Part IV

First Aid

FIRST AID
An immediate and temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness until the service of a physician can be obtained.

Two Main Points
1. Attend immediately to the most serious injury; and 2. Speed

Sequence of Actions
Give the urgently necessary first aid Have the victim lay down Check for injuries Plan what to do Carry out the indicated procedures

Give the urgently necessary first aid

While first aid is being administered to the patient, someone else should call for a physician.

Keep the patient lying down Protect the patient from necessary disturbance and handling to prevent shock.

Check for Injuries
Consider the important cues, the story of what happened, reaction of the patient after the incident and your own findings.

Plan what to do
Call a doctor or an ambulance
Take all the precautions in handling the patient Discuss the problem with responsible relatives Instruct helpers on what to do

Carry out the indicated first aid

Stop the bleeding first, then know if artificial respiration is needed and then a more thorough examination will be done.

Three Hurry Cases That Need Urgent First Aid

Poisoning

Three Hurry Cases That Need Urgent First Aid

Ways of controlling bleeding
Direct pressure
Elevating the bleeding part of the body Applying pressures on the pressure points Use of a tourniquet

Direct Pressure

Elevate the Bleeding Wound

Finger pressure on brachial artery

Finger pressure on femoral artery

Three Hurry Cases That Need Urgent First Aid

Choking

Treatment for Choking

Causes of breathing Stoppage
Choking Shock Hanging Drowning Electrocution Suffocation

Heart attack
Strangling

Co pression of the chest Carbon onoxi e poisoning

Signs of Stoppage of breathing
Tongue, lips and fingernails become bluish

The patient becomes unconscious
The pupils become enlarged

How to verify if breathing stopped?

Three Hurry Cases That Need Urgent First Aid

Poisoning

Practices that may cause poisoning
Leaving medicines within the reach of children

Carelessness on the part of parents
Improper storage and disposal of poisonous substances

Improper use of insect spray Mixing alcohol and medicines Keeping unlabeled medicines

Taking medicines in the dark
Inhalation or swallowing of dangerous substances Poison transferred from the original container to jars or soft drink bottles

Symptoms of poisoning
Abdominal pain

Vomiting
Nausea Headache Dizziness

FirstFirst-Aid Treatment for Poisoning
Treat the victim as unconscious and bring to the nearest hospital as quickly as possible.

Find out what poison he/she swallowed
If the patient has burned lips, mouth or tongue, DO NOT MAKE THE PERSON VOMIT

FirstFirst-Aid Treatment for Poisoning
Refer the patient to the nearest hospital

Make the person vomit by giving four or more glasses of warm water with salt or baking soda in it to dilute the poison. Milk to protect the digestive track lining.

Putting a finger down his throat
Give one tablespoon of syrup of Ipecac if possible.

After vomiting give him/her an activated charcoal powder mixed with water, milk with eggs, flour mixed with water, crumpled burnt toast.

FirstFirst-Aid for Bone and Joint Injuries
An injury to the soft tissues, such as the ligaments, muscles, tendons and blood vessels surrounding the joints.

Sprain

Commonly sprained parts of the body

Ankles Fingers Wrist knees

Symptoms of Sprain
Swelling Tenderness Pain in motion Discoloration of the skin

First aid treatment for sprained ankle

First aid treatment for sprained ankle
Avoid walking Elevate the sprained ankle to comfortable position
Apply ice of cold compress to relieve the pain on the first day Rest the joint for one or two weeks Consult a doctor if pain and swelling do not subside

FirstFirst-Aid for Bone and Joint Injuries
An injury to the muscle due to overexertion, the musclesStrain are overstretched and sometimes partially torn.

Commonly strained parts of the body

Back muscles

Symptoms of Strain

Muscle pain

Cramps

First aid treatment for strained back

First aid treatment for strained back
Person with strained back are advised to rest
Lie at a hard surface such as the floor rather than a soft bed If severe back pain it needs medical care

FirstFirst-Aid for Bone and Joint Injuries

A break in a bone

Kinds of Fractures
Break in the bone without a wound

Kinds of Fractures
Has wound caused by the end of the broken bone tears through the skin

Kinds of Fractures
Bone is broken into small pieces

Commonly fractured parts of the body

Upper arm Ribs Elbo

knee Ankle Foot

Symptoms of fracture
Hearing or feeling a bone snap Feeling a grating of broken bones rubbing together
Obvious deformities, swelling and discoloration of the injured parts

First aid treatment for sprained ankle
Examine the victim for other serious injury Stop bleeding by applying hand pressure (except compound fracture) to the supplying blood vessels

Cover all open fractures with a clean pad or cloth Immobilize the broken bones and the adjacent joint with a splint or an arm sling.
Don not attempt to push back the bone end

Give first aid for shock
Apply an ice bag on the injured area
Do not allow the victim to see his / her own injury Seek medical help

First Aid for Sudden Illness
An abnormal, violent, and involuntary series of contractions of the muscles in an infant or a small child.

