The Not So Short

Introduction to L
A
T
E
X2
ε
Or L
A
T
E
X2
ε
in 141 minutes
by Tobias Oetiker
Hubert Partl, Irene Hyna and Elisabeth Schlegl
Version 4.26, September 25, 2008
ii
Copyright ©1995-2005 Tobias Oetiker and Contributers. All rights reserved.
This document is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public
License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
this document; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave,
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Thank you!
Much of the material used in this introduction comes from an Austrian
introduction to L
A
T
E
X 2.09 written in German by:
Hubert Partl <partl@mail.boku.ac.at>
Zentraler Informatikdienst der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
Irene Hyna <Irene.Hyna@bmwf.ac.at>
Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung Wien
Elisabeth Schlegl <noemail>
in Graz
If you are interested in the German document, you can find a version
updated for L
A
T
E
X2
ε
by Jörg Knappen at
CTAN://info/lshort/german
iv Thank you!
The following individuals helped with corrections, suggestions and material
to improve this paper. They put in a big effort to help me get this document
into its present shape. I would like to sincerely thank all of them. Naturally,
all the mistakes you’ll find in this book are mine. If you ever find a word
that is spelled correctly, it must have been one of the people below dropping
me a line.
Rosemary Bailey, Marc Bevand, Friedemann Brauer, Barbara Beeton, Jan Busa,
Markus Brühwiler, Pietro Braione, David Carlisle, José Carlos Santos,
Neil Carter, Mike Chapman, Pierre Chardaire, Christopher Chin, Carl Cerecke,
Chris McCormack, Wim van Dam, Jan Dittberner, Michael John Downes,
Matthias Dreier, David Dureisseix, Elliot, Hans Ehrbar, Daniel Flipo, David Frey,
Hans Fugal, Robin Fairbairns, Jörg Fischer, Erik Frisk, Mic Milic Frederickx,
Frank, Kasper B. Graversen, Arlo Griffiths, Alexandre Guimond, Andy Goth,
Cyril Goutte, Greg Gamble, Frank Fischli, Morten Høgholm, Neil Hammond,
Rasmus Borup Hansen, Joseph Hilferty, Björn Hvittfeldt, Martien Hulsen,
Werner Icking, Jakob, Eric Jacoboni, Alan Jeffrey, Byron Jones, David Jones,
Johannes-Maria Kaltenbach, Michael Koundouros, Andrzej Kawalec,
Sander de Kievit, Alain Kessi, Christian Kern, Tobias Klauser, Jörg Knappen,
Kjetil Kjernsmo, Maik Lehradt, Rémi Letot, Flori Lambrechts, Axel Liljencrantz,
Johan Lundberg, Alexander Mai, Hendrik Maryns, Martin Maechler,
Aleksandar S Milosevic, Henrik Mitsch, Claus Malten, Kevin Van Maren,
Richard Nagy, Philipp Nagele, Lenimar Nunes de Andrade, Manuel Oetiker,
Urs Oswald, Lan Thuy Pham, Martin Pfister, Demerson Andre Polli,
Nikos Pothitos, Maksym Polyakov Hubert Partl, John Refling, Mike Ressler,
Brian Ripley, Young U. Ryu, Bernd Rosenlecher, Kurt Rosenfeld, Chris Rowley,
Risto Saarelma, Hanspeter Schmid, Craig Schlenter, Gilles Schintgen,
Baron Schwartz, Christopher Sawtell, Miles Spielberg, Matthieu Stigler,
Geoffrey Swindale, Laszlo Szathmary, Boris Tobotras, Josef Tkadlec, Scott Veirs,
Didier Verna, Fabian Wernli, Carl-Gustav Werner, David Woodhouse, Chris York,
Fritz Zaucker, Rick Zaccone, and Mikhail Zotov.
Preface
L
A
T
E
X [1] is a typesetting system that is very suitable for producing scien-
tific and mathematical documents of high typographical quality. It is also
suitable for producing all sorts of other documents, from simple letters to
complete books. L
A
T
E
X uses T
E
X [2] as its formatting engine.
This short introduction describes L
A
T
E
X2
ε
and should be sufficient for
most applications of L
A
T
E
X. Refer to [1, 3] for a complete description of the
L
A
T
E
X system.
This introduction is split into 6 chapters:
Chapter 1 tells you about the basic structure of L
A
T
E
X2
ε
documents. You
will also learn a bit about the history of L
A
T
E
X. After reading this
chapter, you should have a rough understanding how L
A
T
E
X works.
Chapter 2 goes into the details of typesetting your documents. It explains
most of the essential L
A
T
E
X commands and environments. After read-
ing this chapter, you will be able to write your first documents.
Chapter 3 explains how to typeset formulae with L
A
T
E
X. Many examples
demonstrate how to use one of L
A
T
E
X’s main strengths. At the end
of the chapter are tables listing all mathematical symbols available in
L
A
T
E
X.
Chapter 4 explains indexes, bibliography generation and inclusion of EPS
graphics. It introduces creation of PDF documents with pdfL
A
T
E
X and
presents some handy extension packages.
Chapter 5 shows how to use L
A
T
E
X for creating graphics. Instead of draw-
ing a picture with some graphics program, saving it to a file and then
including it into L
A
T
E
X you describe the picture and have L
A
T
E
X draw
it for you.
Chapter 6 contains some potentially dangerous information about how to
alter the standard document layout produced by L
A
T
E
X. It will tell you
how to change things such that the beautiful output of L
A
T
E
X turns
ugly or stunning, depending on your abilities.
vi Preface
It is important to read the chapters in order—the book is not that big, after
all. Be sure to carefully read the examples, because a lot of the information
is in the examples placed throughout the book.
L
A
T
E
X is available for most computers, from the PC and Mac to large UNIX
and VMS systems. On many university computer clusters you will find that
a L
A
T
E
X installation is available, ready to use. Information on how to access
the local L
A
T
E
X installation should be provided in the Local Guide [5]. If you
have problems getting started, ask the person who gave you this booklet.
The scope of this document is not to tell you how to install and set up a
L
A
T
E
X system, but to teach you how to write your documents so that they
can be processed by L
A
T
E
X.
If you need to get hold of any L
A
T
E
X related material, have a look at one
of the Comprehensive T
E
X Archive Network (CTAN) sites. The homepage is
at http://www.ctan.org. All packages can also be retrieved from the ftp
archive ftp://www.ctan.org and its mirror sites all over the world.
You will find other references to CTAN throughout the book, especially
pointers to software and documents you might want to download. Instead
of writing down complete urls, I just wrote CTAN: followed by whatever
location within the CTAN tree you should go to.
If you want to run L
A
T
E
X on your own computer, take a look at what is
available from CTAN://systems.
If you have ideas for something to be added, removed or altered in this
document, please let me know. I am especially interested in feedback from
L
A
T
E
X novices about which bits of this intro are easy to understand and
which could be explained better.
Tobias Oetiker <tobi@oetiker.ch>
OETIKER+PARTNER AG
Aarweg 15
4600 Olten
Switzerland
The current version of this document is available on
CTAN://info/lshort
Contents
Thank you! iii
Preface v
1 Things You Need to Know 1
1.1 The Name of the Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 T
E
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 L
A
T
E
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.1 Author, Book Designer, and Typesetter . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.2 Layout Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 L
A
T
E
X Input Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.1 Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.2 Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.3 L
A
T
E
X Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.4 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 Input File Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5 A Typical Command Line Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 The Layout of the Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6.1 Document Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6.2 Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.3 Page Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.7 Files You Might Encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.8 Big Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 Typesetting Text 17
2.1 The Structure of Text and Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Line Breaking and Page Breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.1 Justified Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.2 Hyphenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3 Ready-Made Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4 Special Characters and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
viii CONTENTS
2.4.1 Quotation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.2 Dashes and Hyphens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.3 Tilde (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.4 Degree Symbol (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.5 The Euro Currency Symbol (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.6 Ellipsis (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.7 Ligatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.8 Accents and Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5 International Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5.1 Support for Portuguese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.2 Support for French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.5.3 Support for German . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.5.4 Support for Korean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.5.5 Writing in Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.5.6 Support for Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.6 The Space Between Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.7 Titles, Chapters, and Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.8 Cross References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.9 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.10 Emphasized Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.11 Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.11.1 Itemize, Enumerate, and Description . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.11.2 Flushleft, Flushright, and Center . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.11.3 Quote, Quotation, and Verse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.11.4 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.11.5 Printing Verbatim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.11.6 Tabular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.12 Floating Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.13 Protecting Fragile Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae 49
3.1 The A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2 Single Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2.1 Math Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.4 Vertically Aligned Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.1 Multiple Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.2 Arrays and Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.5 Spacing in Math Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.5.1 Phantoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.6 Fiddling with the Math Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.6.1 Bold Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.7 Theorems, Lemmas, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
CONTENTS ix
4 Specialities 71
4.1 Including Encapsulated PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.3 Indexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.4 Fancy Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.5 The Verbatim Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.6 Installing Extra Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.7 Working with pdfL
A
T
E
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.7.1 PDF Documents for the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.7.2 The Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.7.3 Using Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.7.4 Hypertext Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.7.5 Problems with Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.7.6 Problems with Bookmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.8 Creating Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5 Producing Mathematical Graphics 91
5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.2 The picture Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2.1 Basic Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2.2 Line Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.2.3 Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.2.4 Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.2.5 Text and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.2.6 \multiput and \linethickness . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.2.7 Ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.2.8 Multiple Use of Predefined Picture Boxes . . . . . . . 99
5.2.9 Quadratic Bézier Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.2.10 Catenary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.2.11 Rapidity in the Special Theory of Relativity . . . . . . 102
5.3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6 Customising L
A
T
E
X 105
6.1 New Commands, Environments and Packages . . . . . . . . . 105
6.1.1 New Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.1.2 New Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.1.3 Extra Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.1.4 Commandline L
A
T
E
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.1.5 Your Own Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2 Fonts and Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2.1 Font Changing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2.2 Danger, Will Robinson, Danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
6.2.3 Advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
6.3 Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
x CONTENTS
6.3.1 Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.3.2 Paragraph Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.3.3 Horizontal Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.3.4 Vertical Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.4 Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.5 More Fun With Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.6 Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.7 Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
A Installing L
A
T
E
X 123
A.1 What to Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
A.2 T
E
X on Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.2.1 Picking an Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.2.2 Get a T
E
X Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.2.3 Treat yourself to PDFView . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.3 T
E
X on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.3.1 Getting T
E
X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
A.3.2 A L
A
T
E
X editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
A.3.3 Working with graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
A.4 T
E
X on Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Bibliography 127
Index 129
List of Figures
1.1 A Minimal L
A
T
E
X File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Example of a Realistic Journal Article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1 Example fancyhdr Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.2 Sample code for the beamer class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.1 Example Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.2 Page Layout Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
List of Tables
1.1 Document Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2 Document Class Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3 Some of the Packages Distributed with L
A
T
E
X. . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4 The Predefined Page Styles of L
A
T
E
X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 A bag full of Euro symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2 Accents and Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 Preamble for Portuguese documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4 Special commands for French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.5 German Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.6 Preamble for Greek documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.7 Greek Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.8 Bulgarian, Russian, and Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.9 Float Placing Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1 Math Mode Accents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.2 Greek Letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.3 Binary Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4 Binary Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.5 BIG Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.6 Arrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.7 Arrows as Accents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.8 Delimiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.9 Large Delimiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.10 Miscellaneous Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.11 Non-Mathematical Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.12 A
M
S Delimiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.13 A
M
S Greek and Hebrew. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.14 Math Alphabets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.15 A
M
S Binary Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.16 A
M
S Binary Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.17 A
M
S Arrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.18 A
M
S Negated Binary Relations and Arrows. . . . . . . . . . 70
xiv LIST OF TABLES
3.19 A
M
S Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.1 Key Names for graphicx Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.2 Index Key Syntax Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.1 Fonts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6.2 Font Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6.3 Absolute Point Sizes in Standard Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.4 Math Fonts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.5 T
E
X Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Chapter 1
Things You Need to Know
The first part of this chapter presents a short overview of the philosophy and
history of L
A
T
E
X2
ε
. The second part focuses on the basic structures of a L
A
T
E
X
document. After reading this chapter, you should have a rough knowledge of
how L
A
T
E
X works, which you will need to understand the rest of this book.
1.1 The Name of the Game
1.1.1 T
E
X
T
E
X is a computer program created by Donald E. Knuth [2]. It is aimed
at typesetting text and mathematical formulae. Knuth started writing the
T
E
X typesetting engine in 1977 to explore the potential of the digital printing
equipment that was beginning to infiltrate the publishing industry at that
time, especially in the hope that he could reverse the trend of deteriorating
typographical quality that he saw affecting his own books and articles. T
E
X
as we use it today was released in 1982, with some slight enhancements
added in 1989 to better support 8-bit characters and multiple languages.
T
E
X is renowned for being extremely stable, for running on many different
kinds of computers, and for being virtually bug free. The version number of
T
E
X is converging to π and is now at 3.141592.
T
E
X is pronounced “Tech,” with a “ch” as in the German word “Ach”
1
or
in the Scottish “Loch.” The “ch” originates from the Greek alphabet where
X is the letter “ch” or “chi”. T
E
X is also the first syllable of the Greek word
texnologia (technology). In an ASCII environment, T
E
X becomes TeX.
1
In german there are actually two pronounciations for “ch” and one might assume that
the soft “ch” sound from “Pech” would be a more appropriate. Asked about this, Knuth
wrote in the German Wikipedia: I do not get angry when people pronounce T
E
X in their
favorite way . . . and in Germany many use a soft ch because the X fol lows the vowel
e, not the harder ch that fol lows the vowel a. In Russia, ‘tex’ is a very common word,
pronounced ‘tyekh’. But I believe the most proper pronunciation is heard in Greece, where
you have the harsher ch of ach and Loch.
2 Things You Need to Know
1.1.2 L
A
T
E
X
L
A
T
E
X enables authors to typeset and print their work at the highest typo-
graphical quality, using a predefined, professional layout. L
A
T
E
X was origi-
nally written by Leslie Lamport [1]. It uses the T
E
X formatter as its type-
setting engine. These days L
A
T
E
X is maintained by Frank Mittelbach.
L
A
T
E
X is pronounced “Lay-tech” or “Lah-tech.” If you refer to L
A
T
E
X in
an ASCII environment, you type LaTeX. L
A
T
E
X2
ε
is pronounced “Lay-tech
two e” and typed LaTeX2e.
1.2 Basics
1.2.1 Author, Book Designer, and Typesetter
To publish something, authors give their typed manuscript to a publishing
company. One of their book designers then decides the layout of the docu-
ment (column width, fonts, space before and after headings, . . . ). The book
designer writes his instructions into the manuscript and then gives it to a
typesetter, who typesets the book according to these instructions.
A human book designer tries to find out what the author had in mind
while writing the manuscript. He decides on chapter headings, citations,
examples, formulae, etc. based on his professional knowledge and from the
contents of the manuscript.
In a L
A
T
E
X environment, L
A
T
E
X takes the role of the book designer and
uses T
E
X as its typesetter. But L
A
T
E
X is “only” a program and therefore
needs more guidance. The author has to provide additional information to
describe the logical structure of his work. This information is written into
the text as “L
A
T
E
X commands.”
This is quite different from the WYSIWYG
2
approach that most modern
word processors, such as MS Word or Corel WordPerfect, take. With these
applications, authors specify the document layout interactively while typing
text into the computer. They can see on the screen how the final work will
look when it is printed.
When using L
A
T
E
X it is not normally possible to see the final output
while typing the text, but the final output can be previewed on the screen
after processing the file with L
A
T
E
X. Then corrections can be made before
actually sending the document to the printer.
1.2.2 Layout Design
Typographical design is a craft. Unskilled authors often commit serious
formatting errors by assuming that book design is mostly a question of
aesthetics—“If a document looks good artistically, it is well designed.” But
2
What you see is what you get.
1.2 Basics 3
as a document has to be read and not hung up in a picture gallery, the
readability and understandability is much more important than the beautiful
look of it. Examples:
• The font size and the numbering of headings have to be chosen to
make the structure of chapters and sections clear to the reader.
• The line length has to be short enough not to strain the eyes of the
reader, while long enough to fill the page beautifully.
With WYSIWYG systems, authors often generate aesthetically pleasing
documents with very little or inconsistent structure. L
A
T
E
X prevents such
formatting errors by forcing the author to declare the logical structure of his
document. L
A
T
E
X then chooses the most suitable layout.
1.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages
When people from the WYSIWYG world meet people who use L
A
T
E
X, they
often discuss “the advantages of L
A
T
E
X over a normal word processor” or the
opposite. The best thing you can do when such a discussion starts is to keep
a low profile, since such discussions often get out of hand. But sometimes
you cannot escape . . .
So here is some ammunition. The main advantages of L
A
T
E
X over normal
word processors are the following:
• Professionally crafted layouts are available, which make a document
really look as if “printed.”
• The typesetting of mathematical formulae is supported in a convenient
way.
• Users only need to learn a few easy-to-understand commands that
specify the logical structure of a document. They almost never need
to tinker with the actual layout of the document.
• Even complex structures such as footnotes, references, table of con-
tents, and bibliographies can be generated easily.
• Free add-on packages exist for many typographical tasks not directly
supported by basic L
A
T
E
X. For example, packages are available to
include PostScript graphics or to typeset bibliographies conforming
to exact standards. Many of these add-on packages are described in
The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
• L
A
T
E
X encourages authors to write well-structured texts, because this
is how L
A
T
E
X works—by specifying structure.
4 Things You Need to Know
• T
E
X, the formatting engine of L
A
T
E
X2
ε
, is highly portable and free.
Therefore the system runs on almost any hardware platform available.
L
A
T
E
X also has some disadvantages, and I guess it’s a bit difficult for me to
find any sensible ones, though I am sure other people can tell you hundreds
;-)
• L
A
T
E
X does not work well for people who have sold their souls . . .
• Although some parameters can be adjusted within a predefined docu-
ment layout, the design of a whole new layout is difficult and takes a
lot of time.
3
• It is very hard to write unstructured and disorganized documents.
• Your hamster might, despite some encouraging first steps, never be
able to fully grasp the concept of Logical Markup.
1.3 L
A
T
E
X Input Files
The input for L
A
T
E
X is a plain ASCII text file. You can create it with any
text editor. It contains the text of the document, as well as the commands
that tell L
A
T
E
X how to typeset the text.
1.3.1 Spaces
“Whitespace” characters, such as blank or tab, are treated uniformly as
“space” by L
A
T
E
X. Several consecutive whitespace characters are treated as
one “space.” Whitespace at the start of a line is generally ignored, and a
single line break is treated as “whitespace.”
An empty line between two lines of text defines the end of a paragraph.
Several empty lines are treated the same as one empty line. The text below
is an example. On the left hand side is the text from the input file, and on
the right hand side is the formatted output.
It does not matter whether you
enter one or several spaces
after a word.
An empty line starts a new
paragraph.
It does not matter whether you enter one
or several spaces after a word.
An empty line starts a new paragraph.
3
Rumour says that this is one of the key elements that will be addressed in the upcoming
L
A
T
E
X3 system.
1.3 L
A
T
E
X Input Files 5
1.3.2 Special Characters
The following symbols are reserved characters that either have a special
meaning under L
A
T
E
X or are not available in all the fonts. If you enter them
directly in your text, they will normally not print, but rather coerce L
A
T
E
X
to do things you did not intend.
# $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \
As you will see, these characters can be used in your documents all the
same by adding a prefix backslash:
\# \$ \% \^{} \& \_ \{ \} \~{} # $ % ˆ & _ { } ˜
The other symbols and many more can be printed with special commands
in mathematical formulae or as accents. The backslash character ` can not
be entered by adding another backslash in front of it (\\); this sequence is
used for line breaking.
4
1.3.3 L
A
T
E
X Commands
L
A
T
E
X commands are case sensitive, and take one of the following two for-
mats:
• They start with a backslash \ and then have a name consisting of
letters only. Command names are terminated by a space, a number or
any other ‘non-letter.’
• They consist of a backslash and exactly one non-letter.
L
A
T
E
X ignores whitespace after commands. If you want to get a space
after a command, you have to put either {} and a blank or a special spacing
command after the command name. The {} stops L
A
T
E
X from eating up all
the space after the command name.
I read that Knuth divides the
people working with \TeX{} into
\TeX{}nicians and \TeX perts.\\
Today is \today.
I read that Knuth divides the people
working with T
E
X into T
E
Xnicians and
T
E
Xperts.
Today is September 25, 2008.
Some commands need a parameter, which has to be given between curly
braces { } after the command name. Some commands support optional pa-
rameters, which are added after the command name in square brackets [ ].
4
Try the $\backslash$ command instead. It produces a ‘\’.
6 Things You Need to Know
The next examples use some L
A
T
E
X commands. Don’t worry about them;
they will be explained later.
You can \textsl{lean} on me! You can lean on me!
Please, start a new line
right here!\newline
Thank you!
Please, start a new line right here!
Thank you!
1.3.4 Comments
When L
A
T
E
X encounters a % character while processing an input file, it ig-
nores the rest of the present line, the line break, and all whitespace at the
beginning of the next line.
This can be used to write notes into the input file, which will not show
up in the printed version.
This is an % stupid
% Better: instructive <----
example: Supercal%
ifragilist%
icexpialidocious
This is an example: Supercalifragilisticex-
pialidocious
The % character can also be used to split long input lines where no
whitespace or line breaks are allowed.
For longer comments you could use the comment environment provided by
the verbatim package. This means, that you have to add the line \usepackage{verbatim}
to the preamble of your document as explained below before you can use
this command.
This is another
\begin{comment}
rather stupid,
but helpful
\end{comment}
example for embedding
comments in your document.
This is another example for embedding
comments in your document.
Note that this won’t work inside complex environments, like math for
example.
1.4 Input File Structure 7
1.4 Input File Structure
When L
A
T
E
X2
ε
processes an input file, it expects it to follow a certain struc-
ture. Thus every input file must start with the command
\documentclass{...}
This specifies what sort of document you intend to write. After that, you
can include commands that influence the style of the whole document, or
you can load packages that add new features to the L
A
T
E
X system. To load
such a package you use the command
\usepackage{...}
When all the setup work is done,
5
you start the body of the text with
the command
\begin{document}
Now you enter the text mixed with some useful L
A
T
E
X commands. At
the end of the document you add the
\end{document}
command, which tells L
A
T
E
X to call it a day. Anything that follows this
command will be ignored by L
A
T
E
X.
Figure 1.1 shows the contents of a minimal L
A
T
E
X2
ε
file. A slightly more
complicated input file is given in Figure 1.2.
1.5 A Typical Command Line Session
I bet you must be dying to try out the neat small L
A
T
E
X input file shown
on page 7. Here is some help: L
A
T
E
X itself comes without a GUI or fancy
buttons to press. It is just a program that crunches away at your input
file. Some L
A
T
E
X installations feature a graphical front-end where you can
click L
A
T
E
X into compiling your input file. On other systems there might
5
The area between \documentclass and \begin{document} is called the preamble.
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
Small is beautiful.
\end{document}
Figure 1.1: A Minimal L
A
T
E
X File.
8 Things You Need to Know
be some typing involved, so here is how to coax L
A
T
E
X into compiling your
input file on a text based system. Please note: this description assumes that
a working L
A
T
E
X installation already sits on your computer.
6
1. Edit/Create your L
A
T
E
X input file. This file must be plain ASCII text.
On Unix all the editors will create just that. On Windows you might
want to make sure that you save the file in ASCII or Plain Text format.
When picking a name for your file, make sure it bears the extension
.tex.
2. Run L
A
T
E
X on your input file. If successful you will end up with a .dvi
file. It may be necessary to run L
A
T
E
X several times to get the table
of contents and all internal references right. When your input file has
a bug L
A
T
E
X will tell you about it and stop processing your input file.
Type ctrl-D to get back to the command line.
latex foo.tex
3. Now you may view the DVI file. There are several ways to do that.
6
This is the case with most well groomed Unix Systems, and . . . Real Men use Unix,
so . . . ;-)
\documentclass[a4paper,11pt]{article}
% define the title
\author{H.~Partl}
\title{Minimalism}
\begin{document}
% generates the title
\maketitle
% insert the table of contents
\tableofcontents
\section{Some Interesting Words}
Well, and here begins my lovely article.
\section{Good Bye World}
\ldots{} and here it ends.
\end{document}
Figure 1.2: Example of a Realistic Journal Article. Note that all the com-
mands you see in this example will be explained later in the introduction.
1.6 The Layout of the Document 9
You can show the file on screen with
xdvi foo.dvi &
This only works on Unix with X11. If you are on Windows you might
want to try yap (yet another previewer).
You can also convert the dvi file to PostScript for printing or viewing
with Ghostscript.
dvips -Pcmz foo.dvi -o foo.ps
If you are lucky your L
A
T
E
X system even comes with the dvipdf tool,
which allows you to convert your .dvi files straight into pdf.
dvipdf foo.dvi
1.6 The Layout of the Document
1.6.1 Document Classes
The first information L
A
T
E
X needs to know when processing an input file is
the type of document the author wants to create. This is specified with the
\documentclass command.
\documentclass[options]{class}
Here class specifies the type of document to be created. Table 1.1 lists the
document classes explained in this introduction. The L
A
T
E
X2
ε
distribution
provides additional classes for other documents, including letters and slides.
The options parameter customises the behaviour of the document class. The
options have to be separated by commas. The most common options for the
standard document classes are listed in Table 1.2.
Example: An input file for a L
A
T
E
X document could start with the line
\documentclass[11pt,twoside,a4paper]{article}
which instructs L
A
T
E
X to typeset the document as an article with a base
font size of eleven points, and to produce a layout suitable for double sided
printing on A4 paper.
10 Things You Need to Know
1.6.2 Packages
While writing your document, you will probably find that there are some
areas where basic L
A
T
E
X cannot solve your problem. If you want to include
graphics, coloured text or source code from a file into your document, you
need to enhance the capabilities of L
A
T
E
X. Such enhancements are called
packages. Packages are activated with the
\usepackage[options]{package}
command, where package is the name of the package and options is a list of
keywords that trigger special features in the package. Some packages come
with the L
A
T
E
X2
ε
base distribution (See Table 1.3). Others are provided
separately. You may find more information on the packages installed at
your site in your Local Guide [5]. The prime source for information about
L
A
T
E
X packages is The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3]. It contains descriptions on
hundreds of packages, along with information of how to write your own
extensions to L
A
T
E
X2
ε
.
Modern T
E
X distributions come with a large number of packages prein-
stalled. If you are working on a Unix system, use the command texdoc for
accessing package documentation.
Table 1.1: Document Classes.
article for articles in scientific journals, presentations, short reports, pro-
gram documentation, invitations, . . .
proc a class for proceedings based on the article class.
minimal is as small as it can get. It only sets a page size and a base font.
It is mainly used for debugging purposes.
report for longer reports containing several chapters, small books, PhD
theses, . . .
book for real books
slides for slides. The class uses big sans serif letters. You might want to
consider using the Beamer class instead.
1.6 The Layout of the Document 11
Table 1.2: Document Class Options.
10pt, 11pt, 12pt Sets the size of the main font in the document. If no
option is specified, 10pt is assumed.
a4paper, letterpaper, . . . Defines the paper size. The default size is
letterpaper. Besides that, a5paper, b5paper, executivepaper,
and legalpaper can be specified.
fleqn Typesets displayed formulae left-aligned instead of centred.
leqno Places the numbering of formulae on the left hand side instead of
the right.
titlepage, notitlepage Specifies whether a new page should be
started after the document title or not. The article class does not
start a new page by default, while report and book do.
onecolumn, twocolumn Instructs L
A
T
E
X to typeset the document in one
column or two columns.
twoside, oneside Specifies whether double or single sided output
should be generated. The classes article and report are single
sided and the book class is double sided by default. Note that this
option concerns the style of the document only. The option twoside
does not tell the printer you use that it should actually make a
two-sided printout.
landscape Changes the layout of the document to print in landscape
mode.
openright, openany Makes chapters begin either only on right hand
pages or on the next page available. This does not work with the
article class, as it does not know about chapters. The report class
by default starts chapters on the next page available and the book
class starts them on right hand pages.
12 Things You Need to Know
Table 1.3: Some of the Packages Distributed with L
A
T
E
X.
doc Allows the documentation of L
A
T
E
X programs.
Described in doc.dtx
a
and in The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
exscale Provides scaled versions of the math extension font.
Described in ltexscale.dtx.
fontenc Specifies which font encoding L
A
T
E
X should use.
Described in ltoutenc.dtx.
ifthen Provides commands of the form
‘if. . . then do. . . otherwise do. . . .’
Described in ifthen.dtx and The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
latexsym To access the L
A
T
E
X symbol font, you should use the latexsym
package. Described in latexsym.dtx and in The L
A
T
E
X Compan-
ion [3].
makeidx Provides commands for producing indexes. Described in section 4.3
and in The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
syntonly Processes a document without typesetting it.
inputenc Allows the specification of an input encoding such as ASCII,
ISO Latin-1, ISO Latin-2, 437/850 IBM code pages, Apple Mac-
intosh, Next, ANSI-Windows or user-defined one. Described in
inputenc.dtx.
a
This file should be installed on your system, and you should be able to get a dvi file
by typing latex doc.dtx in any directory where you have write permission. The same is
true for all the other files mentioned in this table.
1.7 Files You Might Encounter 13
1.6.3 Page Styles
L
A
T
E
X supports three predefined header/footer combinations—so-called page
styles. The style parameter of the
\pagestyle{style}
command defines which one to use. Table 1.4 lists the predefined page styles.
Table 1.4: The Predefined Page Styles of L
A
T
E
X.
plain prints the page numbers on the bottom of the page, in the middle of
the footer. This is the default page style.
headings prints the current chapter heading and the page number in the
header on each page, while the footer remains empty. (This is the style
used in this document)
empty sets both the header and the footer to be empty.
It is possible to change the page style of the current page with the com-
mand
\thispagestyle{style}
A description how to create your own headers and footers can be found
in The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3] and in section 4.4 on page 76.
1.7 Files You Might Encounter
When you work with L
A
T
E
X you will soon find yourself in a maze of files
with various extensions and probably no clue. The following list explains
the various file types you might encounter when working with T
E
X. Please
note that this table does not claim to be a complete list of extensions, but
if you find one missing that you think is important, please drop me a line.
.tex L
A
T
E
X or T
E
X input file. Can be compiled with latex.
.sty L
A
T
E
X Macro package. This is a file you can load into your L
A
T
E
X
document using the \usepackage command.
.dtx Documented T
E
X. This is the main distribution format for L
A
T
E
X style
files. If you process a .dtx file you get documented macro code of the
L
A
T
E
X package contained in the .dtx file.
14 Things You Need to Know
.ins The installer for the files contained in the matching .dtx file. If you
download a L
A
T
E
X package from the net, you will normally get a .dtx
and a .ins file. Run L
A
T
E
X on the .ins file to unpack the .dtx file.
.cls Class files define what your document looks like. They are selected
with the \documentclass command.
.fd Font description file telling L
A
T
E
X about new fonts.
The following files are generated when you run L
A
T
E
X on your input file:
.dvi Device Independent File. This is the main result of a L
A
T
E
X compile
run. You can look at its content with a DVI previewer program or you
can send it to a printer with dvips or a similar application.
.log Gives a detailed account of what happened during the last compiler
run.
.toc Stores all your section headers. It gets read in for the next compiler
run and is used to produce the table of content.
.lof This is like .toc but for the list of figures.
.lot And again the same for the list of tables.
.aux Another file that transports information from one compiler run to the
next. Among other things, the .aux file is used to store information
associated with cross-references.
.idx If your document contains an index. L
A
T
E
X stores all the words that
go into the index in this file. Process this file with makeindex. Refer
to section 4.3 on page 75 for more information on indexing.
.ind The processed .idx file, ready for inclusion into your document on the
next compile cycle.
.ilg Logfile telling what makeindex did.
1.8 Big Projects
When working on big documents, you might want to split the input file into
several parts. L
A
T
E
X has two commands that help you to do that.
\include{filename}
You can use this command in the document body to insert the contents
of another file named filename.tex. Note that L
A
T
E
X will start a new page
before processing the material input from filename.tex.
1.8 Big Projects 15
The second command can be used in the preamble. It allows you to
instruct L
A
T
E
X to only input some of the \included files.
\includeonly{filename,filename,. . . }
After this command is executed in the preamble of the document, only
\include commands for the filenames that are listed in the argument of
the \includeonly command will be executed. Note that there must be no
spaces between the filenames and the commas.
The \include command starts typesetting the included text on a new
page. This is helpful when you use \includeonly, because the page breaks
will not move, even when some included files are omitted. Sometimes this
might not be desirable. In this case, you can use the
\input{filename}
command. It simply includes the file specified. No flashy suits, no strings
attached.
To make L
A
T
E
X quickly check your document you can use the syntonly
package. This makes L
A
T
E
X skim through your document only checking for
proper syntax and usage of the commands, but doesn’t produce any (DVI)
output. As L
A
T
E
X runs faster in this mode you may save yourself valuable
time. Usage is very simple:
\usepackage{syntonly}
\syntaxonly
When you want to produce pages, just comment out the second line (by
adding a percent sign).
Chapter 2
Typesetting Text
After reading the previous chapter, you should know about the basic stuff of
which a L
A
T
E
X2
ε
document is made. In this chapter I will fill in the remaining
structure you will need to know in order to produce real world material.
2.1 The Structure of Text and Language
By Hanspeter Schmid <hanspi@schmid-werren.ch>
The main point of writing a text (some modern DAAC
1
literature excluded),
is to convey ideas, information, or knowledge to the reader. The reader will
understand the text better if these ideas are well-structured, and will see
and feel this structure much better if the typographical form reflects the
logical and semantical structure of the content.
L
A
T
E
X is different from other typesetting systems in that you just have
to tell it the logical and semantical structure of a text. It then derives
the typographical form of the text according to the “rules” given in the
document class file and in various style files.
The most important text unit in L
A
T
E
X (and in typography) is the para-
graph. We call it “text unit” because a paragraph is the typographical form
that should reflect one coherent thought, or one idea. You will learn in the
following sections how you can force line breaks with e.g. \\, and paragraph
breaks with e.g. leaving an empty line in the source code. Therefore, if a
new thought begins, a new paragraph should begin, and if not, only line
breaks should be used. If in doubt about paragraph breaks, think about
your text as a conveyor of ideas and thoughts. If you have a paragraph
break, but the old thought continues, it should be removed. If some totally
new line of thought occurs in the same paragraph, then it should be broken.
Most people completely underestimate the importance of well-placed
paragraph breaks. Many people do not even know what the meaning of
1
Different At All Cost, a translation of the Swiss German UVA (Um’s Verrecken An-
ders).
18 Typesetting Text
a paragraph break is, or, especially in L
A
T
E
X, introduce paragraph breaks
without knowing it. The latter mistake is especially easy to make if equa-
tions are used in the text. Look at the following examples, and figure out
why sometimes empty lines (paragraph breaks) are used before and after the
equation, and sometimes not. (If you don’t yet understand all commands
well enough to understand these examples, please read this and the following
chapter, and then read this section again.)
% Example 1
\ldots when Einstein introduced his formula
\begin{equation}
e = m \cdot c^2 \; ,
\end{equation}
which is at the same time the most widely known
and the least well understood physical formula.
% Example 2
\ldots from which follows Kirchhoff’s current law:
\begin{equation}
\sum_{k=1}^{n} I_k = 0 \; .
\end{equation}
Kirchhoff’s voltage law can be derived \ldots
% Example 3
\ldots which has several advantages.
\begin{equation}
I_D = I_F - I_R
\end{equation}
is the core of a very different transistor model. \ldots
The next smaller text unit is a sentence. In English texts, there is a
larger space after a period that ends a sentence than after one that ends an
abbreviation. L
A
T
E
X tries to figure out which one you wanted to have. If
L
A
T
E
X gets it wrong, you must tell it what you want. This is explained later
in this chapter.
The structuring of text even extends to parts of sentences. Most lan-
guages have very complicated punctuation rules, but in many languages
(including German and English), you will get almost every comma right if
you remember what it represents: a short stop in the flow of language. If
you are not sure about where to put a comma, read the sentence aloud and
2.2 Line Breaking and Page Breaking 19
take a short breath at every comma. If this feels awkward at some place,
delete that comma; if you feel the urge to breathe (or make a short stop) at
some other place, insert a comma.
Finally, the paragraphs of a text should also be structured logically at a
higher level, by putting them into chapters, sections, subsections, and so on.
However, the typographical effect of writing e.g. \section{The Structure
of Text and Language} is so obvious that it is almost self-evident how
these high-level structures should be used.
2.2 Line Breaking and Page Breaking
2.2.1 Justified Paragraphs
Books are often typeset with each line having the same length. L
A
T
E
X inserts
the necessary line breaks and spaces between words by optimizing the con-
tents of a whole paragraph. If necessary, it also hyphenates words that would
not fit comfortably on a line. How the paragraphs are typeset depends on
the document class. Normally the first line of a paragraph is indented, and
there is no additional space between two paragraphs. Refer to section 6.3.2
for more information.
In special cases it might be necessary to order L
A
T
E
X to break a line:
\\ or \newline
starts a new line without starting a new paragraph.
\\*
additionally prohibits a page break after the forced line break.
\newpage
starts a new page.
\linebreak[n], \nolinebreak[n], \pagebreak[n], \nopagebreak[n]
suggest places where a break may (or may not happen). They enable the
author to influence their actions with the optional argument n, which can
be set to a number between zero and four. By setting n to a value below
4, you leave L
A
T
E
X the option of ignoring your command if the result would
look very bad. Do not confuse these “break” commands with the “new”
commands. Even when you give a “break” command, L
A
T
E
X still tries to
even out the right border of the line and the total length of the page, as
described in the next section; this can lead to unpleasant gaps in your text.
20 Typesetting Text
If you really want to start a “new line” or a “new page”, then use the
corresponding command. Guess their names!
L
A
T
E
X always tries to produce the best line breaks possible. If it cannot
find a way to break the lines in a manner that meets its high standards, it
lets one line stick out on the right of the paragraph. L
A
T
E
X then complains
(“overfull hbox”) while processing the input file. This happens most often
when L
A
T
E
X cannot find a suitable place to hyphenate a word.
2
You can in-
struct L
A
T
E
X to lower its standards a little by giving the \sloppy command.
It prevents such over-long lines by increasing the inter-word spacing—even
if the final output is not optimal. In this case a warning (“underfull hbox”)
is given to the user. In most such cases the result doesn’t look very good.
The command \fussy brings L
A
T
E
X back to its default behaviour.
2.2.2 Hyphenation
L
A
T
E
X hyphenates words whenever necessary. If the hyphenation algorithm
does not find the correct hyphenation points, you can remedy the situation
by using the following commands to tell T
E
X about the exception.
The command
\hyphenation{word list}
causes the words listed in the argument to be hyphenated only at the points
marked by “-”. The argument of the command should only contain words
built from normal letters, or rather signs that are considered to be normal
letters by L
A
T
E
X. The hyphenation hints are stored for the language that
is active when the hyphenation command occurs. This means that if you
place a hyphenation command into the preamble of your document it will
influence the English language hyphenation. If you place the command
after the \begin{document} and you are using some package for national
language support like babel, then the hyphenation hints will be active in the
language activated through babel.
The example below will allow “hyphenation” to be hyphenated as well
as “Hyphenation”, and it prevents “FORTRAN”, “Fortran” and “fortran”
from being hyphenated at all. No special characters or symbols are allowed
in the argument.
Example:
\hyphenation{FORTRAN Hy-phen-a-tion}
2
Although L
A
T
E
X gives you a warning when that happens (Overfull hbox) and displays
the offending line, such lines are not always easy to find. If you use the option draft in
the \documentclass command, these lines will be marked with a thick black line on the
right margin.
2.3 Ready-Made Strings 21
The command \- inserts a discretionary hyphen into a word. This also
becomes the only point hyphenation is allowed in this word. This command
is especially useful for words containing special characters (e.g. accented
characters), because L
A
T
E
X does not automatically hyphenate words con-
taining special characters.
I think this is: su\-per\-cal\-%
i\-frag\-i\-lis\-tic\-ex\-pi\-%
al\-i\-do\-cious
I think this is: supercalifragilisticexpiali-
docious
Several words can be kept together on one line with the command
\mbox{text}
It causes its argument to be kept together under all circumstances.
My phone number will change soon.
It will be \mbox{0116 291 2319}.
The parameter
\mbox{\emph{filename}} should
contain the name of the file.
My phone number will change soon. It
will be 0116 291 2319.
The parameter filename should contain
the name of the file.
\fbox is similar to \mbox, but in addition there will be a visible box
drawn around the content.
2.3 Ready-Made Strings
In some of the examples on the previous pages, you have seen some very
simple L
A
T
E
X commands for typesetting special text strings:
Command Example Description
\today September 25, 2008 Current date
\TeX T
E
X Your favorite typesetter
\LaTeX L
A
T
E
X The Name of the Game
\LaTeXe L
A
T
E
X2
ε
The current incarnation
2.4 Special Characters and Symbols
2.4.1 Quotation Marks
You should not use the " for quotation marks as you would on a typewriter.
In publishing there are special opening and closing quotation marks. In
L
A
T
E
X, use two (grave accent) for opening quotation marks and two (ver-
tical quote) for closing quotation marks. For single quotes you use just one
of each.
22 Typesetting Text
‘‘Please press the ‘x’ key.’’ “Please press the ‘x’ key.”
Yes I know the rendering is not ideal, it’s really a back-tick or grave
accent () for opening quotes and vertical quote () for closing, despite what
the font chosen might suggest.
2.4.2 Dashes and Hyphens
L
A
T
E
X knows four kinds of dashes. You can access three of them with differ-
ent numbers of consecutive dashes. The fourth sign is actually not a dash
at all—it is the mathematical minus sign:
daughter-in-law, X-rated\\
pages 13--67\\
yes---or no? \\
$0$, $1$ and $-1$
daughter-in-law, X-rated
pages 13–67
yes—or no?
0, 1 and −1
The names for these dashes are: ‘-’ hyphen, ‘–’ en-dash, ‘—’ em-dash
and ‘−’ minus sign.
2.4.3 Tilde (∼)
A character often seen in web addresses is the tilde. To generate this in
L
A
T
E
X you can use \~ but the result: ˜ is not really what you want. Try this
instead:
http://www.rich.edu/\~{}bush \\
http://www.clever.edu/$\sim$demo
http://www.rich.edu/˜bush
http://www.clever.edu/∼demo
2.4.4 Degree Symbol (◦)
The following example shows how to print a degree symbol in L
A
T
E
X:
It’s $-30\,^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$.
I will soon start to
super-conduct.
It’s −30

