.Urj/J§)Uu(Bruw.

shall J6~6"6)/J)Q QU4Ja[T"rjw. will (!par~AI",

ULrT8;651&U Gwurta;C861t1T(Stb "IT ~1T[T6WUllTlB (81@~ lj_tIl. L~(J~" !B1omIllFeUJ8; lBlTL..l-) UlUoiJTU~~J6Uua;UJ. (m$§)lTw. ~JDITLi:J urtL-aD81mtmu UfTrf'&5)

@JUUri'L~j)Q) fjfTtb urrrT ~f1j 24 ~Q)"'5f!!!itil Anomalous finites ((!JJAlJDIUJiJ JD ~QJ)6lJTlB6Tr) 6TiIS1 atm[p8;!JiUGU!J)ltb. @mru wmlilllU" .'-~iIS1 (lHi,ff ro1(§ Iii ~ t5M, ou@1J) j5w mUls;6'Jf1fJi1 (JruJ!)U(blIilJIiIII.

1. 6ffiirtlDmJDmlU8; @,aj18;~til not fit"w JD Q"IT6U {iJ61I.iJmIJ UJ(bl Pi (J IB 6lI@W • (!JIm JD IU rr 961 fiI'j orJiIS1l1J QJ)&11 UJ CD ~ ~ not {j)LULJI:.. Q)fT S;IT ~. I go Dot mist fJ)J _"mlDUJrr!!il. I do not go ~6iit(J/D .!IjmLlJlL/til.

B. @tii.li (!JJ-JDUJ;DJI) ~QJ)mr.am"'lIJmir1rurj/J~ not 61I(!JW (JUlT~ don't (do + Dot), Won·t (will + not), Can't (Can + not) 6T61f" ~® (jj)"".milJlL/w all'" /J4i/ @D8;fi) 81m Ul8; 5 c!:p I.} 11./ til •

S. "rr j)!f)1 flIlT8;fi)&lJ;" §) dim-rrQlIT8;$lIUUlIT8;@W Qurr 4i/", @,$ ~ 61IImJI ~ 0& AI' s;mwrr (!P J6 ~ Q) filflflI /J 4iI illfr .ifi)1U U:l dIImLlJ&a;Q)rrdl. QJlmJDlUrrw t8filSJAt. ~iII1lT (!P1Ji66i> 61J[T1T $fjJ. tpslTQ)1T1lI urrl-p;mflju urrrt8i.)

4. still, yet, always, never 6Tat JD .tiflDiIS1lUilJL-.. (i)6iJ film 96181 m'" ./11 @ ~ (J /Ii 611 ~ til.

J. Common Noun (QUt1 tJIU QUtlJ6-)

L - w: man, dog, book, pen, field.

I. Proper Noun (~lJIu'lc) QUtlJ6-)

L - w: John, Ceylon, England, Mrs. Jones.

Mississipi.

8. Abstract Noun (u~'Iu Quwtf)

L - III i beauty, joy, fear, love.

4. Collective Noun (bl'''r§lu QU",6-)

L - "': crew, flock) class, group, galle}".

GENDER (UIT.)

... rfiIilill~~. 6liQ)1iI@5~&@1l urrQ) u@u4 LIilI'irO}. Il..du,dJJD

QUIT®,"81~W ~II €1QJl1rrfRa;@§(JUl utril>ualT 8jo"op51filJ .. tfJ.

u« ,tbu~w.

J. Masculine. Gender (~~Ut1c;U)

LlJml §) 611 tt 8;8I1J j) Q) ..fI.Alrutr6ll(!tll 686l1tO@&6YllfiI ••

U IT ill rr aT m 6lI1L/ til.

L. .... w: I am always busy.

She is still pretty.

Z. Feminine Gender (Qu6ilsrut1liJ)

LlJpfl~ 6lI~~81J;~iI> Qumrurr6U(!jw. fii.,tiI(§s;~66t Qu. urr '" rr aT "'611 III u, •

!ilru sa", m- a./mL. 81m c!:pA'J,I11U tt AI' .. .,u. &iJII.., (!JIfilrCJiIk

.,@tb.

. L - a.b: He always tomes late.

She still looks [pretty ..

8. Common Gender (blut1 ~UUt1c;U)

....,5@W. Qumr~';;~Lb Qurr®j • .,fiiJ", QutrBam

(§JI'JI>. QUII.JIUGlrrrp •••

L - w: teacher, friend, child, minister

4. Neuter Gender (unGiJu&1I ~.:#6W(jfJrT) 1Lu5JJ1iUfiUrru Gurr®Gir ... fih IUITil/tlJ.

.__ - III chair, book, house, garden, mountain. JiIT@.s@!1u, /Jrr61l1T IlJIJj@jUl QuviaTUIT6IJIT&';' &L..Luu(9Lb WULj -e1lil9ilwp;$l41 IL_@.

PLURALS (ummLD)

grr$l>ITUlim'wrr.s ~®AlLDU GlUILIITi: Qgrr."D~ujQ) , s •

a6tt~~u uoW~W 61l1..f.~w ~&$uu@tlJ.

L - &b : dog dogs
boy boys
day days
house houses
pencil pencils
L/JD /lm,-.sw, 1. o, as, sh, ch, x ~.U61ljJ"'!D @gp)wITBJ .L~'-UJ Q,ITj/J "@!lSi@} 'es' (J,tt~gjlU U6lrAlLD cfI,.IJI(J61l_(PUi.

L - u: volcano volocanoes

dress dresses

kiss kisses

bush bushes

brush watch match box

brushes watches matches boxes

photo, piano wrw/D Q,rr ;DiTJQr photograph, pianoforte wroWU61ljJpjfii1 a;AlL.(!!Jfi1S){DJii/B G#/T Jba;#i'fTrr@}rb.@QljJ~.v u6ilJmw photos, pianos nii1(J/D 4IAlLDlLJtlJ.

J. Q"1T6ila61!P1~dQ) ~rt 9/bQ/D~~m~ JII(jp;~ 'y' GiBrrmr@

(!JlUJ-1LJ11l GUUJrta;@!ISi@j 'ios' (JgtT~8 u~mUl cfI,.s.

(JQlAiI'(9tlJ. @~jlujjJJIQr'" '1', "i' .. .sLDrr 9tlJ•

L - tb I baby lady country fly party cooly

babies ladies countries flies parties coolies

8. QgrfSo.m!JJ~ujiU .luJ5Jrt d/(blJ;~ 'y' LQlLIJ.J GUwIUQ"rrit) U6'BtiIDlD 61lLII-QlW Gugrb(JuITUiJ 's' LD~aUl (J"tTSi.suu@ib~

._ - ib : key monkey boy day

keys monkeys boys days

4. LirilQl~w 'f' 8/iufilJ6i/ 'fe' @!!J1fjlUrra; G..~'-UJ i';;JgITtDa;fiI If', 'fe' GI&L. {il6i/fDJ - ves CJg/TuQujJlJ)lu uemwAlLlJ-fiIII G/.strQ; @!iw.

wife wives shelf shelves
Ufe lives leaf leaves
knife knives loaf loaves
wolf wolves thief thieves
self selves half halves
calf calves 3. 'f' .!I/flJQJf!jI 'fo' i)!!)JStUlTlS Lm,-UJ t.!J/D'd",rr /J.'" 'I' (J6tf ~4iI UArfiflWUJtr.$$W G/Ug)ltlJ.

L - tJ.. handkerchief cliff

handkerchiefs cliffs

roof roo~

6. illRl GUUJtT i: G/gtr J>a;6ir &/GJitD.rB~ LU!J(~U~~4JI uut 1iJ/Dj, /fJ ". So {J ~ 611) Lb QJ LIJ- 6}J f1J G/u II tlJ •

55*

L - ib I man men
woman women
foot feet
goose geese
mouse mice
louse lice •• '.' @gj)wrr81 LiBl'-W UArAlUlU QUWtT&6f)o. !f;OJ (!JJ'4-ilJib ( • J apostrophe (ILAl'-"".D&spj7) {j),-wGlI.!JID/QlJ§. (yli1Ubl. L6D>'-AlW 6;t~ .. ,-uu(Bw.

L - lb: girls' school. bulls' horns. dogs" kennel.

,.. @611 Q9f11),f)@u G1UUJIt"fiiT 9C!§QDwrti,:ww ufiiT6mwu!iJ)Yw 9C:;' QlI.f.61JiII'-UJW. UlwQlC!§QJW 9'liU.:

~. {j)umr@. (yJw D glFrr ,dJg;fir (J9'rt JiAj ... r.:..@u G1uvIUGls:rrQj

"Aft #G1, rr 6iJ flJIT 8i(JQJ g;C!§ fJjLJU@I6.aar._ aw J/lJurr j) Ii 6Ii $I g; iii

@illjJIDO;r§W .!)J"UlQf 6D>'- W fiW •

L - d J sheep deer swine fish

L - I.b: mother - in - law's house.

4. IL.lI.JtT jlQDmru . G1uUJtT';:~'rr., .. a,-mlD e; a.:. (9 ID /J (9

"AlLmUlO; @5,VlC:1U ( • ) uw.u~Jil6uu~w.

Possessive Case of Nouns.

(blvlUtiJ. Q*lTtjJ.W'd!r L6lDL6lDIDU QVITr[jQr f:QJtjJ/1)JffllJ))

L - Ib": Tom's car. woman's clothes.

of/,/ilfiil6lJ ~ $l6iJ. L65l,-mWU QUITC!§fii (J.,,tb D6mW ~s. $IUJUJrr il8J &Qlwtb GlIF_~l6uu'_(JQlmr"..ru 9~D' i)6iJ(JGlJ,tbDilULJ) Liw QlC!§d 166hIDUl8iilfJ* IIfL..LUGlulWtb.

f. 9C!§65lr.nu Gl u rr C!§ 6'IfI .. fLAlL..6'6lW BH.:QilW G1ulUrtg

GIFIT6iJa..,IT(» 's' (J,1t s."uu,-(JQJ_(blw •

.._ -w ·~boy'sbook. man'. bat. girl's blouse.

j S' ®IWiJ!UJrr&.$ fii15fU1TfirTIT /ifJu6irmUlu G1UlI.Jtt.@!jw ~~

(!Jl65l JDu!i (JQ)(JILJ IL.6D>'-QDIJI 8i r.:..,_u Gu IW til •

L - I.b: women'. work. chi ldrerrs park.

tl56 5711

LESSON 9

PRONOUNS (uIJJb QUUJIf.soir)

(DJU'Ult6 Q~lTilI.:ws;@Ll U$l6lJ1T5 QlC!§1b G'lTiV ufi),dJGIlUlJtt. (Ju&1b QUIT fTJlTu.9g)JIb. 9!!i GIlJu.JQSJIT tRiIII1I@tb tR ,.(£I1b ~pju d@OlJ~ 8tfrnfMUu..1UUJ6rTSUr~. j)j7 GjDdiL_'-fim.§ J6;8"'uu~JIj .IT.(]QJ U~Jbt:dUIU" Uu.Jriru@,i,,ffJUU@~JD~. ~~IP·iJ ILffR&rr /irirrnlD. (!pririIRi5l6lJ. UL-rTS;QSJ$U Gi)ulU"&cir. &L....~U GUllJrT56fr. 'j:lQl' • 'UQI' • '1iT6i'6lJ1T Iii' .,.6k/.D 6lJQSJIlIUGUUJrta.fiir "" i)1U;;a)QI (Jurr6iJrf!)l ILcir6J1QSJilIClu cfi r5J lB. ~ j) 6b Pronouns n61118> e;IJ 8; $I u~u If)J um.,.

"tf)!:piu. • jjlTW' • ,'~rrl5JllI6ir t • JI' • 'iliJllIm" (!p 'Jj.rrliJ.,

.6W63H.D (!pm6llf1oll6lJU QUUJft g;Qr. G<9'UJuu(6l(;)UrTC!§6fr iD"Q)!I!J~

(!JJ1ilP, IIJ!J us, 'liT a, AI AT', • st ttJ III QSJ 6fT • • .... rn Ar. 'IL ttJ 81 01)'" ~ fir /D Qlrr!!)l a.®lDrr ,tb~W ..,mL-lL/tb. UL-rT&6D8IU GUlUrT8ifift UJITJ/J!f)W

oII~IIH- 6lJ jl iil rn 6lJ , "" 'IIr $) Q),j jli\) Gu@tiJurr5Jllw liT lit QJ rrCl LJJ UJ tr j) JD

ue'-IL/w. 'you' 9~mLD. uwaLD ",,!i;)u.J ~(!J 6Tmr816'fl1J)l1Lb 1iT~'ilJrrliJ G8'UJuu(6lQUIT(!!J6fr ",,5lu.J @C!J ".".d.j}J/w. 9!Jer QlliI-6IjmL-w6i/ BOIu. IAtAJAI18iq,/bUIT.4i/.

You are a good boy. subject - singular.

I saw you yesterday. object - singular. The teacher said to the boys, "You may go DOW,'· subject - plural.

The teacher said to the boys, "1 wlll tell you a story now," object - plural.

(!pMi' IIJ UJITfi5T u ff).dJ ';)U wit III Q; d '" QI (!!J LD 8/":'L-QJ."., uj~ ~L....<p8;8irrL....L- uu(99iliil /DOl.

0 9
>
.- (i .. Q) .. Q) .. Q)
." ... ... '-' ... ......
." J ::s ::s ::s ::s ._ .....
u 4) U
/) ti o 0 o 0 .Clod
." >.~ - -
0 til
c.
... e .&
0 J ® ::s e 8
11) 'J {I} 0 II) 4)
:E' ;;J t: ::s >. .Cl .Cl
::l
0 III C3 - -
C3
- .~
0 t: 0 ::s ~ ~
4) GJ 0 u
:E' ~ 0
~ >- .Cl .Cl
::s - -
III !i
~ 9
.- II .. 0 "{I}
"-l ~CI ...... .. Q) alii
Wl J ::s ::s rI) ... -
0 8'S o e - 4) .-
." Ii ..CI.c
." >->-
0 d
0..
~ @.) .f;
0 :J l!) ::s ..
'J 0 8 ~
u t: a 0 -
:E' 0:1 J >- :E-'= ....
III
0 0 C3
- .~
0 t: ::s
u iii • u
...... ~ 0 u.Cl ~
.D ~ ~ ,.QUI . ...
::s
III Ii
CI CI = -
0 0 a 0 tU ~
III Cl
{I} S rI) (Z rI) II 0
1.0 ... ... (Z
u II 'lJ , 0 '18 II'J
c.. t c.. c.. .t: ... ~
4! CI)
III "'I:j "'I:j J 0.. ag
..... Cl ~ :J 8 if
rI) ...
- N tr) - Her

GJ8'UJUu~GlulT@m (object) "~Q}u!Ji.VJw LmLmLDU QWT(!§6ir (Possessive) tCmfllu!JiWtD fj)rJu Q/UJ.ft/m'-aJi/iI.

Yesterday, I saw her in the park. (object)

This is her book. (possessive)

It

er ~ aJ IT til tC ft)Q) u!J 5J/I t1J .. G 11 /lJUU (Jj) QUIT (!§ IOYr JC 51) aJu!J JJH tb

9(Jtr fl1l.J1.6IJm'-UJ~.

There is a big house near the bridge. It. belongs to my aunt.

Can you see itP

(subject) (object)

()w(JW QUIT@iiJ &1T~iUITW.

/lItruUt': ... ~.rr", .",';_'_fiJJAJAJ(u!Uo. L 61l) '- A) W U

@~8;@t.b uJ6~u!i. @QJfiJJUf-Q/fi)SIOYr &i)(!JUUif)/lI8;'

{j)(!§ "UJ-QJtiJ~@5rll a.fIIL...tiDlW6lDID.t ~pJuuw .!lj,uJ.ww•

filtr~~.i@t.1i1tiDl,-alU GilUIT(!§uYr (}Q/Durr@ L.m(Jj). L/DlTl1~tfII &Alm tlJjQ/l6lTvdJlL/r5J5fir.

L - r.b: This is my book.

{j~ fl"wfi)lm'-aJ "I~j;51b.

This book is mine. {ju4~16.1b fl"Rl fJ)Jm'-aJi/iI.

my mine

{j&iJQ/ fI a JD (Tmfff IIQI Jb. JDU/rll .",., If) IT"" t51i ~

GI&lTfir&.

til!!.':' QUaJtf'&GJfIoit D-tiDlL...mwuQuIT(!§'" IL(!§QJr&lI];(JGrTIT@ self uWJD ~Ll.JI.6lDm8: (J<Frtffi~u uUJ6iHu@ffit5Jw' <F0f!>ITU ut5JalOYr€ilfIU IL~(E). @uuUJ- self ClIFrt8;5Uu(B6lJ#>m-rrio. myself. yourself, himself. herself, itself, ourselves, themselves o;rd! JD QJUJ-Q/t5J<!5Qr LQjQm €ii16iH JDfifII. ®Q/.mp)!~ @@iQl6lD5 LU(JIUIT<!5W

flj09~8 filQJjbmjD ~(!§ QliIl8JUJITBI .ljmlPuutT.

J. Reflexive Pronoun,

@t5p;m<!5aJ u~;iJr;,UaJlt. QJITMiJIU~~6iJ GJ<FIUUU@;'UIT@iImITBI QI(!§ W • "" .MJ P; IT (i;J Q/ IT 8; 9il aJ ~ fi' Q) L 6ir m fl" (IJHill rr u1I 6lD Ii!I (J tl1 til u G U 11'1' 8r';_ UJ- tD j) ~ W • .., /lilT ., 8. .aJ b51"IU II m ¥iU u!J io a QJ!J1 uUfwlb, QUIT@orfIio 9wa/D.

I. He blamed himself for his mistake.

JIIaJW /lIfifIIljJ t51mbP8;5ITe.~ ~rirfi()w(Ju.J GfJlT[B§J

GalTmL...ITrir •

2. She looked at herself in the mirror.

3. I enjoyed myself at the cinema.

B. Emphatic Pronoun

(Emphasis - .,fi61IL//lJIfoP;ilJ) (DlUILltf)oit $16flfl) Q16611L/ gjp;u u@~iIi1~ @uGluUJIf' QuJbJD§JJ' &®LDjmp;8: Q,ptUibflJ6-of1dr ( et ~ ill IT ,a w) ClP Q, ~ UJ j f!jJ fIJ j, 6lJ) ~ QJ i611L/ III j iii QJ !fJ ;iJ ~ @f!jI U UJ 6ift u@j~uu@w. {j}f!jJ p;tf)iJieb LQrm I.!Uli6l-rn.u V5ITCTW (JuITArIll ~m,.thi)®UU6lJ).65 BlITfiIJIB.,ITW.

L - a6: I myself saw it.

.!11m§) _ITaw UK'; ~(Jl6dt.

The minister himself wrote the letter.

..,6lJ)LJ)8:8-(JCT 6iL4-p;jmp; .,.~jj~IT';.

Emphatic Pronoun .,UGlUaJiIIU QJ661IL/!l)Jjf!jJ~/DaI6IT ..,p;j)@

dJlUJ661Ql QJ® QJ(J /B €il JD u'4 • €FJWit lsi),j /lim 51U L.J it Jb (DluUJm U

.IIT 8; fi) /U 0:J !!)I ~ u.i ~ W 6lJ)"uu IT'; 8iuYr •

I saw it mysolf .,w n~~aIlT gJw @~8;?i)Qlm"'. 4wlT6l)

QUIT(!§_ wlU.blb V' jbUL...ITLDQ) UIT,; ,j~1i Q8iIT"'6ri15Qt.

61.