Symptoms of convulsions in children
Has rigidity of body muscles which may last from a few seconds to perhaps half a minute.
A child in convulsion is foaming at the mouth or drooling

Symptoms of convulsions in children
The child may stop breathing, bite his or her own tongue, and lose bladder and vowel control
There is bluish discoloration of the face and lips of he child

First aid treatment
Remove the clothes of the child Place the child in a cool place
Wet the front part of the body with cold water, or apply wet cold compress on the forehead

First aid treatment
Give the child plenty of coldcoldwater

Get medical assistance immediately or bring the child to the hospital

First Aid for Sudden Illness
Neurological disorder characterized by seizure of convulsion, which may either be petitmal or grandmal seizure.

First aid treatment
Keep the patient lying down
Keep his/her airway open Remove nearby object
If the victim·s mouth is open, place a rolled handkerchief between the side teeth to prevent him from biting his/her tongue

Loosen victim·s collar, belt and pants Do not give the victim any liquid Turn his/her head to one side to allow saliva to drool Allow the victim to sleep and dress after seizure If breathing stops apply artificial respiration Get medical help if convulsion occurs again

First Aid for Sudden Illness
The infection of the vermiform appendix connected to the large Appendicitis side intestine at the right of the abdomen.

Symptoms of appendicitis
Intense pain in the abdomen
Usually felt around the area of the navel, pain moves to the lower right side of the abdomen Pain causes the victim to lose appetite, vomit, be constipated, and have fever

First aid treatment
Immediately get the help of a doctor or bring him/her to the hospital Do not give the patient any fluid or solid food and enema. Let him / her rest in an inclined position

First Aid for Sudden Illness
A depressed state body functions that threatens life. Can be a temporary shock or an emotional shock.

First aid treatment
Three basic things to remember position, heat and fluid If the victim is lying on the floor, place a blanket beneath him/her according to the temperature of the environment Do not allow the victim to sweat, prevent large loss of body heat

First aid treatment
Fluids are important. Plain water, either hot or cold. It should only be given when the victim is conscious, not nauseated.
Give necessary first to other injuries. Avoid disturbing the victim by unnecessary questioning, manipulation, and noise

First Aid for Sudden Illness
May occur when the blood pressure of a person is higher than 140/90.

Symptoms of heart attack
Pain at the back of the head Suffers from dizziness
Shortness of breath Chest pain Lips and fingernails turn bluish

A chronic cough Swelling of the ankle

First aid treatment
While waiting for the doctor, have the patient lie down with head raise higher than the body
Provide adequate ventilation, guarding against drafts and colds

First aid treatment
Do not give fluids to an unconscious patient

If breathing stops, but pulse is felt, apply artificial respiration or mouth to mouth resuscitation

First Aid for Sudden Illness
Caused by blood clot or bleeding involving a vessel of the brain due to the hardening of the entries and high blood pressure.

Symptoms of stroke
The patient becomes unconscious, breaths heavily, and suffers paralysis of the upper or lower extremities or both. both. The pupils of the eyes may also be unequal in size. size.

Symptoms of stroke
If the damage to the brain is mild, there may be dizziness or headache, a sudden failure of memory, muscular difficulty involving some body parts, a speech defect or ringing of the ears. ears.

First aid treatment
Call a doctor immediately and kept the victim lying flat on his/her back. Turn the patient·s head on its side to allow drooling from the mouth if having difficulty in breathing

First aid treatment
Do not give fluids to an unconscious patient Apply wet compress or towel on the forehead
Keep the body temperature normal If the breathing stops apply immediately cardiopulmonary massage

First Aid for Sudden Illness

Caused by too Severe much intake of alcoholic beverages. Intoxication

Symptoms of severe intoxication

Redness or paleness of the face Fast or weak pulse Breath smells of alcohol Loss of consciousness

First aid treatment
Sponge the drunken person with a wet, warm towel Give him a hot milk or coffee without sugar Induce vomiting if he is already conscious

First aid treatment
Massage the hands, arms, and feet to allow blood to circulate If the breathing stops apply immediately cardiopulmonary massage Call a physician

First Aid for Sudden Illness

Snake Bite

Symptoms of snake bite
Aside from the fang marks, are severe pain in the area of the bite Swelling and darkening around the side of the wound Weakness due to difficulty in breathing Pulse change, nausea, blurring of vision until the victim losses consciousness

First aid treatment
Let the victim lie down without moving the bitten part to prevent the spread of the poison Apply a tourniquet just above the bite, seek medical care at once from the hospital for anti-venom injection anti-

First aid treatment
Do not give alcohol and other stimulants to a victim of poisonous insect bite, it could cause the rapid spread of the poison Sucking the venom and spitting it out is no longer recommended

First Aid for Sudden Illness The process of allowing air to and from the lungs by mechanical or manual means.