C. I will soon start to super-
conduct.
The textcomp package makes the degree symbol also available as \textcelsius.
2.4 Special Characters and Symbols 23
2.4.5 The Euro Currency Symbol (e)
When writing about money these days, you need the Euro symbol. Many
current fonts contain a Euro symbol. After loading the textcomp package in
the preamble of your document
\usepackage{textcomp}
you can use the command
\texteuro
to access it.
If your font does not provide its own Euro symbol or if you do not like
the font’s Euro symbol, you have two more choices:
First the eurosym package. It provides the official Euro symbol:
\usepackage[official ]{eurosym}
If you prefer a Euro symbol that matches your font, use the option gen
in place of the official option.
Table 2.1: A bag full of Euro symbols
LM+textcomp \texteuro € € €
eurosym \euro e e e
[gen]eurosym \euro AC AC AC
2.4.6 Ellipsis (. . . )
On a typewriter, a comma or a period takes the same amount of space as
any other letter. In book printing, these characters occupy only a little space
and are set very close to the preceding letter. Therefore, you cannot enter
‘ellipsis’ by just typing three dots, as the spacing would be wrong. Instead,
there is a special command for these dots. It is called
\ldots
Not like this ... but like this:\\
New York, Tokyo, Budapest, \ldots
Not like this ... but like this:
New York, Tokyo, Budapest, . . .
24 Typesetting Text
2.4.7 Ligatures
Some letter combinations are typeset not just by setting the different letters
one after the other, but by actually using special symbols.
ff fi fl ffi. . . instead of ff fi fl ffi . . .
These so-called ligatures can be prohibited by inserting an \mbox{} between
the two letters in question. This might be necessary with words built from
two words.
\Large Not shelfful\\
but shelf\mbox{}ful
Not shelfful
but shelfful
2.4.8 Accents and Special Characters
L
A
T
E
X supports the use of accents and special characters from many lan-
guages. Table 2.2 shows all sorts of accents being applied to the letter o.
Naturally other letters work too.
To place an accent on top of an i or a j, its dots have to be removed.
This is accomplished by typing \i and \j.
H\^otel, na\"\i ve, \’el\‘eve,\\
sm\o rrebr\o d, !‘Se\~norita!,\\
Sch\"onbrunner Schlo\ss{}
Stra\ss e
Hôtel, naïve, élève,
smørrebrød, ¡Señorita!,
Schönbrunner Schloß Straße
Table 2.2: Accents and Special Characters.
ò \‘o ó \’o ô \^o õ \~o
¯o \=o ˙ o \.o ö \"o ç \c c
˘o \u o ˇo \v o ő \H o ¸ o \c o
o
.
\d o o
¯
\b o oo \t oo
œ \oe Œ \OE æ \ae Æ \AE
å \aa Å \AA
ø \o Ø \O ł \l Ł \L
ı \i  \j ¡ !‘ ¿ ?‘
2.5 International Language Support 25
2.5 International Language Support
When you write documents in languages other than English, there are three
areas where L
A
T
E
X has to be configured appropriately:
1. All automatically generated text strings
3
have to be adapted to the
new language. For many languages, these changes can be accomplished
by using the babel package by Johannes Braams.
2. L
A
T
E
X needs to know the hyphenation rules for the new language.
Getting hyphenation rules into L
A
T
E
X is a bit more tricky. It means
rebuilding the format file with different hyphenation patterns enabled.
Your Local Guide [5] should give more information on this.
3. Language specific typographic rules. In French for example, there is a
mandatory space before each colon character (:).
If your system is already configured appropriately, you can activate the
babel package by adding the command
\usepackage[language]{babel}
after the \documentclass command. A list of the languages built into your
L
A
T
E
X system will be displayed every time the compiler is started. Babel will
automatically activate the appropriate hyphenation rules for the language
you choose. If your L
A
T
E
X format does not support hyphenation in the
language of your choice, babel will still work but will disable hyphenation,
which has quite a negative effect on the appearance of the typeset document.
Babel also specifies new commands for some languages, which simplify
the input of special characters. The German language, for example, contains
a lot of umlauts (äöü). With babel, you can enter an ö by typing "o instead
of \"o.
If you call babel with multiple languages
\usepackage[languageA,languageB]{babel}
then the last language in the option list will be active (i.e. languageB). You
can to use the command
\selectlanguage{languageA}
to change the active language.
Most of the modern computer systems allow you to input letter of na-
tional alphabets directly from the keyboard. In order to handle variety of
3
Table of Contents, List of Figures, . . .
26 Typesetting Text
input encoding used for different groups of languages and/or on different
computer platforms L
A
T
E
X employs the inputenc package:
\usepackage[encoding]{inputenc}
When using this package, you should consider that other people might
not be able to display your input files on their computer, because they use a
different encoding. For example, the German umlaut ä on OS/2 is encoded
as 132, on Unix systems using ISO-LATIN 1 it is encoded as 228, while
in Cyrillic encoding cp1251 for Windows this letter does not exist at all;
therefore you should use this feature with care. The following encodings
may come in handy, depending on the type of system you are working on
4
Operating encodings
system western Latin Cyrillic
Mac applemac macukr
Unix latin1 koi8-ru
Windows ansinew cp1251
DOS, OS/2 cp850 cp866nav
If you have a multilingual document with conflicting input encodings,
you might want to switch to unicode, using the ucs package.
\usepackage{ucs}
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
will enable you to create L
A
T
E
X input files in utf8x, a multi-byte encoding
in which each character can be encoded in as little as one byte and as many
as four bytes.
Font encoding is a different matter. It defines at which position inside a
T
E
X-font each letter is stored. Multiple input encodings could be mapped
into one font encoding, which reduces number of required font sets. Font
encodings are handled through fontenc package:
\usepackage[encoding]{fontenc}
where encoding is font encoding. It is possible to load several encodings
simultaneously.
The default L
A
T
E
X font encoding is OT1, the encoding of the original
Computer Modern T
E
X font. It contains only the 128 characters of the
7-bit ASCII character set. When accented characters are required, T
E
X
4
To learn more about supported input encodings for Latin-based and Cyrillic-based
languages, read the documentation for inputenc.dtx and cyinpenc.dtx respectively. Sec-
tion 4.6 tells how to produce package documentation.
2.5 International Language Support 27
creates them by combining a normal character with an accent. While the
resulting output looks perfect, this approach stops the automatic hyphen-
ation from working inside words containing accented characters. Besides,
some of Latin letters could not be created by combining a normal character
with an accent, to say nothing about letters of non-Latin alphabets, such as
Greek or Cyrillic.
To overcome these shortcomings, several 8-bit CM-like font sets were
created. Extended Cork (EC) fonts in T1 encoding contains letters and
punctuation characters for most of the European languages based on Latin
script. The LH font set contains letters necessary to typeset documents
in languages using Cyrillic script. Because of the large number of Cyrillic
glyphs, they are arranged into four font encodings—T2A, T2B, T2C, and X2.
5
The CB bundle contains fonts in LGR encoding for the composition of Greek
text.
By using these fonts you can improve/enable hyphenation in non-English
documents. Another advantage of using new CM-like fonts is that they
provide fonts of CM families in all weights, shapes, and optically scaled font
sizes.
2.5.1 Support for Portuguese
By Demerson Andre Polli <polli@linux.ime.usp.br>
To enable hyphenation and change all automatic text to Portuguese, use the
command:
\usepackage[portuguese]{babel}
Or if you are in Brazil, substitute the language for brazilian.
As there are a lot of accents in Portuguese you might want to use
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
to be able to input them correctly as well as
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
to get the hyphenation right.
See table 2.3 for the preamble you need to write in the Portuguese lan-
guage. Note that we are using the latin1 input encoding here, so this will
not work on a Mac or on DOS. Just use the appropriate encoding for your
system.
5
The list of languages supported by each of these encodings could be found in [11].
28 Typesetting Text
Table 2.3: Preamble for Portuguese documents.
\usepackage[portuguese]{babel}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
2.5.2 Support for French
By Daniel Flipo <daniel.flipo@univ-lille1.fr>
Some hints for those creating French documents with L
A
T
E
X: you can load
French language support with the following command:
\usepackage[frenchb]{babel}
Note that, for historical reasons, the name of babel’s option for French
is either frenchb or francais but not french.
This enables French hyphenation, if you have configured your L
A
T
E
X
system accordingly. It also changes all automatic text into French: \chapter
prints Chapitre, \today prints the current date in French and so on. A set
of new commands also becomes available, which allows you to write French
input files more easily. Check out table 2.4 for inspiration.
Table 2.4: Special commands for French.
\og guillemets \fg{} « guillemets »
M\up{me}, D\up{r} M
me
, D
r
1\ier{}, 1\iere{}, 1\ieres{} 1
er
, 1
re
, 1
res
2\ieme{} 4\iemes{} 2
e
4
es
\No 1, \no 2 N
o
1, n
o
2
20~\degres C, 45\degres 20 °C, 45°
\bsc{M. Durand} M. Durand
\nombre{1234,56789} 1234,56789
You will also notice that the layout of lists changes when switching to
the French language. For more information on what the frenchb option
of babel does and how you can customize its behaviour, run L
A
T
E
X on file
frenchb.dtx and read the produced file frenchb.dvi.
2.5 International Language Support 29
2.5.3 Support for German
Some hints for those creating German documents with L
A
T
E
X: you can load
German language support with the following command:
\usepackage[german]{babel}
This enables German hyphenation, if you have configured your L
A
T
E
X
system accordingly. It also changes all automatic text into German. Eg.
“Chapter” becomes “Kapitel.” A set of new commands also becomes avail-
able, which allows you to write German input files more quickly even when
you don’t use the inputenc package. Check out table 2.5 for inspiration.
With inputenc, all this becomes moot, but your text also is locked in a
particular encoding world.
Table 2.5: German Special Characters.
"a ä "s ß
"‘ „ "’ “
"< or \flqq « "> or \frqq »
\flq ‹ \frq ›
\dq "
In German books you often find French quotation marks («guillemets»).
German typesetters, however, use them differently. A quote in a German
book would look like »this«. In the German speaking part of Switzerland,
typesetters use «guillemets» the same way the French do.
A major problem arises from the use of commands like \flq: If you use
the OT1 font (which is the default font) the guillemets will look like the math
symbol “<”, which turns a typesetter’s stomach. T1 encoded fonts, on the
other hand, do contain the required symbols. So if you are using this type of
quote, make sure you use the T1 encoding. (\usepackage[T1]{fontenc})
2.5.4 Support for Korean
6
To use L
A
T
E
X for typesetting Korean, we need to solve three problems:
1. We must be able to edit Korean input files. Korean input files must
be in plain text format, but because Korean uses its own character
6
Considering a number of issues Korean L
A
T
E
X users have to cope with. This section
was written by Karnes KIM on behalf of the Korean lshort translation team. It was
translated into English by SHIN Jungshik and shortened by Tobi Oetiker.
30 Typesetting Text
set outside the repertoire of US-ASCII, they will look rather strange
with a normal ASCII editor. The two most widely used encodings for
Korean text files are EUC-KR and its upward compatible extension
used in Korean MS-Windows, CP949/Windows-949/UHC. In these
encodings each US-ASCII character represents its normal ASCII char-
acter similar to other ASCII compatible encodings such as ISO-8859-
x, EUC-JP, Big5, or Shift_JIS. On the other hand, Hangul syllables,
Hanjas (Chinese characters as used in Korea), Hangul Jamos, Hira-
ganas, Katakanas, Greek and Cyrillic characters and other symbols
and letters drawn from KS X 1001 are represented by two consecutive
octets. The first has its MSB set. Until the mid-1990’s, it took a
considerable amount of time and effort to set up a Korean-capable en-
vironment under a non-localized (non-Korean) operating system. You
can skim through the now much-outdated http://jshin.net/faq to
get a glimpse of what it was like to use Korean under non-Korean OS
in mid-1990’s. These days all three major operating systems (Mac OS,
Unix, Windows) come equipped with pretty decent multilingual sup-
port and internationalization features so that editing Korean text file
is not so much of a problem anymore, even on non-Korean operating
systems.
2. T
E
X and L
A
T
E
X were originally written for scripts with no more than
256 characters in their alphabet. To make them work for languages
with considerably more characters such as Korean
7
or Chinese, a sub-
font mechanism was developed. It divides a single CJK font with
thousands or tens of thousands of glyphs into a set of subfonts with
256 glyphs each. For Korean, there are three widely used packages;
HL
A
T
E
X by UN Koaunghi, hL
A
T
E
Xp by CHA Jaechoon and the CJK
7
Korean Hangul is an alphabetic script with 14 basic consonants and 10 basic vowels
(Jamos). Unlike Latin or Cyrillic scripts, the individual characters have to be arranged
in rectangular clusters about the same size as Chinese characters. Each cluster represents
a syllable. An unlimited number of syllables can be formed out of this finite set of vow-
els and consonants. Modern Korean orthographic standards (both in South Korea and
North Korea), however, put some restriction on the formation of these clusters. Therefore
only a finite number of orthographically correct syllables exist. The Korean Charac-
ter encoding defines individual code points for each of these syllables (KS X 1001:1998
and KS X 1002:1992). So Hangul, albeit alphabetic, is treated like the Chinese and
Japanese writing systems with tens of thousands of ideographic/logographic characters.
ISO 10646/Unicode offers both ways of representing Hangul used for modern Korean by
encoding Conjoining Hangul Jamos (alphabets: http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/
U1100.pdf) in addition to encoding all the orthographically allowed Hangul syllables in
modern Korean (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/UAC00.pdf). One of the most
daunting challenges in Korean typesetting with L
A
T
E
X and related typesetting system is
supporting Middle Korean—and possibly future Korean—syllables that can be only rep-
resented by conjoining Jamos in Unicode. It is hoped that future T
E
X engines like Ω and
Λ will eventually provide solutions to this so that some Korean linguists and historians
will defect from MS Word that already has a pretty good support for Middle Korean.
2.5 International Language Support 31
package by Werner Lemberg.
8
HL
A
T
E
X and hL
A
T
E
Xp are specific to Ko-
rean and provide Korean localization on top of the font support. They
both can process Korean input text files encoded in EUC-KR. HL
A
T
E
X
can even process input files encoded in CP949/Windows-949/UHC and
UTF-8 when used along with Λ, Ω.
The CJK package is not specific to Korean. It can process input files
in UTF-8 as well as in various CJK encodings including EUC-KR and
CP949/Windows-949/UHC, it can be used to typeset documents with
multilingual content (especially Chinese, Japanese and Korean). The
CJK package has no Korean localization such as the one offered by
HL
A
T
E
X and it does not come with as many special Korean fonts as
HL
A
T
E
X.
3. The ultimate purpose of using typesetting programs like T
E
X and
L
A
T
E
X is to get documents typeset in an ‘aesthetically’ satisfying way.
Arguably the most important element in typesetting is a set of well-
designed fonts. The HL
A
T
E
X distribution includes UHC PostScript
fonts of 10 different families and Munhwabu
9
fonts (TrueType) of 5
different families. The CJK package works with a set of fonts used by
earlier versions of HL
A
T
E
X and it can use Bitstream’s cyberbit True-
Type font.
To use the HL
A
T
E
X package for typesetting your Korean text, put the
following declaration into the preamble of your document:
\usepackage{hangul}
This command turns the Korean localization on. The headings of chap-
ters, sections, subsections, table of content and table of figures are all trans-
lated into Korean and the formatting of the document is changed to follow
Korean conventions. The package also provides automatic “particle selec-
tion.” In Korean, there are pairs of post-fix particles grammatically equiv-
alent but different in form. Which of any given pair is correct depends on
whether the preceding syllable ends with a vowel or a consonant. (It is a bit
more complex than this, but this should give you a good picture.) Native
Korean speakers have no problem picking the right particle, but it cannot
be determined which particle to use for references and other automatic text
that will change while you edit the document. It takes a painstaking effort
to place appropriate particles manually every time you add/remove refer-
ences or simply shuffle parts of your document around. HL
A
T
E
X relieves its
users from this boring and error-prone process.
8
They can be obtained at language/korean/HLaTeX/
language/korean/CJK/ and http://knot.kaist.ac.kr/htex/
9
Korean Ministry of Culture.
32 Typesetting Text
Table 2.6: Preamble for Greek documents.
\usepackage[english,greek]{babel}
\usepackage[iso-8859-7]{inputenc}
In case you don’t need Korean localization features but just want to
typeset Korean text, you can put the following line in the preamble, instead.
\usepackage{hfont}
For more details on typesetting Korean with HL
A
T
E
X, refer to the HL
A
T
E
X
Guide. Check out the web site of the Korean T
E
X User Group (KTUG)
at http://www.ktug.or.kr/. There is also a Korean translation of this
manual available.
2.5.5 Writing in Greek
By Nikolaos Pothitos <pothitos@di.uoa.gr>
See table 2.6 for the preamble you need to write in the Greek language. This
preamble enables hyphenation and changes all automatic text to Greek.
10
A set of new commands also becomes available, which allows you to write
Greek input files more easily. In order to temporarily switch to English
and vice versa, one can use the commands \textlatin{english text} and
\textgreek{greek text} that both take one argument which is then typeset
using the requested font encoding. Otherwise you can use the command
\selectlanguage{...} described in a previous section. Check out table 2.7
for some Greek punctuation characters. Use \euro for the Euro symbol.
Table 2.7: Greek Special Characters.
; ? ;
(( « )) »
‘‘ ‘ ’’ ’
10
If you select the utf8x option for the package inputenc, you can type Greek and
polytonic Greek unicode characters.
2.6 The Space Between Words 33
2.5.6 Support for Cyrillic
By Maksym Polyakov <polyama@myrealbox.com>
Version 3.7h of babel includes support for the T2* encodings and for type-
setting Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian texts using Cyrillic letters.
Support for Cyrillic is based on standard L
A
T
E
X mechanisms plus the
fontenc and inputenc packages. But, if you are going to use Cyrillics in math
mode, you need to load mathtext package before fontenc:
11
\usepackage{mathtext}
\usepackage[T1,T2A]{fontenc}
\usepackage[koi8-ru]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english,bulgarian,russian,ukranian]{babel}
Generally, babel will authomatically choose the default font encoding, for
the above three languages this is T2A. However, documents are not restricted
to a single font encoding. For multi-lingual documents using Cyrillic and
Latin-based languages it makes sense to include Latin font encoding explic-
itly. babel will take care of switching to the appropriate font encoding when
a different language is selected within the document.
In addition to enabling hyphenations, translating automatically gener-
ated text strings, and activating some language specific typographic rules
(like \frenchspacing), babel provides some commands allowing typesetting
according to the standards of Bulgarian, Russian, or Ukrainian languages.
For all three languages, language specific punctuation is provided: The
Cyrillic dash for the text (it is little narrower than Latin dash and sur-
rounded by tiny spaces), a dash for direct speech, quotes, and commands to
facilitate hyphenation, see Table 2.8.
The Russian and Ukrainian options of babel define the commands \Asbuk
and \asbuk, which act like \Alph and \alph, but produce capital and small
letters of Russian or Ukrainian alphabets (whichever is the active language
of the document). The Bulgarian option of babel provides the commands
\enumBul and \enumLat (\enumEng), which make \Alph and \alph pro-
duce letters of either Bulgarian or Latin (English) alphabets. The default
behaviour of \Alph and \alph for the Bulgarian language option is to pro-
duce letters from the Bulgarian alphabet.
2.6 The Space Between Words
To get a straight right margin in the output, L
A
T
E
X inserts varying amounts
of space between the words. It inserts slightly more space at the end of a
sentence, as this makes the text more readable. L
A
T
E
X assumes that sen-
tences end with periods, question marks or exclamation marks. If a period
11
If you use A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X packages, load them before fontenc and babel as well.
34 Typesetting Text
Table 2.8: The extra definitions made by Bulgarian, Russian, and Ukrainian
options of babel
"| disable ligature at this position.
"- an explicit hyphen sign, allowing hyphenation in the rest of the word.
"--- Cyrillic emdash in plain text.
"--~ Cyrillic emdash in compound names (surnames).
"--* Cyrillic emdash for denoting direct speech.
"" like "-, but producing no hyphen sign (for compound words with
hyphen, e.g.x-""y or some other signs as “disable/enable”).
"~ for a compound word mark without a breakpoint.
"= for a compound word mark with a breakpoint, allowing hyphenation
in the composing words.
", thinspace for initials with a breakpoint in following surname.
"‘ for German left double quotes (looks like ,,).
"’ for German right double quotes (looks like “).
"< for French left double quotes (looks like <<).
"> for French right double quotes (looks like ).
follows an uppercase letter, this is not taken as a sentence ending, since
periods after uppercase letters normally occur in abbreviations.
Any exception from these assumptions has to be specified by the author.
A backslash in front of a space generates a space that will not be enlarged. A
tilde ‘~’ character generates a space that cannot be enlarged and additionally
prohibits a line break. The command \@ in front of a period specifies that
this period terminates a sentence even when it follows an uppercase letter.
Mr.~Smith was happy to see her\\
cf.~Fig.~5\\
I like BASIC\@. What about you?
Mr. Smith was happy to see her
cf. Fig. 5
I like BASIC. What about you?
The additional space after periods can be disabled with the command
\frenchspacing
which tells L
A
T
E
X not to insert more space after a period than after ordinary
character. This is very common in non-English languages, except bibliogra-
phies. If you use \frenchspacing, the command \@ is not necessary.
2.7 Titles, Chapters, and Sections 35
2.7 Titles, Chapters, and Sections
To help the reader find his or her way through your work, you should divide
it into chapters, sections, and subsections. L
A
T
E
X supports this with special
commands that take the section title as their argument. It is up to you to
use them in the correct order.
The following sectioning commands are available for the article class:
\section{...}
\subsection{...}
\subsubsection{...}
\paragraph{...}
\subparagraph{...}
If you want to split your document in parts without influencing the
section or chapter numbering you can use
\part{...}
When you work with the report or book class, an additional top-level
sectioning command becomes available
\chapter{...}
As the article class does not know about chapters, it is quite easy
to add articles as chapters to a book. The spacing between sections, the
numbering and the font size of the titles will be set automatically by L
A
T
E
X.
Two of the sectioning commands are a bit special:
• The \part command does not influence the numbering sequence of
chapters.
• The \appendix command does not take an argument. It just changes
the chapter numbering to letters.
12
L
A
T
E
X creates a table of contents by taking the section headings and page
numbers from the last compile cycle of the document. The command
\tableofcontents
expands to a table of contents at the place it is issued. A new document
has to be compiled (“L
A
T
E
Xed”) twice to get a correct table of contents.
Sometimes it might be necessary to compile the document a third time.
L
A
T
E
X will tell you when this is necessary.
12
For the article style it changes the section numbering.
36 Typesetting Text
All sectioning commands listed above also exist as “starred” versions.
A “starred” version of a command is built by adding a star * after the
command name. This generates section headings that do not show up in the
table of contents and are not numbered. The command \section{Help},
for example, would become \section*{Help}.
Normally the section headings show up in the table of contents exactly
as they are entered in the text. Sometimes this is not possible, because the
heading is too long to fit into the table of contents. The entry for the table
of contents can then be specified as an optional argument in front of the
actual heading.
\chapter[Title for the table of contents]{A long
and especially boring title, shown in the text}
The title of the whole document is generated by issuing a
\maketitle
command. The contents of the title have to be defined by the commands
\title{...}, \author{...} and optionally \date{...}
before calling \maketitle. In the argument to \author, you can supply
several names separated by \and commands.
An example of some of the commands mentioned above can be found in
Figure 1.2 on page 8.
Apart from the sectioning commands explained above, L
A
T
E
X2
ε
intro-
duced three additional commands for use with the book class. They are
useful for dividing your publication. The commands alter chapter headings
and page numbering to work as you would expect it in a book:
\frontmatter should be the very first command after the start of the doc-
ument body (\begin{document}). It will switch page numbering to
Roman numerals and sections be non-enumerated. As if you were us-
ing the starred sectioning commands (eg \chapter*{Preface}) but
the sections will still show up in the table of contents.
\mainmatter comes right before the first chapter of the book. It turns on
Arabic page numbering and restarts the page counter.
\appendix marks the start of additional material in your book. After this
command chapters will be numbered with letters.
\backmatter should be inserted before the very last items in your book,
such as the bibliography and the index. In the standard document
classes, this has no visual effect.
2.8 Cross References 37
2.8 Cross References
In books, reports and articles, there are often cross-references to figures,
tables and special segments of text. L
A
T
E
X provides the following commands
for cross referencing
\label{marker}, \ref{marker} and \pageref{marker}
where marker is an identifier chosen by the user. L
A
T
E
X replaces \ref by
the number of the section, subsection, figure, table, or theorem after which
the corresponding \label command was issued. \pageref prints the page
number of the page where the \label command occurred.
13
As with the
section titles, the numbers from the previous run are used.
A reference to this subsection
\label{sec:this} looks like:
‘‘see section~\ref{sec:this} on
page~\pageref{sec:this}.’’
A reference to this subsection looks like:
“see section 2.8 on page 37.”
2.9 Footnotes
With the command
\footnote{footnote text}
a footnote is printed at the foot of the current page. Footnotes should always
be put
14
after the word or sentence they refer to. Footnotes referring to a
sentence or part of it should therefore be put after the comma or period.
15
Footnotes\footnote{This is
a footnote.} are often used
by people using \LaTeX.
Footnotes
a
are often used by people using
L
A
T
E
X.
a
This is a footnote.
13
Note that these commands are not aware of what they refer to. \label just saves the
last automatically generated number.
14
“put” is one of the most common English words.
15
Note that footnotes distract the reader from the main body of your document. After
all, everybody reads the footnotes—we are a curious species, so why not just integrate
everything you want to say into the body of the document?
16
16
A guidepost doesn’t necessarily go where it’s pointing to :-).
38 Typesetting Text
2.10 Emphasized Words
If a text is typed using a typewriter, important words are emphasized by
underlining them.
\underline{text}
In printed books, however, words are emphasized by typesetting them
in an italic font. L
A
T
E
X provides the command
\emph{text}
to emphasize text. What the command actually does with its argument
depends on the context:
\emph{If you use
emphasizing inside a piece
of emphasized text, then
\LaTeX{} uses the
\emph{normal} font for
emphasizing.}
If you use emphasizing inside a piece of
emphasized text, then L
A
T
E
X uses the nor-
mal font for emphasizing.
Please note the difference between telling L
A
T
E
X to emphasize something
and telling it to use a different font:
\textit{You can also
\emph{emphasize} text if
it is set in italics,}
\textsf{in a
\emph{sans-serif} font,}
\texttt{or in
\emph{typewriter} style.}
You can also emphasize text if it is set
in italics, in a sans-serif font, or in
typewriter style.
2.11 Environments
\begin{environment} text \end{environment}
Where environment is the name of the environment. Environments can be
nested within each other as long as the correct nesting order is maintained.
\begin{aaa}...\begin{bbb}...\end{bbb}...\end{aaa}
In the following sections all important environments are explained.
2.11 Environments 39
2.11.1 Itemize, Enumerate, and Description
The itemize environment is suitable for simple lists, the enumerate en-
vironment for enumerated lists, and the description environment for de-
scriptions.
\flushleft
\begin{enumerate}
\item You can mix the list
environments to your taste:
\begin{itemize}
\item But it might start to
look silly.
\item[-] With a dash.
\end{itemize}
\item Therefore remember:
\begin{description}
\item[Stupid] things will not
become smart because they are
in a list.
\item[Smart] things, though,
can be presented beautifully
in a list.
\end{description}
\end{enumerate}
1. You can mix the list environments
to your taste:
• But it might start to look
silly.
- With a dash.
2. Therefore remember:
Stupid things will not become
smart because they are in a
list.
Smart things, though, can be
presented beautifully in a list.
2.11.2 Flushleft, Flushright, and Center
The environments flushleft and flushright generate paragraphs that
are either left- or right-aligned. The center environment generates centred
text. If you do not issue \\ to specify line breaks, L
A
T
E
X will automatically
determine line breaks.
\begin{flushleft}
This text is\\ left-aligned.
\LaTeX{} is not trying to make
each line the same length.
\end{flushleft}
This text is
left-aligned. L
A
T
E
X is not trying to make
each line the same length.
\begin{flushright}
This text is right-\\aligned.
\LaTeX{} is not trying to make
each line the same length.
\end{flushright}
This text is right-
aligned. L
A
T
E
X is not trying to make each
line the same length.
40 Typesetting Text
\begin{center}
At the centre\\of the earth
\end{center}
At the centre
of the earth
2.11.3 Quote, Quotation, and Verse
The quote environment is useful for quotes, important phrases and exam-
ples.
A typographical rule of thumb
for the line length is:
\begin{quote}
On average, no line should
be longer than 66 characters.
\end{quote}
This is why \LaTeX{} pages have
such large borders by default
and also why multicolumn print
is used in newspapers.
A typographical rule of thumb for the line
length is:
On average, no line should be
longer than 66 characters.
This is why L
A
T
E
X pages have such large
borders by default and also why multicol-
umn print is used in newspapers.
There are two similar environments: the quotation and the verse en-
vironments. The quotation environment is useful for longer quotes going
over several paragraphs, because it indents the first line of each paragraph.
The verse environment is useful for poems where the line breaks are im-
portant. The lines are separated by issuing a \\ at the end of a line and an
empty line after each verse.
I know only one English poem by
heart. It is about Humpty Dumpty.
\begin{flushleft}
\begin{verse}
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall:\\
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.\\
All the King’s horses and all
the King’s men\\
Couldn’t put Humpty together
again.
\end{verse}
\end{flushleft}
I know only one English poem by heart.
It is about Humpty Dumpty.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a
wall:
Humpty Dumpty had a
great fall.
All the King’s horses and all
the King’s men
Couldn’t put Humpty
together again.
2.11.4 Abstract
In scientific publications it is customary to start with an abstract which gives
the reader a quick overview of what to expect. L
A
T
E
X provides the abstract
environment for this purpose. Normally abstract is used in documents
typeset with the article document class.
2.11 Environments 41
\begin{abstract}
The abstract abstract.
\end{abstract}
The abstract abstract.
2.11.5 Printing Verbatim
Text that is enclosed between \begin{verbatim} and \end{verbatim} will
be directly printed, as if typed on a typewriter, with all line breaks and
spaces, without any L
A
T
E
X command being executed.
Within a paragraph, similar behavior can be accessed with
\verb+text+
The + is just an example of a delimiter character. You can use any character
except letters, * or space. Many L
A
T
E
X examples in this booklet are typeset
with this command.
The \verb|\ldots| command \ldots
\begin{verbatim}
10 PRINT "HELLO WORLD ";
20 GOTO 10
\end{verbatim}
The \ldots command . . .
10 PRINT "HELLO WORLD ";
20 GOTO 10
\begin{verbatim*}
the starred version of
the verbatim
environment emphasizes
the spaces in the text
\end{verbatim*}
thestarredversionof
theverbatim
environmentemphasizes
thespacesinthetext
The \verb command can be used in a similar fashion with a star:
\verb*|like this :-) | likethis:-)
The verbatim environment and the \verb command may not be used
within parameters of other commands.
2.11.6 Tabular
The tabular environment can be used to typeset beautiful tables with
optional horizontal and vertical lines. L
A
T
E
X determines the width of the
columns automatically.
42 Typesetting Text
The table spec argument of the
\begin{tabular}[pos]{table spec}
command defines the format of the table. Use an l for a column of left-
aligned text, r for right-aligned text, and c for centred text; p{width }
for a column containing justified text with line breaks, and | for a vertical
line.
If the text in a column is too wide for the page, L
A
T
E
X won’t automat-
ically wrap it. Using p{width } you can define a special type of column
which will wrap-around the text as in a normal paragraph.
The pos argument specifies the vertical position of the table relative to
the baseline of the surrounding text. Use either of the letters t , b and c
to specify table alignment at the top, bottom or center.
Within a tabular environment, & jumps to the next column, \\ starts
a new line and \hline inserts a horizontal line. You can add partial lines
by using the \cline{j-i}, where j and i are the column numbers the line
should extend over.
\begin{tabular}{|r|l|}
\hline
7C0 & hexadecimal \\
3700 & octal \\ \cline{2-2}
11111000000 & binary \\
\hline \hline
1984 & decimal \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
7C0 hexadecimal
3700 octal
11111000000 binary
1984 decimal
\begin{tabular}{|p{4.7cm}|}
\hline
Welcome to Boxy’s paragraph.
We sincerely hope you’ll
all enjoy the show.\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
Welcome to Boxy’s paragraph.
We sincerely hope you’ll all en-
joy the show.
The column separator can be specified with the @{...} construct. This
command kills the inter-column space and replaces it with whatever is be-
tween the curly braces. One common use for this command is explained
below in the decimal alignment problem. Another possible application is to
suppress leading space in a table with @{} .
2.11 Environments 43
\begin{tabular}{@{} l @{}}
\hline
no leading space\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
no leading space
\begin{tabular}{l}
\hline
leading space left and right\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
leading space left and right
Since there is no built-in way to align numeric columns to a decimal
point,
17
we can “cheat” and do it by using two columns: a right-aligned inte-
ger and a left-aligned fraction. The @{.} command in the \begin{tabular}
line replaces the normal inter-column spacing with just a “.”, giving the ap-
pearance of a single, decimal-point-justified column. Don’t forget to replace
the decimal point in your numbers with a column separator (&)! A column
label can be placed above our numeric “column” by using the \multicolumn
command.
\begin{tabular}{c r @{.} l}
Pi expression &
\multicolumn{2}{c}{Value} \\
\hline
$\pi$ & 3&1416 \\
$\pi^{\pi}$ & 36&46 \\
$(\pi^{\pi})^{\pi}$ & 80662&7 \\
\end{tabular}
Pi expression Value
π 3.1416
π
π
36.46

π
)
π
80662.7
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|}
\hline
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{Ene} \\
\hline
Mene & Muh! \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
Ene
Mene Muh!
Material typeset with the tabular environment always stays together on
one page. If you want to typeset long tables, you might want to use the
longtable environments.
Sometimes the default L
A
T
E
X tables to feel a bit cramped. So you
may want to give them a bit more breathing space by setting a higher
\arraystretch and \tabcolsep value.
17
If the ‘tools’ bundle is installed on your system, have a look at the dcolumn package.
44 Typesetting Text
\begin{tabular}{|l|}
\hline
These lines\\\hline
are tight\\\hline
\end{tabular}
{\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.5}
\renewcommand{\tabcolsep}{0.2cm}
\begin{tabular}{|l|}
\hline
less cramped\\\hline
table layout\\\hline
\end{tabular}}
These lines
are tight
less cramped
table layout
If you just want to grow the height of a single row in your table you can
do this with a invisible vertical bar
18
Use a zero width \rule to implement
this trick.
\begin{tabular}{|c|}
\hline
\rule{1pt}{4ex}Pitprop \ldots\\
\hline
\rule{0pt}{4ex}Strut\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
Pitprop . . .
Strut
2.12 Floating Bodies
Today most publications contain a lot of figures and tables. These elements
need special treatment, because they cannot be broken across pages. One
method would be to start a new page every time a figure or a table is too
large to fit on the present page. This approach would leave pages partially
empty, which looks very bad.
The solution to this problem is to ‘float’ any figure or table that does not
fit on the current page to a later page, while filling the current page with
body text. L
A
T
E
X offers two environments for floating bodies; one for tables
and one for figures. To take full advantage of these two environments it is
important to understand approximately how L
A
T
E
X handles floats internally.
Otherwise floats may become a major source of frustration, because L
A
T
E
X
never puts them where you want them to be.
Let’s first have a look at the commands L
A
T
E
X supplies for floats:
18
In professional typesetting, this is called a strut.
2.12 Floating Bodies 45
Any material enclosed in a figure or table environment will be treated
as floating matter. Both float environments support an optional parameter
\begin{figure}[placement specifier] or \begin{table}[. . . ]
called the placement specifier. This parameter is used to tell L
A
T
E
X about the
locations to which the float is allowed to be moved. A placement specifier is
constructed by building a string of float-placing permissions. See Table 2.9.
A table could be started with the following line e.g.
\begin{table}[!hbp]
The placement specifier [!hbp] allows L
A
T
E
X to place the table right here
(h) or at the bottom (b) of some page or on a special floats page (p), and
all this even if it does not look that good (!). If no placement specifier is
given, the standard classes assume [tbp].
L
A
T
E
X will place every float it encounters according to the placement
specifier supplied by the author. If a float cannot be placed on the current
page it is deferred either to the figures or the tables queue.
19
When a new
page is started, L
A
T
E
X first checks if it is possible to fill a special ‘float’
page with floats from the queues. If this is not possible, the first float on
each queue is treated as if it had just occurred in the text: L
A
T
E
X tries
again to place it according to its respective placement specifiers (except ‘h,’
which is no longer possible). Any new floats occurring in the text get placed
into the appropriate queues. L
A
T
E
X strictly maintains the original order of
19
These are FIFO—‘first in first out’—queues!
Table 2.9: Float Placing Permissions.
Spec Permission to place the float . . .
h here at the very place in the text where it oc-
curred. This is useful mainly for small floats.
t at the top of a page
b at the bottom of a page
p on a special page containing only floats.
! without considering most of the internal param-
eters
a
, which could stop this float from being
placed.
Note that pt and em are T
E
X units. Read more on this in table 6.5 on page
115.
a
Such as the maximum number of floats allowed on one page.
46 Typesetting Text
appearance for each type of float. That’s why a figure that cannot be placed
pushes all further figures to the end of the document. Therefore:
If L
A
T
E
X is not placing the floats as you expected, it is often only
one float jamming one of the two float queues.
While it is possible to give L
A
T
E
X single-location placement specifiers,
this causes problems. If the float does not fit in the location specified it
becomes stuck, blocking subsequent floats. In particular, you should never,
ever use the [h] option—it is so bad that in more recent versions of L
A
T
E
X,
it is automatically replaced by [ht].
Having explained the difficult bit, there are some more things to mention
about the table and figure environments. With the
\caption{caption text}
command, you can define a caption for the float. A running number and
the string “Figure” or “Table” will be added by L
A
T
E
X.
The two commands
\listoffigures and \listoftables
operate analogously to the \tableofcontents command, printing a list of
figures or tables, respectively. These lists will display the whole caption,
so if you tend to use long captions you must have a shorter version of the
caption for the lists. This is accomplished by entering the short version in
brackets after the \caption command.
\caption[Short]{LLLLLoooooonnnnnggggg}
With \label and \ref, you can create a reference to a float within
your text. Note that the \label command must come after the \caption
command since you want it to reference the number of the caption.
The following example draws a square and inserts it into the document.
You could use this if you wanted to reserve space for images you are going
to paste into the finished document.
Figure~\ref{white} is an example of Pop-Art.
\begin{figure}[!hbtp]
\makebox[\textwidth]{\framebox[5cm]{\rule{0pt}{5cm}}}
\caption{Five by Five in Centimetres.\label{white}}[A
\end{figure}
2.13 Protecting Fragile Commands 47
In the example above, L
A
T
E
X will try really hard (!) to place the figure
right here (h).
20
If this is not possible, it tries to place the figure at the
bottom (b) of the page. Failing to place the figure on the current page,
it determines whether it is possible to create a float page containing this
figure and maybe some tables from the tables queue. If there is not enough
material for a special float page, L
A
T
E
X starts a new page, and once more
treats the figure as if it had just occurred in the text.
Under certain circumstances it might be necessary to use the
\clearpage or even the \cleardoublepage
command. It orders L
A
T
E
X to immediately place all floats remaining in the
queues and then start a new page. \cleardoublepage even goes to a new
right-hand page.
You will learn how to include PostScript drawings into your L
A
T
E
X2
ε
documents later in this introduction.
2.13 Protecting Fragile Commands
Text given as arguments of commands like \caption or \section may show
up more than once in the document (e.g. in the table of contents as well as
in the body of the document). Some commands will break when used in the
argument of \section-like commands. Compilation of your document will
fail. These commands are called fragile commands—for example, \footnote
or \phantom. These fragile commands need protection (don’t we all?). You
can protect them by putting the \protect command in front of them.
\protect only refers to the command that follows right behind, not even
to its arguments. In most cases a superfluous \protect won’t hurt.
\section{I am considerate
\protect\footnote{and protect my footnotes}}
20
assuming the figure queue is empty.
Chapter 3
Typesetting Mathematical
Formulae
Now you are ready! In this chapter, we will attack the main strength of T
E
X:
mathematical typesetting. But be warned, this chapter only scratches the sur-
face. While the things explained here are sufficient for many people, don’t
despair if you can’t find a solution to your mathematical typesetting needs here.
It is highly likely that your problem is addressed in A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X.
3.1 The A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X bundle
If you want to typeset (advanced) mathematics, you should use A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X.
The A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X bundle is a collection of packages and classes for mathe-
matical typesetting. We will mostly deal with the amsmath package which is
a part of the bundle. A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X is produced by The American Mathemat-
ical Society and it is used extensively for mathematical typesetting. L
A
T
E
X
itself does provide some basic features and environments for mathematics,
but they are limited (or maybe it’s the other way around: A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X is
unlimited!) and in some cases inconsistent.
A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X is a part of the required distribution and is provided with all
recent L
A
T
E
X distributions.
1
In this chapter, we assume amsmath is loaded
in the preamble; \usepackage{amsmath}.
3.2 Single Equations
There two ways to typeset mathematical formulae: in-line within a para-
graph (text style), or the paragraph can be broken to typeset it separately
(display style). Mathematical equations within a paragraph is entered be-
tween between $ and $:
1
If yours is missing it, go to CTAN:macros/latex/required/amslatex.
50 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared
to get $c$ squared. Or, using
a more mathematical approach:
$a^2 + b^2 = c^2$
Add o squared and / squared to get c
squared. Or, using a more mathematical
approach: o
2
+ /
2
= c
2
\TeX{} is pronounced as
$\tau\epsilon\chi$\\[5pt]
100~m$^{3}$ of water\\[5pt]
This comes from my $\heartsuit$
T
E
X is pronounced as τcχ
100 m
3
of water
This comes from my ♥
If you want your larger equations to be set apart from the rest of the
paragraph, it is preferable to display them rather than to break the para-
graph apart. To do this, you enclose them between \begin{equation} and
\end{equation}.
2
You can then \label an equation number and refer to
it somewhere else in the text by using the \eqref command. If you want to
name the equation something specific, you \tag it instead. You can’t use
\eqref with \tag.
Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared
to get $c$ squared. Or, using
a more mathematical approach
\begin{equation}
a^2 + b^2 = c^2
\end{equation}
Einstein says
\begin{equation}
E = mc^2 \label{clever}
\end{equation}
He didn’t say
\begin{equation}
1 + 1 = 3 \tag{dumb}
\end{equation}
This is a reference to
\eqref{clever}.
Add o squared and / squared to get c
squared. Or, using a more mathematical
approach
o
2
+ /
2
= c
2
(3.1)
Einstein says
1 = :c
2
(3.2)
He didn’t say
1 + 1 = 3 (dumb)
This is a reference to (3.2).
If you don’t want L
A
T
E
X to number the equations, use the starred ver-
sion of equation using an asterisk, equation*, or even easier, enclose the
equation in \[ and \]:
3
2
This is an amsmath command. If you don’t have access to the package for some
obscure reason, you can use L
A
T
E
X’s own displaymath environment instead.
3
This is again from amsmath. If you didn’t load the package, use L
A
T
E
X’s own equation
environment instead. The naming of the amsmath/L
A
T
E
X commands may seem a bit
confusing, but it’s really not a problem since everybody uses amsmath anyway. In general,
it is best to load the package from the beginning because you might use it later on, and
then L
A
T
E
X’s unnumbered equation clashes with A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X’s numbered equation.
3.2 Single Equations 51
Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared
to get $c$ squared. Or, using
a more mathematical approach
\begin{equation*}
a^2 + b^2 = c^2
\end{equation*}
or you can type less for the
same effect:
\[ a^2 + b^2 = c^2 \]
Add o squared and / squared to get c
squared. Or, using a more mathematical
approach
o
2
+ /
2
= c
2
or you can type less for the same effect:
o
2
+ /
2
= c
2
Note the difference in typesetting style between text style and display
style equations:
This is text style:
$\lim_{n \to \infty}
\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^2}
= \frac{\pi^2}{6}$.
And this is display style:
\begin{equation}
\lim_{n \to \infty}
\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^2}
= \frac{\pi^2}{6}
\end{equation}
This is text style: lim
n→∞
¸
n
k=1
1
k
2
=
π
2
6
.
And this is display style:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
k=1
1
/
2
=
π
2
6
(3.3)
In text style, enclose tall or deep math expressions or sub expressions
in \smash. This makes L
A
T
E
X ignore the height of these expressions. This
keeps the line spacing even.
A $d_{e_{e_p}}$ mathematical
expression followed by a
$h^{i^{g^h}}$ expression. As
opposed to a smashed
\smash{$d_{e_{e_p}}$} expression
followed by a
\smash{$h^{i^{g^h}}$} expression.
A d
e
e
p
mathematical expression followed
by a /
i
g
h
expression. As opposed to a
smashed d
e
e
p
expression followed by a /
i
g
h
expression.
3.2.1 Math Mode
There are also differences between math mode and text mode. For example,
in math mode:
1. Most spaces and line breaks do not have any significance, as all spaces
are either derived logically from the mathematical expressions, or have
to be specified with special commands such as \,, \quad or \qquad
(we’ll get back to that later, see section 3.5).
2. Empty lines are not allowed. Only one paragraph per formula.
52 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
3. Each letter is considered to be the name of a variable and will be
typeset as such. If you want to typeset normal text within a formula
(normal upright font and normal spacing) then you have to enter the
text using the \text{...} command (see also section 3.6 on page 60).
$\forall x \in \mathbf{R}:
\qquad x^{2} \geq 0$
∀r ∈ R : r
2
≥ 0
$x^{2} \geq 0\qquad
\text{for all }x\in\mathbf{R}$
r
2
≥ 0 for all r ∈ R
Mathematicians can be very fussy about which symbols are used: it
would be conventional here to use the ‘blackboard bold’ font, which is ob-
tained using \mathbb from the package amssymb.
4
The last example be-
comes
$x^{2} \geq 0\qquad
\text{for all } x
\in \mathbb{R}$
r
2
≥ 0 for all r ∈ 1
See Table 3.14 on 67 and Table 6.4 on 111 for more math fonts.
3.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula
In this section, we describe the most important commands used in mathe-
matical typesetting. Most of the commands in this section will not require
amsmath (if they do, it will be stated clearly), but load it anyway.
Lowercase Greek letters are entered as \alpha, \beta, \gamma, . . . ,
uppercase letters are entered as \Gamma, \Delta, . . .
5
Take a look at Table 3.2 on page 63 for a list of Greek letters.
$\lambda,\xi,\pi,\theta,
\mu,\Phi,\Omega,\Delta$
λ. ξ. π. θ. j. Φ. Ω. ∆
Exponents and Subscripts can be specified using the ^ and the _
character. Most math mode commands act only on the next character, so if
you want a command to affect several characters, you have to group them
together using curly braces: {...}.
Table 3.3 on page 64 lists a lot of other binary relations like ⊆ and ⊥.
4
amssymb is not a part of the A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X bundle, but it is perhaps still a part of your
L
A
T
E
X distribution. Check your distribution or go to CTAN:/fonts/amsfonts/latex/ to
obtain it.
5
There is no uppercase Alpha, Beta etc. defined in L
A
T
E
X2
ε
because it looks the same
as a normal roman A, B. . . Once the new math coding is done, things will change.
3.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula 53
$p^3_{ij} \qquad
m_\text{Knuth} \\[5pt]
a^x+y \neq a^{x+y}\qquad
e^{x^2} \neq {e^x}^2$
j
3
ij
:
Knuth
o
x
+ n = o
x+y
c
x
2
= c
x2
The square root is entered as \sqrt; the n
th
root is generated with
\sqrt[n]. The size of the root sign is determined automatically by L
A
T
E
X.
If just the sign is needed, use \surd.
See other kinds of arrows like → and = on Table 3.6 on page 65.
$\sqrt{x} \Leftrightarrow x^{1/2}
\quad \sqrt[3]{2}
\quad \sqrt{x^{2} + \sqrt{y}}
\quad \surd[x^2 + y^2]$

r ⇔r
1/2 3

2

r
2
+

n

[r
2
+n
2
]
Usually you don’t typeset an explicit dot sign to indicate the multipli-
cation operation when handling symbols; however sometimes it is written to
help the reader’s eyes in grouping a formula. You should use \cdot which
typesets a single dot centered. \cdots is three centered dots while \ldots
sets the dots on the baseline. Besides that, there are \vdots for vertical and
\ddots for diagonal dots. You can find another example in section 3.4.2.
$\Psi = v_1 \cdot v_2
\cdot \ldots \qquad
n! = 1 \cdot 2
\cdots (n-1) \cdot n$
Ψ = ·
1
·
2
. . . n! = 1 2 (n−1) n
The commands \overline and \underline create horizontal lines
directly over or under an expression:
$0.\overline{3} =
\underline{\underline{1/3}}$
0.3 = 1´3
The commands \overbrace and \underbrace create long horizontal
braces over or under an expression:
$\underbrace{\overbrace{a+b+c}^6
\cdot \overbrace{d+e+f}^9}
_\text{meaning of life} = 42$
6
. .. .
o + / + c
9
. .. .
d + c + 1
. .. .
meaning of life
= 42
To add mathematical accents such as small arrows or tilde signs to
variables, the commands given in Table 3.1 on page 63 might be useful. Wide
hats and tildes covering several characters are generated with \widetilde
and \widehat. Notice the difference between \hat and \widehat and the
54 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
placement of \bar for a variable with subscript. The apostrophe mark ’
gives a prime:
$f(x) = x^2 \qquad f’(x)
= 2x \qquad f’’(x) = 2\\[5pt]
\hat{XY} \quad \widehat{XY}
\quad \bar{x_0} \quad \bar{x}_0$
1(r) = r
2
1

(r) = 2r 1

(r) = 2
ˆ
AY
¯
AY ¯ r
0
¯ r
0
Vectors are often specified by adding small arrow symbols on top of
a variable. This is done with the \vec command. The two commands
\overrightarrow and \overleftarrow are useful to denote the vector from
¹ to 1:
$\vec{a} \qquad
\vec{AB} \qquad
\overrightarrow{AB}$
o

¹1
−−→
¹1
Names of log-like functions are often typeset in an upright font, and
not in italics as variables are, so L
A
T
E
X supplies the following commands to
typeset the most important function names:
\arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \limsup
\arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \ln
\arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log
\arg \coth \dim \inf \liminf \max
\sinh \sup \tan \tanh \min \Pr
\sec \sin
\[\lim_{x \rightarrow 0}
\frac{\sin x}{x}=1\]
lim
x→0
sin r
r
= 1
For functions missing from the list, use the \DeclareMathOperator com-
mand. There is even a starred version for functions with limits. This com-
mand works only in the preamble so the commented lines in the example
below must be put into the preamble.
%\DeclareMathOperator{\argh}{argh}
%\DeclareMathOperator*{\nut}{Nut}
\[3\argh = 2\nut_{x=1}\]
3 argh = 2 Nut
x=1
For the modulo function, there are two commands: \bmod for the binary
operator “o mod /” and \pmod for expressions such as “r ≡ o (mod /):”
$a\bmod b \\
x\equiv a \pmod{b}$
o mod /
r ≡ o (mod /)
3.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula 55
A built-up fraction is typeset with the \frac{...}{...} command. In
in-line equations, the fraction is shrunk to fit the line. This style is obtain-
able in display style with \tfrac. The reverse, i.e. display style fraction in
text, is made with \dfrac. Often the slashed form 1´2 is preferable, because
it looks better for small amounts of ‘fraction material:’
In display style:
\[3/8 \qquad \frac{3}{8}
\qquad \tfrac{3}{8} \]
In display style:
3´8
3
8
3
8
In text style:
$1\frac{1}{2}$~hours \qquad
$1\dfrac{1}{2}$~hours
In text style: 1
1
2
hours 1
1
2
hours
Here the \partial command for partial derivatives is used:
\[\sqrt{\frac{x^2}{k+1}}\qquad
x^\frac{2}{k+1}\qquad
\frac{\partial^2f}
{\partial x^2} \]

r
2
/ + 1
r
2
k+1

2
1
∂r
2
To typeset binomial coefficients or similar structures, use the command
\binom from amsmath:
Pascal’s rule is
\begin{equation*}
\binom{n}{k} =\binom{n-1}{k}
+ \binom{n-1}{k-1}
\end{equation*}
Pascal’s rule is

n
/

=

n −1
/

+

n −1
/ −1

For binary relations it may be useful to stack symbols over each other.
\stackrel{#1}{#2} puts the symbol given in #1 in superscript-like size over
#2 which is set in its usual position.
\begin{equation*}
f_n(x) \stackrel{*}{\approx} 1
\end{equation*}
1
n
(r)

≈ 1
The integral operator is generated with \int, the sum operator with
\sum, and the product operator with \prod. The upper and lower limits
are specified with ^ and _ like subscripts and superscripts:
\begin{equation*}
\sum_{i=1}^n \qquad
\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \qquad
\prod_\epsilon
\end{equation*}
n
¸
i=1
π
2
0
¸

56 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
To get more control over the placement of indices in complex expressions,
amsmath provides the \substack command:
\begin{equation*}
\sum^n_{\substack{0<i<n \\
j\subseteq i}}
P(i,j) = Q(i,j)
\end{equation*}
n
¸
0<i<n
j⊆i
1(i. ,) = Q(i. ,)
L
A
T
E
X provides all sorts of symbols for braces and other delimiters
(e.g. [ ' | |). Round and square braces can be entered with the correspond-
ing keys and curly braces with \{, but all other delimiters are generated
with special commands (e.g. \updownarrow).
\begin{equation*}
{a,b,c} \neq \{a,b,c\}
\end{equation*}
o. /. c = ¦o. /. c¦
If you put \left in front of an opening delimiter and \right in front
of a closing delimiter, L
A
T
E
X will automatically determine the correct size of
the delimiter. Note that you must close every \left with a corresponding
\right. If you don’t want anything on the right, use the invisible “\right.”:
\begin{equation*}
1 + \left(\frac{1}{1-x^{2}}
\right)^3 \qquad
\left. \ddagger \frac{~}{~}\right)
\end{equation*}
1 +

1
1 −r
2

3

In some cases it is necessary to specify the correct size of a mathematical
delimiter by hand, which can be done using the commands \big, \Big,
\bigg and \Bigg as prefixes to most delimiter commands:
$\Big((x+1)(x-1)\Big)^{2}$\\
$\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \quad
\big\} \Big\} \bigg\} \Bigg\} \quad
\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| \quad
\big\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow
\bigg\Downarrow \Bigg\Downarrow$

(r + 1)(r −1)

2

¸
¸

¸

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
For a list of all delimiters available, see Table 3.8 on page 66.
3.4 Vertically Aligned Material 57
3.4 Vertically Aligned Material
3.4.1 Multiple Equations
For formulae running over several lines or for equation systems, you can use
the environments align and align* instead of equation and equation*.
6
With align each line gets an equation number. The align* does not number
anything.
The align environments center the single equation around the & sign.
The \\ command breaks the lines. If you only want to enumerate some of
equations, use \nonumber to remove the number. It has to be placed before
\\:
\begin{align}
f(x) &= (a+b)(a-b) \label{1}\\
&= a^2-ab+ba-b^2 \\
&= a^2+b^2 \tag{wrong}
\end{align}
This is a reference to \eqref{1}.
1(r) = (o + /)(o −/) (3.4)
= o
2
−o/ + /o −/
2
(3.5)
= o
2
+ /
2
(wrong)
This is a reference to (3.4).
Long equations will not be automatically divided into neat bits. The
author has to specify where to break them and correct the indent:
\begin{align}
f(x) &= 3x^5 + x^4 + 2x^3
\nonumber \\
&\qquad + 9x^2 + 12x + 23 \\
&= g(x) - h(x)
\end{align}
1(r) = 3r
5
+ r
4
+ 2r
3
+ 9r
2
+ 12r + 23 (3.6)
= o(r) −/(r) (3.7)
The amsmath package provides a couple of other useful environments:
flalign, gather, multline and split. See the documentation for the
package for a wide range of commands, environments and more.
3.4.2 Arrays and Matrices
To typeset arrays, use the array environment. It works somewhat similar
to the tabular environment. The \\ command is used to break the lines:
6
The align environment is from amsmath. A similar environment without amsmath
from L
A
T
E
X is eqnarray, but it is generally not advised to use that because of spacing and
label inconsistencies.
58 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
\begin{equation*}
\mathbf{X} = \left(
\begin{array}{ccc}
x_1 & x_2 & \ldots \\
x_3 & x_4 & \ldots \\
\vdots & \vdots & \ddots
\end{array} \right)
\end{equation*}
X =

¸
¸
r
1
r
2
. . .
r
3
r
4
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
¸

The array environment can also be used to typeset piecewise functions
by using a “.” as an invisible \right delimiter:
7
\begin{equation*}
|x| = \left\{
\begin{array}{rl}
-x & \text{if } x < 0\\
0 & \text{if } x = 0\\
x & \text{if } x > 0
\end{array} \right.
\end{equation*}
[r[ =

−r if r < 0
0 if r = 0
r if r 0
array can be used to typeset matrices as well, but amsmath provides
a better solution using the different matrix environments. There are six
versions with different delimiters: matrix (none), pmatrix (, bmatrix [,
Bmatrix ¦, vmatrix [ and Vmatrix |. You don’t have to specify the number
of columns as with array. The maximum number is 10, but it is customis-
able (though it is not very often you need 10 columns!):
\begin{equation*}
\begin{matrix}
1 & 2 \\
3 & 4
\end{matrix} \qquad
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 & 3 \\
4 & 5 & 6 \\
7 & 8 & 9
\end{bmatrix}
\end{equation*}
1 2
3 4

1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
¸
¸
3.5 Spacing in Math Mode
If the spacing within formulae chosen by L
A
T
E
X is not satisfactory, it can be
adjusted by inserting special spacing commands: \, for
3
18
quad ( ), \: for
7
If you want to typeset a lot of constructions like these, the cases environment from
amsmath simplifies the syntax, so it is worth a look.
3.5 Spacing in Math Mode 59
4
18
quad ( ) and \; for
5
18
quad ( ). The escaped space character \ generates
a medium sized space comparable to the interword spacing and \quad ( )
and \qquad ( ) produce large spaces. The size of a \quad corresponds
to the width of the character ‘M’ of the current font. \! produces a negative
space of −
3
18
quad (−).
Note that ‘d’ in the differential is conventionally set in roman:
\begin{equation*}
\int_1^2 \ln x \mathrm{d}x \qquad
\int_1^2 \ln x \,\mathrm{d}x
\end{equation*}

2
1
ln rdr

2
1
ln rdr
In the next example, we define a new command \ud which produces “ d”
(notice the spacing before the d), so we don’t have to write it every time.
The \newcommand is placed in the preamble.
\newcommand{\ud}{\,\mathrm{d}}
\begin{equation*}
\int_a^b f(x)\ud x
\end{equation*}

b
a
1(r) dr
If you want to typeset multiple integrals, you’ll discover that the spacing
between the integrals is too wide. You can correct it using \!, but ams-
math provides an easier way for fine-tuning the spacing, namely the \iint,
\iiint, \iiiint, and \idotsint commands.
\newcommand{\ud}{\,\mathrm{d}}
\[ \int\int f(x)g(y)
\ud x \ud y \]
\[ \int\!\!\!\int
f(x)g(y) \ud x \ud y \]
\[ \iint f(x)g(y) \ud x \ud y \]

1(r)o(n) drdn

1(r)o(n) drdn

1(r)o(n) drdn
See the electronic document testmath.tex (distributed with A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X)
or Chapter 8 of The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3] for further details.
3.5.1 Phantoms
When vertically aligning text using ^ and _ L
A
T
E
X is sometimes just a little
too helpful. Using the \phantom command you can reserve space for charac-
ters that do not show up in the final output. The easiest way to understand
this is to look at an example:
60 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
\begin{equation*}
{}^{14}_{6}\text{C}
\qquad \text{versus} \qquad
{}^{14}_{\phantom{1}6}\text{C}
\end{equation*}
14
6
C versus
14
6
C
If you want to typeset a lot of isotopes as in the example, the mhchem
package is very useful for typesetting isotopes and chemical formulae too.
3.6 Fiddling with the Math Fonts
Different math fonts are listed on Table 3.14 on page 67.
$\Re \qquad
\mathcal{R} \qquad
\mathfrak{R} \qquad
\mathbb{R} \qquad $
' R R 1
The last two require amssymb or amsfonts.
Sometimes you need to tell L
A
T
E
X the correct font size. In math mode,
this is set with the following four commands:
\displaystyle (123), \textstyle (123), \scriptstyle (123) and
\scriptscriptstyle (123).
If
¸
is placed in a fraction, it’ll be typeset in text style unless you tell
L
A
T
E
X otherwise:
\begin{equation*}
R = \frac{\displaystyle{
\sum_{i=1}^n (x_i-\bar{x})
(y_i- \bar{y})}}
{\displaystyle{\left[
\sum_{i=1}^n(x_i-\bar{x})^2
\sum_{i=1}^n(y_i-\bar{y})^2
\right]^{1/2}}}
\end{equation*}
1 =
n
¸
i=1
(r
i
− ¯ r)(n
i
− ¯ n)
¸
n
¸
i=1
(r
i
− ¯ r)
2
n
¸
i=1
(n
i
− ¯ n)
2
¸
1/2
Changing styles generally affects the way big operators and limits are
displayed.
3.6.1 Bold Symbols
It is quite difficult to get bold symbols in L
A
T
E
X; this is probably intentional
as amateur typesetters tend to overuse them. The font change command
\mathbf gives bold letters, but these are roman (upright) whereas math-
ematical symbols are normally italic, and furthermore it doesn’t work on
3.7 Theorems, Lemmas, . . . 61
lower case Greek letters. There is a \boldmath command, but this can only
be used outside math mode. It works for symbols too, though:
$\mu, M \qquad
\mathbf{\mu}, \mathbf{M}$
\qquad \boldmath{$\mu, M$}
j. ` j. M µ, M
The package amsbsy (included by amsmath) as well as the bm from the
tools bundle make this much easier as they include a \boldsymbol com-
mand:
$\mu, M \qquad
\boldsymbol{\mu}, \boldsymbol{M}$
j. ` µ. M
3.7 Theorems, Lemmas, . . .
When writing mathematical documents, you probably need a way to typeset
“Lemmas”, “Definitions”, “Axioms” and similar structures.
\newtheorem{name}[counter]{text}[section]
The name argument is a short keyword used to identify the “theorem”.
With the text argument you define the actual name of the “theorem”, which
will be printed in the final document.
The arguments in square brackets are optional. They are both used to
specify the numbering used on the “theorem”. Use the counter argument to
specify the name of a previously declared “theorem”. The new “theorem”
will then be numbered in the same sequence. The section argument allows
you to specify the sectional unit within which the “theorem” should get its
numbers.
After executing the \newtheorem command in the preamble of your doc-
ument, you can use the following command within the document.
\begin{name}[text]
This is my interesting theorem
\end{name}
The amsthm package (part of A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X) provides the \theoremstyle{style}
command which lets you define what the theorem is all about by picking
from three predefined styles: definition (fat title, roman body), plain
(fat title, italic body) or remark (italic title, roman body).
This should be enough theory. The following examples should remove
any remaining doubt, and make it clear that the \newtheorem environment
is way too complex to understand.
First define the theorems:
62 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
\theoremstyle{definition} \newtheorem{law}{Law}
\theoremstyle{plain} \newtheorem{jury}[law]{Jury}
\theoremstyle{remark} \newtheorem*{marg}{Margaret}
\begin{law} \label{law:box}
Don’t hide in the witness box
\end{law}
\begin{jury}[The Twelve]
It could be you! So beware and
see law~\ref{law:box}.\end{jury}
\begin{marg}No, No, No\end{marg}
Law 1. Don’t hide in the witness box
Jury 2 (The Twelve). It could be you! So
beware and see law 1.
Margaret. No, No, No
The “Jury” theorem uses the same counter as the “Law” theorem, so it
gets a number that is in sequence with the other “Laws”. The argument
in square brackets is used to specify a title or something similar for the
theorem.
\newtheorem{mur}{Murphy}[section]
\begin{mur} If there are two or
more ways to do something, and
one of those ways can result in
a catastrophe, then someone
will do it.\end{mur}
Murphy 3.7.1. If there are two or more
ways to do something, and one of those
ways can result in a catastrophe, then
someone will do it.
The “Murphy” theorem gets a number that is linked to the number of
the current section. You could also use another unit, for example chapter
or subsection.
The amsthm package also provides the proof environment.
\begin{proof}
Trivial, use
\[E=mc^2\]
\end{proof}
Proof. Trivial, use
1 = :c
2
With the command \qedhere you can move the ‘end of proof’ symbol
around for situations where it would end up alone on a line.
\begin{proof}
Trivial, use
\[E=mc^2 \qedhere\]
\end{proof}
Proof. Trivial, use
1 = :c
2
If you want to customize your theorems down to the last dot, the nthe-
orem package offers a plethora of options.
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 63
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols
The following tables demonstrate all the symbols normally accessible from
math mode.
To use the symbols listed in Tables 3.12–3.8,
8
the package amssymb must
be loaded in the preamble of the document and the A
M
S math fonts must
be installed on the system. If the A
M
S package and fonts are not installed
on your system, have a look at CTAN:macros/latex/required/amslatex.
An even more comprehensive list of symbols can be found at CTAN:info/
symbols/comprehensive.
Table 3.1: Math Mode Accents.
ˆ o \hat{a} ˇ o \check{a} ˜ o \tilde{a}
` o \grave{a} ˙ o \dot{a} ¨ o \ddot{a}
¯ o \bar{a} o \vec{a}

¹¹¹ \widehat{AAA}
´ o \acute{a} ˘ o \breve{a}

¹¹¹ \widetilde{AAA}
˚o \mathring{a}
Table 3.2: Greek Letters.
There is no uppercase of some of the letters like \Alpha, \Beta and so on,
because they look the same as normal roman letters: A, B. . .
α \alpha θ \theta o o υ \upsilon
β \beta ϑ \vartheta π \pi φ \phi
γ \gamma ι \iota c \varpi ϕ \varphi
δ \delta κ \kappa ρ \rho χ \chi
c \epsilon λ \lambda · \varrho ψ \psi
ε \varepsilon j \mu σ \sigma ω \omega
ζ \zeta ν \nu ς \varsigma
η \eta ξ \xi τ \tau
Γ \Gamma Λ \Lambda Σ \Sigma Ψ \Psi
∆ \Delta Ξ \Xi Υ \Upsilon Ω \Omega
Θ \Theta Π \Pi Φ \Phi
8
These tables were derived from symbols.tex by David Carlisle and subsequently
changed extensively as suggested by Josef Tkadlec.
64 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
Table 3.3: Binary Relations.
You can negate the following symbols by prefixing them with a \not com-
mand.
< < > = =
≤ \leq or \le ≥ \geq or \ge ≡ \equiv
< \ll \gg
.
= \doteq
≺ \prec ~ \succ ∼ \sim
_ \preceq _ \succeq · \simeq
⊂ \subset ⊃ \supset ≈ \approx
⊆ \subseteq ⊇ \supseteq

= \cong
\sqsubset
a
\sqsupset
a
I \Join
a
_ \sqsubseteq _ \sqsupseteq > \bowtie
∈ \in ÷ \ni , \owns ∝ \propto
¬ \vdash ¬ \dashv [= \models
[ \mid | \parallel ⊥ \perp
\smile · \frown · \asymp
: : ´ ∈ \notin = \neq or \ne
a
Use the latexsym package to access this symbol
Table 3.4: Binary Operators.
+ + − -
± \pm ∓ \mp \triangleleft
\cdot ÷ \div > \triangleright
\times ` \setminus × \star
∪ \cup ∩ \cap ∗ \ast
. \sqcup ¯ \sqcap ◦ \circ
∨ \vee , \lor ∧ \wedge , \land • \bullet
⊕ \oplus \ominus \diamond
\odot . \oslash ¬ \uplus
⊗ \otimes ( \bigcirc H \amalg
´ \bigtriangleup \bigtriangledown † \dagger
¡ \lhd
a
£ \rhd
a
‡ \ddagger
¢ \unlhd
a
¤ \unrhd
a
t \wr
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 65
Table 3.5: BIG Operators.
¸
\sum
¸
\bigcup

\bigvee
¸
\prod
¸
\bigcap

\bigwedge
¸
\coprod
¸
\bigsqcup
¸
\biguplus

\int

\oint
¸
\bigodot
¸
\bigoplus
¸
\bigotimes
Table 3.6: Arrows.
← \leftarrow or \gets ←− \longleftarrow
→ \rightarrow or \to −→ \longrightarrow
↔ \leftrightarrow ←→ \longleftrightarrow
⇐ \Leftarrow ⇐= \Longleftarrow
⇒ \Rightarrow =⇒ \Longrightarrow
⇔ \Leftrightarrow ⇐⇒ \Longleftrightarrow
→ \mapsto −→ \longmapsto
← \hookleftarrow → \hookrightarrow
÷ \leftharpoonup ÷ \rightharpoonup
÷ \leftharpoondown ÷ \rightharpoondown
= \rightleftharpoons ⇐⇒ \iff (bigger spaces)
↑ \uparrow ↓ \downarrow
| \updownarrow ⇑ \Uparrow
⇓ \Downarrow ¨ \Updownarrow
\nearrow ` \searrow
\swarrow ` \nwarrow
Y \leadsto
a
a
Use the latexsym package to access this symbol
Table 3.7: Arrows as Accents.
−−→
¹1 \overrightarrow{AB} ¹1
−−→
\underrightarrow{AB}
←−−
¹1 \overleftarrow{AB} ¹1
←−−
\underleftarrow{AB}
←→
¹1 \overleftrightarrow{AB} ¹1
←→
\underleftrightarrow{AB}
66 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
Table 3.8: Delimiters.
( ( ) ) ↑ \uparrow
[ [ or \lbrack ] ] or \rbrack ↓ \downarrow
¦ \{ or \lbrace ¦ \} or \rbrace | \updownarrow
' \langle ` \rangle ⇑ \Uparrow
[ | or \vert | \| or \Vert ⇓ \Downarrow
´ / ` \backslash ¨ \Updownarrow
\lfloor | \rfloor
| \rceil \lceil
Table 3.9: Large Delimiters.