~g6J QUFW.5Q)?1jU Uff@r5J56Tr I 'The prince is fond of shooting himself'." @,s!i~ Gurr(!§6Tr IiiTwwl '~"8' (§L1Jrrr:r~9;if!j /lJ6'6JQ)me lTr(9QJ~. aii(!!JUUW' fiT6'5rU/hfT 1 'dlr:r~ (§~rru~&~ "Q)ciJAt$~ tyfTClw a6uL..AlLUJfT(j)QJ fii}iiJ 6Il.:!'Juuw' (Ofa u~ffl (fltbJj~!J)J~ GI66Tf1&. [j'~~Q)&UJ LDUJ4s;a ~.rbULQ)fTs;rt!P.

3. • pen is better than _ .•• _ t but I don"

like __ •.. colour.

L - rh: Some people are rich; others are poor. (adjective)

Some are born great; some achieve greatness. (noun)

Little drops of water make a mighty ocean. (adjective)

He earns much; he saves only a little. (noun)

4. They argued that . __ ... school was older than _ ._ ... ' but we told that _ _ _ was much bigger.

S. Marie desired to go to the university, but _. _~. father could not send __ .•• there, because __ ... was very poor.

6. The women living in the village of Ambana

are hard working. give _ .•• husbands,

every possible assistance.

(RflJUty.,uft QUIJUffaQjw GluaJumLUJ"IJi1/Ul lLu(JUJrr8i!8i 1S~!h(§ tff/m6llU,fmLUJw. c.ljJ~fillLJ~rrwm;u, some; man!. much, more, little, few, any. Done .,WUAt.

someone somebody something
Enyone anybody anything
everyone everybody everything
none nobody nothing 7. There lived in Ayodbya a great king Darned Dasaratha. ._ _ _ was so. good to __ ._

people that _ ..••.•. loved _ .•• _ more than any king bad been loved.

8. When Ravana heard the news of _ •••. _ son's

death could not control _ _ _ grief.

anv, some. DO fiT~UQJ.rba/Dff(j) body. thing dlitJfA)1jI one Chtf ~~ u~JbGluUJrtS;6Tr ~A)~.i ... uuCblQJISI IL-Cbl.

l. When I met __ •.• friend Gopal' after three years, I could DOt recognize ... _ _ because --- appearance had changed very much.

2. bicyc1e was under repair, so I asked

_ • __ friend, if I could borrow _ .••.••

9. Some years ago I went into the jungle with

......... brother and friend Jones, _ .....•

idea was to take photograph of some wild

animals. So, each of . carried a camera.

___ all realized that __ ._ greatest difficulty

would be to get near enough to the animals before ••• __ became aware of _. __ presence,

but guide knew a place where _

might succeed in doing this.·

Ule suitable pronouns in the blanks.

LESSON 10

ARTICLES (lFlf"/UQI)L.6afr )

I . A bull has two horns.

- 2, The bull in the garden has a broken

horn.

3. I gave him a mango. 4. She is a musician.

5.

6.

The musician who gave the recital is
my sister.
An elephant never. forgets.
The sun rises in the east.
An aeroplane goes faster than a train. 7. 8.

a LD (J 6IJ lL..rr6'ff ill IT .i 9il tirr&l ~ 6Iff iib ilQ) G* IT JJ & 1S.i@ ryJw (J AT a. an. the -=W,9i1rJ G<fIT;Dtf>vYr QJ~~oir6'fffil1flJj alllilJ/Drr~.$8JilJITUJ. @1OlJ;Da'l1D articles (.lTtfumLlBtM) ~fiV8; 8Ia./lJQlIt. ((;)uuJ,f';:

Q,MQ)a'l6IJ# *fTtt J!§iJ QI(!!j16Q)1T j)HLD ~mLGi1LDfT!p (JUfTliir I!)I

tff/iJflJ6IJrr.iJJJw article .,.wumIJ JlLE!:fiitlu *fTttUQlJL R'WV8; 6"a.fJ)JIJjQJ GUIT(!!jJi~LD. )

c a' uwmu(iwIT@:

fifil(]*UJ.~~';: .H~LuGuJDrr.. ( U Q) QI Jb ID 6ir 9iit /Drra

66fr'l6J@u V>(!!j GUIT(!!jmwrr.i @!D~/DJb(§:

(!PtDQ)fTlOlJ ~ 6lJrr8;fKItiJ~~fitJ ._6ir." a bull '"'. /D G8'1T1ilJ oIIlU G utilii' @p)1 j, ~ {lJ tb@rlJ fiij 6IJ 1iJ@ III IT Ii s; j, Ii) f9)J6ir ( (i)61iI w 4iI .,w ~wmlD~ 8iL...I_wgjJ) "16A)6Il1UJU:J ®p)1.s@jLll.

;i;U~L_ITIilJ~ .,fT.s€i!IOP;!96J> the bull ,",WUtDW(f6b attfTL...LJ, !9.tb@w tDtb~w um(JL- IIrL...LUUL...L~.

.fTQ)rrfil1fIjJ QJIT8;~tiJ/J!B. ._6ir6'ff musieian QW/D Gl*IT8> iFl6JfllbW Qjff.!Q)fll; UQ)rt Il....m~; dllll(!§W ~Q/(!§Lb 9c!§wtf' Q W JD Q U rr ® 6ir /!J ~ {/iI [ii) ;b u SfjJ •

tJ1~16fTfIJJ§;I AJIT.i~IOj,@Q) ,$6CJ8'tfJ mQJ~1lJ 9@ ®p5!uLEL...Lfj)6a)g:~",/1(JtiJ @jp5)8;~W 6lIm.<J;uJ)iib the 6TW!D 6rr,; umLmusician .,.iiru(J ffirr@ (lg:rt j,!!i/ ILU(]uJrr iJ&8iUUL...(jI6irorT gjJ.

f!:P~!D1T6lIffI fillfTMiilri.Jj,jj)Hfillm • a ", I 9@' R'At$)jUJ

GUtr@6i1UL...@ ~Jb~/DtJj/.

",,45, • a' GUUJQJ'-w 8it.11/- J6({dr II ~ 9(!!j' GlUfT@lmiIT

~A7A1QtD'" fiijffi~(j/DrrlDlT/D 9C!J (;)Utr®Q)orTJi @ p5J ~ 6iI ttJtbu§iJ.

• aD' uwdru~U)"m,I'

• a' uriJwu@j,lDuu~w (!P~~;/Dti(j6l)JUJ. • an' . .-rwu§.iw

UtiJwuCP~.uu@w. QlUfT~6ir @p5)8;(!!J~ Q~ITQ). lLuJ)t~UC!:ll~~ ( vowel) GllJjfT.~ QlDfT/_riJ~;;utDfTidDi.T ~ffiW C!:fJo5r'WtriftJ GlJ®'b

'fTtfuml- • an ' 4f,!1 ~®j,lDitJ (]i1J<05ar@Lb. .,fJ,JDrrlOlJ fli 6IJfTrJ;fil

1iI~~iib elephant .-rw/D Q8'fTlfu6l51w ryJf;lJiib 6TC!:lldi16fTfiltiJ • c'

Lu!itf R"ry~f;lJlTtD~W an elephant .-rwJID 6IJ IP r&I 8i U U ~ w. ~QJ6lJfT(J/D t.!iW6lJ@QfAl'il/th ~i5)LDPiIilJ a;rrmr6i.

an ant, an egg, an Ink - pot, an orange, an umbrella.

an hour.

C hour .,.muUi/ ~Jbt;)JD(!IJ,mf;lJ (]JI1bQ)fTa; Lmt-.UJPirru!i$)jtb, G*fTiibmilJ ~~g:tfi8;@!jLb (JUfT9i/ 9o&uu~ • 0' .. ~~rirt JP/jjI(JQJ C!:fJ !l/~ ilJ C!:ll J, /fJ tr a; .i Gl5 tr oiT firT U u@t1J Ii )

an year

(year 6TWUj1j)1JrlJ C!:fJID6u 9,ij8;@)rlJ 6TC!:llJ,8 • e' "",~.sw 1i1';: Qg:ITfitJ()6l).IT@JI an ()*tfuuIiCBfJI QP"'/D. ,

• tbe" uwmu~w"~ ,

i] ~m (J JD 9- /DfT 8i 1L6hIT QUfT (f§QtcS"'. (!pw • the ' ~u(]urr IPIUJ ~LUJ QUOUI.

L - Lb: the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth. the sea.

./II~ g;J ,-6i1~65)<F ~AJ6IT 8; @p57LI!!i(b!riJCJUfT 4i ~q 6fT" Uft7Lall''' UU 1II .!PI >U ~ Iii riJ :

the north, the east, the south. the west.

ji] UI065ru(El~/Buu(;ib (f!!J/prDm6Umruu ~urrlJl~~ 9E7

QUfT~65)6JTalLJ B;L._(jJib GUlOrtJ: QII'rrwi>vlioir (!poV • the • QJ(!!jib.

L - &b: c::9f) Leela Is in the garden.

( oM tlJfT QJ 4iI fj) t&~ d L._(5) L g as' rf it Pi a tlJrrL._,-Jb fiT. /D GUfT®fi'If1.)

~) Please send for the doctor. (~~@ @~WU U@~~QJrt fiTWP (DlUfT@,"UL.@ JlJbfiloV/D4iI. )

.I) Call the taxi on the street.

( fiI L.@8;@ (yJwwrr Q) luft6JT 611 j7

GliJ6iljD Qurr@m (J~rr./D iC-IJ4iI.)

iii] 5'~ (!JJ65),I) ~.tD'LlLjL._t.... QWT@Rlm' ~mr(j),. @p57u

UI(j)ib Gu". 4iI the UlLJoiru(j)~tlJi:Ju(b!riJ.

L - rb: Once there was a man.

The man lived in a cave. The cave was in a forest.

Iv J 9~ QJ iT ~8i ibll' rrrt Gil tstr @6ir f!Jl (!:J ill m /!i UJ IJj a;.L.(j) /!i .w@j Lb the jJ,-uu(j)ib.

L - ab:

The tiger is a ferocious animal. The peacock is proud.

Marconi invented the radio.

v] &'8=B' 4.ILJFi6l/u (DlulLJum'-8ie'-w (Superlative Adjectives) the (J",/t 8;8ii:Ju(blw~

L-ti :

Mount . Everest is the highest peak in the world.

She bought the most expensive sari. Jane is the cleverest girl in the class.

(vi.> ~DlIIfir, .,-Q)8i61r, /J)65)fII)8i6lfl6i.r QUUJ6IfI[T8; @.tBuUl(fj,) aurr ~ib the a.L.. "C!Jw.

L - w: The Himalayas is in India-

The Missouri Mississippi is the widest river in tho world.

The Suez Canal was built by Ferdinand de Lesseps.

EXERCISE

Fill in the blanks with suitable articles,

g ;D1t.:'- {j)LIiIs;6Ifl Qj fiJ'JD /D ,fT If um'-lII6ft. ..,65) Ul5 t5 .

1. Ceylon is . __ ... island in .. __ Indian ocean.

2. egg is smaller than .w_. __ potato.

3. _. __ egg of. parrot is. smaller then

.. egg of ~ _. hen.

4. Some schools in Ceylon have ..• __ library, ._ ... _ laboratory.

5. My uncle works as . clerk in _ . __

Central Bank.

___ lion is called . ... king of Beasts. There

are lions in _ __ _ forests of Africa and

India, but there aren't any lions in _

forests of Ceylon. There are lions in _. __

Dehiwala zoo. __ ... _ mal: lion is _

beautiful animal. He has __ ._ long sbaggy

mane .. _. . lioness does not have -. _ ....

m ano She has _ ... ... short glossy coat.

Rewrite the following sentences inserting articles wherever necessary,

l!i W 6lJ@1.b fill IT ~ il UJ rfu 8i i'Iff fib a Jl; '1D."U IT 6111 @L-t5J.""'Q) 6 rr It

UfiltIL-lIi6Yr aq:rt 8; a;.

1. Earth on which we live is planet.

2. Plenets are not stars.

3. Planets reflect sun's light.

4. Sun is very large star.

S. Planets of Sun's family get light from sun.

6. Sun's family is called solar system.

7. Earth has one moon.

8. Moon is much smaller and lighter than earth.

9. Other planets also have moons.

10. Moon is sometimes called satellite.

LESSON 11

ADJECTIVES (QuW!T6lDL56fr)

QuU,/m{1' 6lSJ~ITLIJ-~@tb GlTfTitl GUUJ/T6IJ)'- ~wuu(jjlW.

GUUJrtg GlTfTGVm611 &fj1l.!rLIJ-8;@jI.b Gil,fT ;D8i@!j61r. Gu@wufT611fT6II1mQl UR4u GUUJUalJ)L... a..iT [Adjectives of quality). @mru. QUfT@i'lIMT l»@r7mwQlJUJ, @j1im~mt5 @lIJ6vftJU8; .rr':"lfI.rt1/buw.

L - til: good, bad, new, old, large. small, easy, bard, ustful, useless.

~mQl ~t.B!fi6IJ U~4U GlL'UJULlJ-UJrrau L9/Dlhlli (.6i'fil).

#UJ. 4U)UJ. um,l.j)'J, Qulflru. filp5)UJ. ~"@j6lJ"AT. 5L1J-WWfT6II1 fiT68rU6'fST(JUfTArjD) GUUJQU66T6J5@!j8;@j tD5urrWm6lJ fiTA1umPJ

1L0000UilJfTtb. UBar4uGuUJUerlL- @jAllTW. U@6IDlD, IJl»fT tbmw,

6fTfijJ, ~fiilllJ.Hi6)a;8imli1TlLfmL-UJ~. (@6lJtbmJDu U/T'_CJJlIf.<i'Bit)

...fiir 6/T c!II":"'_6lJmAllT uj /b 8i,T mr •• J

~ ® QJ rn. umr mu, .JP/ 6vfil) /Ji/ .!l!.,iJ JDm fil), c!IIQJ 1fl6Br c!IIUJQ)

. 6lJ~LllosfT. 6(!JJl1i~$I6v IL6YTlifT UJ!D(!!JLllwfT ~uCiL..@~ ufTlrp;

t5~W l1i~ffiffijJ}JW @ UJ6v4. @~ID 9ut.iL..~P;~/TLi:J ~tiJil61Jp;~Q)

fYJf;ir IJ)I J6)mfil) 8Hiyf/6iJ Qf) QJ ~ III U U rr ti ~ .. uu~lil.

ITmrmrrw U(!§$t5QJ"".

6lI/T/lJAr &mrlimflDmrr0;8,_ LB.u U@~/lJQJAt.

05fT4 lDl@udjJUQr6/T c;J6lJC:ilJfT(!!J61r@!jw Wl8iWlSiU u~~/DQJw.

{jrDilS1lfT ID 'BJut.!i~(f;u UfTrTUU~ (Comparison) c;JWLJU~dt, [i)1iI Positive, Comparative, Superlative ~ilUJ fYJwl!)J {ilmilJ ai!B1ii> ",QJ~!Plu U/TcT&8iLJu(Ertb.

Positive Comparative' :

Superlative •

Karman is fat.

Varathan is fatter than Kannan Gopu is the fattest or all in the class.

This mango tree is tall.

This coconut tree is taller than the mango tree.

This palmyrab tree is the tallest of the three trees.

India Is a big country. Russia is bigger than India.

China is the biggest of the three countries

POlitive Comparative Superlative
long longer longest
easy easier easiest
hard harder hardest
funny funnier funniest
fast faster fastest
quick quicker quickest
thin thinner thinnest
kind kinder kindest awa", p;rr ib urrtf j ID IL /8'" (1fiW lill.'" firQ)QJrr ib filII' .6IQluFdQ) (one syllable) ~ml.Dti;!li ~mL-.,". [j6iJQJrr II 9{1iOfiIJ¥ GlIFrr60 6llrr '" ""1m us "I tb Gl u UJ 0' 61) L 5 6i7 - er, - es t "" 8.il/U t.5J rir Glar IT L.(!}8; &m6fT.t Gl.rrmr@ (!fJm JDaUJ Comparative t, Superlative UL9-5iir 4,$8iuu(l}Q/~.(bl.

r!}JAr IJ 8/611' ~QJfilJ4iI ~m ~~ib GLDIJUL.L dl6I)1P

Gl.rrmrL GillFrr jb_ilfI.Qir Comparative, Superlative uL9-.fiir

Positive t$l6I)filJ1l/L6 (!fJ6I)jDalJ more, most fir6iirUQljJ6I)/D# a61t~/j/ ~6I)wli.uu@ib.

Positive Comparative Superlative
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
difficult more difficult most difficult
important more important most important
comfortable more comfortable most comfortable
intelligent more intelligent most intelligem II'0'6I)§'UJrr,a, .!PImLDll/til ~Q),-.6If1d1 Comparative. Super-

la ti ve Jl6I)iUa; 61) 6fT a a Jbs;" pSJlI.I (i}:gj QJ ill., u5I JJJJ tb ~ m LD jJ 8"

Gil8m iir6fT eotr Lil.

Glu(J§tburr ~tb 's'- 'er', 'Ie' .. 8il1J ~!DI®lJm6ff,j Q9irr6fu(9 (!p~llJtb FFfTBIF ~6ID'-.," or, est fiT. JD 9L...@.t6i(ilj)6IIU U&lQir u@"8tb• fT6IDW UJQ)QJ more, moat Gla;rrmrQ} /fJfT t$lWflfiIJ,.Wfl6II" cfirr L... (hllb.

L - th: angry. dirty, easy, clever, bitter, tender, noble.

funny. ugly, simple, gentle,

f)UOL..(jJf flJdJ40iir ~ml6J.r§rD (!pGIDfJ)

@(J§ilId161DLCJ&I ""160 fI) ~ {j)(!§ Glurr@6i7cfiilflmLalll Qi6fTfi)eib

,wtl6IDiUQ)/U,$ 5rr":"'C»ID.bell UlWilI(J§W ~.uu4.6i7 "'"Wrr6fTU uQiltb.

II..L6i7UtrL.(9 ~u'-ImlJj.$!i!!i (positive comparisoej I as ... _...:. as

r.-rp]JrtlDm,ID 9u4Q)LD5(§ (nesative comparison); not as _ ~_ as

.6/6oQJ., not so ... .•. ... as

Kalidasa was as great as Shakespeare. She is as proud as a peacock.

He is as obstinate as·· a mule.

An apple is 8S big as aa orange.

i&sjJ&rr.o. @/D~tB &rr6lJU (ii)uwtt ~i8'/6J&'&I~ Guwttg G8'ITIiAlill 6&(]8' lJI.LILJfi'gQJrr ~dJ7. elJfilSJQJIL/Lb GUW"BL56'1Trr&& Qarr6frmuu@w.

An orange is not as big as a coconut.
-
so
He is not as clever as his brother.
so
Mathematics is not as easy as history.
--
so !Cs;/p8irraJ «glFW.. dim",ruLf.IL/LAr -Ing 9LLrlQUP!!JI ..tI/mL01L/11J •

singing bird

wandering bee

@cr_LIT6lJ/6rr9i'Jw Comparative t£1rn6lJu5JiIJ di 6fT' r5J @j Lh aUf!j~m!Jj ~Ut.!JL®8;IIiITL..(Sl!JjJD'§ than ~~JD GlFITQ; UlUW

u@~ffiuu(j)ltb. ((JLDc;QI Comparative tff/mfiUuiiIJ jD;i;~6i"r6fT'

L jD rr crmsr liuiJim6fT U U IT IT 8; a). &! ~ JDrT 6lJ jDIT ar .!91 jllL/ rurT

6l1: 6fT r5J@ W , ~ 6lJ (3 U IT f!Jl QJ It 8;@j (J LO fiU tr 8> 0 iilI rr IL fJr 06Tr tr

tfI~)L(3ru .!9i106IJ/p. ryJrnOjDfT (yJ~D8;@ (3LD6IJIT8iOiilJrr ILm6'f1 GUIT®ws;6IHm'_c;ru 6l96TrIliJ@jW Ou f6tff1fD5VAlUJ (Superlative

Degree) &ITL...(ji~Jb@j the -- - of .!9iQ;61J~ tho in

~mJD (dP;ITI-" UlLJwu(j)l~J6uu(9l1J.

sleeping beauty

~

dying man

waning moon

dazzling light

grumbling woman

winding path

rolling stone

barking dog.

