THE COMMERCIAL VEHICLE

AN INTRODUCTION

1

VEHICLE GEOMETRY
FRONT SUSPENSION

TOTAL VEHICLE ALIGNMENT

2

DO NOT FORGET THE BIG PICTURE 3 .

STEERING GEOMETRY NEED : EASE OF HANDLING SAFETY TYRE LIFE WHEN : ACCELERATING & DECELERATING STRAIGHT AHEAD & CORNERING LOADED & UNLOADED LOW SPEED OR HIGH GOOD ROAD OR BAD 4 .

STEERING GEOMETRY ACKERMAN ANGLE INCLUDED ANGLE KING PIN ANGLE CAMBER ANGLE CASTOR ANGLE TOE IN & TOE OUT NOTE: MAINTENANCE OF THE FRONT AXLE IS BASICALLY TO PRESERVE THESE ANGLES A DEVIATION WILL LEAD TO A LARGE DEFLECTION 5 .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE THE SINGLE PIVOT STEERING THE DOUBLE PIVOT STEERING 6 .

THE DOUBLE PIVOT STEERING ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE RECTANGLE 7 .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE INSTANTANIOUS CENTRES 8 .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE THE TRAPEZIUM EFFECT NEED : TO ACHIEVE TOE OUT ON TURNS IN ORDER TO ENSURE PURE ROLLING OF TYRES AROUND CORNERS 9 .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE x x x x x THE PRINCIPLE : EQUAL DISPLACEMENTS ON THE X AXIS SUBTEND UNEQUAL ANGLES ON THE CIRCUMFERENCE 10 .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE THE TRAPEZIUM EFFECT X A X B A>B NOTE: FOR THE SAME DISPLACEMENT THE ANGLE CUT BY THE INNER TYRE IS MORE 11 .

FORMING A TRAPEZIUM . IF THE TWO NON PARALLEL SIDES ARE EXTENDED .ON THE REAR AXLE 12 .ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE STRAIGHT AHEAD CORNERING ACKERMAN ANGLE THE PRINCIPLE: IN A FOUR BAR CHAIN . THEY MEET AT A POINT. THE LOCUS OF THIS POINT IS A STRAIGHT LINE .

ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE 13 .

TYRE LINE INCLUDED ANGLE KING PIN LINE INCLUDED ANGLE CENTREPOINT STEERING 14 .

INCLUDED ANGLE INCLUDED ANGLE KING PIN OFFSET 15 .

KING PIN ANGLE NORMAL KING PIN BORE KING PIN ANGLE AXLE BEAM NEED : CENTRE POINT STEERING AND STEERING SELF CENTRING 16 .

CAMBER ANGLE TYRE LINE NORMAL KING PIN LINE KINGPIN ANGLE CAMBER ANGLE INCLUDED ANGLE NEED : CAMBER ANGLE - - A COMPONENT OF INCLUDED ANGLE FOR CENTRE POINT STEERING COMPENSATES THE DEFLECTIONS DUE TO BENDING 17 .

TOE IN IS GIVEN TO COUNTER THIS FORCE. 18 .TOE IN NEED: CONSEQUENT TO THE CAMBER ANGLE THE TYRE BEHAVES LIKE A CONE AND TENDS TO TO ROLL OUTWARDS.

19 .

CASTOR KINGPIN LINE CASTOR ANGLE TRAILING DISTANCE 20 .

CASTOR CASTOR ANGLE KINGPIN LINE NORMAL CASTOR IS DERIVED BY THE SLOPE OF THE SPRING NEED : DIRECTIONAL STABILITY 21 .

CASTOR 22 .

RIM OFFSET/DEPORT Rim deport RIM OFFSET 23 .

RIM OFFSET LESS RIM DEPORT ON FRONT WHEEL WIDER TRACK WIDTH LESS RIM OFFSET ON REAR WHEELS DUALS KISSING 24 .

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