\lgroup

\rgroup

\lmoustache

\arrowvert
¸
¸
\Arrowvert

\bracevert

\rmoustache
Table 3.10: Miscellaneous Symbols.
. . . \dots \cdots
.
.
. \vdots
.
.
.
\ddots
/ \hbar ı \imath , \jmath / \ell
' \Re · \Im ℵ \aleph ℘ \wp
∀ \forall ∃ \exists G \mho
a
∂ \partial

’ / \prime ∅ \emptyset ∞ \infty
∇ \nabla ´ \triangle P \Box
a
Q \Diamond
a
⊥ \bot · \top ∠ \angle

\surd
♦ \diamondsuit ♥ \heartsuit ♣ \clubsuit ♠ \spadesuit
\neg or \lnot . \flat : \natural : \sharp
a
Use the latexsym package to access this symbol
Table 3.11: Non-Mathematical Symbols.
These symbols can also be used in text mode.
† \dag § \S © \copyright ® \textregistered
‡ \ddag ¶ \P £ \pounds % \%
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 67
Table 3.12: A
M
S Delimiters.
' \ulcorner ¯ \urcorner . \llcorner \lrcorner
[ \lvert [ \rvert | \lVert | \rVert
Table 3.13: A
M
S Greek and Hebrew.
} \digamma κ \varkappa Z \beth ג \gimel ¯ \daleth
Table 3.14: Math Alphabets.
See Table 6.4 on 111 for other math fonts.
Example Command Required package
ABCDEabcde1234 \mathrm{ABCDE abcde 1234}
ABCDEabcde1234 \mathit{ABCDE abcde 1234}
¹1C11o/cdc1:·i \mathnormal{ABCDE abcde 1234}
ABCDE \mathcal{ABCDE abcde 1234}
ABCDE \mathscr{ABCDE abcde 1234} mathrsfs
ABCDEabcde1234 \mathfrak{ABCDE abcde 1234} amsfonts or amssymb
ABC|E.'=÷_ \mathbb{ABCDE abcde 1234} amsfonts or amssymb
Table 3.15: A
M
S Binary Operators.
÷ \dotplus . \centerdot
\ltimes \rtimes ÷ \divideontimes
J \doublecup + \doublecap \smallsetminus
Y \veebar ¯ \barwedge \doublebarwedge
¬ \boxplus ¬ \boxminus \circleddash
¯ \boxtimes ¯ \boxdot \circledcirc
¡ \intercal ~ \circledast · \rightthreetimes
( \curlyvee · \curlywedge ` \leftthreetimes
68 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
Table 3.16: A
M
S Binary Relations.
< \lessdot \gtrdot = \doteqdot
< \leqslant ` \geqslant = \risingdotseq
\eqslantless ` \eqslantgtr = \fallingdotseq
_ \leqq _ \geqq = \eqcirc
≪ \lll or \llless ≫ \ggg = \circeq
\lesssim \gtrsim = \triangleq
´ \lessapprox . \gtrapprox = \bumpeq
≶ \lessgtr ≷ \gtrless · \Bumpeq
÷ \lesseqgtr ÷ \gtreqless ∼ \thicksim
= \lesseqqgtr = \gtreqqless ≈ \thickapprox
- \preccurlyeq · \succcurlyeq ~ \approxeq
- \curlyeqprec ` \curlyeqsucc ~ \backsim
\precsim ` \succsim - \backsimeq
. \precapprox ¯ \succapprox = \vDash
´ \subseteqq ~ \supseteqq ' \Vdash
+ \shortparallel \Supset ' \Vvdash
¬ \blacktriangleleft \sqsupset ~ \backepsilon
\vartriangleright ∵ \because ∝ \varpropto
> \blacktriangleright \Subset ( \between
_ \trianglerighteq · \smallfrown . \pitchfork
< \vartriangleleft . \shortmid · \smallsmile
_ \trianglelefteq ∴ \therefore \sqsubset
3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 69
Table 3.17: A
M
S Arrows.
--- \dashleftarrow --- \dashrightarrow
⇔ \leftleftarrows ⇒ \rightrightarrows
¯ \leftrightarrows · \rightleftarrows
÷ \Lleftarrow = \Rrightarrow
÷ \twoheadleftarrow ÷ \twoheadrightarrow
÷ \leftarrowtail ÷ \rightarrowtail
= \leftrightharpoons = \rightleftharpoons
¨ \Lsh ¨ \Rsh
÷ \looparrowleft + \looparrowright
. \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright
´ \circlearrowleft ` \circlearrowright
÷ \multimap ¦ \upuparrows
| \downdownarrows \upharpoonleft
` \upharpoonright \downharpoonright
~ \rightsquigarrow - \leftrightsquigarrow
70 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae
Table 3.18: A
M
S Negated Binary Relations and Arrows.
≮ \nless ≯ \ngtr ´ \varsubsetneqq
_ \lneq _ \gneq , \varsupsetneqq
< \nleq _ \ngeq , \nsubseteqq
< \nleqslant } \ngeqslant ÷ \nsupseteqq
_ \lneqq _ \gneqq [ \nmid
_ \lvertneqq _ \gvertneqq ∦ \nparallel
_ \nleqq _ \ngeqq · \nshortmid
\lnsim \gnsim + \nshortparallel
¸ \lnapprox ¸ \gnapprox ~ \nsim
⊀ \nprec ~ \nsucc æ \ncong
_ \npreceq _ \nsucceq - \nvdash
_ \precneqq _ \succneqq = \nvDash
\precnsim ` \succnsim ' \nVdash
¸ \precnapprox ¸ \succnapprox ÷ \nVDash
_ \subsetneq _ \supsetneq < \ntriangleleft
_ \varsubsetneq _ \varsupsetneq ; \ntriangleright
_ \nsubseteq _ \nsupseteq _ \ntrianglelefteq
´ \subsetneqq \supsetneqq _ \ntrianglerighteq
÷ \nleftarrow ÷ \nrightarrow ÷ \nleftrightarrow
= \nLeftarrow = \nRightarrow = \nLeftrightarrow
Table 3.19: A
M
S Miscellaneous.
/ \hbar / \hslash k \Bbbk
¯ \square B \blacksquare ´ \circledS
. \vartriangle & \blacktriangle U \complement
V \triangledown * \blacktriangledown . \Game
♦ \lozenge 4 \blacklozenge + \bigstar
∠ \angle X \measuredangle
\diagup ` \diagdown \ \backprime
± \nexists · \Finv ∅ \varnothing
ð \eth < \sphericalangle G \mho
Chapter 4
Specialities
When putting together a large document, L
A
T
E
X will help you with some special
features like index generation, bibliography management, and other things. A
much more complete description of specialities and enhancements possible with
L
A
T
E
X can be found in the L
A
T
E
X Manual [1] and The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
4.1 Including Encapsulated PostScript
L
A
T
E
X provides the basic facilities to work with floating bodies, such as
images or graphics, with the figure and table environments.
There are several ways to generate the actual graphics with basic L
A
T
E
X
or a L
A
T
E
X extension package, a few of them are described in chapter 5.
Please refer to The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3] and the L
A
T
E
X Manual [1] for
more information on that subject.
A much easier way to get graphics into a document is to generate them
with a specialised software package
1
and then include the finished graphics
into the document. Here again, L
A
T
E
X packages offer many ways to do this,
but this introduction will only discuss the use of Encapsulated PostScript
(EPS) graphics, because it is quite easy to do and widely used. In order
to use pictures in the EPS format, you must have a PostScript printer
2
available for output.
A good set of commands for inclusion of graphics is provided in the
graphicx package by D. P. Carlisle. It is part of a whole family of packages
called the “graphics” bundle.
3
Assuming you are working on a system with a PostScript printer avail-
able for output and with the graphicx package installed, you can use the
following step by step guide to include a picture into your document:
1
Such as XFig, Gnuplot, Gimp, Xara X . . .
2
Another possibility to output PostScript is the GhostScript program available
from support/ghostscript. Windows and OS/2 users might want to look for GSview.
3
macros/latex/required/graphics
72 Specialities
1. Export the picture from your graphics program in EPS format.
4
2. Load the graphicx package in the preamble of the input file with
\usepackage[driver]{graphicx}
where driver is the name of your “dvi to postscript” converter program.
The most widely used program is called dvips. The name of the driver
is required, because there is no standard on how graphics are included
in T
E
X. Knowing the name of the driver, the graphicx package can
choose the correct method to insert information about the graphics
into the .dvi file, so that the printer understands it and can correctly
include the .eps file.
3. Use the command
\includegraphics[key=value, . . . ]{file}
to include file into your document. The optional parameter accepts a
comma separated list of keys and associated values. The keys can be
used to alter the width, height and rotation of the included graphic.
Table 4.1 lists the most important keys.
Table 4.1: Key Names for graphicx Package.
width scale graphic to the specified width
height scale graphic to the specified height
angle rotate graphic counterclockwise
scale scale graphic
4
If your software can not export into EPS format, you can try to install a PostScript
printer driver (such as an Apple LaserWriter, for example) and then print to a file with
this driver. With some luck this file will be in EPS format. Note that an EPS must not
contain more than one page. Some printer drivers can be explicitly configured to produce
EPS format.
4.2 Bibliography 73
The following example code may help to clarify things:
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[angle=90,
width=0.5\textwidth]{test}
\caption{This is a test.}
\end{figure}
It includes the graphic stored in the file test.eps. The graphic is first
rotated by an angle of 90 degrees and then scaled to the final width of 0.5
times the width of a standard paragraph. The aspect ratio is 1.0, because
no special height is specified. The width and height parameters can also be
specified in absolute dimensions. Refer to Table 6.5 on page 115 for more
information. If you want to know more about this topic, make sure to read
[9] and [13].
4.2 Bibliography
You can produce a bibliography with the thebibliography environment.
Each entry starts with
\bibitem[label ]{marker}
The marker is then used to cite the book, article or paper within the
document.
\cite{marker}
If you do not use the label option, the entries will get enumerated au-
tomatically. The parameter after the \begin{thebibliography} command
defines how much space to reserve for the number of labels. In the exam-
ple below, {99} tells L
A
T
E
X to expect that none of the bibliography item
numbers will be wider than the number 99.
Partl~\cite{pa} has
proposed that \ldots
\begin{thebibliography}{99}
\bibitem{pa} H.~Partl:
\emph{German \TeX},
TUGboat Volume~9, Issue~1 (1988)
\end{thebibliography}
Partl [1] has proposed that . . .
Bibliography
[1] H. Partl: German T
E
X, TUGboat
Volume 9, Issue 1 (1988)
74 Specialities
For larger projects, you might want to check out the BibT
E
X program.
BibT
E
X is included with most T
E
X distributions. It allows you to main-
tain a bibliographic database and then extract the references relevant to
things you cited in your paper. The visual presentation of BibT
E
X gener-
ated bibliographies is based on a style sheets concept that allows you to
create bibliographies following a wide range of established designs.
4.3 Indexing 75
Table 4.2: Index Key Syntax Examples.
Example Index Entry Comment
\index{hello} hello, 1 Plain entry
\index{hello!Peter} Peter, 3 Subentry under ‘hello’
\index{Sam@\textsl{Sam}} Sam, 2 Formatted entry
\index{Lin@\textbf{Lin}} Lin, 7 Same as above
\index{Jenny|textbf} Jenny, 3 Formatted page number
\index{Joe|textit} Joe, 5 Same as above
\index{ecole@\’ecole} école, 4 Handling of accents
4.3 Indexing
A very useful feature of many books is their index. With L
A
T
E
X and the
support program makeindex,
5
an index can be generated quite easily. This
introduction will only explain the basic index generation commands. For a
more in-depth view, please refer to The L
A
T
E
X Companion [3].
To enable the indexing feature of L
A
T
E
X, the makeidx package must be
loaded in the preamble with:
\usepackage{makeidx}
and the special indexing commands must be enabled by putting the
\makeindex
command into the input file preamble.
The content of the index is specified with
\index{key}
commands, where key is the index entry. You enter the index commands
at the points in the text that you want the final index entries to point to.
Table 4.2 explains the syntax of the key argument with several examples.
When the input file is processed with L
A
T
E
X, each \index command
writes an appropriate index entry, together with the current page number,
to a special file. The file has the same name as the L
A
T
E
X input file, but a
different extension (.idx). This .idx file can then be processed with the
5
On systems not necessarily supporting filenames longer than 8 characters, the program
may be called makeidx.
76 Specialities
makeindex program.
makeindex filename
The makeindex program generates a sorted index with the same base
file name, but this time with the extension .ind. If now the L
A
T
E
X input
file is processed again, this sorted index gets included into the document at
the point where L
A
T
E
X finds
\printindex
The showidx package that comes with L
A
T
E
X2
ε
prints out all index en-
tries in the left margin of the text. This is quite useful for proofreading a
document and verifying the index.
Note that the \index command can affect your layout if not used care-
fully.
My Word \index{Word}. As opposed
to Word\index{Word}. Note the
position of the full stop.
My Word . As opposed to Word. Note
the position of the full stop.
4.4 Fancy Headers
The fancyhdr package,
6
written by Piet van Oostrum, provides a few sim-
ple commands that allow you to customize the header and footer lines of
your document. If you look at the top of this page, you can see a possible
application of this package.
The tricky problem when customising headers and footers is to get things
like running section and chapter names in there. L
A
T
E
X accomplishes this
with a two-stage approach. In the header and footer definition, you use
the commands \rightmark and \leftmark to represent the current section
and chapter heading, respectively. The values of these two commands are
overwritten whenever a chapter or section command is processed.
For ultimate flexibility, the \chapter command and its friends do not
redefine \rightmark and \leftmark themselves. They call yet another com-
mand (\chaptermark, \sectionmark, or \subsectionmark) that is respon-
sible for redefining \rightmark and \leftmark.
If you want to change the look of the chapter name in the header line,
you need only “renew” the \chaptermark command.
6
Available from macros/latex/contrib/supported/fancyhdr.
4.4 Fancy Headers 77
\documentclass{book}
\usepackage{fancyhdr}
\pagestyle{fancy}
% with this we ensure that the chapter and section
% headings are in lowercase.
\renewcommand{\chaptermark}[1]{%
\markboth{#1}{}}
\renewcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{%
\markright{\thesection\ #1}}
\fancyhf{} % delete current header and footer
\fancyhead[LE,RO]{\bfseries\thepage}
\fancyhead[LO]{\bfseries\rightmark}
\fancyhead[RE]{\bfseries\leftmark}
\renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0.5pt}
\renewcommand{\footrulewidth}{0pt}
\addtolength{\headheight}{0.5pt} % space for the rule
\fancypagestyle{plain}{%
\fancyhead{} % get rid of headers on plain pages
\renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0pt} % and the line
}
Figure 4.1: Example fancyhdr Setup.
78 Specialities
Figure 4.1 shows a possible setup for the fancyhdr package that makes the
headers look about the same as they look in this booklet. In any case, I sug-
gest you fetch the documentation for the package at the address mentioned
in the footnote.
4.5 The Verbatim Package
Earlier in this book, you got to know the verbatim environment. In this
section, you are going to learn about the verbatim package. The verbatim
package is basically a re-implementation of the verbatim environment that
works around some of the limitations of the original verbatim environment.
This by itself is not spectacular, but the implementation of the verbatim
package added new functionality, which is why I am mentioning the package
here. The verbatim package provides the
\verbatiminput{filename}
command, which allows you to include raw ASCII text into your document
as if it were inside a verbatim environment.
As the verbatim package is part of the ‘tools’ bundle, you should find it
pre-installed on most systems. If you want to know more about this package,
make sure to read [10].
4.6 Installing Extra Packages
Most L
A
T
E
X installations come with a large set of pre-installed style packages,
but many more are available on the net. The main place to look for style
packages on the Internet is CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/).
Packages such as geometry, hyphenat, and many others are typically
made up of two files: a file with the extension .ins and another with the
extension .dtx. There will often be a readme.txt with a brief description
of the package. You should of course read this file first.
In any event, once you have copied the package files onto your machine,
you still have to process them in a way that (a) tells your T
E
X distribution
about the new style package and (b) gives you the documentation. Here’s
how you do the first part:
1. Run L
A
T
E
X on the .ins file. This will extract a .sty file.
2. Move the .sty file to a place where your distribution can find it. Usu-
ally this is in your .../localtexmf /tex/latex subdirectory (Win-
dows or OS/2 users should feel free to change the direction of the
slashes).
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X 79
3. Refresh your distribution’s file-name database. The command depends
on the L
A
T
E
Xdistribution you use: teTeX, fpTeX – texhash; web2c –
maktexlsr; MikTeX – initexmf -update-fndb or use the GUI.
Now you can extract the documentation from the .dtx file:
1. Run L
A
T
E
X on the .dtx file. This will generate a .dvi file. Note
that you may have to run L
A
T
E
X several times before it gets the cross-
references right.
2. Check to see if L
A
T
E
X has produced a .idx file among the various files
you now have. If you do not see this file, then you may proceed to
step 5.
3. In order to generate the index, type the following:
makeindex -s gind.ist name
(where name stands for the main-file name without any extension).
4. Run L
A
T
E
X on the .dtx file once again.
5. Last but not least, make a .ps or .pdf file to increase your reading
pleasure.
Sometimes you will see that a .glo (glossary) file has been produced.
Run the following command between step 4 and 5:
makeindex -s gglo.ist -o name.gls name.glo
Be sure to run L
A
T
E
X on the .dtx one last time before moving on to step 5.
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X
By Daniel Flipo <Daniel.Flipo@univ-lille1.fr>
PDF is a hypertext document format. Much like in a web page, some words
in the document are marked as hyperlinks. They link to other places in the
document or even to other documents. If you click on such a hyperlink you
get transported to the destination of the link. In the context of L
A
T
E
X, this
means that all occurrences of \ref and \pageref become hyperlinks. Addi-
tionally, the table of contents, the index and all the other similar structures
become collections of hyperlinks.
Most web pages you find today are written in HTML (HyperText Markup
Language). This format has two significant disadvantages when writing
scientific documents:
1. Including mathematical formulae into HTML documents is not gener-
ally supported. While there is a standard for it, most browsers used
today do not support it, or lack the required fonts.
80 Specialities
2. Printing HTML documents is possible, but the results vary widely
between platforms and browsers. The results are miles removed from
the quality we have come to expect in the L
A
T
E
X world.
There have been many attempts to create translators from L
A
T
E
X to
HTML. Some were even quite successful in the sense that they are able
to produce legible web pages from a standard L
A
T
E
X input file. But all of
them cut corners left and right to get the job done. As soon as you start
using more complex L
A
T
E
X features and external packages things tend to
fall apart. Authors wishing to preserve the unique typographic quality of
their documents even when publishing on the web turn to PDF (Portable
Document Format), which preserves the layout of the document and permits
hypertext navigation. Most modern browsers come with plugins that allow
the direct display of PDF documents.
Even though there are DVI and PS viewers for almost every platform,
you will find that Acrobat Reader and Xpdf for viewing PDF documents are
more widely deployed. So providing PDF versions of your documents will
make them much more accessible to your potential readers.
4.7.1 PDF Documents for the Web
The creation of a PDF file from L
A
T
E
X source is very simple, thanks to the
pdfT
E
X program developed by Hàn Th
´
ê Thành. pdfT
E
X produces PDF
output where normal T
E
X produces DVI. There is also a pdfL
A
T
E
X, which
produces PDF output from L
A
T
E
X sources.
Both pdfT
E
X and pdfL
A
T
E
X are installed automatically by most modern
T
E
X distributions, such as teT
E
X, fpT
E
X, MikT
E
X, T
E
XLive and CMacT
E
X.
To produce a PDF instead of DVI, it is sufficient to replace the com-
mand latex file.tex by pdflatex file.tex. On systems where L
A
T
E
X
is not called from the command line, you may find a special button in the
T
E
XControlCenter.
In L
A
T
E
X you can define the paper size with an optional documentclass
argument such as a4paper or letterpaper. This works in pdfL
A
T
E
X too,
but on top of this pdfT
E
X also needs to know the physical size of the paper
to determine the physical size of the pages in the pdf file. If you use the
hyperref package (see page 83), the papersize will be adjusted automatically.
Otherwise you have to do this manually by putting the following lines into
the preamble of the document:
\pdfpagewidth=\paperwidth
\pdfpageheight=\paperheight
The following section will go into more detail regarding the differences
between normal L
A
T
E
X and pdfL
A
T
E
X. The main differences concern three
areas: the fonts to use, the format of images to include, and the manual
configuration of hyperlinks.
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X 81
4.7.2 The Fonts
pdfL
A
T
E
X can deal with all sorts of fonts (PK bitmaps, TrueType, PostScript
type 1. . . ) but the normal L
A
T
E
X font format, the bitmap PK fonts produce
very ugly results when the document is displayed with Acrobat Reader. It
is best to use PostScript Type 1 fonts exclusively to produce documents
that display well. Modern TeX instal lations wil l be setup so that this hap-
pens automatically. Best is to try. If it works for you, just skip this whole
section.
The PostScript Type 1 implementation of the Computer Modern and
AMSFonts was produced by Blue Sky Research and Y&Y, Inc., who then
transferred copyright to the American Mathematical Society. The fonts were
made publicly available in early 1997 and currently come with most of T
E
X
distributions.
However, if you are using L
A
T
E
X to create documents in languages other
than English, you might want to use EC, LH, or CB fonts (see the discussion
about OT1 fonts on the page 26). Vladimir Volovich has created the cm-super
font bundle which covers the entire EC/TC, EC Concrete, EC Bright and
LH font sets. It is available from CTAN:/fonts/ps-type1/cm-super and is
included with T
E
XLive7 and MikT
E
X. Similar type 1 CB Greek fonts created
by Apostolos Syropoulos are available at CTAN:/tex-archive/fonts/greek/cb.
Unfortunately, both of these font sets are not of the same typographic qual-
ity as the Type1 CM fonts by Blue Sky/Y&Y. They were automatically
hinted, and the document might look not as neat on the screen as the ones
using Blue Sky/Y&Y type 1 CM fonts, on high resolution output devices
they produce results identical to the original bitmap EC/LH/CB fonts.
If you are creating document in one of Latin-based languages, you have
several other options.
• You might want to use aeguill package, aka Almost European Computer
Modern with Guil lemets. Just put the line
\usepackage{aeguill} into the preamble of your document, to enable
AE virtual fonts instead of EC fonts.
• Alternatively, you can use mltex package, but this only works when
your pdfT
E
X has been compiled with the mltex option.
The AE virtual fontset, like the MlT
E
X system, makes T
E
X believe it has
a full 256 character fontset at its disposal by creating most of the missing
letters from characters of the CM font and rearranging them in the EC order,
this allows to use the excellent type 1 format CM fonts available on most
systems. As the font is now in T1 encoding, hyphenation will work well in
Latin-based European languages. The only disadvantage of this approach is
that the artificial AE characters do not work with Acrobat Reader’s Find
function, so you cannot search for words with accented characters in your
final PDF file.
82 Specialities
For the Russian language a similar solution is to use C1 virtual fonts
available at ftp://ftp.vsu.ru/pub/tex/font-packs/c1fonts. These fonts
combine the standard CM type 1 fonts from Bluesky collection and CMCYR
type 1 fonts from Paradissa and BaKoMa collection, all available on CTAN.
Because Paradissa fonts contain only Russian letters, C1 fonts are missing
other Cyrillic glyphs.
Another solution is to switch to other PostScript type 1 fonts. Ac-
tually, some of them are even included with every copy of Acrobat Reader.
Because these fonts have different character sizes, the text layout on your
pages will change. Generally these other fonts will use more space than the
CM fonts, which are very space-efficient. Also, the overall visual coherence
of your document will suffer because Times, Helvetica and Courier (the pri-
mary candidates for such a replacement job) have not been designed to work
in harmony in a single document.
Two ready-made font sets are available for this purpose: pxfonts, which
is based on Palatino as its main text body font, and the txfonts package,
which is based on Times. To use them it is sufficient to put the following
lines into the preamble of your document:
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{pxfonts}
Note: you may find lines like
Warning: pdftex (file eurmo10): Font eur... not found
in the .log file after compiling your input file. They mean that some font
used in the document has not been found. You really have to fix these
problems, as the resulting PDF document may not display the pages with
the missing characters at al l.
As you can see this whole font business, especially the lack of a good
EC fontset equivalent in quality to the CM font in type 1 format, has been
occupying many peoples minds. Recently a new set of high quality outline
fonts called Latin Modern (LM) has become available. It puts an end to the
misery. If you have a recent T
E
X installation, chances are that you already
have a copy of them installed all you need todo is to add
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{textcomp}
to the preamble of your document and you are all set for creating excellent
pdf output with full support for the full Latin character set.
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X 83
4.7.3 Using Graphics
Including graphics into a document works best with the graphicx package
(see page 71). By using the special driver option pdftex the package will
work with pdfL
A
T
E
X as well:
\usepackage[pdftex]{color,graphicx}
In the sample above I have included the color option, as using color in
documents displayed on the web comes quite naturally.
So much for the good news. The bad news is that graphics in Encapsu-
lated PostScript format do not work with PdfL
A
T
E
X. If you don’t define a
file extension in the \includegraphics command, graphicx will go looking
for a suitable file on its own, depending on the setting of the driver option.
For pdftex this is formats .png, .pdf, .jpg and .mps ( METAPOST)—but
not .eps.
The simple way out of this problem is to just convert your EPS files into
PDF format using the epstopdf utility found on many systems. For vector
graphics (drawings) this is a great solution. For bitmaps (photos, scans)
this is not ideal, because the PDF format natively supports the inclusion
of PNG and JPEG images. PNG is good for screenshots and other images
with few colors. JPEG is great for photos, as it is very space-efficient.
It may even be desirable not to draw certain geometric figures, but rather
describe the figure with a specialized command language, such as META-
POST, which can be found in most T
E
X distributions, and comes with its
own extensive manual.
4.7.4 Hypertext Links
The hyperref package will take care of turning all internal references of your
document into hyperlinks. For this to work properly some magic is necessary,
so you have to put \usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref} as the last command
into the preamble of your document.
Many options are available to customize the behaviour of the hyperref
package:
• either as a comma separated list after the pdftex option
\usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref}
• or on individual lines with the command \hypersetup{options}.
The only required option is pdftex; the others are optional and allow
you to change the default behaviour of hyperref.
7
In the following list the
default values are written in an upright font.
7
It is worth noting that the hyperref package is not limited to work with pdfT
E
X. It
can also be configured to embed PDF-specific information into the DVI output of normal
L
A
T
E
X, which then gets put into the PS file by dvips and is finally picked up by Adobe
Distiller when it is used to turn the PS file into PDF.
84 Specialities
bookmarks (=true,false) show or hide the bookmarks bar when
displaying the document
unicode (=false,true) allows to use characters of non-latin based
languages in Acrobat’s bookmarks
pdftoolbar (=true,false) show or hide Acrobat’s toolbar
pdfmenubar (=true,false) show or hide Acrobat’s menu
pdffitwindow (=true,false) adjust the initial magnification of the pdf
when displayed
pdftitle (={text}) define the title that gets displayed in the Document
Info window of Acrobat
pdfauthor (={text}) the name of the PDF’s author
pdfnewwindow (=true,false) define if a new window should get opened
when a link leads out of the current document
colorlinks (=false,true) surround the links by color frames (false)
or colors the text of the links (true). The color of these links can be
configured using the following options (default colors are shown):
linkcolor (=red) color of internal links (sections, pages, etc.),
citecolor (=green) color of citation links (bibliography)
filecolor (=magenta) color of file links
urlcolor (=cyan) color of URL links (mail, web)
If you are happy with the defaults, use
\usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref}
To have the bookmark list open and links in color (the =true values are
optional):
\usepackage[pdftex,bookmarks,colorlinks]{hyperref}
When creating PDFs destined for printing, colored links are not a good
thing as they end up in gray in the final output, making it difficult to read.
You can use color frames, which are not printed:
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks=false}
or make links black:
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X 85
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks,%
citecolor=black,%
filecolor=black,%
linkcolor=black,%
urlcolor=black,%
pdftex}
When you just want to provide information for the Document Info sec-
tion of the PDF file:
\usepackage[pdfauthor={Pierre Desproges},%
pdftitle={Des femmes qui tombent},%
pdftex]{hyperref}
In addition to the automatic hyperlinks for cross references, it is possible
to embed explicit links using
\href{url }{text}
The code
The \href{http://www.ctan.org}{CTAN} website.
produces the output “CTAN”; a click on the word “CTAN” will take you to
the CTAN website.
If the destination of the link is not a URL but a local file, you can use
the \href command:
The complete document is \href{manual.pdf}{here}
Which produces the text “The complete document is here”. A click on the
word “here” will open the file manual.pdf. (The filename is relative to the
location of the current document).
The author of an article might want her readers to easily send email
messages by using the \href command inside the \author command on the
title page of the document:
\author{Mary Oetiker $<$\href{mailto:mary@oetiker.ch}%
{mary@oetiker.ch}$>$
Note that I have put the link so that my email address appears not only in
the link but also on the page itself. I did this because the link
\href{mailto:mary@oetiker.ch}{Mary Oetiker}
would work well within Acrobat, but once the page is printed the email
address would not be visible anymore.
86 Specialities
4.7.5 Problems with Links
Messages like the following:
! pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination with the same
identifier (name{page.1}) has been already used,
duplicate ignored
appear when a counter gets reinitialized, for example by using the command
\mainmatter provided by the book document class. It resets the page num-
ber counter to 1 prior to the first chapter of the book. But as the preface of
the book also has a page number 1 all links to “page 1” would not be unique
anymore, hence the notice that “duplicate has been ignored.”
The counter measure consists of putting plainpages=false into the
hyperref options. This unfortunately only helps with the page counter. An
even more radical solution is to use the option
hypertexnames=false, but this will cause the page links in the index to
stop working.
4.7.6 Problems with Bookmarks
The text displayed by bookmarks does not always look like you expect it
to look. Because bookmarks are “just text,” much fewer characters are
available for bookmarks than for normal L
A
T
E
X text. Hyperref will normally
notice such problems and put up a warning:
Package hyperref Warning:
Token not allowed in a PDFDocEncoded string:
You can now work around this problem by providing a text string for the
bookmarks, which replaces the offending text:
\texorpdfstring{T
E
X text}{Bookmark Text}
Math expressions are a prime candidate for this kind of problem:
\section{\texorpdfstring{$E=mc^2$}%
{E=mc^2}}
which turns \section{$E=mc^2$} to “E=mc2” in the bookmark area.
Color changes also do not travel well into bookmarks:
\section{\textcolor{red}{Red !}}
produces the string “redRed!”. The command \textcolor gets ignored but
its argument (red) gets printed.
If you use
4.7 Working with pdf L
A
T
E
X 87
\section{\texorpdfstring{\textcolor{red}{Red !}}{Red\ !}}
the result will be much more legible.
If you write your document in unicode and use the unicode option for
the hyperref package you can use unicode characters in bookmarks. This
will give you a much larger selection of characters to pick from when when
using \texorpdfstring.
Source Compatibility Between L
A
T
E
X and pdf L
A
T
E
X
Ideally your document would compile equally well with L
A
T
E
X and pdfL
A
T
E
X.
The main problem in this respect is the inclusion of graphics. The simple
solution is to systematical ly drop the file extension from \includegraphics
commands. They will then automatically look for a file of a suitable format
in the current directory. All you have to do is create appropriate versions of
the graphics files. L
A
T
E
X will look for .eps, and pdfL
A
T
E
X will try to include
a file with the extension .png, .pdf, .jpg or .mps (in that order).
For the cases where you want to use different code for the PDF version
of your document, you can simply add the package ifpdf
8
to your preamble.
Chances are that you already have it installed; if not then you’re probably
using MiKT
E
X which will install it for you automatically the first time you
try to use it. This package defines the special command \ifpdf that will
allow you to write conditional code easily. In this example, we want the
PostScript version to be black and white due to the printing costs but we
want the PDF version for online viewing to be colourful.
\RequirePackage{ifpdf} % running on pdfTeX?
\ifpdf
\documentclass[a4paper,12pt,pdftex]{book}
\else
\documentclass[a4paper,12pt,dvips]{book}
\fi
\ifpdf
\usepackage{lmodern}
\fi
\usepackage[bookmarks, % add hyperlinks
colorlinks,
plainpages=false]{hyperref}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
8
If you want the whole story on why to use this package then go to the T
E
X FAQ under
the item
http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=ifpdf.
88 Specialities
\usepackage{graphicx}
...
In the example above I have included the hyperref package even in the non-
PDF version. The effect of this is to make the \href command work in all
cases, which saves me from wrapping every occurrence into a conditional
statement.
Note that in recent T
E
X distributions (T
E
XLive for example), the nor-
mal T
E
X program is actually pdfT
E
X it will automatically switch between
producing pdf and dvi according to the settings in the document class. If
you use the code above then you can still use the pdflatex command to get
pdf output and latex for normal dvi output.
4.8 Creating Presentations
By Daniel Flipo <Daniel.Flipo@univ-lille1.fr>
You can present the results of your scientific work on a blackboard, with
transparencies, or directly from your laptop using some presentation soft-
ware.
pdfL
A
T
E
X combined with the beamer class allows you to create presen-
tations in PDF, looking much like something you might be able to generate
with PowerPoint if you had a very good day, but much more portable be-
cause Acrobat Reader is available on many more systems.
The beamer class uses graphicx, color and hyperref with options adapted
to screen presentations.
When you compile the code presented in figure 4.2 with PDFL
A
T
E
X you
get a PDF file with a title page and a second page showing several items
that will be reveled one at a time as you step though your presentation.
One of the advantages of the beamer class is that it produces a PDF file
that is directly usable without first going through a PostScript stage like
prosper or requiring additional post processing like presentations created
with the ppower4 package.
With the beamer class you can produce several versions (modes) of your
document from the same input file. The input file may contain special
instructions for the different modes in angular brackets. The following modes
are available.
beamer for the presentation PDF discussed above.
trans for slides.
handout for the printed version.
The default mode is beamer, you can change it by setting a different mode
as a global option, like \documentclass[10pt,handout]{beamer} to print
the handouts for example.
4.8 Creating Presentations 89
\documentclass[10pt]{beamer}
\mode<beamer>{%
\usetheme[hideothersubsections,
right,width=22mm]{Goettingen}
}
\title{Simple Presentation}
\author[D. Flipo]{Daniel Flipo}
\institute{U.S.T.L. \& GUTenberg}
\titlegraphic{\includegraphics[width=20mm]{USTL}}
\date{2005}
\begin{document}
\begin{frame}<handout:0>
\titlepage
\end{frame}
\section{An Example}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Things to do on a Sunday Afternoon}
\begin{block}{One could \ldots}
\begin{itemize}
\item walk the dog\dots \pause
\item read a book\pause
\item confuse a cat\pause
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
and many other things
\end{frame}
\end{document}
Figure 4.2: Sample code for the beamer class
90 Specialities
The look of the screen presentation depends on the theme you choose.
You can either pick one of the themes shipped with the beamer class or
you can even create your own. See the beamer class documentation in
beameruserguide.pdf for more information on this.
Lets have a closer look at the code in figure 4.2.
For the screen version of the presentation \mode<beamer> we have chosen
the Goettingen theme to show a navigation panel integrated into the table
of contents. The options allow to choose the size of the panel (22 mm in
this case) and its position (on the right side of the body text). The option
hideothersubsections, shows the chapter titles, but only the subsections of
the present chapter. There are no special settings for \mode<trans> and
\mode<handout>. They appear in their standard layout.
The commands \title{}, \author{}, \institute{}, and
\titlegraphic{} set the content of the title page. The optional arguments
of \title[]{} and \author[]{} let you specify a special version of the title
and the author name to be displayed on the panel of the Goettingen theme.
The titles and subtitles in the panel are created with normal \section{}
and \subsection{} commands that you place outside the frame environ-
ment.
The tiny navigation icons at the bottom of the screen also allow to
navigate the document. Their presence is not dependent on the theme you
choose.
The contents of each slide or screen has to be placed inside a frame
environment. There is an optional argument in angular brackets (< and
>), it allows to suppress a particular frame in one of the versions of the
presentation. In the example the first page would not be shown in the
handout version due to the <handout:0> argument.
It is highly recommended to set a title for each slide apart from the
title slide. This is done with the command \frametitle{}. If a subtitle
is necessary you can use the block environment as shown in the example.
Note that the sectioning commands \section{} and \subsection{} do not
produce output on the slide proper.
The command \pause in the itemize environment lets you reveal the
items one by one. For other presentation effects check out the commands
\only, \uncover, \alt and \temporal. In many place you can also use
angular brakes to further customize the presentation.
In any case make sure you read through the beamer class documentation
beameruserguide.pdf to get a complete picture of what is in store for you.
This package is being actively developed, check out their website to get the
latest information. (http://latex-beamer.sourceforge.net/)
Chapter 5
Producing Mathematical
Graphics
Most people use L
A
T
E
X for typesetting their text. But as the non content and
structure oriented approach to authoring is so convenient, L
A
T
E
X also offers a, if
somewhat restricted, possibility for producing graphical output from textual de-
scriptions. Furthermore, quite a number of L
A
T
E
X extensions have been created
in order to overcome these restrictions. In this section, you will learn about a
few of them.
5.1 Overview
The picture environment allows programming pictures directly in L
A
T
E
X.
A detailed description can be found in the L
A
T
E
X Manual [1]. On the one
hand, there are rather severe constraints, as the slopes of line segments
as well as the radii of circles are restricted to a narrow choice of values.
On the other hand, the picture environment of L
A
T
E
X2
ε
brings with it the
\qbezier command, “q” meaning “quadratic”. Many frequently used curves
such as circles, ellipses, or catenaries can be satisfactorily approximated
by quadratic Bézier curves, although this may require some mathematical
toil. If, in addition, a programming language like Java is used to generate
\qbezier blocks of L
A
T
E
X input files, the picture environment becomes
quite powerful.
Although programming pictures directly in L
A
T
E
X is severely restricted,
and often rather tiresome, there are still reasons for doing so. The documents
thus produced are “small” with respect to bytes, and there are no additional
graphics files to be dragged along.
Packages like epic and eepic (described, for instance, in The L
A
T
E
X Com-
panion [3]), or pstricks help to eliminate the restrictions hampering the orig-
inal picture environment, and greatly strengthen the graphical power of
L
A
T
E
X.
92 Producing Mathematical Graphics
While the former two packages just enhance the picture environment,
the pstricks package has its own drawing environment, pspicture. The
power of pstricks stems from the fact that this package makes extensive use
of PostScript possibilities. In addition, numerous packages have been
written for specific purposes. One of them is X
Y
-pic, described at the end
of this chapter. A wide variety of these packages is described in detail in
The L
A
T
E
X Graphics Companion [4] (not to be confused with The L
A
T
E
X
Companion [3]).
Perhaps the most powerful graphical tool related with L
A
T
E
X is META-
POST, the twin of Donald E. Knuth’s METAFONT. METAPOST has the
very powerful and mathematically sophisticated programming language of
METAFONT. Contrary to METAFONT, which generates bitmaps, META-
POST generates encapsulated PostScript files, which can be imported in
L
A
T
E
X. For an introduction, see A User’s Manual for METAPOST [15], or
the tutorial on [17].
A very thorough discussion of L
A
T
E
X and T
E
X strategies for graphics
(and fonts) can be found in T
E
X Unbound [16].
5.2 The picture Environment
By Urs Oswald <osurs@bluewin.ch>
5.2.1 Basic Commands
A picture environment
1
is created with one of the two commands
\begin{picture}(r. n). . . \end{picture}
or
\begin{picture}(r. n)(r
0
. n
0
). . . \end{picture}
The numbers r. n. r
0
. n
0
refer to \unitlength, which can be reset any
time (but not within a picture environment) with a command such as
\setlength{\unitlength}{1.2cm}
The default value of \unitlength is 1pt. The first pair, (r. n), effects the
reservation, within the document, of rectangular space for the picture. The
optional second pair, (r
0
. n
0
), assigns arbitrary coordinates to the bottom
left corner of the reserved rectangle.
1
Believe it or not, the picture environment works out of the box, with standard L
A
T
E
X2
ε
no package loading necessary.
5.2 The picture Environment 93
Most drawing commands have one of the two forms
\put(r. n){object}
or
\multiput(r. n)(∆r. ∆n){n}{object}
Bézier curves are an exception. They are drawn with the command
\qbezier(r
1
. n
1
)(r
2
. n
2
)(r
3
. n
3
)
94 Producing Mathematical Graphics
5.2.2 Line Segments
\setlength{\unitlength}{5cm}
\begin{picture}(1,1)
\put(0,0){\line(0,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,0){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,2){.5}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,3){.3333}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,4){.25}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,5){.2}}
\put(0,0){\line(1,6){.1667}}
\put(0,0){\line(2,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(2,3){.6667}}
\put(0,0){\line(2,5){.4}}
\put(0,0){\line(3,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(3,2){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(3,4){.75}}
\put(0,0){\line(3,5){.6}}
\put(0,0){\line(4,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(4,3){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(4,5){.8}}
\put(0,0){\line(5,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(5,2){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(5,3){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(5,4){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(5,6){.8333}}
\put(0,0){\line(6,1){1}}
\put(0,0){\line(6,5){1}}
\end{picture}

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

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'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
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´
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/

/
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/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..

´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´
´

Line segments are drawn with the command
\put(r. n){\line(r
1
. n
1
){|cnot/}}
The \line command has two arguments:
1. a direction vector,
2. a length.
The components of the direction vector are restricted to the integers
−6. −5. . . . . 5. 6.
and they have to be coprime (no common divisor except 1). The figure
illustrates all 25 possible slope values in the first quadrant. The length is
relative to \unitlength. The length argument is the vertical coordinate
in the case of a vertical line segment, the horizontal coordinate in all other
cases.
5.2 The picture Environment 95
5.2.3 Arrows
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.75mm}
\begin{picture}(60,40)
\put(30,20){\vector(1,0){30}}
\put(30,20){\vector(4,1){20}}
\put(30,20){\vector(3,1){25}}
\put(30,20){\vector(2,1){30}}
\put(30,20){\vector(1,2){10}}
\thicklines
\put(30,20){\vector(-4,1){30}}
\put(30,20){\vector(-1,4){5}}
\thinlines
\put(30,20){\vector(-1,-1){5}}
\put(30,20){\vector(-1,-4){5}}
\end{picture}
.
.
.
..