L rb -: Raju is the cleverest of all the boys.

Ranee is the most beautiful of them all.

The Pedro Data Gala is the tallest mountain in Ceylon.

QUUJf/61DLu961n .,61DfilRUJ ru61DlOam' Demonstreiive Adjectives (&L.®ci Q UUJf/'i1Dt. am) L Ill: this, tnese, that, those. Quantitative Adjectives (&UWPI.UU QUVf/61DLaGiT)

L - ib : some, few, many, much, . any, no.

00!D Ii tB oS IT Q) er g IF 11J. c;ii GAl u.9 !J:B ~ u.S);,'o (6li mAT u.i rir 10m QJ) t.DJt a • .tbu) ed,en ~L'_UQu;iJIIJ a{A>LDIlJUJ.

broken arm

dissappointed lover

stolen money written message

unwanted child

cooked rice

fallen tree

polished floor

learned judge

L - th: which, what, whose.

GUtUum,_.fiTr, GlUlIJrT8= GI~rr J/Jllim6fT' I1/iCl8'UJ-uu.<!!iJD§ LOL(P UJQg pj 6l96/S1fifSTU u@j)llJrrllifil/u, UI£J6iJru~;ilDuuCBtb. Gu ILIcrmL., 6lJ rr';; 9i'J Il.J <III m LOU I.!UII cf{,@j6'lJmilil(J til rr CB (yl UJ-& (§ <9 Gl8' IT lib 6IJ rr c(I ff)wIIJ UUJAlJAlfiUtiJrr& ..,taLOQlA)~ {j,)"m,'_rrtb urrLdifi)fiJ UlTtT ~(J~f1 Lb. GUtUumL, GUUJtT 6&CJlFLwUJrr!JJ6l[LD, UWdlm61J WITa.8J1ll L.!UJ~u(9 Ulrr ibA>JDB; &QJdluOurrtil.

Interrogattve Adjective (G'/961!TITU QUI.Uf/6IDL&m)

Possessive A.djectives (L6IDL6IDUIU Q UUJf/6IDLS m}

L - th: my, your. his, her, its, our, their.

o d ~

o o

Z

Tom Is a clever student.

Tom is clever.

The beautiful girt W81 Peacock looks

proud of her beauty. beautiful.

Small children are afraid of darkness.

... 0_ ._
= "0 = 5-t
:s ... d O..d CP
0 .... S
- 0 d
= ~cn <
en
5-t
0 ..!oIl
0 5-t
..... 100 ._ .
0 = .:!
u "0
5-t
0 v "0 v
= 100
A =
v cu 0 o-
N .c 0 0"-
m. 00 5-t fI'l~
OQ
v "'d =
00 ..... 0
< 0 0
>-
-
:>. ::s
... to-. C
.- >- ..... 5-t
- .... >- - u
as u ... 0 "0
- ...
0 CIJ GIll CIJ = 0
\ o ~ 0 5-t U 8
en 100 0.. J;:J
1:". c:-
>- v
d C
as 0 ~
8 .c V
... 8 ~ 0
.~ =
~ .c 0 ~
0 ..d as as ... en as -
0:4 s: She is very small in appeance.

She was ashamed of her dirty clothes,

Her clothes were dirty.

The teacher told us

an interesting story.

The' story was interesriag.

J, GlulDumL- ~4iI fifj(J'Uf.~fIiI II.tb(§ti QuUJ".t(§ ~A1rr. .,®Lb.

L - Ih r This is a beaut ifu' picture.

This picture was' painted by a skilful artist.

fjJQ!) GUlutta. Gl .. ",..vmauu "'''QJacfru Glu r1JUfil)L-". a9a,'J.i.

QlQJUlI7 ujiil "'law LiiilQlC!JUI 9(Y1Ri1Q. cIIflDUl&/Ut!

= = o

.(i ,
I:: J
Ii ~ -
18 ...
.~ b. en
'd as
I:: J 100
(;C§ -&
1 .~ e
:! e .-
...
:J 0
• ':J CIJ -
'9 ~ - ',,"", U
QJ "0 01
~ Ii > = :IS
._ - ...
.(i ... ..d
0 IU C.
ar- (U E;
._.,
. i:. "0 ~ ~
'S J -s as
~ I:: ® - .-
- ...
I:: Ib1. i - ~ - 0
fi G ~ fI'l IU U CIJ
.- ... > ._
u b() .:= "0
18 '16l.'16\ as
.~ ~ > 0 -
b J ~ 0 ~~IU
III ~ C
C§ b .., as ~
i ';';l • ... - ~
~ fI'l
::J ;] (i <:) .- ;...
- ee
C§ 'i E; u
._ ..., t: ;;.- C ~
~ .... .~
'9 II> 0 5-t
::rQ~ = ~
'" .It! as as ~
9 ~'I:: ~
(i .c d en en ...t:l
is' 0. J . - .... ~
:::t bO
Q(! >- »- =
'9 .~ .c ..d .~ .-
~ 0'9 ... ... ;... 5-t
~ I-;
I:: .2, ~ 0 as as
Ii ~ J ~ ~
'i G as en fill at!
- '""' -
I:: i6\ 'J .- ~
~
III i6' 16 0 0 .... -
C§ '16 ...... .....
s-
.®i6b..,
(l,l::e "9
J~ca
I
(i '::1 1:: .J
b. ::r .J
,~ 9 I::
:J tii 16\
e ~ (J
= iii) . GUIDI165)L- 9(IJ tiiJ",6'SriJll (clause) "."Iw QI~w.

L _ W ~

He who is kind is loved by all. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

The man whom you invited to dinner has just come.

( j},{6W dilf165)QJ 18 ~W UTTL-~j)." UTTIT8;IJI.)

Choose the correct adjective from those given below and use suitably the positive. or superlative form in the blanks.

fj/Tuur.:...(blfilliTT G'TT .tb8iDrfl~(!§th/IJ/ GUTT@js,{6UJrr_ GUUJ!1'65)L-

.s65lfMj, (J~tt fjjQt6(blj,~. GUTT~@§8;(J$JbU. 9Lil!lr.:...~j,/D!1'.

IL /D Ii> PI (f QI LfI. QJ rit& 65l'" G 8/ .th p')L-t5t 8J Drfl i» .6J65l UJ 8; 8i •

hard, popular. hevay, thick, busy. easy, cold, tasty, large, valuable, big

China is-- ~ __ than Japan.

Newyork is ._ .. e. _. than London.

Radium is. . than gold.

Cake is __ ._ than bread. Blood is .... __ . than water.

English is the _. ee •• __ o. language in the world.

Chirapoonjl has the amount of rain fall.

Nuwara Eliya is_ .~v _ tban Kandy.

Hindi films are ._ ... , _ ... _ _ tban English films In Ceylon,

Iron is the_. 'eo__ of all the metals. It is ... '" to swin tban to dive.

Some stars are many times •••... _ than the sun.

Tropical forests are ... than temperate forests.

Lead is .... _ _ than Iron.

Bee Is the ... __ _ of insects.

LESSON 12

I. Adverbs of Manner (ftiflBtfilDUJ 6'SfiID"lUfilDL...8Hlb)

i)65)QI 6TUU LfI. fT G5t /D 6fi W TT 6IJ.$@j di 61» L...,e (!9 W QJ 65) 8J d Q) "'fiIf)WI-{W.

L - tb: She sang sweetly.

He speaks English fluently. They work quickly.

L - Ih: He works here.

Boys are playing there.

Crows are found everywhere.

Have you seen a swan anywhere?

'aDywhere'. '~t5J1J8jUJTTQJI51' 6TarjD GUff'@C@j65)'-lUf!jI. @151 Qu@wurr ~w er fj)ri"wm /DdJ)1JUJ fl6!mTTdI ~w UUJ.U@~ tbUu@th.

I searched for the book everywhere. It could not be found anywhere. Have you seen it anywhere?

3. Adverbs of Time (IIITTfll'W &.mr"~~w fifJorIwUJo"IDL-lIIm)

L - tb: He was here yesterday.

She goes to bed early.

The results will be out soon. Now he is working as a clerk. Then we returned home.

aurQ)W &,,,':(9 W "65)61S1 UJmL-lIIcb filJlJ'" ~ Q IS" L...8; 8j ~ fj)Q) ..!IIi» fi1) ~ (!Jl tq. g{jQ) .#161» UJ .i;&UU&...6U1J' W •

• 76

4. Adverbs of Frequency (!61&1fl ~Q/"'mQJ 619QlGllTlUmL-c$QJ)

I!... - t6: He rarely smokes.

We usually meat at ten O'clock.

I have never seen a television show. fi) Ii $Ii cil mfJllTlLJm L& 6ir fiji mfiWsBm .. m ILl ~ (b ~ 9j/ t1J , (!pm ID UJ tr GlIT 6'Ii m w ,j @j (!p oil fi7ST tr $1l Ib [j)L W G U JlNw et 6iT UQI) JJ !CmfJllTifi_ (d.sfTw,,"6ilG611riDlQjlt.e.

5. Adverbs of Degree C~~ilJ ... mrrT~2iJ1b ilimfi7STIU~L-&m)

@iIl611 Gu®I1lUfT JWw GUlLlcrmL")uJ iIi(JII'ISj..&. QI®6IIA1.

I!... - .,,: He is quite right.

Sbe is very fair.

Your handwriting is extremely bad. It is too hot to drink.

6. Interrogative Adverbs (cilfjlffTuGulT@6ir 6lim6lSlIUmL. .set) 9:}6l) iii fif1 tr 6ll fT,j fiillU 1&1 8i Gir UI AT 611 (!Jib ..sAl fiIST UJmL c$.'" ~ GltorrL.&8iUlrr8i& G8ifT~f» dIlmwlLJUJ I when, where, how. why.

I!... - tb: When were you born?

Where do you live? How did she sing? How did you come?

r!JlijlLl ll..$lirrUfint ~fjQ) 'how· ~QsrIJ4il • er fjAt (!p6Utb'.

• ~ ci; Pi 6II!P u!Jfiil • fiT 6iT!D GJ urr (!JirfJ 6il .!11m ilJ jj 41I6Tr." ~ • ~ j; jD A). ILl. how fiTfiIST j; Q tofT L-1iiJ® W fiBw rrilJ&@j .//IIQS)WILJ Ib 6I5J mL.mlLl

.!II QI t6 tt af/ ILJ ri1 11m • U IU 61Sfl ~ 6UQl IU .//II(j) ~ !iii II..@ Lf tb G U IU(J tb

6ll ® 6ll fiji 8j 611 af/ ,j s tiJ U tr 6U !iii. by fiT W /D L(giS olJ rrQjl Q U IUrT ~. .!116lJ6l)4jJ GjDfTlft,til~UlUrT (gerund) (JlI'rT ~iP1, how fiTW /D iliwrrQJ&~ Q2mL dljmw&&uu(j)8i'JJ!14il.

How did he become rich so quickly? He became rich by foul means.

How did he get a distinction?

He got a distinction by doing hard work.

IPS

Why were you absent yesterday,

I was absent because I had a head ache.

Why do you go to temple?'

I go to temple to pray.

G W a 6U 1LJ6ir611 6lifi7STrr ci;a; '@j8; ~j; ID U UUL..(j);,fr611

6lQ/ JljfT 61Sfl ~ ffJ rr. .!JI AI tiJ ~mLG ru ..,mwu t.J6il

@(!J8;8)& .rrmrt.Jff8iQr. why fiTfJIIT~ GtDfTL..1&1@jW QJQ)&U Gurr®6iT &@~II.J{JjI.

.ti.L.IilD617 Qi ~ ~ ILl tr ",Ib iIi~rr [j)(!J

(!p/fJ6u ll...~rrUAI11~!iP6I 1l...t3t&t1 68_" iJlrrUAllltb (reason)

"(!§~UJ 6IlAlIT. iJJljj)@j fiBmLriJrr& because ",vir /D G~fT'-tt

"",mwlLJtb.

OOu mr ,-rr 611 §I Il.. tD rr 0' 6lSI11 j; ~ilJ LfIr"" 6'IJ am G jJrr &.tb

(purpose) c$C0~1U Gfi]rn rr. IiiIDJDC§ 6f1mL.UJrr. J6'c$JP.rr .. ifiQS)w fiTe",j;G~rrLtT (infinitive) dIImw"Iw. GjJrr&,.dl .@jJlU QiAII".6f16u why .,wu~J/J@u ujPlflJrrc$ 'what for' ~rir JD Gi)/fJrrL.mcru ulI.Jwu(f)~IDQ)fTl1l. IiitalD 6lIma;rd)6i>.

Why do you go to the temple? What do you go to the temple (or?

u_ '-ILl Gu UJUQf) L (Ju"Qsr J!)I .fiM mUl 6/JQf)Qf1IU6fltL.lLltb

(Adverbs of Manner) (!pw D 9ut.Jt.:..Qjl j; tJiutiJ.m611lLJmLIIJ •• Comparative Superlative ..sillU t6crti).6Tr (!pQf),D(J1U mere, most ",rirUAJQJ ('IPQ)w &rrL..L.wu(9w.

L-Ib:

Leela sings sweetly.

Rani sings more sweetly Malini sings most sweetly

than Leela. of all •

Adverbs formed from Adjectives (GulCicrmL..u!iai1(!Jlilil QI(!Jw iliQ)~lUmL&et)

Coli) 166i1QwUJD,,1LI .tiQ)QJl'lUmL&fiir QUC!ttbu"6Urr_QS)QI. Quru ITfiISJ,- @lIIfjlLi6i> -ly a",tiuu tDAlrra> cfl,ci;.Lluf»t.b.

L - aj I quick sweet

quickly. sweetly.

(4) LJP;/i6lll'-:

(i) -Iy ®gJ)/LJrrlli ILQ),-/LJ filA) GUIIJUQI,-afiU

ILmr(!).

L - tb ~ lovely, lonely, lowly, likely. cowardly. leisurely, beastly.

(it) ~ftJ G8'rr tDltW GUaJum,-, ~Q)6IfTIIJfiIfJ'_ @.

timGtJu5/JjlIUJ 9'JU Q/LJ6lJ6ii,-UJ01. high, low, hard, fast fiTllftrU01 8'l",.

L - tb :

Q UUJq roc....

It Is a high mountain It is a fast train. Stone i. hard.

The bird flew high. He drives fast.

She works hard.

~fiS6IfTIIJfiI'I'- G/8'lLJuu@GJurr@6"5l"" .!II(9~4iI. Q."u.Jlju(9

Glurr(!§6Jf1~ 6lJrr ~'-j, ~ 6Ii 661 61fT ~ Gig rrillmiVUJ@ ~ fjI QJ CIIW. Gig UJU U(blGlUITQJ~5@)W 6861J6N 5@)t.Om'_(]1U 81(§ /D6lJrr.rr!!il.

L - Lb: He speaks English well.

The thief ran quickly.

fJ Qr D8; \l!j ClLn /bUl.:"'_ 68AlQII UJ6Il'-Bi," Q/@LO/Tu!irir • .6IfiI'I QJ

tli~6IJUl (manDer). Ij,-w (place). IBrr6IJW (time fTriT P; 9~,g,~a> "",mlAIJjQJ (JQJ6'If57~w •

... - ,6: He spoke loud.

Don't shout loud here. He behaves well here now.

They played rather carelessly, a. the esplanade yesterday.

L - Lh: I will bring the book tomorrow.

Then he went home.

9@ GJ,rra>'J6lJUJw J/} ry;w!JJ /BfTwf!!j Gl~1T j)lB6fr a .. tt tb §)Jw

fiil .. fi1ITlUmLILJIT8J6IJrrw. ~ffi"lf)6IfT 08m01I1.Jf>MLj; GJ/6fT,_tt (Adverb Phrase) fTfHI18; @);i1j,IJj@ tfj@)Uh

L,-Ih:

They walked along the Toad They are talking all the time. He is working in the garden.

He cou1d not come on account of itlness,

,LESSON 13

A man is waiting at the door. She is sitting in the garden.

The servant went into my room. The book is on the table.

He is going to the post office. The boy is returning from schoolThe cat is climbing up the tree' Water flows down the canal

Don't lean against the wall.

You should not throw anything through the window.

The thief ran over the bridge.

A bus is going under the bridge, My houre is near the post office

There is a black sbeep among white ones. The dwarf stood between the two legs of the giant .

I saw him walking along the beach, The boy ran across the street

The boys sat round the table.

Mrs. Raju is walking beside Mr. Raju, Their 50n is going behind them.

The parrot is inside the cage

The cat sits outside the cage, watching the parrot.

The shepherd is sitting beneath the branches of the tree.

The sky is above our heads. The earth is below our feet.

PREPOSITIO~S (!L®OIQO)L A:- Q"'tr /J56Tr)

OIwfII(!Jill QJfT8;IiJUJt5Ja61f/.v a:tlfJi;~ ~~~jl.v ILWItf Q9' fTjJ$fimfW.i BlQJ~'4.e.vfr.

The letter was written by my friend. BlLfJ.IIJLO ~mruwrr$) ~~~uu':_L..4iI.

I wrote a letter to my friend. l66Wutll/8;@8; & Lf.~111 ~~if/J6I1w.

The bird is on the branch or the tree. U/DAl6JI UlCTQ;(QAliJTldtIJ @(!J,ji)J)/p.

He fell from the tree. ~6JlW Ulujjlo5l(!jj§jl "~(6J[Jrrw.

The Hoogly is a branch of the Ganges. • €il,,", , 8H5JAl II u!i ~ AlL IU 1iJA)'" IJJ fT @jib •

fjtO!p- OQl,jDAlLDILJ(!J4BJ. () U tr dr IJ 4riJa.~jl'"

JNiD)wlLJu, Gl1rrJbs.6fr ,repositions. ~tO!ptiJ ~U.L..rrjj

(J6JljbfP.'mw lI..~4 'tEo (JUfTOrD ""rfiJ€ililJ~~.u g"'UJuu@Qurr(!§vfr (J6JlJblIJlfimut lI..(!J4 ®«A)ilJ. /DtO!pfiIJ ~D a6JIJb!)JmUlILJ~411,rJfl1 ~fiir IJ. 'e!JlfiVlll', ,(O)&"._@'. '6JlIfi/', QJJ/DQlrr~ n~1I lI..(!§4""et.il, '(}urrQl', ·pj)uu'. QJJ~Q)rrlU lI..(!J4&~1lI lI..6irQ1A1' • ..,UiI C:urrfiirlDl .. lIIil611~jlQl (1(lfTiTTUlrrw 1L@4~6ir .. dr(hl. ~m6JI (jj)UlUrti:

Qa:rr Jb&~8;@) QJJrWwrr6J QJ81lt. {jJ.6flW~ Q~rr'-tTJi;~ 9~ (jj) UlLI rt; GiI,rr.u 6JI (!Jilt • .., 6JI /JI'D IJu I!iffiT 6JI(!J W rr !IJI ., (!!J ~ IiIU uI.f.u(Jurr" •

1. Prepositions of Place or Direction.

(OOL.Lh o!P/ •• ~ i)6I)' lI....,rt~BlJj 1L~4 •• J

~6iJ&lff!J4BlAifi L/8" [TAIST ~ i)Q> 61)" ~ gj/ .!II6JI fjrriill!u!Ju"w.