Mouth-toMouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation
Mouth-to-Mouth-andMouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation on a Child Under Age 8 or on an Infant

First Aid Treatment
Place the child on a hard, flat surface.. surface
Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear.. If an object is present, try clear to sweep it out with your fingers If vomiting occurs, turn the child onto his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. fingers.

First Aid Treatment
Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.. airway
Place your mouth tightly over the nose and mouth.. Blow two quick, mouth shallow breaths (smaller breaths than you would give to an adult).. adult) Watch for the chest to rise.. rise

First Aid Treatment
Remove your mouth. Look for the mouth. chest to fall as the child exhales.. exhales
Listen for the sounds of breathing. breathing. Feel for the child·s breath on your cheek. cheek. If breathing does not start on its own, repeat the procedure.. procedure

Mouth-toMouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation on a Child Age 8 or Older or on an Adult

First Aid Treatment
Make sure the person is lying on a hard, flat surface.. surface Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear.. If an clear object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers (wear disposable surgical gloves if they are available). available).

First Aid Treatment
If vomiting occurs, turn the person on his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Do not place your fingers. finger in the mouth if the person is rigid or is having a seizure Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. airway. Put upward pressure on the jaw to pull it forward.. forward

First Aid Treatment
Pinch the nostrils closed with thumb and index finger.. Place your mouth finger tightly over the person·s mouth.. Use mouth a mouthpiece if one is available.. available Blow two quick breaths and watch for the person·s chest to rise.. rise

First Aid Treatment
Release the nostrils.. Look for the nostrils person·s chest to fall as he or she exhales. exhales. Listen for the sounds of breathing. breathing. Feel for the person·s breath on your cheek. If the person cheek. does not start breathing on his or her own, repeat the procedure

Transferring the victim without support

Ankle Pull
Grasp the victim by both ankles or pant cuffs. cuffs.
Pull with your legs, not your back. back. Keep your back as straight as possible.. possible Try to keep the pull as straight and in-line as inpossible. possible. Keep aware that the head is unsupported and may bounce over bumps and surface imperfections.. imperfections

SHOULDER PULL
Grasp the victim by the clothing under the shoulders.. shoulders Keep your arms on both sides of the head. head. Try to keep the pull as straight and ininline as possible.. possible
Try to keep the pull as straight and in-line as inpossible. possible.

SHOULDER PULL
Grasp the victim by the clothing under the shoulders.. shoulders Keep your arms on both sides of the head. head. Try to keep the pull as straight and ininline as possible.. possible
Try to keep the pull as straight and in-line as inpossible. possible.

Blanket Drag

Blanket Drag
The shoulder drag is accomplished by placing the victim in a supine position (laying on his back), grasping the clothing behind his shoulders, and dragging him in the desired direction. direction. Place the casualty in the supine position on a blanket and pull the blanket along the floor.. floor Always pull the casualty head first, with the head and shoulders slightly raised so that the head will not bump against the floor.. floor

Fireman·s Drag

Fireman·s Drag
Put the victim·s hands on his chest while he is lying on the floor Tie both hands with a handkerchief, a piece of cloth or bandage Straddle over the victim with the body supported by the arms and knees Put the tied hand around your neck Slowly crawl while carefully dragging the victim toward a safer place

Lover·s Carry

PackPack-a-back carry

Pack-strapPack-strap-Carry

Fireman·s Carry

Fireman·s Carry
Hook your elbows underneath the person's shoulders as they're laying face down.. Lift down them up gently until their chest is against yours. yours. Grasp the person's right wrist with your left hand and place it over your right shoulder. shoulder.
Squat down, keeping your back as straight as possible. possible.

Place your right hand between the legs of the victim and behind their right thigh.. thigh Using the muscles in your legs, rise from the squatting position and hoist the person's right thigh over your right shoulder. shoulder. Keep your back straight.. The straight left leg and arm of the person should now be hanging behind and the body is supported by your shoulders. Hold onto shoulders. their right arm and leg with your right and left hands, respectively, as you stand up.. up

Assisting a victim to walk

Carry and Transfer without The Use of Equipment

Fore-andFore-and-Apt Carry

TwoTwo-handed Seat/Swing

FourFour-handed Seat

Three Man Carry

Three Man Carry
Carrier number one supports the head and the shoulder
Carrier number kneels on the other side of the victim, support the body
Carrier number three kneels in line with carrier number one to support the thighs and legs of the victims

Six Man Carry

Six Man Carry
Three carriers kneel on their right knees at one side of the victim and the other three kneel on their left knees at the opposite side. side.
The hands and arms of the carriers are placed alternately under the victim·s body.. body

Carry and Transfer with The Use of Equipment

Lifting the Blanket

Lifting the Blanket
Three carriers kneel on their right knees at one side of the victim and the other three kneel on their left knees at the opposite side. side.
The hands and arms of the carriers are placed alternately under the victim·s body.. body

Using a Stretcher

Chair Carry

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