>
>
>
>
>
>
>

`
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆy
g
g
g
g
gy
»

·
Arrows are drawn with the command
\put(r. n){\vector(r
1
. n
1
){|cnot/}}
For arrows, the components of the direction vector are even more nar-
rowly restricted than for line segments, namely to the integers
−4. −3. . . . . 3. 4.
Components also have to be coprime (no common divisor except 1). Notice
the effect of the \thicklines command on the two arrows pointing to the
upper left.
96 Producing Mathematical Graphics
5.2.4 Circles
\setlength{\unitlength}{1mm}
\begin{picture}(60, 40)
\put(20,30){\circle{1}}
\put(20,30){\circle{2}}
\put(20,30){\circle{4}}
\put(20,30){\circle{8}}
\put(20,30){\circle{16}}
\put(20,30){\circle{32}}
\put(40,30){\circle{1}}
\put(40,30){\circle{2}}
\put(40,30){\circle{3}}
\put(40,30){\circle{4}}
\put(40,30){\circle{5}}
\put(40,30){\circle{6}}
\put(40,30){\circle{7}}
\put(40,30){\circle{8}}
\put(40,30){\circle{9}}
\put(40,30){\circle{10}}
\put(40,30){\circle{11}}
\put(40,30){\circle{12}}
\put(40,30){\circle{13}}
\put(40,30){\circle{14}}
\put(15,10){\circle*{1}}
\put(20,10){\circle*{2}}
\put(25,10){\circle*{3}}
\put(30,10){\circle*{4}}
\put(35,10){\circle*{5}}
\end{picture}
,¸¯
`

,¸¯`

`

`

`

`

, , g gg
The command
\put(r. n){\circle{diameter}}
draws a circle with center (r. n) and diameter (not radius) diameter. The
picture environment only admits diameters up to approximately 14 mm,
and even below this limit, not all diameters are possible. The \circle*
command produces disks (filled circles).
As in the case of line segments, one may have to resort to additional
packages, such as eepic or pstricks. For a thorough description of these
packages, see The L
A
T
E
X Graphics Companion [4].
There is also a possibility within the picture environment. If one is not
afraid of doing the necessary calculations (or leaving them to a program),
arbitrary circles and ellipses can be patched together from quadratic Bézier
curves. See Graphics in L
A
T
E
X2
ε
[17] for examples and Java source files.
5.2 The picture Environment 97
5.2.5 Text and Formulas
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm}
\begin{picture}(6,5)
\thicklines
\put(1,0.5){\line(2,1){3}}
\put(4,2){\line(-2,1){2}}
\put(2,3){\line(-2,-5){1}}
\put(0.7,0.3){$A$}
\put(4.05,1.9){$B$}
\put(1.7,2.95){$C$}
\put(3.1,2.5){$a$}
\put(1.3,1.7){$b$}
\put(2.5,1.05){$c$}
\put(0.3,4){$F=
\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$}
\put(3.5,0.4){$\displaystyle
s:=\frac{a+b+c}{2}$}
\end{picture}
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
r
r
r
r
r

¹
1
C
o
/
c
1 =

:(: −o)(: −/)(: −c)
: :=
o + / + c
2
As this example shows, text and formulas can be written into a picture
environment with the \put command in the usual way.
5.2.6 \multiput and \linethickness
\setlength{\unitlength}{2mm}
\begin{picture}(30,20)
\linethickness{0.075mm}
\multiput(0,0)(1,0){26}%
{\line(0,1){20}}
\multiput(0,0)(0,1){21}%
{\line(1,0){25}}
\linethickness{0.15mm}
\multiput(0,0)(5,0){6}%
{\line(0,1){20}}
\multiput(0,0)(0,5){5}%
{\line(1,0){25}}
\linethickness{0.3mm}
\multiput(5,0)(10,0){2}%
{\line(0,1){20}}
\multiput(0,5)(0,10){2}%
{\line(1,0){25}}
\end{picture}
The command
\multiput(r. n)(∆r. ∆n){n}{object}
has 4 arguments: the starting point, the translation vector from one ob-
98 Producing Mathematical Graphics
ject to the next, the number of objects, and the object to be drawn. The
\linethickness command applies to horizontal and vertical line segments,
but neither to oblique line segments, nor to circles. It does, however, apply
to quadratic Bézier curves!
5.2.7 Ovals
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.75cm}
\begin{picture}(6,4)
\linethickness{0.075mm}
\multiput(0,0)(1,0){7}%
{\line(0,1){4}}
\multiput(0,0)(0,1){5}%
{\line(1,0){6}}
\thicklines
\put(2,3){\oval(3,1.8)}
\thinlines
\put(3,2){\oval(3,1.8)}
\thicklines
\put(2,1){\oval(3,1.8)[tl]}
\put(4,1){\oval(3,1.8)[b]}
\put(4,3){\oval(3,1.8)[r]}
\put(3,1.5){\oval(1.8,0.4)}
\end{picture}
5
4
2
3

5
4 3
2
3
§
¦
¤
¥
The command
\put(r. n){\oval(n. /)}
or
\put(r. n){\oval(n. /)[position]}
produces an oval centered at (r. n) and having width n and height /. The op-
tional position arguments b, t, l, r refer to “top”, “bottom”, “left”, “right”,
and can be combined, as the example illustrates.
Line thickness can be controlled by two kinds of commands:
\linethickness{length} on the one hand, \thinlines and \thicklines
on the other. While \linethickness{length} applies only to horizontal and
vertical lines (and quadratic Bézier curves), \thinlines and \thicklines
apply to oblique line segments as well as to circles and ovals.
5.2 The picture Environment 99
5.2.8 Multiple Use of Predefined Picture Boxes
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.5mm}
\begin{picture}(120,168)
\newsavebox{\foldera}
\savebox{\foldera}
(40,32)[bl]{% definition
\multiput(0,0)(0,28){2}
{\line(1,0){40}}
\multiput(0,0)(40,0){2}
{\line(0,1){28}}
\put(1,28){\oval(2,2)[tl]}
\put(1,29){\line(1,0){5}}
\put(9,29){\oval(6,6)[tl]}
\put(9,32){\line(1,0){8}}
\put(17,29){\oval(6,6)[tr]}
\put(20,29){\line(1,0){19}}
\put(39,28){\oval(2,2)[tr]}
}
\newsavebox{\folderb}
\savebox{\folderb}
(40,32)[l]{% definition
\put(0,14){\line(1,0){8}}
\put(8,0){\usebox{\foldera}}
}
\put(34,26){\line(0,1){102}}
\put(14,128){\usebox{\foldera}}
\multiput(34,86)(0,-37){3}
{\usebox{\folderb}}
\end{picture}

A picture box can be declared by the command
\newsavebox{name}
then defined by
\savebox{name}(width,height)[position]{content}
and finally arbitrarily often be drawn by
\put(r. n)\usebox{name}
The optional position parameter has the effect of defining the ‘anchor
point’ of the savebox. In the example it is set to bl which puts the anchor
point into the bottom left corner of the savebox. The other position specifiers
are top and right.
100 Producing Mathematical Graphics
The name argument refers to a L
A
T
E
X storage bin and therefore is of
a command nature (which accounts for the backslashes in the current ex-
ample). Boxed pictures can be nested: In this example, \foldera is used
within the definition of \folderb.
The \oval command had to be used as the \line command does not
work if the segment length is less than about 3 mm.
5.2.9 Quadratic Bézier Curves
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm}
\begin{picture}(6,4)
\linethickness{0.075mm}
\multiput(0,0)(1,0){7}
{\line(0,1){4}}
\multiput(0,0)(0,1){5}
{\line(1,0){6}}
\thicklines
\put(0.5,0.5){\line(1,5){0.5}}
\put(1,3){\line(4,1){2}}
\qbezier(0.5,0.5)(1,3)(3,3.5)
\thinlines
\put(2.5,2){\line(2,-1){3}}
\put(5.5,0.5){\line(-1,5){0.5}}
\linethickness{1mm}
\qbezier(2.5,2)(5.5,0.5)(5,3)
\thinlines
\qbezier(4,2)(4,3)(3,3)
\qbezier(3,3)(2,3)(2,2)
\qbezier(2,2)(2,1)(3,1)
\qbezier(3,1)(4,1)(4,2)
\end{picture}
¤
¤
¤
¤
¤
¤
$
$
$
$
$

'
'
'
'
'
'
As this example illustrates, splitting up a circle into 4 quadratic Bézier
curves is not satisfactory. At least 8 are needed. The figure again shows the
effect of the \linethickness command on horizontal or vertical lines, and of
the \thinlines and the \thicklines commands on oblique line segments.
It also shows that both kinds of commands affect quadratic Bézier curves,
each command overriding all previous ones.
Let 1
1
= (r
1
. n
1
). 1
2
= (r
2
. n
2
) denote the end points, and :
1
. :
2
the respective slopes, of a quadratic Bézier curve. The intermediate control
point o = (r. n) is then given by the equations

r =
:
2
r
2
−:
1
r
1
−(n
2
−n
1
)
:
2
−:
1
.
n = n
i
+ :
i
(r −r
i
) (i = 1. 2).
(5.1)
See Graphics in L
A
T
E
X2
ε
[17] for a Java program which generates the nec-
essary \qbezier command line.
5.2 The picture Environment 101
5.2.10 Catenary
\setlength{\unitlength}{1cm}
\begin{picture}(4.3,3.6)(-2.5,-0.25)
\put(-2,0){\vector(1,0){4.4}}
\put(2.45,-.05){$x$}
\put(0,0){\vector(0,1){3.2}}
\put(0,3.35){\makebox(0,0){$y$}}
\qbezier(0.0,0.0)(1.2384,0.0)
(2.0,2.7622)
\qbezier(0.0,0.0)(-1.2384,0.0)
(-2.0,2.7622)
\linethickness{.075mm}
\multiput(-2,0)(1,0){5}
{\line(0,1){3}}
\multiput(-2,0)(0,1){4}
{\line(1,0){4}}
\linethickness{.2mm}
\put( .3,.12763){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(.5,-.07237){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(-.7,.12763){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(-.5,-.07237){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(.8,.54308){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(1,.34308){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(-1.2,.54308){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(-1,.34308){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(1.3,1.35241){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(1.5,1.15241){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(-1.7,1.35241){\line(1,0){.4}}
\put(-1.5,1.15241){\line(0,1){.4}}
\put(-2.5,-0.25){\circle*{0.2}}
\end{picture}

r
`
n
,
In this figure, each symmetric half of the catenary n = cosh r − 1 is
approximated by a quadratic Bézier curve. The right half of the curve ends
in the point (2. 2.7622), the slope there having the value : = 3.6269. Using
again equation (5.1), we can calculate the intermediate control points. They
turn out to be (1.2384. 0) and (−1.2384. 0). The crosses indicate points of
the real catenary. The error is barely noticeable, being less than one percent.
This example points out the use of the optional argument of the
\begin{picture} command. The picture is defined in convenient “mathe-
matical” coordinates, whereas by the command
\begin{picture}(4.3,3.6)(-2.5,-0.25)
its lower left corner (marked by the black disk) is assigned the coordinates
(−2.5. −0.25).
102 Producing Mathematical Graphics
5.2.11 Rapidity in the Special Theory of Relativity
\setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm}
\begin{picture}(6,4)(-3,-2)
\put(-2.5,0){\vector(1,0){5}}
\put(2.7,-0.1){$\chi$}
\put(0,-1.5){\vector(0,1){3}}
\multiput(-2.5,1)(0.4,0){13}
{\line(1,0){0.2}}
\multiput(-2.5,-1)(0.4,0){13}
{\line(1,0){0.2}}
\put(0.2,1.4)
{$\beta=v/c=\tanh\chi$}
\qbezier(0,0)(0.8853,0.8853)
(2,0.9640)
\qbezier(0,0)(-0.8853,-0.8853)
(-2,-0.9640)
\put(-3,-2){\circle*{0.2}}
\end{picture}

χ
`
β = ·´c = tanh χ
,
The control points of the two Bézier curves were calculated with formu-
las (5.1). The positive branch is determined by 1
1
= (0. 0). :
1
= 1 and
1
2
= (2. tanh 2). :
2
= 1´ cosh
2
2. Again, the picture is defined in mathe-
matically convenient coordinates, and the lower left corner is assigned the
mathematical coordinates (−3. −2) (black disk).
5.3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package
Today every L
A
T
E
X output generation system can create nice vector graphics,
it’s just the interfaces that are rather diverse. The PGF package provides
an abstraction layer over these interface and lets you use simple commands
to conveniently create complex vector graphics right from inside your docu-
ment. The PGF package comes with its own 500+ page documentation [?].
So we are only going to scratch the surface of the package with this little
section.
For high level access to the PGF functions you should load the tikz
package. With the tikz package you can use highly efficient commands
to draw graphics right from inside your document. Use the tikzpicture
environment to wrap your instructions.
5.3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package 103
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=3]
\clip (-0.1,-0.2)
rectangle (1.8,1.2);
\draw[step=.25cm,gray,very thin]
(-1.4,-1.4) grid (3.4,3.4);
\draw (-1.5,0) -- (2.5,0);
\draw (0,-1.5) -- (0,1.5);
\draw (0,0) circle (1cm);
\filldraw[fill=green!20!white,
draw=green!50!black]
(0,0) -- (3mm,0mm)
arc (0:30:3mm) -- cycle;
\end{tikzpicture}
If you know other programming languages you may notice the familiar
semicolon (;) character that is used to separate the different commands.
With the \usetikzlibrary command in the preamble you can enable a
wide variety of additional features for drawing special shapes, like this box
which is slightly bent.
\usetikzlibrary{%
decorations.pathmorphing}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
decoration={bent,aspect=.3}]
\draw [decorate,fill=lightgray]
(0,0) rectangle (5.5,2);
\node[circle,draw]
(A) at (.5,.5) {A};
\node[circle,draw]
(B) at (5,1.5) {B};
\draw[->,decorate] (A) -- (B);
\draw[->,decorate] (B) -- (A);
\end{tikzpicture}
A
B
You can even draw diagrams that look as if they came straight from a
book on pascal programming. The code is a bit more daunting than the
example above, so I will just show you the result. If you have a look at the
PGF documentation you will find a detailed tutorial on drawing this exact
diagram.
+
unsigned integer
. digit E unsigned integer
-
104 Producing Mathematical Graphics
And there is more, if you have to draw plots of numerical data or func-
tions, you should have a closer look at the pgfplot package. It provides
everything you need to draw plots. It can even call the external gnuplot
command to evaluate actual functions you wrote into the graph.
Chapter 6
Customising L
A
T
E
X
Documents produced with the commands you have learned up to this point will
look acceptable to a large audience. While they are not fancy-looking, they
obey all the established rules of good typesetting, which will make them easy
to read and pleasant to look at.
However, there are situations where L
A
T
E
X does not provide a command or
environment that matches your needs, or the output produced by some existing
command may not meet your requirements.
In this chapter, I will try to give some hints on how to teach L
A
T
E
X new tricks
and how to make it produce output that looks different from what is provided
by default.
6.1 New Commands, Environments and Packages
You may have noticed that all the commands I introduce in this book are
typeset in a box, and that they show up in the index at the end of the book.
Instead of directly using the necessary L
A
T
E
X commands to achieve this, I
have created a package in which I defined new commands and environments
for this purpose. Now I can simply write:
\begin{lscommand}
\ci{dum}
\end{lscommand}
\dum
In this example, I am using both a new environment called
lscommand, which is responsible for drawing the box around the command,
and a new command named \ci, which typesets the command name and
makes a corresponding entry in the index. You can check this out by looking
up the \dum command in the index at the back of this book, where you’ll
find an entry for \dum, pointing to every page where I mentioned the \dum
command.
106 Customising L
A
T
E
X
If I ever decide that I do not like the commands to be typeset in a box
any more, I can simply change the definition of the lscommand environment
to create a new look. This is much easier than going through the whole
document to hunt down all the places where I have used some generic L
A
T
E
X
commands to draw a box around some word.
6.1.1 New Commands
To add your own commands, use the
\newcommand{name}[num]{definition}
command. Basically, the command requires two arguments: the name of
the command you want to create, and the definition of the command. The
num argument in square brackets is optional and specifies the number of
arguments the new command takes (up to 9 are possible). If missing it
defaults to 0, i.e. no argument allowed.
The following two examples should help you to get the idea. The first
example defines a new command called \tnss. This is short for “The Not
So Short Introduction to L
A
T
E
X2
ε
.” Such a command could come in handy
if you had to write the title of this book over and over again.
\newcommand{\tnss}{The not
so Short Introduction to
\LaTeXe}
This is ‘‘\tnss’’ \ldots{}
‘‘\tnss’’
This is “The not so Short Introduction to
L
A
T
E
X2
ε
” . . . “The not so Short Intro-
duction to L
A
T
E
X2
ε

The next example illustrates how to define a new command that takes
one argument. The #1 tag gets replaced by the argument you specify. If
you wanted to use more than one argument, use #2 and so on.
\newcommand{\txsit}[1]
{This is the \emph{#1} Short
Introduction to \LaTeXe}
% in the document body:
\begin{itemize}
\item \txsit{not so}
\item \txsit{very}
\end{itemize}
• This is the not so Short Introduc-
tion to L
A
T
E
X2
ε
• This is the very Short Introduction
to L
A
T
E
X2
ε
L
A
T
E
X will not allow you to create a new command that would overwrite
an existing one. But there is a special command in case you explicitly
want this: \renewcommand. It uses the same syntax as the \newcommand
command.
6.1 New Commands, Environments and Packages 107
In certain cases you might also want to use the \providecommand com-
mand. It works like \newcommand, but if the command is already defined,
L
A
T
E
X2
ε
will silently ignore it.
There are some points to note about whitespace following L
A
T
E
X com-
mands. See page 5 for more information.
6.1.2 New Environments
Just as with the \newcommand command, there is a command to create
your own environments. The \newenvironment command uses the following
syntax:
\newenvironment{name}[num]{before}{after}
Again \newenvironment can have an optional argument. The material
specified in the before argument is processed before the text in the envi-
ronment gets processed. The material in the after argument gets processed
when the \end{name} command is encountered.
The example below illustrates the usage of the \newenvironment com-
mand.
\newenvironment{king}
{\rule{1ex}{1ex}%
\hspace{\stretch{1}}}
{\hspace{\stretch{1}}%
\rule{1ex}{1ex}}
\begin{king}
My humble subjects \ldots
\end{king}
My humble subjects . . .
The num argument is used the same way as in the \newcommand com-
mand. L
A
T
E
X makes sure that you do not define an environment that al-
ready exists. If you ever want to change an existing command, you can
use the \renewenvironment command. It uses the same syntax as the
\newenvironment command.
The commands used in this example will be explained later. For the
\rule command see page 121, for \stretch go to page 114, and more in-
formation on \hspace can be found on page 114.
6.1.3 Extra Space
When creating a new environment you may easily get bitten by extra spaces
creeping in, which can potentially have fatal effects. For example when you
want to create a title environment which supresses its own indentation as well
as the one on the following paragraph. The \ignorespaces command in the
108 Customising L
A
T
E
X
begin block of the environment will make it ignore any space after executing
the begin block. The end block is a bit more tricky as special processing
occurs at the end of an environment. With the \ignorespacesafterend
L
A
T
E
X will issue an \ignorespaces after the special ‘end’ processing has
occured.
\newenvironment{simple}%
{\noindent}%
{\par\noindent}
\begin{simple}
See the space\\to the left.
\end{simple}
Same\\here.
See the space
to the left.
Same
here.
\newenvironment{correct}%
{\noindent\ignorespaces}%
{\par\noindent%
\ignorespacesafterend}
\begin{correct}
No space\\to the left.
\end{correct}
Same\\here.
No space
to the left.
Same
here.
6.1.4 Commandline L
A
T
E
X
If you work on a Unix like OS, you might be using Makefiles to build your
L
A
T
E
X projects. In that connection it might be interesting to produce dif-
ferent versions of the same document by calling L
A
T
E
X with commandline
parameters. If you add the following structure to your document:
\usepackage{ifthen}
\ifthenelse{\equal{\blackandwhite}{true}}{
% "black and white" mode; do something..
}{
% "color" mode; do something different..
}
Now you can call L
A
T
E
X like this:
latex ’\newcommand{\blackandwhite}{true}\input{test.tex}’
First the command \blackandwhite gets defined and then the actual
file is read with input. By setting \blackandwhite to false the color version
of the document would be produced.
6.2 Fonts and Sizes 109
6.1.5 Your Own Package
If you define a lot of new environments and commands, the preamble of your
document will get quite long. In this situation, it is a good idea to create
a L
A
T
E
X package containing all your command and environment definitions.
You can then use the \usepackage command to make the package available
in your document.
% Demo Package by Tobias Oetiker
\ProvidesPackage{demopack}
\newcommand{\tnss}{The not so Short Introduction
to \LaTeXe}
\newcommand{\txsit}[1]{The \emph{#1} Short
Introduction to \LaTeXe}
\newenvironment{king}{\begin{quote}}{\end{quote}}
Figure 6.1: Example Package.
Writing a package basically consists of copying the contents of your doc-
ument preamble into a separate file with a name ending in .sty. There is
one special command,
\ProvidesPackage{package name}
for use at the very beginning of your package file. \ProvidesPackage tells
L
A
T
E
X the name of the package and will allow it to issue a sensible error
message when you try to include a package twice. Figure 6.1 shows a small
example package that contains the commands defined in the examples above.
6.2 Fonts and Sizes
6.2.1 Font Changing Commands
L
A
T
E
X chooses the appropriate font and font size based on the logical struc-
ture of the document (sections, footnotes, . . . ). In some cases, one might
like to change fonts and sizes by hand. To do this, you can use the com-
mands listed in Tables 6.1 and 6.2. The actual size of each font is a design
issue and depends on the document class and its options. Table 6.3 shows
the absolute point size for these commands as implemented in the standard
document classes.
{\small The small and
\textbf{bold} Romans ruled}
{\Large all of great big
\textit{Italy}.}
The small and bold Romans ruled all of
great big Italy.
110 Customising L
A
T
E
X
One important feature of L
A
T
E
X2
ε
is that the font attributes are indepen-
dent. This means that you can issue size or even font changing commands,
and still keep the bold or slant attribute set earlier.
In math mode you can use the font changing commands to temporarily
exit math mode and enter some normal text. If you want to switch to another
font for math typesetting you need another special set of commands; refer
to Table 6.4.
In connection with the font size commands, curly braces play a significant
role. They are used to build groups. Groups limit the scope of most L
A
T
E
X
commands.
He likes {\LARGE large and
{\small small} letters}.
He likes large and small letters.
The font size commands also change the line spacing, but only if the
paragraph ends within the scope of the font size command. The closing
curly brace } should therefore not come too early. Note the position of the
\par command in the next two examples.
1
1
\par is equivalent to a blank line
Table 6.1: Fonts.
\textrm{...} roman \textsf{...} sans serif
\texttt{...} typewriter
\textmd{...} medium \textbf{...} bold face
\textup{...} upright \textit{...} italic
\textsl{...} slanted \textsc{...} Small Caps
\emph{...} emphasized \textnormal{...} document font
Table 6.2: Font Sizes.
\tiny tiny font
\scriptsize very small font
\footnotesize quite small font
\small small font
\normalsize normal font
\large large font
\Large larger font
\LARGE very large font
\huge huge
\Huge largest
6.2 Fonts and Sizes 111
Table 6.3: Absolute Point Sizes in Standard Classes.
size 10pt (default) 11pt option 12pt option
\tiny 5pt 6pt 6pt
\scriptsize 7pt 8pt 8pt
\footnotesize 8pt 9pt 10pt
\small 9pt 10pt 11pt
\normalsize 10pt 11pt 12pt
\large 12pt 12pt 14pt
\Large 14pt 14pt 17pt
\LARGE 17pt 17pt 20pt
\huge 20pt 20pt 25pt
\Huge 25pt 25pt 25pt
Table 6.4: Math Fonts.
\mathrm{...} Roman Font
\mathbf{...} Boldface Font
\mathsf{...} Sans Serif Font
\mathtt{...} Typewriter Font
\mathit{...} Italic Font
\mathcal{...} CALLIGRAPHIC FONT
\mathnormal{...} ·o::o| 1ont
112 Customising L
A
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E
X
{\Large Don’t read this!
It is not true.
You can believe me!\par}
Don’t read this! It is not true.
You can believe me!
{\Large This is not true either.
But remember I am a liar.}\par
This is not true either. But
remember I am a liar.
If you want to activate a size changing command for a whole paragraph
of text or even more, you might want to use the environment syntax for font
changing commands.
\begin{Large}
This is not true.
But then again, what is these
days \ldots
\end{Large}
This is not true. But then
again, what is these days . . .
This will save you from counting lots of curly braces.
6.2.2 Danger, Will Robinson, Danger
As noted at the beginning of this chapter, it is dangerous to clutter your
document with explicit commands like this, because they work in opposition
to the basic idea of L
A
T
E
X, which is to separate the logical and visual markup
of your document. This means that if you use the same font changing
command in several places in order to typeset a special kind of information,
you should use \newcommand to define a “logical wrapper command” for the
font changing command.
\newcommand{\oops}[1]{%
\textbf{#1}}
Do not \oops{enter} this room,
it’s occupied by \oops{machines}
of unknown origin and purpose.
Do not enter this room, it’s occupied by
machines of unknown origin and pur-
pose.
This approach has the advantage that you can decide at some later
stage that you want to use some visual representation of danger other than
\textbf, without having to wade through your document, identifying all
the occurrences of \textbf and then figuring out for each one whether it
was used for pointing out danger or for some other reason.
6.2.3 Advice
To conclude this journey into the land of fonts and font sizes, here is a little
word of advice:
6.3 Spacing 113
Remember! The MORE fonts you use in a document, the
more readable and beautiful it becomes.
6.3 Spacing
6.3.1 Line Spacing
If you want to use larger inter-line spacing in a document, you can change
its value by putting the
\linespread{factor}
command into the preamble of your document. Use \linespread{1.3}
for “one and a half” line spacing, and \linespread{1.6} for “double” line
spacing. Normally the lines are not spread, so the default line spread factor
is 1.
Note that the effect of the \linespread command is rather drastic and
not appropriate for published work. So if you have a good reason for chang-
ing the line spacing you might want to use the command:
\setlength{\baselineskip}{1.5\baselineskip}
{\setlength{\baselineskip}%
{1.5\baselineskip}
This paragraph is typeset with
the baseline skip set to 1.5 of
what it was before. Note the par
command at the end of the
paragraph.\par}
This paragraph has a clear
purpose, it shows that after the
curly brace has been closed,
everything is back to normal.
This paragraph is typeset with the base-
line skip set to 1.5 of what it was before.
Note the par command at the end of the
paragraph.
This paragraph has a clear purpose, it
shows that after the curly brace has been
closed, everything is back to normal.
6.3.2 Paragraph Formatting
In L
A
T
E
X, there are two parameters influencing paragraph layout. By placing
a definition like
\setlength{\parindent}{0pt}
\setlength{\parskip}{1ex plus 0.5ex minus 0.2ex}
114 Customising L
A
T
E
X
in the preamble of the input file, you can change the layout of paragraphs.
These two commands increase the space between two paragraphs while set-
ting the paragraph indent to zero.
The plus and minus parts of the length above tell T
E
X that it can
compress and expand the inter paragraph skip by the amount specified, if
this is necessary to properly fit the paragraphs onto the page.
In continental Europe, paragraphs are often separated by some space and
not indented. But beware, this also has its effect on the table of contents.
Its lines get spaced more loosely now as well. To avoid this, you might
want to move the two commands from the preamble into your document to
some place below the command \tableofcontents or to not use them at
all, because you’ll find that most professional books use indenting and not
spacing to separate paragraphs.
If you want to indent a paragraph that is not indented, you can use
\indent
at the beginning of the paragraph.
2
Obviously, this will only have an effect
when \parindent is not set to zero.
To create a non-indented paragraph, you can use
\noindent
as the first command of the paragraph. This might come in handy when
you start a document with body text and not with a sectioning command.
6.3.3 Horizontal Space
L
A
T
E
X determines the spaces between words and sentences automatically.
To add horizontal space, use:
\hspace{length}
If such a space should be kept even if it falls at the end or the start of
a line, use \hspace* instead of \hspace. The length in the simplest case is
just a number plus a unit. The most important units are listed in Table 6.5.
This\hspace{1.5cm}is a space
of 1.5 cm.
This is a space of 1.5 cm.
2
To indent the first paragraph after each section head, use the indentfirst package in
the ‘tools’ bundle.
6.3 Spacing 115
Table 6.5: T
E
X Units.
mm millimetre ≈ 1´25 inch
cm centimetre = 10 mm
in inch = 25.4 mm
pt point ≈ 1´72 inch ≈
1
3
mm
em approx width of an ‘M’ in the current font
ex approx height of an ‘x’ in the current font
The command
\stretch{n}
generates a special rubber space. It stretches until all the remaining space
on a line is filled up. If multiple \hspace{\stretch{n}} commands are
issued on the same line, they occupy all available space in proportion of
their respective stretch factors.
x\hspace{\stretch{1}}
x\hspace{\stretch{3}}x
x x x
When using horizontal space together with text, it may make sense to
make the space adjust its size relative to the size of the current font. This
can be done by using the text-relative units em and ex:
{\Large{}big\hspace{1em}y}\\
{\tiny{}tin\hspace{1em}y}
big y
tin y
6.3.4 Vertical Space
The space between paragraphs, sections, subsections, . . . is determined au-
tomatically by L
A
T
E
X. If necessary, additional vertical space between two
paragraphs can be added with the command:
\vspace{length}
This command should normally be used between two empty lines. If the
space should be preserved at the top or at the bottom of a page, use the
starred version of the command, \vspace*, instead of \vspace.
116 Customising L
A
T
E
X
The \stretch command, in connection with \pagebreak, can be used
to typeset text on the last line of a page, or to centre text vertically on a
page.
Some text \ldots
\vspace{\stretch{1}}
This goes onto the last line of the page.\pagebreak
Additional space between two lines of the same paragraph or within a
table is specified with the
\\[length]
command.
With \bigskip and \smallskip you can skip a predefined amount of
vertical space without having to worry about exact numbers.
6.4 Page Layout
L
A
T
E
X2
ε
allows you to specify the paper size in the \documentclass com-
mand. It then automatically picks the right text margins, but sometimes
you may not be happy with the predefined values. Naturally, you can change
them. Figure 6.2 shows all the parameters that can be changed. The figure
was produced with the layout package from the tools bundle.
3
WAIT! . . . before you launch into a “Let’s make that narrow page a bit
wider” frenzy, take a few seconds to think. As with most things in L
A
T
E
X,
there is a good reason for the page layout to be as it is.
Sure, compared to your off-the-shelf MS Word page, it looks awfully
narrow. But take a look at your favourite book
4
and count the number of
characters on a standard text line. You will find that there are no more than
about 66 characters on each line. Now do the same on your L
A
T
E
X page. You
will find that there are also about 66 characters per line. Experience shows
that the reading gets difficult as soon as there are more characters on a
single line. This is because it is difficult for the eyes to move from the end
of one line to the start of the next one. This is also why newspapers are
typeset in multiple columns.
So if you increase the width of your body text, keep in mind that you
are making life difficult for the readers of your paper. But enough of the
cautioning, I promised to tell you how you do it . . .
L
A
T
E
X provides two commands to change these parameters. They are
usually used in the document preamble.
3
macros/latex/required/tools
4
I mean a real printed book produced by a reputable publisher.
6.4 Page Layout 117
Header
Body
Footer
Margin
Notes
·
8
,
·
7
·
`
·
1
,
, ·
3
·
10
,
, ·
9
`
·
·
11
·
2
·
`
·
4
`
·
·
5
`
·
·
6
`
·
1 one inch + \hoffset 2 one inch + \voffset
3 \oddsidemargin = 22pt 4 \topmargin = 22pt
or \evensidemargin
5 \headheight = 12pt 6 \headsep = 19pt
7 \textheight = 595pt 8 \textwidth = 360pt
9 \marginparsep = 7pt 10 \marginparwidth = 106pt
11 \footskip = 27pt \marginparpush = 5pt (not shown)
\hoffset = 0pt \voffset = 0pt
\paperwidth = 597pt \paperheight = 845pt
Figure 6.2: Page Layout Parameters.
118 Customising L
A
T
E
X
The first command assigns a fixed value to any of the parameters:
\setlength{parameter}{length}
The second command adds a length to any of the parameters:
\addtolength{parameter}{length}
This second command is actually more useful than the \setlength com-
mand, because you can now work relative to the existing settings. To add
one centimetre to the overall text width, I put the following commands into
the document preamble:
\addtolength{\hoffset}{-0.5cm}
\addtolength{\textwidth}{1cm}
In this context, you might want to look at the calc package. It allows
you to use arithmetic operations in the argument of \setlength and other
places where you can enter numeric values into function arguments.
6.5 More Fun With Lengths
Whenever possible, I avoid using absolute lengths in L
A
T
E
X documents. I
rather try to base things on the width or height of other page elements. For
the width of a figure this could be \textwidth in order to make it fill the
page.
The following 3 commands allow you to determine the width, height and
depth of a text string.
\settoheight{variable}{text}
\settodepth{variable}{text}
\settowidth{variable}{text}
The example below shows a possible application of these commands.
6.6 Boxes 119
\flushleft
\newenvironment{vardesc}[1]{%
\settowidth{\parindent}{#1:\ }
\makebox[0pt][r]{#1:\ }}{}
\begin{displaymath}
a^2+b^2=c^2
\end{displaymath}
\begin{vardesc}{Where}$a$,
$b$ -- are adjoin to the right
angle of a right-angled triangle.
$c$ -- is the hypotenuse of
the triangle and feels lonely.
$d$ -- finally does not show up
here at all. Isn’t that puzzling?
\end{vardesc}
o
2
+ /
2
= c
2
Where: o, / – are adjoin to the right
angle of a right-angled triangle.
c – is the hypotenuse of the
triangle and feels lonely.
d – finally does not show up here
at all. Isn’t that puzzling?
6.6 Boxes
L
A
T
E
X builds up its pages by pushing around boxes. At first, each letter is
a little box, which is then glued to other letters to form words. These are
again glued to other words, but with special glue, which is elastic so that a
series of words can be squeezed or stretched as to exactly fill a line on the
page.
I admit, this is a very simplistic version of what really happens, but the
point is that T
E
X operates on glue and boxes. Letters are not the only things
that can be boxes. You can put virtually everything into a box, including
other boxes. Each box will then be handled by L
A
T
E
X as if it were a single
letter.
In the past chapters you have already encountered some boxes, although
I did not tell you. The tabular environment and the \includegraphics,
for example, both produce a box. This means that you can easily arrange
two tables or images side by side. You just have to make sure that their
combined width is not larger than the textwidth.
You can also pack a paragraph of your choice into a box with either the
\parbox[pos]{width}{text}
command or the
\begin{minipage}[pos]{width} text \end{minipage}
environment. The pos parameter can take one of the letters c, t or b to
120 Customising L
A
T
E
X
control the vertical alignment of the box, relative to the baseline of the
surrounding text. width takes a length argument specifying the width of
the box. The main difference between a minipage and a \parbox is that you
cannot use all commands and environments inside a parbox, while almost
anything is possible in a minipage.
While \parbox packs up a whole paragraph doing line breaking and
everything, there is also a class of boxing commands that operates only on
horizontally aligned material. We already know one of them; it’s called
\mbox. It simply packs up a series of boxes into another one, and can be
used to prevent L
A
T
E
X from breaking two words. As you can put boxes inside
boxes, these horizontal box packers give you ultimate flexibility.
\makebox[width][pos]{text}
width defines the width of the resulting box as seen from the outside.
5
Be-
sides the length expressions, you can also use \width, \height, \depth, and
\totalheight in the width parameter. They are set from values obtained
by measuring the typeset text. The pos parameter takes a one letter value:
center, flushleft, flushright, or spread the text to fill the box.
The command \framebox works exactly the same as \makebox, but it
draws a box around the text.
The following example shows you some things you could do with the
\makebox and \framebox commands.
\makebox[\textwidth]{%
c e n t r a l}\par
\makebox[\textwidth][s]{%
s p r e a d}\par
\framebox[1.1\width]{Guess I’m
framed now!} \par
\framebox[0.8\width][r]{Bummer,
I am too wide} \par
\framebox[1cm][l]{never
mind, so am I}
Can you read this?
c e n t r a l
s p r e a d
Guess I’m framed now!
Bummer, I am too wide
never mind, so am I Can you read this?
Now that we control the horizontal, the obvious next step is to go for
5
This means it can be smaller than the material inside the box. You can even set
the width to 0pt so that the text inside the box will be typeset without influencing the
surrounding boxes.
6.7 Rules 121
the vertical.
6
No problem for L
A
T
E
X. The
\raisebox{lift}[extend-above-baseline][extend-below-baseline]{text}
command lets you define the vertical properties of a box. You can use
\width, \height, \depth, and \totalheight in the first three parameters,
in order to act upon the size of the box inside the text argument.
\raisebox{0pt}[0pt][0pt]{\Large%
\textbf{Aaaa\raisebox{-0.3ex}{a}%
\raisebox{-0.7ex}{aa}%
\raisebox{-1.2ex}{r}%
\raisebox{-2.2ex}{g}%
\raisebox{-4.5ex}{h}}}
she shouted, but not even the next
one in line noticed that something
terrible had happened to her.
Aaaa
a
aa
r
g
h
she shouted, but not
even the next one in line noticed that
something terrible had happened to her.
6.7 Rules
A few pages back you may have noticed the command
\rule[lift]{width}{height}
In normal use it produces a simple black box.
\rule{3mm}{.1pt}%
\rule[-1mm]{5mm}{1cm}%
\rule{3mm}{.1pt}%
\rule[1mm]{1cm}{5mm}%
\rule{3mm}{.1pt}
This is useful for drawing vertical and horizontal lines. The line on the title
page, for example, has been created with a \rule command.
The End.
6
Total control is only to be obtained by controlling both the horizontal and the vertical
. . .
Appendix A
Installing L
A
T
E
X
Knuth has published the source to T
E
X back in a time when nobody knew about
OpenSource and or Free Software. The License that comes with T
E
X lets you
do whatever you want with the source. But you can only call the result of your
work T
E
X if the program passes a set of tests Knuth has also provided. This has
lead to a situation where we have free T
E
X implementations for almost every
Operating System under the Sun. In this chapter you will give some hints on
what to install on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows to get T
E
X working.
A.1 What to Install
For using LaTeX on any computer system, you need 3 essential pieces of
software:
1. a text editor for editing your LaTeX source files.
2. the T
E
X/L
A
T
E
X program for processing your L
A
T
E
X source files into
typeset PDF or DVI documents.
3. a PDF/DVI viewer program for previewing and printing your docu-
ments.
4. a program to handle PostScript files and images for inclusion into your
documents.
For all platforms there are many programs that fit the requirements
above. Here we just tell about the ones we know, like and have some expe-
rience with.
124 Installing L
A
T
E
X
A.2 T
E
X on Mac OS X
A.2.1 Picking an Editor
Base your LaTeX environment on the TextMate editor! TextMate is not
only a highly customizable, general purpose text editor, it also provides ex-
cellent LaTeX support and integrates tightly with the PDFView previewer.
This combination of tools, lets you use LaTeX in a convenient and Mac-like
manner. You can download a free trial version from the Textmate website
on http://macromates.com/ and purchase a full version for 39 EUR. If you
know an equivalent OpenSource tool for the Mac, please let us know.
A.2.2 Get a T
E
X Distribution
If you are already using Macports or Fink for installing Unix software un-
der OS X, install LaTeX using these package managers. Macport users
install LaTeX with port install tetex , Fink users use the command
fink install tetex .
If you are neither using Macports nor Fink, download MacTeX, which is
a precompiled LaTeX distribution for OS X. MacTeX provides a full LaTeX
installation plus a number of additional tools. Get MaxTeX from http:
//www.tug.org/mactex/.
A.2.3 Treat yourself to PDFView
Use PDFView for viewing PDF files generated by LaTeX, it integrates
tightly with your LaTeX text editor. PDFView is an open-source appli-
cation can be downloaded from the PDFView website on
http://pdfview.sourceforge.net/. Download and install PDFView. Open
PDFViews preferences dialog and make sure that the automatical ly reload
documents option is enabled and that PDFSync support is set to the Text-
Mate preset.
A.3 T
E
X on Windows
A.3.1 Getting T
E
X
First, get a copy of the excellent MiKTeX distribution from
http://www.miktex.org/. It contains all the basic programs and files re-
quired to compile L
A
T
E
X documents. The coolest feature in my eyes is, that
MiKTeX will download missing L
A
T
E
X packages on the fly and install them
magically while compiling a document.
A.4 T
E
X on Linux 125
A.3.2 A L
A
T
E
X editor
L
A
T
E
X is a programming language for text documents. TeXnicCenter uses
many concepts from the programming-world to provide a nice and efficient
L
A
T
E
X writing environment in Windows. Get your copy from
http://www.toolscenter.org. TeXnicCenter integrates nicely with MiK-
TeX.
An another excellent choice is the editor provided by the LEd project
available on http://www.latexeditor.org
A.3.3 Working with graphics
Working with high quality graphics in L
A
T
E
X means, that you have to use
Postscript (eps) or PDF as your picture format. The program that helps
you deal with this is called GhostScript. You can get it, together with its
own front-end GhostView from http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/.
If you deal with bitmap graphics (photos and scanned material). You
may want to have a look at the open source photoshop alternative Gimp
available from http://gimp-win.sourceforge.net/.
A.4 T
E
X on Linux
If you work with Linux, chances are high that L
A
T
E
X is already installed
on your system, or at least available on the installation source you used to
setup. Use your package manager to install the following packages:
• tetex or texlive – the base T
E
X/L
A
T
E
X setup.
• emacs (with auctex) – a Linux editor that integrates tightly with L
A
T
E
X
through the add-on AucTeX package.
• ghostscript – a PostScript preview program.
• xpdf and acrobat – a PDF preview program.
• imagemagick – a free program for converting bitmap images.
• gimp – a free photoshop look-a-like.
• inkscape – a free illustrator/corel draw look-a-like.
Bibliography
[1] Leslie Lamport. L
A
T
E
X: A Document Preparation System. Addison-
Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, second edition, 1994, ISBN 0-201-
52983-1.
[2] Donald E. Knuth. The T
E
Xbook, Volume A of Computers and Type-
setting, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, second edition, 1984,
ISBN 0-201-13448-9.
[3] Frank Mittelbach, Michel Goossens, Johannes Braams, David Carlisle,
Chris Rowley. The L
A
T
E
X Companion, (2nd Edition). Addison-Wesley,
Reading, Massachusetts, 2004, ISBN 0-201-36299-6.
[4] Michel Goossens, Sebastian Rahtz and Frank Mittelbach. The L
A
T
E
X
Graphics Companion. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1997,
ISBN 0-201-85469-4.
[5] Each L
A
T
E
X installation should provide a so-called L
A
T
E
X Local Guide,
which explains the things that are special to the local system. It should
be contained in a file called local.tex. Unfortunately, some lazy sysops
do not provide such a document. In this case, go and ask your local
L
A
T
E
X guru for help.
[6] L
A
T
E
X3 Project Team. L
A
T
E
X2
ε
for authors. Comes with the L
A
T
E
X2
ε
distribution as usrguide.tex.
[7] L
A
T
E
X3 Project Team. L
A
T
E
X2
ε
for Class and Package writers. Comes
with the L
A
T
E
X2
ε
distribution as clsguide.tex.
[8] L
A
T
E
X3 Project Team. L
A
T
E
X2
ε
Font selection. Comes with the L
A
T
E
X2
ε
distribution as fntguide.tex.
[9] D. P. Carlisle. Packages in the ‘graphics’ bundle. Comes with the
‘graphics’ bundle as grfguide.tex, available from the same source your
L
A
T
E
X distribution came from.
[10] Rainer Schöpf, Bernd Raichle, Chris Rowley. A New Implementation
of L
A
T
E
X’s verbatim Environments. Comes with the ‘tools’ bundle as
128 BIBLIOGRAPHY
verbatim.dtx, available from the same source your L
A
T
E
X distribution
came from.
[11] Vladimir Volovich, Werner Lemberg and L
A
T
E
X3 Project Team. Cyril lic
languages support in L
A
T
E
X. Comes with the L
A
T
E
X2
ε
distribution as
cyrguide.tex.
[12] Graham Williams. The TeX Catalogue is a very complete listing of
many T
E
X and L
A
T
E
X related packages. Available online from CTAN:
//help/Catalogue/catalogue.html
[13] Keith Reckdahl. Using EPS Graphics in L
A
T
E
X2
ε
Documents, which
explains everything and much more than you ever wanted to know
about EPS files and their use in L
A
T
E
X documents. Available online
from CTAN://info/epslatex.ps
[14] Kristoffer H. Rose. X
Y
-pic User’s Guide. Downloadable from CTAN
with X
Y
-pic distribution
[15] John D. Hobby. A User’s Manual for METAPOST. Downloadable from
http://cm.bell-labs.com/who/hobby/
[16] Alan Hoenig. T
E
X Unbound. Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN
0-19-509685-1; 0-19-509686-X (pbk.)
[17] Urs Oswald. Graphics in L
A
T
E
X2
ε
, containing some Java source files
for generating arbitrary circles and ellipses within the picture en-
vironment, and METAPOST - A Tutorial. Both downloadable from
http://www.ursoswald.ch
[18] Till Tantau. TikZ&PGF Manual. Download from CTAN://graphics/
pgf/base/doc/generic/pgf/pgfmanual.pdf
Index
Symbols
\!, 59
", 21
"’, 34
"-, 34
"---, 34
"<, 34
"=, 34
">, 34
"‘, 34
$, 49
\,, 51, 58
-, 22
−, 22
\-, 21
–, 22
—, 22
., space after, 34
. . . , 23
\:, 58
\;, 59
\@, 34
\[, 50
\\, 19, 39, 40, 42, 116
\\*, 19
\], 50
~, 34
A
A4 paper, 11
A5 paper, 11
å, 24
abstract, 40
accent, 24
Acrobat Reader, 80
acute, 24
\addtolength, 118
advantages of L
A
T
E
X, 3
æ, 24
aeguill, 81
align, 57
\Alph, 33
\alph, 33
\Alpha, 63
American Mathematical Society, 49
amsbsy, 61
amsfonts, 60, 67
amsmath, 49, 55–59, 61
amssymb, 52, 60, 63
amsthm, 61, 62
\and, 36
ansinew, 26
apostrophe, 54
\appendix, 35, 36
applemac, 26
\arccos, 54
\arcsin, 54
\arctan, 54
\arg, 54
array, 57, 58
\arraystretch, 43
arrow symbols, 54
article class, 10
\Asbuk, 33
\asbuk, 33
\author, 36, 85
B
B5 paper, 11
babel, 20, 25, 33, 34
\backmatter, 36
backslash, 5
130 INDEX
\backslash, 5
\bar, 54
base font size, 11
beamer, 88, 89
\begin, 38, 92, 101
\Beta, 63
\bibitem, 73
bibliography, 73
\Big, 56
\big, 56
\Bigg, 56
\bigg, 56
\bigskip, 116
binary relations, 55
\binom, 55
binomial coefficient, 55
blackboard bold, 52
block, 90
bm, 61
Bmatrix, 58
bmatrix, 58
\bmod, 54
bold face, 110
bold symbols, 52, 60
\boldmath, 61
\boldsymbol, 61
book class, 10
brace
horizontal, 53
braces, 56
brazilian, 27
C
calc, 118
\caption, 46, 47
cases, 58
\cdot, 53
\cdots, 53
center, 39
\chapter, 35
\chaptermark, 76
\ci, 105
\circle, 96
\circle*, 96
\cite, 73
CJK package, 30
\cleardoublepage, 47
\clearpage, 47
\cline, 42
color, 88
coloured text, 10
comma, 23
commands, 5
\!, 59
\,, 51, 58
\-, 21
\:, 58
\;, 59
\@, 34
\[, 50
\\, 19, 39, 40, 42, 116
\\*, 19
\], 50
\addtolength, 118
\Alph, 33
\alph, 33
\Alpha, 63
\and, 36
\appendix, 35, 36
\arccos, 54
\arcsin, 54
\arctan, 54
\arg, 54
\arraystretch, 43
\Asbuk, 33
\asbuk, 33
\author, 36, 85
\backmatter, 36
\backslash, 5
\bar, 54
\begin, 38, 92, 101
\Beta, 63
\bibitem, 73
\Big, 56
\big, 56
\Bigg, 56
\bigg, 56
\bigskip, 116
INDEX 131
\binom, 55
\bmod, 54
\boldmath, 61
\boldsymbol, 61
\caption, 46, 47
\cdot, 53
\cdots, 53
\chapter, 35
\chaptermark, 76
\ci, 105
\circle, 96
\circle*, 96
\cite, 73
\cleardoublepage, 47
\clearpage, 47
\cline, 42
\cos, 54
\cosh, 54
\cot, 54
\coth, 54
\csc, 54
\date, 36
\ddots, 53
\DeclareMathOperator, 54
\deg, 54
\depth, 120, 121
\det, 54
\dfrac, 55
\dim, 54
\displaystyle, 60
\documentclass, 9, 14, 20
\dq, 29
\dum, 105
\emph, 38, 110
\end, 38, 92
\enumBul, 33
\enumEng, 33
\enumLat, 33
\eqref, 50
\exp, 54
\fbox, 21
\flq, 29
\flqq, 29
\foldera, 100
\folderb, 100
\footnote, 37, 47
\footskip, 117
\frac, 55
\framebox, 120
\frenchspacing, 33, 34
\frontmatter, 36
\frq, 29
\frqq, 29
\fussy, 20
\gcd, 54
\hat, 53
\headheight, 117
\headsep, 117
\height, 120, 121
\hline, 42
\hom, 54
\href, 85, 88
\hspace, 107, 114
\hyphenation, 20
\idotsint, 59
\ifpdf, 87
\ignorespaces, 107, 108
\ignorespacesafterend, 108
\iiiint, 59
\iiint, 59
\iint, 59
\include, 14, 15
\includegraphics, 72, 83, 87,
119
\includeonly, 15
\indent, 114
\index, 75, 76
\inf, 54
\input, 15
\int, 55
\item, 39
\ker, 54
\label, 37, 46, 50
\LaTeX, 21
\LaTeXe, 21
\ldots, 23, 53
\left, 56
\leftmark, 76
132 INDEX
\lg, 54
\lim, 54
\liminf, 54
\limsup, 54
\line, 94, 100
\linebreak, 19
\linespread, 113
\linethickness, 97, 98, 100
\listoffigures, 46
\listoftables, 46
\ln, 54
\log, 54
\mainmatter, 36, 86
\makebox, 120
\makeindex, 75
\maketitle, 36
\marginparpush, 117
\marginparsep, 117
\marginparwidth, 117
\mathbb, 52
\max, 54
\mbox, 21, 24, 120
\min, 54
\multicolumn, 43
\multiput, 93, 97
\newcommand, 59, 106, 107
\newenvironment, 107
\newline, 19
\newpage, 19
\newsavebox, 99
\newtheorem, 61
\noindent, 114
\nolinebreak, 19
\nonumber, 57
\nopagebreak, 19
\not, 64
\oddsidemargin, 117
\oval, 98, 100
\overbrace, 53
\overleftarrow, 54
\overline, 53
\overrightarrow, 54
\pagebreak, 19
\pageref, 37, 79
\pagestyle, 13
\paperheight, 117
\paperwidth, 117
\par, 110
\paragraph, 35
\parbox, 119, 120
\parindent, 113
\parskip, 113
\part, 35
\partial, 55
\phantom, 47, 59
\pmod, 54
\Pr, 54
\printindex, 76
\prod, 55
\protect, 47
\providecommand, 107
\ProvidesPackage, 109
\put, 93–99
\qbezier, 91, 93, 100
\qedhere, 62
\qquad, 51, 59
\quad, 51, 59
\raisebox, 121
\ref, 37, 46, 79
\renewcommand, 106
\renewenvironment, 107
\right, 56, 58
\right., 56
\rightmark, 76
\rule, 44, 107, 121
\savebox, 99
\scriptscriptstyle, 60
\scriptstyle, 60
\sec, 54
\section, 35, 47
\sectionmark, 76
\selectlanguage, 25
\setlength, 92, 113, 118
\settodepth, 118
\settoheight, 118
\settowidth, 118
\sin, 54
\sinh, 54
INDEX 133
\sloppy, 20
\smallskip, 116
\smash, 51
\sqrt, 53
\stackrel, 55
\stretch, 107, 115
\subparagraph, 35
\subsection, 35
\subsectionmark, 76
\substack, 56
\subsubsection, 35
\sum, 55
\sup, 54
\tabcolsep, 43
\tableofcontents, 35
\tag, 50
\tan, 54
\tanh, 54
\TeX, 21
\texorpdfstring, 86, 87
\textcelsius, 22
\texteuro, 23
\textheight, 117
\textstyle, 60
\textwidth, 117
\tfrac, 55
\theoremstyle, 61
\thicklines, 95, 98, 100
\thinlines, 98, 100
\thispagestyle, 13
\title, 36
\tnss, 106
\today, 21
\topmargin, 117
\totalheight, 120, 121
\ud, 59
\underbrace, 53
\underline, 38, 53
\unitlength, 92, 94
\usebox, 99
\usepackage, 10, 13, 23, 25, 26,
109
\usetikzlibrary, 103
\vdots, 53
\vec, 54
\vector, 95
\verb, 41
\verbatiminput, 78
\vspace, 115
\widehat, 53
\widetilde, 53
\width, 120, 121
comment, 6
comments, 6
\cos, 54
\cosh, 54
\cot, 54
\coth, 54
cp1251, 26
cp850, 26
cp866nav, 26
cross-references, 37
\csc, 54
curly braces, 5, 110
D
dash, 22
\date, 36
dcolumn, 43
\ddots, 53
decimal alignment, 43
\DeclareMathOperator, 54
\deg, 54
degree symbol, 22
delimiters, 56
\depth, 120, 121
description, 39
\det, 54
Deutsch, 29
\dfrac, 55
diagonal dots, 53
\dim, 54
dimensions, 114
display style, 49, 51
displaymath, 50
\displaystyle, 60
doc, 12
document font size, 11
134 INDEX
document title, 11
\documentclass, 9, 14, 20
dot, 53
dotless ı and , 24
dots, 53
three, 53
double line spacing, 113
double sided, 11
\dq, 29
\dum, 105
E
eepic, 91, 96
ellipsis, 23
em-dash, 22
\emph, 38, 110
empty, 13
en-dash, 22
Encapsulated PostScript, 71, 83
encodings
font
LGR, 27
OT1, 26
T1, 27, 33
T2*, 33
T2A, 27, 33
T2B, 27
T2C, 27
X2, 27
input
ansinew, 26
applemac, 26
cp1251, 26
cp850, 26
cp866nav, 26
koi8-ru, 26, 33
latin1, 26
macukr, 26
utf8x, 26
\end, 38, 92
\enumBul, 33
\enumEng, 33
enumerate, 39
\enumLat, 33
environments
Bmatrix, 58
Vmatrix, 58
abstract, 40
align, 57
array, 57, 58
block, 90
bmatrix, 58
cases, 58
center, 39
comment, 6
description, 39
displaymath, 50
enumerate, 39
eqnarray, 57
equation*, 50
equation, 50
figure, 45, 46
flushleft, 39
flushright, 39
frame, 90
itemize, 39
lscommand, 105
matrix, 58
minipage, 119, 120
parbox, 120
picture, 91, 92, 96, 97
pmatrix, 58
proof, 62
pspicture, 92
quotation, 40
quote, 40
table, 45, 46
tabular, 41, 119
thebibliography, 73
tikzpicture, 102
verbatim, 41, 78
verse, 40
vmatrix, 58
epic, 91
eqnarray, 57
\eqref, 50
equation, 49
L
A
T
E
X, 50
INDEX 135
amsmath, 50
multiple, 57
equation, 50
equation system, 57
equation*, 50
eurosym, 23
executive paper, 11
\exp, 54
exponent, 52
exscale, 12
extension, 13
.aux, 14
.cls, 14
.dtx, 13
.dvi, 14, 72
.eps, 72
.fd, 14
.idx, 14, 75
.ilg, 14
.ind, 14, 76
.ins, 14
.lof, 14
.log, 14
.lot, 14
.sty, 13, 78
.tex, 8, 13
.toc, 14
F
fancyhdr, 76–78
\fbox, 21
figure, 45, 46
file types, 13
floating bodies, 44
\flq, 29
\flqq, 29
flushleft, 39
flushright, 39
\foldera, 100
\folderb, 100
font, 109
\footnotesize, 110
\Huge, 110
\huge, 110
\LARGE, 110
\Large, 110
\large, 110
\mathbf, 111
\mathcal, 111
\mathit, 111
\mathnormal, 111
\mathrm, 111
\mathsf, 111
\mathtt, 111
\normalsize, 110
\scriptsize, 110
\small, 110
\textbf, 110
\textit, 110
\textmd, 110
\textnormal, 110
\textrm, 110
\textsc, 110
\textsf, 110
\textsl, 110
\texttt, 110
\textup, 110
\tiny, 110
font encoding, 12
font encodings, 26
LGR, 27
OT1, 26
T1, 27, 33
T2*, 33
T2A, 27, 33
T2B, 27
T2C, 27
X2, 27
font size, 109, 110
fontenc, 12, 26, 33
footer, 13
\footnote, 37, 47
\footnotesize, 110
\footskip, 117
formulae, 49
\frac, 55
fraction, 55
fragile commands, 47
136 INDEX
frame, 90
\framebox, 120
French, 28
\frenchspacing, 33, 34
\frontmatter, 36
\frq, 29
\frqq, 29
\fussy, 20
G
\gcd, 54
geometry, 78
German, 25, 29
GhostScript, 71, 125
GhostView, 125
Gimp, 125
graphics, 10, 71
graphicx, 71, 83, 88
grave, 24
Greek, 32
Greek letters, 52
grouping, 110
H
HL
A
T
E
X, 30
hL
A
T
E
Xp, 30
\hat, 53
header, 13
\headheight, 117
textttheadings, 13
\headsep, 117
\height, 120, 121
\hline, 42
\hom, 54
horizontal
brace, 53
dots, 53
line, 53
space, 114
\href, 85, 88
\hspace, 107, 114
\Huge, 110
\huge, 110
hyperref, 80, 83, 87, 88
hypertext, 79
hyphen, 22
hyphenat, 78
\hyphenation, 20
I
\idotsint, 59
ifpdf, 87
\ifpdf, 87
ifthen, 12
\ignorespaces, 107, 108
\ignorespacesafterend, 108
\iiiint, 59
\iiint, 59
\iint, 59
\include, 14, 15
\includegraphics, 72, 83, 87, 119
\includeonly, 15
\indent, 114
indentfirst, 114
index, 75
\index, 75, 76
\inf, 54
\input, 15
input encodings
ansinew, 26
applemac, 26
cp1251, 26
cp850, 26
cp866nav, 26
koi8-ru, 26, 33
latin1, 26
macukr, 26
utf8x, 26
input file, 7
inputenc, 12, 26, 33
\int, 55
integral operator, 55
international, 25
italic, 110
\item, 39
itemize, 39
INDEX 137
K
\ker, 54
Knuth, Donald E., 1
koi8-ru, 26, 33
Korean, 29
Korean font
UHC font, 31
Korean input files, 29
L
\label, 37, 46, 50
Lamport, Leslie, 2
language, 25
\LARGE, 110
\Large, 110
\large, 110
\LaTeX, 21
L
A
T
E
X3, 4
\LaTeXe, 21
latexsym, 12
latin1, 26
layout, 116
\ldots, 23, 53
\left, 56
left aligned, 39
\leftmark, 76
legal paper, 11
letter paper, 11
\lg, 54
LGR, 27
ligature, 24
\lim, 54
\liminf, 54
\limsup, 54
line
horizontal, 53
\line, 94, 100
line break, 19
line spacing, 113
\linebreak, 19
\linespread, 113
\linethickness, 97, 98, 100
\listoffigures, 46
\listoftables, 46
\ln, 54
\log, 54
long equations, 57
longtable, 43
lscommand, 105
M
MacTeX, 124
macukr, 26
\mainmatter, 36, 86
\makebox, 120
makeidx, 12, 75
makeidx package, 75
\makeindex, 75
makeindex program, 75
\maketitle, 36
\marginparpush, 117
\marginparsep, 117
\marginparwidth, 117
margins, 116
math mode, 51
math spacing, 58
\mathbb, 52
\mathbf, 111
\mathcal, 111
mathematical
accents, 53
delimiter, 56
functions, 54
minus, 22
mathematics, 49
\mathit, 111
\mathnormal, 111
\mathrm, 111
mathrsfs, 67
\mathsf, 111
mathtext, 33
\mathtt, 111
matrix, 58
matrix, 58
\max, 54
\mbox, 21, 24, 120
METAPOST, 83
mhchem, 60
138 INDEX
MiKTeX, 124
\min, 54
minimal class, 10
minipage, 119, 120
minus sign, 22
Mittelbach, Frank, 2
mltex, 81
mltex, 81
modulo function, 54
\multicolumn, 43
\multiput, 93, 97
N
\newcommand, 59, 106, 107
\newenvironment, 107
\newline, 19
\newpage, 19
\newsavebox, 99
\newtheorem, 61
\noindent, 114
\nolinebreak, 19
\nonumber, 57
\nopagebreak, 19
\normalsize, 110
\not, 64
ntheorem, 62
O
\oddsidemargin, 117
œ, 24
one column, 11
option, 9
optional parameters, 5
OT1, 26
\oval, 98, 100
\overbrace, 53
overfull hbox, 20
\overleftarrow, 54
\overline, 53
\overrightarrow, 54
P
package, 7, 10, 105
packages
aeguill, 81
amsbsy, 61
amsfonts, 60, 67
amsmath, 49, 55–59, 61
amssymb, 52, 60, 63
amsthm, 61, 62
babel, 20, 25, 33, 34
beamer, 88, 89
bm, 61
calc, 118
color, 88
dcolumn, 43
doc, 12
eepic, 91, 96
epic, 91
eurosym, 23
exscale, 12
fancyhdr, 76–78
fontenc, 12, 26, 33
geometry, 78
graphicx, 71, 83, 88
hyperref, 80, 83, 87, 88
hyphenat, 78
ifpdf, 87
ifthen, 12
indentfirst, 114
inputenc, 12, 26, 33
latexsym, 12
layout, 116
longtable, 43
makeidx, 12, 75
mathrsfs, 67
mathtext, 33
mhchem, 60
mltex, 81
ntheorem, 62
pgfplot, 104
ppower4, 88
prosper, 88
pstricks, 91, 92, 96
pxfonts, 82
showidx, 76
syntonly, 12, 15
textcomp, 22, 23
tikz, 102
INDEX 139
txfonts, 82
ucs, 26
verbatim, 6, 78
page layout, 116
page style, 13
empty, 13
headings, 13
plain, 13
\pagebreak, 19
\pageref, 37, 79
\pagestyle, 13
paper size, 11, 80, 116
\paperheight, 117
\paperwidth, 117
\par, 110
paragraph, 17
\paragraph, 35
parameter, 5
\parbox, 119, 120
parbox, 120
\parindent, 113
\parskip, 113
\part, 35
\partial, 55
partial derivative, 55
PDF, 79
PDFL
A
T
E
X, 88
pdfL
A
T
E
X, 81, 88
pdfL
A
T
E
X, 80
pdfT
E
X, 80
PDFView, 124
period, 23
pgfplot, 104
\phantom, 47, 59
picture, 91, 92, 96, 97
piecewise function, 58
placement specifier, 45
plain, 13
pmatrix, 58
\pmod, 54
Português, 27
Portuguese, 27
PostScript, 3, 9, 31, 47, 71, 72, 81,
82, 92
Encapsulated, 71, 83
ppower4, 88
\Pr, 54
preamble, 7
prime, 54
\printindex, 76
proc class, 10
\prod, 55
product operator, 55
proof, 62
prosper, 88
\protect, 47
\providecommand, 107
\ProvidesPackage, 109
pspicture, 92
pstricks, 91, 92, 96
\put, 93–99
pxfonts, 82
Q
\qbezier, 91, 93, 100
\qedhere, 62
\qquad, 51, 59
\quad, 51, 59
quotation, 40
quotation marks, 21
quote, 40
R
\raisebox, 121
\ref, 37, 46, 79
\renewcommand, 106
\renewenvironment, 107
report class, 10
reserved characters, 5
\right, 56, 58
right-aligned, 39
\right., 56
\rightmark, 76
roman, 110
\rule, 44, 107, 121
S
sans serif, 110
\savebox, 99
140 INDEX
Scandinavian letters, 24
\scriptscriptstyle, 60
\scriptsize, 110
\scriptstyle, 60
\sec, 54
\section, 35, 47
\sectionmark, 76
\selectlanguage, 25
\setlength, 92, 113, 118
\settodepth, 118
\settoheight, 118
\settowidth, 118
showidx, 76
\sin, 54
single sided, 11
\sinh, 54
slanted, 110
slides class, 10
\sloppy, 20
\small, 110
Small Caps, 110
\smallskip, 116
\smash, 51
space, 4
spacing
math mode, 51
special character, 24
\sqrt, 53
square brackets, 5
square root, 53
\stackrel, 55
\stretch, 107, 115
structure, 7
strut, 44
\subparagraph, 35
subscript, 52
\subsection, 35
\subsectionmark, 76
\substack, 56
\subsubsection, 35
\sum, 55
sum operator, 55
\sup, 54
syntonly, 12, 15
T
T1, 27, 33
T2*, 33
T2A, 27, 33
T2B, 27
T2C, 27
\tabcolsep, 43
table, 41
table, 45, 46
table of contents, 35
\tableofcontents, 35
tabular, 41, 119
\tag, 50
\tan, 54
\tanh, 54
\TeX, 21
TeXnicCenter, 125
\texorpdfstring, 86, 87
text style, 49, 51
\textbf, 110
\textcelsius, 22
textcomp, 22, 23
\texteuro, 23
\textheight, 117
\textit, 110
TextMate, 124
\textmd, 110
\textnormal, 110
\textrm, 110
\textsc, 110
\textsf, 110
\textsl, 110
\textstyle, 60
\texttt, 110
\textup, 110
\textwidth, 117
\tfrac, 55
thebibliography, 73
\theoremstyle, 61
\thicklines, 95, 98, 100
\thinlines, 98, 100
\thispagestyle, 13
tikz, 102
tikzpicture, 102
INDEX 141
tilde, 22, 53
tilde ( ~), 34
\tiny, 110
title, 11, 36
\title, 36
\tnss, 106
\today, 21
\topmargin, 117
\totalheight, 120, 121
two column, 11
txfonts, 82
U
ucs, 26
\ud, 59
umlaut, 24
\underbrace, 53
underfull hbox, 20
\underline, 38, 53
\unitlength, 92, 94
units, 114, 115
upright, 110
URL, 22
\usebox, 99
\usepackage, 10, 13, 23, 25, 26, 109
\usetikzlibrary, 103
utf8x, 26
V
\vdots, 53
\vec, 54
\vector, 95
vectors, 54
\verb, 41
verbatim, 6, 78
verbatim, 41, 78
\verbatiminput, 78
verse, 40
vertical
dots, 53
vertical space, 115
Vmatrix, 58
vmatrix, 58
\vspace, 115
W
whitespace, 4
after commands, 5
at the start of a line, 4
\widehat, 53
\widetilde, 53
\width, 120, 121
Word, 76
www, 22
WYSIWYG, 2, 3
X
X2, 27
Xpdf, 80

ii
Copyright ©1995-2005 Tobias Oetiker and Contributers. All rights reserved. This document is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this document; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Thank you!
Much of the material used in this introduction comes from an Austrian A introduction to L TEX 2.09 written in German by: Hubert Partl Irene Hyna <partl@mail.boku.ac.at> <Irene.Hyna@bmwf.ac.at> <noemail>
Zentraler Informatikdienst der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung Wien