2. Prepositions of Time (lI6ITQltb lLfRJ'tt~!/j/ib 1L(!J,-/lI66hJ

I will meet you at 4 p. m.

He will come here on Monday.

She is leaving/or India on the 15th of August. It rains hard in September and October. Our Principal is going to retire in 1999

If you want to meet me, you must come before evening.

You cannot see me after 8 p. m·

I have been waiting here since 10 O'clock I will stay in Jaffna until next month.

Ants do not work much during the rainy season.

3. Of mittp LC!j"l.

What is this ring made of? What are you looking at? What is the news about .'

He is the man whom I told you about. ThIs is the car which I am intereseted in.

L(!!) U1 ~w (!jJAr.,QJ ~ 2f/8; en.!J)Jru /DW" fit) @Qlfj)m"'filUJt5uuft

t!J.8I@UlITD .6Ifi&)UJU/tb. .

Of what is this ring mad'e? (It Is made of gold)

At what are you looking?

(1 am looking at the picture)

About what is the news?

(The news is about a robbery)

He is the man about whom I told you. This is the car in which I am interested.

5. Glwu.tt.aIiiTTUJ'!".rBu QUUJtt~l!J657iata Glu!f)Itb 6/imOlSl8: GliFlTj) .@?illi@) (!flAlAlIT 5JYw LltbfIJ L(I!j'-/.wir QJ (l!jw. 68fi/SJWU GluUJrt.fiir (gerunds), 68fillJWIL'L9-(JIUITCGt -ing (J*"UU/D"aJ '!p/m 1.1lU/u, • jl6lJ IL fIJ IT fT 6m 1iJ5 6fT

I saw the palace of the Maharajah of Mysore. The cattle returned home at the end of the day.

Oliver was gi ven a very small loaf 0/ bread. The city of Colombo looks beautiful at night.

Shylock wanted to cui a pound of flesh from Antonio's body.

4. 6lJ1le.tiUJ §!J)JlufliiJ filJr9tD LC!jr.;.fiT.

Preposition 6TW JD GliFlT"'~6irGlulT(I!j'" (GlulU(l!j5@)

(!JJ6'&r AI tr 8J Ii Jju §jI 1fT m U /DIT ~u, • (J1.1l Slfiir 6fT tJ tfJ., .6'111';' .trw urr" PiIB L/D"U6m1il56'111(6}"tS)QJtrW 1L(!J,-/5. GUlUtt8:

QiFtr" $ll~@) (JJIAr WIT iIJ ~AJLD Jb ~(!§uum {Ii _"QJ.litr ~&5QJ rrw. ~wrrfAJ 9'1" iF ~~ttuulfJ.6"If1'" j}6fD., QliF&I(!Pf!l. .. iIJ QJ@ QJ~W 1L_(1). L/D1fUfiflJl~4i8;(!!j# jlQ).

He worked without stopping.

My mother prevented me from seeing' the film.

I have an idea of going to England, He is used to sleeping after lunch.

I thanked him for helping me.

EXERCISE

Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions.

Q QJ Jb pJ'_ ~ aiJllfA> ~ Jb JD ._ (J L!im,_ # Gil, tr Jb 5W ;.". m LD5 8j •

(a) I live a small village. It is close --_

Iaffna. My village is four miles ..• __ Jaffna.

I go there to buy books. I set out . _

tho town early _ the morning- I usually

go ... _._ bus. Sometimes my frIend also

comes me. The bus goes paddy

fields and a bridge.

,

When we arrive _ ... - the bus-stand __ ....

the town we get down _. the bus and

walk ._ .•. _ tbe direction _ __ the bookshop,

TG get there, we have to pasl __ • _ milk

bar and usually we have some milk .

the bar. When we come _.. _ the milk bar after finishing the milk we walk on __ the books hop. h is only a short distance

... ._ the milk bar and the stan. we buy

the books and sometimes we walk i., ••• __ the Main Street. There is a fancy stall _ ... __ that street. Sometimes we go . __ ... the shop

to have a look the things there. Then

we return the bus-stand.

students wben he met them : the way

or _ _ _ school. But " __ class he was very

strict. He used to come school _

on old bicycle. He would give us much home work. Few students came ... _ ... class

... _ doing ft. He made the lessons interesting

__ telling jokes. When anyone the

las. row . the class fell asleep, he would

make the whole class laugh ... __ a timely joke and the sleeper would suddenly rise ___ . a jerk. I am gland to say that all who studied .••• _ _ him are doing well __ ~ life today.

(b) Mr. Edward was teaching _ ._. . my village school when I joined it. He was a teacher ... "' __ .. English. He was a short man .... __ ourly hair. He was always __ ... _ white

national dress. He always smiled _

LESSON 14

@(!J Gl iF rr ,dJ llfi6lfitT .. QJ fiU #JI OO(!J .,rr '* iiJ UJ i&) _.1ifT @6JImt ft; iii

rtl!D@W Gl6rr JD8iGYr i)mftlruy# Q8'rr JD8iQr (ConjunCtions)

~wuu@lb.

1. AND

Jack and Jill went up the hill. Joan and Jane are sisters.

Last week I went to Battlcalo and Trincomalee

Raman, Gopal and Sivam are brothers.

@jtD L§jfTU6lfrlriiJ8ifRfIffu 'and' 6Trir ~ @mmruy6 Gil6ITffu (~r.J»JPI_"'6ff vrfBW/U_Ul (JUfT"D) Glua.llf# G8'ITj),. .. 6TF fj)mfi6nl ft;~ ~ ,dJUfi6)§j& &rrAlllf»rriD.

@[T~(ij.$ @ aw.dJUL.L. GUlutf 6 Gil61T .dJ8iQr QJ®WaU rr 1fjI,

~Dj1u GUuJd# Q8'"Ifu$lJj@ @tikwfTffu WL...@W and

(J 8' " .i 8i U U @ Lb aWafiU ID t6 • 6ir (itT' /J1T"&"QlB

ILJjrr UAIII /Jm§ju un tfe;a;.

He took his umbrella and went out. Last week I went to Batticalo and stayed there for three days.

@jJ6 1L$l;"".mrril.sfilRffu @(J Qlrrcii}UJw .. 6iT aDd e!PiULJI fj)_mr" "uut:.. '-J(!§UUAlJ6.i .srrfiWfAl" Lb.

2. OR

!j)~&/W ~® GUUJrta;fi6)(itT' @m...,uc.Jj6J/J@UJ, @(!J .,fT,*8il

wriiJa;mlifT [jmmr ffilDJD@w uUJau@ft;/lIuu@w.

(.!PI) You or your brother may come with me.

You can use a pencil or a pen.

The Secretary or the Treasurer must be informed.

(4) You may come with me or stay with your aunt.

Hurry up or you will be late.

He must come tomorrow or he may be punished.

3. BUT

He is strict but kind-hearted. She is dark but pretty.

The film was good but long.

It was raining but I decided to go.

She was angry but didn't say anything. I like jak fruit but it gives me stomachache.

4. EITHER-OR

Sj)1fjI .ltmw&lLji'i) ~ JB 6iJ .., ~ fj)1J" 8' III IL mL-tU 1/1 ~AIf §JlItb -or' UUJ~u(J1A IDAtA>LDILi6i1 {.i)'/lImfISTIlILb ulI1ritU(9P;;liU"Lb.

(a) Either you or your brother may come with us.

On Sundays he goes either to the beach or to the cinema.

Either the Secretary or the Treasurer must be informed.

(b] On Sundays either he works in the garden or (he) reads novels.

Bither you telephone me or send me a post card.

Either he should come in time or (he should) leave the job.

s, NEITHER-NOR

'Bitbcr or" '_L-QrUITL..I1J-Q) DIJQrUr»~/huu(j)QJ4i' Neither

nor nSri'w6PJDu GUIT(§6Iflo ullJdru(j)l6/IJuu(j)QJIiI.

He is neither clever nor honest.

d/"6'iJt iFwri'l6!D ~ wQ) •• , G!D rt_w rLfAtL- IlJQJ fJlIUl Q)fiOfiIt •

You can have neither the money nor the present.

LA1&@tl Ufm'(!JJfl 81!QJL-IlJIT /PI" UI"lWUJ ~fiII)L-1U1T 4i/.

Neither the Secretary nor the Treasurer wa. present at the meeting.

G"lUfiOlT61T(1er~UJ. Qult(!J"'ITIfI(Jergulb .. r.:..L-~.B;~ '9& wiJl1iHlleliQ)6PilJ •

LESSON 15

THE INFINITIVE AND ITS USES (}El5fPS".", mI_. ~#"'(YHb dI __ LUaWIl'5ai15~")

8i6li!lr61l1llQr ru9 mmwIT L fliiQJ W 4 fa JDIT6ir~ fiS6UIT I!Hm(J);'&.9: GiF. JDITGTr

{JIT Ii! G QI 6P 6UilD4I C!P'9-;'. C!Jl uffu(J QJ IT fl.

fiJ 6iJ 81IT 8; $)lUtII&6Ifl Q) fL fir 61f' .. II t!; to er (!J j, 4iI ~ GiF It JJ g; filllfifT J;

IjIliJ/pffu IOQiFlUGa,w fiT.9:6W· n6irCluITfl. 41/lJf7QJfIjI ° QiFIlllu'

fl'6fi1 JD flUlT riJ UUlTI.:"I1J-W .,_w j /D 61'# iFll.

j)(J/D QlltAiiilllJ.jc6ir,

iii m,umffdl ru9 G1JJ'TTujIT (jJflJ ~ tjJ r§ ft8~ W dAm". fiSilJ" 8-G1JJf/}uu~tj)f!j.i Q6At jDrrifr.

IJIT /J) afJI""6U_1lJ C!P'" U U f tjJ ~ (!J)1lJ~ (Jill IT fl.

fiT6f1 fIIbDr5J@QJ!/i1W wer4. ~Cl!D GUlr(!jQJifT .!lJ,l1iJiiil.j,j}Q) GI QJ6lf) uJ (j)tiJ (Ju rr /PI "''''' ~ .. @ (!pdf AT IT_ to (18'''''' iii & G8Jrr fir 6'IT tJ u(j)Lb. (to = @jJ ~<'!W(JQJ jnfinitive fiT~uu(bIlJ).

to ge, to drink. to eat, to understand 61'AT infinitive .,JJAlUJ rLf da. 61 Q) ... /hIT (T 611111 r5J iii QJ6T1';' UIT if uCl u rr W •

I want to go home. They began to shout.

She began to learn dancing. I am going to write a Jetter. It is difficult to explain.

I have to do some home work. He tried to finish the work.

It is time to have dinner.

'He promised to send me the book.

We hope to start the work tomorrow.

§Jtf} /pfiu Q'im",G 1IJ<9'''t,b UIlJ~~6U,$ (f!j (!prirQS1 ITQ) QJ@W •

... niJfi'511~j)ffu infinitive U/IJ~_iUfiII)liI $I~~~QJ\!!JLb "'~UQJPJ

tDa>willil> GalfQtQJQ) aQJ.~w.

91.

oil. 6Im'~ sBm(;(T tuITL- sB(!J 11 4 iii /D"6'ir • Kannan likes to play.

She invited her friends to have dinner with her,

Jlj~(Jw fT(j) ... 6Im' llJ®ti. QJ C!§lDfT I!JI IJfiiisr u/t BiAl6JI _"'ii1fJ!:PJ;lDfT'" •

@UU~8r QiFtiJUUcpGUfT(!§~ri:J ~IBAlfiStiJ~~{6J R,8r,(ylW

CD) BiITQr@JLb eie>1iISI' Bi~," (yJa &il tiJulfrfirlr 6J)QI Li6'lt 6II(!;6lI1i1S1' •

~Iowr (lA'llD'Bi8: Qg" /DfTfir. Leela went to cook.

4t5J&;)filJ~!i1. i1tilB /DBi{paJrrfilJ sBalilSl'GilaJigtb QU(!JUJurr $lIW t.9~ 6lI@Lb sB AlIilSI' .. il)fj'ffU (j) .si {6J i1I(!Jw •

remember, forget, promise, swear, consent, agree, refuse, propose, regret, try, attempt, fail, care. hope, hesitate, prepare, decide, determine, uadertake, manage, arrange, seem, cease

ask, tell, Invite, force, allow, get, beg, help, want, wish, like, prefer, mean, compel, request, show, remind, advise, urge, encourage.

OUHia!BifTL..'-9-tiJ fl/ •• u.iiil i16i1dimlilSl'8J(J(;(TfT(j) GgaJuu(j

QUIT®eW, nl*(!JJ~ il)QI~4SI QlfTlifi;)/Ut5J8JQt ..... W8;.

(yI1fJ6V ••

I forgot to post the letter.

He promised to send me the book. My friend refused to go with me.

The servant refused to obey his master. He agreed to help me.

I propose to write a book.

2. Infinitives after Adjectives (QuUJeT.-m'-maJ ..,(9Jjf!j/QI(!§UJ fiT#iFI5J8IfIt)

RI",'lIn'll atlJriru(91l l6iitalDmllJu Li."'(fJ"'''1lI Qlft).U U(j)~lBillfTtb ..

He was glad to see me.

I was delighted to receive the prize. It is useful to learn English.

It was necessary to meet him.

Some English words are hard to pronounce. A love story is exciting to read.

It is practically impossible to save money now.

I t is bad to eat too much.

@_., UaJallAlQJl/.JlTBI WeT. QUIT(fJjlSl.DfTW infinitive _w~. ",,,.8;5) IJrilBi" .61 if) lD Ii {6J U U fTrt .s 1II.

I. Infinitive. after Objects. (Q8'li.JuuaJQufT(!§a,"aJ~,j8 _,,&) n#,IIt.6it)

Q,iUUU(P GUIT(!§6lt (!jAr /DfT iii uUJ6!SIt.Q) L6it."flIfT.t illJa

1li1llJil> Q8'IJUu(9QufTC§e6JIIi.J@~. infinitive oMQDlDlLlw.

3. Infinitives as Subjects (~~i1JfT/ufT8J 8JmlDUJw er I,ti).6it)

tlBi/J)&IT. f1liAlWQUJ68' ~ QJjfTL... rt QJ,,,, ~i}QJ .,~.,,,.

aJtr&"Iw .,(ltb.

._ - rb I He asked me to help him.

I6wlirt§ ""~lDIT8)I n •• met 0.';',-"#.

JljfTtb (JlD(Jill UITrT jlD QJIT';;5)t/Jti)8UMI. it n_ ~ QJjfT,-lIiiIs "'IiISI'QJJ/Jpj" It "./D uf}j/) QuiUrt "~QJfTD". ~mLD_ ~(!JuU"'1Ii "QllJrr6Jf1~i}(ljulStt... "_"'lDd., ... iiJQlfT~

5)u.raa6'lfl1W.~ GT#8' ~G/Drr,-lT.a., fiT(!jQJfTlJ)rr~LiJ. fiT';: .. ~ G ,{lirr i: C1!J 8;@jLJ U j) 61) rr 5 it mf51 JD U $I i> Gu IlJfIfJ (1 QJ rr 8; il u.I 4ITLiJu,j~ffu 6"6)QJ~~ ~mUJLJu6 9(!56lJ6"6)c!5. 6T#g~ Gil6tr'-OJuCkJ fiT(~QJrrlUrr.r; (!JJ/D'&ffu m6IJ~QjI Qlrr&"u:J~6II16 ~6"6)UJuu/!jJ ®6irQWIT@ 6116"6)5.

She worked hard to gee distinction in English.

It is bad to eat too much. To eat too much is bad.

S. Too + Adjective + Infinitive.

'too' + GiuU)~IT#"'tb + !D.[jJlBrr6l)flJmmGICJ;",LiJ.

To obey tho laws is everyone's duty.

To lean out of the the window is dangerous. To be or not to be, is the question.

To err is human; to foregive is divine. To speak low of superiors is bad.

@16QS1 QJmfifT6JJfTS @iSrm l66ttmLDILJIii5)L-UJ/p fiTrir JD ~utr(§6ft (§"'.t~1b ~Iii5)LDUL/'

She is too fat to dance.-

He is too fat to enter by this door. The child is too small to walk.

The boy is too stupid to understand.

~6iJdium(9 61Ig .. t&tg;~r1l 9CJIT Giurr(!§w LAJ,-If.JI5l(JQI.

fiT#8'~ Gil6fT'-rT fiT(!:Jl6JJ1TUJ1T5 6lI(!5w (JilID ~QJ IL.l6trIT

arlfJ8iAlfifTU UlTrTu(JUIT Lb.

4. Infinitivo.8 Purpose.

«(].rrl./lm/fJu 46l1uu(P,jtli;;)J(!JUJ fiTq",".,tir)

tYl6~ Q/rr&8vLiJ. ".6IfiIIGYr u9.uu\!§ffillJ IFrfll'jiftA1~; "16 Wtr ftl. ~fillfifTfT ~ /6'-- tb 4'- (!JJt1J-fLlrr /!jJ" ~- tp, _L filii uut '-(!JJ '4- tutr §J JI/"'''&~ Jl/6IJ 6ir U(!J ~ ~(!5& fil JDIT611 .sJerw GUIT®~fiI)L-u.llJ. ~(J16 .(!5~mlfJ OQJ[f)I @(!§ iII",.d'" Bia.JDQJfTtb.

Children go to school to learn.

People go to the zoo to see the animals and birds.

He ran fast to catch the train. People go to the temple to pray.

I switched on the radio to listen to the news.

He saves money to buy a car.

I bought some crepe paper to decorate the house.

Some boys dress well to impress the girls. We go to the beach to enjoy the cool breeze.

She is so fat that she cannot dance.

She cannot dance because she Is very fat .. ~IiJQlm8l# ,tr"!!RfS) (JUJJl2Iw 6)", lL~trll' .. IfJ&65i~ 18 ""tit ufT'-~iNu fiI_wGlIlJ;IP& il.."dililt) u~/)u.J u(§~d" arrR5.

6. - iog QJ t.q...,LiJ

d1 __ ~ GilflTftl(JQJfT@ - Ing O"'IfJi~ JlAJiUdQ> it6l) QIPf'f'/J ."'''' 'oMi1J,{lirrQiJuautrlb.

reading, speaking. eating. walking, interesting looking, dancing.

~Q)QJ (JurrAl'II - ing @llJfjllJfT81U GUQ)lW Q"," jJ.fiir 9." Q/",a tUlT" uliIQr 1L6"6),-tilW.

(i) j§aJjJ.,. i}/DLJLf. /Dm/DQfj Gi~rrL-tI .r;rr."ti)_...tffJiJ

(Present, Past and Perfect Continuous TeD.oS)

UtDfiiru(pp;~uu(pLb.

L-Lb: She is learning music.

They were listening to the radio. We have been studying English.

LESSON 16

THE PASSIVE VOICE (Q"'WUUI'l:'(B 6l5l~6IIT)

L-t6: I read a very interesting story.

The story was interesting.

~oiV iIi",~8:C~II'''' Jb8im QII'UJuu@Gu".~6ir (TJbuUiJ ~UJf>iJ4

QfiIII (ylAr4 urrffj!51fitflfiJrrrw. ~j/ZlQlel/U "QlW transitive verb (GlS:UJuu@Gurr®6'ir @Ar,IDrrwiiQlw' gW ./PIp)1(JfilIrrw. ~6iJ6fiil)_ @iif1G1ArIr(!!j {C64)fjl)lfitfj) passive verbs (QS:UJuurrL..@ ili64lw) nfillll .!JIt64l!J)8>8iuu@lil. LiwQJ({!jw filIrr<i€iil1LJ j)64>mrmUJ&

ilIfil1 Ii6f1Ullurrl1l. "

She broke the glass.

The glass was broken by her.

@jlQJ cyJWfi/I)w/U QJrr8;iJUJ~~~mm 6'/iil)W (activo verb) Qs: tlJilim w fiTA16IIW ~ d_ma ILJ filIrr.$ fiJlJJ ~i) $11'" fiJT Qimw (pa.sive verb) GlII'UJuurrL..(J iiiil)w ~AT6lfW .JJfim!J)8>8iUU@w •

(ii) GlulJ{TftJ'_ .. ."rrmu uUJ.u(9J;j6uu@,). @UiI QUUJGlU8:8' LDrr8i QUUJtT8: GI,rrQJilDfiIJ 6fi1lS:~~lfjjJllw uUJfil1flfllrlfUlLJrrl6JJU wrrfiJUJ i)(!!j8lil)8iU UUJt!J)/6lSl'-..UJ6.

CYll6iIJ 6lJrrii~UJ ~jl6V interesting ~w!D Gls:rrQ) story et w9lI:b Gluw_v .a(J1I''4-~4iI rDw!D§jI. @vmsrL-rrQJB 6lJrr8;i)IU!Ail" .. @i8AlATeJlUrr@ as:tT ti4il U IUAiI mfilJUJrru!i;b q)J •

(iii) QUtiJd'.j: Gil,rr" aurr. D Q/rr8;i)u~i}{j) ~~fljrrlUrr .. dj6VfilJ9iI Gl8'IU&lu@Gi)urr®fJTrrlJ Q/(!§tb. ~uulU.urrt.:.~Q) @6 GlPJrrJP;b~Ulud' llurrw/D4iI.

Gil II' Ii.J 6Ii filDfiIT ., tr 8; fiJ UJ til 5 il)6'fT # GIs: lULl utr t::..(f;Idi 6111'" tAl tt 8; ~

fLJ til $ emr 8;@8IjlQ) dw QJ(!!j t.b fiJ ji).mfiJT .JIJ1iU jDrr All ~ jlj6V (J 6lJmr@w •

L - lh i Running is a good exercise (subject)

Smoking is prohibited subject)

Looking after children needs patience.

You must stop smoking. I hate gossiping.

She does not like cookidg.

J. Q8'tllsS6'6IfiIIII illrrl.~UJ~.~' Gil,lUuu@GJ'Iurr®m. GlIJIILlLl

urrL@ ;:8mfi~ QJrr.iilUJ!A~QJ ~~iUrrlUrrIJ 8j6IDLDIL/W.

,. Gi8'IUUUrrL..(B6UJ6IIIfiIIII QJrr';;iIIU~jliIJ.. fIlm_ be verb + past participle

Gil 8; rr6'iM'(j)l ~ 6111 L1J UJ Ill.

(subject) (object) (object) (object)

6. Gils: iJfiBOJ AI flU rr l.illU ~fjgJurTII;rr ili6'6l~u!iw

Q8'UJuurrL...(j)l 9iJQ)Alltlrrl.51ulJi}iIJ Lfiir6'fT'

.rrt:.t.q.. t61,dJ@w.

@t!tIJ iii ~ lSQflfiJT LDAr p) IJ G .. rr.w@ aUl(] 6l) a..Yirrm CDl8'ruU

utrL..(j)iB6IIIAT WlJrr.ifiJUJ dj6IBUlUi5JU LE_@w urrtTueJurrUl.

t. GIli' Ii.J 6Ii ,,~ fiIT QJrr.i5lIUj~~ Gl8'UJuu(blG)urr(!!j_rrlli

filifll®@tl! IIas8 QS:UJuUrrL..(bl'iiRQ)OT QJ".iiiaUJ~~6il

~~liUrrllJrrlli QJIb~m6'fT'§iI.

8i rr6l) /J fifI JB be verb

6. Gs:li.JoIi6'6lw Q/rrlifi)UJ~jl~fiir6'fT' • broke' ~Ar OlIw

iii AI W8:Gl8' tr IiJ G s: u.J U u rrt.:.(J)oB ~fifI QJ tt 8; fB IIJ j fj)ill 'wa I broken" ~ATUJrr pj 8j6'6laiB~6'irfll4il. ~tm(].. was fiTrou§jl be verb; broken ~mu9il break ~tiTJD flifif:~u!i6it past participle QJ'4-QJUl.

, • Q.g: IiJf'S",. fiIIrr 8; fa ILl j, fj)Q) ILtTrfiIT 'broke' nQrr!D eIlAJ_ @JDJi!J 5rrfilJJ,@w ..!PI"'LD~~Gir"'8. Q'IiIUUfTL..~ iii 6J1f;51 u!i 6i> IL iYr fifT was er Qrr !D 4(§iiUl ~ AI' (j) JD j!D e;fT6I'/JAJ/D8; 8ifTL.,JI. tilJD~JD§jI.

i)Sl1firfifT (subject) U~QJ"IiJ. QfFILIUUfTL..(SisBAJ'" Qlrr8;illLlj,jlt.> (object) QiFlLlrJu(BIQurr®6ir iBlillfilJu516b

':p/firilw/iit§] (§Jb®w. [i)~aQJ agent (1Jj1t~t6fT) fiTA1&l

u@t.b. The glass was broken by her .-r6itJD QJfT&8lt

fLJj,Biu her .,.fJiJu§jI GclFlLI":IU(ElG;)UfT®W tilmf>Uuj6i) by n6isr JD fL(I1j6J)U QP'iiI.rr8i8; Q5fT.(j) .aIilDLD/iiDi/ !CjJu§jI arrfililfl& •

dWQJ®W ~L..L-Ql6IlQIJT, QgliIJlAJQIT G'ILlLlUfTL..(9 QJ6J)A1

IJfTa;WfT DW (Jurr Di/, Qf)JQJ(JtalD 8lrrQ)f/;I6IliV8imlfiJ Gl81rr6U@9W

tal up,)} til a; fill fifT ~ Gil Jl6'If161/ u (El.$li/ til.

TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVER VOICE
Present Simple breaks is broken
Present Continuous is breaking is being broken
Past Simple broke was broken
Past Continuous was breaking was being broken
Present .Perf'ect has broken bas been broken
Past perfect had broken had been broken
Future will break will be broken (R.,iliAJiV8161r direct. indireot ~~IU @®QJma;81 GI,IUU u~~urr®'" GilIllIJ'<OiJ@9w ~)ILI6tJLJ"L-ILIA1 6f'Qrru"'!J

@U6HrL-fTW VfT'_j, fj}io UfT tt j, ~ fiiir(JfifTfT W. £i) j, t6'" 5 UJ

4lm" ILJ"'L..UJ QlIT i; ~ IU Q WfT 6iJ fi6) f!J8: G g IJUl.lfT L@6iimQf1 QlIT.i~IUWrr&@W (Jurr4i/ Direct object, Indirect object "",illU @0'.tq.6b 9riTAlJD .,@rufTaJrra; uur JDJDiDrrw.

a... - Ib: My aunt gave me a book.

@&iJilJrr.i8ilIiJ~~ib book .,.QrrulJI direet object, me fiTfiru~ indirect object.

(!pArLJ UfTrT~~ ... rrl1' .... Qlrr&..,ru~ UIU 8lIJ'iVJ§65tf>Ue;QJJ$1Itb Ga;fT"'@9W G8'IUUUfTL.(9&8rn.. QlI1I-61/SimfifTU urrriu(Jurrw.

I was given a book by my aunt. QgliI,s"'AT QJrrJ;9ilIJ~j)", IL • ...., me .,6iJ~w Wfi5) P)(!jJ816: Qg IUU u(El ~ UfT(§ fiir, liJruQl tr J;9ilIU.$ jl fiJ I ~Al' "'~ilJIJ'UJrr81 .,tb."'",afjii e;,,_Si.

The glass is broken by her.

The glass is being broken by her. The glass was broken by her.

The glass was being broken by her. The glass bas been broken by her. The glass had been broken by her. ' The glass will be broken by her.

A book was given to me by my aunt. {j)$tio 'book' .,.6iJ ~til (J~/TUJ.# Gg/lJuu(9 Qurr(!!jQr ~~fllrraJrr81 Q1tb~(§UUfi5)i5& &rr_&.

Passive Voice uUJmu@l.llrrD

9® G8'ILJfi5)f>U6 QgliJ~QJIt Ii)fi!1ATrrlf' fl'"'~ QlilflUJrr/.5

/DA)lUdlft> Q8'UJuUITL..@IS..,iIT etrr.i5Jraw uUJriTu@~JlLlu(ilQJ~

I.llI1'LJ·

(Ii)t&l@j (!p.9ilUJLDrrw tenses LD~C9(JLD lBrrL..L..LlIIL;,(p"'''''W)

4. Q, lIJuurrL(9IiBAJQfI' QlfT J;8ilIU~81ilff" ~uC!Jl1lurr JWIb 6ii6f1J_ (!p{jQ) 1Jj'" /illrr (agent) Q;L..L-uu(9Q1fj).fi5)IU~

.. fliJQJ"D .L..L..LlU@W(JUf7~ "liAr (!:p651wrrib by

nQt~w L(!JLJ (JB'rt"8illu(il~.! Q8'iJliBmQlt 8I1T1i5J1LJ,i;

L - tb : My pen was stolen.

Hundreds of people are killed in traffic accidents.

9@6lJ@mLUJ (JUm65T QlSSrrmQ)ffi/B~':"'L Jtlm6lJ'dfii). fiTWB

(Jumw IJ;firTil/ (Jurruallt.:..L{!iI, _"Q)Q)B "'fiTDII'/B CluQJ)wmu

D.J IT Cl U rr a; 6'11 QJ rr It- di L L n If's; fir ' • fiT at !!)I _., Qui 6ft. JD5 aCB t.b •

@uul1l-~ AD6lJ1fj/ Jtjt_/j)tfl IAf7LJ· oe!lf,wrr8> .!If,riI~.j51tib ® .. "@JimJtjB= GlB'UJuurrll.(bldimDll'u.9fii) Q6lJ~uu(l' j4i/QJ(J,{lj UJULJ·.

Some body stole my pen fiT. JfJ l1ia.jDfilJfiir.rf) 'My pen was stolen' fiT6irg 6Q.1J)111J(J~ UJf7LJ·

11. We need more water for agriculture.

12. The Committee has approved the plan.

13. The C. I. D. officer is secretly obse rving the behaviour of the thugs

14. The police have completed their Inquiries.

15. Can we overcome hunger and disease?

QB'IJQ) LJrlJUaJOJU68L6 G)B'IUClQ) (y>.tfiJUJUJrra; 1L6ir_ @_/p.

J6)QJ)Q)u!iQ) QB'UJuUrrL..(Bdi..,65T UUJfiiru(hl J;~u u(Jt.b.

(B)

L - t.b: The results will be published tomorrow ..

The drama was first staged in 1972.

EXERCISE

1. My mother teaches me music.

2. The doctor gave the patient a mixture and some tablets.

Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

t.!lWQI(!JiJlWQJ Jb"'/D~ QB' UJuurrL..(9i1Jrn.. Qlrr 8;itUJ~8JfII1".

UJrr JiJ If)/ III.

3. The University grants bursaries for deserving

students. .

fA)

4. Ceylon will supply electricity to India-

5. The Mahaveli project will supply water to the Dry zone.

1. Some people eat snails.

2. Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin.

3. The careless cook spoilt the soup.

4. He tames even the wildest beasts.

5. They cut the bread into small pieces.

6. They eat a lot of beef in this country.

7. The Government is spending a lot of money on our education.

8. Tomorrow Professor Jones will examine us on English Literature.

9. People always suspect new opinions,

10, Kalu Banda's strange appearance attracted the attention of the street urchins.

6. I cannot gi ve you any more money.

7. She gave her son a swimming suit as a birthday present.

8. The Goverment refused liquor licence to the Welfare Society.

9. Sbe tells me all sorts of funny stories.

10. Mark Antony requested the audience to lend him their ears.

tllOO

LESSON 17

DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH a p; If In... ~rb .!!)1 w (g JD IT 6b sn.. Jb .{OI W

(ii) OO@ Bit./D8iiIR.§lYtb QflIw(Jwg 8irr.,til.sQr (Tensel)

~QJ w !h IfjIm 6fT' fill' • 6 rr.or ,lDlT 8i • (yJ!fJ it> QJ rr o;(;/lLJ ~ i)6ir

(!Ji~Jb IiLJb"fllJ fiJ.DJj~ ",rrQ)(!jJtb (Past Tenses)

a us i,':3 ~ If' oir Bit..b ;D1 ~ tf) 5 !P6lf I6J fi5) JD 6lf 0; "'rr 61) J:P1b

(Present Perfect Tense) /6uUUL..@firfirlfi1ST.

9@"'" Bit.p5lru Q/rrtT di65l~mlLJ i1®QJEPlIlfilfffi> Q /jtf101iO;/I,,,rrtb • .,J)/lflItT A!&ILJQJrrrt /J-fD 'lim6fT' 8/uul1I-aru i'(!Ju!.iq Q6rriuQJQjI

9~ A/fi5)8i. @~ Direct Speech (ClJjrfBit./bUJI) n6'G1uu~tb.

au~rufllr:r8 QJrrd~mlJu]rn- 5(!!Jdi/p wrrgUL..rr8 Qgrrj;5QlJ6'I1

wrrjJpJ1u UL..rt8i65lIIiu]6i> Bit.IJ)IQJ!PI Indirect Speech (aJjr:r~ tm.!Dg) "6'G1uu@lll.

a !J rt Bit.;/J 65l /D a P;[T i1J Bit. /J j1Jrr _ uur ;h!f)l w au tr UI L.5) W QJ (fj Ib

WIT /bjIJ*a;fir f1 ;hu(JJlb.

J • t!1/T Ii w Bit.Jb;DJ jJ1loir6fT' Qim _ 8; (J IIi Jbu (JUJ Jba oS tr fir tm.Jb pJw .a AI 6'G1 u.'i 6ir 5rr to tb aJ QJ) W UJ Lb •

aJ,6[T6iJ tm.JbIlJ Qu®t.lJurr jJ1l1b (JU#BrQJiJD8;~. ~L..u,(~ugtb. a P;"" Bit./J .. jIJ (J .utV 6io.;iJ /DrrllJu QUlLJd 8;@uk . .5 /p it6lJ wrr /IJ j1Jr5J IIi fit f1 PJu{'b QJ /p .., QJ fR ILJ LO rr 9il /D!PI. 6 IT Jb f{JI QJ rr 8;, i91LJ til '" '". r;liar rr 8; 8l fir • a; L..L..fi5) '" e; oir n-6'irI pJI Or AT 'lima; flI rr ~ ~ IIJ ffiJ 8i fiIJ) 6fT a Jj[f iu Bit.;b /Drr 8; ~tiJ & tr m tID tllIJ@U:J tIlR" jJ jD riJ I1i m6fT' .d¥W QJW 6lJ". 8; il UJ Q/fi5)8i uJ16i> '" QJ .5 8 (J {Jrr 8;, 8 Q/ iii UUJ fill QlJ L..J, ••

( oM) L9 U' !fJ W 6ft.;b pj iJ}/firm &lima {61& /iJlIJrr6lJ ~ i)~

~6i1 '" ~rru!iw, Clw.!baa;rrfir Q/rr.eUJ68"'fiiIIIUJU:J

1i1e;liJlIJrr..,~i)(J. i)@.s@jLll.

Statements (6rr Jbfl)l Q/fT8;illLJriJ&"',

0/6'" 6ft.;b p5l6lJQJ)UJ j Ii 8'lQ) 6 tr !b D QJ tr 8;" UJ riJ lim 6fT' (!Jl/DiB ill urrtTt:laumb.

DIRECT SPEECH Future:

will do

Future Cont 1

will be doing

Pres. Simple z do Present: Cont ; doing

Present Perf.:

have done

Past Simple 2

He said, "I have lost my purse."

The teacher said to the students, "You may go home now."

The teacher said to me, "You have not done well in the test."

She says, "I am going to leave the job."

~W eutr 8;~UJ t5J561f1fi1) t!1rn Q/® tb 8jt.a,tfJ 5"'''' .611 /D" m1 ~ Ii" Cl6lJmr@t1l.

(i) ~@Bit.g)&6ir ILmr@. (Jw,tiJa&rrfir rt9.rB~@Q6lJ","alU

,ull etr 8 • 9~ ID. aw Jb (JII" fir @i,rB5ejc§ ,,-6ft ai'll iD J/JU!IiI LD ,dJGl6Jrr6ir [!)I.

did Pres. Perf. Cont I have been doing

.102

INDIRECT SPEECH Future Past I

would do

Puture Past cont.: would be doing

Past Simple: did

Past Cont-e

was doing

Pal. Perf. J '

had done.

Past Perf.:

had been Past. Perf. cent. r

had been doing

He said, "Gopal will go to Jaff'na soon." He said that Gopal would go to Jaffna soon.

He said, "I will be celebrating my birthday on monday."

He said that he would be celebrating his birthday on monday.

He said, "I do not like crime stories."

He said tba t he did not like crime stories.

Sits said, "I am going to give a dance recital at Saraswathi Hal1."

Sita said that she was going to give a dance recital at Sarawathi Hall.

L - Lb ;

He said. "Gopal will go to Jaffna He said that Gopal would go to next day.

He said. ''Jones left for Zambia last week" He said that Jones had left for Zambia the

tomorrow. " Jaff'na the

previous week.

8 • t.i~ 61I@t.O Lllrr,lb JD til.. "" _UJ .lriID 16 UJ w· "" Q/ • rr All & 8; 6I"r 11J.

Dired IDdirect

this these here

that those there

He said, "I have made a mistake .. " He said that he had made a mistake.

He said, "Jones left for Zambia on Tuesday." He said that Jones had left for Zambia on Tuesday.

4. Ofjtf 6n.JD1JI8 G8'rr jJ&GTr IUrrfiDlT.t~.a51j4ll& ilit.jDUuL...LQlaQ/rr ""IuQuUJdi", tfj6irAJW8trJ •• u, (Jro)ba.rroir fj)Jrr8;~IU§,~. 16m ~UJJ, (LjJGirf'fll~"'u ULrT';;mcfiu QUUJrtafM {jj]Lwwrr 4)lUJ. ""Q)" iii wtr PJrr wQ) @(!§8;@Ill.

•• &rr6lJW LOIfT/t ~iPI" 6II...,_lUfilDLlu'it U/tir61lC!§wrr 9 uut /DjDtb .8JfiD'-lL/ a1J.

L-Lb:

The teacher sa id to the students. "Y ou have not done well in the test. "

The teacher said to the students that they had not done well In the test.

Direct

Iudirect

The teacher said to me, "You have not done well in the test ."

The teacher told me that I. had not done well in the test.

today yesterday tomorrow

age

next week/month/year

that day

the day bef ore.

the next day/the following day.

before

the following week/month/

Question in Indirect Speech t~ ~0'6U 8a.tjJ/IJ/ A9QJT1T "'6llttD~6U)

c:: II rT a/J 1M dlfifI rr • (J fjlT fi) 6n. j) /D rr.u u(»tb(J arr ~ dJ 6ihll(!!J L.b u" ,Ib/DriJ.6fr 6J )bu~lll.

year.

last week/month/year the previous week/monthl year.

now then

J. clIIrr.uu-, rlP6IlLUGlUUJrt&ifr. 6IlaJfiflIlJAJL.6ft ~"'u • .,.

6rr PJIJ)I 611FT .tfi)IJ~ liP .,"'.,fifI aurr iii' /D uur /J jDfIi ••

~Q)LIL/'"

.104

I. "JfJ(ylg;ci;g;",tb~iJ}lr;;,,,, 'say" milrjD Giifi5)fi1fT# Q",fTW

ask. inquire ~AT LDfT Dab.