Elisabeth Schlegl
in Graz

If you are interested in the German document, you can find a version A updated for L TEX 2ε by Jörg Knappen at CTAN://info/lshort/german

it must have been one of the people below dropping me a line. Christian Kern. Rémi Letot. Kurt Rosenfeld. If you ever find a word that is spelled correctly. Urs Oswald. Jakob. Nikos Pothitos. Laszlo Szathmary. Johan Lundberg. Young U. Rasmus Borup Hansen. Pierre Chardaire. Jan Dittberner. Mike Ressler. Kevin Van Maren. Michael Koundouros. Björn Hvittfeldt. Demerson Andre Polli. Frank. Pietro Braione. David Jones. Christopher Sawtell. Jörg Fischer. Richard Nagy. Geoffrey Swindale. Philipp Nagele. Fritz Zaucker. Joseph Hilferty. Alain Kessi. Aleksandar S Milosevic. Martin Pfister. Cyril Goutte. Chris York. Alexandre Guimond. Marc Bevand. Miles Spielberg. Gilles Schintgen. Fabian Wernli. Ryu. Greg Gamble. Michael John Downes. Chris McCormack. Josef Tkadlec. Didier Verna. Mic Milic Frederickx. Hanspeter Schmid. . Byron Jones. Alan Jeffrey. Carl Cerecke. Markus Brühwiler. Hans Ehrbar. Christopher Chin. Erik Frisk. Axel Liljencrantz. Craig Schlenter. Eric Jacoboni. Sander de Kievit. Mike Chapman. David Woodhouse. Elliot. Neil Carter. John Refling. Lan Thuy Pham. Jan Busa. José Carlos Santos. Bernd Rosenlecher. Arlo Griffiths. Graversen. Manuel Oetiker. Naturally. Henrik Mitsch. and Mikhail Zotov. Risto Saarelma. Chris Rowley. Jörg Knappen. Kasper B. suggestions and material to improve this paper. Boris Tobotras. Daniel Flipo. Andrzej Kawalec. David Frey. I would like to sincerely thank all of them. Baron Schwartz. Matthieu Stigler. Werner Icking. Andy Goth. Martien Hulsen. Rick Zaccone. Lenimar Nunes de Andrade. Morten Høgholm. Carl-Gustav Werner. They put in a big effort to help me get this document into its present shape. David Dureisseix. Hendrik Maryns. Hans Fugal. Frank Fischli. Wim van Dam.iv Thank you! The following individuals helped with corrections. Barbara Beeton. Claus Malten. all the mistakes you’ll find in this book are mine. Friedemann Brauer. Johannes-Maria Kaltenbach. Maik Lehradt. Scott Veirs. Alexander Mai. David Carlisle. Maksym Polyakov Hubert Partl. Matthias Dreier. Martin Maechler. Kjetil Kjernsmo. Tobias Klauser. Robin Fairbairns. Flori Lambrechts. Rosemary Bailey. Neil Hammond. Brian Ripley.

depending on your abilities. from simple letters to A complete books. L TE This introduction is split into 6 chapters: A Chapter 1 tells you about the basic structure of L TEX 2ε documents. Instead of drawing a picture with some graphics program. . you will be able to write your first documents. A This short introduction describes L TEX 2ε and should be sufficient for A most applications of L TEX. bibliography generation and inclusion of EPS A graphics. Refer to [1. Many examples A X’s main strengths. A Chapter 5 shows how to use L TEX for creating graphics. L TEX uses TEX [2] as its formatting engine. Chapter 2 goes into the details of typesetting your documents. saving it to a file and then A A including it into L TEX you describe the picture and have L TEX draw it for you. At the end demonstrate how to use one of L TE of the chapter are tables listing all mathematical symbols available in A L TEX. 3] for a complete description of the A X system. A Chapter 3 explains how to typeset formulae with L TEX. You A will also learn a bit about the history of L TEX.Preface A L TEX [1] is a typesetting system that is very suitable for producing scientific and mathematical documents of high typographical quality. you should have a rough understanding how L TEX works. It will tell you A how to change things such that the beautiful output of L TEX turns ugly or stunning. It explains A most of the essential L TEX commands and environments. It introduces creation of PDF documents with pdfL TEX and presents some handy extension packages. It is also suitable for producing all sorts of other documents. Chapter 6 contains some potentially dangerous information about how to A alter the standard document layout produced by L TEX. After reading this A chapter. Chapter 4 explains indexes. After reading this chapter.

after all.ctan. Tobias Oetiker <tobi@oetiker. removed or altered in this document. take a look at what is available from CTAN://systems.org. but to teach you how to write your documents so that they A can be processed by L TEX.vi Preface It is important to read the chapters in order—the book is not that big. On many university computer clusters you will find that A a L TEX installation is available. Be sure to carefully read the examples. Instead of writing down complete urls. especially pointers to software and documents you might want to download.ctan. have a look at one of the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (CTAN) sites. please let me know.ch> OETIKER+PARTNER AG Aarweg 15 4600 Olten Switzerland The current version of this document is available on CTAN://info/lshort . All packages can also be retrieved from the ftp archive ftp://www.org and its mirror sites all over the world. I am especially interested in feedback from A L TEX novices about which bits of this intro are easy to understand and which could be explained better. If you have ideas for something to be added. because a lot of the information is in the examples placed throughout the book. ask the person who gave you this booklet. You will find other references to CTAN throughout the book. from the PC and Mac to large UNIX and VMS systems. Information on how to access A the local L TEX installation should be provided in the Local Guide [5]. A If you need to get hold of any L TEX related material. If you have problems getting started. A If you want to run L TEX on your own computer. ready to use. The scope of this document is not to tell you how to install and set up a A L TEX system. A L TEX is available for most computers. I just wrote CTAN: followed by whatever location within the CTAN tree you should go to. The homepage is at http://www.

1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .2 Packages . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 L TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Line Breaking and Page Breaking . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Special Characters . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Structure of Text and Language 2. iii v 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 9 9 10 13 13 14 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 . . . . . .2 Hyphenation . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Author. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Justified Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . .6.3 L TEX Commands . 1. . . . . .6. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Typesetting Text 2. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .5 A Typical Command Line Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Special Characters and Symbols . . . . 2. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .4 Input File Structure . . . . . . . .3 Advantages and Disadvantages .1 Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A 1. . . . . . 2. . . . . .3.6 The Layout of the Document . . . . . .3 Page Styles . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .7 Files You Might Encounter . . . . .3 Ready-Made Strings . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Name of the Game . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 Layout Design . . . . . . . . . A 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A 1. .1 Document Classes . .3. . . . .4 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 L TEX Input Files . . . . . . 2. . . .2 Basics . . . . .8 Big Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Thank you! Preface 1 Things You Need to Know 1. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Book Designer. . . . . . .2. 1. . . and Typesetter 1. . . . . .6. . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Verse . . . . . . 2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Theorems. . .5. . . . .4 Vertically Aligned Material . . . . . . . . . 3. .1 Support for Portuguese . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Writing in Greek . . . . . . . .4 Degree Symbol (◦) . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Ligatures . .11. . . . . . . . .13 3 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae A 3. . . . .4 Abstract . . . . . . and Center . . . . . . The Space Between Words . . . . . . . . . .2 Arrays and Matrices . . . .viii 2. . . . . . . Lemmas.3 Tilde (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .2 Support for French . . . . . .2 Flushleft. 2. . . . . . . .5.2 Dashes and Hyphens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . CONTENTS . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .5 Printing Verbatim . . .5. . 2. . . . . . .3 Quote. . . . . 2. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . Protecting Fragile Commands . . Footnotes . . . . 3. . . Cross References . . . . . . . 2. . .1 Quotation Marks . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fiddling with the Math Fonts . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . Quotation. . . 3. . . . . 3. .5 The Euro Currency Symbol (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2. . . . . . Chapters. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .8 List of Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Accents and Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . Emphasized Words . . . and Sections . . .11. . . .1 Bold Symbols . . .10 2. . . . . . . . . Enumerate. . . . . . . . . . . 3. .4. . . .12 2. .5 Spacing in Math Mode . .2 Single Equations . . .1 Multiple Equations . . . . . 2. . . .1 The AMS-L TEX bundle . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . Floating Bodies . . . .4. . .1 Math Mode . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Language Support . . Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Tabular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flushright. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Support for German . 3.1 Phantoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Ellipsis (. . .1 Itemize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . Titles. .4 Support for Korean . . . . .5. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .9 2. . . . .4. . . . 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 27 28 29 29 32 33 33 35 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 44 47 49 49 49 51 52 57 57 57 58 59 60 60 61 63 2. and Description 2. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .4. . . . . .3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Support for Cyrillic . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .11. . .

. . . . .1 PDF Documents for the Web 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Bibliography . . . . 5. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Installing Extra Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1 New Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .2 Danger.2 New Environments . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 4 Specialities 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Fonts and Sizes . . . .2. . 109 . . . . . .1. . . .2. 5. .1 Font Changing Commands . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 New Commands. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Rapidity in the Special Theory of Relativity 5. .1 Basic Commands . . . . 6. . . .7. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . 107 .4 Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Fonts . .10 Catenary . . 4.3 Using Graphics . 5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .5 The Verbatim Package . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . Will Robinson. . . .7 Working with pdfL TEX .1. 6. . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Hypertext Links . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . Danger . . . . .3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package . . . . .7. . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Multiple Use of Predefined Picture Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Spacing . . 5 Producing Mathematical Graphics 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . .1 Including Encapsulated PostScript 4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Line Segments . . . . 113 . . . . . . . . 106 . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . . .5 Text and Formulas . . . . . . .5 Your Own Package . . . . . . . . 6. . 5. . . . .2. .9 Quadratic Bézier Curves . . . 6. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .6 \multiput and \linethickness . . . . . . . . . . . . Environments and Packages 6. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . A 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A 6 Customising L TEX 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .7. . 109 . . . .7. . . . 112 . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 Arrows . .2. 4. . . . . . . 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. . . .3 Extra Space . .1 Overview .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 The picture Environment . A 6. . . . . . . . . .3 Indexing . . . . .4 Fancy Headers . . . 105 . . . . . .2. . . . . .7 Ovals . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 71 71 73 75 76 78 78 79 80 81 83 83 86 86 88 91 91 92 92 94 95 96 97 97 98 99 100 101 102 102 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .3 Advice . .5 Problems with Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Commandline L TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems with Bookmarks . . . . .8 Creating Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .2.4 Vertical Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . .x 6. .3 Working with graphics . . . 6. . . A. . . . . . . . .2. More Fun With Lengths . . . . 113 113 114 115 116 118 119 121 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 127 129 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Get a TEX Distribution . .1 Getting TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A. .2.1 What to Install . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. .1 Picking an Editor .4 6. . . . . . . . . . .3 Horizontal Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 TEX on Linux . . . . . . . .3 TEX on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . .2 TEX on Mac OS X . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .2 Paragraph Formatting 6. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 A A Installing L TEX A. . . . Bibliography Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boxes . . . . . . . .3. . .5 6. . . .3 Treat yourself to PDFView A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 A L TEX editor . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .1 1. . . .2 4. . 109 Page Layout Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8 77 89 Example fancyhdr Setup. . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Example of a Realistic Journal Article. .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 A A Minimal L TEX File. . . . . . 117 . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . Sample code for the beamer class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3.13 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulgarian. . .6 2. . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . BIG Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Document Classes. . . . . . . Greek Letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Mode Accents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Symbols. . . . . . . AMS Binary Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Document Class Options. AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Arrows. . .14 3. . . . . . . . . .8 2. .9 3. . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . Arrows as Accents. . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . .2 1. . . . . .9 3.17 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . and Arrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 1. . . . . . . Delimiters. . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . Math Alphabets. . . . . . . Float Placing Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Mathematical Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accents and Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . Binary Relations.1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . 10 11 12 13 23 24 28 28 29 32 32 34 45 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 68 69 70 . . Preamble for Portuguese documents. . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . AMS Greek and Hebrew. . . . . . Some of the Packages Distributed with A The Predefined Page Styles of L TEX. Special commands for French. . . . . .12 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preamble for Greek documents. . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Binary Operators. . . . . . . Arrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . A bag full of Euro symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3.3 3. . . . . . . . .15 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters. . . . . Binary Operators. Russian. . . . . .16 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large Delimiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . A L TEX. . . . . . . . . German Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .4 6. . . . .3 6.1 6. . . . . . . . . Fonts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . .19 AMS Miscellaneous. . .xiv LIST OF TABLES 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 72 75 110 110 111 111 115 . . . . . . . . .5 Key Names for graphicx Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Fonts. Index Key Syntax Examples.1 4. . . . . Font Sizes. . . . . TEX Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Point Sizes in Standard Classes. . . . . . .

Chapter 1 Things You Need to Know The first part of this chapter presents a short overview of the philosophy and A A history of LTEX 2ε .” with a “ch” as in the German word “Ach”1 or in the Scottish “Loch. ‘tex’ is a very common word. TEX as we use it today was released in 1982. 1 . It is aimed at typesetting text and mathematical formulae.1 1. pronounced ‘tyekh’.” The “ch” originates from the Greek alphabet where X is the letter “ch” or “chi”. Asked about this. TEX becomes TeX. After reading this chapter. which you will need to understand the rest of this book. Knuth started writing the TEX typesetting engine in 1977 to explore the potential of the digital printing equipment that was beginning to infiltrate the publishing industry at that time. TEX is renowned for being extremely stable. you should have a rough knowledge of A how LTEX works.141592. . and for being virtually bug free. In an ASCII environment.1. for running on many different kinds of computers. 1. . TEX is also the first syllable of the Greek word texnologia (technology). In Russia. where you have the harsher ch of ach and Loch. Knuth [2]. The second part focuses on the basic structures of a LTEX document. Knuth wrote in the German Wikipedia: I do not get angry when people pronounce TEX in their favorite way . The version number of TEX is converging to π and is now at 3.1 The Name of the Game TEX TEX is a computer program created by Donald E. with some slight enhancements added in 1989 to better support 8-bit characters and multiple languages. and in Germany many use a soft ch because the X follows the vowel e. In german there are actually two pronounciations for “ch” and one might assume that the soft “ch” sound from “Pech” would be a more appropriate. not the harder ch that follows the vowel a. But I believe the most proper pronunciation is heard in Greece. TEX is pronounced “Tech. especially in the hope that he could reverse the trend of deteriorating typographical quality that he saw affecting his own books and articles.

They can see on the screen how the final work will look when it is printed. These days L TEX is maintained by Frank Mittelbach. etc. It uses the TEX formatter as its typeA setting engine.2 A L TEX A L TEX enables authors to typeset and print their work at the highest typoA graphical quality. based on his professional knowledge and from the contents of the manuscript. it is well designed.” This is quite different from the WYSIWYG2 approach that most modern word processors. space before and after headings. With these applications. take. A When using L TEX it is not normally possible to see the final output while typing the text.2. . using a predefined. This information is written into A the text as “L TEX commands. But L TEX is “only” a program and therefore needs more guidance. The book designer writes his instructions into the manuscript and then gives it to a typesetter. . who typesets the book according to these instructions. L TEX was originally written by Leslie Lamport [1]. authors give their typed manuscript to a publishing company. L TEX takes the role of the book designer and A uses TEX as its typesetter. and Typesetter To publish something. such as MS Word or Corel WordPerfect. 1. you type LaTeX. A A In a L TEX environment.” If you refer to L T X in A L TE E A an ASCII environment. authors specify the document layout interactively while typing text into the computer.2 Layout Design Typographical design is a craft. Then corrections can be made before actually sending the document to the printer. . ).1. but the final output can be previewed on the screen A after processing the file with L TEX. citations. A X is pronounced “Lay-tech” or “Lah-tech. L TEX 2ε is pronounced “Lay-tech two e” and typed LaTeX2e.” But 2 What you see is what you get.2 Things You Need to Know 1. He decides on chapter headings. Unskilled authors often commit serious formatting errors by assuming that book design is mostly a question of aesthetics—“If a document looks good artistically. The author has to provide additional information to describe the logical structure of his work. .1 Basics Author. formulae.2. fonts. One of their book designers then decides the layout of the document (column width. A human book designer tries to find out what the author had in mind while writing the manuscript. professional layout. examples. Book Designer.2 1. 1.

2.2 Basics as a document has to be read and not hung up in a picture gallery. references. Examples: • The font size and the numbering of headings have to be chosen to make the structure of chapters and sections clear to the reader. they A often discuss “the advantages of L TEX over a normal word processor” or the opposite. L TEX prevents such formatting errors by forcing the author to declare the logical structure of his A document. . since such discussions often get out of hand. The main advantages of L TEX over normal word processors are the following: • Professionally crafted layouts are available. Many of these add-on packages are described in A The L TEX Companion [3]. A • L TEX encourages authors to write well-structured texts. authors often generate aesthetically pleasing A documents with very little or inconsistent structure. For example. and bibliographies can be generated easily. They almost never need to tinker with the actual layout of the document.1. while long enough to fill the page beautifully. which make a document really look as if “printed. packages are available to include PostScript graphics or to typeset bibliographies conforming to exact standards. With WYSIWYG systems. . • Even complex structures such as footnotes. But sometimes you cannot escape . 3 1. A So here is some ammunition. • Free add-on packages exist for many typographical tasks not directly A supported by basic L TEX. the readability and understandability is much more important than the beautiful look of it. because this A is how L TEX works—by specifying structure. • Users only need to learn a few easy-to-understand commands that specify the logical structure of a document.3 Advantages and Disadvantages A When people from the WYSIWYG world meet people who use L TEX. . L TEX then chooses the most suitable layout. table of contents. The best thing you can do when such a discussion starts is to keep a low profile. • The line length has to be short enough not to strain the eyes of the reader.” • The typesetting of mathematical formulae is supported in a convenient way.

is highly portable and free. Therefore the system runs on almost any hardware platform available. An empty line starts a new paragraph. despite some encouraging first steps. 1. never be able to fully grasp the concept of Logical Markup. A L TEX also has some disadvantages.3 A L TEX Input Files A The input for L TEX is a plain ASCII text file. An empty line starts a new paragraph. A LT Rumour says that this is one of the key elements that will be addressed in the upcoming EX3 system. • Although some parameters can be adjusted within a predefined document layout.-) A • L TEX does not work well for people who have sold their souls . It contains the text of the document.1 Spaces “Whitespace” characters. On the left hand side is the text from the input file.4 Things You Need to Know A • TEX. though I am sure other people can tell you hundreds . such as blank or tab. and I guess it’s a bit difficult for me to find any sensible ones. . The text below is an example. You can create it with any text editor. Several empty lines are treated the same as one empty line. 1.3. and a single line break is treated as “whitespace. Several consecutive whitespace characters are treated as one “space.” Whitespace at the start of a line is generally ignored. 3 .” An empty line between two lines of text defines the end of a paragraph. and on the right hand side is the formatted output. It does not matter whether you enter one or several spaces after a word. • Your hamster might. are treated uniformly as A “space” by L TEX. the design of a whole new layout is difficult and takes a lot of time. It does not matter whether you enter one or several spaces after a word. . as well as the commands A that tell L TEX how to typeset the text.3 • It is very hard to write unstructured and disorganized documents. the formatting engine of L TEX 2ε .

The backslash character \ can not be entered by adding another backslash in front of it (\\). . If you enter them A directly in your text. A L TEX ignores whitespace after commands. and take one of the following two formats: • They start with a backslash \ and then have a name consisting of letters only.A 1. If you want to get a space after a command. you have to put either {} and a blank or a special spacing A command after the command name. 4 Try the $\backslash$ command instead.’ • They consist of a backslash and exactly one non-letter. which are added after the command name in square brackets [ ]. The {} stops L TEX from eating up all the space after the command name. Today is September 25. # $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \ As you will see. a number or any other ‘non-letter. Command names are terminated by a space. they will normally not print. Some commands need a parameter. these characters can be used in your documents all the same by adding a prefix backslash: \# \$ \% \^{} \& \_ \{ \} \~{} #$%ˆ&_{}˜ The other symbols and many more can be printed with special commands in mathematical formulae or as accents.\\ Today is \today. It produces a ‘\’.3.4 1.2 Special Characters The following symbols are reserved characters that either have a special A meaning under L TEX or are not available in all the fonts. I read that Knuth divides the people working with TEX into TEXnicians and TEXperts. 2008. but rather coerce L TEX to do things you did not intend.3 A L TEX Commands A L TEX commands are case sensitive. which has to be given between curly braces { } after the command name.3. this sequence is used for line breaking. I read that Knuth divides the people working with \TeX{} into \TeX{}nicians and \TeX perts.3 L TEX Input Files 5 1. Some commands support optional parameters.

.3. and all whitespace at the beginning of the next line. This is another \begin{comment} rather stupid. start a new line right here! Thank you! 1. This means. but helpful \end{comment} example for embedding comments in your document. This can be used to write notes into the input file. For longer comments you could use the comment environment provided by the verbatim package. they will be explained later. start a new line right here!\newline Thank you! Please. This is an % stupid % Better: instructive <---example: Supercal% ifragilist% icexpialidocious This is an example: Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious The % character can also be used to split long input lines where no whitespace or line breaks are allowed. This is another example for embedding comments in your document. which will not show up in the printed version. that you have to add the line \usepackage{verbatim} to the preamble of your document as explained below before you can use this command.4 Comments A When L TEX encounters a % character while processing an input file. Don’t worry about them. it ignores the rest of the present line. You can \textsl{lean} on me! You can lean on me! Please. the line break.6 Things You Need to Know A The next examples use some L TEX commands. like math for example. Note that this won’t work inside complex environments.

.4 Input File Structure A When L TEX 2ε processes an input file. Anything that follows this A command will be ignored by L TEX. On other systems there might click L TE 5 The area between \documentclass and \begin{document} is called the preamble.} When all the setup work is done.. Thus every input file must start with the command \documentclass{.5 A Typical Command Line Session A I bet you must be dying to try out the neat small L TEX input file shown A X itself comes without a GUI or fancy on page 7. To load such a package you use the command \usepackage{. It is just a program that crunches away at your input A file.2. Some L TEX installations feature a graphical front-end where you can A X into compiling your input file. \documentclass{article} \begin{document} Small is beautiful. Here is some help: L TE buttons to press. \end{document} A Figure 1. which tells L TEX to call it a day.5 you start the body of the text with the command \begin{document} A Now you enter the text mixed with some useful L TEX commands. you can include commands that influence the style of the whole document. A slightly more complicated input file is given in Figure 1.4 Input File Structure 7 1. After that.1: A Minimal L TEX File. . it expects it to follow a certain structure.. At the end of the document you add the \end{document} A command.1 shows the contents of a minimal L TEX 2ε file.1.} This specifies what sort of document you intend to write. A Figure 1.. or A you can load packages that add new features to the L TEX system. 1.

Note that all the commands you see in this example will be explained later in the introduction. . A 2. On Windows you might want to make sure that you save the file in ASCII or Plain Text format. Please note: this description assumes that A a working L TEX installation already sits on your computer. Type ctrl-D to get back to the command line. Run L TEX on your input file.6 A 1.tex 3. This file must be plain ASCII text. Real Men use Unix. If successful you will end up with a . so here is how to coax L TEX into compiling your input file on a text based system. \end{document} Figure 1. Edit/Create your L TEX input file.-) 6 \documentclass[a4paper. . On Unix all the editors will create just that. and . and here begins my lovely article.11pt]{article} % define the title \author{H. This is the case with most well groomed Unix Systems. When picking a name for your file. \section{Good Bye World} \ldots{} and here it ends. .2: Example of a Realistic Journal Article. . It may be necessary to run L TEX several times to get the table of contents and all internal references right.8 Things You Need to Know A be some typing involved. Now you may view the DVI file. When your input file has A a bug L TEX will tell you about it and stop processing your input file. There are several ways to do that. .dvi A file. so . latex foo. make sure it bears the extension . .~Partl} \title{Minimalism} \begin{document} % generates the title \maketitle % insert the table of contents \tableofcontents \section{Some Interesting Words} Well.tex.

1 The Layout of the Document Document Classes A The first information L TEX needs to know when processing an input file is the type of document the author wants to create. The options parameter customises the behaviour of the document class.1 lists the A document classes explained in this introduction. .ps A If you are lucky your L TEX system even comes with the dvipdf tool. The most common options for the standard document classes are listed in Table 1.dvi files straight into pdf. If you are on Windows you might want to try yap (yet another previewer).1. You can also convert the dvi file to PostScript for printing or viewing with Ghostscript. dvips -Pcmz foo. A Example: An input file for a L TEX document could start with the line \documentclass[11pt. Table 1.a4paper]{article} A which instructs L TEX to typeset the document as an article with a base font size of eleven points. dvipdf foo. The L TEX 2ε distribution provides additional classes for other documents.dvi -o foo.6 The Layout of the Document You can show the file on screen with xdvi foo.dvi 1.6. including letters and slides.2. \documentclass[options]{class} Here class specifies the type of document to be created.dvi & 9 This only works on Unix with X11.6 1. This is specified with the \documentclass command. The options have to be separated by commas.twoside. and to produce a layout suitable for double sided printing on A4 paper. which allows you to convert your .

You may find more information on the packages installed at your site in your Local Guide [5]. . presentations.2 Packages While writing your document. .1: Document Classes. Such enhancements are called packages. where package is the name of the package and options is a list of keywords that trigger special features in the package. The prime source for information about A A L TEX packages is The L TEX Companion [3]. program documentation. . along with information of how to write your own A extensions to L TEX 2ε . short reports. Packages are activated with the \usepackage[options]{package} command. Modern TEX distributions come with a large number of packages preinstalled. If you want to include graphics. It only sets a page size and a base font. Table 1. You might want to consider using the Beamer class instead. . PhD theses. invitations. coloured text or source code from a file into your document.10 Things You Need to Know 1. proc a class for proceedings based on the article class. . you A need to enhance the capabilities of L TEX.6.3). report for longer reports containing several chapters. . book for real books slides for slides. . It is mainly used for debugging purposes. The class uses big sans serif letters. minimal is as small as it can get. Some packages come A with the L TEX 2ε base distribution (See Table 1. Others are provided separately. use the command texdoc for accessing package documentation. you will probably find that there are some A areas where basic L TEX cannot solve your problem. It contains descriptions on hundreds of packages. If you are working on a Unix system. article for articles in scientific journals. small books.

fleqn Typesets displayed formulae left-aligned instead of centred. a4paper. This does not work with the article class.2: Document Class Options. The article class does not start a new page by default. . as it does not know about chapters. . Note that this option concerns the style of the document only. The report class by default starts chapters on the next page available and the book class starts them on right hand pages. Changes the layout of the document to print in landscape openright. b5paper.6 The Layout of the Document 11 Table 1. Defines the paper size.1. oneside Specifies whether double or single sided output should be generated. and legalpaper can be specified. twoside. A onecolumn. notitlepage Specifies whether a new page should be started after the document title or not. executivepaper. while report and book do. landscape mode. 12pt Sets the size of the main font in the document. 10pt is assumed. The default size is letterpaper. If no option is specified. leqno Places the numbering of formulae on the left hand side instead of the right. openany Makes chapters begin either only on right hand pages or on the next page available. The classes article and report are single sided and the book class is double sided by default. a5paper. 11pt. . The option twoside does not tell the printer you use that it should actually make a two-sided printout. 10pt. . Besides that. letterpaper. twocolumn Instructs L TEX to typeset the document in one column or two columns. titlepage.

. . . . A Described in doc. ifthen Provides commands of the form ‘if. A doc Allows the documentation of L TEX programs. A fontenc Specifies which font encoding L TEX should use. syntonly Processes a document without typesetting it. This file should be installed on your system.dtx. makeidx Provides commands for producing indexes.3 A and in The L TEX Companion [3]. ANSI-Windows or user-defined one. otherwise do. Described in section 4.dtx E exscale Provides scaled versions of the math extension font.dtx and The L TEX Companion [3]. and you should be able to get a dvi file by typing latex doc. then do. A latexsym To access the L TEX symbol font. ISO Latin-2. Next. The same is true for all the other files mentioned in this table. Described in ltexscale. you should use the latexsym A package. Described in inputenc.dtx. Described in ltoutenc. 437/850 IBM code pages. a and in The L T X Companion [3].’ A Described in ifthen.3: Some of the Packages Distributed with L TEX. . Described in latexsym.dtx in any directory where you have write permission. . a .dtx and in The L TEX Companion [3]. . Apple Macintosh. inputenc Allows the specification of an input encoding such as ASCII.12 Things You Need to Know A Table 1.dtx. ISO Latin-1.

headings prints the current chapter heading and the page number in the header on each page. . The style parameter of the \pagestyle{style} command defines which one to use. 1.tex L TEX or TEX input file. It is possible to change the page style of the current page with the command \thispagestyle{style} A description how to create your own headers and footers can be found A in The L TEX Companion [3] and in section 4. If you process a . in the middle of the footer. plain prints the page numbers on the bottom of the page. The following list explains the various file types you might encounter when working with TEX.7 Files You Might Encounter 13 1. please drop me a line. Can be compiled with latex.4 lists the predefined page styles.dtx file you get documented macro code of the A L TEX package contained in the .1. Table 1. This is the main distribution format for L TEX style files.dtx file. (This is the style used in this document) empty sets both the header and the footer to be empty. while the footer remains empty.7 Files You Might Encounter A When you work with L TEX you will soon find yourself in a maze of files with various extensions and probably no clue.3 Page Styles A L TEX supports three predefined header/footer combinations—so-called page styles. This is the default page style. but if you find one missing that you think is important. This is a file you can load into your L TEX document using the \usepackage command. A .4: The Predefined Page Styles of L TEX. A A . A .dtx Documented TEX. Please note that this table does not claim to be a complete list of extensions.4 on page 76. A Table 1.sty L TEX Macro package.6.

.ilg Logfile telling what makeindex did. . . ready for inclusion into your document on the next compile cycle. You can look at its content with a DVI previewer program or you can send it to a printer with dvips or a similar application. you might want to split the input file into A several parts. Run L TEX on the . Among other things.lof This is like .ind The processed . the .dtx file.aux file is used to store information associated with cross-references. It gets read in for the next compiler run and is used to produce the table of content.ins The installer for the files contained in the matching . L TEX has two commands that help you to do that. . A .log Gives a detailed account of what happened during the last compiler run.dvi Device Independent File. . If you A download a L TEX package from the net. A The following files are generated when you run L TEX on your input file: A .toc Stores all your section headers. 1.dtx A and a . .ins file. you will normally get a .lot And again the same for the list of tables. They are selected with the \documentclass command. Refer to section 4. . Process this file with makeindex.14 Things You Need to Know .fd Font description file telling L TEX about new fonts.ins file to unpack the .8 Big Projects When working on big documents. Note that L TEX will start a new page before processing the material input from filename.aux Another file that transports information from one compiler run to the next.idx file. This is the main result of a L TEX compile run.3 on page 75 for more information on indexing. L TEX stores all the words that go into the index in this file.tex.toc but for the list of figures. .tex. \include{filename} You can use this command in the document body to insert the contents A of another file named filename.dtx file. .idx If your document contains an index. A .cls Class files define what your document looks like.

no strings attached. In this case. This makes L TEX skim through your document only checking for proper syntax and usage of the commands.filename.8 Big Projects The second command can be used in the preamble. A To make L TEX quickly check your document you can use the syntonly A package. \includeonly{filename. It simply includes the file specified. The \include command starts typesetting the included text on a new page. . No flashy suits. As L TEX runs faster in this mode you may save yourself valuable time. } 15 After this command is executed in the preamble of the document. . you can use the \input{filename} command. Sometimes this might not be desirable. It allows you to A instruct L TEX to only input some of the \included files. because the page breaks will not move. even when some included files are omitted. .1.. but doesn’t produce any (DVI) A output. only \include commands for the filenames that are listed in the argument of the \includeonly command will be executed. This is helpful when you use \includeonly. Usage is very simple: \usepackage{syntonly} \syntaxonly When you want to produce pages. Note that there must be no spaces between the filenames and the commas. just comment out the second line (by adding a percent sign).

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1 .ch> The main point of writing a text (some modern DAAC1 literature excluded). If in doubt about paragraph breaks. In this chapter I will fill in the remaining structure you will need to know in order to produce real world material. and paragraph breaks with e.g. Many people do not even know what the meaning of Different At All Cost.1 The Structure of Text and Language By Hanspeter Schmid <hanspi@schmid-werren. leaving an empty line in the source code. if a new thought begins. and if not. or one idea. A The most important text unit in L TEX (and in typography) is the paragraph. It then derives the typographical form of the text according to the “rules” given in the document class file and in various style files. You will learn in the following sections how you can force line breaks with e. think about your text as a conveyor of ideas and thoughts. you should know about the basic stuff of A which a LTEX 2ε document is made. it should be removed. a new paragraph should begin. information. is to convey ideas. a translation of the Swiss German UVA (Um’s Verrecken Anders). A L TEX is different from other typesetting systems in that you just have to tell it the logical and semantical structure of a text.Chapter 2 Typesetting Text After reading the previous chapter. If you have a paragraph break. Therefore. 2. and will see and feel this structure much better if the typographical form reflects the logical and semantical structure of the content. only line breaks should be used. If some totally new line of thought occurs in the same paragraph. or knowledge to the reader. \\. The reader will understand the text better if these ideas are well-structured. then it should be broken.g. We call it “text unit” because a paragraph is the typographical form that should reflect one coherent thought. but the old thought continues. Most people completely underestimate the importance of well-placed paragraph breaks.

\begin{equation} I_D = I_F . and figure out why sometimes empty lines (paragraph breaks) are used before and after the equation. or. If A L TEX gets it wrong. .I_R \end{equation} is the core of a very different transistor model.18 Typesetting Text A a paragraph break is. Look at the following examples. L TEX tries to figure out which one you wanted to have. \ldots The next smaller text unit is a sentence. but in many languages (including German and English). introduce paragraph breaks without knowing it. especially in L TEX. The latter mistake is especially easy to make if equations are used in the text. The structuring of text even extends to parts of sentences. read the sentence aloud and . \end{equation} Kirchhoff’s voltage law can be derived \ldots % Example 3 \ldots which has several advantages. you must tell it what you want. This is explained later in this chapter. In English texts. and sometimes not. Most languages have very complicated punctuation rules. and then read this section again. % Example 2 \ldots from which follows Kirchhoff’s current law: \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{n} I_k = 0 \. please read this and the following chapter. there is a larger space after a period that ends a sentence than after one that ends an A abbreviation.) % Example 1 \ldots when Einstein introduced his formula \begin{equation} e = m \cdot c^2 \. you will get almost every comma right if you remember what it represents: a short stop in the flow of language. If you are not sure about where to put a comma. (If you don’t yet understand all commands well enough to understand these examples. . \end{equation} which is at the same time the most widely known and the least well understood physical formula.

by putting them into chapters. insert a comma. \pagebreak[n]. .3.1 Line Breaking and Page Breaking Justified Paragraphs A Books are often typeset with each line having the same length.2 Line Breaking and Page Breaking take a short breath at every comma. By setting n to a value below A 4. and so on. subsections. However. the paragraphs of a text should also be structured logically at a higher level. you leave L TEX the option of ignoring your command if the result would look very bad. sections. 19 2. Normally the first line of a paragraph is indented. and there is no additional space between two paragraphs. Refer to section 6. They enable the author to influence their actions with the optional argument n. as described in the next section. \linebreak[n]. Finally.2. this can lead to unpleasant gaps in your text. A In special cases it might be necessary to order L TEX to break a line: \\ or \newline starts a new line without starting a new paragraph. \newpage starts a new page. Do not confuse these “break” commands with the “new” A commands.2 for more information. if you feel the urge to breathe (or make a short stop) at some other place. If necessary.2 2. delete that comma. \section{The Structure of Text and Language} is so obvious that it is almost self-evident how these high-level structures should be used. \nopagebreak[n] suggest places where a break may (or may not happen). L TEX still tries to even out the right border of the line and the total length of the page. it also hyphenates words that would not fit comfortably on a line.g. Even when you give a “break” command. \\* additionally prohibits a page break after the forced line break. L TEX inserts the necessary line breaks and spaces between words by optimizing the contents of a whole paragraph. How the paragraphs are typeset depends on the document class. \nolinebreak[n]. If this feels awkward at some place. which can be set to a number between zero and four.2. the typographical effect of writing e.

you can remedy the situation by using the following commands to tell TEX about the exception. In most such cases the result doesn’t look very good. Guess their names! A L TEX always tries to produce the best line breaks possible. A The command \fussy brings L TEX back to its default behaviour. This means that if you place a hyphenation command into the preamble of your document it will influence the English language hyphenation.2. In this case a warning (“underfull hbox”) is given to the user. If you place the command after the \begin{document} and you are using some package for national language support like babel. L TEX then complains (“overfull hbox”) while processing the input file. The argument of the command should only contain words built from normal letters. This happens most often A when L TEX cannot find a suitable place to hyphenate a word. .2 You can inA struct L TEX to lower its standards a little by giving the \sloppy command. “Fortran” and “fortran” from being hyphenated at all. such lines are not always easy to find. 2. The command \hyphenation{word list} causes the words listed in the argument to be hyphenated only at the points marked by “-”.20 Typesetting Text If you really want to start a “new line” or a “new page”. and it prevents “FORTRAN”. these lines will be marked with a thick black line on the right margin. No special characters or symbols are allowed in the argument. It prevents such over-long lines by increasing the inter-word spacing—even if the final output is not optimal. The hyphenation hints are stored for the language that is active when the hyphenation command occurs. then the hyphenation hints will be active in the language activated through babel.2 Hyphenation A L TEX hyphenates words whenever necessary. The example below will allow “hyphenation” to be hyphenated as well as “Hyphenation”. then use the corresponding command. If the hyphenation algorithm does not find the correct hyphenation points. If it cannot find a way to break the lines in a manner that meets its high standards. or rather signs that are considered to be normal A letters by L TEX. Example: \hyphenation{FORTRAN Hy-phen-a-tion} 2 A Although L TEX gives you a warning when that happens (Overfull hbox) and displays the offending line. If you use the option draft in the \documentclass command. it A lets one line stick out on the right of the paragraph.

you have seen some very A simple L TEX commands for typesetting special text strings: Command \today \TeX \LaTeX \LaTeXe Example September 25. because L TEX does not automatically hyphenate words containing special characters. I think this is: su\-per\-cal\-% i\-frag\-i\-lis\-tic\-ex\-pi\-% al\-i\-do\-cious I think this is: supercalifragilisticexpialidocious 21 Several words can be kept together on one line with the command \mbox{text} It causes its argument to be kept together under all circumstances. use two (grave accent) for opening quotation marks and two (vertical quote) for closing quotation marks.2.3 Ready-Made Strings The command \. 2008 TEX A L TEX A L TEX 2ε Description Current date Your favorite typesetter The Name of the Game The current incarnation 2. My phone number will change soon. In publishing there are special opening and closing quotation marks.4 2. For single quotes you use just one of each. but in addition there will be a visible box drawn around the content.g.1 Special Characters and Symbols Quotation Marks You should not use the " for quotation marks as you would on a typewriter. . accented A characters). The parameter \mbox{\emph{filename}} should contain the name of the file. It will be 0116 291 2319.inserts a discretionary hyphen into a word.4. The parameter filename should contain the name of the file. In A L TEX. This command is especially useful for words containing special characters (e. It will be \mbox{0116 291 2319}. 2. This also becomes the only point hyphenation is allowed in this word. \fbox is similar to \mbox.3 Ready-Made Strings In some of the examples on the previous pages. My phone number will change soon.

edu/\~{}bush \\ http://www. 2.rich. It’s −30 ◦ C. it’s really a back-tick or grave accent ( ) for opening quotes and vertical quote ( ) for closing. despite what the font chosen might suggest.3 Tilde (∼) A character often seen in web addresses is the tilde.22 Typesetting Text ‘‘Please press the ‘x’ key.edu/˜bush http://www.4.’’ “Please press the ‘x’ key.^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$. Try this instead: http://www. X-rated pages 13–67 yes—or no? 0.edu/$\sim$demo 2.clever. You can access three of them with different numbers of consecutive dashes. 2. The fourth sign is actually not a dash at all—it is the mathematical minus sign: daughter-in-law. .4 Degree Symbol (◦) A The following example shows how to print a degree symbol in L TEX: It’s $-30\.2 Dashes and Hyphens A L TEX knows four kinds of dashes.” Yes I know the rendering is not ideal. The textcomp package makes the degree symbol also available as \textcelsius. To generate this in A L TEX you can use \~ but the result: ˜ is not really what you want.rich. I will soon start to superconduct. ‘—’ em-dash and ‘−’ minus sign.edu/∼demo http://www.4. ‘–’ en-dash.4. 1 and −1 The names for these dashes are: ‘-’ hyphen.clever. I will soon start to super-conduct. X-rated\\ pages 13--67\\ yes---or no? \\ $0$. $1$ and $-1$ daughter-in-law.

. there is a special command for these dots. \ldots Not like this . After loading the textcomp package in the preamble of your document \usepackage{textcomp} you can use the command \texteuro to access it. Many current fonts contain a Euro symbol. but like this: New York.4. Therefore.2. . Table 2.4. If your font does not provide its own Euro symbol or if you do not like the font’s Euro symbol. as the spacing would be wrong. you have two more choices: First the eurosym package. Instead. you cannot enter ‘ellipsis’ by just typing three dots.. . . Budapest. ) On a typewriter.5 The Euro Currency Symbol (e) When writing about money these days. In book printing. use the option gen in place of the official option. Tokyo. these characters occupy only a little space and are set very close to the preceding letter. ..6 Ellipsis (. It is called \ldots Not like this . . Tokyo. but like this:\\ New York.1: A bag full of Euro symbols LM+textcomp eurosym [gen]eurosym \texteuro \euro \euro € € € e e e A A A C C C 2. you need the Euro symbol. Budapest.4 Special Characters and Symbols 23 2. .. a comma or a period takes the same amount of space as any other letter. It provides the official Euro symbol: \usepackage[official]{eurosym} If you prefer a Euro symbol that matches your font.

o \v o \b o \OE \AA \O \j ô ö ő oo æ ł ¡ \^o \"o \H o \t oo \ae \l !‘ õ ç o ¸ Æ Ł ¿ \~o \c c \c o \AE \L ?‘ . naïve. instead of ff fi fl ffi . These so-called ligatures can be prohibited by inserting an \mbox{} between the two letters in question. . Table 2.2 shows all sorts of accents being applied to the letter o. ff fi fl ffi. élève. To place an accent on top of an i or a j. ò o ¯ o ˘ o .24 Typesetting Text 2. . but by actually using special symbols. na\"\i ve. H\^otel. œ å ø ı \‘o \=o \u o \d o \oe \aa \o \i ó o ˙ o ˇ o ¯ Œ Å Ø  \’o \. its dots have to be removed.2: Accents and Special Characters.4. . This might be necessary with words built from two words. Schönbrunner Schloß Straße Table 2.\\ sm\o rrebr\o d.8 Accents and Special Characters A L TEX supports the use of accents and special characters from many languages.7 Ligatures Some letter combinations are typeset not just by setting the different letters one after the other. This is accomplished by typing \i and \j. ¡Señorita!. .4. \’el\‘eve. smørrebrød. !‘Se\~norita!. Naturally other letters work too.\\ Sch\"onbrunner Schlo\ss{} Stra\ss e Hôtel. \Large Not shelfful\\ but shelf\mbox{}ful Not shelfful but shelfful 2.

there is a mandatory space before each colon character (:). In order to handle variety of 3 Table of Contents.languageB]{babel} then the last language in the option list will be active (i. . With babel. contains a lot of umlauts (äöü). The German language. L TEX needs to know the hyphenation rules for the new language.5 International Language Support 25 2. these changes can be accomplished by using the babel package by Johannes Braams. . for example. languageB). . babel will still work but will disable hyphenation. It means rebuilding the format file with different hyphenation patterns enabled. A 2.2. All automatically generated text strings3 have to be adapted to the new language. which simplify the input of special characters.e. If your L TEX format does not support hyphenation in the language of your choice. you can activate the babel package by adding the command \usepackage[language]{babel} after the \documentclass command. 3. For many languages. In French for example. you can enter an ö by typing "o instead of \"o. Language specific typographic rules. there are three A areas where L TEX has to be configured appropriately: 1. If your system is already configured appropriately. List of Figures. . Most of the modern computer systems allow you to input letter of national alphabets directly from the keyboard. Babel will automatically activate the appropriate hyphenation rules for the language A you choose. You can to use the command \selectlanguage{languageA} to change the active language. Your Local Guide [5] should give more information on this. A list of the languages built into your A L TEX system will be displayed every time the compiler is started. Babel also specifies new commands for some languages. A Getting hyphenation rules into L TEX is a bit more tricky.5 International Language Support When you write documents in languages other than English. If you call babel with multiple languages \usepackage[languageA. which has quite a negative effect on the appearance of the typeset document.

Multiple input encodings could be mapped into one font encoding. Section 4.dtx respectively. which reduces number of required font sets. the encoding of the original Computer Modern TEX font. Font encoding is a different matter. on Unix systems using ISO-LATIN 1 it is encoded as 228. For example. you might want to switch to unicode. It defines at which position inside a TEX-font each letter is stored.26 Typesetting Text input encoding used for different groups of languages and/or on different A computer platforms L TEX employs the inputenc package: \usepackage[encoding]{inputenc} When using this package. read the documentation for inputenc. 4 . OS/2 encodings western Latin Cyrillic applemac macukr latin1 koi8-ru ansinew cp1251 cp850 cp866nav If you have a multilingual document with conflicting input encodings. using the ucs package. \usepackage{ucs} \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc} A will enable you to create L TEX input files in utf8x. A The default L TEX font encoding is OT1. therefore you should use this feature with care. depending on the type of system you are working on4 Operating system Mac Unix Windows DOS.dtx and cyinpenc. The following encodings may come in handy. while in Cyrillic encoding cp1251 for Windows this letter does not exist at all. you should consider that other people might not be able to display your input files on their computer. Font encodings are handled through fontenc package: \usepackage[encoding]{fontenc} where encoding is font encoding. It is possible to load several encodings simultaneously. When accented characters are required. a multi-byte encoding in which each character can be encoded in as little as one byte and as many as four bytes. because they use a different encoding. It contains only the 128 characters of the 7-bit ASCII character set.6 tells how to produce package documentation. TEX To learn more about supported input encodings for Latin-based and Cyrillic-based languages. the German umlaut ä on OS/2 is encoded as 132.

br> To enable hyphenation and change all automatic text to Portuguese. As there are a lot of accents in Portuguese you might want to use \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc} to be able to input them correctly as well as \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} to get the hyphenation right. they are arranged into four font encodings—T2A. Because of the large number of Cyrillic glyphs. 5 The list of languages supported by each of these encodings could be found in [11]. and optically scaled font sizes. such as Greek or Cyrillic. Just use the appropriate encoding for your system. shapes. See table 2. Note that we are using the latin1 input encoding here.5.5 The CB bundle contains fonts in LGR encoding for the composition of Greek text. and X2. To overcome these shortcomings. While the resulting output looks perfect. T2B. so this will not work on a Mac or on DOS. several 8-bit CM-like font sets were created.2.ime. By using these fonts you can improve/enable hyphenation in non-English documents. The LH font set contains letters necessary to typeset documents in languages using Cyrillic script.1 Support for Portuguese By Demerson Andre Polli <polli@linux. use the command: \usepackage[portuguese]{babel} Or if you are in Brazil. some of Latin letters could not be created by combining a normal character with an accent. to say nothing about letters of non-Latin alphabets.5 International Language Support creates them by combining a normal character with an accent. T2C. Extended Cork (EC) fonts in T1 encoding contains letters and punctuation characters for most of the European languages based on Latin script.3 for the preamble you need to write in the Portuguese language. Besides.usp. . this approach stops the automatic hyphenation from working inside words containing accented characters. 27 2. Another advantage of using new CM-like fonts is that they provide fonts of CM families in all weights. substitute the language for brazilian.