4. ffimrrg G",rr.6lJQr pj;i 8 ~ 6m di m ~ Qe;rr6B(!} G~fT'_ffiJ@(it dJATfffMrrll!j687 , .M~(IjHi8;JQ.,ffJg .am6ll'mlU ..,(B/J!5J whether fT687!D Qlfrr6U G'tT8;iBUU~tb.

@6iulij).m6lf' wwj,~,ffJ Q4Ilrr~(!} ClQr"~/iJ LPJ"f1mr~ .mliu diwrr8;IIIa.j)/D (J~cr. en.jJ,wrr@[r;(Jurr{/jJ (T,ffJu(!}ili UJrr,fJJDr6u II. i'I1 dllQI p; tr mJ ILJ til 6; 6ir •

He sald, "Where does Copal live?" He asked where Gopal lived.

He sald, "How can I go to the station!" He asked how he could go to the station.

He said, "Is that the Mall train?"

He asked (me) whether it was the Mail train.

Question beginning shall, wlli, can.

(shall. will, can ~B",QJtjl~tp c!PffIJlT,s& Gl4Il1T_(I Q~"L.tiJr§~ Q9mrre..smJ

shall. will m;'guQJ/bm,wu uwfiiru(!}/Jp;,ffJ®"UJ Qii)II.

~~II~ ~jp;m.UJ QJrr~~UJS5e8;~W (T~4-'_UJw.

GJI'" AJJ.t&fi, p;ermLDrLi.t (lit person) ""mw_p; shall. 0/611. ../bIB. uL-",lim4lluj6i> will ~Qf( uur fDlw. ..,JI)(!jJ5& iTa..!hpj)iI> Lib", 616mw ~/Dmf6 IIIT6lJ~p;lIrrrLiA7. C:wJbCJllrr," AJbDlifJmw1LJ1A .1B/bGiBpu IIlrr fDlQJlBrr~. wJll would fTQI ..,ilDUJII./W.

L-Wl

He said, "When shall I know the result of the interview?"

He Inquired when he would know the result of the interview.

.106

.He said. "Will you have a drink'"

He asked me whether I would have a drink or He offered me a drink.

He said to the boss, "May I go out?" He asked the boss whether he could go out • or He asked the boss to let him go out. or He asked permission from the boss to go out.

Request and Commands (f:QJduJ(jJ(:,srrm. .c:..L.mGJr)

(J!6rjlJiL,ffJ~~ C:iU.@Cl .. rrQr ",,&iJfiU~ .~'_m'" @p5J&au

~L-lIrru!j., t!iQrfil:@W UJrr P!DriJlAliIr OOL-wGu!J)Iw.

J. a/$(!p$.$8ia.rbpjJiIJ LiYrmoiJb""6l6ll', GutT(f!;(fi!!)ci;(J./bu request, order, command .,flT LDrrDw.

.I. ..,p5J'!jJ.J;g;",j)g QiiIDWfiIJ)lU ..,~~~, IJlTmcr (J/6rr~fi)

(}iU_J)(J$ITGTr dllilJfiU8 1Jj~'_fiIJ)"'" 1ifJ@S;$uut.:..LC:p;rr

""u'JUIT ~L-tbGiluml.{l)1iU ClQl.m-(b'!Lil. ..,~mwlU@ffi8

CJI.lJJiJil-flfTQr IJiLJbp51.ff,JlJ-W'" ii11fi1J)AI 81~,.aWil)atIU1T5

(infinitive) wrr;iJp'J ""AUJJ,huu(Jlb.

L - tb :

He said, "Ram, bring my pen." He told Ram to bring his pen.

The judge said. "Produce the culprit immediately Inspector. I"~

The judge ordered the Inspector to produce the culprit immediately.

EXERCISE

Put the following into indirect speech.

1. My friend said to me ,. We have bought a new house,v

2. The boy said to his companion. I will not come to school tomorrow.

3. ·'1 am unable to memorize the poem", said Leela.

4. "We will be moving Into our new fla. next week", said my aunt.

S. The teacher said to us "You must read a book a week.

6. e'l am disgusted with politics", said the candidate.

7. Alice says, "I am taking every eff ort to improve my Mathematics."

8. My friend asked me, "What will you bring me from India?"

9. A student asked the teacher, "rs it possible for the Eskimos to be Vegetarians?"

10. "Never shall I seek employment abroad", said my friend.

11. "What is your name and where do you live?" asked the constable.

12. How can you hold a feast in such a little room?" Todd asked.

4. The manager asked the typist, "wby are you wasting the firm's time instead of getting on WJ(h those letters that I dictated this mornings"

S. The fi sherman said: "After I had been fishing for an hour. I caught the biggest fish that has ever been caught in this lake."

6. Tne doctor said to the patient: "You must take a long rest or your will suffer a nervous breakdown .,

7. The motorist said: "As I was coming round the corner, a man. suddenly stepped out in _ front of me. so I swerved to avoid him."

8. The employee telephoned to say: "I may not be able: to come in tomorrow as I have caught a cold and am running a fairly bigh temperature."

9. The Ugly Ducking said;': "They tell me that . when 1 grow up I shall be a very handsome bird. "

10 The man told the police, "While I was sleeping last night, a burglar broke in and stole my suitease

11. The boy said I "I didn't kick the football through the window, the wind blew it through it "

12. The professoor enquired, "Has anyone seen my spectacles anywhere? (and added) I know I put them down somewhere in the room a little while ago."

13. The father asked the children: "What have you been doing since I went out this morning?"

14. The girl said. "1 shall do my best to succeed, as 1 do not want to disappoint my parents."

15. The boy asked. "If I pass the examination will you give me a bicycle as a reward?"

Turn the following sentences into tho indirect speech l!l.IU(!!jIllWQJ.rD"'/D ali'''' en.J/J/DrTlI8 UJrT ~D ••

1. My. friend said. '1 I think it's going to rain soon."

2. Mary said. "I've been reading this book for two days and I still haven't any idea what it's about."

3. He told hfs friend, "If you break your promise, I'll Dever speak to you again."

Transform the following sentence. into Direct speech. t.9Or6lJ®61 ~6lJJDfiBlJD ajb" tm!t.fJrr" LM JD!J.)JIIi.

LESSON 18

1. John told the fellow that he was a liar.

2. My friend said that he had been absent earlier that day.

3. The traveller said that he had nothing to declare.

4. The boy promised that he would never do it acain

5. The passenger declared that he could not understand what was written on the form

6 The driver stated that he was not to be blamed f or the accident tha t had occurred

7. The customs officer asked the girl what she had in ber bag

8. The tourist told them that when he was living abroad he always did as the people of the country did.

9. The doctor told his patient that he was not getting enough sleep.

10. The shopkeeper told them that the previous day be bad sold all the things they wanted.

1 t. The orator said that while he bad been speaking some rude fellow had thrown a rotten tomato at him.

11. 'The park-keeper told them that they must not leave litter on the grass.

13. The man told the police that he was being followed by enemy agents. who had even tried to kill him.

14. The meteorogical experts declared that there might be some rain before the end of the

month. .

15. 'Ihe tourist asked how he could get to the Colombo .Museum and whether it was open that day.

THE CO.V1PLEX SENTENCE (as61HJ4 Qllr4.§u;tb)

fj)lTmrLrrUl UrrL-.~®6V. 9'" Q(!jrurrlLJdJ 9~ (!JJ/JI!)IU

uruAl/ i5)6VU/W a+/t tJ4iI 6lJrr.s$)UJw ~iiISIWlLJtA ffiRrfiBlW_ILJU

urrft ~(J~rrlb. 9~I1J(I!J~!Dl tEll 6TfiYfllU L(I§ofl" {i)6i.t rurr I!)I 9(' Guw(l!Jrb 9~ (!JJJDlDiBmwlLJr6J Q"lTmuJ) .M(5)WmIJl6'll(9~"4iI. &~tl?b6'lltflru iBtflUJ G.n JD&eiJJ QU(l!JiJ6'Il@81IwJDw. 6fitflthts "C!J~~Ii..oir U6V 9drDl1iiU~fbI QI~rbC:urr!Dl 9@ Q(!j6lJrrIl./Ul ulLJAfI ..,ffI}lLJ (JWWRr ~ f1 iir D& ~ a LD JDUL..L- n(!jill tr uJ& ~tb uwAfliilSliU&@jtb {j)Lu>GiluDi'lw JDAT. !iJ"", ... ,,1LJ Qlrr&i!w!b Complex Sentence (II6VU4 .. rra~wLil) &TaTuu@rb. (j)6i.tourrailUJJj /i)iu 9® J6"'iU_W& .®~~rb filri' ..,iu.,~ UQ) ~mmr~ 1II®j;§jJ~ &@jUl @QJ&®Ul. pj6mQ)QJ)W& 5®~mpj G6lJiJI1uu@~~u> U(§i)"'1U pjfiBliUfiBlLD.t fia",6lIwu> (Principal Clause) nAT6l/t1l~ ~",mr.i

&®~i)iiISIAT GilIfi'/fluu(j}~4ilU> u@i)..,UJ .rrttL/1i. il6'fTiBlUUl

(Subordinate Clause) nAT6l/Ul Ilia.fl)I(J.,rrw.

,rrtt4.t i)6'fTilJUJlJlrr~~ GUlLJttlo BiJ",t/iILJW (Noun Clause).) QUIUUfilD'_~ i)1iJI oflww (Adjective Clause) siifilDfiM ILJ"L~ .QT6'Il1U~ (Adverb Clause) 6TW (!JJw!D 6lJfiBlIliUU@rb. {i)ruJD/DIiii' &@~~ GilJ6If1wurrL..L1I-iu (!JJ8;{B1LJ @LIb .,i)~@w 6SA)QfILJ_L-.t Ii).,QiIU~"fI)'" (Adverb Clauses) (yJJii61" urr" U(JUITUl.

J, ADVERB CLAUSE (.l9i1D61II'IUAlL.i i)Q1"'IUIi)

( I, Adverb Claulo of Condition

( rf} fI)"'U U"(9 GI J6 tfI oil 8; :§w "'_AT ILJAIL-a. i) ",vSlUUl J '1Jj_IPGuuJJjrhi> uu!ift GI. y518;~Ul·'. @QlfilJrr8;i'lILJ~$'" u u!itt G, y51.t ~Ib .,(/ir U §I IJilDiU6lD W8; Ii) orr 6fi /U W, ·UJIfD!pQuuJ~rr""· .,(/irUIi/ 8'rrtt45 5l.,,6'Il1LJLa, uu!itt Q.y51~~.tb@" UJ6lD1P GUUJ6iUrralLJ ~mffl}uurr@ "'81~lLJwrriilPJ!6I. fi)jJ6 {ilmiUuurr~ '""w- ".8)lUa L(!Jd_lTtiJ L/Q)uu(9~Jjuu(9i'1PJl6I. 4i5ti'lQ),jj)fii> fi)~ III~~. .iJ)UJILJIb (yJmPJ_UJu U"tfulJ",,,w.

If it rains, plants will thrive

If you had come yesterday, I would have helped you .

" (J/5;D!!J 6)Jthfj;l(!§th~rrr;;i) fJjrr~ 1L~&fi Ga:u)$I(!§ClJu~.

If he had studied carefully, he would have passed the examination

He could have caught the train, if he had started earlier.

If we had known in time,.we could have

prevented the disaster; .

If you had not explained to me, I would not have understood.

If the car had not broken down, we would have been in time for the show.

If the windows had been closed, the thief would not have got inside.

If I had worked harder in my young age, I would have become a rich man.

If my friend had not warned me, I would have made the mistake.

We could have won the match, if We had practised harder.

{CmfilJuurrL..(j) 6IImwILJQD,-j; Q~"'-rT 'unless' fiTArUiljmf!j).f!PW &rrL..LUu@W. tCmQ)uurrL...~6&1 6Tjlti'W6'tDjJ) pJ1mfil)mlLJu LfQ)uu(jjl~1Jj unless lLu(8lLJrriMlTiuLJLfil)rrtb. Ulwi1I(!§ t.b @filD6W Q/rre,$)/UrtJ8IfilJfifJ' dlQJ~rrvJtUj.&w.

.fI,rtJ iii)Q) QJrr.ifi)1LJ j,ji)", tDmQ)uurr(j) "jC' e!,OQ)w &fTL..LU u~fiil/D§jI. "QutiJ~rr6b' 6TWJD fiT#iFoIi65lAl @jD~fJj IlifTfiIlj,P). Q..firm~. ~ttJiSlQ}$j)6i) if - rains ".u~ (C1Ti/p5fTQ)lb.

@j fJj m s; ILJ ~ttJ fila QJ rr 8; 8iJ ILJ til Sl61l!.u ~ Qf) fi6I1 & 8il moB ILl j $. '_~m ~mft1 {tls; /pili fT Q) ~ iJ JWw. IJj m fil) imlD& 8iJm&fi IU j, i) iJ1J.tt_ fiBfi6 AT et ~tf Birr Q) j, j) sww ~_W ~j) (!!Ju Uim ttJ .., ill IJj tt d!8i6l.

If she comes, I shall be happy.

If 'it rains, I may not go to the cinema. I will pay you a vlsit, if I find time.

She may stay at home, if she does not want to go out with us.

If you want to pass the examination, you must work hard.

It a student falls the entrance examination, he can try to enter the Technical College.

If you don't pay the money in time. you will be sued for default.

If you read the news papers every day, you will improve your knowledge.

If you annoy the cat. she will scratch you. If he runs, he will catch the train.

Unless you work hard, you may fail.

If you do not work hard, you may fail.

Unless it rains, we cannot sow paddy.

If it does not rain, we cannot sow paddy.

Unless you invite, she will Dot come.

If you do not invite, she will not come.

aw(8it) urr" JIB '_.rrlTA'IIrriJ5~.u @rB~1Jj tI"'Q)uurr(p8lw

JDSl/,D~/D8;BimQJ. @J;~"'8I1LJ ji1"'fII1uurr@ iFrr iij)1LJ 'mQluulT(9 (possible condition) UWUU@LD. Ff(J'-jDrr/D ~miIJu~"@ c:fJliJ8ilQ}~fj). (impossible condition) uwuu(9w. /DL-m. fYJ~Ih~6B':_,- {C8I[j);[il 9wmjD8; ®,a51j~ {j)uuL9- p;'-mfj;l(f§~ ~rr Q) {j)viI QJ rr J!)I &fiAlm Ii ff) (!§ 8;@W • ., &r /D "'" QJ.u /C_iVU urrL..QD'-J; Q /fIFf1i1iuu g;I fiJfliI QJfJJwll q .

e, Adverb Clause of Time (arr., 5'8~mll.lQ),-8; filmoliOJw)

@;j.jfilmolitulI1ulI6i7 when, while. until. before. after. .. loon as whenever fiToMUOlJ ~mJD (!:p/iJfiIUr6i8; G05fJ mr(jjlru@w.

When (aurr /lid

I will come when I am ready.

When he goes to London, he wil 1 take his wife with him.

@6ll61iar'-W18;@j1l (8urr@jw (Jurr tpJ ~6lJrt UlIi5'JWQ)UJ&

6D.L.. L!f.8= Q", it fill tr rt •

as soon 81 (Il..,-w)

I shall give you the money as soon as I get my salary.

",WUfillW Guj)!J)fil/,-6i1 Il;..QIii;~u umrw ,s'lj@(JAI';'.

Rajah plans to go to Zambia as soon as he completes his studies.

Until C6lJ&aJ1T)

Don', start writing, until I tell you.

p;rrdt Gr,rrQ1 5)llW 61JVlDIT fiT(!jl iiJ,Q ~rr'_'iUb (J 61JvW'_rrw ~

The child went on crying until it got the sweets.

beforo {(!Jl.r../J

He was working as a clerk be/or he went to the university.

UQ)6iVlD"'8;6ibD6i~6il8;{1jU (Jurr8J (YJcflt4 ~'ilJrt fiT(!jl§l

/lJr.rrr6iU uvm1UJ tr j) p5!w,,"'.

Don't count the chickens before they are hatched!

after (L5!6iJr4)

Gopu began reading a novel after he had finished his home work.

fiBL..(jjl aQJOW6llVll)U (YJLf.ff,,s'lj t.!iOr4 (i6itr4 /lSrrruri> 61Jtrfi48;8i~

G:fD rr,_n1I fi: fiIY ITt. • .

The guard whistled after all the passengers had got into the train.

The boy throws stones whenever he sees dog. jlrrmUJ8; 8jtr~w (JurrGJ/h6ll6Urrw AlUUJ6V 8JivGJ6Up5IilJrrdr.

Whenever you need help. you can come to me.

Il;..fjdJ a6lJ.Lf.IU(JurrG~~6lltrLb 4 vrfiitmJI-W QJ(TQ)rrlb.

Whenever he saw a new book, he bought it.

(3) Adverb Clause of Reason (U{!jI .!liISJ6fI'1LIfjj),_/J fiJWafJlUW)

@.:2W because. as, since n6iJruQJ/J.m/D (!JJo5r~tr(lj8;

Q6i"vW(f;JliJJ@w.

because; She is proud because she is beautiful.

I feel sleepy because I could not sleep last night.

as : As we didn't have enongh money, we

decided to walk.

As she Is very shy, she does not talk much.

Since Since you won't listen to my advice, I am not going to give you any money. Since the cost of living has gone high, our landlord has increased the house rent.

J IS.

~4) Adverb Clause of Purpose (aJlfT.$8i(!JlmTrTt6i1)1w d1mw aJDml-.t ~6fTd11U11l)

The rain fell so heavily that the road could not be seen clearly.

The dog was so fierce that no one dared to go near it.

1nfinitive (fiT8t~ 6l9mro) CYlfilJW a!BIT8;IJJJ;",~U L/fit)U

u(jjl,s6!DQ)fTW fiT6fJrumflj (T61JCl6lJ (15 efl,w urrl-~ffjI.:o) urrrtJ; i5Jw Cl.." rr W . fila IS GUfT(i!)~6rl' 6l9mwaJml-,j; fi1w rtlaJ t.b e!P61JW GGl6lHuu(ElJ;~w aUn'tJjJ f so that· nw /D c:IIlmwumull UII.JW U(jjl,s6tJjJClfDrrlb.

He is studying Accountancy to get a better job. He is studying Accountancy so that he may get a better job.

6. Adverb Claus. of CODcession (@mT.t8iQllmTtti;tDIl1l

Q9 mw UJ~ 1-8; 8il6fT61iJ UJUJ)

@ru6lJDm.!i;/i iiil6rl'61iJUJrWe;roit though, although.

fiTW UfIIJ JD"' jD QIlfiUUi'" fT 58; G SiifTmr(bl6lJci§ Lil •

even If

~iufil) GJ~rr!pQ) QUjDClaJdiII(jjlLil fiTWUISJD8in'$6; e;~6;$)IU6i> u UJ-i.€i! ,lDfTw.

Though he Is poor, he is honest.

She is not proud, although she Is beautiful. Even if you don't like others, you must be polite in your speech.

He works overtime to earn more money.

He works overtime 10 that he could earn more money.

(5) Adverb Clause of Result (68mw6l/ ILmTrtjtJjJUJ 6l5Iom-J

The girl Is too fat to dance.

@~DmW fdmWlUml-8; ~6tr08IUUlfTe; .8/mUl,s6fljfTiu Liw

QJ@l.llfTg L@UGU!!JIW.