56789 You will also notice that the layout of lists changes when switching to the French language. for historical reasons. Table 2. run L TEX on file frenchb. For more information on what the frenchb option A of babel does and how you can customize its behaviour.dtx and read the produced file frenchb. 1re. A set of new commands also becomes available. A This enables French hyphenation.4: Special commands for French.4 for inspiration. 1\iere{}. 45\degres \bsc{M. Durand} \nombre{1234.5.56789} « guillemets » Mme. Dr 1er. 1res 2e 4es No 1. the name of babel’s option for French is either frenchb or francais but not french. It also changes all automatic text into French: \chapter prints Chapitre.dvi. which allows you to write French input files more easily. no 2 20 °C.2 Support for French By Daniel Flipo <daniel. 1\ieres{} 2\ieme{} 4\iemes{} \No 1. 45° M. \og guillemets \fg{} M\up{me}. if you have configured your L TEX system accordingly. Durand 1234. \no 2 20~\degres C.fr> A Some hints for those creating French documents with L TEX: you can load French language support with the following command: \usepackage[frenchb]{babel} Note that.3: Preamble for Portuguese documents. . Check out table 2.flipo@univ-lille1. \usepackage[portuguese]{babel} \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc} \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} 2. \today prints the current date in French and so on.28 Typesetting Text Table 2. D\up{r} 1\ier{}.

6 . It also changes all automatic text into German. In the German speaking part of Switzerland.” A set of new commands also becomes available.5 International Language Support 29 2. however. we need to solve three problems: 1. which allows you to write German input files more quickly even when you don’t use the inputenc package. do contain the required symbols. Table 2. which turns a typesetter’s stomach. (\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}) 2.5: German Special Characters. T1 encoded fonts.5.5. Eg. A major problem arises from the use of commands like \flq: If you use the OT1 font (which is the default font) the guillemets will look like the math symbol “ ”. typesetters use «guillemets» the same way the French do.4 Support for Korean6 A To use L TEX for typesetting Korean. all this becomes moot. Check out table 2. make sure you use the T1 encoding.3 Support for German A Some hints for those creating German documents with L TEX: you can load German language support with the following command: \usepackage[german]{babel} A This enables German hyphenation. With inputenc. This section was written by Karnes KIM on behalf of the Korean lshort translation team. use them differently. So if you are using this type of quote. but because Korean uses its own character A Considering a number of issues Korean L TEX users have to cope with. “Chapter” becomes “Kapitel. We must be able to edit Korean input files. if you have configured your L TEX system accordingly.2.5 for inspiration. A quote in a German book would look like »this«. It was translated into English by SHIN Jungshik and shortened by Tobi Oetiker. Korean input files must be in plain text format. "a "‘ "< or \flqq \flq \dq ä „ « ‹ " "s "’ "> or \frqq \frq ß “ » › In German books you often find French quotation marks («guillemets»). German typesetters. but your text also is locked in a particular encoding world. on the other hand.

albeit alphabetic. Hangul syllables. A 2. It divides a single CJK font with thousands or tens of thousands of glyphs into a set of subfonts with 256 glyphs each. It is hoped that future TEX engines like Ω and Λ will eventually provide solutions to this so that some Korean linguists and historians will defect from MS Word that already has a pretty good support for Middle Korean. A A HL TEX by UN Koaunghi. put some restriction on the formation of these clusters. or Shift_JIS. For Korean. To make them work for languages with considerably more characters such as Korean7 or Chinese. An unlimited number of syllables can be formed out of this finite set of vowels and consonants. even on non-Korean operating systems. there are three widely used packages. The Korean Character encoding defines individual code points for each of these syllables (KS X 1001:1998 and KS X 1002:1992). TEX and L TEX were originally written for scripts with no more than 256 characters in their alphabet.30 Typesetting Text set outside the repertoire of US-ASCII. Unlike Latin or Cyrillic scripts. they will look rather strange with a normal ASCII editor. Hiraganas. Katakanas. ISO 10646/Unicode offers both ways of representing Hangul used for modern Korean by encoding Conjoining Hangul Jamos (alphabets: http://www. hL TEXp by CHA Jaechoon and the CJK Korean Hangul is an alphabetic script with 14 basic consonants and 10 basic vowels (Jamos). Hangul Jamos. So Hangul. it took a considerable amount of time and effort to set up a Korean-capable environment under a non-localized (non-Korean) operating system. You can skim through the now much-outdated http://jshin.org/charts/PDF/ U1100.org/charts/PDF/UAC00.net/faq to get a glimpse of what it was like to use Korean under non-Korean OS in mid-1990’s. however. Therefore only a finite number of orthographically correct syllables exist. Greek and Cyrillic characters and other symbols and letters drawn from KS X 1001 are represented by two consecutive octets. Each cluster represents a syllable. Hanjas (Chinese characters as used in Korea). 7 . EUC-JP. a subfont mechanism was developed.pdf) in addition to encoding all the orthographically allowed Hangul syllables in modern Korean (http://www. In these encodings each US-ASCII character represents its normal ASCII character similar to other ASCII compatible encodings such as ISO-8859x. Big5. Unix.pdf). Modern Korean orthographic standards (both in South Korea and North Korea).unicode. the individual characters have to be arranged in rectangular clusters about the same size as Chinese characters. On the other hand. These days all three major operating systems (Mac OS. One of the most A daunting challenges in Korean typesetting with L TEX and related typesetting system is supporting Middle Korean—and possibly future Korean—syllables that can be only represented by conjoining Jamos in Unicode. Windows) come equipped with pretty decent multilingual support and internationalization features so that editing Korean text file is not so much of a problem anymore. The two most widely used encodings for Korean text files are EUC-KR and its upward compatible extension used in Korean MS-Windows.unicode. CP949/Windows-949/UHC. Until the mid-1990’s. The first has its MSB set. is treated like the Chinese and Japanese writing systems with tens of thousands of ideographic/logographic characters.

sections. Japanese and Korean). The package also provides automatic “particle selection. but this should give you a good picture. A To use the HL TEX package for typesetting your Korean text. 3. 8 . table of content and table of figures are all translated into Korean and the formatting of the document is changed to follow Korean conventions. put the following declaration into the preamble of your document: \usepackage{hangul} This command turns the Korean localization on.ac. it can be used to typeset documents with multilingual content (especially Chinese.5 International Language Support A A package by Werner Lemberg. The headings of chapters. (It is a bit more complex than this. The HL TEX distribution includes UHC PostScript fonts of 10 different families and Munhwabu9 fonts (TrueType) of 5 different families. The CJK package works with a set of fonts used by A earlier versions of HL TEX and it can use Bitstream’s cyberbit TrueType font. there are pairs of post-fix particles grammatically equivalent but different in form. They can be obtained at language/korean/HLaTeX/ language/korean/CJK/ and http://knot. The CJK package has no Korean localization such as the one offered by A HL TEX and it does not come with as many special Korean fonts as A HL TEX. They A both can process Korean input text files encoded in EUC-KR.” In Korean. It takes a painstaking effort to place appropriate particles manually every time you add/remove referA ences or simply shuffle parts of your document around. but it cannot be determined which particle to use for references and other automatic text that will change while you edit the document. HL TEX can even process input files encoded in CP949/Windows-949/UHC and UTF-8 when used along with Λ.2. Which of any given pair is correct depends on whether the preceding syllable ends with a vowel or a consonant. Arguably the most important element in typesetting is a set of wellA designed fonts. subsections. Ω.kaist. HL TEX relieves its users from this boring and error-prone process. It can process input files in UTF-8 as well as in various CJK encodings including EUC-KR and CP949/Windows-949/UHC. The ultimate purpose of using typesetting programs like TEX and A L TEX is to get documents typeset in an ‘aesthetically’ satisfying way.8 HL TEX and hL TEXp are specific to Korean and provide Korean localization on top of the font support. 31 The CJK package is not specific to Korean.) Native Korean speakers have no problem picking the right particle.kr/htex/ 9 Korean Ministry of Culture.

Use \euro for the Euro symbol. This preamble enables hyphenation and changes all automatic text to Greek. . Table 2. one can use the commands \textlatin{english text} and \textgreek{greek text} that both take one argument which is then typeset using the requested font encoding.6 for the preamble you need to write in the Greek language.gr> See table 2. instead.greek]{babel} \usepackage[iso-8859-7]{inputenc} In case you don’t need Korean localization features but just want to typeset Korean text. Otherwise you can use the command \selectlanguage{.7: Greek Special Characters.kr/.10 A set of new commands also becomes available.7 for some Greek punctuation characters. There is also a Korean translation of this manual available.or.} described in a previous section. 2. (( ‘‘ · « ‘ ? )) ’’ .6: Preamble for Greek documents. \usepackage[english. \usepackage{hfont} A A For more details on typesetting Korean with HL TEX. refer to the HL TEX Guide.uoa.5 Writing in Greek By Nikolaos Pothitos <pothitos@di..32 Typesetting Text Table 2. » ’ If you select the utf8x option for the package inputenc.5. you can put the following line in the preamble.ktug. 10 . you can type Greek and polytonic Greek unicode characters.. which allows you to write Greek input files more easily. Check out the web site of the Korean TEX User Group (KTUG) at http://www. Check out table 2. In order to temporarily switch to English and vice versa.

However. quotes. Russian and Ukrainian texts using Cyrillic letters.bulgarian. and activating some language specific typographic rules (like \frenchspacing). The Russian and Ukrainian options of babel define the commands \Asbuk and \asbuk.2. But.6 Support for Cyrillic By Maksym Polyakov <polyama@myrealbox. documents are not restricted to a single font encoding. for the above three languages this is T2A.com> Version 3.T2A]{fontenc} \usepackage[koi8-ru]{inputenc} \usepackage[english. or Ukrainian languages.7h of babel includes support for the T2* encodings and for typesetting Bulgarian. question marks or exclamation marks. In addition to enabling hyphenations. For all three languages. 2. It inserts slightly more space at the end of a A sentence.8. babel will authomatically choose the default font encoding. but produce capital and small letters of Russian or Ukrainian alphabets (whichever is the active language of the document).ukranian]{babel} Generally. which act like \Alph and \alph. language specific punctuation is provided: The Cyrillic dash for the text (it is little narrower than Latin dash and surrounded by tiny spaces). translating automatically generated text strings.russian.5. load them before fontenc and babel as well. . you need to load mathtext package before fontenc:11 \usepackage{mathtext} \usepackage[T1. babel will take care of switching to the appropriate font encoding when a different language is selected within the document. babel provides some commands allowing typesetting according to the standards of Bulgarian. The default behaviour of \Alph and \alph for the Bulgarian language option is to produce letters from the Bulgarian alphabet. as this makes the text more readable. If a period 11 A If you use AMS-L TEX packages. which make \Alph and \alph produce letters of either Bulgarian or Latin (English) alphabets. see Table 2.6 The Space Between Words 33 2. if you are going to use Cyrillics in math mode. a dash for direct speech. L TEX inserts varying amounts of space between the words. and commands to facilitate hyphenation. L TEX assumes that sentences end with periods. Russian. A Support for Cyrillic is based on standard L TEX mechanisms plus the fontenc and inputenc packages. For multi-lingual documents using Cyrillic and Latin-based languages it makes sense to include Latin font encoding explicitly. The Bulgarian option of babel provides the commands \enumBul and \enumLat (\enumEng).6 The Space Between Words A To get a straight right margin in the output.

A tilde ‘~’ character generates a space that cannot be enlarged and additionally prohibits a line break. "’ for German right double quotes (looks like “). follows an uppercase letter.. If you use \frenchspacing. Russian.x-""y or some other signs as “disable/enable”). What about you? The additional space after periods can be disabled with the command \frenchspacing A which tells L TEX not to insert more space after a period than after ordinary character. allowing hyphenation in the rest of the word. "~ for a compound word mark without a breakpoint.). "--~ Cyrillic emdash in compound names (surnames). Mr. This is very common in non-English languages. Fig.g.~Smith was happy to see her\\ cf. since periods after uppercase letters normally occur in abbreviations. The command \@ in front of a period specifies that this period terminates a sentence even when it follows an uppercase letter. and Ukrainian options of babel "| disable ligature at this position. A backslash in front of a space generates a space that will not be enlarged.8: The extra definitions made by Bulgarian. "> for French right double quotes (looks like > >). . "" like "-. Any exception from these assumptions has to be specified by the author. allowing hyphenation in the composing words. e. What about you? Mr. "--* Cyrillic emdash for denoting direct speech. this is not taken as a sentence ending. "--. ".Cyrillic emdash in plain text. "= for a compound word mark with a breakpoint.~Fig. the command \@ is not necessary.~5\\ I like BASIC\@. "‘ for German left double quotes (looks like . Smith was happy to see her cf. "an explicit hyphen sign. "< for French left double quotes (looks like < <). but producing no hyphen sign (for compound words with hyphen.34 Typesetting Text Table 2. except bibliographies. 5 I like BASIC. thinspace for initials with a breakpoint in following surname.

L TEX supports this with special commands that take the section title as their argument. It is up to you to use them in the correct order.} When you work with the report or book class. an additional top-level sectioning command becomes available \chapter{. sections. The following sectioning commands are available for the article class: \section{...} \subparagraph{. you should divide A it into chapters..12 A L TEX creates a table of contents by taking the section headings and page numbers from the last compile cycle of the document.. The spacing between sections... Chapters. • The \appendix command does not take an argument. Two of the sectioning commands are a bit special: • The \part command does not influence the numbering sequence of chapters.7 Titles. and subsections.. ... Chapters.2.} \subsection{.} \subsubsection{. and Sections 35 2. it is quite easy to add articles as chapters to a book. A L TEX will tell you when this is necessary.. It just changes the chapter numbering to letters.} As the article class does not know about chapters... and Sections To help the reader find his or her way through your work. the A numbering and the font size of the titles will be set automatically by L TEX.. The command \tableofcontents expands to a table of contents at the place it is issued.} If you want to split your document in parts without influencing the section or chapter numbering you can use \part{.} \paragraph{. A new document A has to be compiled (“L TEXed”) twice to get a correct table of contents. Sometimes it might be necessary to compile the document a third time.. 12 For the article style it changes the section numbering.7 Titles.

this has no visual effect.. They are useful for dividing your publication. \author{. you can supply several names separated by \and commands. This generates section headings that do not show up in the table of contents and are not numbered. \mainmatter comes right before the first chapter of the book. It turns on Arabic page numbering and restarts the page counter.. for example. would become \section*{Help}.. \chapter[Title for the table of contents]{A long and especially boring title.. In the argument to \author. \backmatter should be inserted before the very last items in your book.} before calling \maketitle. shown in the text} The title of the whole document is generated by issuing a \maketitle command.} and optionally \date{. An example of some of the commands mentioned above can be found in Figure 1.. After this command chapters will be numbered with letters. Normally the section headings show up in the table of contents exactly as they are entered in the text. The commands alter chapter headings and page numbering to work as you would expect it in a book: \frontmatter should be the very first command after the start of the document body (\begin{document}).}. because the heading is too long to fit into the table of contents. It will switch page numbering to Roman numerals and sections be non-enumerated.2 on page 8. The contents of the title have to be defined by the commands \title{. A Apart from the sectioning commands explained above. \appendix marks the start of additional material in your book. . L TEX 2ε introduced three additional commands for use with the book class. such as the bibliography and the index. The command \section{Help}. As if you were using the starred sectioning commands (eg \chapter*{Preface}) but the sections will still show up in the table of contents. In the standard document classes. Sometimes this is not possible..36 Typesetting Text All sectioning commands listed above also exist as “starred” versions. The entry for the table of contents can then be specified as an optional argument in front of the actual heading. A “starred” version of a command is built by adding a star * after the command name.

Note that these commands are not aware of what they refer to. L TEX provides the following commands for cross referencing \label{marker}. 13 . \pageref prints the page number of the page where the \label command occurred.’’ A reference to this subsection looks like: “see section 2. This is a footnote.15 Footnotesa are often used by people using A L TEX. subsection.2. table.8 Cross References In books. 14 “put” is one of the most common English words. L TEX replaces \ref by the number of the section. \ref{marker} and \pageref{marker} A where marker is an identifier chosen by the user. everybody reads the footnotes—we are a curious species. 15 Note that footnotes distract the reader from the main body of your document. a Footnotes\footnote{This is a footnote.8 on page 37. A reference to this subsection \label{sec:this} looks like: ‘‘see section~\ref{sec:this} on page~\pageref{sec:this}. or theorem after which the corresponding \label command was issued. so why not just integrate everything you want to say into the body of the document?16 16 A guidepost doesn’t necessarily go where it’s pointing to :-). Footnotes referring to a sentence or part of it should therefore be put after the comma or period. there are often cross-references to figures.8 Cross References 37 2.} are often used by people using \LaTeX. reports and articles. After all. \label just saves the last automatically generated number. Footnotes should always be put14 after the word or sentence they refer to.” 2. the numbers from the previous run are used. figure.9 Footnotes With the command \footnote{footnote text} a footnote is printed at the foot of the current page. A tables and special segments of text.13 As with the section titles.

10 Emphasized Words If a text is typed using a typewriter.\begin{bbb}. . 2. in a sans-serif font.\end{aaa} In the following sections all important environments are explained. Environments can be nested within each other as long as the correct nesting order is maintained. What the command actually does with its argument depends on the context: \emph{If you use emphasizing inside a piece of emphasized text.} \texttt{or in \emph{typewriter} style.\end{bbb}..} You can also emphasize text if it is set in italics. then L TEX uses the normal font for emphasizing... however.38 Typesetting Text 2. L TEX provides the command \emph{text} to emphasize text. important words are emphasized by underlining them. A Please note the difference between telling L TEX to emphasize something and telling it to use a different font: \textit{You can also \emph{emphasize} text if it is set in italics. \begin{aaa}. words are emphasized by typesetting them A in an italic font.. or in typewriter style. \underline{text} In printed books.} If you use emphasizing inside a piece of A emphasized text.11 Environments text \end{environment} \begin{environment} Where environment is the name of the environment...} \textsf{in a \emph{sans-serif} font. then \LaTeX{} uses the \emph{normal} font for emphasizing.

If you do not issue \\ to specify line breaks. The center environment generates centred A text. 2. \LaTeX{} is not trying to make each line the same length.With a dash. Enumerate. 2. can be presented beautifully in a list. \end{itemize} \item Therefore remember: \begin{description} \item[Stupid] things will not become smart because they are in a list. \begin{flushright} This text is right-\\aligned. and Center The environments flushleft and flushright generate paragraphs that are either left. L TEX will automatically determine line breaks. You can mix the list environments to your taste: • But it might start to look silly. the enumerate environment for enumerated lists. and Description The itemize environment is suitable for simple lists. \end{flushleft} This text is A left-aligned. \begin{flushleft} This text is\\ left-aligned.11.11 Environments 39 2. \LaTeX{} is not trying to make each line the same length. Therefore remember: Stupid things will not become smart because they are in a list.11.2. Flushright. \item[-] With a dash. though.1 Itemize. L TEX is not trying to make each line the same length. \end{flushright} This text is rightA aligned. \flushleft \begin{enumerate} \item You can mix the list environments to your taste: \begin{itemize} \item But it might start to look silly. and the description environment for descriptions. . L TEX is not trying to make each line the same length. \item[Smart] things.2 Flushleft. . though. can be presented beautifully in a list. \end{description} \end{enumerate} 1. Smart things.or right-aligned.

no line should be longer than 66 characters. . A typographical rule of thumb for the line length is: On average. no line should be longer than 66 characters. The quotation environment is useful for longer quotes going over several paragraphs. Normally abstract is used in documents typeset with the article document class. 2. The lines are separated by issuing a \\ at the end of a line and an empty line after each verse. important phrases and examples. because it indents the first line of each paragraph.3 Quote. A typographical rule of thumb for the line length is: \begin{quote} On average. \end{quote} This is why \LaTeX{} pages have such large borders by default and also why multicolumn print is used in newspapers.4 Abstract In scientific publications it is customary to start with an abstract which gives A the reader a quick overview of what to expect.\\ All the King’s horses and all the King’s men\\ Couldn’t put Humpty together again. It is about Humpty Dumpty.11. I know only one English poem by heart. A This is why L TEX pages have such large borders by default and also why multicolumn print is used in newspapers. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall: Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. There are two similar environments: the quotation and the verse environments. \end{verse} \end{flushleft} I know only one English poem by heart. Quotation. L TEX provides the abstract environment for this purpose. \begin{flushleft} \begin{verse} Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall:\\ Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. It is about Humpty Dumpty. The verse environment is useful for poems where the line breaks are important. and Verse The quote environment is useful for quotes.11.40 \begin{center} At the centre\\of the earth \end{center} Typesetting Text At the centre of the earth 2. All the King’s horses and all the King’s men Couldn’t put Humpty together again.

5 Printing Verbatim Text that is enclosed between \begin{verbatim} and \end{verbatim} will be directly printed.11 Environments \begin{abstract} The abstract abstract. 2.11. Many L TEX examples in this booklet are typeset with this command. \begin{verbatim} 10 PRINT "HELLO WORLD ". \end{abstract} 41 The abstract abstract. * or space. . similar behavior can be accessed with \verb+text+ The + is just an example of a delimiter character. as if typed on a typewriter. with all line breaks and A spaces. You can use any character A except letters. Within a paragraph. 20 GOTO 10 \end{verbatim} 10 PRINT "HELLO WORLD ". The \verb|\ldots| command \ldots The \ldots command . L TEX determines the width of the columns automatically.2. without any L TEX command being executed.6 Tabular The tabular environment can be used to typeset beautiful tables with A optional horizontal and vertical lines. 20 GOTO 10 \begin{verbatim*} the starred version of the verbatim environment emphasizes the spaces in the text \end{verbatim*} the starred version of the verbatim environment emphasizes the spaces in the text The \verb command can be used in a similar fashion with a star: \verb*|like this :-) | like this :-) The verbatim environment and the \verb command may not be used within parameters of other commands. 2. . .11.

42 The table spec argument of the
\begin{tabular}[pos]{table spec}

Typesetting Text

command defines the format of the table. Use an l for a column of leftaligned text, r for right-aligned text, and c for centred text; p{width } for a column containing justified text with line breaks, and | for a vertical line. A If the text in a column is too wide for the page, L TEX won’t automatically wrap it. Using p{width } you can define a special type of column which will wrap-around the text as in a normal paragraph. The pos argument specifies the vertical position of the table relative to the baseline of the surrounding text. Use either of the letters t , b and c to specify table alignment at the top, bottom or center. Within a tabular environment, & jumps to the next column, \\ starts a new line and \hline inserts a horizontal line. You can add partial lines by using the \cline{j-i}, where j and i are the column numbers the line should extend over.
\begin{tabular}{|r|l|} \hline 7C0 & hexadecimal \\ 3700 & octal \\ \cline{2-2} 11111000000 & binary \\ \hline \hline 1984 & decimal \\ \hline \end{tabular}

7C0 3700 11111000000 1984

hexadecimal octal binary decimal

\begin{tabular}{|p{4.7cm}|} \hline Welcome to Boxy’s paragraph. We sincerely hope you’ll all enjoy the show.\\ \hline \end{tabular}

Welcome to Boxy’s paragraph. We sincerely hope you’ll all enjoy the show.

The column separator can be specified with the @{...} construct. This command kills the inter-column space and replaces it with whatever is between the curly braces. One common use for this command is explained below in the decimal alignment problem. Another possible application is to suppress leading space in a table with @{} .

2.11 Environments
\begin{tabular}{@{} l @{}} \hline no leading space\\ \hline \end{tabular}

43

no leading space

\begin{tabular}{l} \hline leading space left and right\\ \hline \end{tabular}

leading space left and right

Since there is no built-in way to align numeric columns to a decimal point,17 we can “cheat” and do it by using two columns: a right-aligned integer and a left-aligned fraction. The @{.} command in the \begin{tabular} line replaces the normal inter-column spacing with just a “.”, giving the appearance of a single, decimal-point-justified column. Don’t forget to replace the decimal point in your numbers with a column separator (&)! A column label can be placed above our numeric “column” by using the \multicolumn command.
\begin{tabular}{c r @{.} l} Pi expression & \multicolumn{2}{c}{Value} \\ \hline $\pi$ & 3&1416 \\ $\pi^{\pi}$ & 36&46 \\ $(\pi^{\pi})^{\pi}$ & 80662&7 \\ \end{tabular}

Pi expression π ππ (π π )π

Value 3.1416 36.46 80662.7

\begin{tabular}{|c|c|} \hline \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{Ene} \\ \hline Mene & Muh! \\ \hline \end{tabular}

Ene Mene Muh!

Material typeset with the tabular environment always stays together on one page. If you want to typeset long tables, you might want to use the longtable environments. A Sometimes the default L TEX tables to feel a bit cramped. So you may want to give them a bit more breathing space by setting a higher \arraystretch and \tabcolsep value.
17

If the ‘tools’ bundle is installed on your system, have a look at the dcolumn package.

44
\begin{tabular}{|l|} \hline These lines\\\hline are tight\\\hline \end{tabular} {\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.5} \renewcommand{\tabcolsep}{0.2cm} \begin{tabular}{|l|} \hline less cramped\\\hline table layout\\\hline \end{tabular}}

Typesetting Text

These lines are tight less cramped table layout

If you just want to grow the height of a single row in your table you can do this with a invisible vertical bar18 Use a zero width \rule to implement this trick.
\begin{tabular}{|c|} \hline \rule{1pt}{4ex}Pitprop \ldots\\ \hline \rule{0pt}{4ex}Strut\\ \hline \end{tabular}

Pitprop . . . Strut

2.12

Floating Bodies

Today most publications contain a lot of figures and tables. These elements need special treatment, because they cannot be broken across pages. One method would be to start a new page every time a figure or a table is too large to fit on the present page. This approach would leave pages partially empty, which looks very bad. The solution to this problem is to ‘float’ any figure or table that does not fit on the current page to a later page, while filling the current page with A body text. L TEX offers two environments for floating bodies; one for tables and one for figures. To take full advantage of these two environments it is A important to understand approximately how L TEX handles floats internally. A Otherwise floats may become a major source of frustration, because L TEX never puts them where you want them to be.
A Let’s first have a look at the commands L TEX supplies for floats:
18

In professional typesetting, this is called a strut.

g. .9. ] A called the placement specifier. . Any new floats occurring in the text get placed A into the appropriate queues. Spec h t b p ! Permission to place the float . L TEX strictly maintains the original order of 19 These are FIFO—‘first in first out’—queues! Table 2. here at the very place in the text where it occurred. Read more on this in table 6. 45 \begin{table}[!hbp] A The placement specifier [!hbp] allows L TEX to place the table right here (h) or at the bottom (b) of some page or on a special floats page (p). and all this even if it does not look that good (!).19 When a new A page is started. without considering most of the internal parametersa . If this is not possible.9: Float Placing Permissions. This parameter is used to tell L TEX about the locations to which the float is allowed to be moved.2. This is useful mainly for small floats. which could stop this float from being placed. A L TEX will place every float it encounters according to the placement specifier supplied by the author. Both float environments support an optional parameter \begin{figure}[placement specifier] or \begin{table}[. L TEX first checks if it is possible to fill a special ‘float’ page with floats from the queues. A placement specifier is constructed by building a string of float-placing permissions. .’ which is no longer possible). If no placement specifier is given. a Such as the maximum number of floats allowed on one page. If a float cannot be placed on the current page it is deferred either to the figures or the tables queue. . Note that pt and em are TEX units.5 on page 115. the first float on A each queue is treated as if it had just occurred in the text: L TEX tries again to place it according to its respective placement specifiers (except ‘h. A table could be started with the following line e. the standard classes assume [tbp]. See Table 2. .12 Floating Bodies Any material enclosed in a figure or table environment will be treated as floating matter. at the top of a page at the bottom of a page on a special page containing only floats.

These lists will display the whole caption. If the float does not fit in the location specified it becomes stuck. In particular. \begin{figure}[!hbtp] \makebox[\textwidth]{\framebox[5cm]{\rule{0pt}{5cm}}} \caption{Five by Five in Centimetres. The following example draws a square and inserts it into the document. \caption[Short]{LLLLLoooooonnnnnggggg} With \label and \ref. it is automatically replaced by [ht]. A While it is possible to give L TEX single-location placement specifiers. you can define a caption for the float. respectively. You could use this if you wanted to reserve space for images you are going to paste into the finished document. so if you tend to use long captions you must have a shorter version of the caption for the lists.\label{white}}[A \end{figure} . there are some more things to mention about the table and figure environments. That’s why a figure that cannot be placed pushes all further figures to the end of the document. this causes problems. A running number and A the string “Figure” or “Table” will be added by L TEX. With the \caption{caption text} command. you should never. The two commands \listoffigures and \listoftables operate analogously to the \tableofcontents command. Note that the \label command must come after the \caption command since you want it to reference the number of the caption. printing a list of figures or tables. This is accomplished by entering the short version in brackets after the \caption command. it is often only one float jamming one of the two float queues. Therefore: A If L TEX is not placing the floats as you expected. A ever use the [h] option—it is so bad that in more recent versions of L TEX. blocking subsequent floats.46 Typesetting Text appearance for each type of float. you can create a reference to a float within your text. Figure~\ref{white} is an example of Pop-Art. Having explained the difficult bit.

Failing to place the figure on the current page. L TEX starts a new page. L TEX will try really hard (!) to place the figure right here (h). You can protect them by putting the \protect command in front of them.13 Protecting Fragile Commands Text given as arguments of commands like \caption or \section may show up more than once in the document (e. it determines whether it is possible to create a float page containing this figure and maybe some tables from the tables queue. A You will learn how to include PostScript drawings into your L TEX 2ε documents later in this introduction. These commands are called fragile commands—for example.2. \cleardoublepage even goes to a new right-hand page. Under certain circumstances it might be necessary to use the 47 \clearpage or even the \cleardoublepage A command. If there is not enough A material for a special float page. and once more treats the figure as if it had just occurred in the text. In most cases a superfluous \protect won’t hurt. These fragile commands need protection (don’t we all?). in the table of contents as well as in the body of the document). \protect only refers to the command that follows right behind. not even to its arguments.13 Protecting Fragile Commands A In the example above.g.20 If this is not possible. 2. \section{I am considerate \protect\footnote{and protect my footnotes}} 20 assuming the figure queue is empty. Compilation of your document will fail. \footnote or \phantom. It orders L TEX to immediately place all floats remaining in the queues and then start a new page. Some commands will break when used in the argument of \section-like commands. . it tries to place the figure at the bottom (b) of the page.

.

Chapter 3 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Now you are ready! In this chapter. A but they are limited (or maybe it’s the other way around: AMS-L TEX is unlimited!) and in some cases inconsistent. . go to CTAN:macros/latex/required/amslatex. A AMS-L TEX is a part of the required distribution and is provided with all A X distributions. you should use AMS-L TEX.1 In this chapter. \usepackage{amsmath}. A It is highly likely that your problem is addressed in AMS-LTEX. don’t despair if you can’t find a solution to your mathematical typesetting needs here. While the things explained here are sufficient for many people.2 Single Equations There two ways to typeset mathematical formulae: in-line within a paragraph (text style). we assume amsmath is loaded recent L TE in the preamble. A X bundle is a collection of packages and classes for matheThe AMS-L TE matical typesetting. AMS-L TEX is produced by The American MathematA ical Society and it is used extensively for mathematical typesetting. we will attack the main strength of TEX: mathematical typesetting. this chapter only scratches the surface. We will mostly deal with the amsmath package which is A a part of the bundle. L TEX itself does provide some basic features and environments for mathematics.1 A The AMS-L TEX bundle A If you want to typeset (advanced) mathematics. 3. or the paragraph can be broken to typeset it separately (display style). But be warned. Mathematical equations within a paragraph is entered between between $ and $: 1 If yours is missing it. 3.

In general. To do this. Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared to get $c$ squared. it is best to load the package from the beginning because you might use it later on. you \tag it instead. (dumb) (3. and A A then L TEX’s unnumbered equation clashes with AMS-L TEX’s numbered equation. If you want to name the equation something specific. you can use L TEX’s own displaymath environment instead. Or.2). equation*. 3 A This is again from amsmath. using a more mathematical approach a2 + b2 = c2 (3. or even easier. it is preferable to display them rather than to break the paragraph apart. The naming of the amsmath/L TEX commands may seem a bit confusing. You can’t use \eqref with \tag. enclose the equation in \[ and \]:3 This is an amsmath command. but it’s really not a problem since everybody uses amsmath anyway.1) Einstein says E = mc2 He didn’t say 1+1=3 This is a reference to (3. using a more mathematical approach: $a^2 + b^2 = c^2$ Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Add a squared and b squared to get c squared.2 You can then \label an equation number and refer to it somewhere else in the text by using the \eqref command. Or. Or.50 Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared to get $c$ squared. you enclose them between \begin{equation} and \end{equation}. using a more mathematical approach \begin{equation} a^2 + b^2 = c^2 \end{equation} Einstein says \begin{equation} E = mc^2 \label{clever} \end{equation} He didn’t say \begin{equation} 1 + 1 = 3 \tag{dumb} \end{equation} This is a reference to \eqref{clever}. use L TEX’s own equation A environment instead. If you don’t have access to the package for some A obscure reason. Or. 2 . use the starred version of equation using an asterisk. using a more mathematical approach: a2 + b2 = c2 \TeX{} is pronounced as $\tau\epsilon\chi$\\[5pt] 100~m$^{3}$ of water\\[5pt] This comes from my $\heartsuit$ TEX is pronounced as τ χ 100 m3 of water This comes from my ♥ If you want your larger equations to be set apart from the rest of the paragraph. If you didn’t load the package.2) A If you don’t want L TEX to number the equations. Add a squared and b squared to get c squared.

enclose tall or deep math expressions or sub expressions A in \smash. Or. Empty lines are not allowed.3. gh 3. using a more mathematical approach \begin{equation*} a^2 + b^2 = c^2 \end{equation*} or you can type less for the same effect: \[ a^2 + b^2 = c^2 \] 51 Add a squared and b squared to get c squared. This makes L TEX ignore the height of these expressions. . \quad or \qquad (we’ll get back to that later. Only one paragraph per formula.3) In text style. A deep mathematical expression followed by a hi expression. Most spaces and line breaks do not have any significance. in math mode: 1. And this is display style: \begin{equation} \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^2} = \frac{\pi^2}{6} \end{equation} This is text style: limn→∞ And this is display style: n n→∞ n 1 k=1 k2 = π2 6 . For example. Or. as all spaces are either derived logically from the mathematical expressions. lim k=1 1 π2 = 2 k 6 (3. As opposed to a smashed \smash{$d_{e_{e_p}}$} expression followed by a \smash{$h^{i^{g^h}}$} expression.5). see section 3.1 Math Mode There are also differences between math mode and text mode. As opposed to h a g smashed deep expression followed by a hi expression.2 Single Equations Add $a$ squared and $b$ squared to get $c$ squared. A $d_{e_{e_p}}$ mathematical expression followed by a $h^{i^{g^h}}$ expression. 2..2. This keeps the line spacing even. or have to be specified with special commands such as \. using a more mathematical approach a2 + b2 = c2 or you can type less for the same effect: a2 + b2 = c2 Note the difference in typesetting style between text style and display style equations: This is text style: $\lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^2} = \frac{\pi^2}{6}$.

\Phi...\Delta$ λ. but load it anyway. 3. so if you want a command to affect several characters.4 on 111 for more math fonts. . If you want to typeset normal text within a formula (normal upright font and normal spacing) then you have to enter the text using the \text{. \Delta. . 5 A There is no uppercase Alpha. \gamma. you have to group them together using curly braces: {. Once the new math coding is done. Lowercase Greek letters are entered as \alpha.\Omega. ∆ Exponents and Subscripts can be specified using the ^ and the _ character.. ξ. Beta etc. \beta.2 on page 63 for a list of Greek letters.. \mu. defined in L TEX 2ε because it looks the same as a normal roman A. . . .\theta. 4 A amssymb is not a part of the AMS-L TEX bundle. Most of the commands in this section will not require amsmath (if they do. but it is perhaps still a part of your A L TEX distribution. $\lambda. it will be stated clearly). we describe the most important commands used in mathematical typesetting. θ. 5 Take a look at Table 3. π. . which is obtained using \mathbb from the package amssymb.} command (see also section 3. things will change.3 on page 64 lists a lot of other binary relations like ⊆ and ⊥.14 on 67 and Table 6.}. Ω. Φ.4 The last example becomes $x^{2} \geq 0\qquad \text{for all } x \in \mathbb{R}$ x2 ≥ 0 for all x ∈ R See Table 3. . . Check your distribution or go to CTAN:/fonts/amsfonts/latex/ to obtain it.52 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae 3.6 on page 60). uppercase letters are entered as \Gamma. µ. Each letter is considered to be the name of a variable and will be typeset as such.\pi.\xi. Table 3. $\forall x \in \mathbf{R}: \qquad x^{2} \geq 0$ ∀x ∈ R : x2 ≥ 0 $x^{2} \geq 0\qquad \text{for all }x\in\mathbf{R}$ x2 ≥ 0 for all x ∈ R Mathematicians can be very fussy about which symbols are used: it would be conventional here to use the ‘blackboard bold’ font. . Most math mode commands act only on the next character. . B.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula In this section.

n! = 1 · 2 · · · (n − 1) · n The commands \overline and \underline create horizontal lines directly over or under an expression: $0. the commands given in Table 3. Wide hats and tildes covering several characters are generated with \widetilde and \widehat. $\Psi = v_1 \cdot v_2 \cdot \ldots \qquad n! = 1 \cdot 2 \cdots (n-1) \cdot n$ Ψ = v1 · v2 · . You should use \cdot which typesets a single dot centered. however sometimes it is written to help the reader’s eyes in grouping a formula. You can find another example in section 3.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula $p^3_{ij} \qquad m_\text{Knuth} \\[5pt] a^x+y \neq a^{x+y}\qquad e^{x^2} \neq {e^x}^2$ 53 p3 ij mKnuth ex = ex 2 2 ax + y = ax+y The square root is entered as \sqrt.1 on page 63 might be useful.6 on page 65.3 = 1/3 The commands \overbrace and \underbrace create long horizontal braces over or under an expression: 6 9 $\underbrace{\overbrace{a+b+c}^6 \cdot \overbrace{d+e+f}^9} _\text{meaning of life} = 42$ a + b + c · d + e + f = 42 meaning of life To add mathematical accents such as small arrows or tilde signs to variables. . Besides that. $\sqrt{x} \Leftrightarrow x^{1/2} \quad \sqrt[3]{2} \quad \sqrt{x^{2} + \sqrt{y}} \quad \surd[x^2 + y^2]$ √ √ 3 √ x ⇔ x1/2 2 x2 + √ y [x2 +y 2 ] Usually you don’t typeset an explicit dot sign to indicate the multiplication operation when handling symbols.2. use \surd. See other kinds of arrows like → and on Table 3. Notice the difference between \hat and \widehat and the . the nth root is generated with A \sqrt[n]. If just the sign is needed. . \cdots is three centered dots while \ldots sets the dots on the baseline.4.3. there are \vdots for vertical and \ddots for diagonal dots. The size of the root sign is determined automatically by L TEX.\overline{3} = \underline{\underline{1/3}}$ 0.

%\DeclareMathOperator{\argh}{argh} %\DeclareMathOperator*{\nut}{Nut} \[3\argh = 2\nut_{x=1}\] 3 argh = 2 Nut x=1 For the modulo function. This command works only in the preamble so the commented lines in the example below must be put into the preamble.54 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae placement of \bar for a variable with subscript. This is done with the \vec command. so L TEX supplies the following commands to typeset the most important function names: \arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \limsup \arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \ln \arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log \arg \coth \dim \inf \liminf \max \sinh \sup \tan \tanh \min \Pr \sec \sin sin x =1 x \[\lim_{x \rightarrow 0} \frac{\sin x}{x}=1\] x→0 lim For functions missing from the list. There is even a starred version for functions with limits. there are two commands: \bmod for the binary operator “a mod b” and \pmod for expressions such as “x ≡ a (mod b):” $a\bmod b \\ x\equiv a \pmod{b}$ a mod b x ≡ a (mod b) . and A not in italics as variables are. use the \DeclareMathOperator command. The two commands \overrightarrow and \overleftarrow are useful to denote the vector from A to B: $\vec{a} \qquad \vec{AB} \qquad \overrightarrow{AB}$ − − → AB a AB Names of log-like functions are often typeset in an upright font. The apostrophe mark ’ gives a prime: $f(x) = x^2 \qquad f’(x) = 2x \qquad f’’(x) = 2\\[5pt] \hat{XY} \quad \widehat{XY} \quad \bar{x_0} \quad \bar{x}_0$ f (x) = x2 ˆ XY XY f (x) = 2x x0 ¯ x0 ¯ f (x) = 2 Vectors are often specified by adding small arrow symbols on top of a variable.

} command.3 Building Blocks of a Mathematical Formula A built-up fraction is typeset with the \frac{.. Often the slashed form 1/2 is preferable. because it looks better for small amounts of ‘fraction material:’ In display style: \[3/8 \qquad \frac{3}{8} \qquad \tfrac{3}{8} \] In display style: 3/8 3 8 3 8 55 In text style: $1\frac{1}{2}$~hours \qquad $1\dfrac{1}{2}$~hours 1 In text style: 1 2 hours 1 1 hours 2 Here the \partial command for partial derivatives is used: \[\sqrt{\frac{x^2}{k+1}}\qquad x^\frac{2}{k+1}\qquad \frac{\partial^2f} {\partial x^2} \] x2 k+1 ∂2f ∂x2 x k+1 2 To typeset binomial coefficients or similar structures. \stackrel{#1}{#2} puts the symbol given in #1 in superscript-like size over #2 which is set in its usual position. In in-line equations. use the command \binom from amsmath: Pascal’s rule is \begin{equation*} \binom{n}{k} =\binom{n-1}{k} + \binom{n-1}{k-1} \end{equation*} Pascal’s rule is n k = n−1 n−1 + k k−1 For binary relations it may be useful to stack symbols over each other. The upper and lower limits are specified with ^ and _ like subscripts and superscripts: \begin{equation*} \sum_{i=1}^n \qquad \int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \qquad \prod_\epsilon \end{equation*} n 0 π 2 i=1 . the sum operator with \sum.e. is made with \dfrac.. i.}{. This style is obtainable in display style with \tfrac.. The reverse. \begin{equation*} f_n(x) \stackrel{*}{\approx} 1 \end{equation*} fn (x) ≈ 1 ∗ The integral operator is generated with \int.3.. display style fraction in text. the fraction is shrunk to fit the line. and the product operator with \prod.

but all other delimiters are generated with special commands (e. \begin{equation*} {a. c} If you put \left in front of an opening delimiter and \right in front A of a closing delimiter.”: \begin{equation*} 1 + \left(\frac{1}{1-x^{2}} \right)^3 \qquad \left. . L TEX will automatically determine the correct size of the delimiter. \bigg and \Bigg as prefixes to most delimiter commands: $\Big((x+1)(x-1)\Big)^{2}$\\ $\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \quad \big\} \Big\} \bigg\} \Bigg\} \quad \big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| \quad \big\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Bigg\Downarrow$ 2 (x + 1)(x − 1) For a list of all delimiters available. [ ). b. Round and square braces can be entered with the corresponding keys and curly braces with \{. \ddagger \frac{~}{~}\right) \end{equation*} 1+ 1 1 − x2 3 ‡ In some cases it is necessary to specify the correct size of a mathematical delimiter by hand.g. use the invisible “\right. If you don’t want anything on the right.8 on page 66.c} \neq \{a. \updownarrow). \Big.56 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae To get more control over the placement of indices in complex expressions. j) 0<i<n j⊆i A L TEX provides all sorts of symbols for braces and other delimiters (e. Note that you must close every \left with a corresponding \right.j) = Q(i.b.c\} \end{equation*} a. c = {a.g.j) \end{equation*} n P (i. amsmath provides the \substack command: \begin{equation*} \sum^n_{\substack{0<i<n \\ j\subseteq i}} P(i. which can be done using the commands \big.b. b. j) = Q(i. see Table 3.

It works somewhat similar to the tabular environment. 6 .4 3. 3. you can use the environments align and align* instead of equation and equation*. It has to be placed before \\: \begin{align} f(x) &= (a+b)(a-b) \label{1}\\ &= a^2-ab+ba-b^2 \\ &= a^2+b^2 \tag{wrong} \end{align} This is a reference to \eqref{1}. environments and more. but it is generally not advised to use that because of spacing and label inconsistencies.2 Arrays and Matrices To typeset arrays. Long equations will not be automatically divided into neat bits. See the documentation for the package for a wide range of commands. gather. If you only want to enumerate some of equations. f (x) = (a + b)(a − b) = a − ab + ba − b =a +b 2 2 2 2 (3. The \\ command breaks the lines. The \\ command is used to break the lines: The align environment is from amsmath. multline and split.h(x) \end{align} f (x) = 3x5 + x4 + 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x + 23 = g(x) − h(x) (3. A similar environment without amsmath A from L TEX is eqnarray.5) (wrong) This is a reference to (3.6) (3.3.4).4 Vertically Aligned Material 57 3.6 With align each line gets an equation number. The align environments center the single equation around the & sign.1 Vertically Aligned Material Multiple Equations For formulae running over several lines or for equation systems. use \nonumber to remove the number.4.7) The amsmath package provides a couple of other useful environments: flalign. The align* does not number anything. use the array environment.4. The author has to specify where to break them and correct the indent: \begin{align} f(x) &= 3x^5 + x^4 + 2x^3 \nonumber \\ &\qquad + 9x^2 + 12x + 23 \\ &= g(x) .4) (3.

vmatrix | and Vmatrix .  . .5 Spacing in Math Mode A If the spacing within formulae chosen by L TEX is not satisfactory.. 7 . but amsmath provides a better solution using the different matrix environments. Bmatrix {.  x2 x4 .. You don’t have to specify the number of columns as with array. but it is customisable (though it is not very often you need 10 columns!): \begin{equation*} \begin{matrix} 1 & 2 \\ 3 & 4 \end{matrix} \qquad \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 4 & 5 & 6 \\ 7 & 8 & 9 \end{bmatrix} \end{equation*} 1 3 2 4  1 4 7 2 5 8  3 6 9 3. pmatrix (.. it can be 3 adjusted by inserting special spacing commands: \. . .. There are six versions with different delimiters: matrix (none). . the cases environment from amsmath simplifies the syntax. . for 18 quad ( ).” as an invisible \right delimiter:7 \begin{equation*} |x| = \left\{ \begin{array}{rl} -x & \text{if } x < 0\\ 0 & \text{if } x = 0\\ x & \text{if } x > 0 \end{array} \right. . The maximum number is 10. The array environment can also be used to typeset piecewise functions by using a “. \: for If you want to typeset a lot of constructions like these.   . bmatrix [.58 \begin{equation*} \mathbf{X} = \left( \begin{array}{ccc} x_1 & x_2 & \ldots \\ x_3 & x_4 & \ldots \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots \end{array} \right) \end{equation*} Typesetting Mathematical Formulae x1  x3 X= .. \end{equation*}   −x if x < 0 0 if x = 0 |x| =  x if x > 0 array can be used to typeset matrices as well. so it is worth a look.

3.5 Spacing in Math Mode
5 quad ( ) and \; for 18 quad ( ). The escaped space character \ generates a medium sized space comparable to the interword spacing and \quad ( ) and \qquad ( ) produce large spaces. The size of a \quad corresponds to the width of the character ‘M’ of the current font. \! produces a negative 3 space of − 18 quad (− ). Note that ‘d’ in the differential is conventionally set in roman: 4 18

59

\begin{equation*} \int_1^2 \ln x \mathrm{d}x \qquad \int_1^2 \ln x \,\mathrm{d}x \end{equation*}

2

2

ln xdx
1 1

ln x dx

In the next example, we define a new command \ud which produces “ d” (notice the spacing before the d), so we don’t have to write it every time. The \newcommand is placed in the preamble.
\newcommand{\ud}{\,\mathrm{d}}
b

\begin{equation*} \int_a^b f(x)\ud x \end{equation*}

f (x) dx
a

If you want to typeset multiple integrals, you’ll discover that the spacing between the integrals is too wide. You can correct it using \!, but amsmath provides an easier way for fine-tuning the spacing, namely the \iint, \iiint, \iiiint, and \idotsint commands.

\newcommand{\ud}{\,\mathrm{d}} \[ \int\int f(x)g(y) \ud x \ud y \] \[ \int\!\!\!\int f(x)g(y) \ud x \ud y \] \[ \iint f(x)g(y) \ud x \ud y \]

f (x)g(y) dx dy f (x)g(y) dx dy f (x)g(y) dx dy

A See the electronic document testmath.tex (distributed with AMS-L TEX) A X Companion [3] for further details. or Chapter 8 of The L TE

3.5.1

Phantoms

A When vertically aligning text using ^ and _ L TEX is sometimes just a little too helpful. Using the \phantom command you can reserve space for characters that do not show up in the final output. The easiest way to understand this is to look at an example:

60
\begin{equation*} {}^{14}_{6}\text{C} \qquad \text{versus} \qquad {}^{14}_{\phantom{1}6}\text{C} \end{equation*}

Typesetting Mathematical Formulae

14 6 C

versus

14 6C

If you want to typeset a lot of isotopes as in the example, the mhchem package is very useful for typesetting isotopes and chemical formulae too.

3.6

Fiddling with the Math Fonts

Different math fonts are listed on Table 3.14 on page 67.
$\Re \qquad \mathcal{R} \qquad \mathfrak{R} \qquad \mathbb{R} \qquad $

R

R

R

The last two require amssymb or amsfonts. A Sometimes you need to tell L TEX the correct font size. In math mode, this is set with the following four commands: \displaystyle (123), \textstyle (123), \scriptstyle (123) and \scriptscriptstyle (123).
A LT

If is placed in a fraction, it’ll be typeset in text style unless you tell EX otherwise:

\begin{equation*} R = \frac{\displaystyle{ \sum_{i=1}^n (x_i-\bar{x}) (y_i- \bar{y})}} {\displaystyle{\left[ \sum_{i=1}^n(x_i-\bar{x})^2 \sum_{i=1}^n(y_i-\bar{y})^2 \right]^{1/2}}} \end{equation*}

n

(xi − x)(yi − y ) ¯ ¯ R=
i=1 n n 1/2 2 i=1 2

(xi − x) ¯
i=1

(yi − y ) ¯

Changing styles generally affects the way big operators and limits are displayed.

3.6.1

Bold Symbols

A It is quite difficult to get bold symbols in L TEX; this is probably intentional as amateur typesetters tend to overuse them. The font change command \mathbf gives bold letters, but these are roman (upright) whereas mathematical symbols are normally italic, and furthermore it doesn’t work on

3.7 Theorems, Lemmas, . . . lower case Greek letters. There is a \boldmath command, but this can only be used outside math mode. It works for symbols too, though:
$\mu, M \qquad \mathbf{\mu}, \mathbf{M}$ \qquad \boldmath{$\mu, M$} µ, M µ, M µ, M

61

The package amsbsy (included by amsmath) as well as the bm from the tools bundle make this much easier as they include a \boldsymbol command:
$\mu, M \qquad \boldsymbol{\mu}, \boldsymbol{M}$ µ, M µ, M

3.7

Theorems, Lemmas, . . .

When writing mathematical documents, you probably need a way to typeset “Lemmas”, “Definitions”, “Axioms” and similar structures.
\newtheorem{name}[counter]{text}[section]

The name argument is a short keyword used to identify the “theorem”. With the text argument you define the actual name of the “theorem”, which will be printed in the final document. The arguments in square brackets are optional. They are both used to specify the numbering used on the “theorem”. Use the counter argument to specify the name of a previously declared “theorem”. The new “theorem” will then be numbered in the same sequence. The section argument allows you to specify the sectional unit within which the “theorem” should get its numbers. After executing the \newtheorem command in the preamble of your document, you can use the following command within the document. \begin{name}[text] This is my interesting theorem \end{name}
A The amsthm package (part of AMS-L TEX) provides the \theoremstyle{style} command which lets you define what the theorem is all about by picking from three predefined styles: definition (fat title, roman body), plain (fat title, italic body) or remark (italic title, roman body). This should be enough theory. The following examples should remove any remaining doubt, and make it clear that the \newtheorem environment is way too complex to understand. First define the theorems:

\begin{proof} Trivial.7. No. The amsthm package also provides the proof environment.\end{mur} Murphy 3.\end{jury} \begin{marg}No. then someone will do it. Trivial. and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe. The argument in square brackets is used to specify a title or something similar for the theorem. \begin{proof} Trivial. No. The “Murphy” theorem gets a number that is linked to the number of the current section. No The “Jury” theorem uses the same counter as the “Law” theorem. then someone will do it. for example chapter or subsection.1. use E = mc2 If you want to customize your theorems down to the last dot. . use \[E=mc^2\] \end{proof} Proof. the ntheorem package offers a plethora of options. so it gets a number that is in sequence with the other “Laws”. Don’t hide in the witness box Jury 2 (The Twelve). It could be you! So beware and see law 1. and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe. use E = mc2 With the command \qedhere you can move the ‘end of proof’ symbol around for situations where it would end up alone on a line. If there are two or more ways to do something. No.62 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae \theoremstyle{definition} \newtheorem{law}{Law} \theoremstyle{plain} \newtheorem{jury}[law]{Jury} \theoremstyle{remark} \newtheorem*{marg}{Margaret} \begin{law} \label{law:box} Don’t hide in the witness box \end{law} \begin{jury}[The Twelve] It could be you! So beware and see law~\ref{law:box}. use \[E=mc^2 \qedhere\] \end{proof} Proof. You could also use another unit. \newtheorem{mur}{Murphy}[section] \begin{mur} If there are two or more ways to do something. Margaret. No\end{marg} Law 1. Trivial.

Table 3. a ˆ a ` a ¯ a ´ ˚ a \hat{a} \grave{a} \bar{a} \acute{a} \mathring{a} a ˇ a ˙ a a ˘ \check{a} \dot{a} \vec{a} \breve{a} a ˜ a ¨ AAA AAA \tilde{a} \ddot{a} \widehat{AAA} \widetilde{AAA} Table 3.2: Greek Letters. α β γ δ ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o π ρ σ ς τ Σ Υ Φ o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma \tau \Sigma \Upsilon \Phi υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega Ψ Ω \Psi \Omega These tables were derived from symbols.3.tex by David Carlisle and subsequently changed extensively as suggested by Josef Tkadlec. have a look at CTAN:macros/latex/required/amslatex. 8 . B. If the AMS package and fonts are not installed on your system. An even more comprehensive list of symbols can be found at CTAN:info/ symbols/comprehensive. . \Beta and so on. There is no uppercase of some of the letters like \Alpha.12–3. To use the symbols listed in Tables 3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols The following tables demonstrate all the symbols normally accessible from math mode. .8 the package amssymb must be loaded in the preamble of the document and the AMS math fonts must be installed on the system. because they look the same as normal roman letters: A.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 63 3.1: Math Mode Accents.8.

64 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Table 3. \owns \dashv \parallel \frown \notin = ≡ .3: Binary Relations. = ∼ ≈ ∼ = I ∝ |= ⊥ = = \equiv \doteq \sim \simeq \approx \cong \Join a \bowtie \propto \models \perp \asymp \neq or \ne Use the latexsym package to access this symbol Table 3.4: Binary Operators. \lor \oplus \odot \otimes \bigtriangleup \lhd a \unlhd a − ÷ \ ∩ ∧ \mp \div \setminus \cap \sqcap \wedge . \land \ominus \oslash \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \rhd a \unrhd a ∗ ◦ • £ ¤ † ‡ \triangleleft \triangleright \star \ast \circ \bullet \diamond \uplus \amalg \dagger \ddagger \wr . < ≤ < \leq or \le \ll \prec \preceq \subset \subseteq \sqsubset a \sqsubseteq \in \vdash \mid \smile : a > ≥ ⊂ ⊆ ⊃ ⊇ ∈ | : ∈ / > \geq or \ge \gg \succ \succeq \supset \supseteq \sqsupset a \sqsupseteq \ni . + ± · × ∪ ∨ ⊕ ⊗ ¡ ¢ + \pm \cdot \times \cup \sqcup \vee . You can negate the following symbols by prefixing them with a \not command.

6: Arrows. − − → AB ← − − AB ← → AB \overrightarrow{AB} \overleftarrow{AB} \overleftrightarrow{AB} AB − − → AB ← − − AB ← → \underrightarrow{AB} \underleftarrow{AB} \underleftrightarrow{AB} . ← → ↔ ⇐ ⇒ ⇔ → ← \leftarrow or \gets \rightarrow or \to \leftrightarrow \Leftarrow \Rightarrow \Leftrightarrow \mapsto \hookleftarrow \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \rightleftharpoons \uparrow \updownarrow \Downarrow \nearrow \swarrow \leadsto a a ←− −→ ←→ ⇐= =⇒ ⇐⇒ −→ → ↑ ⇓ ⇐⇒ ↓ ⇑ \longleftarrow \longrightarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftarrow \Longrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \hookrightarrow \rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \iff (bigger spaces) \downarrow \Uparrow \Updownarrow \searrow \nwarrow Y Use the latexsym package to access this symbol Table 3.3.7: Arrows as Accents. \sum \prod \coprod \int \bigoplus \bigcup \bigcap \bigsqcup \oint \bigotimes \bigvee \bigwedge \biguplus \bigodot Table 3.5: BIG Operators.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 65 Table 3.

These symbols can also be used in text mode. \dots \hbar \Re \forall ’ \nabla \bot \diamondsuit \neg or \lnot a ··· ı ∃ ∀ ⊥ ♦ ¬ ♥ \cdots \imath \Im \exists \prime \triangle \top \heartsuit \flat . ( [ { | / ( [ or \lbrack \{ or \lbrace \langle | or \vert / \lfloor \rceil ) ] } ) ] or \rbrack \} or \rbrace \rangle \| or \Vert \backslash \rfloor \lceil ↑ ↓ ⇑ ⇓ \uparrow \downarrow \updownarrow \Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \ Table 3... † ‡ \dag \ddag § ¶ \S \P © £ \copyright \pounds ® % \textregistered \% .66 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Table 3.  ℵ ∅ P ∠ ♣ \vdots \jmath \aleph \mho a \emptyset \Box a \angle \clubsuit \natural . .       \lgroup \arrowvert \rmoustache   \rgroup \Arrowvert       \lmoustache \bracevert Table 3. .9: Large Delimiters.8: Delimiters.10: Miscellaneous Symbols. .11: Non-Mathematical Symbols. .. ℘ ∂ ∞ Q √ ♠ \ddots \ell \wp \partial \infty \Diamond a \surd \spadesuit \sharp Use the latexsym package to access this symbol Table 3.

\dotplus \ltimes \doublecup \veebar \boxplus \boxtimes \intercal \curlyvee \centerdot \rtimes \doublecap \barwedge \boxminus \boxdot \circledast \curlywedge \divideontimes \smallsetminus \doublebarwedge \circleddash \circledcirc \rightthreetimes \leftthreetimes .8 List of Mathematical Symbols 67 Table 3.3.4 on 111 for other math fonts.12: AMS Delimiters. Example ABCDEabcde1234 ABCDEabcde1234 ABCDEabcde ABCDE A BC DE ABCDEabcde1234 ABCDE Command \mathrm{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathit{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathnormal{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathcal{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathscr{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathfrak{ABCDE abcde 1234} \mathbb{ABCDE abcde 1234} Required package mathrsfs amsfonts or amssymb amsfonts or amssymb Table 3.15: AMS Binary Operators. \digamma κ \varkappa \beth \gimel \daleth Table 3. \ulcorner \lvert \urcorner \rvert \llcorner \lVert \lrcorner \rVert | | Table 3. See Table 6.14: Math Alphabets.13: AMS Greek and Hebrew.

16: AMS Binary Relations.68 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Table 3. \lessdot \leqslant \eqslantless \leqq \lll or \llless \lesssim \lessapprox \lessgtr \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \preccurlyeq \curlyeqprec \precsim \precapprox \subseteqq \shortparallel \blacktriangleleft \vartriangleright \blacktriangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \trianglelefteq \gtrdot \geqslant \eqslantgtr \geqq \ggg \gtrsim \gtrapprox \gtrless \gtreqless \gtreqqless \succcurlyeq \curlyeqsucc \succsim \succapprox \supseteqq \Supset \sqsupset \because \Subset \smallfrown \shortmid \therefore \doteqdot \risingdotseq \fallingdotseq \eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \bumpeq \Bumpeq \thicksim \thickapprox \approxeq \backsim \backsimeq \vDash \Vdash \Vvdash \backepsilon \varpropto \between \pitchfork \smallsmile \sqsubset ∼ ≈ ∝ ∴ .

\dashleftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \twoheadleftarrow \leftarrowtail \leftrightharpoons \Lsh \looparrowleft \curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \multimap \downdownarrows \upharpoonright \rightsquigarrow \dashrightarrow \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \Rrightarrow \twoheadrightarrow \rightarrowtail \rightleftharpoons \Rsh \looparrowright \curvearrowright \circlearrowright \upuparrows \upharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightsquigarrow .3.8 List of Mathematical Symbols 69 Table 3.17: AMS Arrows.

19: AMS Miscellaneous. \nless \lneq \nleq \nleqslant \lneqq \lvertneqq \nleqq \lnsim \lnapprox \nprec \npreceq \precneqq \precnsim \precnapprox \subsetneq \varsubsetneq \nsubseteq \subsetneqq \nleftarrow \nLeftarrow \ngtr \gneq \ngeq \ngeqslant \gneqq \gvertneqq \ngeqq \gnsim \gnapprox \nsucc \nsucceq \succneqq \succnsim \succnapprox \supsetneq \varsupsetneq \nsupseteq \supsetneqq \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneqq \nsubseteqq \nsupseteqq \nmid \nparallel \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \ncong \nvdash \nvDash \nVdash \nVDash \ntriangleleft \ntriangleright \ntrianglelefteq \ntrianglerighteq \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow Table 3.18: AMS Negated Binary Relations and Arrows.70 Typesetting Mathematical Formulae Table 3. \hbar \square \vartriangle \triangledown \lozenge \angle \diagup \nexists \eth \hslash \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \blacklozenge \measuredangle \diagdown \Finv \sphericalangle k \Bbbk \circledS \complement \Game \bigstar \backprime \varnothing \mho ♦ ∠ ∅ ð .

because it is quite easy to do and widely used. P. L TEX packages offer many ways to do this. In order to use pictures in the EPS format. such as images or graphics. bibliography management. a few of them are described in chapter 5. Here again. or a L TE A A Please refer to The L TEX Companion [3] and the L TEX Manual [1] for more information on that subject. LTEX will help you with some special features like index generation. A much more complete description of specialities and enhancements possible with A A A LTEX can be found in the L TEX Manual [1] and The L TEX Companion [3]. but this introduction will only discuss the use of Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) graphics. A There are several ways to generate the actual graphics with basic L TEX A X extension package. you can use the following step by step guide to include a picture into your document: Such as XFig.3 Assuming you are working on a system with a PostScript printer available for output and with the graphicx package installed.1 Including Encapsulated PostScript A L TEX provides the basic facilities to work with floating bodies. A good set of commands for inclusion of graphics is provided in the graphicx package by D. Another possibility to output PostScript is the GhostScript program available from support/ghostscript. Xara X . Windows and OS/2 users might want to look for GSview. Carlisle. and other things. Gnuplot. A much easier way to get graphics into a document is to generate them with a specialised software package1 and then include the finished graphics A into the document. 4. 3 macros/latex/required/graphics 2 1 .Chapter 4 Specialities A When putting together a large document. It is part of a whole family of packages called the “graphics” bundle. Gimp. . . you must have a PostScript printer2 available for output. with the figure and table environments.

The name of the driver is required. Export the picture from your graphics program in EPS format.72 Specialities 1. ]{file} to include file into your document. Some printer drivers can be explicitly configured to produce EPS format. 3.dvi file. Knowing the name of the driver. . The most widely used program is called dvips. Table 4. Load the graphicx package in the preamble of the input file with \usepackage[driver]{graphicx} where driver is the name of your “dvi to postscript” converter program.1 lists the most important keys.4 2. . . you can try to install a PostScript printer driver (such as an Apple LaserWriter.eps file. because there is no standard on how graphics are included in TEX. Use the command \includegraphics[key=value. The keys can be used to alter the width. Note that an EPS must not contain more than one page. . With some luck this file will be in EPS format. The optional parameter accepts a comma separated list of keys and associated values. for example) and then print to a file with this driver. the graphicx package can choose the correct method to insert information about the graphics into the . height and rotation of the included graphic. so that the printer understands it and can correctly include the . Table 4. width height angle scale scale graphic to the specified width scale graphic to the specified height rotate graphic counterclockwise scale graphic 4 If your software can not export into EPS format.1: Key Names for graphicx Package.

\cite{marker} If you do not use the label option.~Partl: \emph{German \TeX}.eps. Partl~\cite{pa} has proposed that \ldots \begin{thebibliography}{99} \bibitem{pa} H.2 Bibliography The following example code may help to clarify things: \begin{figure} \centering \includegraphics[angle=90. the entries will get enumerated automatically. TUGboat Volume~9. Partl: German TEX. The aspect ratio is 1. make sure to read [9] and [13]. Issue 1 (1988) .5 on page 115 for more information. 73 4. If you want to know more about this topic. because no special height is specified. {99} tells L TEX to expect that none of the bibliography item numbers will be wider than the number 99.} \end{figure} It includes the graphic stored in the file test.5\textwidth]{test} \caption{This is a test.2 Bibliography You can produce a bibliography with the thebibliography environment. Partl [1] has proposed that . Refer to Table 6. . The width and height parameters can also be specified in absolute dimensions. Each entry starts with \bibitem[label]{marker} The marker is then used to cite the book. .0. TUGboat Volume 9. article or paper within the document.5 times the width of a standard paragraph. The graphic is first rotated by an angle of 90 degrees and then scaled to the final width of 0. Issue~1 (1988) \end{thebibliography} Bibliography [1] H. The parameter after the \begin{thebibliography} command defines how much space to reserve for the number of labels.4. width=0. In the examA ple below.

74 Specialities For larger projects. The visual presentation of BibTEX generated bibliographies is based on a style sheets concept that allows you to create bibliographies following a wide range of established designs. . BibTEX is included with most TEX distributions. you might want to check out the BibTEX program. It allows you to maintain a bibliographic database and then extract the references relevant to things you cited in your paper.

This support program makeindex. 4 Comment Plain entry Subentry under ‘hello’ Formatted entry Same as above Formatted page number Same as above Handling of accents 4. please refer to The L TEX Companion [3].3 Indexing 75 Table 4. 3 Joe. Example \index{hello} \index{hello!Peter} \index{Sam@\textsl{Sam}} \index{Lin@\textbf{Lin}} \index{Jenny|textbf} \index{Joe|textit} \index{ecole@\’ecole} Index Entry hello.3 Indexing A A very useful feature of many books is their index. The file has the same name as the L TEX input file. You enter the index commands at the points in the text that you want the final index entries to point to. where key is the index entry. A When the input file is processed with L TEX. 5 école. 3 Sam. the makeidx package must be To enable the indexing feature of L TE loaded in the preamble with: \usepackage{makeidx} and the special indexing commands must be enabled by putting the \makeindex command into the input file preamble. A to a special file. introduction will only explain the basic index generation commands. but a different extension (. For a A more in-depth view.2 explains the syntax of the key argument with several examples. 2 Lin. With L TEX and the 5 an index can be generated quite easily.4. 7 Jenny. A X.idx file can then be processed with the On systems not necessarily supporting filenames longer than 8 characters. Table 4. The content of the index is specified with \index{key} commands. together with the current page number. This . the program may be called makeidx.idx). 5 .2: Index Key Syntax Examples. each \index command writes an appropriate index entry. 1 Peter.

respectively. Note that the \index command can affect your layout if not used carefully. \sectionmark.ind. The tricky problem when customising headers and footers is to get things A like running section and chapter names in there. In the header and footer definition. you need only “renew” the \chaptermark command. this sorted index gets included into the document at A the point where L TEX finds \printindex A The showidx package that comes with L TEX 2ε prints out all index entries in the left margin of the text. but this time with the extension . My Word \index{Word}. They call yet another command (\chaptermark. you can see a possible application of this package. Note the position of the full stop. L TEX accomplishes this with a two-stage approach. The values of these two commands are overwritten whenever a chapter or section command is processed. the \chapter command and its friends do not redefine \rightmark and \leftmark themselves. My Word . If you look at the top of this page. . or \subsectionmark) that is responsible for redefining \rightmark and \leftmark. If now the L TEX input file is processed again. As opposed to Word\index{Word}.4 Fancy Headers The fancyhdr package. makeindex filename Specialities The makeindex program generates a sorted index with the same base A file name. 4. 6 Available from macros/latex/contrib/supported/fancyhdr. you use the commands \rightmark and \leftmark to represent the current section and chapter heading. provides a few simple commands that allow you to customize the header and footer lines of your document. Note the position of the full stop. This is quite useful for proofreading a document and verifying the index. If you want to change the look of the chapter name in the header line. For ultimate flexibility.76 makeindex program.6 written by Piet van Oostrum. As opposed to Word.

.5pt} \renewcommand{\footrulewidth}{0pt} \addtolength{\headheight}{0.5pt} % space for the rule \fancypagestyle{plain}{% \fancyhead{} % get rid of headers on plain pages \renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0pt} % and the line } Figure 4.4. \renewcommand{\chaptermark}[1]{% \markboth{#1}{}} \renewcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{% \markright{\thesection\ #1}} \fancyhf{} % delete current header and footer \fancyhead[LE.4 Fancy Headers 77 \documentclass{book} \usepackage{fancyhdr} \pagestyle{fancy} % with this we ensure that the chapter and section % headings are in lowercase.RO]{\bfseries\thepage} \fancyhead[LO]{\bfseries\rightmark} \fancyhead[RE]{\bfseries\leftmark} \renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0.1: Example fancyhdr Setup.

org/). you are going to learn about the verbatim package. The verbatim package is basically a re-implementation of the verbatim environment that works around some of the limitations of the original verbatim environment.. once you have copied the package files onto your machine.txt with a brief description of the package. you still have to process them in a way that (a) tells your TEX distribution about the new style package and (b) gives you the documentation. make sure to read [10]. but the implementation of the verbatim package added new functionality.sty file to a place where your distribution can find it.dtx.1 shows a possible setup for the fancyhdr package that makes the headers look about the same as they look in this booklet. Move the . and many others are typically made up of two files: a file with the extension . you should find it pre-installed on most systems. There will often be a readme.ins and another with the extension .sty file. which is why I am mentioning the package here.6 Installing Extra Packages A Most L TEX installations come with a large set of pre-installed style packages.5 The Verbatim Package Earlier in this book.78 Specialities Figure 4. In this section. 4./localtexmf /tex/latex subdirectory (Windows or OS/2 users should feel free to change the direction of the slashes). you got to know the verbatim environment. I suggest you fetch the documentation for the package at the address mentioned in the footnote. Packages such as geometry.ctan. hyphenat. You should of course read this file first. Here’s how you do the first part: A 1. which allows you to include raw ASCII text into your document as if it were inside a verbatim environment. If you want to know more about this package. The verbatim package provides the \verbatiminput{filename} command. In any event.. but many more are available on the net.ins file. The main place to look for style packages on the Internet is CTAN (http://www. This by itself is not spectacular. 2. As the verbatim package is part of the ‘tools’ bundle. 4. Run L TEX on the . This will extract a . . In any case. Usually this is in your .

ist -o name. A 4. This will generate a .7 A Working with pdf LTEX By Daniel Flipo <Daniel. or lack the required fonts. Run L TEX on the . If you do not see this file. some words in the document are marked as hyperlinks. make a .dtx file once again. Note A that you may have to run L TEX several times before it gets the crossreferences right. Including mathematical formulae into HTML documents is not generally supported. type the following: makeindex -s gind.pdf file to increase your reading pleasure. then you may proceed to step 5. Run L TEX on the . Much like in a web page. Additionally.glo (glossary) file has been produced. 3. If you click on such a hyperlink you A get transported to the destination of the link.gls name. most browsers used today do not support it. MikTeX – initexmf -update-fndb or use the GUI. 4. Run the following command between step 4 and 5: makeindex -s gglo.idx file among the various files you now have. While there is a standard for it.glo A Be sure to run L TEX on the .7 Working with pdf L TEX 79 3.dtx file: A 1. this means that all occurrences of \ref and \pageref become hyperlinks. web2c – maktexlsr. The command depends A on the L TEXdistribution you use: teTeX. Now you can extract the documentation from the .A 4.dvi file. In order to generate the index.ps or .dtx file.dtx one last time before moving on to step 5.Flipo@univ-lille1.ist name (where name stands for the main-file name without any extension). the table of contents. 5. A 2. Last but not least. Refresh your distribution’s file-name database.fr> PDF is a hypertext document format. Check to see if L TEX has produced a . fpTeX – texhash. They link to other places in the document or even to other documents. Most web pages you find today are written in HTML (HyperText Markup Language). Sometimes you will see that a . the index and all the other similar structures become collections of hyperlinks. . This format has two significant disadvantages when writing scientific documents: 1. In the context of L TEX.

fpTEX. On systems where L TEX is not called from the command line. the papersize will be adjusted automatically. . If you use the hyperref package (see page 83). Even though there are DVI and PS viewers for almost every platform. So providing PDF versions of your documents will make them much more accessible to your potential readers. 4. There is also a pdfL TEX. which A produces PDF output from L TEX sources.80 Specialities 2. thanks to the pdfTEX program developed by Hàn Th´ Thành. A X are installed automatically by most modern Both pdfTEX and pdfL TE TEX distributions.tex by pdflatex file. you will find that Acrobat Reader and Xpdf for viewing PDF documents are more widely deployed. TEXLive and CMacTEX. As soon as you start A using more complex L TEX features and external packages things tend to fall apart. but the results vary widely between platforms and browsers. such as teTEX. Most modern browsers come with plugins that allow the direct display of PDF documents. MikTEX. the format of images to include. The main differences concern three areas: the fonts to use. you may find a special button in the TEXControlCenter. which preserves the layout of the document and permits hypertext navigation. Authors wishing to preserve the unique typographic quality of their documents even when publishing on the web turn to PDF (Portable Document Format). This works in pdfL TEX too. Some were even quite successful in the sense that they are able A to produce legible web pages from a standard L TEX input file.7. But all of them cut corners left and right to get the job done. but on top of this pdfTEX also needs to know the physical size of the paper to determine the physical size of the pages in the pdf file. and the manual configuration of hyperlinks. it is sufficient to replace the comA mand latex file.1 PDF Documents for the Web A The creation of a PDF file from L TEX source is very simple. A There have been many attempts to create translators from L TEX to HTML. The results are miles removed from A the quality we have come to expect in the L TEX world. A In L TEX you can define the paper size with an optional documentclass A argument such as a4paper or letterpaper. To produce a PDF instead of DVI. Printing HTML documents is possible. Otherwise you have to do this manually by putting the following lines into the preamble of the document: \pdfpagewidth=\paperwidth \pdfpageheight=\paperheight The following section will go into more detail regarding the differences A A between normal L TEX and pdfL TEX.tex. pdfTEX produces PDF ê A output where normal TEX produces DVI.

on high resolution output devices they produce results identical to the original bitmap EC/LH/CB fonts.. Inc. or CB fonts (see the discussion about OT1 fonts on the page 26).7. . you might want to use EC. to enable AE virtual fonts instead of EC fonts. both of these font sets are not of the same typographic quality as the Type1 CM fonts by Blue Sky/Y&Y. you have several other options. you can use mltex package. like the MlTEX system. just skip this whole section. As the font is now in T1 encoding. but this only works when your pdfTEX has been compiled with the mltex option. • You might want to use aeguill package. The only disadvantage of this approach is that the artificial AE characters do not work with Acrobat Reader’s Find function.7 Working with pdf L TEX 81 4. the bitmap PK fonts produce very ugly results when the document is displayed with Acrobat Reader. Vladimir Volovich has created the cm-super font bundle which covers the entire EC/TC. LH. TrueType. Unfortunately. If it works for you. It is available from CTAN:/fonts/ps-type1/cm-super and is included with TEXLive7 and MikTEX. Best is to try.A 4. if you are using L TEX to create documents in languages other than English. hyphenation will work well in Latin-based European languages. The fonts were made publicly available in early 1997 and currently come with most of TEX distributions. makes TEX believe it has a full 256 character fontset at its disposal by creating most of the missing letters from characters of the CM font and rearranging them in the EC order. ) but the normal L TEX font format. EC Concrete. Modern TeX installations will be setup so that this happens automatically. If you are creating document in one of Latin-based languages. A However. They were automatically hinted. .2 The Fonts A pdfL TEX can deal with all sorts of fonts (PK bitmaps. The PostScript Type 1 implementation of the Computer Modern and AMSFonts was produced by Blue Sky Research and Y&Y. The AE virtual fontset. so you cannot search for words with accented characters in your final PDF file. EC Bright and LH font sets. . Similar type 1 CB Greek fonts created by Apostolos Syropoulos are available at CTAN:/tex-archive/fonts/greek/cb. • Alternatively. this allows to use the excellent type 1 format CM fonts available on most systems. PostScript A type 1. It is best to use PostScript Type 1 fonts exclusively to produce documents that display well. and the document might look not as neat on the screen as the ones using Blue Sky/Y&Y type 1 CM fonts. aka Almost European Computer Modern with Guillemets. Just put the line \usepackage{aeguill} into the preamble of your document. who then transferred copyright to the American Mathematical Society.

82 Specialities For the Russian language a similar solution is to use C1 virtual fonts available at ftp://ftp. as the resulting PDF document may not display the pages with the missing characters at all.vsu. It puts an end to the misery. . not found in the . You really have to fix these problems. Because Paradissa fonts contain only Russian letters.. especially the lack of a good EC fontset equivalent in quality to the CM font in type 1 format. which is based on Palatino as its main text body font. Actually. Also. has been occupying many peoples minds..log file after compiling your input file. They mean that some font used in the document has not been found. all available on CTAN. These fonts combine the standard CM type 1 fonts from Bluesky collection and CMCYR type 1 fonts from Paradissa and BaKoMa collection. some of them are even included with every copy of Acrobat Reader. If you have a recent TEX installation. the overall visual coherence of your document will suffer because Times. Generally these other fonts will use more space than the CM fonts. Helvetica and Courier (the primary candidates for such a replacement job) have not been designed to work in harmony in a single document. chances are that you already have a copy of them installed all you need todo is to add \usepackage{lmodern} \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} \usepackage{textcomp} to the preamble of your document and you are all set for creating excellent pdf output with full support for the full Latin character set. Two ready-made font sets are available for this purpose: pxfonts. the text layout on your pages will change. As you can see this whole font business. C1 fonts are missing other Cyrillic glyphs. To use them it is sufficient to put the following lines into the preamble of your document: \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} \usepackage{pxfonts} Note: you may find lines like Warning: pdftex (file eurmo10): Font eur. Because these fonts have different character sizes. Another solution is to switch to other PostScript type 1 fonts. which is based on Times. and the txfonts package.ru/pub/tex/font-packs/c1fonts. Recently a new set of high quality outline fonts called Latin Modern (LM) has become available. which are very space-efficient.

but rather describe the figure with a specialized command language. graphicx will go looking for a suitable file on its own.eps. the others are optional and allow you to change the default behaviour of hyperref. 4. as it is very space-efficient. as using color in documents displayed on the web comes quite naturally.7.mps ( METAPOST)—but not . Many options are available to customize the behaviour of the hyperref package: • either as a comma separated list after the pdftex option \usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref} • or on individual lines with the command \hypersetup{options}. For this to work properly some magic is necessary. The bad news is that graphics in EncapsuA lated PostScript format do not work with PdfL TEX. The only required option is pdftex. because the PDF format natively supports the inclusion of PNG and JPEG images. For bitmaps (photos. For vector graphics (drawings) this is a great solution.jpg and . JPEG is great for photos.A 4. which then gets put into the PS file by dvips and is finally picked up by Adobe Distiller when it is used to turn the PS file into PDF. For pdftex this is formats . . PNG is good for screenshots and other images with few colors. such as METAPOST. It may even be desirable not to draw certain geometric figures.3 Using Graphics Including graphics into a document works best with the graphicx package (see page 71). depending on the setting of the driver option. so you have to put \usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref} as the last command into the preamble of your document.4 Hypertext Links The hyperref package will take care of turning all internal references of your document into hyperlinks. The simple way out of this problem is to just convert your EPS files into PDF format using the epstopdf utility found on many systems.graphicx} In the sample above I have included the color option. It can also be configured to embed PDF-specific information into the DVI output of normal A L TEX. So much for the good news.png. which can be found in most TEX distributions. If you don’t define a file extension in the \includegraphics command. . 7 It is worth noting that the hyperref package is not limited to work with pdfTEX. By using the special driver option pdftex the package will A work with pdfL TEX as well: \usepackage[pdftex]{color.7 Working with pdf L TEX 83 4. .7 In the following list the default values are written in an upright font.7.pdf. and comes with its own extensive manual. scans) this is not ideal.

etc. citecolor (=green) color of citation links (bibliography) filecolor (=magenta) color of file links urlcolor (=cyan) color of URL links (mail. colored links are not a good thing as they end up in gray in the final output.true ) surround the links by color frames (false) or colors the text of the links (true).84 Specialities bookmarks (=true. which are not printed: \usepackage{hyperref} \hypersetup{colorlinks=false} or make links black: . The color of these links can be configured using the following options (default colors are shown): linkcolor (=red) color of internal links (sections.false ) show or hide Acrobat’s menu pdffitwindow (=true. making it difficult to read. web) If you are happy with the defaults.colorlinks]{hyperref} When creating PDFs destined for printing. use \usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref} To have the bookmark list open and links in color (the =true values are optional): \usepackage[pdftex.false ) show or hide Acrobat’s toolbar pdfmenubar (=true.false ) adjust the initial magnification of the pdf when displayed pdftitle (={text}) define the title that gets displayed in the Document Info window of Acrobat pdfauthor (={text}) the name of the PDF’s author pdfnewwindow (=true. pages. You can use color frames.).true ) allows to use characters of non-latin based languages in Acrobat’s bookmarks pdftoolbar (=true.false ) define if a new window should get opened when a link leads out of the current document colorlinks (=false.bookmarks.false ) show or hide the bookmarks bar when displaying the document unicode (=false.

A 4. The author of an article might want her readers to easily send email messages by using the \href command inside the \author command on the title page of the document: \author{Mary Oetiker $<$\href{mailto:mary@oetiker.pdf}{here} Which produces the text “The complete document is here”. If the destination of the link is not a URL but a local file. a click on the word “CTAN” will take you to the CTAN website.org}{CTAN} website.7 Working with pdf L TEX 85 \usepackage{hyperref} \hypersetup{colorlinks.% citecolor=black.ch}{Mary Oetiker} would work well within Acrobat.% pdftitle={Des femmes qui tombent}.ch}$>$ Note that I have put the link so that my email address appears not only in the link but also on the page itself.% filecolor=black.ctan.% pdftex} When you just want to provide information for the Document Info section of the PDF file: \usepackage[pdfauthor={Pierre Desproges}.% pdftex]{hyperref} In addition to the automatic hyperlinks for cross references. it is possible to embed explicit links using \href{url}{text} The code The \href{http://www.ch}% {mary@oetiker. . A click on the word “here” will open the file manual. but once the page is printed the email address would not be visible anymore. I did this because the link \href{mailto:mary@oetiker. (The filename is relative to the location of the current document). produces the output “CTAN”. you can use the \href command: The complete document is \href{manual.% urlcolor=black.pdf.% linkcolor=black.

86

Specialities

4.7.5

Problems with Links

Messages like the following: ! pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination with the same identifier (name{page.1}) has been already used, duplicate ignored appear when a counter gets reinitialized, for example by using the command \mainmatter provided by the book document class. It resets the page number counter to 1 prior to the first chapter of the book. But as the preface of the book also has a page number 1 all links to “page 1” would not be unique anymore, hence the notice that “duplicate has been ignored.” The counter measure consists of putting plainpages=false into the hyperref options. This unfortunately only helps with the page counter. An even more radical solution is to use the option hypertexnames=false, but this will cause the page links in the index to stop working.

4.7.6

Problems with Bookmarks

The text displayed by bookmarks does not always look like you expect it to look. Because bookmarks are “just text,” much fewer characters are A available for bookmarks than for normal L TEX text. Hyperref will normally notice such problems and put up a warning: Package hyperref Warning: Token not allowed in a PDFDocEncoded string: You can now work around this problem by providing a text string for the bookmarks, which replaces the offending text:
\texorpdfstring{TEX text}{Bookmark Text}

Math expressions are a prime candidate for this kind of problem: \section{\texorpdfstring{$E=mc^2$}% {E=mc^2}} which turns \section{$E=mc^2$} to “E=mc2” in the bookmark area. Color changes also do not travel well into bookmarks: \section{\textcolor{red}{Red !}} produces the string “redRed!”. The command \textcolor gets ignored but its argument (red) gets printed. If you use

A 4.7 Working with pdf L TEX

87

\section{\texorpdfstring{\textcolor{red}{Red !}}{Red\ !}} the result will be much more legible. If you write your document in unicode and use the unicode option for the hyperref package you can use unicode characters in bookmarks. This will give you a much larger selection of characters to pick from when when using \texorpdfstring.
A A Source Compatibility Between L TEX and pdf L TEX A A Ideally your document would compile equally well with L TEX and pdfL TEX. The main problem in this respect is the inclusion of graphics. The simple solution is to systematically drop the file extension from \includegraphics commands. They will then automatically look for a file of a suitable format in the current directory. All you have to do is create appropriate versions of A A the graphics files. L TEX will look for .eps, and pdfL TEX will try to include a file with the extension .png, .pdf, .jpg or .mps (in that order). For the cases where you want to use different code for the PDF version of your document, you can simply add the package ifpdf 8 to your preamble. Chances are that you already have it installed; if not then you’re probably using MiKTEX which will install it for you automatically the first time you try to use it. This package defines the special command \ifpdf that will allow you to write conditional code easily. In this example, we want the PostScript version to be black and white due to the printing costs but we want the PDF version for online viewing to be colourful.

\RequirePackage{ifpdf} % running on pdfTeX? \ifpdf \documentclass[a4paper,12pt,pdftex]{book} \else \documentclass[a4paper,12pt,dvips]{book} \fi \ifpdf \usepackage{lmodern} \fi \usepackage[bookmarks, % add hyperlinks colorlinks, plainpages=false]{hyperref} \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc} \usepackage[english]{babel}
If you want the whole story on why to use this package then go to the TEX FAQ under the item http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=ifpdf.
8

88 \usepackage{graphicx} ...

Specialities

In the example above I have included the hyperref package even in the nonPDF version. The effect of this is to make the \href command work in all cases, which saves me from wrapping every occurrence into a conditional statement. Note that in recent TEX distributions (TEXLive for example), the normal TEX program is actually pdfTEX it will automatically switch between producing pdf and dvi according to the settings in the document class. If you use the code above then you can still use the pdflatex command to get pdf output and latex for normal dvi output.

4.8

Creating Presentations

By Daniel Flipo <Daniel.Flipo@univ-lille1.fr>

You can present the results of your scientific work on a blackboard, with transparencies, or directly from your laptop using some presentation software. A pdfL TEX combined with the beamer class allows you to create presentations in PDF, looking much like something you might be able to generate with PowerPoint if you had a very good day, but much more portable because Acrobat Reader is available on many more systems. The beamer class uses graphicx, color and hyperref with options adapted to screen presentations. A When you compile the code presented in figure 4.2 with PDFL TEX you get a PDF file with a title page and a second page showing several items that will be reveled one at a time as you step though your presentation. One of the advantages of the beamer class is that it produces a PDF file that is directly usable without first going through a PostScript stage like prosper or requiring additional post processing like presentations created with the ppower4 package. With the beamer class you can produce several versions (modes) of your document from the same input file. The input file may contain special instructions for the different modes in angular brackets. The following modes are available. beamer for the presentation PDF discussed above. trans for slides. handout for the printed version. The default mode is beamer, you can change it by setting a different mode as a global option, like \documentclass[10pt,handout]{beamer} to print the handouts for example.

right.width=22mm]{Goettingen} } \title{Simple Presentation} \author[D.L. \& GUTenberg} \titlegraphic{\includegraphics[width=20mm]{USTL}} \date{2005} \begin{document} \begin{frame}<handout:0> \titlepage \end{frame} \section{An Example} \begin{frame} \frametitle{Things to do on a Sunday Afternoon} \begin{block}{One could \ldots} \begin{itemize} \item walk the dog\dots \pause \item read a book\pause \item confuse a cat\pause \end{itemize} \end{block} and many other things \end{frame} \end{document} Figure 4.4.S. Flipo]{Daniel Flipo} \institute{U.8 Creating Presentations 89 \documentclass[10pt]{beamer} \mode<beamer>{% \usetheme[hideothersubsections.2: Sample code for the beamer class .T.

In many place you can also use angular brakes to further customize the presentation. Lets have a closer look at the code in figure 4. They appear in their standard layout. This package is being actively developed. For other presentation effects check out the commands \only.90 Specialities The look of the screen presentation depends on the theme you choose. The titles and subtitles in the panel are created with normal \section{} and \subsection{} commands that you place outside the frame environment. There is an optional argument in angular brackets (< and >). The tiny navigation icons at the bottom of the screen also allow to navigate the document. The options allow to choose the size of the panel (22 mm in this case) and its position (on the right side of the body text). You can either pick one of the themes shipped with the beamer class or you can even create your own. The optional arguments of \title[]{} and \author[]{} let you specify a special version of the title and the author name to be displayed on the panel of the Goettingen theme. This is done with the command \frametitle{}. shows the chapter titles.sourceforge. In the example the first page would not be shown in the handout version due to the <handout:0> argument.net/) .pdf for more information on this. It is highly recommended to set a title for each slide apart from the title slide. \institute{}. but only the subsections of the present chapter. and \titlegraphic{} set the content of the title page. The command \pause in the itemize environment lets you reveal the items one by one. check out their website to get the latest information.pdf to get a complete picture of what is in store for you. (http://latex-beamer. For the screen version of the presentation \mode<beamer> we have chosen the Goettingen theme to show a navigation panel integrated into the table of contents. \author{}. Their presence is not dependent on the theme you choose.2. If a subtitle is necessary you can use the block environment as shown in the example. Note that the sectioning commands \section{} and \subsection{} do not produce output on the slide proper. See the beamer class documentation in beameruserguide. \uncover. There are no special settings for \mode<trans> and \mode<handout>. it allows to suppress a particular frame in one of the versions of the presentation. The contents of each slide or screen has to be placed inside a frame environment. The commands \title{}. The option hideothersubsections. In any case make sure you read through the beamer class documentation beameruserguide. \alt and \temporal.

and greatly strengthen the graphical power of A L TEX.1 Overview A The picture environment allows programming pictures directly in L TEX. in addition. in The L TEX Companion [3]). In this section. But as the non content and A structure oriented approach to authoring is so convenient. Many frequently used curves such as circles. and there are no additional graphics files to be dragged along. The documents thus produced are “small” with respect to bytes. A Although programming pictures directly in L TEX is severely restricted. A Packages like epic and eepic (described. and often rather tiresome. If. the picture environment of L TEX 2ε brings with it the \qbezier command. 5. Furthermore. there are still reasons for doing so.Chapter 5 Producing Mathematical Graphics A Most people use LTEX for typesetting their text. A On the other hand. the picture environment becomes quite powerful. A A detailed description can be found in the L TEX Manual [1]. ellipses. although this may require some mathematical toil. quite a number of LTEX extensions have been created in order to overcome these restrictions. for instance. if somewhat restricted. you will learn about a few of them. “q” meaning “quadratic”. . a programming language like Java is used to generate A \qbezier blocks of L TEX input files. or catenaries can be satisfactorily approximated by quadratic Bézier curves. On the one hand. possibility for producing graphical output from textual deA scriptions. as the slopes of line segments as well as the radii of circles are restricted to a narrow choice of values. there are rather severe constraints. LTEX also offers a. or pstricks help to eliminate the restrictions hampering the original picture environment.

(x.1 Basic Commands A picture environment1 is created with one of the two commands \begin{picture}(x.92 Producing Mathematical Graphics While the former two packages just enhance the picture environment. Contrary to METAFONT. . \end{picture} or \begin{picture}(x. y)(x0 . (x0 . y). y. \end{picture} The numbers x. the pstricks package has its own drawing environment. The optional second pair. A Believe it or not. assigns arbitrary coordinates to the bottom left corner of the reserved rectangle. . of rectangular space for the picture. the twin of Donald E. or the tutorial on [17]. In addition. METAPOST generates encapsulated PostScript files. which can be reset any time (but not within a picture environment) with a command such as \setlength{\unitlength}{1.2 The picture Environment By Urs Oswald <osurs@bluewin. The power of pstricks stems from the fact that this package makes extensive use of PostScript possibilities. A Perhaps the most powerful graphical tool related with L TEX is METAPOST. For an introduction. y0 ). A wide variety of these packages is described in detail in A A The L TEX Graphics Companion [4] (not to be confused with The L TEX Companion [3]). One of them is X -pic. A A very thorough discussion of L TEX and TEX strategies for graphics (and fonts) can be found in TEX Unbound [16]. described at the end Y of this chapter. see A User’s Manual for METAPOST [15]. the picture environment works out of the box. The first pair. which generates bitmaps. 5. effects the reservation. y0 refer to \unitlength. y). METAPOST has the very powerful and mathematically sophisticated programming language of METAFONT.2cm} The default value of \unitlength is 1pt. pspicture. numerous packages have been written for specific purposes.ch> 5. Knuth’s METAFONT.2. which can be imported in A L TEX. 1 . with standard L TEX 2ε no package loading necessary. within the document. y0 ). . x0 . .

5. y)(∆x. ∆y){n}{object} Bézier curves are an exception. y3 ) . They are drawn with the command \qbezier(x1 . y){object} 93 or \multiput(x. y2 )(x3 .2 The picture Environment Most drawing commands have one of the two forms \put(x. y1 )(x2 .

0){\line(5.6){.0){\line(4.75}} \put(0.1){1}} \put(0.1667}} \put(0.6){.3333}} \put(0.0){\line(0.2){.0){\line(5.3){1}} \put(0.0){\line(2.0){\line(1.0){\line(1.3){1}} \put(0.0){\line(2.2){1}} \put(0.0){\line(6.5){.4){.2 Line Segments \setlength{\unitlength}{5cm} \begin{picture}(1.0){\line(1.6}} \put(0.5){. and they have to be coprime (no common divisor except 1).5){.0){\line(1.2){1}} \put(0. . The length is relative to \unitlength.3){. The figure illustrates all 25 possible slope values in the first quadrant. a direction vector. The components of the direction vector are restricted to the integers −6. −5.1){1}} \put(0.0){\line(5.4){1}} \put(0. 2.1){1}} \put(0. .0){\line(6.2}} \put(0.0){1}} \put(0.1) \put(0.1){1}} \put(0.2. The length argument is the vertical coordinate in the case of a vertical line segment. the horizontal coordinate in all other cases.0){\line(3.8}} \put(0. . .5}} \put(0.0){\line(5.5){.0){\line(3.0){\line(1.4}} \put(0.94 Producing Mathematical Graphics 5.8333}} \put(0. 6.0){\line(4.6667}} \put(0.3){.0){\line(3.0){\line(4. a length. y1 ){length}} The \line command has two arguments: 1.1){1}} \put(0. 5.4){.1){1}} \put(0.0){\line(1.1){1}} \put(0.25}} \put(0.0){\line(1.0){\line(2.0){\line(5.0){\line(3. . y){\line(x1 .5){1}} \end{picture}  (   ¢  ¡ ¥¥ ¤¤ ££ ¢  ¡  (7   7 7   ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡  ( D ¥¤ £ ¢  ¡  7   D ( 5 D5 ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡   7   5& ( & D  ( ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡  7   5& D ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡ 7  D&&4 5 ( 4 5 ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡ 7  D&4¨ ( 544¨ ¨ 7 ( D ¥ ¤ £ ¢  ¡   5& 3 D ¥¤ £ ¢ ¡ (  &4¨¨33  7 5&4 ¥¤£ ¢¡ ( &¨¨¨3  544 3 3  7 D D $ 3    4 ( 5 ¥¤£¢¡7 &¨3$$$ 2 2 D 5 ¥¤£¢¡ ¨¨¨$$$$22@ 7 4   &3$222@@ @ ( 433 D 5 &3$22@@@ $2@@ 4$2@   ¥¤£¢¡( ¨2@  3 7   D 5 &  4  D  7 @ ¨¨$@  $ @ &  4 5 ( 3 2  $2 ¡ @ ¢ 2 ¤¥£ 3 Line segments are drawn with the command \put(x.

5.75mm} \begin{picture}(60.20){\vector(3.20){\vector(1.1){25}} \put(30. . −3.20){\vector(4.2){10}} \thicklines \put(30. y1 ){length}} For arrows.2 The picture Environment 95 5. Notice the effect of the \thicklines command on the two arrows pointing to the upper left.1){30}} \put(30.-4){5}} \end{picture} ! ¡ ¡ B ¨ ¨¨ g ¡ ¨ I  y ˆ ˆ ˆ ¨$ X ˆˆˆ g ¡$$$ ¨ ¨ ¡ E ˆ$ g ©  £ £ £  ££ y gg Arrows are drawn with the command \put(x. the components of the direction vector are even more narrowly restricted than for line segments. .20){\vector(-4.3 Arrows \setlength{\unitlength}{0. y){\vector(x1 .-1){5}} \put(30. . Components also have to be coprime (no common divisor except 1).20){\vector(1.20){\vector(-1.1){30}} \put(30. . 4. .20){\vector(2.4){5}} \thinlines \put(30.1){20}} \put(30.2.20){\vector(-1. namely to the integers −4.0){30}} \put(30.20){\vector(-1.40) \put(30. 3.

not all diameters are possible.30){\circle{7}} \put(40.30){\circle{11}} \put(40. There is also a possibility within the picture environment. such as eepic or pstricks.30){\circle{4}} \put(20.10){\circle*{4}} \put(35. y){\circle{diameter}} draws a circle with center (x.10){\circle*{3}} \put(30.30){\circle{1}} \put(40.30){\circle{2}} \put(40.10){\circle*{5}} \end{picture} 96 96 52 1( '$ # #   j e ˜ m j h e ˜   "! 0) "! &% 43 87 87 r u x z} The command \put(x. one may have to resort to additional packages. For a thorough description of these A packages. y) and diameter (not radius) diameter. see The L TEX Graphics Companion [4].30){\circle{9}} \put(40.30){\circle{8}} \put(40.30){\circle{6}} \put(40.10){\circle*{2}} \put(25.10){\circle*{1}} \put(20.30){\circle{16}} \put(20.30){\circle{14}} \put(15. The picture environment only admits diameters up to approximately 14 mm. 40) \put(20.2.4 Circles \setlength{\unitlength}{1mm} \begin{picture}(60.30){\circle{2}} \put(20.30){\circle{12}} \put(40. As in the case of line segments.30){\circle{4}} \put(40. The \circle* command produces disks (filled circles). arbitrary circles and ellipses can be patched together from quadratic Bézier A curves.30){\circle{8}} \put(20. and even below this limit.30){\circle{13}} \put(40.30){\circle{32}} \put(40. See Graphics in L TEX 2ε [17] for examples and Java source files.30){\circle{3}} \put(40.30){\circle{10}} \put(40. If one is not afraid of doing the necessary calculations (or leaving them to a program).96 Producing Mathematical Graphics 5.30){\circle{5}} \put(40. .30){\circle{1}} \put(20.

0){6}% {\line(0.0)(10.3){\line(-2.2.1){20}} \multiput(0.1){20}} \multiput(0.7){$b$} \put(2.1){20}} \multiput(0.2.0.0.1){21}% {\line(1.3mm} \multiput(5.0.7.2.0)(0.1.05){$c$} \put(0.1.5.9){$B$} \put(1.2 The picture Environment 97 5.-5){1}} \put(0.5){\line(2. y)(∆x.1){3}} \put(4. the translation vector from one ob- . ∆y){n}{object} has 4 arguments: the starting point.4){$F= \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$} \put(3.1){2}} \put(2.5){5}% {\line(1.0){25}} \linethickness{0.0){25}} \linethickness{0.0)(5.5) \thicklines \put(1.3.075mm} \multiput(0.5.0){25}} \end{picture} The command \multiput(x.2.2){\line(-2.3){$A$} \put(4.4){$\displaystyle s:=\frac{a+b+c}{2}$} \end{picture} F = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) Cr  rra r  rB ¨ b ¨¨  ¨ c  ¨ a+b+c  ¨ ¨ s := A 2 As this example shows.5 Text and Formulas \setlength{\unitlength}{0.15mm} \multiput(0. 5.6 \multiput and \linethickness \setlength{\unitlength}{2mm} \begin{picture}(30.10){2}% {\line(1.1.1.0)(1.0){26}% {\line(0.05.3.5)(0. text and formulas can be written into a picture environment with the \put command in the usual way.20) \linethickness{0.5.0)(0.8cm} \begin{picture}(6.5){$a$} \put(1.0){2}% {\line(0.7.95){$C$} \put(3.

8)[r]} \put(3. . y){\oval(w. “bottom”.8)[b]} \put(4.4)} \end{picture} 5 5 2 2 2 4 3 3 5§ ¤ ¦ 4 ¥ 3 4 3 The command \put(x.1. “left”. The optional position arguments b. and the object to be drawn.8)} \thicklines \put(2.1){\oval(3. \thinlines and \thicklines on the other.2. \thinlines and \thicklines apply to oblique line segments as well as to circles and ovals.7 Ovals \setlength{\unitlength}{0. y){\oval(w.8.0){7}% {\line(0.1){\oval(3.3){\oval(3. as the example illustrates. h)} or \put(x.1.1){4}} \multiput(0.1. but neither to oblique line segments. “right”.1.5){\oval(1. Line thickness can be controlled by two kinds of commands: \linethickness{length} on the one hand. however.75cm} \begin{picture}(6.8)[tl]} \put(4. While \linethickness{length} applies only to horizontal and vertical lines (and quadratic Bézier curves).0)(1. y) and having width w and height h.075mm} \multiput(0.1.3){\oval(3. t. It does.4) \linethickness{0.8)} \thinlines \put(3. apply to quadratic Bézier curves! 5.0)(0. the number of objects.98 Producing Mathematical Graphics ject to the next.0){6}} \thicklines \put(2. nor to circles. r refer to “top”.2){\oval(3. and can be combined.1. l. The \linethickness command applies to horizontal and vertical line segments.0.1){5}% {\line(1. h)[position]} produces an oval centered at (x.

1){28}} \put(1. y)\usebox{name} The optional position parameter has the effect of defining the ‘anchor point’ of the savebox.0){8}} \put(8.0){8}} \put(17.128){\usebox{\foldera}} \multiput(34.26){\line(0. In the example it is set to bl which puts the anchor point into the bottom left corner of the savebox.-37){3} {\usebox{\folderb}} \end{picture} £ § ¤   £ § ¤   £ § ¤   £ § ¤   A picture box can be declared by the command \newsavebox{name} then defined by \savebox{name}(width.14){\line(1.0){5}} \put(9.29){\oval(6.0){19}} \put(39.0){40}} \multiput(0.0){2} {\line(0.1){102}} \put(14.29){\oval(6.29){\line(1.6)[tr]} \put(20.5.8 Multiple Use of Predefined Picture Boxes \setlength{\unitlength}{0.32){\line(1.86)(0.2)[tr]} } \newsavebox{\folderb} \savebox{\folderb} (40.2.2 The picture Environment 99 5.32)[l]{% definition \put(0. The other position specifiers are top and right.32)[bl]{% definition \multiput(0.28){2} {\line(1.29){\line(1.28){\oval(2.6)[tl]} \put(9.0)(40.28){\oval(2.2)[tl]} \put(1.168) \newsavebox{\foldera} \savebox{\foldera} (40.5mm} \begin{picture}(120.height)[position]{content} and finally arbitrarily often be drawn by \put(x.0){\usebox{\foldera}} } \put(34. .0)(0.

3) \qbezier(3. Let P1 = (x1 . y2 ) denote the end points.2)(5.2.5}} \put(1.0.2) \end{picture} $ $$ $$ ¤ h ¤ h ¤ h rr ¤ h rr ¤ r h rr ¤ h As this example illustrates.1)(3.5.5){0.075mm} \multiput(0. It also shows that both kinds of commands affect quadratic Bézier curves.3)(3.5){\line(-1.0){7} {\line(0. y) is then given by the equations m2 x2 − m1 x1 − (y2 − y1 ) .1)(4. P2 = (x2 . The figure again shows the effect of the \linethickness command on horizontal or vertical lines.5}} \linethickness{1mm} \qbezier(2.3) \thinlines \qbezier(4.2) \qbezier(2. . 5.3)(2.0.1){2}} \qbezier(0. The intermediate control point S = (x.2){\line(2.5.0){6}} \thicklines \put(0.5.4) \linethickness{0. The \oval command had to be used as the \line command does not work if the segment length is less than about 3 mm. m2 − m1  y = yi + mi (x − xi ) (i = 1.5){\line(1. splitting up a circle into 4 quadratic Bézier curves is not satisfactory.3)(3.5)(1. 2). Boxed pictures can be nested: In this example.2)(2. of a quadratic Bézier curve.5.2)(4. m2 the respective slopes. At least 8 are needed.1){5} {\line(1.5.3.5.9 Quadratic Bézier Curves \setlength{\unitlength}{0.8cm} \begin{picture}(6.100 Producing Mathematical Graphics A The name argument refers to a L TEX storage bin and therefore is of a command nature (which accounts for the backslashes in the current example).1)(4.5)(5. and m1 .3)(2.0.0)(0. each command overriding all previous ones. y1 ).3){\line(4.   x = (5.0. \foldera is used within the definition of \folderb.0)(1.-1){3}} \put(5.1){4}} \multiput(0.1) \qbezier(3.5){0. and of the \thinlines and the \thicklines commands on oblique line segments.1) A See Graphics in L TEX 2ε [17] for a Java program which generates the necessary \qbezier command line.5) \thinlines \put(2.

4}} \put(.4}} \put(1.0){4}} \linethickness{. 2.8.4}} \put(-1.12763){\line(1. −0.2}} \put(0.35){\makebox(0.. The right half of the curve ends in the point (2.-.0){$y$}} \qbezier(0. They turn out to be (1.1){.4}} \put(-1.0.0)(1.35241){\line(1.0){.1){.2. the slope there having the value m = 3.4}} \put(-1.7622) \qbezier(0.2384.7622) \linethickness{.4}} \put(1.5.0){.6269. Using again equation (5.25) \put(-2.0){.4}} \put(2.3.15241){\line(0..2384.1).10 Catenary \setlength{\unitlength}{1cm} \begin{picture}(4.0){\vector(1.15241){\line(0.0)(-1. The crosses indicate points of the real catenary.1){3}} \multiput(-2.-.1){.34308){\line(0. each symmetric half of the catenary y = cosh x − 1 is approximated by a quadratic Bézier curve.1){.7622).0)(1. . we can calculate the intermediate control points. 0).5.3.3.0.1.34308){\line(0.1..1){3.0) (2.0.1){.-0.2}} \end{picture} y T Ex In this figure.2384.3.4}} \put(-.12763){\line(1.-0.5.5.05){$x$} \put(0.07237){\line(0.5.45.0){.4}} \put(1.54308){\line(1.7.2.-.3.5.54308){\line(1..4}} u \put(-.2mm} \put( .2.7.5.25){\circle*{0.2.5.0.0. The error is barely noticeable. This example points out the use of the optional argument of the \begin{picture} command.6)(-2.3.25).0.-0.4}} \put(. The picture is defined in convenient “mathematical” coordinates.6)(-2.0){5} {\line(0.4}} \put(-2.2384.1.0){.25) its lower left corner (marked by the black disk) is assigned the coordinates (−2.0){4.0){\vector(0.4}} \put(-1.5.0){. 0) and (−1.07237){\line(0.2 The picture Environment 101 5.1.1){.0) (-2.35241){\line(1.0. being less than one percent.0.3..1){4} {\line(1..075mm} \multiput(-2. whereas by the command \begin{picture}(4.0)(0.