Gwurt8t G1~n''''' dJa~I-~11l 9" Q8'rr6i}QJfT j)HllI c:IIlmwlLJib

U Q) GJ6rr 6iJ fII) tr j)Ha dII ~ LD ILJ Ii!! • U 6U G ~ fT 6iJ fit) rr 6iJ .JIIA LD ILJ tJj d1(}~Lwlb 8'l6U Qlm. ~mwmJlllL/8t GJ8'rr JDe;w".6iJ ~{T!DLD QJrrli;8illUu U @j !9 ILJ L W (brtl;e;uu(jjlw. @J;fljm8iUJ fiJmmrU48t Q~fT JDI1J@!JsU QIl8;$)liJlDfTWflIIHilJ who, whow, whoso. which. that

fiT8t8'61iJmWIIJroit Utbp511U urrL~!f)6iJ ·too - to' fiTQ1,fD G/Drrl-rT ,a{mwut!iif Un'1t ff,tfj QlfT805l1U!5J50f)6rl' @1liI@j !D.;m-Q/ U(jjl~fiit8; GJafl'WQJ iii 8J"~lUtb.

WHO

The girl is so fat that she. cannot dance.

JOn''':'UJ- UJW -aLQIlI1J-Ul tr IS .at6fT61iJ tb@jU Q umt u@~ fi)@&

~ JDrrw nrilU fPl Glurr(!J 6i1 •

GJ u. JOfTL..UJ-IJW eSLQIlUJ-UJfTUliu @(!JUUt1Jff)(:!§8; BlfT (Tmra

.J116l1 ~ m .aJW Qf ~ ;f) IU U(!JL}!J tb • .!116lJ6lft i8r 46fT Qf LB pj IU

f-J@uu~jl(,jr 6E1m6fTQJ JJfTL..tt-1U1A ~L @IUSUfTG&Ul.

fitDI 6lJrr8;tii! •. Jl5)S;QS)6'tT @~iR78;@jW ClUfT tDI I, we. you, he,

she, they .fl,9;)1iU (~c!:pQJfTliJ (JQI.lJJDlmwu!i"> d1"'r5J~w) ui}p

GJUlLJrt5@5&5fT& 6lJ@Il.

I have a friend. He can walk on his hands.

The lecturer spoke so fast that the audience could not follow him.

il ttl (J. (jJer dor L tr QI tDI 6lJ tr 8; $) IIJ j ffil j)H6ir'6fT ' he' fiT'-' /D u i) .IJ GUlJrt (!j)tfjQ) 6lJfT8;~tiJjfiit,gJ6ir'm friend') fiTWP Gl~fT6iJj)H.$@jU ts fj} SUfT 8i j/ftdr /D tJjJ • 00 ~!8 ~ IT dor (J,) 6lJ fT ~ liil UJ III /Ii 61D 6fT ILJ tb @ft!mr.t@jdl ClufTgjI he IiiTwu/D,!iJ@jU ufiitfit)fT/Ii who .J9/mUlfi'lJDDiI. {jru6lJrrlf)l 'who' fiTritu,{jfTiu {jmmr8;5uQuJDJD !DDmG1JuJ]6i) 4Vrt8;fi'laJUJ •

• 116

I have a friend who can walk on his bands. fiT,. .!JI6&LDm~ rtJ;DfiI,f!J~. 'who can walk on his bands' fiTdrJD

5)tirTfifPUJw 'friend' fiT~u1jmor Qjag'4-J,fIj/ {i1;b/Dw &fT"8i.

(!P.fl» fIIlfT8;fillLlU" "iTm65)m'u t!i'4-~1D ~fTti.J QSifT~UUfTSJ

fiJ@i>ffi~" fiTwJD GUfT@~rn'_UJg;J. {j)lTmr'-fT6lIt/iI QlfT8;~lLIlil .. /DfTW Lq'4-~~ /DfTuj (/DfTW fj}:!§ j6fTmlLlU t!iL!J.~']t!is'&'; .!J//P) G8;fT~UUfT5 {iJ([!JP;t!i~" 67WJD GUfT®em'_UJ~.

WHOM

A man was fat .. I caught him.

OF WHICH

ILUJrT ~mAJ1u51QJ ILmc..mLDuQUfT(fj6ft (JQI /b1J)J6&wu!i6f) whose UILJg,U@~ffiUU@t!i6iJ (JUIT6lJ 8Jo"o;D1m~!&IJJJt1:J UILJWU@~,2i6lJfTw • .!J/o"oiJmmru!iw whose fiT6iruJDiJ~LJ ufjjliIJfTSJ of which UUJW u@jjjtfj(~iI) fil'1@WUJ,t!J8;$§jI.

@f!iI me, us. you, him. them .fl,fillLJ (~IT.'_fTtb

a (j"J .dJ IIJIA"JJ uj 60 fifP 6T1 f5J@w) U jJ j) G;) U UJ IT 8i ~ l. SJfT 8J QJ (f!J W •

fi; IT.'_ IT 611 4iI QlfT 8; fil UJ j, fjjl JW6Yr61T 'hi m • er viit JD U fi) .dJ 'J U UJ rt QgUJLJIJ(j;GilulT(f!J6Yr a6lJtDlJ)J6&LD ( objective case) !C6"5lfi1)u!i6iJ

R. Gir 61T 1JiI: (!p !Jj 6i> QJ tr MiJ UJ j, 5JI ,gw 6irfifT m an er W U ID .lb @j U

Ufj}filJITATt,pJ. I caught him fiTm/D t510D7A1m'UJ 6lI1TJ;~ILILb (!:p/DitJ QJfT8,filUJjJfj)~6Yr61T him fiTmJD G;)uUJmuu uffJpSJUJajDrrrt GtFt1.Jfj) 8n.1J)J ill #. @6iJ08®rufT8;i)lLIffiJllIm61T1LJ tb i).m~ J;@jW (J U rr !fjI hi m fiTWUID;D@i., ujl6lJrrSJ whow .!J/mllJfiJ,f!J;!JI. 'whom' fiTmuJDfT6l> (j)6"5lQW8;8;UG;)UJDJD rtJoHilJu5I6i> 6lIfTe,filUJw, The man. whom I caught. was fat tiTW 4tmwP;!fjI r@;hfilJDfJjI. @@JrurrMilUJ~iltQ) whom I caught fiT. /D film68lLJtA man fiTw~lil QUlJmu 6fj (J g '4-J, fiji tfj1 jJ JD6U e; n mr lS •

I saw a man. His hair was white as I saw a man whose hair was white as

chalk. chalk.

L.-tb:

There is an old house. Its owner is not known.

There is an old house, the owner of which Is not known.

or There is an old house whose owner is not known.

I have a table. Its legs are twisted.

I have a table, the legs of which are twisted.

or I bave a table whose legs are twisted. .

THAT

[j)p;mQIT who, whom, which fiTWUQJ;b!!)l8;@U u$JfilJrrSiU uUJmu(B~~filJ",l.

WHOSE

[j)s my, our, your, his her. their nrifu6lIP1[f)18;8;". Q/@6lIUJ.

who, whom ®6it.t8uAifl(J)1b

a@~ ~f)u@QJQIT. ~o".;D1 .... dfiii>

uOJfiiilu@j,jDuu(Blil.

IL tU rT i) til) mr u!iJ Q) I!.. U (JILl" Sill

@Jrusf1ulOiisr@8i@w"1II which

Gopal has betrayed me. He was once my friend.

Gopal who was once my friend has betrayed me.

or Gopal that was once my friend has betrayed me.

WHICH

He is doubly armed. He has his quarrel just. He who bas his quarrel just is doubly armed. or He that has his quarrel just Is doubly armed.

The dog which caught me was fat. The dog which I caught was fat.

119.

This house is DOW deserted. It was once gay. This house which was once gay is now deserted. or This house that was once gay is now deserted.

Why

Do you know the reason why she stayed away from the party?

The reason why I dislike the telephone is not easy, to tell.

wh?, ~hom. whic? c!2J,i'iIIlJQJ.tbIJl8;~U u§jl6UfTlJI that ~Qr~1A {ijQ)fI91U4<!F G~IrQ}mQ)u GUfTtDlQJfTS;U ullJmu(p~4)lQJt!iI ~(yl8; iIlfTlJlfT.§J. ~uJI~tb. who, whom wrriruQ/j)D&Stb u$liilJfTlJI ,9:}QJ 6Ij~!PL- iF P; {DttuuriJs;q;yf) iIJ th at UllJwu(9j, /fjLJUCBdJ. ~e<!F P;~tt.j Uf1iJ&6TTfTQJ6J/ I

~. Noun Clause (GUfU/tot €ilmdifLJtb)

She is the only girl that got distinction in English.

The only writer that I like to read again and again is Charles Dickens.

GlulJtt.Q,rr. GUlr6ifl /D (iJ1UQ}4mL-Vt!iI GUlJtt& 6iJm6flfUw. @4iI Qlrr8i9iJIJ.~Q) fiT(glOllrrlUfT8J61{w Q"'tuUUCBQUfT~6TTfT&6lfW QJ®LlI. j)8ii)i'IIQlIl,Hi GU(!JWUfT.§JHw whether. what, how, why, where ffl.UeJ/JAljD (!JJmWfT&8; Qe;rr6iisJ@ QJ(!§tlI. Q8'UJuu(9 Qurr(!J",rr. 81AJUlfL/W (JurrtJi/ QU@UUfT,gww that .,fid1 &JJlw

G,rr,hDQJ (j)eAWU4IF Q,rrAfUrr." QarrriDrCB IDI(!)W.

1. fifi(38'IJI.8;$UU@tb Glc!Frr"SU8;@J (!JJ6ir only n6ir~!lI u~w QlP;tpJfiiJ." @'- • .,.

•• ..ca<!FlJI.8;aUu(blw GUlJtTg Gl8'If'~t61w (!jlffilwtT. ..,$I/LffLJtT {5JAJfiI)8t (O)8'rrQ) (Superlative) QJIfjIJjl~'" {j)'-J,IliI.

fiT(!llDlrrliJ I what he said is true. (./IJlDltiir 6iL~fLJ" L.filDtJJfLJrr~tb)

Mr. Jones is the tallest person that I have ever seen.

• what be said' nOr /D QUfLJlta 6iJ.".dfLJW ffl(!JIQJrrlll.

is true ~mu8 uIJAflA> ••

When

She lived in a time when women did not go out for work.

I had gone out at the time when you came to see me.

How he became very rich so soon is a mystery. Why he goes out so often at night is not knOWD to anyone.

When he will return i. not certain.

That he will pass the examination is definite.

Where

I like to live in a house where there is not much noise.

We are living in a world where machine is trying to oust man.

®Dj)uj., etB/J~ QJrr8;6iJfLJ_jmp; .. It is definite that ho will pass the examination'. fiTAT ~mUluul#ll1J '_~<9. {j) • p; m IB fLJ QJrr 6; 21},& $I 6u it fir ,taru !iii Gu tr i6 et (!JI Q}} tr IU "IB tC.rD 5 , Lm mUlllJrrAT ~f!:IQJ tt UJ rr 8iJtiJ 8;)i11 QlIiJIl U IJ VJflmQ)Q)1U oII(Gt54i1 _(!QJAlP;.i; .rr_,..

121.

GiI,~uu@Gilurr(J!jfij} :

She thinks that she Is the cleverest girl. Don't tell me that life is an empty dream .. The Hindus believe that people are born again and again.

I do not know whether I will succeed this time.

It is difficult to say whether there is life in Mars.

We can't say what will happen to us after death.

He didn't tell me where he was going

He described how the accident took place. You can't definitely say when it will rain.

LESSON 19

J. Doubling of consonant (9!>D OOI1L'-9-~".)

i. a.d(d(1~~8 9~ IIJ Q."iW,_ fjlrTal,,i GlqrrQ)

( syllabic) fiJDi}aiJiJ> "/JGlJD~j,ifiI a.al'_UJID"dfir,

J16iJQAI" JJ~JD~j4il ILdQ)lf (!:p .. AT IT • ,,"'_V t!i_QmfTL@ QJJ!4iI (J"'(J§t11,_j4i/ "'lTL..t.q.&(§ ....

L - Ib j
big + er - bigger
drum + ing - drumming
drop + ed III dropped. ii. ".,... .!9/~Q)4iI tgJAlm'8= Q,ff ,tb.iJfIrir {iJ!DIjj)dtll.

a..u.t..,rr J1@j§~®1b 9jbQJD~ffis. J116Gi1,rr .rDiliiJfl,.. ". /)JD"''' 9.6 JII~~IDIb (stross) a. .. '_UJl6rrd6il. j)I1Lt.q.8;(§W.

L - all :
admit .. Ing = admitting
occur + ed - occurred
forgot .. en - forgotten 4-,,1\) 9w"~@i (J/.DQJfTW .6j"'Il./JD'-tu GiI,rr jbiliiJfl6il i>"i' .6jAJ8'tti6b 9Gi"61 .a/~~.u. fiJ"'",rr 16"'_~1il "j)Q~~~#iJ ~O'LIf.8i"#iJ·

L-fl,:
answer + ed - answered
enter + ing - entering
murmur + ed - murmured. fii~ G .. "I\)~" Ldo>, o#j~~.tJiI ~/l)Ijld. "(Jib 'I' j)IJ'L'-9-'.Lb.

control +ed quarrel + ing

- controlled. _ quarrelling.

L - &6:
replace 4- able - replaceable
trace + able = traceable
courage + ous - courageous
manage 4- able - manageable
("', ce ~g)J~dQ) a..aL...IU GI,,,. pIS'" OUI nfigp 9L@
QJ r6tJj1 G /F(!§t.fjJ,_~ ~ (iJ IDI i) u!ilii> a..~D'fT C "fig /D a..dli'
i ctilS~ j)d1lLfw.
L-Lbl
grace ~ ous - gracious
malice 4- ous - . malicious
vice + ous - vicious B. Omisson of final 'e' (~!!B~u!i';' a.6ft~ 'e' G8i(1'lPi6ll)

(.) QlFrr6lJiV1.. 9~Gl/D~~Q/fJrr..o-tOD/f) cJJ~jj8 FFJb;J5Jt.> Q1~W 'c' Lu!i~V (!J)/IJ-"'& ... ~L-IU ~L@QJ"8 (J4'(f§t.fJJL-~i5I G6i@w.

L -16 i
love + lag == loving
encourage ~ ing - encouraging
leave + ing '"" leaving 3. Words ending In 'yO, (y iJlDI~ "'~'_IU G",,,. /J.g,iTr )

(.If) Q",rr.wa. ~D~d';' 9iJa>/DUJ~~i5I .,~w y. iDa /668" ~~ ~a>ar&l 9&:.(98i~ 6lJffi., G",C!§tiI.a;rrQD61) j

..... ~ ~d1"1W'

(~) 9/J-/D e!:j)/fJfIIJ".8J a.mL-ru 9c:..(b), ., Ii DilllF (!Ju9L- ~ II.
'.' QIIJL-"'tIiI IDJDrt!Jw•
__ -16:
hope + ful - hopeful
encourage • ment == encouragement
base + less - baseless
...u-"'''
due + Iy - duly
true + Iy = trully
argue + ment - argument
c81U LJ /D JJffJL...IIJAJ fItI .6IQJ mrraR ~!li~ Q.".~.s. L - tb I
marry + cd = married
happy 4- er - happier
vary + ed - varied
4-rr• carrying nffdr(J/D ."LDILf,)·
carry + ing - (4) Q",rrQ>66e1lt iJ,.~d" ... d-v "@~B QlC!§t.D 9/JO uur JD/DLDa> L-lUrr iii.

(&i)} ce, Ie 4,8f1Jm/Ja>/D fiDji;)d. La>&...1U GI"'"/b&flBdt (!JJdt, 8 ~6iJfIIJ!li 0 (!J)/6QfllJC!:f~/6rrtJ;QJ~'-UJ 9&:.@ IU~/Pl (J",(!§t.fjJL.~liIt dI#Q",,, /JIIJiYflfil iJDJ}dS/.tte G.L.rr4jJ tiP.,).

IL-Lbl
play + ed -= played
obey + ed - obeyed
4. Ie!. el Q." /J..... (yJ~«J. .';'61)B ~",,_d" &'roITfitl ~_.d" ( .ylIable) i Ul6i1 e Q1(!J,}! "",WITQ) c fiPlU~ Q/fJIT, _ _tT ~~

oi aJ®w!

.124

beJieve relieve grieve

I. Cui fR'Atwl:b 9~@

LESSON 20

receive deceive conceive.

HOW TO WRITE WITHOUT MISTAKES ( Ohil !p JB ~ Ji 6T (!9!§J QI!§J IT U L.J IIJ. )

+ full + full

fiJ~."DW fJrrw UI.f.~. ,a'-lI.JtiJ.6fr ..J.I,tftilfl)Qwrr y51iilDlU

~I16tT "I~. (!p~ '4-'" ~ er (!1J~. (J Ug ~ BA)f;- CD! * tUOllW • Q wrr !p

, rr!TU"W ,a j) 81m itr fJrr Ib Q jD'" t§ j) (§ tb~" .iW Ib, JJW AlW ILl w,tIJ Ul"Wa. €itfl) .. WIUIIJ."". jD6lJ 8)J&~ • 4@{68.a(J)~'" IDiII7. @m,-w'p"PI uuJJj)~ujAlrr(JQ)(J1U IDtTw Qwrry51~ (J~tt'#~ GUID (!P IJI.lLltb. ..f£uj fJ)I w fiJ lUI®' ID ill mer t5J..m JI) & 65)6TT ~ /icB!T ~ f5J~ Q&,,6frelij)(!!Ju tJW6lJQJw @p5)U4lJAl6TT dll1J-8;8ilJl. tlAJwfil/ u(J) ~ j' Q8I ... 6TT6U (J ilIliliDr(J)tll •

9" c.d6rr6U.,-6'81 fuJJ *letflDlw UJlIA a",It.illuu@tb au" 161 ..,~"' @DJi) I Gil8S@LiJ.

use help

.... useful == helpful.

~!iJB 9~(bl6 CJ",tta&uU(blw Q*"QJ~IIJi) 11 ..... '-li"uj. tllJlDfiir (j)lJ)Jjl I GilIl(blW.

I. Order of words in a sentence (6lJ,,&fiIUl~fjQ) Gil",,,. 9C!fifle' ",,1iJ8"'~jl. Q/fT&~UJ~jj. !iJliJiuurrw Q",".t» 9~nb~ ~A76lJ(!§UlfTD dlQ)UlILIW'

L - tb I skill

full

+- full _ skilful + fill - fulfil

SUbject + verb + object + adverb

@ArOlllb il6l.l 6flj).~.t~ 'GilUUJttllQ;" u/J4. u"'-~ji). UI®'"".D""&IIit.b ujJpjUJ U(§Ji)mlfJu .,"It&il6I/W.

L - II J

Gopal speaks English correctly.

• 126

(I' QUIJO'",'-lli. (acjectives) .tIJAt6lJ 68(JiiF'4-~f9I IJbfll1J QUWft# Q",,, /b86e4;@ ~w"rrtl) 6lJ(!§L1a. QUfIJerfil)"_~ Gl~,,'-tt (adjective phrase ) 4IIQ)fI)§iI GUfIJ'65)'_~ li'm"lIJw (adjective clause) ..fI,ui'" cBai ... .i8luGuOIb G'".";''''IJ(bl~4iI Q/(!JLb. @/iW dlrl1fil/_f86J1u t t ~Ib urr,-~fj. Urtl1'8.81.

CiI) .a •• lJal-lI6fT QJ"ioillU ~Di)ujQ) QlQlw! ."'IIJ&~ J. -aw CI"I-~Q)IDt:J UfTtf.t ••

• • CODo.rd (lj_S'fil/)

n(!j)fM""Iw UIIJAflQJ)6lJlLlw. nmr C number), fiJ,_tb (petioli) ..f£.IJ"~"~ {ja'fil/ QUD~Q) OQJmr(bltb •• (j)a"'Q},IJ"ctlul-'* QI (!I fM" I) •

(I) "Qf6l.m,u 9@mLCd6l> IL.n-G'I1Q~e17. UIIJAlfm_U/LD

9C!§QUDdll> d1mwfj6l> OQlmr(£ltb.

L -II.

The boy t with several others. was punished for mischief.

Meera, like her sister Mala, is tall and fair.

Chitrao as well as her sisters, was asked to sing at the concert.

(VJ 9C!§Alwd6'b a.w." {ijufiilsl(£l QUfJIt." and (!pQ1Lb

i)OIfim'8;suQutODu QUfTlJ<fiiim_ G .. ,ui7@!JUlfTui ...

..,uQurt.~AlW61 uAr..,UWL9ti> ~muJlLltb.

L-th

He laughs. She sings

The baby sleeps.

(Ii) fIT(!JlQlrrtU uwmllllLJQ) L6TTirr ~rrd., U UJaI1f'86lJ1Ll1b

um-Alwd6l> J1Jmw~Q) (JaJ.~Ib.

a..-Lb:

They laugh We sing Babies sleep

L - Lb :

Jack and Jane are good friends.

The cat and the dog were quarrelling.

(iii) each of them, everyone of the boys, neither of the girls, uwu_ (Jurrliit JD Q~rrLri'&@91A each. everyone, anybody, everybody, nobody mii1u .. (Jurrw ,l)A'I 611 lit Lb ., (!Jl illrr UJ tr 5 dIIVWUHLJW aurr. , UIJ~milJ 9(!)A'lUlILia> ~m!lJlLJtb.

(vlJ ,.It 9C!§41DLDtl QUlurrg;. either _. __ . Of, .!ItQ)Q)!JiIa

neither _ .• _ Ilor (!J6lJLb i)6lIJAlIT&&uU(hlwrrujOt. ~u Q ulUlt.. Q.rrQr @Jib ,s Q»AI' 9\fjAlwd;o .!Itmwlllib.

e_-t6:

Each of them was given a reward. Neither of the girls il present.

Everyone of the boys has a separate room. Each child has a toy.

Anybody is allowed to take part in the competition.

Nobody is happy with the result.

L - tb:

Either the president or the Secretary has made the mistake ..

Neither Lee la nor Sheela knows anything about it.

3. Tense

QflIciJ(}QlD .rr", _""fiO~~Q) ullJritu@j~uu(hl1b .. rrQ)

Ql'a .... uJbpjru iSj)5Q)6B ~o'd1 JDrrtB ~.(YIA I4dw(GJ1il ulJI-/JljI/J G#J"~. "'QJ~.&Q.fT6fter5J5W.

(il> 9C!§61Dwuiw L6Trirr u@illrru!imfilfT~ QlDrrLtf JiUil, with, like .aJIRJQJ/Pl as well as DTW6IJ, QllrrL®@Lb GlUlIJttJ, GlIDrrLrr Q/(!jwrrujw, .. GiJGl6lI~Q/rrliJ ~ C!J m UI U u..,~ .. .,(Jfl.J GiI.ff6Yr@9Lb.

He W81 went. They quarrelling.

fITQkUAl (J urrfir /D II QI JDfTW . Qlrr 8; e UJtlf8ifi» itr W rrWifll/ ill tf a;. "(!P§jJeJftjJ~~ .rrumrw. Tense u~pjru Q/liQ#lQlrrw ,sfil1&. cBATfiIDW(JIJ. .., J[)JU j .. ~ j)ilJ if>l1uut.:,,_ @,"itr 5 rr_LiI U jJ pJ1 U ..,t.:.L..ilI_ ... d., .rrL..UJ.u udjJ~ J1.cB. "'QJ~ulb.

11128

QJ 8'01 III Q8'GiJ fiI) QJ IU rr S ""AI LJjjIliUU(j) /fj Jb@ it6U 51(!;1r5J@IIi-rt.

JJ ~a;m 8uj5lL-Ud UJ-8i1JlUUL-itJ dlQJitlUUJ. .aJQururr(J JD QllFfiIIT til

"'"HD~P;,tb(§ CJQla@w. G8'6iJoflv G8'rr ,rDtT.QJli'R'm GJBIfIJ}4ji

QllirrwQl~Ill, (J!5tTfi;~/fj(juu;gJw ..,Ql91aJW G8'rr ;iJ.WtR~ /fjoil'QJlI..O .5 6IDfitT tq W • 6'lJ filii ~ !/JILl U uj /J fjluj DiJ Q.IT GIiaT (p QI@ /fj DiJ CZ Qlmr@w. ~6iJQJ6lD$u.J1ii> "jWQJ(!Jw. @!OuL/.AlfJ1 UJw/Ji);b Q&lTms;.

CO i)6l1 GlFrr/J.Gft QutiJO'rr&6lJth "AlWIlIIT."Ith UoW

U(j)Jb/fjuu(961J~mr(i). R(j~§i8UJJrr":"L-rr&# ~6l1.

(lit) Q'~" flllflI)w.J GI,rriIJCZ."IT(Jth -ina

.. .i~JB Q) {iJ1lI.j)1JuJ'; ..,~ /B6f'I& III

f QlBrr~JJ GururT) iT6II'Ilu(9il. 8 4th ulTL-~m/fju urr#&5)

a8'rTj~u GuUJ"" GlUILJlf' gerund

( L If)IT {J' fi'6IT ffi ~ oS@j

4. Vocabulary

(iv) ilQJ Q,IT !bIJIfM 9(J0' QJUJ-"I6f'lL..lIJfifI'QlrriiiJ, 9"'C!J fir@j ~&.i'R'trQ) ~;t;~ QOlJ/DIu":"@ "JJ~UJ. L~rO'RfTLJj IT. 1

work, play, walk, drink, plant smoke, smell, touch, burst, use.

NOUD Verb
advice advise
practice practise
breath breathe
belief believe
grief grieve He is without work. (noun) We must work hard. (verb)

There is no smoke without fire. (noun) You smoke too much. (verb)

fj8l,IJQD ..,QUJDiJ6l1rrth ~Q)fIU oM BitT". j)uJ6ir !IiI6ID~Q "f7riM@ .

Q/fjttJi 61 G.rrfb"""'f7Il. ..rt£CT lluJDmfllJu!ifiu d6iTQI(!jw "".U'fTj)&m U1LJ.u@~~Q) ~riT g.

(d1!b1u~IiP;.Q) /fjlfUU":"CPGft"" .fiI)fillThGllFtrQ) JDufi6)" UfiU flIi6f'lRllllm GUUJO'f7 1ll6lJ th UrlJtSlur» j; /fj ~ IB 6.5611' • r610lJ j)6'6) II /lWfiI) ~IllO'f7fBd. .m.,Q.rr_@ ""JI)fD~ Q.rrw&.)

) . The Progressive English Dictionary. (Hornby and Parnwell )

2. Advanced Learners' Dictionary of Current EDglish.

eii) iRfIU Q,ff' ~.Gft flIiA)RTIIJrr • .,w QUUJITA)L-IUf76I.,tb

UUJdI'u(B6IJIifI.

3. -liP" o:fI,*QfiI)_.t ~r.SJj)~ 6'6I.IUBi/},rrjiJ. e BIrr. "uUf'~~6f'lO'ut5Ivir6f'lQT )

open, shut, clean, wet. dry.

,. fiJ"~UJIT- 9~ Qltrrt~fif1~. (Jusrtb (JUtrI/JlW 11'(!ll§itb (JUf7~tb Q,"ICI.,fiiw LJj..:..~th Urf/.I'IULDf7fiIIT QlFrr ;DlllmfirT j JJfiiitf'~ ••

Id/},AfI'tlJrr.su . QUf7C!J iii GA/fjlflfDlJ. "i'IflaJ Gil8'f7 jb(J;",,,,,atu

uaJ.u(1J~~ .s.

L - tb :

Please. open the door. (verb) The door is open. (adjective)

Why don't you clean the room' (verb) He puts on clean clothes. (adjective)

.130

ALISTOF WORDS FREQUENTLY MIS-SPELT

Absent Achieve' Across Agreeable:

Although Angle Another Appearance August

Badminton Because Benefited Blue

Break

Careful Ceiling Character Coarse Committee

Comparative Condemn Controlled Counsel (advice) Crucifixion

A
Accommodate Accommodation
Acquaintance Acquiesce
Address Affectionately
Already All righl
Always Analyse
Angel Anomaly
Answer Appalling
Appreciate Argument
Awkward
B
Balloon Beautiful
Beginning Believe
Bicycle Biscuit
Boiled Brake
Business
C.
Carrying Caught
Cellar Cemetery
Choose Clothes
Colour Commemorate
Complement Compliments
( greetings)
Conceive Concreto
Conscience Control
Correspondence Council
Counterfeit Course
Cupfuls Cutting APPENDIX

A List Of Words Frequelltly Mis - Spelt. i.

il. Some Commonly Used Regular Verbs.

iii. Irregular Verb~.

iv. Some Common Adjectives.

v. Tenses in Tables.

D
Deceit Deceive Decide
Democracy Dependent Describe
Description Desert Dessert
Desperate Developed Different
Disappoint Discreet Disease
Divide Drily Drummer
Dyeing Dying
E
Eccentric Ecstasy Elementary
Elephant Enemies Engineer
Equalled Exaggerate Excel
Excellent Excitement Exercise
Existence Expense Explanation
Eyeing
F
Favourite Faithfully Fiery
Football Foreign Foresight
Forteit Forty Fourteen
Freight Friend Fulfil
Fulfilled
G
Gay GaIety Gallop
Galloped Gaol Gauge
Goddess Good-bye Government
Grat.ful Grief Guard
H
Handful Harass Heal
Heel Heard Heart
Height However Humorous
Humour Hundred Hypocrisy
133. I
Immediate Immediately Ind lspensable 0
Infinite Initial Initialled Obedience Obediently Occasionally
Interrupt Occurred Offerred Opened
J Opposite Oppressor Originally
Jacket ' Jail Jealous P
Jeep Jewel Jeweller
Jewellery Journey Journeys Paid Parallel Paralleled
Joyfu1 Joyfully Judge Paralyse Parliament 'Pastime
Judgement Peace Persuade Phantom
K Picturesque Piece Playwright
Kaleidoscope Keenness Kerosene Pleasure Possess Possession
Kidnap Kidnapped Kindergarten Potato Potatoes Practice (v)
Kinsfold Knave Kneel Practise (V) Pray Precede
Knelt Knit Knife Prepare Prey Principal
Knight Knot Knowledge Principle Prisoner Privilege
L Probably Proceed Profession
Laboratory Laugh Laundry Proof Pursue Pursuit
Lavatory League Leisure Q
Leper Licence (n) License (V)
Lightening Lightning Likelihood Quarrel Quarrelled Queue
Livelihood Longevity Loose Quickly
Lose Lovable Loving
Lying R
M Rebelled Receipt Receive
Marvellous Massacre Mercenary Reconnoitre Reddish Refer
Minute MIschief Missionary Referred Relieve Religious
Misspell Mtsspelt Monotonous Remedy Representa tive Resistance
Mysterious
N Rhyme Rhythm Road
Necessary Neighbour Niece Rode
Ninety Noise Noticeable S
Nuisance Sail Salo Scene
Scissors Sea See
.134 135. S V
Seize Sentence Separate Versatility Veterinary' Veto
Sergeanll Servant Shoes Vigorous Villain Visitor
Shoeing Shyly Siege Voice Volcano Volcanoes
Simultaneous Sincerely Skill Volley Volleys Voluntary
Skilful Skilfully Slyly Volunteer Vomit Vomited
Solemn Solemnly Some Vomiting
Son Sovereign Speech W
Stationary Stationery Steal Wagon Waylay Waylaid
(not moving) Wait Waist Waste
Steel Stirred Storey Weak Wednesday Week:
Story Straight Strait Weipht ' , Welcome Welfare
Strength Subtle Succeed Whatever Whenever Wherever
Sum Summary Sun Whichever. Whoever Whole
Supplement Syllable Sympathy Wholly Willful Wilfully
T Withdraw Withold Woe
Tale Tail Tapping Woeful Wooden Woollen
Tense Their There Worshipped Would Wrist .. watch
Threw Throne Through Writo Writing
Thrown Toeing Trapping
Traveller Truly Two Y
U Year Yield Yours
Unanimous Unauthorized Uncontrollable
Underlie Underlying Undue Z
Uuduly U nf orgetta ble University Zeal Yealous Zenana
Unparallelled Until Unwieldy Zenana Zero Zeros
Unable Utterance Zoo Zoos
V
Vaccinate Vacuum Valedictory
Valley Valleys Valour
V"luable Vengeance Versatile
• 136 137 • B
SOME COMMONLY USED, REGULAR Earn Educate Elect
VERBS Employ Encourage Enjoy
Enter Escape Examine
A Expect Explain ,Express
Acquire F
Accept: Accuse Fade Fail Paint
Act Add Agree Fill Finish Fix
Allow Answer Appear Flost Follow Force
Argue Arrange Ask: Frigbten Fry Fulfil.
Attack Attend Attract G
Avoid Gather Govern Grece
B
Bathe Beg Behave Guess
H
Believe Belong Bend Happen Heal Help
Blame Bless Boil Hope
Borrow Breathe Build I
Bury Imagine Imitate improve
C Include Inform Inspect
Can Capture Carry Intend Interfere Inve.nt
Celebrate Cbange Check Invito
Clean Climb Close J
Collect Complain Complete Join Jump
Confuse Congratulate Connect
Consider Contain Continue K
Cook Co-operate Count Kill Kick Kiss
Cover Cry Cure Knock
Curse L
D Laugb Lean Lift
Dance Deceive Decide Like Listen Live
Decorate Defeat Defend Lock Love
Delay Deny Describe M
Destroy Develop Die March Mark Marry
Dig Disappoint Discover Measure Miss Mi~
Discuss Disturb Divide Move
Dream Drown
139 •
• t38 N U
Need' Notice Unite Use
0' V
Obey Occupy Value Visit Vote
Open W
Operate' Oppose Order
Wait Wake Walk
p Wander Want Warn
Pay Pick Play Wash Waste Watch
Post Practise Praise Weigh Wipe 'Wish
Pray Prepare Pretend Work Worry Worship
Prevent Produce Protect y
Protest Pull Punish Yawn
Push put
R
R.aise Reach Reap
Receive' Recommend Recover IRREGULAR VERBS
Refuse Regret Remain INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE
Remove' Repair Repeat arise
Reply Report Request arose arisen
Respect Return Rob awake awoke/awaked a woken / a waked
Roll Rule bear bore born (birth)
borne (carried,
S endured)
Save Scold Separate; beat beat beaten
Serve Smile Start
Stane Stay Stitch become became become
Study Succeed Suffer begin begaB begun
Supply Surrender bend bent bent
bet bet bel
T bind bound bound
Talk Test Threaten. bite bit bitten
Tie Touch Train bleec:f bled bled
Transfer Translate Travel blow blew blown
Treat Try Turn break broke broken
.140 141. breed bred bred get got got
bring brought brought give gave given
build built built went gone
go
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned grind ground ground
burst burst burst grow grew grown
buy bought bought hang bung/hanged hung/banged
catch caught caught hear beard beard
choose chose chosen hide hid hidden
cling clung clung hit hit . hit
come came come hold held held
cost cost cost hurt burt hurt
creep crept crept keep kept kept
cut cut cut kneel knelt knelt
dig dug dug know knew known
do did done lay laid laid
draw drew drawn lead led led
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed lean leaned/leant leaned/lean.
drink drank drunk leapt leapt leapt
drive drove driven learn learnt ,learned learnt I learned
eat ate eaten leave left left
fall feU fallen lend lent lent
feed fed fed let let let
feel felt felt lie lay lain
fight fought fought light lit I lighted lit I lighted
find found found lose lost lost
flee fled fled make' made made
fly flew flown mean meant mean.
forget forgot forgotten meet met met
forgive forgave forgiven melt melted melted ('molten' is
forsake forsook forsaken an adjective)
freeze froze frozen pay ,aid paid
• 142 143 • put put put spoil spoilt spoilt
read read read spread spread spread
ring Tang rung spring sprang sprung
rise rose risen stand stood stood
rot rotted rotted ('rotteu' is
an adjective) steal stole stolen
run ran run stick stuck stuck
say said said sting stung stung
see saw seen stink stank stunk-
seek sought. sought stride strode stridden
sell sold sold strike struck struck
send sent sent
set set set swear swore sworn
sew sewed sewed/sewn sweep swept swept
shake shook shaken swell swelled swollen
shed shed shed swim
shine shone shone swam swum
shoot sbot shot swing swung swung
show showed shown take toot taken
shrink shrank shrunk teach taught taught
shut shut shut tear tore torn
sing sang sung tell told told
sink sank sunk (' sunken • IS thought thought
(an adjective) think
sit sat sat throw threw thrown
slay slew slain thrust thrust thrust
sleep slept slept wake woke woken
smell smelt smelt wear wore worn
sow sowed sown (also 'sowed', weave wove woven
speak spoke spoken weep wept wept
spell spell spelt
spend spent spent win won won
spin spun spun wind wound wound
spit spa. spat wring wrung wrung
split split split write wrote written
• 144 145 • SOME CO.\lMON A. DJECTIVES jealous joyful
able active afraid .. last late lazy ...
ancient" angry anxious lean light little *
attruactive awful awkward long ... lovely ... lucky
basic beautiful big .. mad main mental
blind brave bright merciful merciless merry
broad busy mild mischievous miserable
modern
calm careful careless .
charming cheap cheerful narrow national natural
neat necessary near
clean common cool
next , noble
correct courageous cruel
curlous obedient ordinary other ...
daily ... daring. dark pale. painful painless
deep delicious different patient peaceful pitiful
difficuh dirty disgraceful physical pleasant playful
disobedient doubtful dull • plenty. polite poor
early • easy excellent proper
expensive extra • Queer Quiet Quick
faithful fair false rare ready real
famous ... favourite ... fearful reasonable regular remarkable
fearless final firm respects b le responsible restless
foolish. foreign ... fortunate round rough rude
free full funny rural
gay general generous sacred sad satisfactory
gentle good ... grand selfish sensible separate
great guilty several severe shallow •
happy hard * harmful shameful similar short
harmless hasty healthy silen, silly • simple
heavy belpful helpless sinful singular small ...
holy horrible hungry smart smooth soft
special still • straight
idle ill. I important .. straight. strong successful
intelligent sunny sure sweet
.146 147. talkative tender terrible
thin thick thirsty •
thoughtful thoughtless tidy
tiny * true
ugly * uncommon uneasy
unfair unkind unpleasant
unpopular untrue unusual
useful usueless usual
various victorious violent
warm watchful weak
wealthy wide wild
wonderful worthy worthless
young • egJh)4 J

"'(i}&(?§J8 (. ) ~L..L- G8'rr .I.fir ~t8"jl6 I6/DQJ/JD'-W -ly C)"'";5!5J flimAltUmL- "".t6l6l>lrtll. .alliiJl&Jrr!!J a","&(§Li.l aU"!5J ~.~UJ f7~~ItiIUlrr /J~tiJ.mifl 19 <sib urrL-j~i» Q",,,ibflUJ QJ/i).~w !5JmfilRfTQ5rr,*@ Q """".

.~ ~ aQ

:

-------------------

- -
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