0){13} {\line(1.0){5}} \put(2.2.0.-0. With the tikz package you can use highly efficient commands to draw graphics right from inside your document. the picture is defined in mathematically convenient coordinates.2}} \put(0. 5.1)(0. The PGF package provides an abstraction layer over these interface and lets you use simple commands to conveniently create complex vector graphics right from inside your document.0.9640) \qbezier(0.0){0.1).2}} \end{picture} β = v/c = tanh χ T E χ t The control points of the two Bézier curves were calculated with formulas (5. Again.8853) (2.1.0)(0. For high level access to the PGF functions you should load the tikz package. and the lower left corner is assigned the mathematical coordinates (−3.0){13} {\line(1.102 Producing Mathematical Graphics 5. m2 = 1/ cosh2 2.-2) \put(-2. 0).8cm} \begin{picture}(6.2.4. The PGF package comes with its own 500+ page documentation [?].-1)(0. −2) (black disk).4.5){\vector(0.8853.3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package A Today every L TEX output generation system can create nice vector graphics.0)(-0.5.11 Rapidity in the Special Theory of Relativity \setlength{\unitlength}{0.-2){\circle*{0.-1.9640) \put(-3.8853) (-2. So we are only going to scratch the surface of the package with this little section.1){3}} \multiput(-2.1){$\chi$} \put(0.4)(-3. . The positive branch is determined by P1 = (0.4) {$\beta=v/c=\tanh\chi$} \qbezier(0. Use the tikzpicture environment to wrap your instructions. m1 = 1 and P2 = (2.8853.0){0.-0. tanh 2).7.5.2}} \multiput(-2.5.0){\vector(1. it’s just the interfaces that are rather diverse.-0.

5) -.5).5) {A}.-0.5. \end{tikzpicture} B A You can even draw diagrams that look as if they came straight from a book on pascal programming.(2. \draw[->. \end{tikzpicture} 103 If you know other programming languages you may notice the familiar semicolon (. The code is a bit more daunting than the example above.5.draw] (A) at (. \draw (0.5) {B}. \draw[step=.2) rectangle (1.draw] (B) at (5. \filldraw[fill=green!20!white..4.1.(0.(3mm.3.0) -.aspect=.fill=lightgray] (0.decorate] (A) -.) character that is used to separate the different commands.4).0) -.5.0).4.0) rectangle (5.cycle.pathmorphing} \begin{tikzpicture}[ decoration={bent. digit E unsigned integer .3 The TikZ & PGF Graphics Package \begin{tikzpicture}[scale=3] \clip (-0.(A).1. With the \usetikzlibrary command in the preamble you can enable a wide variety of additional features for drawing special shapes.25cm. like this box which is slightly bent. + unsigned integer . \usetikzlibrary{% decorations.5.8. \draw (-1.2).3}] \draw [decorate.-1.4) grid (3. \node[circle. so I will just show you the result.1.very thin] (-1. \draw[->. If you have a look at the PGF documentation you will find a detailed tutorial on drawing this exact diagram.gray.-1. draw=green!50!black] (0.(B).decorate] (B) -.0) circle (1cm).1.2). \draw (0.5.0mm) arc (0:30:3mm) -. \node[circle.

104 Producing Mathematical Graphics And there is more. you should have a closer look at the pgfplot package. It can even call the external gnuplot command to evaluate actual functions you wrote into the graph. . It provides everything you need to draw plots. if you have to draw plots of numerical data or functions.

While they are not fancy-looking. I will try to give some hints on how to teach LTEX new tricks and how to make it produce output that looks different from what is provided by default. You can check this out by looking up the \dum command in the index at the back of this book. Now I can simply write: \begin{lscommand} \ci{dum} \end{lscommand} \dum In this example. which typesets the command name and makes a corresponding entry in the index. A Instead of directly using the necessary L TEX commands to achieve this.1 New Commands. A However. pointing to every page where I mentioned the \dum command. they obey all the established rules of good typesetting. which is responsible for drawing the box around the command. 6. . I have created a package in which I defined new commands and environments for this purpose. where you’ll find an entry for \dum. there are situations where LTEX does not provide a command or environment that matches your needs. and a new command named \ci.Chapter 6 A Customising L TEX Documents produced with the commands you have learned up to this point will look acceptable to a large audience. and that they show up in the index at the end of the book. I am using both a new environment called lscommand. Environments and Packages You may have noticed that all the commands I introduce in this book are typeset in a box. which will make them easy to read and pleasant to look at. or the output produced by some existing command may not meet your requirements. A In this chapter.

the command requires two arguments: the name of the command you want to create. \newcommand{\tnss}{The not so Short Introduction to \LaTeXe} This is ‘‘\tnss’’ \ldots{} ‘‘\tnss’’ This is “The not so Short Introduction to A L TEX 2ε ” .1. But there is a special command in case you explicitly want this: \renewcommand. If you wanted to use more than one argument. The #1 tag gets replaced by the argument you specify. . “The not so Short IntroA duction to L TEX 2ε ” The next example illustrates how to define a new command that takes one argument. The num argument in square brackets is optional and specifies the number of arguments the new command takes (up to 9 are possible). use the \newcommand{name}[num]{definition} command. Basically. and the definition of the command. The first example defines a new command called \tnss.” Such a command could come in handy if you had to write the title of this book over and over again. The following two examples should help you to get the idea. 6. This is much easier than going through the whole A document to hunt down all the places where I have used some generic L TEX commands to draw a box around some word. It uses the same syntax as the \newcommand command. no argument allowed. . i. use #2 and so on.1 New Commands To add your own commands. If missing it defaults to 0. . \newcommand{\txsit}[1] {This is the \emph{#1} Short Introduction to \LaTeXe} % in the document body: \begin{itemize} \item \txsit{not so} \item \txsit{very} \end{itemize} • This is the not so Short IntroducA tion to L TEX 2ε • This is the very Short Introduction A to L TEX 2ε A L TEX will not allow you to create a new command that would overwrite an existing one. I can simply change the definition of the lscommand environment to create a new look.106 A Customising L TEX If I ever decide that I do not like the commands to be typeset in a box any more. This is short for “The Not A So Short Introduction to L TEX 2ε .e.

For example when you want to create a title environment which supresses its own indentation as well as the one on the following paragraph. Environments and Packages In certain cases you might also want to use the \providecommand command.1.2 New Environments Just as with the \newcommand command.1 New Commands. The \newenvironment command uses the following syntax: \newenvironment{name}[num]{before}{after} Again \newenvironment can have an optional argument. but if the command is already defined. The num argument is used the same way as in the \newcommand comA mand. L TEX makes sure that you do not define an environment that already exists. 6. you can use the \renewenvironment command. and more information on \hspace can be found on page 114. See page 5 for more information. If you ever want to change an existing command. For the \rule command see page 121. The material specified in the before argument is processed before the text in the environment gets processed. which can potentially have fatal effects.6.3 Extra Space When creating a new environment you may easily get bitten by extra spaces creeping in. 107 6. A L TEX 2ε will silently ignore it. It works like \newcommand. The example below illustrates the usage of the \newenvironment command. A There are some points to note about whitespace following L TEX commands. The \ignorespaces command in the . . It uses the same syntax as the \newenvironment command. there is a command to create your own environments. The commands used in this example will be explained later.1. . for \stretch go to page 114. The material in the after argument gets processed when the \end{name} command is encountered. \newenvironment{king} {\rule{1ex}{1ex}% \hspace{\stretch{1}}} {\hspace{\stretch{1}}% \rule{1ex}{1ex}} \begin{king} My humble subjects \ldots \end{king} My humble subjects .

do something different. Same here. \newenvironment{correct}% {\noindent\ignorespaces}% {\par\noindent% \ignorespacesafterend} \begin{correct} No space\\to the left. \end{correct} Same\\here. 6.108 A Customising L TEX begin block of the environment will make it ignore any space after executing the begin block. Same here.. } A Now you can call L TEX like this: latex ’\newcommand{\blackandwhite}{true}\input{test. No space to the left.. }{ % "color" mode. do something. See the space to the left. In that connection it might be interesting to produce difA ferent versions of the same document by calling L TEX with commandline parameters. \newenvironment{simple}% {\noindent}% {\par\noindent} \begin{simple} See the space\\to the left. With the \ignorespacesafterend A L TEX will issue an \ignorespaces after the special ‘end’ processing has occured. you might be using Makefiles to build your A L TEX projects. \end{simple} Same\\here. The end block is a bit more tricky as special processing occurs at the end of an environment. .1.4 A Commandline L TEX If you work on a Unix like OS. By setting \blackandwhite to false the color version of the document would be produced. If you add the following structure to your document: \usepackage{ifthen} \ifthenelse{\equal{\blackandwhite}{true}}{ % "black and white" mode.tex}’ First the command \blackandwhite gets defined and then the actual file is read with input.

2 6.1: Example Package. Table 6. 6. {\small The small and \textbf{bold} Romans ruled} {\Large all of great big \textit{Italy}. . In some cases. Figure 6.2. Writing a package basically consists of copying the contents of your document preamble into a separate file with a name ending in .3 shows the absolute point size for these commands as implemented in the standard document classes.1. \ProvidesPackage tells A L TEX the name of the package and will allow it to issue a sensible error message when you try to include a package twice. one might like to change fonts and sizes by hand.6. The actual size of each font is a design issue and depends on the document class and its options. \ProvidesPackage{package name} for use at the very beginning of your package file. ).5 Your Own Package If you define a lot of new environments and commands. you can use the commands listed in Tables 6. of .1 and 6. the preamble of your document will get quite long.1 shows a small example package that contains the commands defined in the examples above. it is a good idea to create A a L TEX package containing all your command and environment definitions. To do this. There is one special command. In this situation.sty. .1 Fonts and Sizes Font Changing Commands A L TEX chooses the appropriate font and font size based on the logical structure of the document (sections.2 Fonts and Sizes 109 6. footnotes. % Demo Package by Tobias Oetiker \ProvidesPackage{demopack} \newcommand{\tnss}{The not so Short Introduction to \LaTeXe} \newcommand{\txsit}[1]{The \emph{#1} Short Introduction to \LaTeXe} \newenvironment{king}{\begin{quote}}{\end{quote}} Figure 6.2. You can then use the \usepackage command to make the package available in your document. .} The small and bold Romans ruled all great big Italy.

.} roman typewriter medium upright slanted emphasized \textsf{... \textrm{. They are used to build groups. 1 1 \par is equivalent to a blank line Table 6...} \texttt{.110 A Customising L TEX A One important feature of L TEX 2ε is that the font attributes are independent.} \textsc{. The font size commands also change the line spacing. and still keep the bold or slant attribute set earlier.} \textbf{..} \textsl{.} \textnormal{.} \textup{.... Note the position of the \par command in the next two examples.4. He likes {\LARGE large and {\small small} letters}.1: Fonts.... \tiny \scriptsize \footnotesize \small \normalsize \large tiny font \Large \LARGE \huge \Huge larger font very small font quite small font very large font small font normal font huge large font largest ....} sans serif bold face italic Small Caps document font Table 6.} \textmd{. In math mode you can use the font changing commands to temporarily exit math mode and enter some normal text. but only if the paragraph ends within the scope of the font size command. The closing curly brace } should therefore not come too early.. refer to Table 6.} \textit{. He likes large and small letters. If you want to switch to another font for math typesetting you need another special set of commands..2: Font Sizes.... This means that you can issue size or even font changing commands.. In connection with the font size commands. Groups limit the scope of most L TEX commands. curly braces play a significant A role..} \emph{.

6.2 Fonts and Sizes

111

Table 6.3: Absolute Point Sizes in Standard Classes. size \tiny \scriptsize \footnotesize \small \normalsize \large \Large \LARGE \huge \Huge 10pt (default) 5pt 7pt 8pt 9pt 10pt 12pt 14pt 17pt 20pt 25pt 11pt option 6pt 8pt 9pt 10pt 11pt 12pt 14pt 17pt 20pt 25pt 12pt option 6pt 8pt 10pt 11pt 12pt 14pt 17pt 20pt 25pt 25pt

Table 6.4: Math Fonts. \mathrm{...} \mathbf{...} \mathsf{...} \mathtt{...} \mathit{...} \mathcal{...} \mathnormal{...} Roman Font Boldface Font Sans Serif Font Typewriter Font Italic Font CALLIGRAPHIC FONT N ormal F ont

112

A Customising L TEX

{\Large Don’t read this! It is not true. You can believe me!\par}

Don’t read this! It is not true. You can believe me!

{\Large This is not true either. But remember I am a liar.}\par

This is not true either. But remember I am a liar.

If you want to activate a size changing command for a whole paragraph of text or even more, you might want to use the environment syntax for font changing commands.
\begin{Large} This is not true. But then again, what is these days \ldots \end{Large}

This is not true. But then again, what is these days . . .

This will save you from counting lots of curly braces.

6.2.2

Danger, Will Robinson, Danger

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, it is dangerous to clutter your document with explicit commands like this, because they work in opposition A to the basic idea of L TEX, which is to separate the logical and visual markup of your document. This means that if you use the same font changing command in several places in order to typeset a special kind of information, you should use \newcommand to define a “logical wrapper command” for the font changing command.
\newcommand{\oops}[1]{% \textbf{#1}} Do not \oops{enter} this room, it’s occupied by \oops{machines} of unknown origin and purpose. Do not enter this room, it’s occupied by machines of unknown origin and purpose.

This approach has the advantage that you can decide at some later stage that you want to use some visual representation of danger other than \textbf, without having to wade through your document, identifying all the occurrences of \textbf and then figuring out for each one whether it was used for pointing out danger or for some other reason.

6.2.3

Advice

To conclude this journey into the land of fonts and font sizes, here is a little word of advice:

6.3 Spacing Remember The MO RE fonts use in a document, the more readable and beautiful it become .

113

!

you

s

6.3
6.3.1

Spacing
Line Spacing

If you want to use larger inter-line spacing in a document, you can change its value by putting the
\linespread{factor}

command into the preamble of your document. Use \linespread{1.3} for “one and a half” line spacing, and \linespread{1.6} for “double” line spacing. Normally the lines are not spread, so the default line spread factor is 1. Note that the effect of the \linespread command is rather drastic and not appropriate for published work. So if you have a good reason for changing the line spacing you might want to use the command:
\setlength{\baselineskip}{1.5\baselineskip}

{\setlength{\baselineskip}% {1.5\baselineskip} This paragraph is typeset with the baseline skip set to 1.5 of what it was before. Note the par command at the end of the paragraph.\par} This paragraph has a clear purpose, it shows that after the curly brace has been closed, everything is back to normal.

This paragraph is typeset with the baseline skip set to 1.5 of what it was before. Note the par command at the end of the paragraph. This paragraph has a clear purpose, it shows that after the curly brace has been closed, everything is back to normal.

6.3.2

Paragraph Formatting

A In L TEX, there are two parameters influencing paragraph layout. By placing a definition like

\setlength{\parindent}{0pt} \setlength{\parskip}{1ex plus 0.5ex minus 0.2ex}

use the indentfirst package in the ‘tools’ bundle. To avoid this. To create a non-indented paragraph. Its lines get spaced more loosely now as well. This\hspace{1. this also has its effect on the table of contents. The length in the simplest case is just a number plus a unit. This is a space of 1. use: \hspace{length} If such a space should be kept even if it falls at the end or the start of a line. 2 . The plus and minus parts of the length above tell TEX that it can compress and expand the inter paragraph skip by the amount specified. 6.114 A Customising L TEX in the preamble of the input file. you might want to move the two commands from the preamble into your document to some place below the command \tableofcontents or to not use them at all.5 cm. you can change the layout of paragraphs.5.3. because you’ll find that most professional books use indenting and not spacing to separate paragraphs. you can use \indent at the beginning of the paragraph. But beware. use \hspace* instead of \hspace.5cm}is a space of 1. To indent the first paragraph after each section head. In continental Europe. this will only have an effect when \parindent is not set to zero.2 Obviously. you can use \noindent as the first command of the paragraph. The most important units are listed in Table 6. if this is necessary to properly fit the paragraphs onto the page. To add horizontal space. paragraphs are often separated by some space and not indented. If you want to indent a paragraph that is not indented.5 cm.3 Horizontal Space A L TEX determines the spaces between words and sentences automatically. These two commands increase the space between two paragraphs while setting the paragraph indent to zero. This might come in handy when you start a document with body text and not with a sectioning command.

If necessary. is determined auA tomatically by L TEX. mm cm in pt em ex millimetre ≈ 1/25 inch centimetre = 10 mm inch = 25. x\hspace{\stretch{1}} x\hspace{\stretch{3}}x x x x When using horizontal space together with text. it may make sense to make the space adjust its size relative to the size of the current font. If the space should be preserved at the top or at the bottom of a page.5: TEX Units.6. subsections. \vspace*. sections. . use the starred version of the command. It stretches until all the remaining space on a line is filled up.4 mm point ≈ 1/72 inch ≈ 1 mm 3 approx width of an ‘M’ in the current font approx height of an ‘x’ in the current font The command \stretch{n} generates a special rubber space. This can be done by using the text-relative units em and ex: {\Large{}big\hspace{1em}y}\\ {\tiny{}tin\hspace{1em}y} big y tin y 6. .3. .3 Spacing 115 Table 6. If multiple \hspace{\stretch{n}} commands are issued on the same line. they occupy all available space in proportion of their respective stretch factors. . additional vertical space between two paragraphs can be added with the command: \vspace{length} This command should normally be used between two empty lines.4 Vertical Space The space between paragraphs. instead of \vspace.

there is a good reason for the page layout to be as it is. It then automatically picks the right text margins. before you launch into a “Let’s make that narrow page a bit A wider” frenzy. But enough of the cautioning.\pagebreak Additional space between two lines of the same paragraph or within a table is specified with the \\[length] command. So if you increase the width of your body text. Some text \ldots \vspace{\stretch{1}} This goes onto the last line of the page. . This is because it is difficult for the eyes to move from the end of one line to the start of the next one. The figure was produced with the layout package from the tools bundle. you can change them. . Sure. can be used to typeset text on the last line of a page. You will find that there are also about 66 characters per line. Figure 6. But take a look at your favourite book4 and count the number of characters on a standard text line. it looks awfully narrow. As with most things in L TEX. in connection with \pagebreak. take a few seconds to think. Naturally. 6.4 Page Layout A L TEX 2ε allows you to specify the paper size in the \documentclass command. but sometimes you may not be happy with the predefined values. You will find that there are no more than A about 66 characters on each line. keep in mind that you are making life difficult for the readers of your paper. compared to your off-the-shelf MS Word page. .2 shows all the parameters that can be changed. . This is also why newspapers are typeset in multiple columns.3 WAIT! .116 A Customising L TEX The \stretch command. or to centre text vertically on a page. Experience shows that the reading gets difficult as soon as there are more characters on a single line. 3 4 macros/latex/required/tools I mean a real printed book produced by a reputable publisher. They are usually used in the document preamble. I promised to tell you how you do it . Now do the same on your L TEX page. . With \bigskip and \smallskip you can skip a predefined amount of vertical space without having to worry about exact numbers. A L TEX provides two commands to change these parameters.

.4 Page Layout 117 4 i c 5 i c 6 i 2 T i c T T cHeader T T Margin Notes Body 7 i E ' 9i ' 10 E i i ' 3 E ' c ' 1i E T i 11 8 i c E Footer 1 3 5 7 9 11 one inch + \hoffset \oddsidemargin = 22pt or \evensidemargin \headheight = 12pt \textheight = 595pt \marginparsep = 7pt \footskip = 27pt \hoffset = 0pt \paperwidth = 597pt 2 4 6 8 10 one inch + \voffset \topmargin = 22pt \headsep = 19pt \textwidth = 360pt \marginparwidth = 106pt \marginparpush = 5pt (not shown) \voffset = 0pt \paperheight = 845pt Figure 6.2: Page Layout Parameters.6.

The following 3 commands allow you to determine the width. 6. height and depth of a text string. To add one centimetre to the overall text width. I rather try to base things on the width or height of other page elements. For the width of a figure this could be \textwidth in order to make it fill the page. I put the following commands into the document preamble: \addtolength{\hoffset}{-0.118 A Customising L TEX The first command assigns a fixed value to any of the parameters: \setlength{parameter}{length} The second command adds a length to any of the parameters: \addtolength{parameter}{length} This second command is actually more useful than the \setlength command.5cm} \addtolength{\textwidth}{1cm} In this context. It allows you to use arithmetic operations in the argument of \setlength and other places where you can enter numeric values into function arguments. \settoheight{variable}{text} \settodepth{variable}{text} \settowidth{variable}{text} The example below shows a possible application of these commands. I avoid using absolute lengths in L TEX documents.5 More Fun With Lengths A Whenever possible. you might want to look at the calc package. because you can now work relative to the existing settings. .

119 d – finally does not show up here at all. The pos parameter can take one of the letters c.6 Boxes \flushleft \newenvironment{vardesc}[1]{% \settowidth{\parindent}{#1:\ } \makebox[0pt][r]{#1:\ }}{} \begin{displaymath} a^2+b^2=c^2 \end{displaymath} \begin{vardesc}{Where}$a$.finally does not show up here at all. In the past chapters you have already encountered some boxes. You just have to make sure that their combined width is not larger than the textwidth. This means that you can easily arrange two tables or images side by side. for example. The tabular environment and the \includegraphics. this is a very simplistic version of what really happens. b – are adjoin to the right angle of a right-angled triangle. $b$ -. although I did not tell you. You can also pack a paragraph of your choice into a box with either the \parbox[pos]{width}{text} command or the \begin{minipage}[pos]{width} text \end{minipage} environment. Isn’t that puzzling? \end{vardesc} a2 + b2 = c2 Where: a. $d$ -. both produce a box. which is elastic so that a series of words can be squeezed or stretched as to exactly fill a line on the page.is the hypotenuse of the triangle and feels lonely. You can put virtually everything into a box. I admit. each letter is a little box. c – is the hypotenuse of the triangle and feels lonely. which is then glued to other letters to form words. Each box will then be handled by L TEX as if it were a single letter. but the point is that TEX operates on glue and boxes. Isn’t that puzzling? 6.6 Boxes A L TEX builds up its pages by pushing around boxes.6. Letters are not the only things that can be boxes. These are again glued to other words.are adjoin to the right angle of a right-angled triangle. At first. t or b to . including A other boxes. $c$ -. but with special glue.

there is also a class of boxing commands that operates only on horizontally aligned material. it’s called \mbox. while almost anything is possible in a minipage.8\width][r]{Bummer. the obvious next step is to go for This means it can be smaller than the material inside the box.120 A Customising L TEX control the vertical alignment of the box. and can be A used to prevent L TEX from breaking two words. I am too wide I am too wide} \par \framebox[1cm][l]{never never mind. We already know one of them. 5 . you can also use \width. They are set from values obtained by measuring the typeset text. As you can put boxes inside boxes. You can even set the width to 0pt so that the text inside the box will be typeset without influencing the surrounding boxes. The following example shows you some things you could do with the \makebox and \framebox commands. flushright.1\width]{Guess I’m Guess I’m framed now! framed now!} \par \framebox[0. Bummer. \makebox[width][pos]{text} width defines the width of the resulting box as seen from the outside.you am I this? Can so read mind. these horizontal box packers give you ultimate flexibility. While \parbox packs up a whole paragraph doing line breaking and everything. width takes a length argument specifying the width of the box. The pos parameter takes a one letter value: center. or spread the text to fill the box. The command \framebox works exactly the same as \makebox. \makebox[\textwidth]{% c e n t r a l}\par central \makebox[\textwidth][s]{% s p r e a d}\par s p r e \framebox[1. \depth.5 Besides the length expressions. It simply packs up a series of boxes into another one. relative to the baseline of the surrounding text. so am I} Can you read this? a d Now that we control the horizontal. but it draws a box around the text. The main difference between a minipage and a \parbox is that you cannot use all commands and environments inside a parbox. \height. and \totalheight in the width parameter. flushleft.

but not Aaaaaaa r one in line noticed that even the next g something terrible had happened to her.7ex}{aa}% \raisebox{-1.5ex}{h}}} she shouted. but not even the next one in line noticed that something terrible had happened to her. \depth.1pt}% \rule[1mm]{1cm}{5mm}% \rule{3mm}{.3ex}{a}% \raisebox{-0. . has been created with a \rule command. The 121 \raisebox{lift}[extend-above-baseline][extend-below-baseline]{text} command lets you define the vertical properties of a box.7 Rules A the vertical.1pt} This is useful for drawing vertical and horizontal lines.2ex}{g}% \raisebox{-4. for example. The line on the title page. 6 Total control is only to be obtained by controlling both the horizontal and the vertical . \raisebox{0pt}[0pt][0pt]{\Large% \textbf{Aaaa\raisebox{-0. h 6.7 Rules A few pages back you may have noticed the command \rule[lift]{width}{height} In normal use it produces a simple black box.2ex}{r}% \raisebox{-2.. in order to act upon the size of the box inside the text argument. she shouted..6 No problem for L TEX.1pt}% \rule[-1mm]{5mm}{1cm}% \rule{3mm}{. You can use \width.6. and \totalheight in the first three parameters. \rule{3mm}{. The End. \height.

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A. 3. This has lead to a situation where we have free TEX implementations for almost every Operating System under the Sun. the TEX/L TEX program for processing your L TEX source files into typeset PDF or DVI documents. Mac OS X and Windows to get TEX working. But you can only call the result of your work TEX if the program passes a set of tests Knuth has also provided.Appendix A A Installing L TEX Knuth has published the source to TEX back in a time when nobody knew about OpenSource and or Free Software. The License that comes with TEX lets you do whatever you want with the source. For all platforms there are many programs that fit the requirements above. a PDF/DVI viewer program for previewing and printing your documents. a program to handle PostScript files and images for inclusion into your documents.1 What to Install For using LaTeX on any computer system. you need 3 essential pieces of software: 1. In this chapter you will give some hints on what to install on Linux. 4. a text editor for editing your LaTeX source files. Here we just tell about the ones we know. . A A 2. like and have some experience with.

sourceforge. which is a precompiled LaTeX distribution for OS X. It contains all the basic programs and files reA quired to compile L TEX documents. A. Fink users use the command fink install tetex .tug. The coolest feature in my eyes is.net/.com/ and purchase a full version for 39 EUR.2.3 Treat yourself to PDFView Use PDFView for viewing PDF files generated by LaTeX. general purpose text editor. If you are neither using Macports nor Fink. MacTeX provides a full LaTeX installation plus a number of additional tools. If you know an equivalent OpenSource tool for the Mac. You can download a free trial version from the Textmate website on http://macromates.3 A.miktex. Download and install PDFView. please let us know.3. it also provides excellent LaTeX support and integrates tightly with the PDFView previewer.124 A Installing L TEX A. A.org/mactex/. .1 TEX on Mac OS X Picking an Editor Base your LaTeX environment on the TextMate editor! TextMate is not only a highly customizable.2. download MacTeX. get a copy of the excellent MiKTeX distribution from http://www. Open PDFViews preferences dialog and make sure that the automatically reload documents option is enabled and that PDFSync support is set to the TextMate preset. install LaTeX using these package managers. This combination of tools.2. A.org/. Get MaxTeX from http: //www. lets you use LaTeX in a convenient and Mac-like manner.2 A.1 TEX on Windows Getting TEX First. Macport users install LaTeX with port install tetex . that A MiKTeX will download missing L TEX packages on the fly and install them magically while compiling a document. PDFView is an open-source application can be downloaded from the PDFView website on http://pdfview. it integrates tightly with your LaTeX text editor.2 Get a TEX Distribution If you are already using Macports or Fink for installing Unix software under OS X.

org A.toolscenter. You can get it. together with its own front-end GhostView from http://www.sourceforge. A • emacs (with auctex) – a Linux editor that integrates tightly with L TEX through the add-on AucTeX package. Get your copy from http://www.4 TEX on Linux 125 A. • ghostscript – a PostScript preview program.cs.edu/~ghost/. A.org. TeXnicCenter integrates nicely with MiKTeX.latexeditor. You may want to have a look at the open source photoshop alternative Gimp available from http://gimp-win. The program that helps you deal with this is called GhostScript.A.3. • imagemagick – a free program for converting bitmap images. • xpdf and acrobat – a PDF preview program. chances are high that L TEX is already installed on your system.net/.4 TEX on Linux A If you work with Linux. or at least available on the installation source you used to setup.2 A A L TEX editor A L TEX is a programming language for text documents. TeXnicCenter uses many concepts from the programming-world to provide a nice and efficient A L TEX writing environment in Windows. Use your package manager to install the following packages: A • tetex or texlive – the base TEX/L TEX setup. .3 Working with graphics A Working with high quality graphics in L TEX means. • gimp – a free photoshop look-a-like.3. • inkscape – a free illustrator/corel draw look-a-like. that you have to use Postscript (eps) or PDF as your picture format. If you deal with bitmap graphics (photos and scanned material).wisc. An another excellent choice is the editor provided by the LEd project available on http://www.

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P. Reading. Massachusetts. A A A [8] L TEX3 Project Team.Bibliography A [1] Leslie Lamport. Chris Rowley. The L TEX Companion. Carlisle. ISBN 0-201-36299-6. go and ask your local A L TEX guru for help. It should be contained in a file called local. A Chris Rowley. L TEX 2ε for Class and Package writers. Comes with the L TEX 2ε distribution as fntguide. L TEX 2ε Font selection. A [4] Michel Goossens. Volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Bernd Raichle. some lazy sysops do not provide such a document. Addison-Wesley. Comes A with the L TEX 2ε distribution as clsguide. (2nd Edition). Sebastian Rahtz and Frank Mittelbach. AddisonWesley. available from the same source your A L TEX distribution came from. L TEX 2ε for authors. The L TEX Graphics Companion. Massachusetts. 2004. Reading. 1997. Comes with the ‘graphics’ bundle as grfguide. Addison-Wesley. Addison-Wesley. Unfortunately. Comes with the ‘tools’ bundle as . ISBN 0-20152983-1. ISBN 0-201-13448-9. second edition. 1984. [2] Donald E. Reading. A A [7] L TEX3 Project Team. Massachusetts. ISBN 0-201-85469-4. A A [5] Each L TEX installation should provide a so-called L TEX Local Guide. Reading. Johannes Braams. second edition. which explains the things that are special to the local system. The TEXbook. Knuth. A A A [6] L TEX3 Project Team.tex. Packages in the ‘graphics’ bundle. [3] Frank Mittelbach. David Carlisle. In this case.tex. Comes with the L TEX 2ε distribution as usrguide. Massachusetts. A New Implementation A of L TEX’s verbatim Environments. L TEX: A Document Preparation System. 1994. [9] D.tex. Michel Goossens.tex. [10] Rainer Schöpf.tex.

Oxford University Press.ch [18] Till Tantau.A Tutorial. Available online from CTAN: //help/Catalogue/catalogue. available from the same source your L TEX distribution came from. Cyrillic A A languages support in L TEX. Downloadable from http://cm. Download from CTAN://graphics/ pgf/base/doc/generic/pgf/pgfmanual. Downloadable from CTAN Y with X -pic distribution Y [15] John D. Comes with the L TEX 2ε distribution as cyrguide. Graphics in L TEX 2ε . ISBN 0-19-509685-1. Werner Lemberg and L TEX3 Project Team.) A [17] Urs Oswald.ursoswald. 0-19-509686-X (pbk. and METAPOST . Hobby. A [11] Vladimir Volovich. Both downloadable from http://www.html A [13] Keith Reckdahl. Using EPS Graphics in L TEX 2ε Documents. [12] Graham Williams.128 BIBLIOGRAPHY A verbatim.com/who/hobby/ [16] Alan Hoenig. Available online from CTAN://info/epslatex. which explains everything and much more than you ever wanted to know A about EPS files and their use in L TEX documents. The TeX Catalogue is a very complete listing of A many TEX and L TEX related packages. TikZ&PGF Manual.ps [14] Kristoffer H.tex.bell-labs. 1998. X -pic User’s Guide. containing some Java source files for generating arbitrary circles and ellipses within the picture environment. A User’s Manual for METAPOST. TEX Unbound.dtx. Rose.pdf .

. 49. 61 amssymb. 60. 23 \:. 34 "-. 20. 58 \. 34 $. 40 accent. 22 −. 58 -. 42. 54 \arcsin. 36. 24 B B5 paper. 55–59. 33. 33 \author. 33 \alph. 33 \Alpha. 60. 34 "‘. 116 \\*. 26 \arccos. 43 arrow symbols. 11 A5 paper. 35. 85 A A4 paper. 26 apostrophe. . 25. 34 \addtolength. 22 \-. 22 .. 118 A advantages of L TEX. 34 "---. 67 amsmath. 54 \arg. 3 æ. 81 align.Index Symbols \!. 39. 58 \arraystretch. 49 \. 63 amsthm. 11 å. 21 "’. 36 backslash. 33 \asbuk. 54 article class. space after. 34 \[. 24 abstract. 10 \Asbuk. 59 ". 50 \\. 49 amsbsy. 21 –. 24 aeguill. 34 . . 34 \backmatter. 50 ~. 54 \appendix. 51. 36 ansinew.. 80 acute. 57. 40. 22 —. 34 "=. 63 American Mathematical Society. 11 babel. 19 \]. 57 \Alph. 62 \and. 5 . 54 array. 24 Acrobat Reader. 36 applemac. 59 \@. 61. . 34 "<. 52. 61 amsfonts. 54 \arctan. 19. 34 ">.

92. 21 \:. 51.. 42 color. 59 \@. 58 \bmod. 42. 47 \cline. 58 \cdot. 89 \begin. 116 INDEX C calc. 56 \bigg. 73 CJK package. 54 bold face. 116 binary relations. 33 \Alpha. 5 \bar. 54 \arg. 47 cases. 47 \clearpage. 101 \Beta. 63 \and. 56 \Bigg. 33 \asbuk.. 73 bibliography. 53 center. 53 braces. 56 brazilian. 53 \cdots. 63 \bibitem. 56 \bigg. 90 bm. 38. 10 comma. 54 \arcsin. 55 \binom. 19 \]. 34 \[. 61 Bmatrix. 60 \boldmath. 36 \arccos. 54 \arctan. 118 \Alph. 58 \-. 33 \author. 52 block. 39. 33 \alph. 55 blackboard bold. 118 \caption. 50 \\. 85 \backmatter. 50 \addtolength. 96 \circle*. 61 \boldsymbol. 23 commands. 5 \!. 54 \arraystretch. 35 \chaptermark. 58 \. 54 base font size. 56 \Bigg. 88 coloured text. 5 \bar. 52. 27 \cite. 116 \\*. 101 \Beta. 63 \bibitem. 96 . 73 \Big. 46. 88. 36 \backslash. 43 \Asbuk. 61 book class. 110 bold symbols. 35. 30 \cleardoublepage. 10 brace horizontal. 11 beamer. 76 \ci. 58 bmatrix. 59 \. 92.130 \backslash. 40. 105 \circle. 73 \Big. 36 \appendix. 56 \bigskip. 56 \bigskip. 19. 55 binomial coefficient. 36. 38. 39 \chapter. 56 \big. 54 \begin. 56 \big.

54 \cot. 53 \headheight. 47 \footskip. 21 \ldots. 54 \date.INDEX \binom. 54 \coth. 50 \exp. 46. 53 \DeclareMathOperator. 96 \circle*. 54 \deg. 23. 108 \iiiint. 75. 72. 114 \hyphenation. 117 \headsep. 76 131 . 42 \cos. 53 \cdots. 15 \indent. 59 \ifpdf. 59 \include. 88 \hspace. 55 \dim. 53 \chapter. 37. 21 \flq. 108 \ignorespacesafterend. 110 \end. 29 \frqq. 61 \boldsymbol. 36 \frq. 9. 35 \chaptermark. 76 \inf. 54 \input. 107. 121 \hline. 20 \idotsint. 21 \LaTeXe. 96 \cite. 14. 29 \fussy. 76 \ci. 29 \foldera. 107. 54 \dfrac. 59 \iint. 54 \displaystyle. 15 \includegraphics. 59 \iiint. 105 \emph. 92 \enumBul. 85. 29 \dum. 121 \det. 54 \label. 39 \ker. 120 \frenchspacing. 33 \enumLat. 55 \item. 53 \left. 20 \gcd. 14. 50 \LaTeX. 29 \flqq. 55 \framebox. 34 \frontmatter. 56 \leftmark. 120. 114 \index. 54 \hat. 47 \clearpage. 33 \eqref. 20 \dq. 38. 60 \documentclass. 61 \caption. 54 \fbox. 54 \depth. 38. 100 \folderb. 46. 120. 42 \hom. 117 \height. 100 \footnote. 73 \cleardoublepage. 87 \ignorespaces. 117 \frac. 83. 119 \includeonly. 15 \int. 105 \circle. 33 \enumEng. 55 \bmod. 54 \cosh. 54 \csc. 37. 54 \href. 54 \boldmath. 47 \cdot. 87. 36 \ddots. 47 \cline. 33.

54 \printindex. 117 \marginparsep. 119. 110 \paragraph. 59 \quad. 118 \settoheight. 21. 107 \ProvidesPackage. 53 \overleftarrow. 120 \min. 35 \partial. 79 \renewcommand. 76 \prod. 93–99 \qbezier. 92. 55 \protect. 37. 113. 93. 59 \raisebox. 118 \settowidth. 100 \listoffigures. 35. 121 \ref. 58 \right. 24. 46 \ln. 54 \lim. 46. 76 \selectlanguage. 100 \qedhere. 107 \newline. 57 \nopagebreak. 93. 91. 114 \nolinebreak. 35 \parbox. 117 \marginparwidth. 121 \savebox.. 99 \scriptscriptstyle. 107 \right. 61 \noindent. 55 \phantom.132 \lg. 98. 117 \paperwidth. 94. 43 \multiput. 98. 100 \overbrace. 54 \log. 62 \qquad. 46 \listoftables. 25 \setlength. 97. 109 \put. 120 \parindent. 54 \multicolumn. 99 \newtheorem. 118 \settodepth. 54 \pagebreak. 13 \paperheight. 117 \oval. 54 \limsup. 118 \sin. 51. 36. 56. 52 \max. 120 \makeindex. 54 \sinh. 107 \newenvironment. 54 \section. 19 \newsavebox. 59 \pmod. 54 \mbox. 106 \renewenvironment. 86 \makebox. 100 \linebreak. 47 \sectionmark. 117 \par. 54 \mainmatter. 19 \not. 53 \overrightarrow. 60 \scriptstyle. 19 \linespread. 36 \marginparpush. 54 . 47. 60 \sec. 44. 107. 51. 19 \nonumber. 76 \rule. 54 \liminf. 56 \rightmark. 19 \newpage. 54 \line. 47 \providecommand. 106. 54 \overline. 113 \part. 59. 113 \parskip. 117 \mathbb. 64 \oddsidemargin. 79 INDEX \pagestyle. 37. 97 \newcommand. 113 \linethickness. 54 \Pr. 19 \pageref. 75 \maketitle.

22 D \texteuro. 59 diagonal dots. 50 \displaystyle. 22 \textheight. 23. 54 \thinlines. 26 \tan. 37 \TeX. 53 dimensions. 29 \totalheight. 36 \textstyle. 35 \widetilde. 35 \width. 43 \textwidth. 54 \thicklines. 22 \thispagestyle. 53 \subparagraph. 53 \tfrac. 54 \sloppy. 5. 100 \deg. 115 \stretch. 26 \tanh. 53 document font size. 26 \tag. 98. 54 \sum. 41 \sqrt. 35 \cos. 54 \texorpdfstring. 54 \underline. 94 display style. 10. 60 109 doc. 107. 115 \widehat. 121 \tnss. 99 \usepackage. 100 degree symbol.INDEX \vec. 56 comments. 38. 51 \usebox. 6 \subsubsection. 21 \det. 54 \tableofcontents. 43 \theoremstyle. 11 133 . 35 cp1251. 39 \today. 54 \cot. 116 \vector. 12 \usetikzlibrary. 60 dcolumn. 121 \subsectionmark. 117 Deutsch. 55 \cosh. 23 dash. 120. 53 \underbrace. 53 \verbatiminput. 117 \ddots. 87 curly braces. 98. 13. 26. 36 \depth. 54 cp866nav. 55 \vspace. 92. 49. 61 \DeclareMathOperator. 95. displaymath. 54 \tabcolsep. 53 \dim. 50 cp850. 54 cross-references. 103 \vdots. 54 \sup. 25. 51 \verb. 120. 106 description. 121 \dfrac. 20 \smallskip. 55 \ud. 43 \coth. 21 \csc. 76 comment. 13 delimiters. 95 \smash. 120. 6 \substack. 55 decimal alignment. 117 \date. 78 \stackrel. 114 \unitlength. 110 \textcelsius. 54 \topmargin. 56 \title. 53 \subsection. 86.

41. 96. 90 bmatrix. 46 tabular. 39 eqnarray. 119. 40 quote. 39 frame. 113 double sided. 26 cp850. 73 tikzpicture. 26 T1. 50 enumerate. 26 cp866nav. 58 cases. 45. 105 environments Bmatrix. 50 figure. 58 center. 33 \enumEng. 38. 9. 50 INDEX E eepic. 58 block. 39 \enumLat.134 document title. 26 cp1251. 27. 40 table. 33 latin1. 11 \dq. 26. 20 dot. 39 lscommand. 53 dotless ı and . 90 itemize. 41. 91. 50 equation. 58 epic. 58 Vmatrix. 92 \enumBul. 26 \end. 33 . 33 enumerate. 27 T2C. 26 applemac. 33 T2A. 57 equation*. 120 parbox. 105 matrix. 119 thebibliography. 97 pmatrix. 24 dots. 91. 78 verse. 38. 57 \eqref. 27 input ansinew. 110 empty. 27 OT1. 50 equation. 58 proof. 23 em-dash. 27 X2. 83 encodings font LGR. 33 T2B. 29 \dum. 22 \emph. 53 double line spacing. 22 Encapsulated PostScript. 102 verbatim. 91 eqnarray. 46 flushleft. 26 koi8-ru. 40 align. 49 A L TEX. 120 picture. 39 comment. 92 quotation. 71. 53 three. 39 flushright. 62 pspicture. 14. 92. 26 utf8x. 39 displaymath. 13 en-dash. 6 description. 58 minipage. 57 array. 26 macukr. 45. 57. 58 abstract. 27. 33 T2*. 40 vmatrix. 96 ellipsis. 11 \documentclass.

72 . 33 footer.eps. 50 equation system.ins. 14. 111 \mathcal. 27 font size. 14 \LARGE. 111 \mathnormal. 110 \huge.log. 11 \exp.sty. 33 T2B. 27 OT1. 23 executive paper.ind. 50 multiple.lof. 110 \scriptsize. 111 \mathrm. 49 \frac. 13 . 110 \textsc. 110 \textmd. 110 \Large.toc. 47 \footnotesize. 27 X2. 29 \flqq. 50 eurosym. 110 \Huge.tex. 75 . 14 . 12 font encodings. 110 \texttt. 111 \mathtt. 47 135 F fancyhdr. 76 . 26 LGR. 39 \foldera. 110 \textnormal. 14.lot. 57 equation. 27 T2C. 110 \tiny. 76–78 \fbox. 26 T1. 26. 33 T2A. 45. 14 . 78 . 110 \textup. 110 \footskip. 57 equation*. 110 \large. 37. 110 \small. 117 formulae. 109 \footnotesize. 12.aux. 52 exscale. 100 font. 111 \mathsf. 27. 72 . 44 \flq. 14. 13 . 14 . 39 flushright. 13 floating bodies. 110 . 55 fraction.INDEX amsmath. 13 \footnote. 110 \mathbf.dtx. 55 fragile commands. 27. 110 \textsf. 110 font encoding. 12 extension. 13. 100 \folderb. 110 \textrm. 21 figure. 13 . 110 \textbf. 46 file types. 54 exponent.dvi. 29 flushleft. 111 \mathit.ilg. 8. 110 \textsl. 14 . 14 . 14 .idx. 111 \normalsize. 110 fontenc. 14 . 109. 14 .cls. 33 T2*. 110 \textit.fd.

117 \height. 33 latin1. 87 \ifpdf. 54 horizontal brace. 26 applemac. 87. 75. 110 H A HL TEX. 25 italic. 26 utf8x. 114 \href. 53 dots. 117 textttheadings. 55 international. 88 \hspace. 125 graphics. 107. 71 graphicx. 20 INDEX I \idotsint. 33. 83. 88 grave. 39 itemize. 10. 26 cp850. 78 German. 28 \frenchspacing. 20 hypertext. 114 index. 108 \ignorespacesafterend. 34 \frontmatter. 26. 110 \item. 15 \indent. 107. 120 French. 59 ifpdf. 42 \hom. 14. 120. 110 \huge. 13 \headheight. 108 \iiiint. 24 Greek. 12 \ignorespaces. 59 \iint. 25. 83. 29 \frqq. 83. 54 \input. 33 \int. 114 \Huge. 90 \framebox.136 frame. 110 hyperref. 53 header. 15 \includegraphics. 87 ifthen. 80. 87. 53 space. 88 . 26. 59 \include. 52 grouping. 125 Gimp. 29 \fussy. 13 \headsep. 121 \hline. 7 inputenc. 32 Greek letters. 71. 119 \includeonly. 22 hyphenat. 53 line. 39 G \gcd. 30 \hat. 26 input file. 30 A hL TEXp. 75 \index. 114 indentfirst. 26 cp1251. 26 macukr. 36 \frq. 78 \hyphenation. 72. 59 \iiint. 29 GhostScript. 26 koi8-ru. 71. 76 \inf. 79 hyphen. 12. 55 integral operator. 54 geometry. 125 GhostView. 85. 15 input encodings ansinew. 26 cp866nav.

111 \mathnormal. 1 koi8-ru. 75 makeindex program. 4 \LaTeXe. 26. 116 \ldots.. 46. 57 longtable. 120 METAPOST. 2 language. 111 \mathcal. 75 \makeindex. 19 line spacing. 26 \mainmatter. 75 makeidx package. 76 legal paper. 21. 120 makeidx. 39 \leftmark. 83 mhchem. 58 matrix. 26 layout. 54 long equations. 58 \max. 56 functions. 110 \large. 54 minus. 25 \LARGE. 11 \lg. 52 \mathbf. 117 margins. 21 A L TEX3. 75 \maketitle. 23. 29 Korean font UHC font. 53 \line. 54 \log. 46 \listoftables. 124 macukr. 110 \LaTeX. 58 \mathbb. 36. 110 \Large. 54 LGR. Donald E. 54 Knuth. 117 \marginparsep. 31 Korean input files. 51 math spacing. 12. 113 \linebreak. 111 mathrsfs. 111 \mathrm. 56 left aligned. 100 \listoffigures. 21 latexsym. 24 \lim. 11 letter paper. 94. 105 K \ker. 54 \limsup. 19 \linespread. 113 \linethickness. 49 \mathit. 97. 22 mathematics. 111 mathtext. 53 \left. 60 L \label. 29 M MacTeX. 37. 36 \marginparpush. Leslie. 33 Korean. 24. 53 delimiter. 46 . 27 ligature. 117 \marginparwidth. 86 \makebox. 100 line break. 67 \mathsf. 111 mathematical accents. 98. 43 lscommand. 54 \mbox. 33 \mathtt. 116 math mode. 54 \liminf. 54 line horizontal. 50 Lamport. 12 latin1. 111 matrix.INDEX 137 \ln.

60 mltex. 54 \overline. 91. 54 \multicolumn. 63 amsthm. 107 \newline. 62 O \oddsidemargin. 2 mltex. 23 exscale. 87. 12 indentfirst. 33 latexsym. Frank. 61 calc. 61 \noindent. 53 \overrightarrow. 22. 81 mltex. 12 fancyhdr. 118 color. 23 tikz. 88 dcolumn. 12. 96 pxfonts. 83. 10. 24 one column. 88 hyphenat. 105 packages aeguill. 88 pstricks. 19 \nonumber. 97 amsbsy. 92. 87 ifthen. 55–59. 78 graphicx. 60. 19 \newpage. 12. 43 doc. 110 \not. 33 geometry. 89 bm. 104 ppower4. 81 ntheorem. 20 \overleftarrow. 81 . 26. 106. 5 OT1. 67 amsmath. 15 textcomp. 83. 82 showidx. 61 amsfonts. 43 makeidx. 102 INDEX N \newcommand. 53 overfull hbox. 78 ifpdf. 19 \newsavebox. 62 pgfplot. 60. 88 prosper. 19 \normalsize. 62 babel. 34 beamer. 107 \newenvironment. 124 \min. 26 \oval. 114 inputenc. 71. 61 amssymb. 64 ntheorem. 11 option. 33. 117 œ. 12 eepic. 49. 10 minipage. 76 syntonly. 100 \overbrace. 7. 93. 114 \nolinebreak. 61. 52. 91 eurosym. 57 \nopagebreak. 33 mhchem. 88 hyperref. 119. 12. 91. 98. 81 modulo function. 116 longtable. 25. 120 minus sign. 99 \newtheorem. 75 mathrsfs. 26. 96 epic. 12 layout. 12. 54 P package.138 MiKTeX. 76–78 fontenc. 54 minimal class. 43 \multiput. 9 optional parameters. 88. 20. 67 mathtext. 59. 80. 22 Mittelbach.

80 pdfTEX. 7 prime. 110 paragraph. 56. 80. 81. 71. 93–99 pxfonts. 11. 47. 40 quotation marks. 76 roman. 96. 13 \pagebreak. 72. 117 \par. 23 pgfplot. 55 PDF. 100 \qedhere. 80 PDFView. 39 \right. 83 ppower4. 5 \right. 93. 120 \parindent. 88 \Pr. 56 \rightmark. 44. 91. 35 \partial. 91. 76 proc class. 116 \paperheight. 5 \parbox. 79 A PDFL TEX. 51. 124 period. 82. 88 pdfL TE A pdfL TEX. 59 \quad. 37. 106 \renewenvironment. 120 parbox. 13 headings. 26 verbatim. 79 \renewcommand. 109 pspicture. 119. 37. 9. 13 plain. 55 proof. 92 pstricks. 13 pmatrix. 82 ucs. 19 \pageref. 92. 13 empty. 17 \paragraph. 92 Encapsulated. 88 A X. 91. 92. 96 \put. 55 product operator. 79 \pagestyle. 104 \phantom. 81. 62 \qquad. 113 \part. 31. 3. 27 Portuguese. 10 reserved characters. 47. 6. 54 \printindex. 35 parameter. 117 \paperwidth. 59 quotation. 116 page style. 107 \ProvidesPackage. 27 PostScript. 78 page layout. 88 \protect. 107. 110 \rule. 51. 54 preamble. 121 \ref. 54 Português. 45 plain.. 97 piecewise function. 99 . 21 quote. 58 placement specifier. 47 \providecommand. 121 S sans serif. 58 right-aligned. 71. 58 \pmod. 46. 82 139 Q \qbezier. 55 partial derivative. 113 \parskip. 40 R \raisebox. 13 paper size. 62 prosper. 110 \savebox. 107 report class.INDEX txfonts. 59 picture. 10 \prod.

43 table. 54 single sided. 35 subscript. 98. 125 \texorpdfstring. 117 \tfrac. 110 \scriptstyle. 55 \stretch. 102 tikzpicture. 10 \sloppy. 35 \subsectionmark. 27 \tabcolsep. 27. 35 tabular. 13 tikz. 20 \small. 41 table. 41. 35 \tableofcontents. 100 \thinlines.140 Scandinavian letters. 76 \sin. 51 \textbf. 118 \settowidth. 47 \sectionmark. 50 \tan. 53 \stackrel. 51 space. 12. 7 strut. 11 \sinh. 60 \sec. 56 \subsubsection. 73 \theoremstyle. 53 square brackets. 27. 110 \textwidth. 44 \subparagraph. 110 \textrm. 110 \textsl. 55 thebibliography. 61 \thicklines. 110 TextMate. 54 \section. 21 TeXnicCenter. 25 \setlength. 113. 45. 110 \textcelsius. 60 \texttt. 102 . 33 T2B. 110 \textsf. 110 \smallskip. 76 \substack. 22. 107. 55 sum operator. 51 special character. 118 \settoheight. 24 \sqrt. 86. 35. 116 \smash. 98. 110 \textup. 110 \textsc. 46 table of contents. 23 \textheight. 54 \TeX. 118 \settodepth. 92. 54 syntonly. 100 \thispagestyle. 52 \subsection. 110 slides class. 22 textcomp. 87 text style. 35 \sum. 33 T2A. 124 \textmd. 27 T2C. 5 square root. 55 \sup. 117 \textit. 60 \scriptsize. 110 \textstyle. 110 Small Caps. 110 \textnormal. 15 INDEX T T1. 119 \tag. 54 \tanh. 95. 4 spacing math mode. 118 showidx. 49. 33 T2*. 24 \scriptscriptstyle. 115 structure. 76 \selectlanguage. 54 slanted. 23 \texteuro.

41. 92. 24 \underbrace. 120. 11 txfonts. 78 \verbatiminput. 4 \widehat. 115 Vmatrix. 22 \usebox. 38. 103 utf8x. 23. 58 \vspace. 58 vmatrix. 121 Word. 109 \usetikzlibrary. 78 verse. 26 V \vdots. 120. 4 after commands. 20 \underline. 2. 54 \verb. 40 vertical dots. 117 \totalheight. 76 www. 22. 25. 54 \vector. 10. 53 vertical space. 26. 59 umlaut. 82 141 W whitespace. 78 verbatim.INDEX tilde. 13. 115 upright. 26 \ud. 53 tilde ( ~). 36 \title. 110 URL. 36 \tnss. 5 at the start of a line. 41 verbatim. 22 WYSIWYG. 53 \vec. 80 U ucs. 53 \widetilde. 53 \width. 6. 21 \topmargin. 53 underfull hbox. 34 \tiny. 114. 121 two column. 99 \usepackage. 53 \unitlength. 110 title. 95 vectors. 106 \today. 11. 115 . 27 Xpdf. 94 units. 3 X X2.

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